DoD SBIR FY07.3 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Air Force - Navy - MDA - NGA

---------- AF ----------

282 Phase I Selections from the 07.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Terry J. Brennan
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Adaptive Optics Compensation in Deep Atmospheric Turbulence
Abstract:Conventional adaptive optics technologies for compensation of weak to moderate atmospheric turbulence are ineffective in deep atmospheric turbulence. The challenges in this high Rytov regime are segregated into the two problems of developing an adaptive optics beacon and compensation of an optical field degraded well above the level of scintillation saturation. Techniques for compensation of the aberrated field based on segmented deformable mirrors and special handling of branch cuts in the phase for continuous surface deformable mirrors will be developed. An advanced technique for handling noise in very dim subapertures is also proposed. Two novel approaches for obtaining an adaptive optics beacon are proposed, one based on iterative illuminator techniques and another based on point source deconvolution from a moving target.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Adaptive Optics System for Mitigating Deep Atmospheric Turbulence Effect
Abstract:Efficient laser beam delivery on a distant extended target remains a key problem for practical implementation of laser systems. Since the conventional target-in-the-loop (TIL) adaptive optic concept is generally not effective in many operational environments, new solutions are needed. MetroLaser has developed an innovative approach for a TIL method to be applied for effective compensation of deep, turbulence-induced laser beam aberrations. The effect of compensation is based on building up a point-source beacon on a target and instantaneous detection of the complete wavefront formed by the beacon. The proposed approach is based on the analogy between the concepts of a TIL system and a laser resonator. Controlling the position and structure of the laser beam on the target at the image plane of the system enables essential reduction in the beacon formation time. During Phase I, we will study the operational performance of the proposed methods. The results will facilitate determining the optimal parameters of beacon formation on a scattering surface target for a laser beam propagating through a deep, turbulent atmosphere. This will reduce program risk and will lead to a robust brassboard system design that will be built, tested, and validated in Phase II.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 747-6881
Dr. AaronMasino
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Adaptive Optics Compensation in Deep Atmospheric Turbulence
Abstract:Adaptive optics (AO) compensation of deep atmospheric turbulence remains a significant obstacle to the deployment of laser beam projection and imaging systems for a many applications. Tactical high-energy laser (HEL) weapon systems will be particularly limited by inadequate AO schemes as they will often be required to operate in engagement scenarios encountering deep turbulence. AO systems that employ a Shack-Hartmann WFS are particularly hampered in strong turbulence due to the presence of branch cuts in the sensed phase function. MZA proposes to investigate a novel multi-conjugate AO system concept, model a prototype in a tactical HEL weapon system context, and evaluate its performance in strong turbulence via wave-optics and experimentation. The concept, named SIRCAO, utilizes an SPGD driven DM conjugate to a location along the propagation path and a second DM, conjugate to the pupil plane, driven by WFS outputs, where the WFS is a Shack-Hartmann or SRI. Beyond HEL cleanup, the SPGD DM provides an intensity remapping of the BIL return before it is sensed by the WFS by applying a phase change and then reimaging. This reduces branch cuts in the phase and allows for significant performance increase of the WFS and the overall system.

NUTRONICS, INC.
3357 Chasen Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 776-4301
Mr. Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Beacon Modulation Tomography for Compensation in Deep Turbulence
Abstract:The applicability of adaptive optical systems remains limited today by the inability to solve the problem of compensation for the effects of turbulence in the near-deep (Rytov numbers from 0.4 to 1.0) and deep (Rytov numbers greater than 1.0) turbulence regimes with an extended, non-cooperative target. In these turbulence regimes, the combined effects of beacon anisoplanatism and laser speckle make estimation of the branch point contribution to the phase function extremely difficult. Recent work by Barchers indicates that the most likely solution path is to develop a tomographic estimate of the turbulence along the propagation path, and then using this estimate, develop the optimal control commands to maximize power on the target. Nutronics, Inc. proposes an innovative approach merging phased array technology to form controlled laser beacons at the target. The multiplicity of beacons formed from the phased array can then be used to form a tomographic estimate of the turbulence along the path. Should the proposed effort be successful, there are many potential commercial and defense applications in the area of high energy lasers and long range remote sensing.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Dr. Richard A Hutchin
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Green Function Inversion for Deep Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation
Abstract:For applications like tactical laser weapons which involve imaging or transmitting energy via lasers over long paths near the ground, the cumulative atmospheric turbulence effects exceed what conventional adaptive optics technologies can handle. To compensate for moderate to severe deep turbulence effects OPC has developed a new technique called Green’s Function Inversion (GFI). GFI can be used to characterize the transmission path between a high energy laser (HEL) and a target. Once the path is well characterized, the HEL beam can be adjusted to form a very high quality beam at any position. Even very high Greenwood frequencies can be accommodated using a ripple update. It is especially useful with conformal fiber laser arrays as a HEL source. During Phase I, we will perform a detailed wave-optic simulation of the GFI technique to demonstrate its performance under AF engagement conditions, with the sample scenario as a starting point. The ability to generate a target image suitable for aimpoint selection and maintenance will be shown and the ability to place a high quality hit spot on the designated aimpoint evaluated including point ahead offsets. Finally, a prototype flight design will be generated and a lab experiment laid out for Phase II.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
890 Elkton Drive Suite 101
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-7848
Dr. Jay Brasseur
AF 07-003      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Cryogenic High Power Laser Pump Diodes
Abstract:Directed Energy Solutions is proposing to develop a compact, high-efficient cryogenic diode laser stack for optical pumping of a Yb:YAG laser. In phase I, Directed Energy Solutions will design, fabricate and test a 1 kW cryogenic stack. Multiple lensing techniques will be examined and tested. The operation wavelength will be 940 nm for efficient pumping of Yb:YAG. To accomplish this aggressive goal, Directed Energy Solutions will leverage existing cryogenic diode laser efforts, which have demonstrated world-record diode laser efficiencies of 84 % and the first all cryogenic Yb:YAG laser. In phase II of this effort DES will scale the device to the 5 kW level.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
582 South Econ Circle
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 359-7138
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
AF 07-003      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Advanced Packaging for Cryogenic Spray Cooled Laser Diodes Arrays
Abstract:Laser diode bars have demonstrated ultra high electro-optical efficiencies >80% when operated at cryogenic temperatures <150 K. Diode pumped-solid-state lasers utilizing cryogenically cooled laser diode arrays and gain material have the potential to increase the wall plug efficiencies to values over 40% compared to 10% for room temperature lasers. To realize these exceptionally high laser bar efficiencies a unique cryogenic cooling approach will be developed. In the proposed SBIR program RTI will: 1) utilize Spray Cooling with liquid nitrogen to show feasibility of cooling a cryo-diode laser array with an optical flux of 560 W/cm2, 2) establish the feasibility by design and experiment for a diode package tolerant of cryo temperatures by using innovative CTE matched material combinations, and 3) partner with diode vendors to construct a spray cooled, CTE matched diode array that will undergo mechanical temperature cycling tests to validate the design.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. Kurt J. Linden
AF 07-003      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Cryogenic Diode Laser Array Pump for High Power YAG Lasers
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal describes a program that will design a cryogenic, liquid nitrogen (LN) cooling system for efficient operation of multi-kW level diode laser arrays, and determine the diode laser array design parameters for optimal LN operation with emission in the 800 nm to 950 nm spectral region. Such high power diode laser arrays are needed for optically pumping LN-cooled solid-state Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG lasers with superior operating characteristics. Phase I will investigate various forced-flow LN cooling configurations designed to avoid gas-phase interface formation at multi-kW level heat loads, utilizing materials with matched thermal expansion coefficients to minimize thermal stress. The naturally high thermal conductivity of most materials at LN temperature will be exploited. Diode laser design parameters such as epitaxial layer configuration and laser bar mounting details will be investigated for the favored optical pump bands for these solid-state laser materials. Phase II will deal with fabrication of a prototype cooling system to interface with the high power diode laser arrays for efficient YAG laser pumping. Spire’s laser bar fabrication expertise and current involvement with high power 630 nm LN temperature optical pump arrays will be of great benefit to the proposed program.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8173
Mr. Dane Phillips
AF 07-004      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Integrated wide-bandgap semiconductor photoconductive switch with a terahertz antenna
Abstract:Current and future applications of terahertz technology are demanding higher and higher powers to perform analysis. Wide band spectroscopy applications, in particular, could benefit greatly from the creating high power laser-induced semiconductor switches (LSS). To this end we have identified five materials for further development as high power, wide bandgap LSS materials. Emphasis was placed on materials with high breakdown voltage, good thermal conductivity, and fast carrier recombination times. These materials will be analyzed with respect to structural, electrical, and optical properties to maximize their potential use as semiconductor switches.

ODIS
Three Corporate Drive
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Heath Opper
AF 07-004      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:An Optically Switched Thyristor as a Thz pulse Source
Abstract:Sources and detectors in the range of 300-10,000 GHz pose a unique challenge to implementation as semiconductor devices. Transistor oscillators do not have the bandwidth to generate these frequencies/wavelengths and optical devices do not have energy gaps small enough to provide effective stimulated emission. Intersubband transitions do provide these energies. The quantum cascade structure (QCL) is one approach to a THz laser using intersubband transitions. Photoconductive switches activated by high power optical pulses also produce THz emissions. In order to integrate the antenna and the electronics for a communication link, ODIS proposes a modulation- doped quantum well structure with an integrated thyristor as the optical source. THz radiation is produced by the relaxation of hot electrons in a quantum well. Compared to the QCL, the growth is simplified, the tunneling mechanism is replaced by conduction in a field-effect transistor channel, the operating voltage is 2V, the operation is fundamentally suitable for room temperature, and with alternate biasing the identical structure performs THz detection. The optical thyristor is part of an optoelectronic circuit platform, providing integrated electronics with 100’s of GHz bandwidth. In this SBIR, ODIS will develop the optically activated thyristor with integrated antenna output as a source of THz pulses.

SCI-ENG SOLUTIONS, LLC
3304 Lake Town Dr.
Columbia, MO 65203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 489-2776
Dr. Kenneth Fox McDonald
AF 07-004      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Highly Directional Photo-Switched Terahertz Source
Abstract:The successful culmination of this work will result in development of a highly directional integrated, photoconductive switch and source-antenna system that will generate high power THz radiation for a myriad of defense, homeland security, and civilian applications: including the ability to image objects at relatively far distances with high resolution and to establish undetectable communication links in military field operations.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R Mayes
AF 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Non-Linear Transmission Line Microwave Source
Abstract:Applied Physical Electronics, L.C. (APELC) offers this proposal to provide the U.S. Air Force with a solution to their near term need for a tunable, high powered (10s MW) RF source operating with a center frequencies from 750 MHz to 1.5 GHz, which is conformal to U.S. deployment strategies.

NUMEREX
2309 Renard Place SE Suite 220
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 277-4272
Dr. John W. Luginsland
AF 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Advanced Meso-Band RF Sources Based on Novel Non-Linear Materials
Abstract:Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) offer a novel technology for compact and robust sources of RF energy. By combining advanced material characterization capability and state-of-the-art electromagnetic and parametric modeling, NumerEx and General Electric Global Research will improve the understanding of NLTL, providing design tools for NLTL based on experimentally achievable circuit elements. Development of a proof-of-principle experiment to provide a NLTL for testing and evaluation will be detailed.

SPARKTRONICS, INC.
23765 Madison Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 529-8649
Dr. George Kirkman
AF 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Non-Linear Transmission Line Microwave Source
Abstract:Sparktronics proposes an innovative high frequency oscillator based on non-linear dielectrics. The system will combine the previously developed tunable high frequency pulse generators with a non-linear transmission lumped element line. During Phase I an analysis of material properties will be completed and a NLTL oscillator designed manufactured and tested with at least 10kV output voltage in the range 500MHz to 1GHz. Phase II will focus on extending this capability to the 100kV level.

KESTREL CORP.
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Mr. Paul Harrison
AF 07-007      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Intracavity Beam Control in Laser Resonators
Abstract:Most directed energy weapons systems separate beam clean-up and atmospheric compensation into two (or more) separate adaptive optics (AO) systems. This approach arose for a variety of reasons. The aberration structure of the high energy laser (HEL) is significantly different than that of the atmosphere resulting in different requirements on the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensors. The limited throw of the deformable mirror was thought to be insufficient to solve both problems simultaneously. If this could be accomplished, there would be significant gains in cost, complexity, size, and weight. We propose here to investigate a system architecture that would enable both the beam clean-up and the atmospheric compensation to be combined into a single AO system. Our approach involves leveraging the versatile distorted grating wavefront sensor (DGWFS) developed by Kestrel Corporation and a new deformable mirror technology developed by Active Optical Systems. We will begin Phase I of this effort with a detailed modeling and simulation effort that will investigate the efficacy of the proposed approach. The Phase I effort will conclude with a scaled-down laboratory demonstration of the approach. In Phase II, we propose to demonstrate a working system.

NUTRONICS, INC.
3357 Chasen Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 776-4301
Mr. Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF 07-007      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Integrated Laser Beam Control
Abstract:As High Energy Laser (HEL) systems move closer to integration in operational systems, the importance of developing compact and rugged beam control system technology continues to increase. The conventional approach for integration of fine steering, beam clean-up and turbulence pre-compensation subsystems uses a stove-piped approach that leads to bulky, complex, and difficult to integrate systems. Nutronics, Inc. has developed the Integrate Laser Beam Control (ILBC) approach which includes two innovative approaches for integration of beam control functions with HEL systems that both offer potential for significant reductions in size, weight, power, and complexity. The two approaches, ILBC-A and ILBC-R, respectively, are optimized for use in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) configuration (ILBC-A) and an unstable resonator configuration (ILBC-R). The approaches are highly flexible and suitable for use with a wide range of sensing and control methods. The ILBC-A configuration offers a highly innovative approach that includes both a beam clean-up DM and turbulence compensation DM in low power beam paths with wavefront sensing accomplished on isolated beam paths to minimize dynamic range requirements.

APPLIED PULSED POWER, INC.
2025 Dryden Road P.O. Box 348
Freeville, NY 13068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 844-3426
Mr. Howard Sanders
AF 07-008      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Solid State Switch for high voltage sub-microsecond pulsed power
Abstract:Applied Pulsed Power, Inc. (APP) proposes to develop a solid state switch for high voltage sub-microsecond pulsed power, using silicon carbide devices. The objective of the solicitation is to develop a compact, solid state pulsed power switch capable of switching 20-50 kV, and I > 5 kA with low jitter, fast rise time (~20 ns), L < 20 nH, pulse length 100 to 1000 ns, and up to 1000 Hz prf. APP has developed and presently sells solid state switches capable of switching 20-50 kV, and I > 5 kA with low jitter, pulse length to 1000 ns, and up to 1000 Hz prf using silicon thyristors. These switches are used for applications with pulsewidths >200 ns and di/dt of <100 kA/us. Patented packaging and triggering techniques are used to produce 20-60 kV switches from multiple identical lower voltage modules. We will apply these techniques to silicon carbide devices to produce low inductance (< 1nH/kV) switches with <20 ns risetimes.

SCI-ENG SOLUTIONS, LLC
3304 Lake Town Dr.
Columbia, MO 65203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 489-2776
Dr. Kenneth Fox McDonald
AF 07-008      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Photon Initiated Thyristor Switches
Abstract:The proposed solid-state "Photon Initiated Thyristor Switches" are a low risk approach that offer an outstanding opportunity to fulfill the near term switching requirements for numerous DoD systems including many of those pertinent to High Power Microwave sources for crucial Directed Energy applications.

SCI-ENG SOLUTIONS, LLC
3304 Lake Town Dr.
Columbia, MO 65203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 489-2776
Dr. Kenneth Fox McDonald
AF 07-008      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Photo-Conductive Silicon Carbide Switches
Abstract:The proposed solid-state "Photo-Conductive Silicon Carbide Switches" offer an outstanding opportunity to fulfill the switching requirements for numerous DoD systems including many of those pertinent to High Power Microwave sources for crucial Directed Energy applications.

ADELPHI TECHNOLOGY, INC.
981-B Industrial Road
San Carlos, CA 94070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 598-9800
Dr. Melvin A. Piestrup
AF 07-009      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Short Pulse Neutron Generator
Abstract:A short-pulsed neutron generator is proposed for the detection of concealed high explosives. A recently developed RF-excited plasma neutron generator will be pulsed to produce the activating neutrons whose pulse length is 5-10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Using the D-T nuclear reaction, we expect the proposed generator to produce an average yield of 10E9 n/s at this pulse length and rate. In Phase I an existing neutron generator will have a set of electrodes installed to chop the ion beam to produce the desired neutron-pulse time structure and a high peak yield. The present deuterium generator will be redesigned to support the safe use of tritium. The proposed system will be designed to be low cost, transportable, and mechanically and electronically robust, to ensure its wide useage. Unlike penning diode sources, the generator is expected to have a long lifetime. The project has a high probability of success based on the recent development by Adelphi Technology Inc. and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of new RF plasma neutron generators.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
626 Whitney Street
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Brian Bures
AF 07-009      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:A fast pulsed, high flux neutron source for remote 3D imaging of IEDs
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corp proposes to develop a fast pulse, portable, fast neutron source to detect IED in the field. Our source offers a <10ns neutron pulse with a repetition rate up to 1kHz. The Ph I program will demonstrate the critical features of the source including pulse width, reproducibility and neutron yield.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. Michael McGuirk
AF 07-009      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Monochromatic 5ns Pulse High Intensity Neutron Source
Abstract:Recently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has shown that short pulses (~5 ns) can greatly simplify detection algorithms and enhance safety. Busek proposes to leverage its expertise in ion thrusters to produce a pulsed H ion injector with approximately 100:1 temporal compression of the pulse. This reduces the current density requirement on the plasma ion source. Busek is teamed with Dr. William Nunnally, who has developed, in conjunction with LLNL, both Stacked Blumlein Layer (SBL) accelerators and compensated SiC switches to trigger the SBL. Our baseline geometry has the switches integrated with the SBL. Dr. Nunnally will assist Busek in modeling and constructing an efficient SBL accelerator for this particular application. Busek will utilize its materials and power processing electronics expertise to develop and demonstrate the injector/accelerator/target system. Phase I will demonstrate the pulse compression and pulse duration while accelerating ions to appropriate energy, but for cost and safety reasons will not produce neutrons. Phase II will scale up the accelerator current and will produce neutron pulses of the desired energy, pulse duration, flux and spatial distribution.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Ryan Kilgore
AF 07-010      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Four-Dimensional User-Defined Spatio-Temporal Enhanced Interface Technologies (FUSE-IT)
Abstract:To effectively control the battlespace, AOC warfighters must rapidly perceive and understand complex geospatial and temporal relationships (e.g., the evolving 3D geometry of SAM-site threat envelopes, the potential for flight path conflicts over mission duration). Advanced 4-dimensional Common Operating Picture (4D COP) technologies are required to better support the cognitive challenges of these efforts. To address this need, we propose to design and demonstrate Four-Dimensional User-Defined Spatio-Temporal Enhanced Interface Technologies (FUSE-IT). FUSE-IT technologies will allow AOC warfighters to rapidly define, explore, and exploit battlespace visualizations that are automatically correlated in time and space. Two major components comprise our approach. First, we will use an iterative, work-centered analysis, design, and evaluation process to identify 4D visualization and interaction methods for the presentation and manipulation of critical battlespace information and meta-information. Second, we will design these methods to support the fusion and display of heterogeneous information resources through a single, rapidly customizable user interface. We will assess the feasibility of our approach by leveraging existing in-house, COTS, and GOTS components to rapidly design and prototype promising FUSE-IT visualization and interaction concepts. We will also design a plan for evaluating these prototypes with subject matter experts in a spiral design and implementation effort.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3621
Ms. Margaret Bailey
AF 07-010      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:User Definable 4-D Common Operating Picture (COP)
Abstract:Sonalysts will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a 4-D Common Operating Picture (COP), the elements of which are user selectable and automatically correlated in time and space. The 4-D COP will allow the user to project forward in time and analyze possible outcomes of pending operations. This research will produce a design for a system that allows the operator at the Air Operations Center (AOC) to view, process, and affect the data needed to complete their tasking. The design for the 4-D COP will draw on Sonalysts’ successful gaming engine and Flight TraX™ operations control system to link geospatial and temporal perspectives in a coherent way, producing a system that improves AOC functioning.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. James McCracken
AF 07-010      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:User Definable 4-D Common Operating Picture (COP)
Abstract:TDKC proposes adaptation of their STEED environment to the air operations center domain. An existing 3D, 2D, and data visualization capability with service-oriented architecture capability will be re-engineered to provide the 4D COP functionality.

INTERSENSE, INC.
36 Crosby Drive Suite 150
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 541-7603
Mr. Eric Foxlin
AF 07-011      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Participant Tracking in Immersive Training and Aiding Environments
Abstract:Large volume, immersive simulation environments provide a compelling way to train and simulate operational systems. To provide realism to these training scenarios, tracking the absolute location (both position & orientation) of both the player under training and the devices that the player must interact with becomes paramount. In multi-user training environments, each player must also know the absolute locations of the other players for a successful training mission. In immersive Virtual Reality (VR) training with multiple users in a fixed environment, the absolute position and orientation of the head, weapon or virtual handheld devices (i.e. virtual binoculars) are not as important as resolution, latency and weight. For Augmented Reality (AR) training, the position and orientation of the display needs to be tracked accurately relative to the same world coordinate system in which objects in the environment are mapped. We are proposing autonomous tracking solutions that offer a wireless and networkable approach to instrumenting multiple players and devices in an indoor environment with minimal tracking reference infrastructure. Differing from Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) type tracking approaches, the proposed solutions will meet or exceed “AR-type” tracking accuracies of 0.1 degree in angle and 3 mm in position.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1275 Kennestone Circle Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 795-8181
Dr. Jim Stagliano
AF 07-011      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Training Environment Positioning and Orientation System (TEPOS)
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes the Training Environment Positioning and Orientation System (TEPOS) effort to provide accurate orientation and position information for platforms (participants and devices) within an immersive training environment. Utilizing waveform diversity, polarimetric antennas, a distributed receiver system, with PRA’s proprietary waveform processing and PRA’s unique rapid estimation technology, the position and orientation is determined for multiple platforms simultaneously in real-time.

Leveraging PRA technologies developed under previous SBIR contracts such as the Precision Pulse Positioning System, Precision Orientation System, and its proprietary Orthogonal Polarimetry technology, PRA will design a system that provides accurate position and orientation information of a platform in a completely wireless fashion yet add mere ounces (tens of grams) of mass to the platform. The advantages of this system are highly accurate position and orientation information updated in real-time, completely wireless between platform and imagery generator, each platform is uniquely identified allowing individual tracking in an environment containing many platforms, and mitigation of multipath fading thereby assuring optimum performance. Using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware, PRA will design (Phase I) and ultimately fabricate (Phase II) a low-cost, effective TEPOS technology.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike, Suite 250
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6324
Mr. Brandon Dewberry
AF 07-011      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Participant Tracking in Immersive Training and Aiding Environments
Abstract:We propose enabling a large-volume immersive simulation environment by fusing Time Domain Corporation’s (TDC) ultra wideband (UWB) wireless tracking tag with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer sensing. These tracking technologies integrated with a complementary Kalman filter will form the basis for a UWB/Inertial Navigation System (INS). The resulting system will combine the advantages of each technology to provide a tracking system with precise position and attitude sensing over a large, easily expandable measurement volume. Recent advancements in UWB tracking tags and small, low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) IMUs have provided a unique opportunity. TDC has commercially released a small, lightweight, battery power Real Time Location System (RTLS). Each cell of this system supports a warehouse of up to 2500 wristwatch-sized lightweight tags transmitting at 1Hz and utilizing coin battery power for over 4 years and provides wireless data transfer from the tag to the infrastructure. Integration of inertial sensors for expansion into high fidelity tracking markets is a logical next R&D step. MEMS IMU devices become smaller, more affordable, and more capable of precision attitude measurements. To support accurate position translation they require a synergistic external localization technology such as the TDC RTLS tracking system. A miniature UWB/INS tags will provide the best of both worlds: real-time precision wireless position and orientation with small sensors deployable to track multiple kinematic motions on many people in the tracking area. The Phase I will compare system requirements with the current state of the art capabilities; analyze various architectures and trade-offs for accuracy, distance, size, and power consumptions; develop, test, and evaluate a single fused high-speed RTLS/IMU tag; and provide an integrated system design and plan for follow-on development. The feasibility to be demonstrated is to meet the positioning requirement, tentatively 4cm for accuracy and 2cm RMS for precision that will feed into the development and construction of a testable prototype in Phase II.

ADVALUE PHOTONICS, INC.
4585 S. Palo Verde, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-5468
Dr. Shibin Jiang
AF 07-012      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Terahertz Source and Spectrometer
Abstract:We propose to develop a fiber-based, high power, narrow linewidth, and tunable THz source to implement a novel THz spectroscopy system by leveraging our proprietary fiber laser technology. This proposed high power fiber-based THz source will be generated by using a nonlinear crystal based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) pumped by high power pulsed fiber lasers in MOPA with high repetition rate (quasi-CW), which will reach a high power of ~ 1 W, a widely tuning range of 0.1-7 THz, and a narrow linewidth of 50-100 MHz. This proposal will use an external power cavity to enhance the conversion efficiency of parametric THz generation. The spectral resolution for the proposed THz spectrometer can be better than 200 MHz due to narrow linewidth, frequency accuracy, fine wavelength tuning step, and low phase noise for the proposed fiber-based THz source.

ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
27 Industrial Boulevard, Unit E
Medford, NY 11763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 514-0315
Dr. Hans Bluem
AF 07-012      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Terahertz Source and Spectrometer
Abstract:High power, high frequency (100 GHz to 7 THz) RF sources can provide revolutionary advances in several militarily significant areas. THz imaging, spectroscopy and communications are important emerging applications. A THz spectrometer making use of a high power, tunable source would provide an invaluable tool for exploring these applications and the effects of THz radiation on biological systems. The goal of this SBIR is to demonstrate such a source, and its use in a spectrometer system.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Baolong Yu
AF 07-012      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Tunable Terahertz Source and Spectrometer
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a terahertz spectroscopy system consisting of a tunable terahertz (THz) source, capable of generating energy from 0.1 to 7 THz with 1 W continuous wave (CW) output power, and a THz spectrometer with better than 200 MHz spectral resolution, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Tunable THz Source and Spectrometer (TUTSS). The proposed TUTSS is based on optical rectification of nonlinear chi^(2) medium for THz emitting and electro-optical sampling for THz detection. The system will offer tunable THz source energy from 0.1 to 7 THz at average power of 1 W CW output, and a spectrometer with spectral resolution of 150 MHz (25% better than the AF requirement). Innovative use of special crystals for the THz emitter and sensor will provide powerful and tunable THz radiation and detection. By varying the phase-matching angles of the THz emitter and sensor, the central frequency of the output THz wave is continuously tuned. In Phase I POC will determine the feasibility of TUTSS by designing and testing a laboratory breadboard prototype. In Phase II POC plans to develop, demonstrate, and validate the operational TUTSS system designed in Phase I.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2471
Dr. Amy Alexander
AF 07-013      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:Operator Functional State Assessment and Dynamic Aiding Performance Tool (OFS-ADAPT)
Abstract:As United States Air Force (USAF) missions become increasingly larger and more complex, the need for effective monitoring and assessment of operator state becomes ever more critical to mission success. Cognitive overload is, and will continue to be, a pervasive problem within a variety of operational settings. The potential for error is large, and the consequences of poor performance can be catastrophic to mission success. Solutions are needed to assist operators in maintaining optimal levels of cognitive functioning. In developing the Operator Functional State Assessment and Dynamic Aiding Performance Tool (OFS-ADAPT), Aptima and the University of Iowa Operator Performance Laboratory propose to conduct innovative research on integrating measures of psychophysiological state with performance on mission-relevant tasks. The keys to our proposed effort are: 1) leveraging advancements in psychophysiological, physiological, and system-based measurement technologies for obtaining reliable, real- time assessments of OFS; 2) establishing a conceptual model framework for classifying and integrating different types of measures; and 3) outlining a conceptual design of an adaptive aiding system, OFS-ADAPT, that will be useful across various roles, tasks, and domains. These Phase I efforts will lead to the design, development, and validation of OFS-ADAPT, which we will fully develop and evaluate in Phase II.

DESIGN INTERACTIVE, INC.
1221 E. Broadway, Suite 110
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 706-0977
Mr. Sven Fuchs
AF 07-013      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Integration of Psychophysiological and Performance Measures into an Adaptive Aiding System
Abstract:To meet the challenges imposed on command-and-control environments by next- generation weapons systems and continued reduced manning efforts, we will develop the Proactive Aiding in Command and Control Environments System (PACES) – an automatic agent, informed by real-time data streams from the system, the mission, and the operator’s cognitive state. PACES will use dynamic constraint-based task modeling to anticipate future mission state and operator functional state (OFS) ahead of time. An existing workload analysis method will be used to calculate expected operator load for the future task demands anticipated by the model in real-time. Given this information, preventive adaptations of the information display can be dynamically applied to avoid cognitive bottlenecks before they occur. In addition to preventive adaptation, PACES will employ physiological measures, specifically electroencephalogram and eye tracking, to assess the operator’s actual cognitive state and mitigate problems in real-time. Physiological measures will provide input to an intelligent Soar architecture to derive OFS indicators and inform PACES when adaptive aiding is needed. The model may further analyze workflow history and operator’s physiological and behavioral responses to system events in order to dynamically adjust and improve the predictive modeling component and mitigation strategies.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4752
Dr. Xiaokun Li
AF 07-013      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:A Psychophysiological and Performance Based Prediction System for Adaptive Aiding
Abstract:As military equipment becomes more sophisticated and complex, missions become significantly more cognitively demanding. In order to achieve the objective of preventing errors and reducing cognitive demands on military personnel, a system is needed that is able to assess and predict operator stress, attention and overload states and provide adaptive aiding to maintain the operator in a state of maximal situation awareness and response readiness. Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes to develop an adaptive aiding system that uses a combination of performance and situational awareness assessments to tune the sensor integration algorithm to detect expected future states of cognitive overload, high levels of stress, and high and low levels of task-focused attention. The system will be based on three wearable devices that contain a total of nine wireless psychophysiological sensors. This project focuses on three key aspects of the system design: 1) comparing the efficiency and utility of Fisher Discriminant Analysis and artificial neural networks for integrating sensor data; 2) comparing two operator modeling systems (dynamic event-triggered pattern analysis and the Dynamic Integration Diagram) for predicting operator functional state based on psychophysiological, performance and environmental data; and 3) designing an adaptive aiding interface for assisting operators prior to cognitive overload.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC.
5764 Pacific Center Blvd Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 373-0832
Dr. Robert Matthews
AF 07-013      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Integrated Adaptive Aiding System for UAV Control and Related Applications
Abstract:Over the last two years, the proposers have developed both an advanced physiologic state model of operator functional state (OFS) and a human capacity/human performance- based human-in-the-loop model (HITLM) for an Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV). The outputs of these two systems are currently combined to produce a numeric measure of current and future operator readiness, but are inherently adaptable to produce other cognitive and performance measures. Under this program we will add to this system a suite of adaptive aiding routines that modify the UCAV operator interface in order to provide the optimum level of information to the operator, and to guide the operator to adopt the optimum cognitive strategies. Candidate aiding approaches will be down-selected based on extensive experimental evidence and our related experience. The existing combined QUASAR physiologic and HITLM outputs and the aiding mitigations will be jointly optimized as a single integrated system. In addition to a state-of-the-art OFS evaluation and prediction capability, the QUASAR team offers a unique wearable sensor interface that has recently been extended to full wireless operation.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Jason M Hermiller
AF 07-014      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Adaptable Patient Litter System for Efficient and Modular Transport
Abstract:CRG proposes to revolutionize the patient transport unit by developing a new patient transport platform and by integrating current state-of-the-art telemedic equipment in order to improve the quality of care and outcome for the patient and increase efficiency of patient transport. Although a multitude of aircraft suitable stretchers exist, none fulfill all requirements of the Air Force. CRG’s design will capture the best features of current medical transport equipment such as lightweight and durability, while adding features such the ability to stack, add modules, and integrate electronics. CRG has teamed with TeleMedic Systems to more efficiently integrate their health monitoring system into the PTU, reducing redundant monitors and power sources. CRG will design a system that will create hollow spaces for storage, medical equipment/supplies, power sources, etc. The necessary module, based on the injuries of the solider, can be rapidly added and multiple units can be clustered using unified electrical and oxygen sources. CRG’s design will also address the flight conditions to be experienced during transport and will utilize the floor mounting systems present in most military and civilian aircraft. The list of design criteria is long but achievable through innovative design and modification of already developed medical equipment.

SPACE HARDWARE OPTIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Mr. Bruce Meador
AF 07-014      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Care and Monitoring Evacuation Litter (CAMEL)
Abstract:This proposal contains SHOT’s R&D concepts for a “Rapidly Configurable Modular Litter System for use in Aeromedical Transport.” The Air Force is currently using the old pole and canvas style litter from pre WWII for aeromedical evacuation. A variety of medical treatment equipment is haphazardly piled on, hanging from, or setting around the litter during transport. SHOT’s Care And Monitoring Evacuation Litter (CAMEL) provides an innovative system engineering solution consisting of a barebones, ergonomic, rigid litter and a quick-mate/de-mate Patient Attending Kit (PAK). The CAMEL is a self-contained, structurally stand-alone litter capable of installing directly into a variety of evacuation aircraft and can comfortably transport the patient from the battlefield to stateside. The optional PAK is a modular, scalable treatment facility, utilizing SHOT’s proven power management system, along with a consolidated control screen to eliminate redundant systems. The PAK can be customized to meet the patient’s changing needs during transport with hot-swappable medical tool suites. Furthermore, all patient data is collected and transferred to a central Nurses’ Station for upload in to the TRAC2ES system upon patient arrival. CAMEL provides the most cost-efficient upgrade path for the Air Force’s aeromedical transport system with the capability to accommodate future medical equipment.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7781
Mr. Michael Stoddard
AF 07-016      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Architecture Methodology Integration
Abstract:Almost all Air Force information systems are developed using a structured analysis methodology at all levels (i.e. system engineering, software design and code). The result is that the Air Force spends 70% of its software lifecycle costs on maintenance. The Air Force anticipates that it can save millions of dollars in maintenance cost each year by converting the structured-analysis code into object oriented code. Use of existing code converters to accomplish this task results in programs that do not take full advantage of the modular nature of object oriented code and does not achieve the cost reduction. What is required is a methodology and supporting environment that converts the available information at the system engineering level and allows for the traceability within the architecture and down into a new object oriented design from which true object oriented code may be developed and the cost reduction objective realized. A limited approach would be to performa straight mapping from structured analysis elements to object oriented elements. However this approach is not much better than the conversions listed above and is almost guaranteed to miss some important element of the structured model. In this Phase I SBIR Trident Systems proposes to apply its InterchangeSE technology in an effort to produce a more robust and complete object oriented model from structured analysis models. Trident will develop a mapping from the structured analysis model into a common data model based on the international systems engineering standard known as GEIA-927. A mapping will then be developed from the common data model to a new set of data that represents the object oriented model. Structured analysis and object oriented model elements will be considered to exist in different "engineering domains" thus allowing both models to coexist in the repository simultaneously. Traceability will be maintained and manageable between the two data sets. Also Trident will investigate the development of a "template" of relationships between structured and object oriented data so taht checks, and recommendations may be made as to the optimal structure of the object oriented model. Finally, Trident Systems will provide a means to share this data set with a wider DoD community by publishing mdeols and modules created in teh environment to an "Open Architecture Asset Repository".

WIZDOM SYSTEMS, INC.
1300 Iroquois Avenue Suite 140
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 357-3000
Mr. Steven Kroll
AF 07-016      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Architecture Methodology Integration
Abstract:The objective of this research is to develop and demonstrate new architecture methodology constructs for information systems to provide effective translation of structure architectures into object oriented architectures.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
AF 07-017      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Distributed Multidimensional Analysis of Battlespace Weather
Abstract:Weather is a critical factor in the success or failure of a wide variety of military operations. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict the weather and efficiently incorporate these predictions into operational planning and execution represents a significant advantage over any adversary. Weather situational awareness is hampered by the size of the data sets, particular as ensemble forecasting methods are used to generate statistical distributions over multiple model runs. To address the need for improved multidimensional weather data storage and access within the military decision making process, we propose to develop Meta-information-Enhanced Multidimensional Meteorological Online Repositories for the net-centric Enterprise (MEMMOR-E). This approach consists of three primary elements. To streamline data storage and dissemination we will design a parameterized approach to wavelet transformations for fusing raw weather data. To decrease the processing burden and speed up the analysis process within end-user applications/services, we will research and experiment with the latest multidimensional data optimization technologies, including coalescing and temporal and spatial cube blocking methods. Finally, we will design and evaluate a process that controls these optimization technologies by assessing the end-user’s information and meta-information requirements and correlating those requirements with the data and meta- data available from sources.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Mr. Jeffrey Morrison
AF 07-017      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:A New Approach for Distributed Multidimensional Analysis of Battlespace Weather using Dwarf Technology
Abstract:We propose to leverage our team’s critical expertise in weather data acquisition for weather effects modeling and innovative multidimensional database implementation to design a feasible proof-of-concept prototype that will demonstrate a revolutionary concept to improve incorporating weather effects within the air battle management process. Our design will include actual weather data and weather effects models, combined with state-of-the-art Dwarf technology, to generate real-world weather effects and efficacy metrics. Dwarf datacubes are orders of magnitude smaller than tradition datacubes even when they calculate and store every possible grouping aggregation while maintaining 100% precision (lossless). Our design will also accommodate the display of the weather effects using current mission planning system applications to ensure compatibility with the current air battle management process. The efficacy metrics will demonstrate the revolutionary speed, storage, and efficiency improvements due to the application of Dwarf technology to the required weather data, while FalconView will display the actual weather effects as tactical decision aid overlays. Our team consists of SSCI as the prime contractor and Dr. Nick Roussopoulos of Advanced Communication Technology Inc. as the subcontractor.

CODESOURCERY, INC.
9978 Granite Point Ct.
Granite Bay, CA 95746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 331-3385
Mr. Jules Bergmann
AF 07-018      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Using Next Generation Processors
Abstract:CodeSourcery will analyze homogeneous multicore systems (such as multi-core Intel Xeons), heterogeneous multicore systems (such as the Cell/B.E. processor), and special purpose multicore systems (such as Nvidia and ATI GPUs) to determine which characteristics of these processors determine how to provide high-performance implementations of fundamental mathematical operations such (such as FFTs and matrix multiplication). CodeSourcery will then determine how to modify the open-standard VSIPL++ signal- and image-processing API to take into account these factors to provide highly optimized versions for current and future multi-core systems. In Phase II, CodeSourcery will implement these approaches in Sourcery VSIPL++, CodeSourcery's implementation of the VISPL++ API.

IENTERACTIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY
16340 Sloan Dr
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 849-7411
Dr. Thomas Y. Yeh
AF 07-018      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Using Next Generation Processors
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to provide better understanding and improve utilization of next generation computational resources for compute intensive systems. In practical terms, this translates to delivering tools to assist in selecting the most appropriate multi-core processor for different target compute problems and applying the appropriate optimizations. Due to the issues of increasing power (power wall), long memory latency (memory wall), and diminishing returns on exploiting instruction level parallelism (ILP wall), the doubling of uniprocessor performance has slowed from 18 months to 5 years. Instead of increasing clock frequency, the current primary method of increasing processor performance is to increase parallelism. Fortunately, Moore's law continues to provide more transistors per chip. All these factors point to the continued scaling of chip multi- processing into the future, where multiple processor cores are placed on-die. The chip multiprocessor (CMP) design space encompasses a wide variety of designs such as small scale homogeneous designs (desktop CPUs), heterogeneous designs (Cell), many- core application speci_c designs (GPU, PPU, ClearSpeed, SPI), and many-core general purpose designs (Larrabee and Tilera). This shift to multi-core processors comes with new challenges. The wide variety of designs utilizes different ISAs, memory models, programming models, and architectures. Different programming techniques and optimization strategies are required to optimize performance for the same problem across the spectrum of designs. Furthermore, the same application may require multiple implementations in order to compare across different architectures. The challenge from a system design point of view is to select the “optimal” processor design/s for each target problem and apply the appropriate software or system optimizations. One solution is to categorize high performance problems, the CMP architectures, and the available optimization techniques. Then, use this information to obtain optimal mapping of target workload to processor for system design.

MAXENTRIC TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
Mr. Houman Ghajari
AF 07-018      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Using Next Generation Processors
Abstract:Next generation processors attain better performance than existing microprocessors because the abstraction layers better expose the underlying VLSI resources (transistors, wires, pins, ...) and constraints (e.g., wire delay, power, ...). However, the management of these resources and constraints requires the development of more sophisticated hardware and software mechanisms, both to improve efficiency and to ease programmer burden. MaXentric believes the largest advances in the next decade of computer architecture will center around these mechanisms. Our vision is a tool chain of software support that helps the user parallelize applications from choosing the appropriate architecture to analyzing and profiling the application for potential re-organization and improvement. We propose one piece of this chain, codenamed PAMM (Problem- Architecture Mapping for Multi-core) that helps the user select an architecture for a given application and to make optimizations based on that architecture. Phase I efforts will establish a categorization of architectures and high performance problems, benchmark their relationships, and begin the design of the PAMM tool.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Ryan C. Marotz
AF 07-019      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Organically Assured Routing System (OARS) for the Airborne Network
Abstract:The Air Force has identified the need for an assured routing system for the Airborne Network (AN) that will protect the routing infrastructure from security attacks designed to disrupt the operation of the network. Subversion of the network routing function by attackers could be catastrophic for mission-critical applications running on the AN. This is because security attacks on the routing function could propagate misinformation within the routing tables resulting in misrouting of data packets in the network and consequent application failure. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes an innovative approach called Organically Assured Routing System (OARS) for implementing an attack- resistant routing infrastructure for the AN environment. The proposed Phase I effort will establish the implementation feasibility of OARS and lay the groundwork for a full-scale prototype (TRL 5 or 6) implementation of the technology in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5209
Dr. Julia Deng
AF 07-019      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Secure Routing in Airborne Networks
Abstract:The envisioned Airbone Network (AN) is expected to provide seamless connectivity for operators in a large number of applications. All these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. The truth is that not all AN protocols have built-in security, and these protocols are highly vulnerable to various security threats due to the inherent characteristics of ANs. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), in collaboration with Prof. Jing Deng at the University of New Orleans proposes an integrated Secure Routing scheme for Airborne Networks (SRAN) in order to provide various security characteristics, such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation. The proposed SRAN approach exploits existing technologies and makes them more applicable to the dynamic ANs. First, we formulate a two-level routing security mechanism performed at airborne backbone and edge network layer respectively. In both layers, network dynamics are addressed. Second, a set of security mechanisms previously designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and stable network (Internet) are extended to the domain of ANs, as we believe the AN shares some similarities with each of them. In particular, several mechanisms to reduce computational and communication overhead are specifically designed.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. Maher N. Kaddoura
AF 07-020      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:An End-to-end Hybrid IntServ Signaling Platform for Airborne Networks (HISA)
Abstract:Transporting multimedia information over multi-domain heterogeneous and dynamic networks has significant advantages in both the military and civilian arenas. . In order for these networks to be efficiently employed, there needs for methods that can guarantee a minimum level of Quality of Service (QoS) for critical and real time data. This is particularly important for the airborne networks. In order to reserve a specified bandwidth for an application flow between nodes, Integrated Services (IntServ) QoS is needed. However, currently there does not exist a solution that can provide an efficient end-to-end IntServ signaling mechanism across airborne network environments. This is true because of the characteristics of airborne network environments and of IntServ signaling protocols. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will leverage its extensive experience in network technology to develop, evaluate and demonstrate an efficient end-to-end IntServ signaling techniques for airborne network environments.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Mr. Wassim Ferzali
AF 07-020      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:QoS Assured Heterogeneous Airborne Network Technology (QAHANT)
Abstract:Mayflower proposes an Integrated Services (IntServ) QoS technology, the QoS Assured Heterogeneous Airborne Network Technology (QAHANT), to meet the Air Force objectives, namely, to design and develop protocols for providing Integrated Services- model (IntServ) Quality of Service (QoS) in an airborne network composed of heterogeneous network technologies. The proposed QAHANT system uses an open architecture Common Radio Resource Management (CRRM) framework for heterogeneous airborne network operation. The QAHANT reservation function, implemented within this CRRM framework, enables IntServ with minimal signaling overhead. QAHANT protocols are designed to provide reliable reservation in a network whose nodes are widely varying in capability, capable of high dynamics and high-speed mobility. Provision for interoperability with existing QoS protocols such as RSVP enables end-to-end QoS for Global Information Grid, of which airborne network is one component. The proposed QAHANT technology leverages Mayflower’s expertise in airborne networking, and builds on technology developed under several SBIR programs and Internal R&D. The QAHANT system, when proven feasible in the Phase I study for the Air Force application, has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. Mayflower will develop a cost effective QAHANT prototype system in Phase I and II, and ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond.

XPRT SOLUTIONS, INC.
615 HOPE ROAD, BUILDING 3B
EATONTOWN, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 460-9001
Dr. George Elmasry
AF 07-020      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Reservation-based Quality of Service (QoS) in an Airborne Network
Abstract:This proposal is to investigate IntServ signaling protocol options suitable to provide reservation-based QoS in an airborne network composed of heterogeneous waveforms. The technical objectives of Phase I are: • to investigating potential IntServ signaling protocols  Aggregate RSVP with pre-emption  RSVP Proxy  Measurement-Based Admission Control • to establish a simulation environment for analyzing potential algorithms • to demonstrate analysis findings using simulation and provide recommendations The primary analysis simulation environment will utilize the OPNET Discrete Event Simulator. All three approaches will utilize the same basic framework, where the airborne backbone network is constructed as a medium fidelity representation, so that different levels of performance can be established, based on input from the Government sponsors. In higher fidelity, each approach will be modeled and analyzed as separate solutions and together as a total end-to-end solution. The results of this study will be used to produce final recommendations and serve as the basis for prototypes developed in Phase II.

ORIELLE, LLC
PO Box 8922
Moscow, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 883-3816
Mr. Peter Mills
AF 07-025      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Web Services Rapid Application Assistant
Abstract:We propose to develop an intelligent assistant that enables the rapid creation and use of web services for the warfighter. We will design a web services toolbox, and a web- based assistant built on it, that extends public-domain interoperability technologies with capabilities for dynamic web service creation, tagging services and their history with semantic metadata, and browsing and invoking web services using client-side adapters. The assistant will incorporate a responsive JSF/AJAX web-based user-interface that guides novice users in the discovery and use of services. Such a web services rapid application assistant will prove of significant benefit for the warfighter.

TRAVERSE TECHNOLOGIES
4 Meadow Sweet Rd
West Newbury, MA 01985
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 395-7766
Mr. Joshua Lieberman
AF 07-025      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Metadata & Information Tagging Technologies for Application Interoperability and Services
Abstract:Traverse Technologies will develop a WISE Toolbox in the form of an adaptive network of proxy servers, providing an integrating communications overlay, supported by a distributed network of infrastructure servers providing indexing, search, annotation (tagging), and collaboration/workflow support. The functionality will be modeled after search and tagging capabilities now in common use on the world wide web, and will leverage, where possible, existing open source platforms. Capabilities developed under this effort will be made available under open source licenses.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Mr. Daniel Tingstrom
AF 07-026      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:WIRE – Web service Interface Revision Environment
Abstract:Upgrading a service in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can be costly and inefficient. ATC-NY, together with Architecture Technology Corporation, will develop WIRE (Web service Interface Revision Environment), a framework and toolset to efficiently manage version problems in a large distributed network of services. To determine feasibility in Phase I, we will first create versioning support for WSDL, then implement SOAP web services which will use our WSDL versioning scheme, create translation components to translate old requests, and finally create a prototype management system to efficiently launch and manage a large distribution of services. To provide an easy look-up method for requestors, WIRE’s toolset will also automatically update UDDI registries with new service versions and URI locations. In Phase I we will focus specifically on SOAP web services using WSDL interface descriptions, but WIRE will be designed to support a wide range of current SOA interfaces.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5900
Dr. Marc Abrams
AF 07-026      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Interface Design and Versioning Framework
Abstract:Harmonia Inc., in partnership with Raytheon, will design, prototype, and demonstrate a technical and governance Harmonization Framework (HF) to design and version Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) interfaces. HF addresses a fundamental SOA problem: even though SOA may start with a coherent overall architecture driven by a business case, the coherency can be lost with poor service interface design compounded by erratic version evolution. HF counters with seven innovative components to coordinate the evolution of services providers and clients at design time, but also to allow clients to detect when a service provider makes changes unilaterally at run-time. The seven innovations are: design for extensibility and control via governance; a design decision tool to visually analyze the structure and behavior as well as validate the global impact of design decision points; a coordination protocol by which providers can propose, solicit comment, and roll out services in orderly fashion; registry-based version change notification to communicate changes; fingerprinting to detect when a provider makes a unilateral change; experimental exploration of change impact; and reducing the cost of up- front design for extensibility by providing guaranteed backward versioning compatibility through a chain of adaptors.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Benjamin L. Burnett
AF 07-027      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Reliable Services for Continuity of Operations (ReSCO)
Abstract:ATC will combine the fault tolerance and scalability of an Active Replication system with a dynamic Peer-to-Peer back-end to build a Reliable Services for Continuity of Operations (ReSCO) system. The ReSCO system will provide true dynamic automated application and service mobility while providing fast rollover of live systems. During an attack or disaster when COOP protocols are enacted, the network and the system need to quickly recover and allow for the transfer of critical applications to other sites and locations. By using Active Replication with redundant systems the transfer is nearly instant; allowing users to continue using the system remotely or locally, as needed. The ReSCO system will by built using application and service objects to provide service mobility and transfer, an Active Replication system to coordinate multiple redundant copies of services and applications, and a peer-to-peer back-end which will track and maintain the current state of needed services and handle the discovery and registration of resources to be used for dynamic allocation when needed.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic , FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 313-0177
Mr. Gary Aldrich
AF 07-027      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Variable Continuity of Operations/Service-Oriented Architecture (COOP/SOA) Services
Abstract:Continuity of Operations (COOP) has taken on new meaning in the 21st century with threats from terrorism, natural disasters and cyber warfare. The threat also extends beyond key personnel to Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence C4I. Prior to 9/11 COOP was a cold war relic that was focused on maintaining the government after a nuclear strike. Post 9/11 when the realization that terrorists could destroy significant parts of the government/infrastructure in a short space of time COOP took on new meaning and significant. On the natural disaster front, hurricane Katrina exposed the government’s inability to maintain operations when the storm devastated New Orleans transportation, communication, power, and financial infrastructure. The cyber warfare threat is best expressed as “China’s ambitions extend to crippling an enemy’s financial, military and communications capabilities early in a conflict, according to military documents and generals’ speeches that are being analyzed by US intelligence officials. Describing what is in effect a new arms race, a Pentagon assessment states that China’s military regards offensive computer operations as “critical to seize the initiative” in the first stage of a war.”1 The events described above have caused a major shift in the COOP paradigm to focus on C4I systems. Specifically COOP for the Air Force is centered on legacy stove-piped systems which are brittle and difficult to maintain. It’s critical that techniques be developed to provide a systematic consistent approach to migrate the Air Force C4I systems to an agile SOA environment that will support COOP to meet the 21st century threats. As stated in the solicitation current (COOPs/SOAs) solutions are complex, inflexible and costly as demonstrated by long delays between failure and full restoration of critical operations. The fundamental issue is the inability for systems to separate out the meaning/importance (semantics) associated with critical processes from the application and physical infrastructure. This semantic separation will ensure critical processes can run on both unlimited bandwidth and constrained bandwidth environments on virtualized infrastructure. The operational process will determine which environment resources will be used based on the selection of the web service that will provide the semantic capability required.

KEY BRIDGE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
8000 Towers Crescent Drive Suite 1350
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 413-3635
Mr. Jesse Caulfield
AF 07-029      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Proactive Determination of Networked Node Vulnerability
Abstract:We propose the development of an open source, modular security software framework into which independently developed 3rd party modules may be loaded to establish, extend and enhance the functionality of the platform. We believe such a framework is unique in the in the marketplace, satisfies large unmet demand and will be well received by the existing information and network security user communities; including Government, commercial, academic and non-commercial users. Our proposed software system is designed to run as a standalone, distributable service yet can be easily embedded into hardened appliances. We employ artificial neural networks, principal component analysis and robust analysis of real-time network traffic flows to profile endpoints and applications and to discover abnormal and anomalous behavior.

REAL-TIME INNOVATIONS
3975 Freedom Circle, 6th Floor
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 200-4753
Mr. Joseph Schlesselman
AF 07-029      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Proactive Determination of Networked Node Vulnerability
Abstract:Real-Time Innovations (RTI) proposes to develop a proactive capability to scan network nodes for security vulnerabilities. This proposal will incorporate recent developments in Active and Passive network traffic sniffing, node management, Complex Event Processing (CEP), high-performance network data distribution, and data persistence. The proposed Phase I effort will focus on the integration of best-of-class real-time middleware technologies by RTI and its world-leading partners Coral8 CEP and ANTS high-performance database with open-source system monitoring and intrusion detection technologies such as Ganglia and Snort. We intend to provide a working prototype demonstration at the conclusion of Phase I.

FETCH TECHNOLOGIES
2041 Rosecrans Avenue, Suite 245
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-9849
Dr. Steven Minton
AF 07-031      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Consolidating Entity Information from Heterogeneous Text Sources for Multi-INT Fusion
Abstract:Machine Learning has proven to be a useful approach for developing entity consolidation systems that can be tuned to a particular domain. However, the accuracy of learning algorithms often suffers in applications where there are “special cases” that learning algorithms systematically misclassify. To address this, we propose a new twist to the machine learning approach to entity consolidation in which a domain expert provides knowledge to the system about special cases. This knowledge enables the system to create models that explicitly handle these types of cases. In a sense, our approach combines the best aspects of machine learning with ideas from the older “rule-based” approach to entity consolidation. The objective is to take advantage of the statistical characteristics of data sets, while making it easy to create commonsense inference models that can utilize these statistics for high accuracy matching. We believe this approach will significantly improve upon the state-of-the-art accuracy of entity consolidation, particularly in applications that involve heterogeneous data, where special cases are more common. This includes applications where entity extractors harvest data from very different types of documents.

JANYA, INC.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
Dr. Thomas L. Cornell
AF 07-031      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Consolidating Entity Information from Heterogeneous Text Sources for Multi-INT Fusion
Abstract:In this project we propose to develop technology for computing the similarity between two Entity Profiles compiled from text sources by an Information Extraction (IE) engine. The similarity computation is based on contextual information from the text and also on the full range of IE results (entity attributes, relationships and events). We identify several types of features across the spectrum between readily extracted but imprecise information and more precise but scarcer information types. A machine learning based classifier is used to integrate similarity measures across these information types into a single output that determines whether the two profiles are about the same entity and should be merged. The resulting similarity measures can be used to implement Name Disambiguation for entity profile merging and also user-initiated searches for entities most similar to a given exemplar.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. John T. Langton
AF 07-033      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Attack-Centric Autonomic Detector of Insider Adversaries (ACADIA)
Abstract:Most state-of-the-art cyber security systems focus primarily on detecting and remediating external threats and do not address insider attacks. Any user who can log into a network locally or remotely constitutes an insider on that network. Such trusted entities often have access to details of their network’s infrastructure and security systems and can easily plan activities to subvert these systems. To address threats from insider adversaries we propose an Attack Centric Autonomic Detector of Insider Adversaries (ACADIA) that prevents insider attacks using multi-layered policy mechanisms, monitors insider activity using statistical and policy-based user modeling, detects insider threats using correlation algorithms, and responds to insider attacks using policy rule enforcement and data forensics via a multi-agent architecture. Our approach consists of a hierarchical collection of Bayesian belief networks (BN) for insider modeling, complex event processing (CEP) and prediction of insider attack; a configuration engine and cyber security architecture to support policy maintenance and accountability; a correlation engine comprised of statistical and BN learning algorithms for insider modeling, monitoring, and anomaly detection; and a network of autonomic agents to execute policy, aggregate network and host-based event data, and perform response and remediation.

DISTRIBUTED INFINITY, INC.
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 681-3966
Mr. Allen E. Ott
AF 07-033      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Advanced Insider Threat Detection and Response
Abstract:Insider threats have become a major issue in the search to secure our military and global infrastructure. Insiders may already have all the relevant information they need to adversely affect the state and response capabilities of our defenses. Concurrently, insiders must be engendered with some measure of trust to effectively perform their duties. This combination of knowledge and capability make the insider threat more insidious and lethal than the generic attacker, who must expend time, energy, and resources to determine network layouts and vulnerabilities, and to gain access to the needed data and process capabilities on the network. Distributed Infinity will combine evolutionary algorithms for insider characterization with game theory for predictive tactical event analysis, and will utilize the Cybercraft environment for sensor data collection. This powerful combination will enable preemptive understanding of potential threat vectors including who is most likely to attack our networks, and how, with sufficient warning to take effective counter-measures.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2467
Dr. Georgiy Levchuk
AF 07-034      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Monitoring MIssion MODels for Increased Mission Understanding (MIMOD)
Abstract:Effects-based operations and mission-driven network management are becoming increasingly focused on leveraging “Command Intent.” Arguably, the workflow of personnel can be linked to command intent, either by deriving command intent from the behaviors of personnel during missions, or evaluating workflow within the context of prescribed command intent. Although considering command intent within the context of missions is imperative, it is not easy to accomplish, as command intent and workflow are difficult to describe and require great effort to capture manually. Therefore, we identify the need for a system that passively monitors and models an individual’s workflow. The purpose of this phase I effort, MIMOD (Monitoring MIssion MODels for increased Mission Understanding), is to develop a proof of concept application that will passively examine users’ observable behaviors at their work stations (keystrokes, usage of resources, etc.) to create mission models of how they do their job. We plan to use a hierarchical, context driven, hypothesis testing approach to gathering data and constructing of the MIMOD models. These models will then be presented to the users in an effort to improve processes. The operators will also be able to augment their constructed mission model or comparison models when needed.

MILCORD LLC
1050 Winter Street Suite 1000
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 839-7138
Dr. Alper Caglayan
AF 07-034      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Commander’s Learning Agent (CLearn)
Abstract:Traditional decision aid software requires the manual input of commander’s intent in the field, which is impractical as it requires an excessive amount of time to learn the various facets of the commander’s job, and requires an unrealistic adaptation capability as the commander’s mission changes dynamically in the field. Hence, there is a need to automatically capture the commander’s current mission, augment with contextual knowledge, and assign priorities to resources supporting the commander’s mission. Technically, this problem falls into the domain of interface agents with learning capability where the agent sits in between the user and application User Interface, passively monitors user behavior in the background, applies machine learning to discover the patterns in the background, and offers to assist the user in the real-time inference mode. Here we propose to develop Commander’s Learning Agent (CLearn) that leverages an existing hybrid Belief network and rule base knowledge management architecture, and prior experience in building such desktop learning agents, and server-based Web personalization agents. While CLearn is relevant to many applications, including information security management, we describe our approach in the context of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace support for planning, operations, and assessment missions in Air and Space Operation Centers.

CALDERA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
3491 Trinity Drive, Suite B
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 412-2345
Dr. Benjamin Warner
AF 07-035      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Biomolecular Taggants for Covert Tracking and Watermarking
Abstract:Caldera will use its R&D 100 award-winning XRpro technologyto develop functional biomolecular taggants for Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear/Explosive (CBRNE) targets. These taggants will possess functionality which will allow networks of interpersonal connections and travel to be determined, and will allow CBRNE MASINT to be tracked at a distance. Main features of these synthetic protein taggants are selectivity and affinity for CBRNE signature molecules and biomolecules, and optical reporting functionality.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Ms. Heather Kauth
AF 07-035      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Biomolecular Taggants for Covert Tracking and Watermarking
Abstract:Tracking of nuclear materials, military ordnance, and chemical and biological threat agents presents a significant challenge to the intelligence and military communities. The proliferation of non-tracked, illegally trafficked nuclear materials in particular has sparked considerable debate and is a cause for concern on the international stage. An effective system must be covert and ubiquitous; while encoding complex interaction information and supplying distinct identification of individual materials and material lots. In this Phase I SBIR proposal, Infoscitex proposes the use of a synthetic DNA-based taggant entrapped in a sol-gel material with attributes allowing for covert and secure labeling. This proposed material can be created using a combination of current technologies integrated into a novel detection and labeling system that is robust and covert.

MATERIAL INNOVATIONS, INC.
15801 Chemical Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 373-3070
Mr. Chuck Thaw
AF 07-037      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Novel High Power Microwave (HPM) Hardening Materials for Aircraft, Ground, & Space Systems
Abstract:An affordable conformal coating technology that provides broad band electromagnetic immunity through high EMI shielding effectiveness and low electrical faying resistance will be developed for sensitive avionics enclosures, and for shelters. The coating chemistry and application procedure will insure for simplicity with a scalable dispensation process that is production friendly. The conformal shielding coating will exhibit an average shielding effectiveness greater than 60 db over a 100 MHz to over 20 GHz range with attenuation levels greatly exceeding 80db at specific frequency spectra. The solution will leverage from current particulate coating developments at MII combined with the inclusion of nano-based metallic fillers. The synergistic effect of tailoring particulate morphology combined with interstitial nano-filling results in a coating system that is tunable to specific system needs. This has been demonstrated through preliminary shielding effectiveness tests and cursory environmental testing. This program will further develop this technology and refine performance to meet specific DoD system requirements. Analysis combined with laboratory measurements will be used for optimization. Application technologies will focus on spray deposition, demonstration of dip processing, and integration with prepreg composite lamina as alternative approaches. Phase 1 will develop performance data that will establish the production path carried into Phase 2.

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES CO.
P.O. Box 356
Midway, UT 84049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 654-3683
Mr. George Hansen
AF 07-037      Awarded: 1/4/2008
Title:Advances in High Power Microwave (HPM) Hardening Materials
Abstract:A class of conformal coatings, composites and elastomers capable of shielding high power microwaves (HPM) is proposed. Based on nickel nanostrand technology, these coatings, composites and elastomers will extend both the frequency breadth and decibel depth of protection against HPM and other electromagnetic interference phenomena.

DIRECTED VAPOR TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2 Boar's Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Dr. Derek D. Hass
AF 07-038      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Surface Processing for Enhanced Environmental and Creep-Fatigue Resistance
Abstract:The ongoing drive to increase the performance and efficiency of propulsion systems has led to increasingly severe operating environments, particularly for the components in the hot sections of turbine engines. One potential life-limiting area of future engines is the turbine disk where significant dwell fatigue may occur if engine temperatures are elevated. The mechanism for this reduction is not fully clear but is related to effects of grain boundary creep and surface oxidation / corrosion. The study proposed here will seek to develop advanced surface chemistry and modification techniques for the nickel- base superalloys used for turbine disks to limit dwell fatigue damage and promote higher operating temperatures in the engine. Key factors that will be studied include: (i) computational approaches to designing novel coating compositions that exhibit minimal interdiffusion and hence excellent compatibility with the substrate owing to chemical activity matching; (ii) the deposition, oxidation and compatibility testing of selected compositions; and (iii) the deposition of selected coated systems. Preliminary mechanical testing of the coated systems will be carried out. A targeted significant outcome of this study is the establishment of novel and cost-effective surface modifications that confer greatly improved component reliability and durability.

INTEGRAN TECHNOLOGIES USA, INC.
2541 Appletree Dr
Pittsburgh, PA 15241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 975-6042
Dr. Virgil Provenzano
AF 07-038      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Surface Processing for Enhanced Environmental and Creep-Fatigue Resistance
Abstract:The applicant is proposing a novel, industrially-scaleable process for cost-effectively achieving surface alloying and microstructural optimization at selected areas of semi- finished superalloy components. The proposed approach involves (1) electrochemical deposition, followed by, (2) mechanical alloying via surface deformation, and (3) thermal treatment processes to achieve optimum degradation-resistant wrought microstructures. This novel process draws on the applicant’s proprietary grain boundary engineering (GBE) technology, which involves the strategic application of thermo-mechanical metallurgical processing to achieve a high fraction of “special”, low-energy, degradation- resistant grain boundaries in the alloy microstructure. The GBE technology was recently demonstrated (in a 2006 NASA Phase I SBIR program) to significantly improve the high temperature creep performance of conventional wrought Inconel 718 by markedly reducing the susceptibility of the alloy to intergranular crack initiation and propagation. The objective of this program is to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating surface alloying of Platinum (Pt) with the GBE surface treatment to achieve a homogeneous, fully recrystallized (wrought) Pt-alloyed (approx. 10wt%) microstructure in the near surface of the PM superalloys, ME3 and RR1000. The combined and possibly synergistic effects of Pt-alloying and increased content of “special” degradation-resistant grain boundaries is expected to yield environmental and creep-fatigue performance in gas turbine engine hot- section components beyond current limitations, and contribute to the advancement of next generation Air Force propulsion systems.

GVD CORP.
19 Blackstone Street, Suite 1
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0060
Dr. Erik S, Handy
AF 07-039      Awarded: 1/3/2008
Title:Novel Conductive Polymer Skins for Morphing UAVs
Abstract:GVD Corporation (GVD) proposes to develop highly-conductive, thermally-activated shape-memory polymer skins for morphing UAVs. These skins are based on GVD’s novel electrically-conductive polymer technology, which imparts low electrical resistivity to the skins. Conductive skin manufacture is simple, scalable, and easily inserted into current manufacturing processes. Conventional conductive skins suffer from poor mechanical properties and inhomogeneous heating (which leads to skin damage). GVD’s proposed solution preserves the desired deformability of the skin and enables efficient morphing. Further, the electrical properties of the GVD skin are not adversely impacted by significant in-flight deformation. In Phase I, a range of conductive skin formulations will be developed and screened. The most promising candidates will then be selected for mechanical testing to ensure their tolerance of real-world flight conditions. GVD’s conductive skin manufacturing approach will then be optimized in Phase II for prototyping and more rigorous testing in simulated flight environments.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J. H. Lalli
AF 07-039      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Highly Deformable Electrically Self-Healing Metal Rubber™ Skins for Morphing UAVs
Abstract:NanoSonic has developed Metal Rubber™, a highly electrically conductive nanocomposite with tailored surface resistivity (as low as 0.2 /) that can be repeatedly strained to greater than 1000% while maintaining electromagnetic integrity. Unlike typical dense, brittle nanocomposites that require up to 80 volume % filler; NanoSonic employs an elegant layered processing technique to achieve electrical percolation with <0.01 volume % of non-oxidizing metal nanoparticles. Lightweight (0.98g/cc) Metal Rubber™ is not a conducting polymer or a sputter coated polymer film, rather a free standing nanocomposite formed in-situ by chemically reacting monolayers of well defined electrically conductive nanostructured constituents with high performance copolymers. Durable elastomeric materials are realized; providing stable electrical conductivity over a wide dynamic thermomechanical range, currently from –60°C through 350°C, and in the presence of UV and ozone. Metal Rubber™ deformable skins are envisioned as a unique enabling technology allowing morphing unmanned aerial vehicles to maintain stable electromagnetic properties under disparate vehicle configurations. The nanostructured yet macroscale skins are currently available as free standing appliqués (up to 2’x8’) or as conformal coatings on aircraft structures. NanoSonic would work with a major defense prime on performance metrics and materials property evaluation to increase the TRL of Metal Rubber™ deformable skins.

ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Dr. Roberto Schupbach
AF 07-040      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Very Low Profile Non-Intrusive Data Acquisition Systems for Turbine High Temperature Bearing Sensors
Abstract:APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a low profile, non-intrusive, high temperature (300 °C) bearing data transmitter system that will allow the in-situ monitoring and diagnostic of bearing health. The proposed high-temperature data transmitter system will be built on high temperature flexible substrates with integrated and thin film deposited electronics, eventually including thin film deposited wide band-gap silicon carbide or gallium nitride transistors (thus, eliminating wire bonds and die attaches). Bearing data will be wirelessly transmitted from the bearing sensor to a closely placed receiver unit. Signal paths will be “written” onto the surface of the turbine components, leading out of the turbine (thus eliminating the need for physical wiring, or eliminating the need to overcome the challenges of penetrating the turbine casing with RF wireless signal transmissions). The goal of this Phase I is to explore different design options with the objective of developing a high-temperature data transmitter design approach that is simple in concept, minimizes mechanical modifications, will utilize many electronics already proven reliable at high temperature, and shall present an adaptable approach that can be easily transitioned to other engine components.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Carl S Byngton, P.E.
AF 07-040      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:High-Temperature Wireless Data Transmission Technology for Turbine Bearings & ISHM
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Dr. Darrin Young of Case Western Reserve University, with oversight from turbine engine OEMs, propose to develop and demonstrate a high-temperature wireless data transmission technology for high speed bearing data with a goal of achieving a telemetry distance of more than 10 feet with operating temperature of 250 up to 300°C. This technology would be a key enabler for improved engine health management. Key tasks of the phase I effort include 1) full definition of the transmitter operating requirements including power availability (harvesting required?), data rates, amount of pre-processing, environmental specs, etc. 2) Design of the transmitter, most likely based on a low-power silicon-tunnel-diode-based oscillator which has been shown attractive for previous high temperature MEMS sensing and telemetry applications; 3) testing the performance of the prototype transmitter across a range of temperatures, transmission distances, input power levels, fundamental design parameters; 4) Providing metrics related to data loss from real vibration signals (generated from a bearing on a test stand and from various recordings of engine vibrations) as a function of the tested parameters; and 5) Analyzing the potential of the technology to meet Air Force goals in Phase II and beyond.

MEVICON, INC.
1185 Bordeaux Rd., Suite D
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 744-1335
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 07-041      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Extremely Low Areal Density Composite Isogrid Supported Hybrid Membrane Optical Shell Reflector
Abstract:Mevicon Inc., ManTech-SRS, and Foster-Miller, leading innovators in the area of lightweight Membrane Optical Systems, materials, and structures have teamed to propose the development of a novel and innovative method of realizing very low areal density, cost effective membrane reflectors based on a combination of 1) Mevicon Inc’s demonstrated scalable, cost efficient fabrication approach for “Strength Through CurvatureTM” enabled single surface membrane shells, 2) a range of proven figure control techniques, 3) SRS’s low CTE optical grade membrane polyimide materials and coatings (1.5 nm rms surface roughness, ë/20 thickness variation over 10 cm+ samples), and 4) Foster-Miller’s extremely lightweight CHIM isogrid boundary support structure technology. This combination yields extremely low areal density primary and secondary mirror surfaces and the required boundary support, leading to significant reduction of downstream system performance requirements and hence cost for space and eventually terrestrial reflective optical systems of interest to the AF and DoD. In the PI we propose to demonstrate the combination of the four areas, continue to refine membrane reflector production global figure authority and quantify readiness for flight and performance trends. This prepares the way for a PII focused on accelerated hardware based scaling demonstration and the subsequent PII/PIII transition opportunities.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. HeeDong Lee
AF 07-041      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Advanced Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid/Composite Mirrors (ULHCMs)
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program seeks to develop a new fabrication technology for producing an ultra-light hybrid mirror for space applications. The state-of-the art space mirrors made of glass and SiC are costly to produce. The areal density of the glass and SiC mirrors also do not meet the ULHCM concepts that require 1 to 5 kg/m2 of areal density. An innovative new process is needed to address these current issues. During the Phase I period, UES proposes to use a novel fabrication process to produce a space quality hybrid mirror. Substrate and laminate mirror facesheets (4-6 inch diameter) will be integrated by applying an inorganic adhesive. In the Phase II program, we will fabricate a large-sized mirror that is mechanically and chemically very stable, and shows an outstanding mirror quality that can minimize the loss of the needed optical properties.

SRICO, INC.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Dr. Vincent Stenger
AF 07-042      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Ion-Sliced Lithium Tantalate for Terahertz Radiation Detection
Abstract:Terahertz radiation occupies a largely unexploited band from 100 GHz radio frequency to 30 THz infrared. It is capable of penetrating fog and moderate density objects such as wood and fabric at substantially higher resolutions and shorter ranges than radar. THz imaging can be used to screen passers-by for weapons without the safety issues of X- rays. Using spectroscopic techniques, THz radiation can be used for stand-off detection and imaging of suspicious materials or chemicals. These features make THz technology ideal for both the soldier in the field and for continuous surveillance applications such as airport security. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project addresses the need for THz detectors that are compact and that operate efficiently at room temperature. The proposed technology employs novel materials processes to realize room temperature pyroelectric THz detector devices that are at least one hundred times more sensitive than commercially available devices. The technology is highly amenable to monolithic linear and two dimensional arrays for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Deployment of these newly developed detector devices would result in cost effective implementation of a large number of important industrial, medical and defense applications that could benefit from terahertz radiation technologies.

VIRGINIA DIODES, INC.
979 Second Street SE, Suite 309
Charlottesville, VA 22902
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 297-3257
Dr. Thomas W. Crowe
AF 07-042      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Materials for Terahertz Detectors
Abstract:VDI’s goal is to use new materials and processing techniques to achieve low barrier diodes that can be used as very sensitive zero-bias detectors and frequency mixers with extremely low local oscillator power requirements. The basic device goals, in terms of the materials study, are to achieve a controlled Schottky barrier height and reduced 1/f noise. The reduced barrier height will be controlled through the optimization of the alloy content of the semiconductor and the use of novel doping profiles. Advanced materials processing techniques will be used to reduce the 1/f noise. Through the successful conclusion of this effort VDI will achieve reductions in both the low-signal NEP and 1/f noise of state-of-the-art terahertz detectors and a fundamental reduction in the size and complexity of terahertz heterodyne receivers through the minimization of the LO power requirement.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5427
Mr. Paul Johnson
AF 07-043      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Hi-Def Low Light Detector
Abstract:Trex’s Photodiode on Active Pixel (POAP) image sensor technology provides high light collection efficiency (QE x Fill Factor) without the need for microlenses on a CMOS image sensor. This technology is particularly amenable to the fabrication of high sensitivity sensors that are capable of withstanding intense optical signals and countermeasures. The planar surface of the device allows for a good optical match with overlaid non-linear absorber material, and a high percentage of metallized surface area of the CMOS Read- out IC provides protection to the underlying circuitry for light that may get through any overlaid absorber. We propose to examine the POAP image sensor technology for susceptibility to optical countermeasures.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. George M. Williams
AF 07-043      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Development of High-Definition (HD), Low-Light-Level Detector
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program, a low noise SOI CMOS high-definition (HD) low light level television (LLLTV) image sensor will be developed. The detector will be back-illuminated with a 300-micron thick silicon absorption region, for increased sensitivity and spectral- overlap with the night sky radiance. The imager will be configured with 1280 x 1024, 6- micron-square pixels, will operate at 60 frames per second, and will include a 14-bit analog-to-digital converter. The HD LLLTV Imager is based on a SOI (silicon-on-insulator) CMOS image sensor architecture. Fabricating imagers on SOI greatly improves performance. For example, CMOS circuitry is isolated from photo regions, allowing high- resistivity silicon to be employed. In addition, CMOS circuit ground returns for SOI are isolated, eliminating substrate bounce and transient coupling problems. This allows higher operating speeds and lower noise. SOI’s planar architecture also makes it easier to passivate surfaces for low dark-current generation. This advantage, in turn, makes the device much more resistant to high-energy radiation environments. Lower fixed pattern noise (FPN) and lower power consumption are also achieved. In Phase I, the HD image sensor will be designed, layed-out, and performance simulated, so that it can be manufactured and tested in Phase II.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2138
Mr. John Gordon
AF 07-044      Awarded: 1/3/2008
Title:Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Battery with Non-Porous Ceramic Separator
Abstract:Feasibility of a rechargeable lithium battery with sulfur cathode will be demonstrated. Air Force needs high specific energy, low cost rechargeable batteries for solar energy storage. Low cathode utilization and cycle fade have prevented Li-S batteries from reaching their potential. Cathode utilization can be improved dramatically using apolar and polar solvents in combination. Typically porous separators are used for lithium batteries, allowing constituents to migrate, resulting in cycle fade. To prevent inter-electrode constituent migration and capacity fading over charging cycles, a non-porous lithium ion conductive ceramic membrane will be utilized. The membrane developed recently at Ceramatec has conductivity of 1 mS/cm at 25C and 0.6 mS/cm at -20C. The membrane can be as thin as 10’s of microns with a laminated porous layer serving as mechanical support. The non-porous separator will prevent dendritic shorting, improving anode safety along with the use of an unreducible lithium salt. Specific energy theoretically is 2600 Wh/kg with a metallic lithium anode or 630 Wh/kg with a lithium carbon anode. Practical batteries would be >1000 or 250 Wh/kg with the two respective anodes. In Phase 1, several factors will be examined to determine their impact on capacity at different charge and discharge rates including a 0.5C rate, the highest rate anticipated for discharging.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Arthur Dobley
AF 07-044      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:High Energy Density Storage for Solar Power Generation Systems
Abstract:One of the major challenges of developing solar power generation systems is the storage of electrical energy. The energy system ideally has a large amount of energy with a very low weight. This equates to a high specific energy (Wh/kg). Lithium-air batteries offer the greatest theoretical specific energy for batteries at 11 kWh/kg. Yardney has extensive experience in requirements for battery power and metal-air cells. We specialize in lightweight batteries used in aerospace applications. We also research, develop, and sell high energy density metal-air cells. Yardney will advance the Rechargeable Lithium-Air Storage System by creating an advanced rechargeable air cathode with new catalysts, and testing these cathodes in actual lithium-air cells under various environmental conditions. These batteries will provide a lightweight high energy storage device for military applications.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Mr. Richard Foedinger
AF 07-045      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Carbon Nanofibers, Testing, and Fabrication (MSC P7027)
Abstract:Current satellite structures and spacecraft components utilize carbon fiber reinforced composites to achieve low weight, high stiffness, strength and multifunctional performance capability. In order to meet the multifunctional performance and weight goals for future satellite systems and spacecraft components, the Air Force has identified a need for new carbon fibers that provide a balance of high stiffness, strength, fracture toughness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Advances in nanotube reinforced fiber development and processing research provide a significant opportunity for meeting these multifunctional performance goals, but further research and process development is needed to improve the interface characteristics and understand the microstructure/property relationships to optimize properties. The Phase I research proposed here involves the development, characterization and production of multiwall nanotube (MWNT) reinforced pitch- and PAN-based carbon fibers to provide improved multifunctional performance. Both melt spinning and solution spinning of MWNT/carbon fibers will be performed at different MWNT loading concentrations and process conditions to achieve the optimal fiber material properties. The research draws on the significant related research performed by the Phase I team, where long lengths of MWNT/carbon fibers have been produced to achieve higher tensile strength and strain-to-failure over unreinforced PAN-based carbon fibers.

SIGMA-K CORP.
511 Clayton Road
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 596-8487
Dr. P. Douglas Kirven
AF 07-045      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Carbon Nanofibers, Testing, and Fabrication
Abstract:Carbon Nanotubes have great potential of adding strength in composite materials. In order for carbon nanotubes to be used in prepregging, fibers with diameters in the 7-10 micron range are needed. The carbon nanotubes need to be bundled and twisted to form appropriate size fiber tows. Current technology does not allow carbon nanotubes to be spun at a high enough rate to effectively produce enough tows for large scale projects. Sigma-K Corporation recently demonstrated the concept and will develop a high speed spinning system to spin the carbon nanotubes into yarns with tow size diameters. Our system will allow carbon nanotubes to be used in composites that are needed in high strength applications such as armor and air frames.

AQWEST
8276 Eagle Road
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 681-0456
Mr. Jan (John) Vetrovec
AF 07-046      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:High Capacity, Lightweight , and Compact Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Technologies and Systems
Abstract:Aqwest proposes to develop novel, high-performance thermal energy storage (TES) technologies and a TES integration concept for thermal management (TM) of directed energy weapons (DEW). In particular, we will develop a packed bed (PB) and sorption- based (SB) TES concepts, and a TES integration into a high-performance (HP) thermal management system (TMS), each offering unparalleled compactness and lightweight. The proposed project will produce major benefits to the Air Force: 1) TES with up to 250 kJ/kg & 254 MJ/m3 @20°C; and up to 600 kJ/kg & 430 MJ/m3 @40°C, 2) TES integration concept offering 3-10x reduction in size and weight, 3) Gravity independent TMS: compatible with maneuvering airborne platforms, 4) TMS operation independent of DEW power supply, and 5) TMS response <<1 second from cold start. In Phase I, we will develop TM requirements for a solid-state HEL on a C-130 tactical platform, evaluate the concepts for PB and SB TES, and optimize the concept for TES integration into HP-TMS. In Phase II, we will complete the design and construct each a subscale PB-TES, BS-TES and a subscale HP-TMS for demonstration testing under representative conditions. Other applications of the proposed technology include high-capacity cooling of intermittent heat loads in commercial systems.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P. Scaringe
AF 07-046      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Demonstration of a High Energy Density Phase-Change Storage System
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to demonstrate an innovative phase-change thermal storage system that can exceed the 1000 kJ/kg and 180 MJ/m3 thermal storage objective sought in the SBIR topic description. This Phase I effort will address a current need of the airframe system integrators for a thermal energy system for directed energy applications. Phase I will experimentally demonstrate a new concept that will reduce the size and weight of the necessary thermal storage system. The focus of the Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed phase-change thermal control approach with experiments, develop a preliminary overall design configuration, and provide a detailed comparison with SOA alternatives. The effort is significant because the proposed system will exceed the thermal storage objectives for the complete thermal control system. Clearly, Mainstream has the prior experience in this area, and the effort proposed in Phase I, which includes a preliminary design and bench-top demonstration experiments, exceeds the scope of effort proposed in the Phase I solicitation; however, Mainstream is well into this research and excited about the commercial potential for this technology. Phase II will address the fabrication and demonstration of a complete system.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Dr. Bryan Dickerson
AF 07-047      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Remote Site Detection of Chemical Agents Using Functionalized Nanoparticles
Abstract:Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a of stand-off covert method of detecting chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals using functionalized nanocrystals. Alterations of the near infrared spectra from the distributed nanoparticles under laser illumination will be analyzed using a compact high-sensitivity spectrometer integrated with telescope collection optics. The chemistry of the functionalized nanoparticles will be tailored to identify a specific set of target chemicals according to their combination of functional groups. This system can be used from the air or from the ground to monitor local atmospheric or surface contamination.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. George M. Williams
AF 07-047      Awarded: 12/20/2008
Title:Stand-Off Detection of Functionalized Nanoparticles
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR, the feasibility of a chemical, biological, or explosive (CBE) agent micro-taggant monitoring system will be demonstrated. In Phase I, existing CBE-taggants will be evaluated and compared to a novel, solar-insensitive, invisible, lanthanide oxide quantum dot nanocrystal microtaggant. The developed CBE-taggants will emit in the near- infrared (NIR) and shortwavelength infrared (SWIR), enabling US warfighters with unique detection equipment. The lanthanide oxide nanocrystals will be coupled to proteins or secondary antibodies, to enable a variety of specific chem-bio conjugates - optimizing their functionality for CBE agents. The CBE mictotaggants will be tested against environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and smog, and other known risk item, and the microtaggant system will be tested in the laboratory suing commercial off the shelf (COTS) interrogating laser probes and NIR and SWIR cameras. Using the developed concept of operations (CONOPS), we will refine the micro-taggant monitoring system, so that in Phase II, a small-sized, lightweight, prototype system, compatible with man-portable or UAV operation, can be field demonstrated for interrogation, activation, and detection of functionalized nanparticles at over 100 meter distance. The system will be delivered to the AF at the completion of Phase II.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
4415 Euclid Avenue Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Mr. Mike Willett
AF 07-048      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Temperature-Tolerant Processor for Reliable Control
Abstract:High temperature electronics will benefit Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) and Electronic Engine Control (EEC) in an aircraft by reducing or eliminating the need for fuel cooling of electronics. Orbital Research Inc. proposes the development of a high temperature Controller for use in future aircraft FADEC designs that will consist of the following: An ASIC chip and high temperature capacitors, resistors and pcb substrates. The Phase I effort will be primarily to collect data on existing FADECs and EECs, and analyze the data to determine the most appropriate microprocessor to use as the core of the controller. Following the identification of the optimal micro Orbital Research Inc. will design a controller, using a custom-designed ASIC which will provide computational power needed for future FADEC designs. In Phase II Orbital will build a breadboard for testing from the designed circuit. The critical test parameter is adequate processing power in a rugged package that does not need liquid fuel cooling.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
8777 E.Via de Ventura Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 328-5832
Dr. Walter Merrill
AF 07-048      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Reliable, High Temperature Engine Control
Abstract:Scientific Monitoring will develop a high temperature (~200C) FADEC architecture for reliable turbofan engine control. Initially, two competing architectures will be studied to address the need for control distribution and multiprocessing. A software design environment will be specified that will enable control law implementation within a real time context in the high temperture architecture. This may entail the use of sophisticated software redundancy approaches to achieve reliable operation. Phase I will result in a prototype processor demonstration at high temperature as well as a recommeded architecture.

ADVANCED COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6104
Dr. William Anderson
AF 07-049      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:FADEC Cooling Using High Temperature Loop Heat Pipes
Abstract:The Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) controls engine operation. It is historically mounted on the engine case to minimize the routing length of the sensor and actuator wiring. The FADEC must be maintained below 63°C, while the environment can be as hot as 170°C. The current design uses fuel to cool the FADEC, however, this often limits the allowable ground or flight idle time before the fuel is too hot to cool the FADEC. This SBIR project will develop a loop heat pipe (LHP) thermal management system that will transport the FADEC heat load to an alternate sink, typically located 2 m away. The Phase I project will develop a model of the thermal management system, which will include heat pipes to lower the internal ÄT in the FADEC box, and LHPs to transport the heat to a heat sink. This will eliminate the use of fuel for cooling the FADEC, isolating it from the fuel cooling system. The benefits include an increase in the allowable fuel temperature, increasing idle time. The goal of the Phase II project will be to design, fabricate and test a LHP thermal system for cooling the FADEC.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
582 South Econ Circle
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 359-7138
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
AF 07-049      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Passive Two-Phase FADEC Cooling System
Abstract:Rejecting heat from a FADEC unit 2m away over a temperature differential of only 13oC results in a very challenging problem for a LHP cycle, especially when considering the body forces expected on an aircraft. An ideal LHP cycle with only hydrostatic pressure head considerations shows that ammonia is the only fluid that could potentially provide 2m of coolant transport. Even with ammonia, a combination of heat leak to the compensation chamber, high ambient environment, high internal pressure, high g maneuver and low temperature budget makes it unlikely that a LHP can transport heat from the FADEC to the heat sink. RTI proposes to instead use their innovative Liquid Retention Evaporator for a Loop Thermosyphon which rightly suits the needs of this cooling problem. The Loop Thermosyphon offers a passive long-distance/low-temperature-differential cooling application which when combined with the Liquid Retention Evaporator can offer a huge cooling buffer for transient high g periods, lasting minutes.

P.C. KRAUSE & ASSOC., INC.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Dr. Alex J. Heltzel
AF 07-050      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Advanced Heat Exchanger (HEX) Scaling Methodologies for High-Performance Aircraft
Abstract:The well-known consequence of high-performance, low-observable, more-electric strike aircraft is the increased thermal loading that can ultimately threaten mission-critical components. The ability to efficiently transport the resulting waste energy to onboard coolants is now understood to be an airframe-level design point that should be considered with a priority approaching that of thrust, range, or rate of climb. In this regard, attention has been focused on advanced heat exchanger technologies which offer the potential for increased volumetric heat transfer capacity. PCKA proposes to simulate candidate heat exchangers by discarding flow approximations in favor of 3-D solutions of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations in both solid and liquid domains. Wide parametric studies can be performed, generating performance curves for several candidate heat exchangers, which will include the effect of design modifications on resultant heat exchange capacity and pressure drops. With the acquisition of physics- based performance data, a methodology is outlined by which the CFD can be integrated into a system-level model, where “CFD-in-the-loop” capability can truly contribute to an airframe-wide virtual design tool. The proposed tool is inherently general to non-specific airframes, but can be applied directly in thermal management models already developed for the F-22 and F-35 systems.

SPIRITECH ADVANCED PRODUCTS, INC.
731 N US Highway 1 Suite 1
Tequesta, FL 33469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Mr. Eric Gamble
AF 07-050      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Advanced Heat Exchanger (HEX) Scaling Methodologies for High-Performance Aircraft
Abstract:A Heat Exchanger analytical tool is proposed for rapid thermal analysis and design optimization of advanced heat exchangers. The numerical model incorporates a user- friendly interface capable of modeling the details of the heat load calculation throughout the heat exchanger, including the details of the coolant flow network. The tool is comprised of a Thermal Model to calculate heat flux and wall temperatures for various heat exchangers; a Flow Model to calculate the coolant pressures and temperatures; a Structural/Weight/Cost Model to calculate the minimum HEX thickness and corresponding weight and cost; an Optimizer Model to optimize the heat exchanger design for thermal performance, cost, and weight, and a Properties Model to provide built-in libraries of material and coolant properties. Heat exchanger characterization and scaling laws are incorporated into each of the models through application of fundamental physical equations. The Phase I effort will develop the basic tool, integrating the scaling laws and cost model for a plate-fin heat exchanger. The models will be integrated into a module for incorporation into Simulink. The Phase II effort will further develop the tool by adding a library of heat exchanger types, transient thermal analysis capability, and detailed flow model and will provide validation data.

TTC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. Box 1527
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-7127
Dr. Ken Alabi
AF 07-050      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Advanced Heat Exchanger Characterization and Scaling Methodologies for High-Performance Aircraft
Abstract:An advanced software tool for heat exchanger (HEX) characterization and scaling for high-performance aircraft is proposed, with the objective of removing the limitations associated with the existing methods of analysis. In addition to supporting the conventional methods of analysis, which are based on the lumped approach, the proposed tool will enable highly-accurate and computationally-efficient simulation methods that consider conditions existing in service, such as variable ram air flow rate from ram air cooling. This has not been possible with any previous HEX characterization method. The proposed predictive tool will also provide unparalleled modeling capabilities for in- flight and installation effects, which are usually not considered in conventional HEX models. Other innovations are the ability to scale heat exchangers and the multi-scale optimization procedure. To develop the proposed tool, TTC Technologies, Inc. (TTC) will leverage its experience in advanced heat exchanger modeling and software marketing. TTC will also partner with Hamilton Sundstrand, for validation data and manufacturing related to the proposed tool, and with Modelogics, Inc., whose expertise in developing interface for modeling and simulation tools for rapid simulation of aircraft flight systems has been used by most of the aerospace industry leaders.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6340
Mr. Dan Davies
AF 07-051      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Affordable Thermomechanical Fatigue Testing under Turbine Airfoil Conditions in the Hyperbaric Advanced Development Environmental Simulator (HADES)
Abstract:Advanced gas turbine aircraft engines are designed to operate at higher overall pressure ratios, elevated turbine temperatures, and more severe duty cycles. Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) is expected to be the leading failure mode for hot-section components in these engines, a behavior typically dominated by adverse thermal gradients combined with cyclic thermal and mechanical loading. Improvement in TMF predictive modeling is needed to maximize reliability and affordability of component designs. Characterization at gas turbine operating conditions is needed to support the development of first-principles based material models. The HADES rig (Hyperbaric Advanced Development Environmental Simulator) is a low-cost test device capable of subjecting test articles to turbine gas-path conditions, surface temperatures exceeding 2000F and a very high heat flux. A prototype rig developed by Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) has been demonstrated. Feasibility studies of a new rig with enhanced capabilities, including tensile and compressive loading of specimens, autonomous cyclic operation, and full-field measurement capability is the subject of this Phase I SBIR proposal. Rig manufacturing, assembly, installation and validation testing are proposed for Phase II. Leased production versions of this rig would then be installed at the customer’s site, with training, technical and engineering support and analysis options offered by FTT.

TEST DEVICES, INC.
6 Loring Street
Hudson, MA 01749
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-6017
Mr. Bruce deBeer
AF 07-051      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Test Method for Inducing Steep Thermal Gradients in Thin-Walled Structures
Abstract:Test Devices, Inc. (TDI) will demonstrate the technical feasibility of and develop a detailed design for a test facility to impose representative steep through-wall temperature gradients, heat flux, and thermo/mechanical loads on turbine airfoils tested outside a running engine. The proposed facility will test actual turbine airfoils and/or specimens of similar material composition and geometry (including TBCs), and provide for representative cooling flows in order to examine the effects of film cooling. The facility will provide the capability to simulate operating strain histories, i.e. Thermal Mechanical Fatigue (TMF), which will be used to make more realistic service life predictions for turbine components.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 659-1584
Dr. Bauke Heeg
AF 07-052      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Optical Temperature and Strain Imaging for Turbine Engine Applications
Abstract:Two optical measurement techniques are presented for imaging of strain and temperature of high temperature materials used in turbine engines. The proposed strain measurement capability is provided by a variant of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), whereas temperature imaging is achieved with thermographic phosphors. The proposed methods are suited for use on both coated and uncoated specimens, and will be designed around thermo-mechanical fatigue test facilities under development elsewhere. One particularly innovative aspect is the prospect of depth resolved lateral strain imaging within and through a ceramic coating. The Phase I work plan consists of a demonstration of the measurement capabilities, an analysis of critical components and feasible operating envelope, and a detailed Phase II design and development strategy.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Shilpa Pradhan
AF 07-052      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Thermal Imaging Laser Speckle Interferometric Sensor
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an accurate, full-field temperature and strain measurement system for turbine airfoils, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Thermal Imaging LAser Speckle Interferometric Sensor (TILASIS). This proposed device is based on the principle of laser speckle interferometry combined with a thermal imaging technique for noncontact full-field measurement of strain and temperature. The innovation in using an infrared laser for full-field laser speckle interferometry, in combination with a thermal imaging camera, will enable us to quantitatively measure and understand the behavior of thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) in turbine engine components under severe thermal and mechanical loads, and to validate a first-principles-based approach for TMF modeling. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of TILASIS by developing a detailed design and performing initial testing by simulation and laboratory validation. In Phase II POC plans to develop, demonstrate, and validate a prototype to accurately measure full-field temperature and strain in thin-walled test specimens.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Rabi S. Bhattacharya
AF 07-053      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Spall Propagation-Resistant Hybrid Bearings for High-Performance Turbine Engines
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to develop spall propagation resistant turbine engine mainshaft bearings for improved reliability, safety, and performance margin of aircraft propulsion systems. New case carburized Pyrowear 675 steel has been developed for bearing races that has been shown to resist surface fatigue initiation and therefore improve the fatigue life compared to the M50 steel. However, once the initiation occurs, fatigue cracks can propagate rapidly resulting in increased spall rate in Pyrowear 675 races. This aspect of the fatigue properties of Pyrowear 675 has not been studied in great detail. In this Phase I SBIR project, UES proposes to identify the key properties of Pyrowear 675 such as microstructure, and near-surface fracture toughness that control the spall propagation rate. For this purpose, Rolling Contact Fatigue tests will be conducted under selected stress cycles, and the neighborhood of spalled area will be investigated. Spalled areas of failed bearings will also be investigated, if available. Also, computer modeling and simulation will be used to understand the role of dynamic operating conditions such as load and speed on the spall propagation.

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS LLC
332 Grissom Rd
Manchester, CT 06042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 649-0764
Dr. Ron-Ho Ni
AF 07-054      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis Capability for Gas Turbine Component Design
Abstract:Turbine performance increases through increasing turbine inlet gas temperature which can result in reduced turbine durability. Currently the design practices employed by the major OEM’s for cooled turbine airfoils are generally very empirical in nature and can easily miss important physical behavior thereby compromising airfoil durability. This in turn leads to turbine airfoil durability issues resulting in higher operating costs and weapon system reliability shortcomings. AeroDynamic Solution LLC is propose to develop a robust physics based conjugate heat transfer analysis approach and computational methods that can be readily integrated into the design systems of gas turbine industry OEM’s.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6250
Mr. James Downs
AF 07-054      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Practical Conjugate CFD Heat Transfer Design Methods for Complex Turbine Components
Abstract:Modern cooled gas turbine components are typically characterized by small-scale features (turbulators, impingement holes, and film cooling holes) and complex physics (boundary layer transition, separated shear layers from turbulators, and unsteady mixing of film coolant into the mainstream). The geometric complexity and computational rigor required to resolve the physics yields conjugate CFD/heat transfer analysis durations that are not practical for a target component design iteration cycle of ~4 weeks. Consequently, current technology limits use of conjugate CFD to sub-models models of reduced physical rigor (RANS), or simplified cooling schemes (i.e.: no film holes). Component designers require accurate prediction of the stress/temperature field over the entire component; accordingly, industry needs a method of physically rigorous modeling (DES/LES) in critical regions. For non-critical regions, the proposed conjugate CFD/thermal design methodology omits the small scale features (impingement holes, film holes, or turbulators) from the mesh, and instead meshes only the large-scale flowpath and internal cooling passages. Grid extraneous source terms (mass/momentum/energy) are used to capture the effect of small-scale features in non-critical regions to keep the analysis time practical. The novel aspect of this approach is the manner in which source terms are created, controlled, and integrated into the converging full-scale conjugate solution.

DEICON, INC.
919 Aaron Nutt Rd.
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 885-4134
Dr. Reza Kashani
AF 07-055      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Improved Damping Modeling for Afterburners
Abstract:In phase I of this SBIR project we propose the development of a software tool for designing passive acoustic treatment for adding acoustic damping to the low-frequency (<1000 Hz) modes most sympathetic to heat release perturbation in an augmentor, i.e., the first tangential and first radial modes. Considering that the resonant frequencies of these modes are reasonably constant (do not change appreciably with operating conditions) and their corresponding frequencies are spaced apart from each other, passive tuned acoustic treatment is proposed as the candidate solution. The physics- based software tool will be considering the effects of grazing flow, cooling flow, and distributed (not discrete) dynamics of the absorber itself. The design tool will be developed in COMSOL finite element analysis environment. The software tool will be used to design 2 acoustic dampers tuned to the first tangential and first radial modes of an augmentor with the same geometry and attributes as that of F136 engine . The effectiveness of the designed dampers will be numerically demonstrated by implementing them in the finite element aeroacoustic model of the candidate augmentor.

ENGINEERING RESEARCH & ANALYSIS CO.
340 SENTINEL OAK DRIVE
DAYTON, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 291-3800
Dr. Mohammed Mawid
AF 07-055      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Improved Damping Modeling for Afterburners
Abstract:A novel damping model to damp acosutic pressures in gas turbine afterburners is proposed for development and validation in this SBIR project. The proposed model will account for as many of the physical phenomena present in the afterburenr as possible which will include grazing, bias, and mean flows, and heat release fluctuations that excite certain pressure modes and potentially cause screech.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 07-056      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Novel Heat Exchanger Materials for Fuel-Air Cooler Heat Exchanger
Abstract:Open cell foam, which provides the highest heat transfer surface areas per unit volume, is considered as an excellent heat exchanger core material. Pyrolytic Carbon coated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam, which offers highly conductive foam ligaments and is available in different pore sizes and density, provides wide design options. A hybrid heat exchanger composed of carbon foam as heat transfer core and metallic parting sheet can provide efficient heat transfer performance, acceptable pressure drop, sound structure that is compatible with external ducting, and meet leak tightness required for a fuel-air heat exchanger. Under this program, we plan to further optimize existing RVC based carbon foams to achieve improved thermal performance with minimum impact on the flow resistance. We also plan to further improve the reliability of joining between carbon foam and aluminum parting sheet meeting both thermal and structural requirements. In addition, we plan to identify and demonstrate new foam materials for advanced heat exchanger applications.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2134
Mr. Merrill Wilson
AF 07-056      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Next Generation Heat Exchangers Using Ceramic Materials and Surface Morphologies
Abstract:A ceramic material is proposed wherein surface morphologies are used which enhance the heat transfer performance and reduce heat exchanger weight and volume. This technology would provide a means by which next generation return fuel/air cooler (RFAC) heat exchanger systems could be improved upon. The basic concept is to increase the area-to-volume ratio by fabricating materials which have porous structures allowing for increased heat transfer over a reduced volume. Fabrication and testing will be done using silicon carbide as the ceramic material. In the Phase 1 Program, Ceramatec, Inc. will evaluate, fabricate, demonstrate and characterize the performance of these materials at a sub-scale level.

ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
Mr. James R. Markham
AF 07-057      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:High-Speed Thermal Imaging of In-Service TBC Blades
Abstract:Ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) on first-stage turbine blades is a vital component of advanced engines under development for future military aircraft, protecting the metal alloy blades from the extreme combustion temperature in these high-performance engines. TBC must be proven as a reliable means to prevent blade failure but current engine development programs are hindered since there is not a sensor available to map the surface temperature of TBC blades during engine operation. In fact, the engine sensor community has identified surface temperature mapping of TBC blades as a high priority sensor development need. This Phase I project will demonstrate feasibility for an advanced optical imaging system for both on-board TBC emissivity mapping and TBC temperature mapping. Knowledge of TBC emissivity is critical for accurate temperature measurements, and jet fuel combustion influences emissivity at the coating surface. The TBC emissivity maps will be used with the TBC thermal maps to improve the absolute accuracy of on-engine TBC temperature mapping. On-board emissivity monitoring will also provide an additional diagnostic for high-resolution monitoring of TBC breakdown resulting in metal substrate exposure.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. Leif Hendricks
AF 07-057      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Innovative High-Speed Sensing System for Operational Monitoring of Jet Engine Turbine Blade Ceramic Coatings
Abstract:Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), teamed with Pratt and Whitney (P&W), is proposing an innovative solution for operational monitoring of the health of Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) on jet engine turbine blades. This solution is based on extensive work performed by both team members that has been directed towards problems of similar nature over many years. The problem is that turbine blades are nickel-based superalloys with a CMC thermal barrier that protects them from temperatures as high as 4000 F (the melting point of the steel is ~ 2900 F). The role of the CMC layer is to assure that the temperature of the steel blades does not exceed ~ 1700 F. Premature (occurring before routine scheduled maintenance) degradation or failure of the CMC blanket can lead to engine failure. The possible solution for which the feasibility will be determined in a Phase I program is to monitor in real time the condition of the CMC coatings on each and every blade in the turbine. Our Team solution is to apply proven SOC real-time hyperspectral imaging with continuous automated analysis and reporting of the health of the blade CMC coatings. This solution is discussed in Sections 1.0 through 3.0 of this proposal with a work plan tailored to, and focused on, its efficacy.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Nathaniel Demmons
AF 07-058      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Atomizing Liquid Fuel Injector for Hypersonic Propulsion
Abstract:In hypersonic flight vehicles, the limited residence time of fuel in the engine necessitates extremely fast mixing and combustion. Conventionally atomized fuel droplets are typically too large and polydisperse (several to hundreds of microns in diameter) to mix and completely burn during the short 1-3ms residence time in the engine. Busek proposes to investigate a novel approach for creating monodisperse micron-sized droplets at the high mass flowrates required for hypersonic combustion engines. Busek has already achieved the desired droplet sizes and performed successful combustion testing of unmodified JP-8 at low mass flowrates. The goal of the Phase 1 effort shall be to test an augmentation technique for increasing mass flowrates by 1000-fold, culminating in a proof-of-concept functional and characterized fuel injector.

GOHYPERSONIC, INC.
714 E. Monument Ave Suite 201
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Dr. Lance Jacobsen
AF 07-058      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Hypersonic Propulsion-Airframe Integration
Abstract:This SBIR presents an opportunity to study alternate scramjet engine configurations in an effort to increase spillage to levels between inward-turning and planar inlets while understanding the impact on engine and vehicle performance from a systems level perspective. To accomplish this, our team proposes to integrate new inlet, nozzle, and vehicle flow surface design and analysis capabilities into the Eco suite of tools. Inlet design strategies will focus on developing planar flowlines and new alternative inlet design methodologies including streamline tracing through alternate genera flowfields to explore the design space between the two classes of inlets. Parametric surface flowline optimization CFD techniques will also be employed to further enhance and analyze any promising new inlet designs developed in this study. Furthermore, new planar nozzle flowlines generation routines will also be examined to provide alternative means for the design of the back end of the engine-integrated vehicle configuration. New vehicle surface routines will also be created to allow alternative spatula and waverider vehicle configurations with planar and alternative inlet designs. Flowlines generated with these new tools will be validated using viscous CFD and the resulting configurations will be compared to the baseline inward-turning scramjet configurations over a selected mission.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-6546
Dr. Sukesh Roy
AF 07-059      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Measurement Techniques for High-Pressure, Liquid-Fueled Combustors with High Soot Loading
Abstract:The primary objective of this Phase-I research effort is to build an ultraviolet (UV) hyperspectral sensor at ~310 nm to perform spatially resolved temperature and OH concentration measurements based on multi-line laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of OH molecule in reacting flows. The proof-of-the-concept demonstration measurements will be performed in an atmospheric-pressure, near-adiabatic H2-air Hencken burner for various equivalence ratios. The potential of two different concepts of generating UV light using hyperspectral sources will be evaluated. These are: (1) generating UV light by sum-frequency mixing of 5W 532 nm light with a high-power hyperspectral source at ~763 nm in a nonlinear crystal and (2) development of an UV hyperspectral source based on native ultraviolet gain, e.g., using quadrupled Nd:YVO4-pumped Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 or Ce3+:LiLuF4 crystals which can provide broadband gain in the 280-333 nm range. High- bandwidth LIF measurements based on continuous-wave (CW) lasers is limited by the low power output of typical distributed feedback (DFB) diode-lasers used for their construction. Hyperspectral sources will allow generating high-power CW laser-light at the desired frequency, i.e., either at ~763 nm or ~310 nm. This feasibility study will pave the way for designing the optimum UV source for implementation in a high-pressure test- rig at WPAFB during the Phase-II research effort.

SPECTRAL ENERGIES, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Dr. Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF 07-059      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Spatially and Temporally Resolved Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in High-Pressure Combustors using fs- CARS
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase-I research effort is to develop femtosecond (fs) laser-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy for providing quantitative high-speed (1-10 kHz) temperature and species concentration measurements in unsteady reacting flows. The initial frequency-spread dephasing rate of the Raman coherence induced by the ultrafast (~85 fs) Stokes and pump beams will be used to measure gas-phase temperature for high-pressure combustion. This initial frequency- spread dephasing rate of the Raman coherence is completely independent of local molecular collisions and depends only on the frequency spread of the Raman transitions at different temperatures. Single-shot CARS thermometry will be performed by obtaining time-resolved CARS spectra from chirped probe pulse. A simple theoretical model based on the assumption of impulsive excitation of Raman coherence will be developed to interpret and extract high-speed, single-shot temperature from the interaction of a chirped probe-pulse with the Raman coherence. During the Phase-I research effort measurements will be performed in laboratory flames. Successful implementation of the proposed technique will pave the way for the application of fs-CARS for high-speed temperature and species concentration measurements in high-pressure gas-turbine test rig and augmentor at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) during the Phase-II research effort.

METACOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-4883
Dr. Uriel Goldberg
AF 07-060      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics Enhancements for Scramjet Flow Simulations
Abstract:Combusting flows in general, and scramjet flows in particular, strain the performance of existing CFD solvers to their limit, the weakest link being the turbulence closure. Prediction of high-speed combusting flows is particularly sensitive to the level of accuracy in computing mass transport. Solvers based on eddy viscosity models relate turbulent mass flux to species gradients through an exchange mechanism involving eddy viscosity and a so-called turbulent Schmidt number (Sct). A similar approach is used for energy transport, the equivalent parameter being the turbulent Prandtl number (Prt). Both numbers are treated as constants throughout the flow-field. However, experimental evidence suggests that these parameters vary significantly, thus models that treat them as constants cannot predict the flow details with sufficient accuracy. The proposed approach introduces a method for computing variable Sct and Prt numbers with the potential to significantly improve scramjet flow predictive capability.

TTC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. Box 1527
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-7127
Dr. Xiaodan Cai
AF 07-060      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics Enhancements for Scramjet Flow Simulations
Abstract:Several high-fidelity computational schemes and turbulence-combustion interaction models, including the option for high-order spatial and temporal calculations, are proposed to significantly improve the accuracy and turnaround time for practical scramjet engine design and performance analysis. The proposed enhancements of existing tools, such as the government-owned VULCAN computer program, focus on accuracy, speed of execution, and general user interaction with the tools. The project targets issues associated with physics-based modeling of supersonic combustion, aerodynamics, turbulence, and their interactions, with the overall goal of providing accurate and computationally affordable tool. To develop the proposed software, TTC Technologies, Inc. (TTC) is leveraging its extensive experience in the relevant research for the topic and in developing truly advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions at all speeds (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic). TTC will also partner with ATK GASL, Inc., who will provide quality data to validate the proposed tool, and leverage its extensive research and realistic scramjet manufacturing experience.

GENERAL NANO LLC
PO Box 6554
Cincinnati, OH 45206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 556-4132
Dr. Mark J. Schulz
AF 07-061      Awarded: 1/4/2008
Title:Super Long Carbon Nanotubes for Manufacturing Electrical Fiber
Abstract:This project is to address the feasibility of manufacturing carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber that can replace copper wire for electrical power applications in the Air Force. The proposed work will focus on three critical aspects for fiber production that we believe are unique, and that will allow mass production of high quality electrical fiber. The approaches we selected to attack this scientific and technological challenge are: (1) synthesis of large area, cm long multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) using our novel composite catalysts for which a US patent is pending; (2) spinning long MWCNT into fiber based on existing and widely available industrial spinning technology which is only possible by using cm long nanotubes; and (3) post treatment of the produced CNT fibers for improved electrical conductivity. In practice, MWCNT and hence electrical fiber will always contain defects. A post treatment step integrated within the spinning procedure and based on thermal and plasma annealing is chosen to heal defects and improve the strength and conductivity of the fiber. Electrical fiber after such treatment is expected to be highly electrically conductive, and also flexible, bendable, fatigue resistant, and load bearing for multifunctional applications. All these fiber properties will be vigorously characterized.

NANOCOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
162 Pembroke Road
Concord, NH 03301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 442-8992
Dr. David S. Lashmore
AF 07-061      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Longer Length Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) for Electric Power Applications
Abstract:Nanocomp has demonstrated a continuous fabrication process for SWCNT wires and a batch process for very long SWCNT tapes. Modifications to the conductivity, proposed here, may improve the EM absorption characteristics of these sheets. In this proposal we posit that a CNT wire may be used as a current conductor for both dc and ac frequencies under a wide variety of conditions. Some preliminary data on the electrical characteristics of the wire are presented. We note that at ambient temperature the electrical resistivity is about 1 x 10-4 ohm-cm (1x106 S.m-1) at a wire density of about 0.2 g/cc which on weight basis is close to that of industrial copper (58.6 x 106 S.m-1) whose density of 8.96 g/cc. At high frequencies (>2 GHz) the nanotube wire becomes very much more effective than copper thereby saving considerable weight. At frequencies less than 50 MHz, a power savings for the same capacity can be achieved only if the nanotube conductivity is increased[1]. Widespread commercial applications of CNT wires requires improved conductivity. Means of accomplishing this include doping during or after synthesis, and a novel means of Chirality control implemented during synthesis.

HELIOS REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS, INC.
101 Bleecker Street
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-0101
Mr. Walter E. Szczepanski
AF 07-063      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Generation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radar Waveforms
Abstract:Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. proposes to identify and develop techniques to produce a high number of orthogonal waveforms with optimal rejection for use in waveform diverse MIMO Over-The-Horizon radar applications. We will investigate issues pertaining to simultaneously generating and coherently processing a large number of transmitted and received waveforms each of 25 kHz bandwidth and all at a carrier frequency of 5 MHz. Issues to be considered include ambiguity function and cross ambiguity function performance including autocorrelation sidelobe levels and waveform cross correlation, matched filters’ signal rejection properties, mutual coherent interference, atmospheric and phenomenological degradation impact, and output signal-to- interference-plus-noise ratio. Advanced orthogonal waveforms and adaptive mutual coherent interference rejection, compatible with CW and pulsed MIMO OTH radar architectures, will be researched, designed and validated using computer simulations. Of particular interest are telecommunications waveforms, nested Costas codes and noise- like waveforms which possess spatial, temporal, and frequency diversity. Also, we believe that severe mutual coherent interference and phenomenological degradation effects (atmospheric, multipath, etc.) could significantly degrade performance of “fragile” orthogonal waveforms. Therefore, an integral part of the proposed waveform architecture design is adaptive mutual coherent interference rejection processing to mitigate these degrading effects.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 576-2393
Dr. Carroll Nunn
AF 07-063      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Generation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radar Waveforms
Abstract:MIMO is an innovative radar technique that can provide angle and velocity resolution advantages in phased array radars such as OTH systems. TSC plans to: 1) identify the architectural design requirements for signal generation and matched / mismatched filtering, and 2) develop simulations predicting the performance of the proposed system architecture. TSC will investigate the issues pertaining to simultaneously generating and coherently processing a large number of transmitted and received waveforms. TSC’s approach for generating the WFs and mismatched filters is unique and powerful, and has been successfully demonstrated on several different radar programs. We will start by using various candidate WF modulations as seed functions. We will then use our mature search and constrained optimization tools to find the best set of waveforms and mismatched filters for the weighted Doppler tolerance, peak and integrated sidelobe level, resolution degradation and SNR loss, and other criteria. We will also investigate the effects of propagation and hardware (e.g. the antenna, transmitter and receiver) on the performance of the waveforms. In this manner, the user will be able to tailor the WFs to best suit an individual surveillance requirement.

Q-TRACK CORP.
515 Sparkman Drive
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-0075
Dr. Hans G. Schantz
AF 07-064      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:Wideband, Dual-Polarized, High-Frequency (HF) Element
Abstract:Antenna performance (gain) is proportional to antenna size. Q-Track proposes a combined vertical polarization (V-pol) and horizontal polarization (H-pol) ultrawideband (UWB) antenna element with bandwidth capable of covering the entire 6-28MHz bandwidth. This element will have a height of approximately 20m (60ft) to achieve a lower frequency of 6MHz. Q-Track further proposes to establish a scale-bandwidth relationship for this element to demonstrate how more compact tuned versions of the element could be used at the cost of a more restricted simultaneous bandwidth. Alternatively, the bandwidth of a 6-28MHz element can be extended down to 3MHz or even lower using such tuning. Q-Track will validate theoretical predictions by measurements on scale models of the elements. Q-Track’s approach will conclusively demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design and allow the Air Force to make an informed decision on an appropriate size element to achieve desired performance.

AGILE RF, INC.
93 Castilian Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-5159
Mr. Albert Cardona
AF 07-065      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Tunable Filters for the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
Abstract:Agile is proposing to develop novel switched high-Q acoustic filters where the switching and filtering functions are included in the devices monolithically leading to very small, high performance tunable filters.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
AF 07-065      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:High Dynamic Range Tunable Filters for JTRS Software Defined Radios
Abstract:Space Micro has developed three innovations addressing size and IP3/linearity needed in the JTRS software defined radio. These monolithic solutions are expected to be size and cost effective and realized with practical manufacturing methods. The innovations are a High Dynamic Range Digitally Tunable RF Preselector (TRaPr), a High Q, digitally tuned and Controlled OverModed Resonator RF Preselector (COMbeR) and Enhanced dynamic range Sampling IF filter (eSIF). These innovations provide high dynamic range and high breakdown voltage switches, low loss and parasitic switches for switched capacitor arrays and high Q size reduced inductors, all together providing a suite of tunable filters with a high dynamic range (>+40 dBm) applications below 450 MHz, but will be developed for higher frequencies as well (through L band). Size/volume is expected to scale by 30% from conventional inductor design.

APPLIED EM, INC.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
AF 07-066      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Wideband Antenna Structure for Airborne Communications Systems
Abstract:Much effort have been devoted in recent years to develop compact broadband antennas to address antenna congestion on small aerial platforms (including small Unmanned Airborne Vehicles) and the explosive growth of communication and connectivity needs. Over the past few years, Applied EM developed and marketed antennas for direction finding and communication purposes with particular emphasis on the 30-2000MHz continuous bandwidth. Under this effort, we propose a 2-2000MHz single aperture that is at least 4 times smaller than current designs. Key elements of the proposed design are (a) optimal volumetric design for shape and topology optimization, (b) novel ultawide band material ground plane to realize a thin structure, and (c) magnetodielectric loading in place of reactive loading for optimal impedance matching. Each of these topics have been examined separately in the past, and will be integrated for the first time to provide a new paradigm in ultrawide band antenna design. Representative antenna elements will be farbricated and tested in the anechoic chamber to verify and guide re-designs. In addition, the performance of the new antenna will be examined on typical unmanned aerial vehicles via simulations. Passive and active impedance matching will be also considered for further improvements over bands of interest.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Dr. Daniel D. Reuster, Ph.D
AF 07-066      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low-profile, Wideband Antennas for the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed program is to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a prototype wideband antenna that is operational over selected portions of the service bands (2-2000 MHz) required by the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). In addition, the designs will address the following technical objectives: (1) minimize the voltage-standing- wave ratio (VSWR) with a target VSWR of 2.0, (2) maximize the radiation efficiency, (3) demonstrate an omni-directional radiation pattern in the azimuth plane, and (4) exhibit an elevation pattern that is equivalent to that of a quarter-wavelength monopole for line of sight waveforms. In addition to the above criteria, the antenna will be low profile for improved aerodynamics. In particular, aircraft platforms typically mount antennas a distance of one-quarter wavelength above the ground plane to provide maximum broadside gain by constructively adding the primary and reflected antenna signals. If the distance is less than one-quarter wavelength, the primary and reflected signals will partially or completely cancel each other, thus limiting the bandwidth of the antenna. This effort will investigate and demonstrate novel approaches to overcoming the bandwidth limitations associated with wideband, low-profile antennas including, but not limited to, the use of magnetically conducting ground planes.

MASTER SOLUTIONS
1880 Office Club
Colorado Springs, CO 80920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 272-8018
Mr. Kenneth G. Behar
AF 07-067      Awarded: 2/19/2008
Title:Efficient Radar Search Modes for Deep Space (DS) Surveillance
Abstract:The purpose of this SBIR is to establish and demonstrate an improved capability for conducting deep space searches by developing and deploying new signal and data processing technology for existing space surveillance radars. The effort will identify practical solution bounds for erecting leak proof search volumes for both elliptical and circular deep space orbital regimes, including the geosynchronous belt. The resulting solution space will then be characterized in terms of applicable radar measurements, and a solution approach will be proposed for conducting searches and detecting and tracking unknown space objects within these orbital regimes. The proposed solution approach will also provide flexibility to adapt the search volume for varying altitude bands, object sizes, probabilities of detection (Pd) and be tailored to the existing radar frequencies and be applicable to new surveillance radars that could be developed in different bands to improve detection/tracking accuracy. During Phase I an assessment of coherent integration, batch filtering, and Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) will be conducted and an explanation how each enhancement can improve deep space surveillance and to what extent (range, size object, probability of detection)will be provided.

NEVA RIDGE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4750 Walnut Street Suite 205
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-9966
Mr. Richard Carande
AF 07-068      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Three-Dimensional (3-D) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Formation and Exploitation
Abstract:Neva Ridge Technologies proposes to develop and implement an improved three- dimensional SAR processing algorithm and related data acquisition strategy focused on persistent surveillance circular staring SAR data. The main challenge to be addressed in the phase one effort will be to demonstrate a minimization of the limitations associated with the sparse nature of the anticipated elevation aperture through signal processing techniques to improve the elevation impulse response function, and a careful data collection process. This will be first demonstrated using phase one generated simulated multi-pass data, and available circular SAR data from prior (2006) collections. In addition to image data quality issues, we will establish requirements on flight lines, motion measurement systems and other system engineering related concerns. Results of these simulations will be made available to support a summer 2008 data collection.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Mr. Carl Frost
AF 07-068      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Three-Dimensional (3-D) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Formation and Exploitation
Abstract:Our main objective is to develop, implement and test novel level-set surface reconstruction methodologies as applied to SAR data that has been collected over a sparse 3D aperture. We believe a tomographic surface reconstruction can best exploit nonlinear models and sparse data collection geometries: These configurations are not readily amenable to more traditional Fourier-based or filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction methods. Phase I of this effort will comprise a proof-of-concept stage during which both the radar signal processing, imaging algorithms and hardware implementation concerns will be addressed directly. We will demonstrate a functionality that will effect 3D imaging using existing, albeit augmented, techniques, as well as new capabilities that will effect 3D surface reconstruction via novel level-set techniques. Throughout we will emphasize the development of a solution methodology that is aligned with the end-to-end goal of obtaining a fieldable and modular set of integrable components. Phase II will concentrate on the further development, larger-scale implementation, testing and performance analysis of the techniques developed under Phase I. This includes integration and testing in a lab setting of a modular prototype system using the components developed in Phase I.

GOLETA STAR LLC
24085 Garnier St
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 263-9057
Dr. Mehrdad Soumekh
AF 07-069      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Feature-Aided Tracking, Detection, and Identification of Moving Targets Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Abstract:Goleta Star LLC with support from academia, Quinstar and other supporting businesses proposes to develop advanced capability for feature-aided tracking, detection and ID of Moving Targets using SAR. This effort is concerned with single or dual receiver channel SAR data processing to detect, track and image moving targets in real time. For this purpose, we propose a subaperture-based method via which a Moving Target Indicator (MTI) is generated based on a rapidly-formed range-azimuth image of the interrogated scene. To improve the system sensitivity to detect subtle targets (such as dismounts), we propose the use of a nonlinear flight path. A nonlinear flight path also improves the system capability to detect targets that move at variety of directions. This in turn provides a better estimate of the moving target velocity vector for tracking and imaging purposes. The subaperture processing not only reduces the size of the data for analysis but also is the key for the hardware (RF) implementation of the algorithm for persistent and staring- mode airborne radar. Each individual subaperture data provide pertinent information regarding the moving targets in the imaging scene; however, the data extracted from each of the subapertures could be combined to get a better understanding of the dynamics of the interrogated moving targets. In addition to the data that may be provided by AFRL-WPAFB, Goleta Star can collect nonlinear SAR-MTI data with its Ka-band UAV radar, even during Phase I.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Robert Weisenseel
AF 07-069      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Continuous-Look Image-Change SAR Tracking (CLICS-Track)
Abstract:Successfully detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts through urban environments has emerged as a significant challenge in modern operations, particularly for counter-insurgency efforts. Currently available sensor exploitation technologies are insufficient to reliably track insurgents and their vehicles through urban environments, allowing these threats to strike again. Our troops need persistent wide-area surveillance technology capable of tracking threats through urban areas. Such tracking capability could provide our soldiers with the positive threat identification they need to successfully prosecute anti-insurgent operations. We are proposing to couple vehicle/dismount tracking with continuous, persistent Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging such as that developed for the GOTCHA program. When coupled with near-real-time Change Detection (CD) for urban clutter suppression, the proposed system will provide a new and effective tool for positively identifying and tracking threats through urban environments. With this project, SSCI will bring together the key technologies of real-time SAR CD for urban clutter suppression, moving target focusing, and multi-hypothesis target tracking to put the ability to identify and track urban threats into the hands of the warfighter.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-1434
Dr. Lang Hong
AF 07-070      Awarded: 2/22/2008
Title:Multi-carrier Waveform Optimization for Electronic Warfare Countermeasures Development
Abstract:The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative efficient and flexible electronic counter measure waveform generation algorithm. Specifically, a novel multi-carrier based waveform generation algorithm is proposed to generate and mimic any electronic warfare waveform. By taking the frequency domain sampling of typical electronic warfare waveforms and varying the phase and amplitude parameters of each and every frequency sample, this algorithm is capable of generating all electronic warfare waveforms efficiently. Furthermore, due to its natural flexibility in generating waveforms, it is also very easy for this algorithm to adapt to environment change and generate multiple waveforms simultaneously. This algorithm is developed from our expertise and mature technology in multi-carrier transmission and waveform design experience.

GMR RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1814 Main Street
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 461-2800
Dr. Gil Raz
AF 07-071      Awarded: 2/5/2008
Title:Nonlinear Signal Processing for Advanced Digital Receive Systems
Abstract:GMR Research & Technology (GMR) proposes to investigate digital methods to compensate for nonlinear distortions in RF receivers including all components. In particular we will address harmonic distortions caused by amplifiers, mixers, and Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). In particular we propose to investigate the combined techniques of digital nonlinear equalization of harmonic distortions (NLEQ) and of digital equalization of interleaved modalities (iNLEQ). These two techniques use similar underlying algorithms and are complementary to each other. In conjunction these techniques have the potential for reducing spurious signals and expanding the bandwidth of receiver systems. In the first phase of the SBIR effort we will develop this approach for a receiver system determined by the government in conjunction with GMR. We will verify the approach through software simulation. In the second phase of the SBIR effort we will design, build, and test a digital receiver which will incorporate our nonlinear signal processing approach on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). We expect this type of receiver to have many benefits for the military by significantly increasing the linear dynamic range of receiver systems such as radars and SIGINT platforms. Moreover we expect this solution to be relatively inexpensive and easy to implement.

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7042 Nighthawk Court
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-1011
Dr. Scott R. Velazquez
AF 07-071      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Advanced Linearizer for Digital Receivers
Abstract:This project demonstrates an advanced linearization algorithm for ultra high-performance digital receiver systems to dramatically reduce harmonic and intermodulation distortion by up to 30 dB over a wide range of input frequencies, signal types, and amplitudes. The real-time processing significantly improves the performance of analog-to-digital converters and the combination of devices in an RF receiver chain (e.g., amplifiers, mixers, converters). This technology improves the dynamic range, which enables very accurate and efficient sampling of wideband signals at very high intermediate frequencies (IF) or directly at high RF. This eliminates stages of downconversion electronics and thereby lowers the power, mass, and cost while improving performance. The linearizer is based on V Corp’s proprietary phase-shift functional model which has been successfully implemented with devices that exhibit traditional nonlinear characteristics (e.g., second and third order harmonics and intermodulation due to compression effects). The advanced linearizer uses a higher order curve to model the nonlinear distortion profile, which is more accurate and stable than second and third order polynomials. This advancement provides a very accurate model of the distortion transfer function such that errors can be subtracted out. The architecture will always exceed state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful converter and receiver devices become available. During Phase I, V Corp will demonstrate the advanced linearizer technique via real and simulated data from various commercial-off-the-shelf A/D converters. During Phase II, a real-time prototype will be implemented and tested for use with advanced digital receivers.

APPLIED EM, INC.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
AF 07-072      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Miniature GPS Antenna Arrays Using Novel Materials
Abstract:Ubiquitous applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) systems imply a requirement for smaller GPS antennas and arrays to be adapted in all sorts of military and commercial platforms from missiles to small UAVs and even for hand-held applications. Current anti- jamming GPS antennas are approximately 14" in diameter, making them too large for several platforms of interest such as unmanned aerial vehicles, missiles and fighter aircrafts. Applied EM proposes to develop a six element controlled-radiation-pattern- antenna-array (CRPA) operating at both the L1 and L2 frequency bands using a 3.5" aperture. The realization of this small CRPA (S-CRPA) requires the design of a miniature antenna element, about 1” in diameter. To achieve this goal, low and high risk approaches are outlined to realize an antenna element that will approach the fundamental limits of miniaturization. Multilayered high contrast dielectrics, metamaterials structures and compact feeds are proposed. Low inter-element coupling and gain improvements at near gazing angles are also emphasized in our approaches. The proposed designs builds on recent GPS antennas developed at Applied EM, and specific improvements are outlined to achieve the stated design requirements.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Dr. Gordon R. Little, Ph.D.
AF 07-072      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Materials/Techniques for Small/Dense Global Positioning System (GPS) Antenna Arrays
Abstract:Successful operation on the present day battlefield is critically dependent on the utilization of Global Positioning Systems (GPS), while jamming of the GPS signal may limit the viability of systems that rely on high levels of GPS accuracy. Air based weapons and aircraft require Anti-Jam (AJ) technology that is dynamic from the standpoint of creating nulls in the direction of the jammer while minimizing the impact to satellite visibility. For air based platforms, line-of-sight (LOS) to the jammer is constantly changing, thus creating a dynamic environment for the AJ system to adapt to ground based jammers. In this arena, the utilization of a controlled reception pattern array (CRPA) is frequently employed to provide a reasonable level of anti-jam protection while providing usable GPS reception. These CRPA systems employ large circular arrays (frequently up to 13 inch diameter), and require very expensive, complicated electronics packages for maintaining nulls in the direction of potentially multiple jamming. Spectra Research proposes an innovative approach to accomplishing the program objectives for improved compact controlled reception pattern arrays (CRPAs) and the development of ultra small low cost GPS jamming suppression systems by employing advances in fragmented aperture antenna designs, metamaterials, and its extensive advanced modeling capabilities.

WIRELESS-TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
10 Technology Drive Suite 3
Setauket, NY 11733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 689-7877
Dr. Hoon Ahn
AF 07-073      Awarded: 3/21/2008
Title:Digital Beamforming (DBF) for Satellite Operations (SATOPS) Support
Abstract:A novel, cost-effective Digital Beamformer (DBF) architecture is proposed. The application of COTS components, used in the manufacture of consumer wireless communications devices, offers a major cost reduction methodology that should lead to the realization of an affordable DBF for a large phased array (thousands of elements). Compared to analog beamforming methods, a DBF offers significant improvement for satellite tracking, aperture resource management, array calibration, and adaptive pattern control for interference suppression. During the Phase I effort, a DBF architecture and design trade- off analyses will be conducted and an optimum DBF architecture will be selected. In addition, the Phase II work plan, which includes the DBF steering of a 4x4 array of horns, will be generated.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 750-6345
Mr. Raymond Eastwood
AF 07-074      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Multi Channel Anti Jam RFASIC
Abstract:The proposed part is a 4-Channel, Low Power, High Anti-Jam RF ASIC, which is being designed as an upgrade for the Defense Advanced Global Positioning System Receiver (DAGR) developed by Rockwell Collins, and similar handhelds. It will support 30 dB of broadband jammer cancellation allowing GPS tracking with up to 100 dB J/S. The chip will have four parallel channels with a common local oscillator (LO) and image rejection mixers for the first downconverters. Each downconverter can be used for high side or low side mixing permitting simultaneous L1 and L2 operation or all channels on the same frequency. The High A/J RF ASIC will use differential circuitry throughout and balanced off chip filters at both the first IF and second IF or baseband as dictated by the digital receiver interface. The chip will use programmable LO and sample clock synthesizers to accommodate different reference frequencies and frequency plans. PI Ray Eastwood (Nu-Trek) is a GPS architect who has designed cutting edge GPS receivers for Raytheon; and Wayne Dietrich (Raytheon) has designed over ninety military ASICs.

RBS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
2703 Sycamore Ridge Ct
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-8191
Dr. Raymond Siferd
AF 07-074      Awarded: 2/22/2008
Title:Multi Channel Radio Frequency Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (RFASIC) for Handheld GPS Receiver Anti Jam Enhancement
Abstract:The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a vital element in numerous military and commercial applications. It is required that GPS receivers operate efficiently in hostile jamming environments and in the presence of interference caused by multipath. A critical need is the development of a RF Front End ASIC which will enable incorporation of advanced anti- jam techniques such as STAP into handheld GPS receivers. Basic design goals for the RF Front End ASIC are the capability to receive the GPS modernization signals in the L1 and L2 frequency bands, provide multi channel down conversion of the L-band signals to an intermediate frequency (IF) suitable for sampling and digitizing, and provide for the analog-to-digital conversion of the IF signal for subsequent anti-jam processing. RBS Technologies and its subcontractor Wright State University propose to develop an RF Front End ASIC with the required performance to support anti-jam signal processing and maintain compatibility with handheld GPS size and power constraints. Three basic RF Front End Architectures will be analyzed during the Phase I effort with the objective of identifying a frequency plan and combination of analog and digital building blocks that will meet the stringent demands for low noise figure, channel matching, and linearity.

D & S CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 7259
Freehold, NJ 07728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 542-3113
Mr. Brien Housand
AF 07-075      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Agile Optics and Optical Systems for Autonomous Aerial Surveillance Cameras
Abstract:In response to AF 07-075 (Agile Optics and Optical Systems for Autonomous Aerial Surveillance Cameras) a concept is presented using a modular design approach capable of covering a wide resolution range and adaptable to cover any of the wavelength spectrums outlined in the solicitation. The concept is fully compliant with the stated weight requirement with possible growth to the ultimate weight goal. Line-of-sight steering without the use of mechanical gimbals is satisfied without resorting to weighty power consuming electro-optical beam steering technologies. The concept relies heavily on advanced lens design, recent but proven advances in optical component fabrication and focal plane arrays, as well as advanced image processing techniques. As such, the concept uses practical proven technology in an unconventional way; providing a medium risk approach to achieving over all program goals.

HOLOCHIP CORP.
1009 Bradury SE Suite 05
Albuquerque, CA 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 906-1064
Dr. Robert Batchko
AF 07-075      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Design and Analysis of Agile Optical-Zoom and Field-of-View Steering Systems for Small-Scale UAV Cameras
Abstract:UAV based electro-optic imaging sensors are now an integral tool in target detection, identification, engagement, and battle damage assessment. To further this tactical advantage, EO sensors must become adaptable to a variety of mission profiles and platforms. Our principal objective is to develop a refractive imaging system capable of zooming and scanning over a wide field of regard, while significantly reducing the size, weight, and power compared to conventional technologies. We propose to accomplish this via a (unique) Risley prism scanner combined with an adaptive polymer based zoom lens system.

TECHNEST HOLDINGS, INC.
10411 Motor City Drive Suite 650
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 767-2810
Dr. Steven Yi
AF 07-075      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Agile Optics and Optical Systems for Autonomous Aerial Surveillance Cameras
Abstract:Funded through several Navy and allied programs, Technest Holdings, Inc. (Technest) has successfully developed miniature and rugged optical sensors for autonomous operation of Unmanned Aircrafts and Helicopters. Leveraging these experiences, Technest proposes in this SBIR Phase I effort to develop a low power, light weight, mission adaptable, electronic zoom and slewing capable, and image stabilized day/night sensor SpectralBird. Figure 1 shows the opto-mechanical model of the SpectralBird system. SpectralBird has modularly designed SWIR/Vis-NIR optic, fast steering mirror for slewing and vibration compensation, gyros for dual axis stabilisation, and a day/night InGaAs SWIR imager. SpectralBird system is projected to be only 2”x2”x3” in dimensions, and weights only 375g (SWIR only) or 401g (SWIR/Vis-NIR).

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Thayne Coffman
AF 07-076      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Spotter: Exploiting Large-Format Imagery via Foveated Visual Search
Abstract:The proposed Spotter effort develops the algorithms necessary to exploit large format (LF) imagery in an operational environment with layered sensor platforms by cueing high- resolution sensors in order to reduce downstream data volume. In order to support analysts conducting intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions, image exploitation workstations must have automatic target recognition algorithms (ATR) suitable for LF sensor data which can cue close-in sensor platforms. Spotter addresses this technical challenge by developing a suite of ATR algorithms designed for LF image sources, methods to register and fuse the outputs of these algorithms, and a cueing strategy based on efficient platform tasking. We propose a suite of algorithms inspired by our work in foveated vision systems and ongoing research in human visual search. Spotter will combine ATR results using a method modeled after the top-down theory of human gaze selection. We will quantify the sensitivity of the Spotter approach to variations in LF sensor and platform configuration. Based on our sensitivity study, we will survey available LF imagery and identify sensors for which Spotter is a feasible approach. The Spotter effort builds on a large body of our existing work in innovative techniques for foveated vision and sensor tasking.

ARGUSIGHT, INC.
6350 Rolling Mill Ct Unit 103
Springfield, VA 22152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 451-1777
Dr. Geoffrey Egnal
AF 07-076      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Automated Target Recognition in Gigapixel Video
Abstract:The objective of the proposed program is to develop a long term image-based tracking camera system. Our goal is to allow fewer personnel to analyze and respond to threats detected in aerial video, making large format video useful in real time analysis. We propose to exploit long term ‘contextual’ information gathered over long periods of time over wide areas to improve tracking performance. Further, we provide identification and classification of thousands of simultaneous targets using both tracking information and previously gathered identity data. In the first phase, we propose to study three algorithms – short term tracking (0-30 seconds), medium term tracking (30 seconds – 1 hour), and long term tracking and identification (1 hour – 24 hours). ArguSight personnel have significant experience in large format imagery and video analysis, and are well qualified to address all parts of the work effort. We will be working with subcontractor Carnegie Mellon University (CMU, a premier computer vision research center.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 241-5857
Mr. Jason Gregga
AF 07-076      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Exploitation of Large-Format (ELF) Electro-Optic (EO) Data
Abstract:Large Format Electro-Optical video data, available from sensors such as Angel Fire, provides a unique capability to see a wide area at sufficient resolution to see small objects such as vehicles. Currently, Angel Fire allows users to see their region of interest in near real-time. However, there is not currently a good way to tie this impressive capability to the next layer of sensing. Without an automated ability to cue other sensors, time consuming steps must be taken by users. This limits the utility of the LF data. SET has chosen to pursue the integration of video from ground-based cameras with the synoptic imagery provided by persistent sensors such as Angel Fire. This topic has enormous potential to dramatically increase our knowledge of the identity and movement of vehicles of interest, by overcoming the limitations of both classes of sensors when used alone. Many ground cameras are currently deployed in theater. Knowledge of the locations and fields of view (FOV) of the ground cameras allows the system to cue them to watch for a vehicle at a particular time and location. High resolution, color video, at highly discriminatory viewing angles can then be used for classification, and precise identification.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Curt Wu
AF 07-077      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Framework to Ensure and Assess Trustworthiness in Sensor Systems
Abstract:Current trends suggest that in future concepts of operations a host of ubiquitous sensors will transparently provide ISR and decision support “on demand” to the warfighter without the need for tasking or querying individual sensors. Before this can happen, however, it is essential to significantly improve the reliability and trustworthiness of existing and envisioned sensor networks. During operations, the sensor network must be robust to deception, node compromise, and various other attacks, while maintaining the operator’s situational awareness regarding the health and integrity of the system. To address these needs, we propose a Framework to Ensure and Assess Trustworthiness in Sensor systems (FEATS) to identify attacks on sensor system integrity and inform the operator of sensor data trustworthiness. The framework provides for three critical functions: 1) attack detection via anomaly detection algorithms, including statistical rules and fixed-width clustering, 2) probabilistic threat assessment incorporating the current operational context using Bayesian belief networks, and 3) trust management provided by a human-system interface that uses meta-information visualization to portray the trustworthiness of critical sensor data.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Alexander Milovanov
AF 07-077      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Data-Over-Chaos Sensor Web with Advanced Trust System
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for improved security and enhanced trust to end-nodes of smart web networks, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the new intrinsically intelligent Data-Over-Chaos Sensor Web with Advanced Trust (DOCSWAT) system, based on the novel Data-Over-Chaos (DOC) method of data hiding and transportation, upgraded 6LoWPAN standard, and antitamper technologies. This DOC encryption method, along with a novel device authentication algorithm, eliminates all additional data encrypting methodologies, and provides extra data security and high level of trust to the end-nodes in case of electronic attacks. The upgraded 6LoWPAN standard helps eliminate standard weaknesses and gaps in data security, provides self-protection, reliability, and advanced trust to the network nodes. DOCSWAT defines itself if any attempts of unauthorized access is occurred or if some trusted neighboring sensors are not able to communicate. The system then reconfigures/self-heals itself to continue secure communication. Antitamper technologies protect the sensor web from exploration, intrusions, attacks, and reverse engineering. The Phase I system prototype will demonstrate secure communication using the DOC algorithm for data hiding. The Phase II DOCSWAT prototype will be optimized to demonstrate real-time highly reliable and intrusion/attack/tamper-protected web sensors with enhanced trust to end-nodes.

PARIETAL SYSTEMS, INC.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Dr. Robert B. Washburn
AF 07-078      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Multi-Sensor Resource Management for Layered Sensing
Abstract:The implementation of ISR architectures such as layered sensing will significantly increase the number and types of sensors available for ATR, but at the same time the ISR problem is becoming become more difficult (e.g., thousands of targets, dismounts, urban terrain, extended operating conditions). To exploit fully these new sensing capabilities, it is necessary to develop multi-sensor resource management algorithms capable of computing near-optimal tasking decisions in real time for thousands of targets and dozens of sensors, and be responsive to changes in sensor performance capabilities versus different target types and operating conditions. To develop such a multi-sensor resource manager we have proposed an innovative combination of generalized multi-armed bandit algorithms and approximate dynamic programming to compute efficient far-sighted solutions of the sensor allocation and scheduling problem. The sensor manager is a model-based approach that can adapt easily to different sensor performance models or optimization criteria, allowing it to respond to different operating conditions and mission requirements. While developing the sensor management algorithm, we will compute bounds on expected optimal ATR fusion performance for the specified level of sensor resources. These performance estimates will be used to quantify the optimality of the algorithms.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Gaemus E. Collins
AF 07-078      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Technology Enablers for Layered Sensing
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation and University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) propose to develop and demonstrate key technological enablers for effective layered sensing to optimally employ Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) sensors and platforms. A wide variety of new sensor and platform types, along with much of the infrastructure necessary to exploit the resultant data, form a "layered sensing" architecture. We propose to develop technologies that bring together the pieces of this architecture to form a working system, with the ability to acquire, process, analyze, and propagate actionable data, that is effective in a highly dynamic battlespace. This effort will make key advancements in several enabling technology areas: (1) sensor and platform resource management to provide automated routing, mode management, and sensor cross-cueing to optimize the use of available resources; (2) geo-location/geo-registration methods and algorithms to accurately fix objects/events in time and space through knowledge of platform and sensor position, velocity and time; (3) intelligent bandwidth utilization to provide maximum benefit from available communication networks; (4) improved target surveillance and tracking performance, with higher accuracy target position estimates and longer track lifetimes through target handoff between multiple sensors; (5) leveraging phenomenological diversity by fusing radar and electro-optic data into a single tracking system; (6) distributed control algorithms for sensor system self-organizing, to get the best possible information to the right place at the right time; and (7) wind compensation algorithms into UAV resource management to improve performance in extended weather conditions.

C & P TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
317 Harrington Avenue Suites 9 & 10
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Mr. Ke Yong Li
AF 07-079      Awarded: 6/2/2008
Title:Reconfigurable Subaperturing for Endo-clutter Processing
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a dynamically reconfigurable subaperature array architecture to achieve enhanced endo-clutter and interference suppression and realize target detection and identification. In addition, protection against mainbeam jamming is also addressed here using distributed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) sensor technology. Generally, array manifold errors make it more difficult to perform clutter nulling while placing a sharp null exclusively on the jammer. For this purpose smart transmit subaperture beamforming together with adaptive nulling algorithms at the receiver side are proposed. The transmit subarray patterns will be synthesized to minimize the impact of the jammer. As a result, the clutter strength is significantly reduced thus enabling target detection. The return signals are used to generate adaptive weight vectors to combine the receiver outputs in such a way as to place effective nulls automatically along the jammer directions, thus enhancing the output signal to interference/jammer plus noise ratio. Thus a transmit pattern synthesized from subaperture manifolds together with an adaptive receiver array in the MIMO mode results in superior clutter nulling. In this context, the question of partitioning the original array manifold to generate an optimum subaperture manifold is addressed.

SIGNAL LABS, INC.
1950 Roland Clarke Place Suite 120
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 391-9771
Dr. Braham Himed
AF 07-079      Awarded: 6/4/2008
Title:Reconfigurable Subaperturing for Endo-clutter Processing
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate innovative approaches to dynamically configure array antenna sub-aperture architecture for enhanced endo-clutter processing, while operating in complex signal environments. Radar performance is driven by the illumination of the target and clutter by the antenna, the waveform spectral characteristics, number of sub-apertures employed, size, configuration, and degree-of- overlap. Several constraints will be used in the development. The output SINR is first used since the solutions are typically easier and will be used as baseline. The probabilities of detection and false alarm are then used as constraints, since they dictate radar operations. It involves using the appropriate probability density functions of the underlying clutter, which can be cumbersome in some cases. A Monte Carlo approach is used if closed form expressions are available. Knowledge-aided prediction and estimation techniques for adaptive sub-aperturing are then developed, since they complement traditional adaptive techniques by aggregating information of the clutter environment from both observations and other data sources. Finally, a joint adaptive sub-aperturing technique and parametric approach, which can further improve performance, will be developed. This approach is particularly useful for target detection in heterogeneous environments or in environments where the training data is range-dependent.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Dr. Michael DeVore
AF 07-080      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Propagation of Uncertainty in Anticipatory Image Exploitation Using Polynomial Chaos Random Process Representations
Abstract:The ability to accurately anticipate target behavior on the basis of surveillance data is critical in many military and civilian contexts. Information regarding target behavior may be drawn from a variety of sources, each of which suffers from uncertainties in the form of noise, inaccuracies, and outright errors. This proposal seeks to develop novel methods for dealing with this uncertainty by vertically integrating uncertainty models in a common framework through all levels of data processing, by adapting uncertainty models over time to incorporate newly observed behaviors and interactions, and by leveraging powerful new adaptive processing techniques. The resulting technology will propagate uncertainties from inputs and models, producing a distribution over anticipated behaviors and a characterization of the most likely future target tracks and associated likelihood measures. This output can be used to intelligently manage sensor and targeting assets, to minimize the need for a human operator to supervise system operation, and to quickly detect targets that deviate from predicted behavior.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5106
Mr. Mike Colony
AF 07-080      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:SRM driven by a Traffic Anticipation and Response Engine (STARE)
Abstract:Today’s threats tend to maneuver in commercial vehicles through dense, cluttered urban streets where detection and tracking become exceptionally difficult. First, the high volume of background traffic makes it difficult to maintain tracks within the clutter of large numbers of confusing targets. Second, urban structures present obscuration problems that create gaps in coverage. Both of these problems cause frequent track losses, motivating the need for two specific capabilities. First, in order to effectively task sensor assets such that their probability of reacquiring the target is optimal requires the use of algorithms that can fuse all available information into an anticipatory model that exploits traffic trends to predict the likelihood of future locations of vehicles of interest. This capability can be utilized in concert with sensor resource management (SRM) algorithms to improve the ability to reacquire lost targets. Second, novel techniques are needed to improve track correlation and continuity once new sensor observations are provided. The DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation will leverage their experience in developing inference- driven sensor management systems to achieve the goals of this SBIR. We will utilize unparalleled techniques in computational probability to provide anticipatory traffic modeling to drive our SRM, as well as to provide improved track correlation.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Yuri Levchuk
AF 07-081      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Contextualized Pattern Recognition (CoPR)
Abstract:Modern warfare is intensely information centric with vast amounts of information transmitted around the battlespace. Within this environment, it is critical to provide predictive and timely intelligence in planning and execution of operations. A tool is necessary to provide direction of ISR in the tasks of collection, exploitation, analysis, and dissemination. The tool resulting from this research will support operational commanders by providing information to support aerospace operations in dynamic environments.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
AF 07-081      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Architecture for Perceptual Sensing and Information Displays (PERSEID)
Abstract:The evolution of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies and their integration into network-centric operations has provided significant advances in providing critical information to C2ISR operators and the Commanders that they support. However, these sensors gather so much data that the C2ISR operators are becoming overwhelmed and actionable intelligence is being lost in the wave of data. The solution to this problem is not to attempt to replace the human operator, but to leave humans to do what they do well while providing attention-focusing decision support systems that are able to reason about the Commander’s intent and the current operational context. We propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an architecture for Perceptual Sensing and Information Displays (PERSEID). PERSEID provides an integrated human/machine approach to creating decision aids that assist C2ISR operators. PERSEID provides an intuitive interface for C2ISR operators to describe the Commander’s intent and relevant contextual information that the system incorporates into its C2ISR support tasks. PERSEID uses technologies and methodologies from the areas of cognitive modeling, evolutionary algorithms, and information/meta-information display to draw the attention of the operator to the most salient information.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. John R. Budenske
AF 07-082      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Continuous and Coordinated Target Tracking and Engagement
Abstract:In order to provide the best protection to our armed forces, and to our country, we need to know where our opponents are, and what they are doing. This includes tracking their movements over long periods of time, and across large areas such that multiple sensor and seeker systems would need to be utilized. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes to design a coordinated targeting and engagement system for the sensor and seeker/weapons management domain that will coordinate the tracking of targets utilizing multiple systems from space to surface, and coordinate the hand-off between sensing and seeker systems. The desired result will be a collection of software components that can be easily integrated into a distributed sensor and seeker management system, and that can be used for a variety of DOD target tracking missions. Phase I will concentrate on design and analysis, and Phase II on implementation and test within a mutually agreed upon simulation environment. Phase III will focus on insertion into an on-going DOD program.

MIAMI VALLEY AEROSPACE, LLC
2815 N. Hampton Rd.
Springfield, OH 45502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 750-5046
Mr. Steve Rasmussen
AF 07-082      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:Vertically Integrated Sensing, Tracking, and Attack (VISTA)
Abstract:As demonstrated by recent world events in the Global War on Terror, it is vital to exploit technology to dominate asymmetric conflicts in urban areas. There is an increasing demand for the ability to prosecute strategic targets of interest in urban areas, accurately, in a timely manner, while limiting collateral damage. Teams of Unmanned Systems are key force multipliers in a Vertically Integrated Sensing, Tracking, and Attack (VISTA) architecture that can cooperatively locate, track, and prosecute targets of interest in a complex urban environment. Since the different types of Unmanned Systems, from ground-based to space-based, have complementary capabilities, there is potential to integrate these systems to be able to rapidly locate and strike high value targets in urban areas.

ADVANCED RESEARCH CORP.
4459 White Bear Parkway
White Bear Lake, MN 55110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 789-9004
Mr. Greg Wagner
AF 07-083      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Polarization Selective Infrared Detection
Abstract:To date, both IR polarization and spectral detectors have been developed and employed for the purpose of object discrimination imaging. Each of these detector families provides unique and complimentary data for object discrimination analysis. A hybrid detector, which is capable of both polarimetric and spectral detection would greatly enhance the range and capability of object discrimination imaging. We propose to develop a detector capable of simultaneous and congruent detection of both polarimetric and spectral source emission characteristics. This will be accomplished with the application of NanoImprint Lithography (NIL).

APPLIED NANOFEMTO TECHNOLOGIES LLC
181 Stedman St. Suite #2
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 761-4293
Dr. Zhengmao Ye
AF 07-083      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:A Monolithically Integrated Multi-spectral Polarimetric Photodetector and focal plane array
Abstract:Polarization sensitive multi-spectral photodetectors are of great importance in target detection, characterization and discrimination. Most current existing multi-spectral sensing systems employ dispersive optics (gratings or prisms), or external polarizer technologies to obtain spectral and polarimetric characteristics of targets. These systems are usually heavy, bulky, having arrow incident angles, and unable to simultaneously detecting polarizations at different angles. The SBIR proposal aims to develop a new type of monolithically integrated polarimetric photodetector capable of voltage-tunable waveband selection and simultaneous polarization sensing with significantly reduced device size and enhanced reliability. Successfully developing the proposed innovation is expected to provide an enabling technology for ultra-compact, waveband and polarization agile imaging systems suitable for space and airborne applications. In phase I, a preliminary monolithically integrated polarimetric photodetector with wide-spectral coverage (2-14 micro-meter), high polarization extinction ratio, and voltage-tunabl waveband selection will be developed for proof-of-concept demonstration. In Phase II, an ultra-compact focal plane array (FPA) prototype with voltage-tunable waveband selection and simultaneous polarimetric imaging capability will be developed and hybridized with readout circuits. A preliminary voltage-tunable multi-spectral polarimetric IR camera will be also demonstrated and delivered to Air Force research lab in Phase II.

PRIME RESEARCH, LC
1750 Kraft Dr Ste 1000-B
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
Dr. Raymond Rumpf
AF 07-083      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Nano-Optical Elements for Polarization Selective Infrared Detection
Abstract:Prime Research and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte propose developing space-variant nano-optical elements to integrate passive spectral and polarization filters directly into infrared focal plane arrays. This novel technology will enable pixels to be uniquely tuned for wavelength and polarization across a focal plane array using a simple fabrication process that is suitable for volume production. Photonic crystals will perform the filtering functions and provide additional mechanisms to further enhance performance. Key performance goals are broadband operation and consistent behavior at oblique angles of incidence. Developmental efforts include design and experimental testing of space-variant photonic crystal filters with integrated polarizing elements. Exploratory concepts include incorporating left-handed materials to achieve omni-directional performance and self-collimation to reduce blurring and defocusing through the element. The proposed technology promises revolutionary advances in remote sensing, surveillance, target discrimination, imaging, spectroscopy, and more.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Lawrence Domash
AF 07-084      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Actively Excited Bio-Taggant Sensor
Abstract:Leveraging on our extensive experiences on system design and, AGILTRON proposes to realize a new taggant reader system with low light detection and ambient light insensitive abilities, targeted for taggant emission remote identification, locating, and tracking applications. The proposed taggant reader is intrinsically insensitive to various environments and can be operated over a wide target distance range up to 10 km. The design is simple in construction and ready to be implemented and tested based on commercial available components / subsystems. In Phase I, the design will be optimized and a functional prototype will be demonstrated. The system will be further optimized for the taggant material during phase II, along with the fully integration of the system into a stand alone unit.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 263-6319
Dr. Glenn Bastiaans
AF 07-084      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Quantum Dot Labeled Bio-Taggants for Enhanced Remote Detection
Abstract:The use of taggants to mark and identify objects and materials is an emerging technology with many potential applications. One very important taggant application is the ability to remotely identify appropriately tagged materials and objects from airborne platforms. Biological materials, or bio-taggants, have the potential to effectively and selectively mark targets of high interest. Intelligent Optical Systems proposes to enhance the detectability of bio-taggants via a two pronged approach: attaching specialized, biocompatible quantum dots (QDs) to bio-taggant agents, and using a specialized time-correlated photon counting system designed to sensitively detect QD fluorescence excited by eye safe laser radiation. Previous studies and calculations indicate that it should be possible to detect QD labeled bio-taggants at altitudes of 100 m and greater. Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, and determine the limits of detection in terms of distance and the surface concentration of the taggants on targets. Phase II studies will result in the demonstration of a prototype system ready for commercialization.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5071
Dr. William Barney
AF 07-084      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Actively Excited Bio-Taggant Sensor
Abstract:In the new global theater of war, there is a critical and highly urgent need to reliably detect, identify, and track high priority targets such as those related to terrorist networks and Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear/Explosive (CBRNE) threats. The specialized bio-taggants being developed by the Air Force could provide a transformational technology to help detect and covertly track such important assets. In the proposed effort TIAX will design and develop sensor systems for detecting, identifying and tracking objects coated with these bio-taggants via airborne operations from long operating ranges. TIAX will use an innovative technical approach to design sensor systems tailored for the specific bio-taggants and operational scenarios of interest to the Air Force. We will carry out this effort in close conjunction with the bio-taggant development and signature characterization efforts of the Air Force. Our approach will significantly accelerate the development process, while also reducing the development costs dramatically. This technology can serve a variety of unmet Tagging, Tracking and Locating (TTL) needs, and has a vast number of potential applications in US military, homeland security, and civilian/commercial markets.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Dr. Srinivasan Arunajatesan
AF 07-086      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:The development of a trajectory envelope prediction tool, capable of identifying stores that may experience significant trajectory deviations due to unsteady loading is proposed. The Phase I part of this program will provide a comprehensive demonstration of the significance of these unsteady loads in determining trajectory envelopes and conceptualize a modeling approach to predict this effect. The modeling tool will be subsequently developed and matures in Phase II through the synergistic use of experimental and computational tools. The methods and procedures used in this program will be collected into a set of testing and analyses procedures for the store certification and clearance process. The incorporation of these into the certification process will improve the accuracy and reliability of this process while expanding its capability with modification to the process. The successful completion of this program will affect current platforms such as the F/A-22, the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) as well as future platforms such as the Long Range Strike Aircraft (LRSA).

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8129
Mr. Shawn Westmoreland
AF 07-086      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:Modern weapons bay environments coupled with a trend toward lighter and less stable weapon designs give rise to the potential for extreme sensitivity to flow-field unsteadiness. Ultimately, what is needed is a tool or a functional relationship which will allow bay/store combinations which exhibit this sensitivity to be identified easily. To this end, Digital Fusion Solutions, Inc. proposes the following as a Phase I SBIR effort: -To use OVERFLOW2 to assess the degree that unsteadiness in the flow-field can affect the motion of a store. -To use OVERFLOW2 to generate “grid” data similar to that in wind- tunnel testing with the exception that the flow history will be recorded. Mean aerodynamic coefficients will be extracted as well as a database of perturbations to that mean at each location. -To modify a 6-DOF code which utilizes a table look-up routine so the database of perturbations can be sampled Monte-Carlo style in an effort to simulate unsteadiness. -To demonstrate the usefulness of the modified 6-DOF as a predictive tool for parametric studies of store separations. In the Phase II follow-on, the modified 6- DOF would then be used for investigating the existence of the functional relationships described above.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS CO., L. L. C.
PO Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 373-3311
Dr. Alan Cain
AF 07-086      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Prediction of Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:We are proposing an approach to the use of CFD that will include the determination of large scale unsteadiness in the flow over the weapons bay. The effects of release of the weapon, the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a given weapon as it leaves the bay and its continued descent will be determined. Metrics for both the large scale unsteadiness associated with flow over the bay, as well as metrics for the influence of such unsteadiness on a given weapon will be produced. One of the motivations for these simulations is to determine which weapon/bay combinations are likely to have erratic trajectory outcomes – one release behaving substantially different than the next. The second motivation is to define the bay/ weapon metrics that predict the probability of these erratic trajectories. The final important aspect of the approach is to achieve these objectives in orders of magnitude less computing time than would be required if a standard, straight forward time accurate simulation were used. The straight forward approach being the bay/weapon release and descent trajectory computed for a collection of different weapons and multiple releases for each weapon.

M4 ENGINEERING, INC.
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill, CA 90755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 981-7797
Mr. Kevin Roughen
AF 07-086      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:M4 Engineering proposes to develop a method for predicting store trajectory response subject to unsteady aerodynamic loads. This method will combine low-fidelity data with high-fidelity data in a novel way to represent the deterministic and probabilistic portions of the unsteady aerodynamic response. This development will enable increased efficiency in the use of test and time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data allowing for more accurate simulations to be calculated using fewer resources. The proposed technique will be an excellent compliment to modern test and analysis methods.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
AF 07-087      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Enhanced Acoustical Environment for Modern Weapons Bays
Abstract:The JSF weapons bay experiences severe acoustic loading when exposed to the freestream. The severity and attenuation of this loading is exacerbated by the flight envelope of the JSF aircraft, as well as the requirement to carry and release “smart” weapons over an extended envelope. This extremely harsh environment impacts components that are mounted within the bay, including carriage stores that contain sensitive electronics and control surfaces. Implementation of a suitable noise suppression solution is complicated by its non-rectangular bay shape bay and multiple-sweep leading edge that challenge aircraft integration. CRAFT Tech proposes development and demonstration of a robust flow control strategy that effectively lowers the dynamic loading of the JSF weapons bay, while minimizing additional aircraft weight. This strategy will selectively employ flow control techniques applied to both the forward and/or aft portions of the bay, producing attenuation over the entire flight envelope. Phase I will involve technology maturation through high-resolution Large Eddy Simulation (LES), complemented by comprehensive wind tunnel testing with advanced optical diagnostics. The flow control will be fully integrated with JSF’s highly non-rectangular weapons bay and its multiple-sweep leading edge. Acoustic benefits of the system will be traded against weight, cost, and/or aircraft/mission penalties.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8143
Dr. Robert Tramel
AF 07-087      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Enhanced Acoustical Environment for Modern Weapons Bays
Abstract:The ultimate aim of this program is to experimentally demonstrate the ability of a passive, light weight flow control device to successfully produce acceptable acoustic noise levels in a geometrically complex cavity such as the main cavity of the JSF aircraft during a flight test. The goal of the Phase I effort is to perform both state of the art CFD analysis and complementary small-scale wind tunnel tests to assess the ability of a rod-in-crossflow (RIC) to perform this task. Phase II will build on these results and consist of analyses of both passive and actively actuated RIC treatments on both subsonic and supersonic cavity flows.

QUARTUS ENGINEERING, INC.
10251 Vista Sorrento Pkwy Suite 250
San Deigo, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 875-6000
Dr. Thomas Yurick
AF 07-088      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Structurally Optimized All Composite Deep Wing Concept for Large Transport Aircraft
Abstract:The current fleet of mid-size USAF cargo airplanes includes the C-130 and C-27J. These vehicles were initially designed more than 40 years ago and use conventional metallic construction approaches. Significant improvements in structural efficiency and manufacturability may be achieved by applying advanced structural analysis optimization methods and innovative joint designs for bonded composite structures. The new work described in this proposal would leverage and complement the accomplishments of the Composites Affordability Initiative lead by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In this Phase I effort, our overall objective will be to combine advanced computational techniques, including finite element analysis and topology optimization, with novel designs for the spar web-to-wing skin bonded joint. The overall goal will be to create a structurally optimized deep wing concept that will improve design flexibility, joint strength, and manufacturability. The concept technologies will be applicable to future military applications, such as the Advanced Joint Air Combat System (AJACS), as well as commercial aircraft.

TECHNOVA CORP.
3927 Dobie Road
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 485-9583
Dr. Anagi Balachandra
AF 07-088      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Innovative Structural Concepts for Deep-Winged Large Transports
Abstract:Future deep-winged large transport aircraft would challenge the conventional approach to aircraft structural design. The tremendous size of deep-winged transports offers new latitudes to rethink structural configurations which efficiently meet the escalated structural demands. Conventional aircraft wing structures comprise a multitude of elements, only some of which make major structural contributions. Inefficient load paths are used in conventional designs to transfer wing structural forces to the fuselage; the susceptibility to local and global structural instabilities further undermines the efficiency of conventional structures. As a result, the working stresses in today’s aircraft wing structures are relatively low, only about 10% of the tensile strength of high-performance fibers. A new structural concept is proposed here for achieving improved levels of structural efficiency through: (i) replacement of the multitude of semi-structural and structural elements with a streamlined, multi-functional structure that is capable of mobilizing optimum load paths and effectively resisting structural instabilities for achieving higher levels of efficiency; (ii) Optimal use of the prestressing technique to effectively exploit the high tensile strength of advanced fibrous materials towards improvement of structural efficiency; and (iii) streamlined transfer of wing structural forces to the fuselage by mobilizing the efficient structural performance of fuselage under hydrostatic pressure using the wing prestressing tendons, which also benefit the fuselage performance under cabin pressure. The main thrust of the proposed Phase I research is to validate and quantify the gains in structural efficiency and safety resulting from application of the proposed structural concept to deep-winged transport aircraft. The Phase I research will: (i) identify viable ranges for the primary design variables of the proposed structural concept, and establish optimum sets of design variables with existing and emerging selections of materials; (ii) experimentally verify the optimum design with existing selections of materials; (iii) assess the competitive position of the new structural concept versus conventional designs; and (iv) devise and validate strategies for improving the competitiveness of the new concept.

V SYSTEM COMPOSITES, INC.
1015 E. Discovery Lane
Anaheim, CA 92801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 619-8560
Mr. Scott Holmes
AF 07-088      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Innovative Structural Concepts for Deep-Winged Large Transports (PVSC07-033)
Abstract:The next generation tactical transport must achieve greater performance that its C-130 and C-141 predecessors, with even more demanding missions and operational requirements, at an affordable price. New mobility concepts have emerged with more radical configurations for potential operational performance benefits. The challenge of this proposed SBIR program is to combine emerging materials and process technologies with advanced innovative design concepts, to achieve even greater impact on structural efficiency and affordability demanded by the next generation transport aircraft. The aerodynamic and structural arrangement that meets next generation transport mobility requirements will lead to higher risk airframe and wing arrangements with possible irregular, non-constant cross sections in multiple planes. The VSC Team proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of innovative HyPerVARTM®/AFI™ design and manufacturing approaches for deep-section wing applications applicable to next generation mobility transport platforms. Several innovative structural concepts will be evaluated that can leverage 3-D performing technology and advancements in design and manufacturing of these structures to achieve lower costs with greater structural efficiency. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the VSC solution through engineering trade studies, virtual and physical manufacturing process demonstrations, followed by development of a panel/element/component test plan.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 954-6049
Dr. Amber Fischer
AF 07-089      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Otto
Abstract:Multi-UAV supervisory control and UAVs operating along side of manned operations in the terminal approach area will not occur until improvements are made in UAV mission management. Indeed, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board indicated that significant advancements needed to be made in the realm of mission management, vehicle autonomy, and human-computer interfaces. 21st Century Systems, Incorporated is pleased to propose to research and develop our concept called Otto. Otto applies innovative research and techniques in order to yield a visual-based navigation capability for station keeping and approach to landing. Our concept uses video input to guide an unmanned aircraft through an approach pattern and provide a constant-glideslope descent to the touchdown point. It requires no powered equipment on the ground and works with any existing UAV that has a camera capable of facing forward on approach. No changes are required on the aircraft as the Otto concept is a software upgrade required in the Ground Control Station only. This advancement in mission management technology is a visual navigation capability that will allow a UAV to autonomously maintain position while the operator stays “on-the-loop” with his/her “head out of the cockpit” and will improve UAV responsiveness in the terminal area.

MOSAIC ATM, INC.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 737-7637
Mr. Chris Brinton
AF 07-089      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Autonomous Command, Control and Communication for Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the Terminal Control Area
Abstract:The current command and control paradigm for management of air traffic is highly dependent on voice communication. This approach has benefited the development of Air Traffic Control (ATC) over the last century in many ways, including a low-level of required aircraft equipage and the ability to handle contingency situations and adapt to new requirements easily. However, the reliance on voice communication in ATC operations presents challenges to the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs). The remote pilot must interpret each ATC command, direct the aircraft accordingly, and communicate the appropriate response back to ATC. In this proposed effort, we apply advanced speech recognition concepts to the interpretation of ATC communications to enable autonomous communication between ATC and the Unmanned Aircraft (UA), removing the remote pilot from the communication loop between the UA and ATC. The key challenge in this approach is to ensure the required level of accuracy and reliability of the ATC speech recognition. To achieve complete autonomy, the UA must also be able to generate and transmit an appropriate response to ATC clearances. Thus, we do not require a speech recognition capability alone, but, rather, we require a fully autonomous command and control capability on-board the UA.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Mr. Alon Yaari
AF 07-089      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Autonomous Control Technologies for Terminal Area Operations
Abstract:Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) participation in controlled airspace requires that the UAV behave just as a human-piloted aircraft. Forward airbases with Air Traffic Control (ATC) can be complex when considering ATC commands, localization in a GPS denied environment, flight restrictions, FAA rules, and dynamic obstacles. SARA proposes a behavior-based system that deconfliction these complexities, allowing the UAV to operate safely in the Terminal Area of Operations (TAO). The proposed behavior- based “Autonomous Pilot” uses concurrent simple behaviors to produce emergent complex behaviors. An objective function based solver calculates weights and preferred actions of the individual behaviors to arbitrate an optimum vehicle action. To facilitate development and eventual transfer of the Autonomous Pilot to actual UAV hardware, SARA proposes a modular control architecture. Our proposed “Autonomous Pilot- Multi- Objective Deconfliction” (APMOD) system is based on the “Mission Oriented Operating Suite” (MOOS) architecture. The modularity allows simulation modules during the development phase to be replaced with hardware integration modules as the program develops into hardware-in-the-loop solutions and eventually into actual UAV platforms.

AVID LLC
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1400
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-0067
Mr. Paul Gelhausen
AF 07-090      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Flapping Wing MAV Design Software Suite
Abstract:AVID LLC, in partnership with Dr. Rick Lind of the University of Florida, proposes development of an integrated design suite for flapping wing MAVs. Such a tool fills a void present in the existing MAV development process, where new concepts are rarely subject to rigorous engineering analysis and design optimization before construction. Existing software will be extensively leveraged to yield a highly capable tool by the end of Phase I. During Phase I, three main areas will be addressed. First, AVID will develop an aerodynamic analysis tool based on an existing unsteady vortex lattice code with corrections for boundary layer and flow entrainment effects. Second, Dr. Lind will develop a flight dynamics and closed-loop control model, again using existing simulation components. Finally, AVID will integrate the aerodynamics and control modules using the existing AVID OAV vehicle design framework. Flight simulation output will also be linked to the AVID SPOT sensor evaluation tool.

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
400 Jericho Turnpike
Jericho, NY 11753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
Mr. David Gingras
AF 07-090      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:A Multi-physics Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST)
Abstract:A comprehensive Multi-physics Simulation Tool (MAST) is proposed to address the void in simulation tools that address the specific needs of the MAV engineer. The MAST provides an enhancement to Bihrle’s commercially successful PC-Based simulation environment D-Six by providing a project structure suited to model flapping-wing and rotary-wing flight vehicles. A project wizard will guide the user in the configuration of the project to account for the specific MAV characteristics to be modeled. The Bihrle Phase I effort lays the foundation for a reconfigurable simulation tool to allow engineers and control designer solve critical issues regarding the control flight of MAVs. At the end of Phase I an element-based set of equations of motion will have been implemented as a new project structure in D-Six and demonstrated. Critical issues regarding the modeling of aerodynamics, aeroelastic-effects, and control-law will be identified for further design during a Phase II effort.

ASTROX CORP.
3500 Marlbrough Way Suite 100
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 278-5051
Dr. Christopher Tarpley
AF 07-091      Awarded: 12/28/2007
Title:Rapid Design, Analysis, and Test of Hypersonic Propulsion Integrated Configurations
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate needs to be able to rapidly develop hypersonic vehicle concepts and to do so with as little risk as possible. A new technology called Rapid Prototyping will assist the Air Force in reducing risk in choosing the best path for fielding hypersonic vehicle systems. This technology will allow the rapid testing of many concepts, thus adding concrete knowledge to the design space and promoting good choices during early design stages.

GOHYPERSONIC, INC.
714 E. Monument Ave Suite 201
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Dr. Lance Jacobsen
AF 07-091      Awarded: 1/3/2008
Title:Combined Cycle Propulsion Integration
Abstract:The work proposed here provides an opportunity to take what we have learned within the DARPA Falcon program on TBCC inlet design and our current AF RBCC/TBCC nozzle research and integrate them into our Propulsion-Airframe Integration (PAI) tool, Eco. Once integrated into Eco, representative TBCC and RBCC combined-cycle air-vehicle concepts will be created. We propose to apply these new capabilities towards the design, fabrication, and testing of a small-scale version of the TBCC air-vehicle concept inlet in the Mach 3-4 flight regime. The design would utilize the methodologies developed and lessons learned by our team on previous TBCC inlet studies supplemented by a limited amount of CFD to ensure concept starting and operability. Fabrication would utilize our experience base with rapid prototyping technology to produce a complex model within a relatively small budget. The tests would serve to demonstrate and confirm the following at the mode transition flight speed: Inlet starting of the scramjet and turbojet ducts under back-pressure and transition from TBCC operation to pure Scramjet operation. Success here could lead to further tests with this model at other speeds, testing of additional combined cycle nozzle components, or larger-scale engine derivatives within a Phase II SBIR effort.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
31255 Cedar Valley Drive Suite 327
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 865-3710
Dr. Ramakanth Munipalli
AF 07-091      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:High-Speed Airbreathing Propulsion Integration
Abstract:In this proposal HyPerComp Inc., jointly with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, GASL and the University of Texas at Arlington, seeks to create a high performance rapid test environment for hypersonic multimode airbreathing vehicle development. This will be achieved by a systematic sequence of advancements in both computational as well as experimental methods being used in the study of such systems. While due care will be taken to accurately represent the basic external aerodynamics, structural mechanics and heat transfer phenomena, the emphasis of this project will be placed on the study of dual- mode propulsion systems with integrated inlets/nozzles and multiple combustor paths, that are a vital ingredient in major ongoing vehicle programs such as the DARPA-FALCON. The integrated multiphysical approach to the study of the vehicle performance proposed here is aimed to supersede current techniques in component-wise modeling, external integration and lumped performance estimates. Developments in this area are timely, given the rapid pace of activity in hypersonic vehicle design concepts in recent times, such as in the X-51, FALCON-HTV/HCV and allied programs. The proposing team consists of industry leaders in flow simulation, testing, vehicle design and integration.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 477-1019
Dr. David Slater
AF 07-093      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Pre-processing Algorithms for Exploitation of Remotely Sensed Optical Spectral Imagery for Automated Target Recognition/Cueing and Multi-INT Fusion
Abstract:We will develop the SenseMod system for the modeling of HSI sensors. The new sensor models will be used to advance the capability of hyperspectral pre-processing algorithms. SenseMod is based on an innovative approach for sensor characterization and for representing spectral differences between sensor measurements and model-based signature predictions. These differences depend on calibration uncertainty, approximation error, and sensor noise. The sensor models will be incorporated into state-of-the-art algorithms for detection and characterization. The use of the new models will be particularly advantageous for the detection and characterization of targets with low spectral contrast. The new models will also allow for the utilization of optimized algorithms by sensor systems with a wide range of properties. We will demonstrate the ability of SenseMod to improve the performance of algorithms during Phase I using a range of HSI data acquired by several sensors. The algorithms will be structured to allow real-time operation on COTS hardware. A detailed commercialization plan is given for the new software.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 965-9964
Dr. Reuven Meth
AF 07-093      Awarded: 2/21/2008
Title:High Performance Subpixel Hyperspectral Image Target Identification for Space-Based Sensors
Abstract:Existing target identification technologies for space-based hyperspectral sensors do not attain the high detection and low false alarm rates required for effective battlefield awareness. The low and sub-pixel nature of targets in these images presents significant challenges to reliably recognize targets and separate them from surrounding clutter. We propose a phenomenologically based approach to hyperspectral image (HSI) target detection that addresses all stages of the processing chain – from optimized background characterization to phenomenologically-based subpixel detection to adaptive threshold estimation – that surpasses existing technologies in separating target from clutter. By incorporating physically meaningful constraints within the design, detection is enhanced while false alarms are suppressed. This approach is specifically designed for low spatial resolution where targets are subpixel in nature. Our approach for automated variable threshold determination is applicable to a wide variety of detection algorithms to provide enhanced performance in operational scenarios. We will demonstrate superior detection performance for our detector relative to current detection technologies. Feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated in Phase I, with Phase II focusing on development and rigorous evaluation of a system prototype.

DEFENSE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2904 44th Avenue North
Saint Petersburg, FL 33714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 548-0522
Dr. Stephan Athan
AF 07-094      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Design-Hardened Radiation Tolerant Microelectronics
Abstract:This proposal describes an innovative radiation hardened by design approach for improving integrated circuit reliability while minimizing impact on area overhead, power consumption, and electrical performance degradation over indigenous libraries. The approach is based on an innovative built in current sensor (BICS) technique designed to provide portability across alternative foundries, newly developed processes, and diverse combinational and sequential digital, analog, and mixed signal design architectures including full custom, semi custom, standard cell, and programmable array integrated circuits. The BICS approach will be characterized and validated against a standard set of metrics, including design, area overhead, performance, and power consumption, and will determine its efficacy within a system integration recovery (SIR) environment developed by L3, our DEC teammate. Phase I will include simulation and modeling of feasible designs, process variations, subthreshold leakage, radiation effects, and reliability monitor. Design portability will be investigated for digital/analog full custom, semi custom, standard cell, and programmable array architectures. These results will become the baseline research for a transition into a Phase II contract. With the effective modeling and simulation approach conducted in Phase I, the Phase II project will develop the detailed design, fabricate and validate the BICS solution set.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 294-1962
Mr. Michael Sibley
AF 07-094      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Design-Hardened Radiation Tolerant Microelectronics
Abstract:Producing components that satisfy all of the BMDS space and interceptor environment specs traditionally has been not only costly but also untimely. One of the most difficult design constraints is making the components unaffected by the radiation environments of space. We propose to develop and demonstrate a standard cell structured ASIC approach that will ultimately produce radiation hardened components faster and cheaper than historically possible. This approach can take advantage of either RHBD or RHBP libraries. Because this approach is based on a standard cell approach it facilitates migration to new processes seamlessly and almost effortlessly. Once the one base structured ASIC is manufactured the AFRL and other DoD programs will be able to manufacture components with only two personalization via mask layers as opposed to creating all process masks which are expensive.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Ave. Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 287-6292
Mr. Benjamin Mangrich
AF 07-095      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Inorganic Radiation Resistant Solar Cell Coverglass Adhesives
Abstract:The USAF is seeking to replace UV-susceptible adhesive that bonds the solar cell to a cover glass for enhancing conversion efficiency and to improve durability. Adhesives used for space solar modules need to meet many critical requirements including adhesion strength, optical transparency, thermal stability, and resistance against a broad range of radiation present in space environments including UV. In addition, system compatibility requirements need to be met with regards to optical matching with adjacent layers. With these critical requirements, the choices are limited and the technical challenges to be met for processing and performance at affordable costs are significant. This Phase I effort will explore an entirely new adhesive concept based on an extremely thin, highly transparent, inorganic adhesive that looks promising to meet many of the requirements. The material exhibits excellent thermal and chemical stability/inertness which is essential for this application while offering an easy to apply and rapid processing method for transitioning the technology to production. Phase I will be conducted in close collaboration with an industrial partner engaged in developing and manufacturing solar modules for space and other applications. Phase I work plan will include development of adhesive and testing of primary property requirements.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. James Belcher
AF 07-095      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Radiation Resistant Optical Bonding Technology for Solar Cell Coverglass
Abstract:This proposal addresses the space optic community’s need for an optical bonding material with superior stability in the harsh space environment. Adhesives used in space must exhibit near-zero degassing, tolerate drastic temperature changes and be hardened to ionizing sources of radiation. The tolerance for these properties are restricted even further when applied to adhesives in the optical path, as is the case for solar cell coverglass adhesives. As the power systems have become more advanced, the limits of Dow Corning’s DC93-500 have been exceeded. Infoscitex proposes to develop a space grade optical bonding technique comprised primarily of a radiation-hardened silicate-like network combined with elastomeric linkages. The proposed silicate-elastomer hybrid bond (SEHB) will exhibit the following advantages over DC93-500: Enhanced resistance to radiation, optical transmittance and charge dissipation. Thermal shock durability and near- zero outgassing will also be demonstrated. Infoscitex is uniquely positioned to insert candidate bonded samples into ongoing radiation resistant coverglass development testing. Phase II prototype coverglass interconnected cells (CICs) fabricated with the SEHB technology will be delivered to AFRL or platform manufacturers for prequalification. Infoscitex has teamed with an optical products supplier and a solar array manufacturer to commercialize the SEHB technology after the SBIR Phase II.

OXAZOGEN, INC.
1910 West St. Andrews Road
Midland, MI 48640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5590
Dr. Jin Hu
AF 07-095      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Radiation Resistant Elastomer Containing POSS, Phenylsiloxane and Ce(IV) Compositions for a Space Solar Cell Adhesive
Abstract:There is an unmet need for an adhesive for advanced multiple-junction space solar cells to provide improved long-term resistance to electron, proton and UV radiation, while maintaining high transparency over the range of 400 nm to 2000 nm. The adhesive must also provide robust adhesion to the solar cell and cover glass in order to avoid delamination caused by the extreme thermal cycles of space. Oxazogen proposes a multiply-functionalized low Tg elastomer containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), phenylsiloxane and Ce(IV) compositions for this application. The combination of POSS, phenylsiloxane and Ce(IV) compositions will lead to improved proton, electron and VUV/UV resistance, and enable the maintenance of high transparency over the range of 400 nm to 2000 nm for an extended life time. The adhesive will also have outstanding adhesion to the solar cells and cover glass due to the incorporation of multiple adhesive functionalities.

MAXPOWER, INC.
141 Christopher Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 256-4575
Dr. Benjamin Meyer
AF 07-096      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Applications
Abstract:The US Air Force has a need for a corrosion-resistant lithium-ion battery terminal seal capable of twenty years of service life in a space environment. Key requirements include a terminal seal technology that provides electrical isolation, hermeticity, and is compatible with cell electrolyte. Ideally, the hermetic seal should have the design flexibility with respect to size, selectivity of materials for the terminals consistent with the required current handling capability, while maintaining hermeticity over the required life of the batteries. In this Phase I effort, the ¡°hermacrimp¡± seal technology, which is emerging to be a very viable seal for aerospace application, is proposed to fulfill the 20 year long life objective. We have proposed a baseline seal design that is capable of surviving ultra conditions such as low to high temperature and also thermal stress. We propose to use also scaled terminal seals that are designed for large capacity Li-ion cells; i.e., ¡Ý 20 Ah. These seals will be subjected to planned test matrices to permit long life projections.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando Road Building 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2016
Dr. Hiroshi Nakahara
AF 07-096      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Applications
Abstract:Quallion currently manufactures hermitically sealed, prismatic 15Ah and 72Ah lithium-ion cells for the aerospace community. The cells are undergoing real-time life testing at varios government agencies, in which the 15Ah cell has demonstrated over 12,000 LEO cycles at a 60% depth of discharge (DOD). Under these conditions, Quallion expects the cell to perform over 50,000 cycles. Quallion’s response to this solicitation calls for the evaluations of new designs of a terminal seal to remain hermetic during its expected 20 year service life and provide resistance to electrolyte corrosion.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0805
Mr. Dean Allum
AF 07-097      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Space Qualified SDRAM Memory
Abstract:The Phase 1 effort is aimed at finding the specific physical defects which prevent a Commercial SDRAM at the 512 Megabit density from being Space Qualified. The goal is to find the exact failure locations of Radiation “Soft” circuits. Scanning Laser Microscopy will locate latch-up sites. Heavy Ion Exposure will be used to find multiple bit error rates. Emission Microscopy will be used to locate leakages induced by Total Ionizing Dose exposure. During Phase 2, the design team of the Commercial SDRAM manufacturer has agreed to partner with Micro-RDC to modify the SDRAM circuits so that higher radiation levels can be tolerated. The goal is to make the Space Qualified SDRAM immune to latch- up, tolerate greater than 100 krad(Si) total ionizing dose, and work over the Mil-Spec temperature range. The SDRAM will also remain functional due to Single Event Effects, but Single Event Upsets of data bits is anticipated to be corrected at the system level using Error Detection and Correction methods. A survey of end customers of Space Qualified SDRAMs will also be conducted during Phase 1 so that the required form and function can be determined.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 550-3938
Mr. Bob Fuller
AF 07-097      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Space Qualified SDRAM Memory
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST), working with Texas Instruments (TI), proposes to demonstrate an innovative approach for manufacturing radiation hardened (RH) high- density SDRAM¡¯s for space applications by adding two proprietary RH modules plus a simple stacked capacitor structure to TI¡¯s baseline 130nm process flow. SST has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects (SEE), Total Ionizing Dose (TID) & Dose Rate (DR), by combining process modifications and layout design innovation. Our proven-in-silicon approach enables production of radiation-hardened integrated circuits at leading-edge circuit densities within any commercial silicon foundry, for use in both terrestrial and space systems. Sequences of radiation tests have shown SST¡¯s Buried Guard Ring (BGR) significantly improves SEE performance (e.g., SEL, SET, & SEU). BGR also significantly improves Dose Rate performance by >23x higher than non-BGR protected circuits. SST¡¯s Parasitic Isolation Device (PID) structures have shown complete TID immunity to > 1Mrad. These methods do not adversely affect either circuit performance or yield. The simple stacked capacitor will be based on structures previously used by mainstream DRAM manufacturers. While this will not result in state of the art DRAM densities, it will enable manufacture of much denser RH memories than currently available.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
AF 07-097      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened SDRAM Memory
Abstract:Space Micro has developed RHBD innovation hardening techniques, HF-Core Memory Controller and “Architecture” Hardening, that in combination with other known industry standard hardening techniques, plus the innovative use of embedded DRAM and ASIC technologies. We propose to apply these techniques to design and manufacture a radiation hardened, dense and high-speed RH-eDRAM memory integrated circuit from commercial technologies. The new design techniques are portable across advanced geometry, CMOS foundries and can be easily re-applied as commercial SDRAM suppliers migrate to smaller geometries and increased memory sizes. In Phase I. Space Micro will demonstrate the new RHBD radiation mitigation techniques, covert the techniques to circuits and radiation test the innovation. Using these results, we will provide a refined design of the RH-eDRAM design to be manufactured in Phase II. The resulting design will meet and exceed Air Force and other satellite radiation and reliability design goals, providing future satellite hardware designers a dense DRAM memory integrated circuit for computing platforms and solid-state mass memories.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Dr. Ming Pan
AF 07-098      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:InGaN-based Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:InGaN-based thin multijunction solar cells will be developed to achieve an efficiency as high as 40%. These solar cells are of light weight and high radiaton hardness which are most suitable for space application.

EPITAXIAL LABORATORY, INC.
25 Tiana Place
Dix Hills, NY 11746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 508-0060
Dr. Jie Piao
AF 07-098      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:As future demands are made for higher efficiency (30+ %), improved Watt/weight (1000 W/kg), it is clear that new approach that combine best attribute of crystalline and thin film solar cells to achieve 1000 W/kg is needed. ELI propose to develop (1) Inverted structure of InGaP (1.8 ev)/GaAs (1.4 ev)/InGaAs (1.0 ev) triple junction solar cells (shown in Fig. 1a, similar to NREL structure) using combined in house Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and MOCVD approach for combining the best attributes of MBE and MOCVD to achieve 35+% efficiency with thinner structure for scale up production with reduced cost. MOCVD will be used to grow top two lattice matched sub cells(InGaP/GaAs) on GaAs substrate, and MBE will be used to grow strained buffer and bottom third InGaAs subcell (2) Novel scalable processes for removing GaAs substrate from inverted structure, and utilizing noval method(patent pending) to produce crack free solar arrays that is bonded to lightweight flexible substrate (1 mil thick Ti foil, or flexible kapton or polymer) for 1000 W/kg specific power and stowability.

MICROLINK DEVICES
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Dr. Noren Pan
AF 07-098      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:The innovation in this Phase I SBIR is the development of a technology, which will enable the manufacture of a lightweight and low cost, InP wafer based high efficiency multijunction solar cells suitable for deployment in space applications. InP based based materials are best suited for space applications because of their demonstrated radiation hardness properties. The key technological step is the application of a production epitaxial liftoff (ELO) process to a multijunction solar cell structure fabricated on a large area InP substrate. Our focus will be on InP-based solar cells, in particular lattice-matched dual junction solar cell of InP and InGaAsP materials. InP solar cells in combination with GaAs based solar cells have the potential to achieve the highest efficiency ever to be produced by compound semiconductor materials

GRATINGS, INC.
2700-B Broadbent Pkwy., NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-9564
Dr. Saleem H. Zaidi
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Scalable Hyper-Thinning of Si for Three-Dimensional Space Electronics
Abstract:This phase I proposal addresses ultra-thinning (~ 5-10 micrometer) of Si wafers and memory dies through a mix and match approach in which advanced deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)and pulsed laser etching (PLE)methods are used for coarse and plasmaless XeF2 vapor etching for fine thinning. Die-thinning in sub 10-micrometer regime is a subject of enduring interest in ultra-dense 3D MCM packaging and radiation-toleration enhancement of Si circuits for space environment. Considering the inability of processing ultra-thin dies and wafers, die-thinning is ideally done following circuit fabrication and lamination to a carrier substrate. Both DRIE and PLE methods are desirable for their low- temperature directional etching. Pulsed laser methods are also attractive due to their direct writing capabiity. Intial experiments using DRIE and XeF2 etching methods have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. In this phase I proposal, we will conduct comparative assessment of both DRIE and PLE approaches to determine an optimum thinning method in terms of resolution, uniformity, cost, and througput. In collboration with GE Global Research, we will evaluate radiation tolerance of ultra-thinned memory dies during phase I and develop ultra-dense 3D MCM packaging during phase II.

NSCRYPT, INC.
2100 N Alafaya Trail Suite 200
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 275-4720
Dr. Kenneth H Church
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Integrating Field Gate Programmable Arrays on Flexible, Thin, and Layered Substrates
Abstract:If we could translate the benefits of 2-D integrated circuits into the third (vertical) dimension, it may be possible to extend Moore’s Law to the year 2060, creating dramatic new possibilities in missile and space systems. By tightly integrating a Field Gate Programmable Array (FPGA) with an often large population of peripheral components into a miniaturized 3D structure, the development and fabrication timeframe of the overall system will be reduced by concealing the complexity of the FPGA from system designers. Through miniaturization and reduced trace lengths resulting from 3D form, parasitic impedances will be reduced and consequently will improve the system by 1) reducing ground bounce and voltage droop in the FPGA’s power network, 2) reducing losses in high speed data buses, and 3) improving Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) performance of the overall system. By eliminating the complexity of the hundreds or thousands of peripheral components from the system designer, reconfigurable devices will be deployed in DoD and military applications with a dramatic reduction in both time and effort.

R3LOGIC, INC.
30 Fuller Rd.
Lexington, MA 02420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 652-0048
Dr. Lisa McIlrath
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Ultra-Dense Three-Dimensional Electronics for Space
Abstract:R3Logic, Inc., in collaboration with Tezzaron Semiconductor will develop a rad-hard multi- core embedded processor / memory system that will be fabricated in a multi-layer 3-D integrated circuit. Phase I will focus on the system design. We will complete the RTL to GDSII synthesis of the processor and system components. The stack will incorporate Tezzaron’s patented 3-D Octopus memory, which has built-in self-test and repair capability. In Phase II we will use Tezzaron’s 3-D process to fabricate a prototype device.

TEZZARON SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
1415 Bond St. #111
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 505-0404
Mr. Robert Patti
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Ultra-Dense Three-Dimensional Electronics for Space
Abstract:Tezzaron proposes the development of a 3D integrated memory on processor or host device. The proposed device is made from a very high-performance 3D integrated 512Mb DRAM memory device and a structured array with single layer customization. Both devices in the ultimate 3D integration have a high degree of radiation hardness and also have low power and an ultra-compact form factor.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 929-8116
Dr. Philip Coleman
AF 07-100      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Ultra-Low-Power Radiation-Hard Electronics
Abstract:We propose to build and test prototype circuits that use a novel, programmable, microfabricated continuously variable resistor (CVR) composed of a metal-chalcogenide alloy. Our Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of using this unique device in actual circuit applications. The CVR is a unique circuit element that does not operate as either a phase-change chalcogenide variable resistor or an ion-conducting chalcogenide variable resistor. It has been shown in the laboratory to be capable of producing a continuous range of resistance values from < 1 kOhm to > 10 MOhm, achieved by programming the resistor using fast pulses (< 10 ns) with selective voltage amplitudes.

SITUS LOGIC
1442 Lomita Drive
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 395-6549
Mr. Alain Martin
AF 07-100      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Asynchronous Techniques for Ultra-Low-Power Radiation-Hard Electronics
Abstract:The design of an asynchronous MIPS microprocessor and of an asynchronous 8051 microcontroller (both developed in the proposer's laboratory) have demonstrated that asynchronous techniques, in particular quasi-delay-insensitive (QDI) techniques, can produce circuits with high throughput and low power consumption. Furthermore, the absence of almost all delay assumptions in QDI design results in a remarkable robustness to parameter variations which has been observed both through simulation and in testing of actual chips. A novel approach to make QDI circuits entirely tolerant to soft errors is proposed. The method does not rely on any particular fabrication technique---standard CMOS process (bulk or SOI) is used---and does not use TMR. The correction of a soft error is entirely done at the logic level. Several soft errors can be simultaneously corrected provided they do not happen too close to each other in space and time. The first objective of this project is to develop and test prototypes soft-error tolerant microcontroller, memories, and FPGAs based on this approach. The second objective is to select and specify a first design for commercialization.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Robert Taylor
AF 07-101      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Low Cost Solid Surface Deployable Reflector
Abstract:Future Air Force satellites will require large aperture RF antennas for various missions in communications, signals intelligence, and Radar. At the same time, Operation Responsive Space (ORS) is striving to develop small satellite technology to provide flexibility and adaptability to meet new and evolving mission needs quickly. However, existing deployable antenna systems do not meet the cost requirements of ORS, therefore new deployable antenna systems with simple and elegant designs are required. The proposed technology is a thin, flexible, one-piece solid reflector that has a relatively simple deployable backing structure. These antennas will be low cost due to their inherent simplicity, and have the potential of operating at high frequencies because of the use of: 1) a solid reflective surface, and 2) CTD’s novel elastic memory composite materials in multi-functional components that provide substantial deployed stiffness, as well as deployment force and damping. However, achieving high-frequency capability will ultimately require the use of tuning adjustors (between the solid-surface deployable reflector shell and its backing structure) to correct for minor errors in the shape of the thin reflector shell. The proposed research will demonstrate the technical feasibility of a low cost deployable backing structure with built-in adjustment features.

MEVICON, INC.
1185 Bordeaux Rd., Suite D
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 744-1335
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 07-101      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Integrated Support Structures for Tensionless Reflective RF Surface Apertures
Abstract:Mevicon Inc., a leading innovator in the area of lightweight tensionless membrane reflective surfaces, and ATK-Space Deployables, a leading developer of deployable space structures are pleased to propose an alternative fully passively self deploying integral RF reflector shell/support structure approach. The concept is based on Mevicon’s Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) and ATK’s space flight heritage experience with stowable elastically self deploying composite materials and structures. In particular, we propose the Mevicon’s proven RF MAST shell approach be augmented with 1) innovative shell stowage approaches, 2) co-stowable support spars to increase the number of discrete boundary supports and 3) co-stowable shell periphery support flange techniques. In the Phase I, building on the team’s base of past research, we will establish the 1) hardware feasibility studies of the basic fabrication concepts 2) expand preliminary analysis about scalability to large sizes, and 3) address other key issues critical toward realizing “readiness for flight” such as thermal CTE concerns, and improving TRL levels. This will prepare the way for a Phase II/Phase III space flight demonstration which is a key step in any realistic commercialization plan for space hardware.

STARSYS, INC.
1722 Boxelder St.
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Dr. Jason Hinkle
AF 07-101      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Low Cost Deployable Reflector Support Structure
Abstract:A variety of DoD and commercial space-based RF applications have motivated substantial development of deployable antenna reflectors over the last few decades. Of the multiple reflector architectures that have been developed, mesh antenna systems have dominated the medium-to-large (5 – 20 m) reflector markets. As operating frequencies extend beyond 10 GHz into the Ku and Ka bands, reflector surface precision requirements lead to high part count and fabrication cost for mesh architectures. Even with the relative maturity of mesh antenna systems, demand remains high for a more cost effective approach to antenna reflector deployment. The proposed precision deployable reflector system will offer a design solution that combines a thin membrane composite reflector with a concentrated strain deployable reflector boom to produce a highly capable, reliable and cost effective solution to critical DoD and commercial applications including frequencies through the Ka band. The proposal will develop a packaging architecture that will provide scalability of the reflector system from 1 to greater than 5 meters in diameter while meeting surface profile requirements to meet broadband frequency needs. The reflector apertures will be adaptable for on and off axis feed geometries.

SENSORMETRIX
10211 Pacific Mesa Blvd., Suite 408
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 625-4458
Dr. Anthony Starr
AF 07-102      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Structural Electromagnetic Metamaterials for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:It is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating advanced large area tunable structual metamaterials for space applications. Metamaterials offer unique EM possibilities. It has been shown that these may be combined is a structural material. This project seeks to add tunable properties without compromising the structual load bearing capabilities.

SI2 TECHNOLOGIES
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5300
Mr. Tom Fusco
AF 07-102      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Design and Manufacture of a Symbiotic Satellite Structure to Improve the Performance of Phased Arrays (1000-088)
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes to develop a symbiotic satellite structure with improved phased array performance by engineering the transmittance and reflectivity to match the structure and reducing the impact of surface waves. The proposed concept utilizes SI2’s proprietary conformal electronics manufacturing technology to transform the structure of the satellite into an integral part of the system. The resulting symbiotic structure will retain its desirable structural properties while increasing the performance of the phased array antenna. To help ensure applicability of our efforts, and to begin work towards technology transition, SI2 has teamed with a prime contractor who will provide system requirements and implementation opportunities. The Phase I program will demonstrate the electromagnetic (EM) and structural performance of the symbiotic satellite structure through simulation and testing. The manufacturability and ability to integrate the EM and mechanical properties into a single structure will be established through the design and manufacture of a hardware demonstrator. The follow-on Phase II program will refine the concept and develop a specification for a prototype with the Air Force. A full-scale prototype symbiotic satellite structure will be designed, manufactured and tested.

SPECTRUM MAGNETICS, LLC
318 Mourning Dove Dr.
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(484) 319-7948
Dr. Michael Bonder
AF 07-102      Awarded: 2/19/2008
Title:Satellite Structures with Engineered or Variable Electomagnetic Properties
Abstract:A novel methodology is proposed for the integration of low volume fractions (~5% by vol) of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic nanomaterials into structural composite materials, to engineer electromagnetic properties in the microwave regime. The general approach is to disperse the nanomaterial (flake form) in a thermoplastic polymer that is selected to be the same as the toughening agent in the structural thermoset resin. The flake/polymer film is then used as an interlayer between layers of structural prepreg during composite fabrication and can be positioned at specific locations within the composite, during fabrication. During composite cure, the thermoplastic dissolves into the thermoset resin, locking into place the flake dispersion and alignment characteristics. Electromagnetic properties are dependent on the flake dispersion, alignment and surface characteristics and can be engineered for absorption, reflectivity or low-loss properties. The Phase I effort will demonstrate this concept in an aerospace grade structural prepreg with Fe flakes dispersed in a sulfonated thermoplastic. Electromagnetic and mechanical properties will be characterized and models developed for property predictions.

ARTEP, INC.
2922 Excelsior Springs Court
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 767-2023
Dr. David D. Babcock
AF 07-103      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (DASH) for Measuring Winds in the Upper Atmosphere (90-300km)
Abstract:The primary goal of Phase I of this SBIR is an exploratory development to determine the instrument requirements needed to measure neutral winds in the upper atmosphere (90- 300km) by passively measuring the Doppler shift of atomic oxygen airglow emission lines with a field-widened Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne interferometer (DASH) instrument aboard a satellite platform in low Earth orbit. DASH interferometers are a new development of the optical technique of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) and offer the potential to provide low-power, light weight miniaturized instruments capable of wavelength resolutions required for measuring upper atmospheric winds to an accuracy of better than 20m/s through Doppler shift measurements. The conceptual flight design to be completed in Phase I will determine the mass, power, size and estimated cost of building a miniaturized DASH instrument to observe both the upper atmospheric green line and red line airglow emissions at 557.7nm and 630nm, covering the requirement altitude range of 90-300km. The secondary goal for Phase I is to complete a conceptual breadboard design for a ground-based DASH instrument to measure upper atmospheric winds. A breadboard design provides the basis for a Phase II SBIR where a DASH breadboard instrument would be built and fielded.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Odile Clavier
AF 07-103      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Micromachined Nano-G Accelerometer
Abstract:Micro- and nano-satellites are being planned for use on future scientific space missions. However, since their payloads are much smaller than traditional satellites, the instruments used on these next generation satellites need to be miniaturized (in mass, size, and power). In order for small satellites to be used to map and model the atmosphere, a miniaturized accelerometer that can measure accelerations as low as 10 nano-g is required. Creare and our collaborators from Stanford University’s Gravity Probe B instrumentation team propose to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a micromachined nano-g accelerometer. Our micromachined accelerometer is based on previously demonstrated technologies: innovative micromachined structures; capacitive position sensing; electrostatic actuation; and advanced signal processing of spectrally shifted acceleration measurements. These sensing techniques have been demonstrated on Gravity Probe-B to be capable of measuring 10 pico-G. By combining these previously demonstrated technologies in an innovative way, we expect to develop a nano-g accelerometer with mass less than 300 grams, that occupies volume less than 200 cubic centimeters, and which consumes less than 10 W of power. During Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. During Phase II, we will fabricate, test, and deliver a prototype micromachined nano-g accelerometer based on our innovative design.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
Mr. Michael Fennell
AF 07-103      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Space Weather Ion/Neutral Sensor
Abstract:Space Micro Inc., teamed with the US Air Force Academy Physics department, offer a novel yet producible solution to ultra miniature space weather instruments. Our approach features the following attributes and benefits: 1.Our instrument will address both neutral wind and thermal plasma 2.Ultra miniature with MEMS technology and advanced electronics packaging 3.Use in LEO, but also capable of GEO and highly elliptical orbit operation 4.Applicable to space weather and also SSA and ORS initiatives 5.Space Micro will include as part of our space weather suite of instruments (supports Air Force missions such as TSAT and ANGELS) 6.We can provide flight hardware by the end of Phase II

ASPIRE SOLUTIONS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd MS 28
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 236-5036
Mr. Randy Kirk
AF 07-105      Awarded: 7/30/2008
Title:Just In Time (JIT) Component Presentation
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop inventory flow tools based on Just In Time (JIT) principles and integrate them into the Manufacturing Repair Overhaul (MRO) environment. The Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) current processes vary greatly based on the specific needs of an aircraft and the condition of the aircraft’s parts. Properly planning for both the routine and ad hoc requirements is essential to inventory management concepts and their application within the MRO environment. Depot MRO has its own unique set of challenges that make it different then traditional manufacturing. The age of their aircraft and the different operating environments of each aircraft further compound issues not addressed in traditional manufacturing. To address the unique needs of the MRO environment, we propose to develop inventory optimization and flow tools that address both the inventory aspect of the MRO environment and the JIT delivery concepts. These tools will utilize optimization theory and be designed to enable the OC- ALC to react to the short lead-time environment common with its unpredictable repairs.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Mich979ael Graul
AF 07-105      Awarded: 8/8/2008
Title:MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND OVERHAUL (MRO) PHYSICS AND PRINCIPLES
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed effort is to assist depot managers in the discovery and application of maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) enterprise policies supporting improved agility, throughput, and system responsiveness amidst ever-changing demands, priorities, and resource constraints. To support this role, we propose to research and develop Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO) Physics and Principles of Operation (MP2O) resource management policy simulation methods and tools. The Phase I project will (i) establish MP2O requirements, (ii) research MP2O methods and tools, and (iii) formulate a Phase II technology transition approach. The key products of the Phase I effort includes research to leverage, enhance, and configure MP2O technologies resulting in the following functionalities (i) Parts allocation policy analyzer; (ii) Dispatching policy impacts analyzer; and (iii) Back shop workload staging impacts analyzer. Key innovations include (a) Strategy to complement existing and emerging management training, knowledge development, and operations management methods and systems; (b) fusion of multiple disciplines to provide effective policy analysis support; (c) Leveraged application of well-established manufacturing and sustainment physics research to deliver practical insights and MRO operations knowledge.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. David Forsyth
AF 07-106      Awarded: 5/30/2008
Title:Penetrant Material Waste Reduction and Process Improvement
Abstract:Conversion to water washable penetrants and use of dry powder developers shows promise to improve performance while significantly reducing waste streams by elimination of hydrophilic emulsifier and water based developer. These materials also will reduce equipment maintenance costs and costs associated with process control. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (TRI/Austin), in collaboration with Team Industrial Services, Inc. (TISI) and AP/ES Inc., proposes to conduct a probability of detection (POD) study to document the performance of Method A penetrants and compare the results to the performance of Method D. In addition, the TRI team will document the performance of form A developers and compare to forms B and C as well as propose a method to apply and remove developers in an automated system. In the Phase I work, TRI/Austin will manufacture crack specimens that will be inspected by TISI following guidelines from an experimental POD program developed by TRI. The results of the POD study will provide data to assess the performance of Method A penetrants and form A developers.

DULY RESEARCH, INC.
1912 MacArthur Street
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 548-7123
Dr. Ping Chen
AF 07-107      Awarded: 8/22/2008
Title:Microparticle Insulation Mixture for Sulfur Hexaflouride (SF6) Replacement or Reduction
Abstract:SF6 is widely used as an insulating gaseous medium in electric power industry, high voltage research and military applications because of its superior dielectric and chemical properties. However, SF6 is one of the six greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol due to its high global warming potential (GWP) and its long lifetime in the environment, its release to the atmosphere needs to be limited. Intensive research on the electrical insulating properties of compressed gases and gas mixtures, including N2/SF6 gas mixtures, has been carried out for many years and is stimulated by the desire to find alternatives to SF6 gas. But to date no equivalent alternative gas has been identified because of the many basic and practical requirements that a gas must satisfy and the many studies and tests that must be performed to allow confident use. In this project, we propose one type of insulation mixture, comprising micro-particles of a solid insulator and SF6 gas, to reduce the quantity of pure SF6 gas in high voltage applications. Initial experiments will adopt quartz powder mixed with SF6. Experimental data and analysis indicate that the mixture is promising for use in high voltage applications.

GENERAL SCIENCES, INC.
205 Schoolhouse Road
Souderton, PA 18964
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 723-8588
Dr. Peter D. Zavitsanos
AF 07-107      Awarded: 7/16/2008
Title:Sulfur Hexafluride (SF6) Replacement or Reduction in High Voltage Switchgear and Airborne Radar
Abstract:Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is currently used in high voltage switchgear and airborne radar systems to prevent arcing between electrical contacts. SF6 is potentially damaging to the environment; solutions to the challenge of SF6 replacement in airborne radar systems are proposed with a high probability of success. Permanent gases with the desirable electron attachment properties will be evaluated and are predicted to be more effective than SF6 used at lower quantities, lower pressures and lower leak rates thus lowering the Global Warming Potential (GWP). Another concept provides in situ generation of gaseous metal oxides or micro to nanosize particulates (aerosols) known to be extremely efficient electron getters and plasma suppressors, even in high temperature environments. Methods to generate such unique species are proposed as well as measurements to screen and evaluate performance relative to SF6.

MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS GROUP
3030 Industrial Parkway
Santa Maria, CA 93455
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 928-5711
Mr. Steve Van Dyke
AF 07-107      Awarded: 7/23/2008
Title:Sulfur Hexafluride (SF6) Replacement or Reduction in high voltage switchgear and airborne radar
Abstract:Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) is a gaseous dielectric used for suppression of high-voltage breakdown by the electric power industry and airborne military radar systems, including the Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS). SF6 is chemically inert and a very efficient infrared (IR) absorber, which make it a very potent greenhouse gas (GHG) whose impact on global warming is estimated to be 24,000 times greater than CO2. Prior studies have not found a "universal" non-GHG replacement gas, consequently eliminating or reducing the use of SF6 needs to be investigated on a case-by-case basis for each application. This program will develop a step-by-step procedure that evaluates each component of a military radar system, calculating the voltage stress levels, determining the SF6 effectiveness, and investigating whether cost-effective modifications can be made to reduce or eliminate the use of SF6. Although the methodolgy will be general, the specific candidate system to be investigated will be the high power microwave portions of the AWACS radar. Because the AWACS radar system was designed long before the GHG properties of SF6 were recognized, it is likely that progress can be made in reducing or eliminating the use of SF6.

ASPIRE SOLUTIONS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd MS 28
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 236-5036
Mr. Randy Kirk
AF 07-108      Awarded: 7/25/2008
Title:Distributed, Multi-Echelon Logistics Management
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop multi-echelon logistics management tools based on Agile principles and integrate them into the Manufacturing Repair Overhaul (MRO) environment. The Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) current processes are sub-optimized and focus on each individual operation. This research would create a global optimization by balancing the key issues that impact the overall flow of the aircraft. Depot MRO has its own unique set of challenges that make it different then traditional manufacturing. The age of their aircraft and the different operating environments of each aircraft further compound issues not addressed in conventional manufacturing. To address the unique needs of the MRO environment, we propose to develop heuristic strategies that approximate the optimal solution, and overcome the long computational time associated with exact solutions. These tools will utilize heuristic optimization strategies and be designed to enable the OC-ALC to react to the short lead-time environment common with its unpredictable repairs.

ACELLENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-1188
Dr. Shawn Beard
AF 07-109      Awarded: 7/30/2008
Title:Portable Active Damage Inspection (PADI) system for stress-corrosion cracks in aerospace structures
Abstract:Safety, reliability, and life-cycle cost are of great concern to the aging aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries. Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an accurate, reliable integrated system for detection, prediction and mitigation of aging and manufacturing related hazards in civilian and military aircraft. The objective of the proposed program will be to provide the U.S. Air Force with a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system for detection and quantification of degradation in aircraft structures specifically stress corrosion cracking. This information can then be transferred to the OEM's predictive models to provide predictions of remaining strength and life, thereby facilitating the development of maintenance strategies to mitigate the effects of the degradation on the aircraft safety and reliability. Most of the current structural health monitoring systems such as those based on vibration analysis focus on detecting the damage at component level and focus less on the failure of the material. Differing from these systems, Acellent’s system will use ultrasound Lamb waves from built-in sensor networks to sense the material change and detect micro-structural material changes. Phase I will focus on demonstrating feasibility of the system to detect stress corrosion cracking while phase II will focus on complete system development.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5232
Dr. George Zhao
AF 07-109      Awarded: 7/28/2008
Title:Ultrasonic Guided Wave Ring Array for Micro-structural Level Damage Monitoring
Abstract:Corrosion and cracking in aerospace structure materials is a common problem. Early detection of failures is desired for structural safety. Most existing structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques focus on detecting the damage of sizes beyond a certain threshold. We propose to design a SHM system for monitoring the material degradation in a micro-structural level before the real defect initiates. The proposed SHM system embeds ultrasonic guided wave sensor array for data acquisition and robust software for fault diagnosis/prognosis. It can achieve reliable detection of micromechanical damages with low false alarms and be able to localize the defect position and monitor its growth.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY LLC
561 Camino Ramanote
Rio Rico, AZ 85648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 872-3836
Mr. Shawn Dolan
AF 07-110      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:Handheld Real Time (RT) Climatic/Environmental Sensor
Abstract:This proposal will provide immediate decision support data, enabling appropriate and cost effective responses (shut down vs. continue) for training exercises/facilities. Specifically, the DoD requires the ability to “train as we fight and fight as we train”, however training is severely limited by visible emissions compliance in the current regulatory environment. Regulated facilities will have the ability to measure, report, and defend their visible emissions compliance status. Virtual Technology LLC is the prime vendor for the Digital Opacity Camera System and familiar with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 9. Both of these solutions lack critical legal defensibility due to human judgment/interpretation, data latency and traceability, and certified user availability. Re-using its existing knowledge base Virtual Technology LLC (VTLLC) will engineer a means to overcome these limitations in the context of the current regulatory environment. VTLLC will deliver a systems engineering design combining multiple existing technologies, GPS, Surveillance, GIS, Met-e, etc. into a single sensor system. The sensor system will provide real-time decision support to responsible individuals regarding compliance status and probability of violation. The final sensor design will provide a mobile device measuring visible emissions and projecting both source and boundary line opacity values on a localized and networked bases. The design will be predictive in its nature accounting for changing environmental variables with the capability to archive the required compliance data set on demand. The most critical factor in the sensor system design will be the human interface to insure simplicity of operation with no to very low training requirement.

YANKEE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
101 Industrial Blvd.
Turners Falls, MA 01376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 863-0200
Mr. Mark C. Beaubien
AF 07-110      Awarded: 4/1/2008
Title:Handheld Real Time (RT) Climatic/Environmental Sensor
Abstract:DoD is required to comply with EPA acceptable opacity levels, whereas training operations often involve smoke plumes and a portable measurement tool is needed for regulatory compliance. Passive imaging techniques for opacity measurements unfortunately are constrained by two limits: First, the observer must be located between the sun and the target plume of interest and second, the scene must be bright enough to ensure images have sufficient contrast ratios. That is, the sun must be located behind the observer’s camera and it must be daytime. Although the first requirement can be met through careful planning, most military missions necessarily occur under the cover of nightfall, where such imaging methods are unusable. We describe a portable passive CCD imager integrated with an eye-safe lidar rangefinder to acquire plume backscatter data to support both daytime contrast CCD imaging opacity measurement and nighttime operation, via the "lidar equation." If in the field it becomes impractical to observe with the sun behind the observer, the lidar beam can also supplant measurements during daytime hours from locations where forward scattered light pollution from the sun’s direct beam would otherwise render radiance CCD imaging impossible. The R&D of this sensor suite involves both hardware and software algorithms.

XIMAX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.LTD.
4750 Rusina Rd, STE #108
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 260-6497
Dr. Xiqun Zhu
AF 07-111      Awarded: 4/4/2008
Title:A Compact Deployable Micro Immersive Display Component
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop a compact deployable micro immersive display component for augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) based simulation, training, exercises or mission rehearsal applications. The proposed display component is an eye protection goggle type wearable high resolution stereo display. With head tracking and registration, it enables wearers to view a 360 º immersive virtual environment and multiple users’ view can be synchronized so they are immersed in the same virtual environment. It will be compatible and can be integrated with all current visual systems. It provides a new way to solve one of the fundamental and common problems in VR: users are completely cut-off from real world view; and in AR: combining virtual and real images. It supports both video and optical see-through at dynamically variable blending ratio in one system and can switch back and forth seamlessly to combine their advantages. Additionally, it can overcome sun-light readability problem, which is a major challenge for all outdoors display systems in general. We will solve this problem in a way no other systems have used so far ------ automatically adjusting the transparency of display screen to adapt to environmental brightness.

EBERT COMPOSITES CORP.
651 Anita Street, #B-8
Chula Vista, CA 91911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 423-9360
Mr. David W. Johnson
AF 07-113      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Hydrophobic/Non-Delaminating Radome Material
Abstract:Radomes provide environmental protection for radar antennas. Materials for Radome construction must exhibit certain characteristics such as resistance to environmental factors, structural strength, radar transparency, and lightweight. A common construction technique utilizes composite sandwich panel elements which can provide exceptional structural strength with low weight and optimal RF transmission properties. Traditional sandwich panel designs often delaminate under stress whereby, the structural skins separate from the core material, thus significantly lowering the load bearing capabilities of the sandwich panel. Ebert Composites Corporation has developed a 3D fiber insertion technique that produces sandwich panel that is highly resistant to delamination. The purpose of the Phase I project will be to investigate various 3D sandwich panel configurations for use as a radome structural material and to test the effects of the 3D fiber on the transmission loss at typical radar frequencies. Additionally, research will be conducted on various treatments that can be applied to the sandwich panels to provide superior hydrophobic characteristics, remain compatible with the panel material, and maintain appropriate RF properties.

COMPOSITE SUPPORT & SOLUTIONS, INC.
32526 Seahill Drive, Bldg. C-11
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 514-3162
Dr. Clem Hiel
AF 07-114      Awarded: 5/1/2008
Title:Identification of the Anisotropic Rigidities and Damping of Composite Panels for Radomes and Shelters
Abstract:Advanced Composite shelter and radome designs save large sums of money because they do not corrode, and are highly movable. Moving them does not require the energy and fuel costs once associated with their steel counterparts and their maintenance can be done in the field with almost no exceptions. Composite shelters and radomes make use of sandwich panels because they combine great stiffness and strength with low signal attenuation. The anisotropic rigidities and the damping of sandwich panels have proven to be very important for their successful utilization. Nevertheless the identification of these properties is difficult, cumbersome, and expensive. This Phase I SBIR outlines a new approach. The idea is to use a finite element program “backwards.” A procedure has been outlined for the very precise measurement of resonant frequencies. Using these frequencies as input, the sandwich panel stiffness and shear properties may be calculated by using a methodology which will be developed during the phase-I research. In addition to the rigidities, a procedure will be developed to measure precise materials damping coefficients. Since the rigidities and damping coefficients are dependent on sandwich panel type (thermoset or thermoplastic), quality and extreme temperature conditions this characterization method may also provide to be a powerful tool for sandwich panel quality inspection.

(ES3) ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOLUTION, INC.
550 West C Street, Suite 1630
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 926-1150
Mr. Craig Pessetto
AF 07-115      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:Restoration of Dimensional Tolerances
Abstract:When the inner diameter (ID) of aluminum landing gear outer cylinders is worn or damaged there is very little that can be done to repair the damage consequently the outer cylinder has to be condemned and taken out of service. The aircraft industry condemns many aluminum strut outer cylinders at a high cost. The cost to the USAF alone is of approximately $3M per years. The main cause for condemnations is that the ID of the cylinders is over sized due to wear or a deep scratch cause by failure of an internal component. Chrome plating and various thermal sprays can be used to repair steel outer cylinders when they are damaged, unfortunately there is very little that can be done to repair a hard anodized surface. A coating repair which builds up thickness and can be machined /ground to size, like chrome plating, for aluminum cylinder IDs would be a great value to the aircraft industry. The coating would have to be able to seal hydraulic fluid and high pressure nitrogen. It would also have to be able to handle high loads without spalling off. If a repair method could be developed then a considerable savings could be realized by the aircraft as well as improved supportability to the fleet. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) or magnetron sputtering technology has the potential to apply the same series of aluminum onto worn aluminum outer cylinders and possibly other aluminum parts. Magnetron sputtering process is currently used to apply thin coatings (0.001 inches) of aluminum on steel landing gear parts for corrosion. This process can be modified to be able to apply thick coatings (0.008-0.010 inches) of same series aluminum onto the ID of aluminum outer cylinders. This coating then can be machine, anodized and honed to bring the outer cylinder back to serviceable condition.

ADVANCED GLOBAL SERVICES
1312 Patriotic Lane
McKinney, TX 75071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 748-1778
Dr. GENNADY YUMSHTYK
AF 07-115      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Restoration of LG components by EPVD
Abstract:Aluminum-made LG outer cylinders easily become damaged developing nicks and scratches of 5 thousandths of an inch or deeper on the inner surface (ID). This leads to a premature condemnation. There is currently no repair technique to restore the LG outer cylinders to serviceable condition. The EPVD® technique is developed to apply fully dense, well-adhered non-hazardous coatings to internal surfaces of tubular shapes. Development of unique process parameters to rapidly buildup aluminum material to the specified dimension and use of unique in-situ surface preparation methods will ensure a high quality coating. Exploitation of the EPVD™ technique will allow “surface engineering” of desired materials and provide the Air Force the capability of saving in excess of $3 Million annually by restoring unserviceable LG outer cylinders to functional condition.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:A Portable, Vibro-Acoustic Based NDI System for Composite Structures
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with our commercialization partner Boeing, propose to develop a portable, non-destructive inspection (NDI) system that can quickly and accurately determine the damage state of an aircraft composite structure using vibro- acoustic feature analysis. The high-frequency analysis method proposed can be applied in an automated manner using a modal hammer and vibro-acoustic accelerometers capable of assessing the location and severity of various forms of damage, including dis- bonds and delamination. The application of the proposed developments will be focused on the F-15 vertical stabilator region, which our commercialization partner Boeing to assist with design specific knowledge. The core innovations of this project include: 1) Implementation of practical, real-time, non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods (including sensors and signal processing software) that can be applied to critical regions of aircraft structures using piezo-electric response measurements for damage assessments; 2) Development of an integrated frequency, damping and mode shape sensitivity algorithm for damage detection and localization; 3) Development of a stress wave analysis algorithm that incorporates an optimized triangulation procedure for improved damage localization once damage is detected; and 4) Validation of the portable NDI system prototype (including hardware, software and sensors) based on performing a series of well-organized and realistic tests on composite panels with various levels of external and internal damage and baseline testing of the F-15 vertical stabilator region.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. James Kilpatrick
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Integration of Signal Analysis Suite and Field-Portable Matrix Laser Doppler Vibrometer (MXLDV) for Composite NDE
Abstract:This proposal seeks to produce a unique instrument for flight-line NDE and defect detection in aerospace composite structures based on integration of a new high speed laser Doppler imaging vibrometer with an automated software data processing suite. The principle of the method and technical feasibility of the proposed instrument has already been established with solutions to the major technical hurdles having been demonstrated. This proposal lays out a path to practical implementation of a field instrument employing a customized detector/processor unit running dedicated data processing and defect image extraction algorithms developed under this program. The Matrix Laser Doppler Vibrometer (MXLDV) employs a 2D fiber-optic LDV array which enables high speed image capture of any arbitrary surface vibration distribution including steady state (modal), random or transient vibrations. This feature of the MXLDV is unparalleled by existing optical methods such as scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV), electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) or shearography, which have all been proposed and investigated for this application. As a unique technology, MXLDV offers the prospect of a practical field instrument for composite NDE and defect detection which is many times faster than SLDV and many times more sensitive than ESPI or shearography.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. Andrei B. Vakhtin
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Optical NDI of Advanced Composites
Abstract:Advanced composite materials are widely used in many aerospace structures. Although these materials possess superior mechanical properties, they are subject to various types of damage during operation. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have non- destructive inspection (NDI) tools capable of monitoring damage and water ingress in the advanced composites. Southwest Sciences proposes to use an innovative optical technique based on diffuse reflectance, which will provide fast non-destructive critical evaluation of damage and water penetration in advanced composites. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and outline the design of the Phase II prototype instrument.

VISTA ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
8203 W. Quinault Ave. Building C, Suite 200
Kennewick, WA 99336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 737-1377
Dr. Joseph W. Maresca, Jr.
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Damage Detection and Identification in Advanced Composites
Abstract:Vista Engineering Technologies will develop, validate, and deliver a fully automated, real- time, computer-based, portable IR system for making a pass-fail decision about the location and extent of damage to composite aerospace structures that improves upon existing methods in terms of speed, accuracy, and cost. An engineering prototype of the system will be demonstrated on both test articles provided by the Air Force and on actual aircraft in the field to evaluate the detection and location performance in terms of probability of detection and probability of false alarm. The system can be automated using a signal processing algorithm that has been developed and validated by Vista Engineering on the composite samples of the rudder and vertical stabilizer of an F-15 aircraft for the detection of and classification of skin-to-core disbonds, delamination, and fluid ingress. The successful application of the technology is due to novel methods of heating the composite no more than several degrees to produce a strong thermal signature due to the defect. A single measurement over a 2-ft2-area can be in 15 to 60 s using a COTS low- cost, low-resolution (320x240) uncooled IR camera; an entire vertical stabilizer can be inspected in the field in less than 1 h.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Volodymyr Romanov
AF 07-118      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Compton Backscattered Focusing X-Ray Corrosion Detection System
Abstract:To address this Air Force need for non-destructive inspection and subsurface corrosion detection in deep, multilayered, tapered-thickness, and potentially dissimilar metallic structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new unique, affordable, portable, low-cost, non-scanning Compton backscattered focusing X-ray Corrosion Detection system (XCD). The proposed device is based on the use of POC’s innovative Lobster Eye X-ray focusing lens and registration of X-ray Compton backscattered photons to provide one-side in situ corrosion detection of multilayered metallic structures. The XCD includes a portable X-ray source, Lobster Eye lens, and an X-ray CCD camera, with a portable computer providing X-ray image processing integrated in the compact handheld housing. The XCD system will provide resolution better then 1 mm^2 with the Lobster-Eye lens for corrosion detection in deep layers, with a full effective thickness of 2-5 cm for aluminum and titanium alloys, and about 1 cm for steels. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the XCD system by using its prototype for corrosion detection of multilayered (4-5) aluminum alloys. In Phase II POC will design, fabricate, and test a prototype of the commercial variant of the XCD system, integrated with built-in computer system.

QUEST INTEGRATED
1012 Central Avenue South
Kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 872-9500
Mr. Phillip D. Bondurant
AF 07-118      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Improved magneto-optic methods for aircraft corrosion detection
Abstract:Aircraft undergo constant routine inspection in order to maintain airworthiness. Subsurface corrosion and metal fatigue in airframes which goes undetected can have tragic consequences. The QUEST proprietary magneto-optic imager (MOI) is a non- destructive technique which is currently used by the Air Force, NASA and commercial clients for subsurface flaw detection with better performance than traditional eddy current methods. We will extend the operational methods to increase the field of view, measure the depth of detected flaws, and incorporate advanced real-time background subtraction methods. These enhancements will significantly extend the ability of the MOI to inspect for subsurface corrosion and cracking in deep subsurface layers down to layer 4 or 5 of airframes. QUEST has extensive experience in developing and deploying non-destructive testing devices for industry.

REACTIVE INNOVATIONS, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 952-6947
Dr. Michael C. Kimble
AF 07-118      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Aircraft Corrosion Inspection System
Abstract:The Air Force requires an improved corrosion detector to assess corrosion in multi-layer metallic structures on its aircraft. A compact and portable device is needed that can pinpoint corrosion in the early stages of pitting deep within these multi-layer structures. Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes a Phase I program to develop and demonstrate a corrosion detection system based on an electrochemical interrogation method. We have previously shown a method to electrochemically characterize surfaces that can be packaged into a hand-held and inexpensive device. With this approach, we will apply it to the real-time assessment of corrosion on complex geometric components on aircraft. During the Phase I program, we will show the interrogation methodology to locate and assess the severity of corrosion on multi-layer aluminum components with varying degrees of corrosion. Algorithms will be developed to help assess the detector response. An assessment of the scan rate, detector size and mass, and the unit cost will be made that will be applied in a Phase II program to develop an operational hand-held corrosion detection system.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4766
Dr. Nikolay Kharin
AF 07-119      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Nonlinear Elastic Waves Spectroscopy (NEWS) for non-destructive inspection and detection of the subsurface cracks and flaws
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research is to develop a new technology, based on the principles of nonlinear acoustics that will provide an accurate detection of subsurface crack and flaws in materials used in aircraft. Existing theoretical and experimental data demonstrate that the detection of microcracks and other defects that accumulate in material due to fatigue and external damage is enhanced by orders of magnitude with the use of nonlinear acoustic techniques. In the proposed work we will apply two novel techniques of nonlinear acoustic nondestructive evaluation (NA NDE) for evaluation of the material damage. The first technique exploits modulation of ultrasound by low-frequency vibrations and the second is called nonlinear time reversal acoustic (NTRA). Both techniques have a great potential for microcracks detection and localization, even if taken separately. We, however, propose to develop a combined NEWS technique, which will take the advantages of both methods. The Phase I research effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed nonlinear acoustics techniques and supporting models. We will also produce first generation instrumentation and data processing techniques that will become the foundation of a cost effective and “field-friendly” product for the nondestructive inspection (NDI) of aircraft materials.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6856
Mr. Timothy Tiernan
AF 07-119      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Inspection of Subsurface Flaws around Fasteners on Aircraft
Abstract:New technology is needed for nondestructive inspection (NDI) of defects in metallic components on aircraft. Small cracks and flaws in multilayer components near rivets and fasteners are a particular concern. Other problems include detecting and characterizing small defects in highly confined areas. An NDI technology capable of imaging deeply buried defects at various layers of a component under a variety of surface conditions would be ideal. Existing NDI technologies such as visible imaging, x-radiography and acoustic emission cannot provide the high resolution NDI needed to detect deeply buried defects and characterize their dimensions and depth in a material. RMD proposes a revolutionary new eddy current imaging technology based on magnetic imaging and eddy current mapping detect and characterize cracks, corrosion and other defects in multilayer metallic components. A 2-D, solid-state sensor array will generate magnetic images of eddy currents. Eddy current mapping allow the system to perform highly dependable NDI on multilayer components containing defects near fasteners and holes. The proposed NDI system will be portable, versatile and simple to operate. The proposed NDI technology will improve aircraft integrity and crew safety, improve readiness, and reduce the cost and complexity of inspections.

(ES3) ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOLUTION, INC.
550 West C Street, Suite 1630
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 926-1150
Mr. Doug Wiser
AF 07-121      Awarded: 3/22/2008
Title:Development of Novel Cooling and Temperature Monitoring for High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Coating Applications
Abstract:Temperature control is a major concern during High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) processing in the aerospace industry. Typically, temperature must not exceed 300oF to prevent heat damage/ tempering of the substrates for steel alloys, and even lower temperature requirements for aluminum and titanium alloys. Shop air cooling has traditionally been the most widely utilized temperature control cooling medium when applying HVOF coatings to aircraft components such as airframe, engine/propeller, and landing gear components, because it is readily available in the shop environment. However, in many cases shop air has proven to be inadequate for controlling substrate temperatures. Consequently, longer off-part dwell times to allow for component cooling has become common practice – resulting in significant powder and gas consumption – both of which cost money. Additionally, the traditional temperature monitoring system has been a continuous reading single point infrared gun aimed at a single location on the component being sprayed. Although this is a widely accepted method in the HVOF community, it’s only good for measuring localized areas, whereas part temperature will vary along the length of the components particularly for parts with complex geometries. This compounds the temperature issues and makes optimization of temperature control very difficult.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Richard McAloney
AF 07-123      Awarded: 2/21/2008
Title:Ultrasensitive Contaminant Detection for PEM Fuel Cell Hydrogen Feed Strain
Abstract:Hydrogen fuel cells are poised to replace the internal combustion engine in the future. One example is a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates at low temperature and high power densities making them ideal candidates for automobile and other small domestic power applications. The main drawback of the technology is that PEM cells require highly pure hydrogen are easily poisoned by sulfur containing species and other impurities. A typical source of hydrogen for the Military is fuel reformers using fuels such a JP8. These feed stocks may contain compounds in trace amounts that would foul catalysts. Lynntech will develop an ultrasensitive sensor for liquid or vapor assuring the purity of the H2 feed streams or reformer intake. The technology relies on whispering gallery modes (WGM); optical resonances in micron-sized spheres that, due to the high quality factor, are extremely sensitive to the environment around the resonator. This property is detrimental to most sensing applications but can be used advantageously to detect minute changes in the hydrogen feed stream or reformate stock. To impart chemical sensitivity, microresonators will be coated with nanoparticles of the catalyst material or other metals to provide an exact representation and test for fouling compounds.

TECHNO-SCIENCES, INC.
11750 Beltsville Drive 3rd Floor
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 790-0600
Dr. Murat Yasar
AF 07-123      Awarded: 2/22/2008
Title:Low Cost, Trace Level Sulfur Sensor for Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Abstract:The development of reliable fuel cell technology will have tremendous impact towards developing a robust hydrogen economy. To utilize a source of hydrogen from reformers has been a major technical barrier to utilize fuel cells as power sources in the DoD applications. An inexpensive and innovative method is needed to continuously monitor the process stream of military logistical fuel (JP8) for sulfur and other compounds which would harm the reformer catalyst and fuel cell operation in order to reduce system costs and logistical footprint. Techno-Sciences, Inc. together with university partner Oklahoma State University proposes to develop a novel low cost nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance sensor capable of detecting part per billion trace levels of sulfur compounds present in the fuels utilized by hydrogen fuel cells. The sensor development will employ a unique nanofabrication technique, “electroless reduction on silicon”, combined with a novel sensing mechanism based on hybrid plasmons. In Phase I, the validity of the approach will be demonstrated as prototype sensor by using bench top experimental set ups and analysis technologies

APPLIED NANOFEMTO TECHNOLOGIES LLC
181 Stedmen St. Unite # 2
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 761-4293
Dr. Zhengmao Ye
AF 07-125      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Two-color Quantum Dot Emitter Array with Large Dynamic Range for Infrared Scene Projection
Abstract:Two-dimensional (2-D) infrared (IR) emitter arrays are of great importance in numerous military and commercial applications, including IR scene generation and infrared detection system emulation for missile warning systems (MWS), IR radiometric duplication and counter measurement, and medicine and spectroscopic trace-gas sensing. Existing technologies are limited in array size, dynamic range, speed, and emission IR bands that can be generated. This SBIR Phase I proposal aims to develop a new type of high-speed emitter array capable of two-color IR generation with a large dynamic range. Successfully developing the proposed innovation is expected to provide an enabling technology for high-speed IR scene projection with large dynamic coverage and voltage-tunable IR emission bands. In this SBIR phase I project, a preliminary 2×2 infrared (IR) emitter array will be developed for proof-of-concept demonstration. Performance features, such as multi-spectral emission, high-speed modulation and large dynamic range will be characterized and demonstrated. A large format (1024×1024) emitter array will be demonstrated and delivered to Air Force research lab in Phase II.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Travis Simpkins
AF 07-125      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Dual-band Infrared Projector
Abstract:The goal is to develop a dual-waveband (long-wave and mid-wave infrared) flickerless scene projector based on membrane-mirror-on-VLSI spatial light modulator technology. Two very high resolution modulators are combined in a novel zero-order pass spatial filtering system to achieve true simultaneous dual-band scene projection. The modulators employ a spatially continuous deformable mirror surface that offers continuous analog gray-scale light modulation. This gives a more realistic rendition of the scene than the pulse-width-modulation scheme offered by others. This Phase I program: (1) develops modifications to our existing high-voltage VLSI circuit substrates, (2) re-engineers the modified membrane-mirror-on-VLSI modulator for low-voltage (~ 20V) operation at mid- mid-infrared wavelengths, (3) develops the scene-generation software and hardware interfaces needed to project simultaneous dual-band scenes, and (4) begins exploratory work on the Phase II projector with performance goals that include: 2,000:1 contrast ratio, 1000x1000 pixels, 120 Hz framing rate and flickerless operation with at least a 15° field of view.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Russell Kurtz
AF 07-125      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Multispectral Universal Infrared Scene Projector
Abstract:Modern imaging systems require high-speed, hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) virtual reality projection, including combinations of thermal and spectral objects. The Air Force, therefore, is seeking an image projector capable of testing these imaging systems. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Multispectral Universal Infrared Scene Projector (MUVI-SP) system. This proposed system is based on MEMS-controlled mirror deformation, with a new design that eliminates debonding problems. It will offer interlaced thermal and spectral scene generation, with resolution exceeding 2 megapixels and a response time <1 ms. The MUVI-SP will offer a power ratio of 5000:1 (>12 bit dynamic range) throughout the infrared spectrum, from 2 to 20 microns, while simultaneously eliminating the image flicker common to existing scene projectors. By reducing pixel-to-pixel crosstalk to <0.1%, the proposed system will enable an apparent 500 degrees C temperature difference between adjacent pixels, while its design enables background temperature adjustment from <0 to >30 degrees C. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the MUVI-SP by computer analysis and design, resulting in demonstration of a proof-of-concept prototype. In Phase II POC plans to optimize the scene projector, add an HWIL interface, and demonstrate an engineering prototype MUVI-SP.

BLAZETECH CORP.
24 Thorndike St.
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. N. Albert Moussa
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is the development of a micro-sized and intelligent, wireless fire detection system that can operate in the harsh environment of military aircrafts. The system will use optical sensors configured to discriminate between fires and false alarms particularly the flash from projectile impacts. The wireless aspect of the system will enable the sensors to be easily installed and moved, where needed, and will reduce the need for much of the cumbersome and costly wiring of existing fire detection systems. The wireless network component of the sensor system will perform three critical functions: 1) Detect – that is, capture the measurements from the sensors; 2) Decide -- determine if the measurements or “signature” from the sensors represents a real fire or a false alarm; and 3) Distribute – transmit any “detected events” through the network to the controlling unit and finally, the pilot console or and/or management system. To accomplish this, the system will employ an ad-hoc mesh networking approach. Each sensor (or set of sensors) will be integrated with a 900MhZ low power radio frequency (RF) node that will be capable of self-organizing into a network and communicating with other radio nodes to propagate the sensor data. Each sensor node will have the intelligence to process the sensor data that it captures, and if required, fuse that data with the data from other sensor nodes. The mesh networking will be used to communicate between nodes within a dry bay. Advanced chip antennas will be used to enable directional coverage for radio propagation and provide an additional reliability to operate in a noisy EMI environment. To transmit the data between bays, repeater/router radio nodes will be used on either side of a compartment walls adjoining dry bays of the aircraft, connected to each other with thin aircraft-grade shielded wire which can be installed through the existing wiring harness. The design will be based on work conducted in a previous DHS program using wireless RF technology which enabled communication between multiple gas sensors within a metallic shipping container. The Phase I deliverables will include the functional design of a smart and reliable fire detection and wireless ad-hoc mesh network system that is capable of integrating signals from analog sensors, making on-board knowledge-based decisions, and communicating within metal compartments.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth G. Blemel
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/4/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:MSI develops and commercializes intelligent instrumentation modules. Our product emphasis is on instruments mounted in aircraft wiring connector. Their purpose is to provide real time situation awareness for component and system health monitoring. This topic fits perfectly with our current projects that are developing “smart” instrument systems for component diagnostics and prognostics, aircraft engine health monitoring, and aircraft health management. We propose a new SBIR research program that will adapt and enhance our electronic and artificial intelligence technologies to develop, design, build, and demonstrate a reliable yet rapid wireless fire detector system compatible with future and legacy aircraft. The wireless modality will send alerts to a receiver in the cockpit. The connector mounted format would wireless communications and provide additional flexibility for crew training and safety by connecting to the aircraft data bus. The Boeing Phantomworks vehicle health management systems (VHMS) group has agreed to be our mentor our engineers by providing aircraft domain expertise during the contract work effort.

NEW WAY SOLUTIONS, LLC
1519 New Way Drive
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 626-1405
Mr. Thomas Teall
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:New Way Solutions, LLC and Point Source Inc. offer complementary technical capabilities to provide a uniquely qualified team that can develop a rapid, low cost “proof of concept” design and propotype for an innovative wireless network of fire detectors. The New Way Solutions Team proposes to use an innovative energy harvesting technology that uses the piezoelectric effect to convert mechanical energy from aircraft vibrations into useable DC electrical energy. Vibration energy harvesting is a viable means for powering wireless sensor envisioned for the wireless flame detection system. The use of energy harvesting technologies offers the potential to eliminate the need for batteries and their associated logistics requirements.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Divsion 20600 Gramercy Place Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Daniel Bock
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Identification
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a wireless fire detection system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Wireless Fire Identification (WiFireID) system. This proposed device is based on a three-band optical sensor, an omnidirectional lens, and a ZigBee wireless network. The innovation in coupling an omnidirectional lens with a three-band optical sensor will enable WiFireID to detect fires over a large field of view at a very high speed (7 microseconds from ignition) and minimize false detections. The sensor package will weigh 3 ounces in a form factor of <25 cubic inches. Each package will be easily installable/ reconfigurable during maintenance once a year because it uses a universal frame clamp, which can be attached in 2 minutes per sensor. WiFireID will communicate from each sensor to the cockpit warning system and automatic fire suppression extinguishing subsystem via ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4). In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of WiFireID by creating a prototype and detecting fires, and rejecting nonfire sources as well. In Phase II POC plans to develop a field testable prototype that can be used in aircraft under operating conditions for demonstration of its ability to detect fires in aircraft.

SKYWARD, LTD.
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 418
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2710
Mr. John P. Haas
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:The proposed Skyward/ESI wireless fire detector system is a forward-looking concept that utilizes a collection of some commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies, applies them to this unique problem, and creates an innovative package addressing the many requirements of this SBIR topic. This system uses electro-optical devices in the form of a combination of photodiodes and thin film thermopiles (similar to fire detection technology already employed on the Joint Striker Fighter aircraft) for the fire detectors to target likely aircraft fire sources and to reduce the incidence of false detection by using comparative logic. This system also uses Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for transmission, which enables the detectors to be reduced in size and increased in quantity, eliminates wiring for the detectors, simplifies attachment requirements, and offers, with available technology, the potential for moving toward a semi-passive or even passive power source for the detectors. As this proposal shows, the final solution positively addresses requirements associated with weight, cost, false detection, response time, power requirements, installation requirements, and communication.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Brad Sallee
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector (WFD)
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a Wireless Fire Detector system (WFD) which consists of a suite of ultra low power, battery powered fire sensing modules, and repeater modules which are deployed throughout an aircraft in separate compartments, interconnected via an encoded low bandwidth network to a cockpit control unit. The sensors use solar blind UV sensors with high bandwidth processing, which allows discrimination between fire, bullet passage, and electrical corona breakdown. Upon detecting either fire or corona breakdown, the unit transmits the condition and its code, used to identify its aircraft location, to the cockpit control unit using an adaptive, flexible, multimode network using the array of radios. Communication between sensor modules and the cockpit control unit will be enhanced by implementing a combination of information cloud, information bridge and information shuttle to insure each module has connectivity to the network. Repeater modules located on both sides of the bulkhead near an existing through bulkhead connector allow transmission of the signal without aircraft structure or wiring modification. By using low power units, with one year battery life, no aircraft wiring modifications are needed to install the system.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Mr. Andy Stell
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:Effective fire suppression is a key contributor to aircraft survivability in a war zone. Many aircraft lack effective fire suppression in the wings and avionics bays because of cost and weight. Williams-Pyro will combine its expertise in fire detection, wireless technology, and low-power systems to solve all of the fire suppression issues in aircraft. These advances will make fire suppression feasible even for small aircraft such as UAVs. We will use commercial-off-the-shelf IEEE 802.15.4 wireless transceiver modules to demonstrate the wireless feature of our fire detectors. 802.15.4 is well-suited for our solution as it provides features such as low transmit power (<1mW), which prevents interference with aircraft’s systems; Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) encoding improves jam resistance; and provides worldwide unlicensed radio-frequency operation. In order to achieve the required 1ms transmit/receive latency, we will modify the existing protocol layers. Zigbee, an extension of IEEE802.15.4, allows a best-case latency of 15ms. Short latencies are a critical need in airborne fire detection and suppression, so a best-case latency of 1ms is required. To meet the latency requirement, Williams-Pyro will use a Hyperbee extension of IEEE802.15.4. The Hyperbee extension uses clock synchronization and channel characterization methods to improve latency to 1ms.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. Jeffrey S.N. Paine
AF 07-131      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:Precision Motorized Cryo/Vacuum Stage
Abstract:Space Mechanism testing often requires precision motion control in a cryogenic and high vacuum environment. Precision position devices that can provide motion over large distances and with relatively high forces are required. DSM proposes a revolutionary piezoelectric motorized stage that is cryogenic and vacuum compatible to provide positioning and motion control for Air Force requirements in space mechanism testing. The motorized stage design represents an innovative mechanism topology that is universal in configuration such that it can be incorporated into a variety of precision instrumentation and metrology environments. Representing a novel step and repeat or walking beam motor, DSM’s design provides a number of key benefits over traditional electromagnetic driven stages. The piezoelectric motorized stage operates in cryo without any lubrication or rolling components. The technology uses very simple solid state flexure mechanisms to provide high force (600 lbf) in a relatively small cryo compatible package. With an inherently precise fit and geometry, the stage will achieve nanometer level resolution and stability. This proposal addresses DSM’s perceived approach to the development of space qualified demonstration components.

SQUARE ONE SYSTEMS DESIGN
P.O Box 10520 3135 Mallard Road
Jackson, WY 83002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 734-0211
Mr. Robert Viola
AF 07-131      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:A Cryo-Vacuum Compatible Positioning System
Abstract:Space-based systems have become indispensable elements of global communication, scientific research and military reconnaissance. The expenses associated with launching spacecraft are enormous and, once in orbit, any component failure may have catastrophic consequences. Extensive earth-based testing is essential to ensure a high success rate. To approximate the demanding conditions of space deployment, the Air Force maintains large test chambers capable of creating low temperature, high vacuum environments. However, commercial testing apparatus must be specially modified for the harsh cryo-vacuum environment and mechanical failures within these chambers are not uncommon. A program of applied research is proposed to develop a robust, high- precision positioning system that is fully compatible with space chamber environments. Commercial motion technologies that are inherently more compatible with high vacuum and very low temperatures are investigated. Design modification and novel materials with the potential of further improving the performance of these technologies are evaluated. Finally, ways that these individual design elements can be integrated to create a versatile, multi-axis position system are presented.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4760
Dr. Dan Xiang
AF 07-132      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:High Temperature Force Sensor System for Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test
Abstract:Measurements of vehicle/test article component loads and control-surface loads are required during testing to provide vital information for flight vehicle control, design and performance estimation and for structural design loads prediction. Accurate measurements of forces and moments experienced by the test article are critical during wind tunnel tests. Typical wind tunnel conditions are speeds of Mach 8 at total temperature up to 900 ºF. Thermal effects associated with testing in the continuous-flow hypersonic wind tunnel impose challenges for strain-gauge balances or other force/moment measuring devices used for component loads. A non-water-cooled thermal protection and compensation design solution is needed. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes to develop innovative sensor architectures, electronics, and software techniques to provide the force sensor with capabilities of continuous measurements under high temperature without water-cool or thermal protection.

LAMBDA INSTRUMENTS, INC.
840 University City Blvd Suite 4
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1796
Mr. Jon Greene
AF 07-132      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:High Temperature Hypersonic Force Measurement System
Abstract:The use of electrical foil strain gages to measure aerodynamic loads on sting balances during wind tunnel testing has been extremely successful for relatively low temperature applications. Problems arise, however, in strain gages when the wind tunnel is operated at high temperatures. The bonding agent used to attach the sensor to the specimen often limits the maximum working temperature of the gage to below approximately 650º F. Another important disadvantage of the electrical foil gage is their sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Previous work by AEDC and Virginia Tech investigated the ability to use optical fiber-optic based strain and temperature sensors in lieu of foil strain gages to improve wind tunnel force balance capabilities. Absolute optical fiber sensors were found to offer many advantages over conventional foil strain-gage technology (e.g., increased frequency response, increased temperature range, EMI immunity, multiplexing, and decreased size). During Phase I, Lambda Instruments, Inc. proposes to build upon previous successful results obtained by AEDC, Virginia Tech, and the Lambda PI to investigate the feasibility of extending the temperature rating of an optical fiber sensor-based force balance up to 900 ºF.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Matthew E. Palmer
AF 07-132      Awarded: 4/2/2008
Title:Un-cooled High-Temperature Hypersonic Force Measurement System
Abstract:The design of hypersonic vehicles is challenging when compared to other flight vehicles. This is largely due to the inadequacy of ground testing capabilities for reproducing the combined temperature and flow effects present during hypersonic flight. Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high-temperature, un-cooled, three- component force balance based on proven fiber optic sensing technology. Luna, teaming with a leading OEM, will design and develop a force balance that can accurately measure a combination of angle-of-attack, yaw, pitch, drag, lift, and moment while withstanding continuous operating temperatures of 900°F (482°C) as seen during hypersonic tests at ground based facilities. This high speed data collection system and thermally compensated, high accuracy balance is necessary to advance the testing capabilities of ground based facilities. Luna is a world leader in the development of sensing systems, supplying solutions for a variety of harsh-environment applications. This development will utilize proven sensor technology that integrates active, integrated thermal compensation with a highly accurate, miniaturized, multi-channel sensing network. The small size of the force balance combined with a high channel count data processing system designed by Luna, will provide advanced ground based measurement capabilities for the Air Force for virtually any size wind tunnel test model.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
AF 07-133      Awarded: 3/20/2008
Title:Valves for Measurement and Actuation System of Transient Jets (VMAST)
Abstract:The Air Force has a need to measure short-duration forces and moments generated by impulse control devices, e.g., transient transverse gaseous jets. The measurement of short-duration loads/impulses from pulsating control jets of intercept missiles is important to the missile defense program offices. Testing requires very versatile but precise valves capable of providing simulated jet for control of future weapon systems. Supersonic and hypersonic ballistic missile defense interceptors as well as recently emerging ship-board defense systems, air-to-air missiles and guided rockets concepts require a level of maneuverability available almost exclusively through the use of control jets issuing at large angles relative to the direction of flight. The goal is to develop and demonstrate a valve and associated control and measurement system to generate short-duration gas streams for transient jet interaction measurements during force/moment testing in a continuous-flow wind tunnel or equivalent environment. Since both a valve and measurement system is required, very few companies can provide both solutions. Midé is uniquely positioned to provide both a custom high speed valve and force/moment balance for wind tunnel systems at the Air Force.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Drew L'Esperance
AF 07-134      Awarded: 5/14/2008
Title:Hollow-Core Fibers for High-Energy Beam Delivery in CARS
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal addresses an Air Force need for enabling use of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) for non-intrusive measurements of gas species and temperature in high enthalpy gas flows that are currently inaccessible or impractical with conventional CARS configurations. We propose to determine the feasibility of employing hollow core optical fibers to deliver pulses capable of generating CARS signals. This all-fiber-optical CARS system would enable the use of CARS in more hostile and restrictive environments. Lasers and other delicate equipment would be separated from a small measurement head that can be easily protected and manipulated in the vicinity of the test gas. We have identified several hollow core fiber types that appear to meet the necessary criteria and these will be evaluated as a part of the solution.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Dr. Nahum Gat
AF 07-134      Awarded: 4/14/2008
Title:Fiber-Based Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy System
Abstract:The goal of this project is to demonstrate a fiber-optics based Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) system. Fiber delivery will greatly increase the utility of CARS systems for measurements in test propulsion and combustion facilities. Current commercial fiber optics cannot simultaneously deliver the high peak power and beam quality needed for CARS, but by pushing specialty fiber development in the right direction the needed advances are within reach. In Phase I, OKSI will work closely with leading specialty fiber manufactures to: (1) obtain sample fibers for testing with typical CARS lasers; (2) model the fiber parameters critical in terms of damage threshold, non-linearity, and beam quality; and (3) design new custom fibers that will be specifically developed to deliver CARS probe and pump beams. In addition, OKSI will also perform a preliminary design of a complete CARS system including selecting appropriate lasers. In Phase II, custom fibers will be produced and a CARS system with remote fiber delivery will be constructed and installed at an appropriate test facility. The project builds upon OKSI’s previous compact, robust CARS system for measurements in rocket test stands, and fiber delivery will enable the application of CARS to previously inaccessible experiments.

SPECTRAL ENERGIES, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Dr. Sivaram P Gogineni
AF 07-134      Awarded: 4/21/2008
Title:Picosecond-Laser-Based Fiber-Coupled Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Spectroscopy System
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase-I research effort is to perform temperature and species measurements in both H2-air and C2H4-air flames using a fiber-coupled picosecond CARS system. Single-mode and step-index multi-mode fibers will be investigated for the delivery of the picosecond lasers to pump the target species and also to collect the generated CARS signal. The key element of our proposed innovation is the use of the picosecond CARS, that has the ability to suppress the nonresonant background signal from the hydrocarbon-air combustion by several orders of magnitude by tuning the delay of the probe laser after the interaction of the pump and Stokes lasers with the target. It also well-suited to the hypersonic regime for studying non-equilibrium phenomena. The unique feature of the ps-CARS technique for fiber delivery is that it requires two orders of magnitude less energy per laser pulse compared to the conventional nanosecond CARS. This effort will be based on a combination of both the experimental demonstration and a theoretical investigation of the propagation of picosecond laser pulses through various fibers. We will also explore the use of a new class of dispersion managed optical fibers such as hollow core fibers and photonic crystal fibers (PCF). Based on the success of the Phase-I effort we will build and deliver a picosecond laser-based fiber-coupled CARS system for wind-tunnel and gas turbine combustor thermometry and speciation during the Phase-II research effort.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Mr. David Popp
AF 07-135      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Vibration Analysis of Rotating Plant Machinery
Abstract:Several long term vibration problems have cost AEDC thousands of labor hours from maintenance resources. These problems involving compressors, synchronous motors, and turbine engines continue to threaten testing operations and maintenance budgets. The IAC-1044 has been designed to apply advanced signal processing techniques to identify resonances, distinguish acoustically and mechanically driven vibrations, and discern electrical faults from mechanical faults. The IAC-1034, the predecessor to the IAC-1044, is already being used to monitor the health of some turbines used at AEDC. IAC proposes to continue to identify key equipment to include in the Industrial Monitoring solution. Software improvements and new sensor technologies will also be considered to support the configuration and analysis of the new equipment. This may include changes to the real-time operating system running on the IAC-1044 as well as the windows applications used to configure and monitor the results.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Dr. Carl Stern
AF 07-135      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:An Integrated Phenomenological and Physics-based framework for Multi-Sensor Vibration Analysis
Abstract:Management Sciences has developed a layered algorithmic framework for high dimensional data analysis and fault detection focusing on multi-sensor vibration data. Processing modes include signal processing, factor analysis, source separation, feature extraction, classification, and Bayesian contextualization. These are applied dynamically to support online health monitoring and prognostic health management. Our existing approach, called “Data Driven Diagnostics and Prognostics”, is based on a physics-free “phenomenological” methodology for characterizing the vibration signatures associated with normal and fault states, for detecting and classifying unknown states through their vibration and related sensor signatures, and for tracking progressions to failure. This phenomenological approach has been successfully applied and tested on a workbench including power supply, motor, drive shaft, gears, couplings, pump, and valves. This proposed research project would develop and extend this technology in two ways. First, we would integrate our current phenomenological approach with a physics (kinematics and geometry)–based approach for correlating vibration frequencies, magnitudes, and energies with the relevant excitatory phenomena including fault modes. Second, we would extend our existing application domain to high speed turbo-machinery, making the necessary adaptations and modifications to address the challenges associated with a multiplicity of operational and transitional states and the potential for short event horizons.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Mr. William Kelly
AF 07-135      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Active Vibration and Physics-Based Health Management
Abstract:The proposed approach adds critical and innovative methods to existing vibration and electric current based CBM systems that allow more detailed evaluation of machinery health. The key methods, termed as TAP™ (Time Averaged Pulse) and BLIP™ (Bump Load Induced Pulse), involve artificial stimulation applied to the machinery system. MSI’s active method provides data in response to imposed levels of excitation and is used to update on-board physics-based FEA models. The machine user is provided with specific information about remaining life and the component(s) that will be causing an interruption in equipment operation. This is accomplished by tuning (curve-fitting) the dynamic response and applying physical interpretations to trends, with the aid of fatigue, fracture mechanics, electric current, and tribological analytical methods. Key parameters used by MSI’s system include values of the natural frequencies, their modal damping, and the force deduced at key excitation frequencies. The natural frequencies are fit into physics- based diagrams for useful interpretation. ‘Time-to-reflection” correlation plots and mode versus frequency density diagrams are automatically assembled from surprisingly few sensors. The Phase I effort concludes with a demonstration using an existing compressor rig.

SENTIENT CORP.
850 Energy Drive Suite 307
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 876-3100
Dr. Jerome Palazzolo
AF 07-135      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Vibration Analysis of Rotating Plant Machinery
Abstract:Health monitoring and management of critical machinery is becoming state-of-the-art for military aircraft. Application of advanced health monitoring technology to ground-based plant equipment is an obvious, needed extension. Advanced signal processing algorithms that can analyze vibration signals to identify fault source and severity and track trends of data features is key to efficient maintenance practices for rotating plant machinery. This is the basis of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM), in which maintenance is performed based on the measured condition of the mechanical components. Maintenance is performed only after fault detection but before failure. Condition-based maintenance minimizes downtime, eliminates unnecessary maintenance, and prevents secondary damage from in-service failures. Rudimentary technologies to monitor rotating plant machinery systems exist, taking the form of stand-alone monitoring devices or manual machine monitoring. Application of advanced diagnostic and prognostic algorithms recently developed for aerospace applications will allow the development of intelligent health monitoring system that maximizes diagnostic coverage while minimizing the number of sensors added. Sentient will develop a low-cost, robust health monitoring system applicable to a wide range of commercial rotating machinery. Phase I will demonstrate the underlying sensing and diagnostic algorithms. Phase II will develop and demonstrate a complete prototype installed on operating plant machinery.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Mr. Alton Reich
AF 07-135      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:Vibration Analysis of Rotating Plant Machinery
Abstract:The AEDC Engine Test Facility (ETF) has more than 20 test cells that can be used for testing prototype propulsion systems and components. A variety of rotating machinery, including compressors and pumps, is crucial to wind tunnel operations. The unplanned failure of a major component can have a major impact on testing schedules. As such, there is significant motivation to avoid unplanned outages caused by equipment failure, in particular failures that require significant time and effort to recover from. Therefore, AEDC requires a vibration-based machinery condition analysis system for plant rotating machinery that can provide early indication of machinery and bearing wear, and accurate predictions of time to failure that enable major maintenance operations to be planned well in advance. A vibration-based machinery condition analysis system will be developed using a combination of existing accelerometers and acoustic transducers. These enable high-frequency (several times rotational frequency) vibration information to be extracted. The captured data will be archived and used to develop trends over time. An expert system will be developed to analyze the data to screen out normal readings and to aid plant personnel in identifying areas of concern. The system will also be developed to estimate the time remaining until components will need to be replaced in order to allow planning of maintenance outages.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5236
Dr. Chujen Lin
AF 07-136      Awarded: 3/25/2008
Title:A UWB-based Secure and Robust Wireless Data Network
Abstract:We propose to design a UWB-based secure and robust wireless data transmission and tracking system for use in a plant environment. The tracking system can automatically track the location of nodes and will greatly increase the accuracy of tracking over current methods. It can penetrate obstacles, making it suitable in the plant environments. It ensures signal level transmission security, low radio frequency emission and interference, and light-weighted automatic tracking. The advantages of using UWB includes: low probability of intercept and low probability of detection, no multi-path interference, no Cosite interference, high tracking accuracy. We also propose a novel and fail-proof authentication method based on the locations of UWB radios to improve security level of the system. The location-based authentication key is impossible for any other radio to obtain without being in the same physical location as the two authorized radios.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alireza Shapoury
AF 07-136      Awarded: 4/2/2008
Title:Secure Location-Based Information Network
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a secure plant operation data network, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Secure Location-based Information Network (SLIN). This proposed system is based on spread spectrum wireless transmission, location tracking, speech recognition, text reading capability, and context- based access control (CBAC). The innovation in designing protective circuitry and optimizing the physical (PHY) layer under strong EMI will enable the SLIN to securely and reliably operate in plant and industrial environments. In this novel design, the identification, role of the operating personnel, and tasks, and the message-routing information are utilized in the authentication step. The interface consists of a wearable communicator with built-in cryptographer which communicates to installed access points. The location of the communicator is identified by the location calculator unit via the links between the communicator and the access points. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SLIN by demonstrating a bench-scale system prototype in a laboratory environment. In Phase II POC plans to develop a complete integrated Phase II SLIN system, further optimize it, and perform extended tests of the device, subjecting it to physical challenges in a candidate plant.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Mr. Alton Reich
AF 07-136      Awarded: 3/19/2008
Title:Secure Plant Operations Data Network
Abstract:Many AEDC personnel are tasked with supporting facility operations by providing testing support, instrumentation support, facilities engineering and facilities maintenance. This requires personnel to spend some of their time in their normally assigned work areas and portions of their time in and around test cells, wind tunnel control areas, and on the wind tunnels themselves. The AEDC plant areas are equipped with a plant-wide paging system consisting of outdoor speakers. The sound quality of these broadcast paging messages is highly variable and dependent on the location of the listener in relation to the speakers and the level of background noise. As such, these messages are often difficult to understand. Streamline Automation proposes to develop a plant-wide voice and data communications network that will be based on Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) technology and take advantage of existing network infrastructure. Server-side software will be used to convert voice messages to text and text files to voice. Additional server- side software will be used to track the location of users within the plant. The system will utilize encryption to protect the content transmitted over the network, and will be designed to minimize transmission power to prevent message patterns from providing information about plant operations.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Richard E. Cagley
AF 07-136      Awarded: 3/19/2008
Title:Secure Plant Operations Data Network
Abstract:From a technical perspective, providing secure and reliable wireless communication in a plant setting presents an array of challenges. In particular, there are difficult engineering trades that must be made between probability of signal detection and interception, against reliability of signal transmission and associated issues such as localization. As there are no existing off-the-shelf waveforms that satisfy the stated system requirements Toyon proposes to develop a software defined radio (SDR) waveform that incorporates a range of state-of-the-art features. While ultawideband is an appealing technology due to its low probability of detection, its limited range and susceptibility to interface precludes its use for this effort. Instead, Toyon will base our system on direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS), using cyclic code shift keying (CCSK) as the spreading waveform to minimize probability of interception and detection. 256-bit AES encryption with public key sharing will be employed, making it virtually impossible to intercept data from system communications. Time-of-flight estimation from the wireless physical layer will be used for localization. Providing a complete system, Toyon’s SDR platform will be used for Phase I demonstration. The platform is well suited to custom application layer development, such as voice-over-IP, voice-to-text translation, and bridging to WLANs.

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
22 Pond View Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-4464
Dr. Wei Hu
AF 07-138      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low Temperature Multi-Spectral Image Projector
Abstract:There has been a strong worldwide interest in the development of technologies that would enable hardware in the loop (HWIL) stimulation of imaging sensors. Presently, a majority of the image projection systems are based on micro-resistor arrays, deformable mirror devices, spatial light modulators, and liquid crystal light valves. In this SBIR program, researchers of Dymas Research propose an innovative scene projector system using our advanced electro-optic technology. The proposed scene generator is fast, wide spectrum range, fairly easy to fabricate, and low cost, compared with the currently available technologies.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Travis Simpkins
AF 07-138      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low-Temperature Multi-Spectral Membrane-Mirror Projector
Abstract:The Phase I goal is to explore novel membrane materials and develop a design for a multi- waveband (visible-RGB and mid-wave infrared) flickerless scene projector that can operate at temperatures ranging from -35C to +50C. The anticipated design will most likely be based on membrane-mirror-on-VLSI spatial light modulator technology. Thus low- power VLSI circuits that both run at low temperature and that can be actively cooled are also planned for investigation. The plan is to culminate the Phase I by demonstrating IR and visible light modulation between -35C and 50 C in a device that employs a new membrane-mirror material The Phase I research will be done in the context of the Phase II program goals which include: (1) develop modifications to our existing high-voltage VLSI circuit substrates, (2) re-engineer the modified membrane-mirror-on-VLSI modulator for low-voltage (~ 40V) operation at visible and mid-mid-infrared wavelengths, (3) develops the scene-generation software and hardware interfaces needed to project simultaneous dual-band scenes, and (4) begins exploratory work on the development of a Phase II projector whose performance goals include: 2,000:1 contrast ratio, 1000x1000 pixels, 120 Hz framing rate and flickerless operation with at least a 6° field of view.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Mehran Pazirandeh
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/26/2008
Title:Field Sensor for Measuring Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) Concentrations in Drinking Water
Abstract:Rapid detection of the total trihalomethanes (TTHM) in treated drinking water is essential for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts (DBP) Rule, which limits the maximum contaminant level of TTHM in drinking water to 80 parts per billion. The current detection method for TTHM determination involves sending samples to EPA certified laboratories for gas chromatography analysis; a method that is both expensive and time consuming. The ideal TTHM water monitoring system would be a hand-held, rapid response device that would detect TTHM levels and aid in the identification of contamination sites before they develop into larger problems. In this Phase I, Agave BioSystems proposes to develop a colorimetric/fluorometric TTHM detection system based on a modified Fujiwara reaction, which will be subsequently integrated into a portable field sensor. This assay system will elute THMs, filtered from a water sample, into a reaction buffer and through a modified Fujiwara reaction, yield a detectable color or fluorescent product that correlates directly to the TTHM levels of the water sample.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Bikas Vaidya
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/26/2008
Title:Field Portable Device for Monitoring Trihalomethanes in Water
Abstract:The treatment of water with chlorine is an effective way to kill waterborne pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. This process, however, produces a toxic byproduct from the chemical reaction between chlorine and natural organic matter in the form of trihalomethanes (THMs). These THMs are considered a significant health hazard with studies showing a link to an increased risk of cancer. Currently, total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) are analyzed using the EPA Methods 502.2 and 551.1; both of which require the use of large, expensive and non-portable laboratory equipment. Although effectively accurate, the need for such large, heavy and power-hungry equipment makes these methods unsuitable for battlefield use. Commercially available portable chemical monitors on the other hand show insufficient levels of performance in terms of detection limits and sensitivity to interference or are entirely non-specific. Hence, detection of trace levels of THMs in field still remains a challenge. Lynntech proposes to develop and deliver to the military a compact, lightweight and easy-to-operate handheld TTHM monitor capable of providing rapid test results and withstanding the harsh environmental conditions typical of field use.

NANTAL, INC.
Genesis Center MSC 3ARP Box 30001
Las Cruces, NM 88003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 524-3664
Dr. Won Tae Kim
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Field Sensor for Measuring Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) Concentrations in Drinking Water
Abstract:Nantal Inc. is developing a proprietary nanoparticle/fractal based sensor, which will be integrated into two electronic devices that will result in an ultra sensitive optical detector based on the Raman effect. The devices will be capable of detecting chemical contaminants in water at concentrations in the low ppb range. In Phase I the sensor will qualitatively detect total trihalometanes (TTHM) both above and below EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 80 ppb. In Phase II the sensor will be scaled-up to production levels and integrated into two newly designed and developed electronic instrument devices that will quantitatively detect TTHM in water in the 20 to 200 ppb range. The devices will include a small handheld, field ready device and a bench top unit for use in a laboratory. The ultra sensitive instruments will provide accurate, precise, and quantitative measurements in real time via a digital readout, require no preparative steps and be simple to use in the hands of non-technical individuals. TTHM results from the reaction of chlorine with organic materials in water. Two of the four organic TTHM agents are classified as possible carcinogens and the group has shown to affect development and reproduction in laboratory animals.

SCRIBNER ASSOC., INC.
150 E. Connecticut Ave
Southern Pines, NC 28387
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(910) 695-8884
Dr. Kevin R Cooper
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Hand-Held System for On-Site Trihalomethane Measurement
Abstract:There is an immediate need for a rapid, portable detection system for carcinogenic Trihalomethanes in drinking water. A handheld total Trihalomethane sensor system would permit water system operators to identify and implement mitigation strategies to the contamination source avoiding costly regulatory violations. The aim of the proposed work is to develop an electrochemical-based sensor array system and measurement method procedure for rapid, accurate determination of the total Trihalomethane content of drinking water. The proposed electrochemical approach is well-suited to accurate quantification of part per billion-level analytes; electrochemical-based sensor array systems are ideal for portable applications because they are easily miniaturized without sacrificing performance, are low power which facilitates battery operation, and are inherently safe. High-density sensor arrays permit redundant analysis for enhanced measurement fidelity as well as targeted detection of multiple analytes without sacrificing cost or portability. The Phase I will demonstrate the technical feasibility of the proposed electroanalytical approach and the efficacy of developing small, low mass and power analytical instrumentation for the sensor array. Using results from the Phase I, the expected performance of the detection system will be critically evaluated against established performance criteria. In Phase II, the research team will develop a prototype handheld detection system.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Edward Geraghty
AF 07-139      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Tri-halide Methane Detection (1001-155)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc., proposes a MEMS based handheld sensor for use in TTHM detection. The design is based on current MEMS based sensors modified to work in an aqueous media. This work will expand on the technology being developed in the area of explosives detection with MEMS by the Triton team. Our product is a low cost and lightweight PDA type unit that will sample, analyze and report results in minutes.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Michael Graul
AF 07-140      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Test and Evaluation Metadata Plaza (TEMPL)
Abstract:KBSI proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate a methodology, a metadata model and suite of tools to unify the storage, transfer, and retrieval of T&E metadata across multiple systems, ranges, test articles and test missions. Our focus is to use state of the art information system engineering, including the use of ontologies and semantic web technologies to support the metadata extraction of legacy data as well as support metadata formularizations for ongoing and future test missions. At the heart of the metadata support for both legacy T&E data as well as future test missions lies the development of the T&E Metadata Reference Model (T&E Ref Mod), a UML 2.0-based metadata model for describing T&E data. Our T&E Ref Mod will be built around existing metadata standards/models and new metadata constructs. We will also develop a prototype component-based Test & Evaluation Metadata PLaza (TEMPL) that will support the extraction, representation, transfer, translation, verification, validation, completeness checking, retrieval and visualization of both structured and unstructured T&E data via its relationship to metadata. Finally, we will demonstrate integration of TEMPL components into commercial instrumentation support systems and document the methodological changes required by instrumentation engineers in using the TEMPL technologies.

APPLIED OPTICAL MATERIALS, INC.
744 Stewart Canyon Rd
Fallbrook, CA 92028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 451-0546
Dr. David Schaafsma
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:PORTABLE, COST-EFFICIENT BIOMASS CONVERSION
Abstract:Large-scale pyrolysis of biomass for energy production must aim for high throughput in order to meet economies of scale. For this reason, many of the fluidized bed and cyclonic pyrolysis reactors being developed are designed for throughputs of hundreds or thousands of tons per day of biomass. The quality of the oil produced is very dependent on the feedstock, and since most of the reactors consume electricity, the yield of the feedstock plays a role in the net energy yield of the biomass plant. Mesoscale pyrolysis has several advantages which arise from the freedom from satisfying energy economics. This energy relationship goes directly to the bottom line of any company wishing to convert biomass to fuel or electricity, and it is one of the fundamental challenges in making biomass-derived fuels a viable alternative to fossil fuels in the near future.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Paul Yelvington
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:A Portable Fluidized-Bed Reactor for Flash Pyrolysis of Landfill Waste
Abstract:The Main Base Landfill at Edwards Air Force Base will reach full capacity by no later than 2017, and many other landfills across the country are facing the same situation. Waste streams need to be redirected to extend the lives of these facilities. We propose to develop a portable, flash-pyrolysis, fluidized-bed reactor system purpose-built for conversion of landfill waste to bio-oil fuel. While wood pyrolysis has advanced to the commercial stage, existing pyrolysis plants are large and unoptimized for processing landfill waste, which is highly variable in composition. The proposed pyrolysis reactor will have a unique reactor design that allows better control over the process variables critical for processing a highly inhomogeneous feedstock. In Phase I, thermogravimetric analyses will be performed to identify the pyrolysis kinetics for the primary constituents of the landfill waste. This kinetic data will be used to design a reactor that can operate on a broad range of those feedstocks. A bench-scale prototype will be constructed and used to demonstrate feasibility. In Phase II, the prototype will be packaged into a tightly integrated system with waste heat capture and power generation for the process units.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Richard Sapienza
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Portable Biomass Liquid/Gaseous Fuel Reactor
Abstract:As Air Force landfills reach capacity, the mixed waste streams that are taken to these landfills need to be redirected to generate a significant amount of fuel from this biomass using portable biofuel reactors. Problematically, current decentralized gasification R&D is typically operated at atmospheric pressure and with air as gasification medium. The second major technological barrier in converting bio-syngas into synfuels is gas cleaning mainly dictated by the application, and furthermore by the amount and character of the contaminants as a result of feedstock. The technology METSS will apply to this program is FAST-M, a methanol catalyst that allows the process to be conducted batch-wise or in a continuous fashion and offers a method to overcome the most important technological and non-technological barriers to implementation. FAST-M can provide the technology needed to design a portable, modular or single unit biofuel reactor that can utilize a wide variety of unprocessed biomass feedstock to create liquid fuels. The biofuel reactor will be easily installed and safely operated with a minimal logistics footprint at developed, remote, and austere locations such as small landfills, construction sites, waste treatment facilities, and forward dining facilities.

REACTIVE INNOVATIONS, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 952-6947
Dr. Michael C. Kimble
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Portable Biomass Fuel Reactor
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is interested in processing biomass to produce liquid fuels in its facilities around the world. This would help lessen the environmental impact due to expanding landfills as well as help reduce the use of petroleum oil. Processing the cellulose in this biomass into ethanol is one viable option to meet these requirements where the cellulose is first hydrolyzed into glucose that is subsequently fermented into ethanol fuel. Large scale industrial processes are aiming to accomplish these process steps, however, the high costs and complex process units make it difficult to scale the process to smaller biomass operations more suited for Air Force needs. To this end, Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes to develop a modular biomass hydrolysis reactor that can efficiently breakdown and convert cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars using a wide variety of biomass feedstocks. During the Phase I program, we will show the merits of our hydrolysis reactor and its applicability to smaller bioethanol production for suitcase to trailer-size operations. A Phase II program will scale this reactor to operational prototypes that can be combined with the other pertinent unit operations for producing bioethanol fuel.

RENEWABLE OIL INTERNATIONAL LLC
3115 Northington Court
Florence, AL 35630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 740-5634
Mr. Phillip C. Badger
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Portable Biomass Liquid/Gaseous Fuel Reactor
Abstract:The goal of this project proposed by Renewable Oil International® LLC (ROI) will be to demonstrate the feasibility of a basic reactor design capable of reliably producing a high grade alternative fuel using the widest range possible of biomass feedstock types with minimal or no adjustments or modifications. ROI has developed a simple, innovative fast pyrolysis process for converting various forms of biomass into a bio-oil, char, and syngas and has piloted the process using clean woody materials and poultry litter. This proposal will build on ROI’s experience in system design and plant operations to research the front-end processing requirements for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, conduct test runs of shredded organic solid wastes to determine plant performance, characterize the products produced, prepare preliminary engineering designs for integrated processing systems, and conduct preliminary economic analyses for the integrated processing systems.

ADVANCED DYNAMICS, INC.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(859) 699-0441
Dr. Patrick Hu
AF 07-142      Awarded: 3/5/2008
Title:Physics-Based Rapid Aeroelastic Model Updating In Support Of Aircraft Flight Testing
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research aims to develop Reduced Order Models (ROMs) (i.e. POD, HB, combined POD and HB) based upon flight data to better predict the aircraft aeroelastic response at next flight condition, e.g. higher Mach number. By incorporating flight test data and using the highest fidelity computational models in reduced order form we will obtain computational solutions that are the most accurate possible with the current state of the art and do so sufficiently rapidly predict the behavior at the next flight condition in an aeroelastic flight test. Many of the methods that have been developed over the years for simpler aeroelastic models that use, for example, doublet lattice aerodynamics can be adopted for this purpose. However we also propose to explore new approaches appropriate to high fidelity computational models in Phase I with a down selection to the best methods in Phase II. We will use the available wind tunnel flutter data for the AGARD 445.6 wing for our assessment in Phase I. However, we will also explore methods that would require more experimental data than is available for the AGARD wing. For the AGARD wing, the data available are principally the flutter boundary per se and the flutter frequency. If we also had data for preflutter transfer functions, for example, that would allow a more extensive incorporation of experimental data in modifying and enhancing the computational model for flight test prediction.

CLEAR SCIENCE CORP.
PO Box 233 663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 844-9171
Dr. Henry A. Carlson
AF 07-142      Awarded: 3/5/2008
Title:Aeroelastic Model Updating
Abstract:Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop and demonstrate the technical merit and feasibility of compact aeroelastic models that incorporate structural and flow dynamics and their coupled effects in a low-dimensional form for safer and more efficient flutter testing of military aircraft. The reduced-order model (ROM) of the coupled flow and structure will be based on computational and experimental data from CFD and structural FEM simulations and flight or wind tunnel tests. The ultimate objectives are to reduce the costs and risks of certification testing by reducing the number of required test conditions. Coupling CFD-based ROMs of the flow with the data that are collected during flight tests will improve predictions of linear and nonlinear aeroelastic responses, providing the means of accurately interpolating between test points and extrapolating beyond them. Phase I testing of the proposed software will use CFD data and wind tunnel (rather than flight) data to construct the aeroelastic model with evaluations of model performance at on- and off-design conditions. Tests will involve canonical wings with relatively small numbers of aeroelastic modes; however, the software will be configured for future applications involving full aircraft with complex geometries, control surfaces, and a much larger set of (aeroservoelastic) structural modes.

ENGENIUSMICRO, LLC
5361 Whitehall Place
Mableton, GA 30126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 289-8272
Dr. Brian A. English
AF 07-144      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Wireless Brake and Tire Monitoring System (WBTMS)
Abstract:High temperature wireless sensors and data acquisition electronics are proposed to provide active monitoring of tire bead temperature, tire pressure, and brake temperature on landing gear. The proposal includes versatile packaging of sensors and electronics for installation and multiple channel data-acquistition on virtually any set of landing gear.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Carl A. Palmer
AF 07-144      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Wireless Brake and Tire Monitoring System
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Crane Aerospace and Electronics, proposes an end to end wireless solution for aircraft brake and tire monitoring. The proposed system will serve to reduce safety risks and increase efficiency during flight and ground testing by providing long-range wireless transmission of tire temperature, tire pressure, and brake temperature. The system will provide intelligent data fusion and diagnostic capability in support of automating the brake and tire go / no go for test decision. Key tasks of this Phase I effort include: 1) Development of a communication schema to support distributed smart sensor nodes; 2) Adapt currently available sensing hardware to meet AF range and resolution requirements; 3) Develop data fusion and processing algorithms to transform recorded data into knowledge usable by test operators in support the tire and brake go / no go for test decision; 4) Development of a tablet PC based handheld recording and display device along with a user interface capable of being operated without the use of cumbersome pointing devices or keyboards. A prototype system will be created and sensing, storage, and communications will be demonstrated within a prototype hardware platform.

TEMPLEMAN AUTOMATION, LLC
29 Miller Street
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 996-9054
Mr. Chris Templeman
AF 07-144      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Wireless Brake and Tire Monitoring System (WBTMS)
Abstract:Templeman Automation, LLC (TALLC) proposes an innovative implementation of wireless brake and tire monitoring with its TaB-TaP (Tire and Brake Temperature and Pressure) long-range wireless telemetry system. TaB-TaP represents a significant opportunity to augment the safety and efficiency of flight and ground testing of manned and unmanned aircraft. By extending proven, commercial SmartStem technology through a Phase I partnership with Crane Aerospace and Electronics (CAE), TALLC offers an easy-to-use, accurate, cost-effective and reliable WBTMS system. The extension of the SmartStem technology, dubbed the “SmartStem-MIL”, will offer multiple RF architectures to support both local and long-range communications suitable for military taxi-testing, as well as the measurement capability for an increased tire pressure range and true tire-wall temperature. The TaB-TaP system includes high-temperature thermocouple sensors, facilitating the direct measurement of brake temperature, and will be highly-survivable in harsh environments due to a light weight, shock-proof design. Additionally, TaB-TaP will offer Bluetooth-enabled flight-time cockpit readouts as well laptop- and PDA-based readouts suitable for ground crew monitoring from a safe standoff distance. The resulting architecture makes TaB-TaP acutely capable of augmenting current Air Force taxi-test tire and pressure monitoring methods.

CMSOFT, INC.
566 Glenbrook Drive
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 941-4301
Dr. Goeric Daeninck
AF 07-145      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Aerothermoelastic Simulation
Abstract:Hypersonic flight introduces extreme heat loads into the skin of a vehicle, particularly at its leading edges. Determining these loads is a challenging task that requires accounting for the aerothermal features of both the flow and thermal state of the surface of the structure. Hence, the accurate aerothermal analysis of hot vehicles requires a tight coupling between appropriate fluid, thermal, and structural models. Incomplete forms of this integration have been attempted in the past using simple algorithms that were either computationally inefficient or numerically unstable. The main objectives of this proposal are: (a) to demonstrate a higher-fidelity, multidisciplinary computational technology for the analysis of hot vehicles that is numerically stable, provably accurate and compatible with the AERO code deployed at the Edwards AFB, and (b) equip this simulation technology with a reliable Reduced-Order Modeling (ROM) capability to enable the prediction in near real-time of heat loads and their effects on structural integrity and aeroelastic stability. The proposed high-fidelity approach centers on the four-field formulation of aerothermoelastic problems and provably accurate and computationally efficient conjugate heat transfer algorithms for deformable and vibrating structures. The proposed ROM technology is based on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method.

D&P LLC
3409 N. 42nd Pl.
Phoenix, AZ 85018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 518-0981
Dr. Lei Tang
AF 07-145      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:A Coupled Computational Aeroelasticity and Thermal Response Analysis Tool
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project develops a coupled computational aeroelasticity and thermal response analysis tool that can be used to analyze and design ballistic reentry vehicles and Trajectory Shaping Vehicles (TSV). In Phase I, a well validated thermal response analysis module will be integrated into a well validated computational aeroelasticity code. In Phase II, a gas-kinetic CFD algorithm will further be implemented in this coupled computational aerothermoelasticity tool. As a result, the developed tool is not only more accurate than the conventional macroscopic computational aeroelasticity approach in the continuum regime but also is easily extendable to hypersonic flows beyond the continuum regime.

---------- NAVY ----------

138 Phase I Selections from the 07.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ENGINEERED YARNS CO.
Div. of Pascale Industries, Inc. 939 Currant Road
Fall River, MA 02720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 673-3307
Mr. Vikram Sharma
NAVY 07-159      Awarded: 7/11/2008
Title:Engineered Intumescent Coated Textile Materials for Improved Comfort and Thermal Protection
Abstract:Engineered Yarns (EY) proposes Engineered Intumescent Coated Textile Materials for improved thermal protection for the Marine. Although in use for 50 years, Intumescents have been confined to mostly paints, industrial insulation and coating industry. Intumescent materials have a unique characteristics, on the application of heat they produce a foamed structure, char like residue. Foam structures are good insulators and good barriers in preventing heat transfer. Well-formed Intumescent foam only 1/32” can reduce the heat from flame at 1368F to 572F on the back side. Such a reduction in heat would be enough to prevent most all fiber types from igniting. EY plans to develop two forms of Intumescent coated textile materials – Intumescent Coated Fabrics and Intumescent Coated Yarns. The Engineered Intumescent Textiles can be integrated into Marine ensemble for improved thermal and comfort performance. EY plans to develop Intumescent textiles in conjunction with No Melt No Drip fibers to enhance overall thermal protection for the Marine. EY proposes to integrate this engineered Intumescent functionality in all layers of ensemble to generate redundant F/R protection for the Marine. EY’s proposed solution provides improved thermal protection, low risk, fast commercialization and cost efficient alternative to Nomex based systems.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Ulrike Becker
NAVY 07-159      Awarded: 5/16/2008
Title:Light Weight Flame Resistant Clothing
Abstract:Improving war-fighter protection against fire has become a top priority since the emergence of improvised explosive devices. Garments with a high degree of fire resistance are necessary to protect soldiers. Luna Innovations is developing a new textile system having fire and heat resistance. The unique fire resistant technology will allow the production of lightweight fire resistant textiles that are strong, durable and comfortable to wear.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Waheguru Singh
NAVY 07-159      Awarded: 6/5/2008
Title:Development of a Lightweight, More Comfortable, and Durable Clothing Ensemble with Improved Flame-Resistant Properties
Abstract:Current Marine Corps combat utility uniforms are not flame retardant. They do not self- extinguish after a flame exposure, which can lead to increased burn injuries. Furthermore synthetic materials, used in many types of garments, can melt and fuse onto the skin causing serious burn injuries in a flash fire. Improvised Explosive Devices have become common in combat today exposing soldiers to extra risks of injury, due to flash fire and extreme heat exposure. Improvements in the flame retardant properties of Marine Corps uniforms are desired. Existing techniques for producing flame retardant clothing have significant limitations. Either they are bulky and uncomfortable, or the flame retardant properties are diminished over time with normal use, due to the fact that flame retardant additives are often not permanently fixed to the clothing material. This Phase I project aims to develop flame retardant textiles using a new class of flame retardant chemicals, that uniquely inhibit the combustion process by a multiplicity of mechanisms. Key to the approach is the ability to permanently attach the flame retardant chemical to the clothing material for high durability. Favorable aspects of the new class of flame retardant chemicals also include little or no toxicity, no environmental hazards, and ready availability from commercial sources. In Phase I, we will generate textile materials that have the desirable physical properties for comfort (i.e., mechanical strength, flexibility, breathability etc.) and offer a high degree of fire protection. An alliance with a leading protective clothing manufacturer has been established for rapid transition of this technology from research to production.

ADAPTIVE MATERIALS, INC.
4403 Concourse Drive Suite C
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 302-7632
Mr. Tim Labreche
NAVY 07-160      Awarded: 2/12/2008
Title:Tactical Power Analysis and Development for Distributed Operations Squad
Abstract:Adaptive Materials, Inc. (AMI) proposes to evaluate technologies and mission profiles for use in the development of an efficient power management system for the United States Marine Corps Distributed Operations Squads. The base Phase I effort will focus on optimizing existing AMI power management technology to analyze mission profiles and provide optimized power solutions for given combat load. This effort will culminate in a power management system designed specifically for the unique mission of the Distributed Operations Squad. With the execution of a Phase I option, AMI will deliver a working proof of concept power management suite. This system will provide detailed mission profiles and power usage reports, as well as enable highly efficient DC conversion to meet the energy requirements of the Distributed Operations Squad.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. James Bontempo
NAVY 07-160      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Software-Defined Universal Battery Charger and Eliminator
Abstract:The United States Marine Corps have adopted Distributed Operations as an effective way to fight the Global War on Terrorism. Electronic devices enable Distributed Operations by connecting squads to each other and to their commanders. However, as the suite of electronic devices that is taken into warfare is growing, the infrastructure needed to support the electronics is lagging behind. This has resulted in military battery shortages and logistics problems ensuring electronics are paired with compatible battery adapters and chargers. Mainstream proposes a truly “universal” battery charger/eliminator for which the charging requirements of a battery can be defined in software, and the charger hardware will carry out the charge accordingly. The system will automatically be able to connect to the Mainstream Power Manager without any additional adapters. To make a connection to a battery without an adapter, “bed of pins” is used. In Phase I, Mainstream will develop a working proof-of-concept that will allow this technology to be implemented.

PACKET DIGITAL LLC
201 5th Street North Suite 1500
Fargo, ND 58102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(701) 232-0661
Dr. Joel Jorgenson
NAVY 07-160      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:Power Suite for Distributed Operations
Abstract:Packet Digital's innovative solution is to develop a Power System Liaison (PSL) that can interface the numerous power sources carried by the warfighter or encountered during mission activities with the C-E systems used by the warfighter or the batteries that power said equipment. The goal is not to redesign or invent new power generating sources or improved C-E equipment, but rather develop a method and device for interfacing existing C-E equipment to existing power sources such that power sources are consumed with maximum efficiency and C-E systems are operated with a high degree of reliability. Technologies developed for On-Demand Power solutions allow the Packet Digital PSL to have unmatched performance with minimal weight and volume footprints. The advantage of the PSL is that it can intelligently manage the flow of power between multiple power sources and multiple loads. An additional benefit of the PSL is that it will eliminate the need to carry additional battery chargers. A rechargeable battery can be connected directly to the power output of the PSL, and the PSL will automatically charge the battery with the optimal current and voltage waveforms.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Eric Gans
NAVY 07-160      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Flexible, Lightweight, Intelligent Power Distribution System
Abstract:To address the Navy’s need for a reconfigurable kit of power options to optimize energy usage in dismounted operations, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Flexible, Lightweight, Intelligent Power Distribution System (FLIPD). This proposed system is based on an enhanced version of POC’s proven wearable connector technology to provide plug-and-play compatibility with virtually all electronic devices. The embedded sensors and circuitry in the connectors adjust electrical requirements “on the fly” for each device, while also powering and monitoring/regulating the energy usage, ensuring efficient operation and giving priority to mission-specific equipment in case of low energy reserves. The innovation in FLIPD will provide true plug-and-play compatibility with all standard military equipment to regulate and monitor energy usage, while also providing secure and robust mounting pouches that allow the soldier to position equipment anywhere on their uniform. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of FLIPD by connectorizing several electronic devices (i.e., GPS, PDA, radio) and monitoring/regulating the power usage with statistical data output to create mission-specific energy models and distribution. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a wearable power distribution architecture to regulate and power a complete outfit of electronic equipment.

DAVIS DEFENSE GROUP, INC.
415 Broadway St Ste 201
Quantico, VA 22134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 472-0337
Dr. Joseph Rustick
NAVY 07-161      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Integral Suppressed Weapon Barrel
Abstract:In an armed engagement, the first few seconds are often critical. Suppressed systems allow US assets to engage the enemy without giving away their position. During combat at night with our night vision devises, we own the night until we pull the trigger. Without suppressed systems, the enemy will fire at our muzzle flashes and inflict casualties without the need for night vision equipment. The goal of our SBIR project is to achieve the benefits of a suppressed system without changing the balance of the weapon. This implies more than is stated. A well balanced suppressed weapon that is not reliable and accurate is hazardous if not entirely useless. To reach the stated goal, the suppressor design must be mated to the design of the weapon in question. We will design suppressor systems for the M-16 and M-2 weapons systems that outperforms existing state-of-the- art suppressor systems in the areas above.

FLODESIGN, INC.
380 Main Street
Wilbraham, MA 01095
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 596-5900
Dr. Walter M. Presz, Jr.
NAVY 07-161      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Integral Suppressed Weapon Barrel
Abstract:Reducing muzzle noise and flash from military and police firearms provides a significant tactical advantage in the field. Existing suppression technology reduces noise, but comparatively little science exits to explain how current designs can be advanced to provide enhanced suppressor performance. Furthermore, even less design guidance exists that can lead to integration of suppressors into a firearm’s barrel assembly, as envisioned by the Marine Corps and other military and civilian agencies. Lessons learned as a result of the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East have indicated that increased use of current suppressors, as part of everyday operations, have led to shortened life cycles of suppressors, increased maintenance (and sometimes damage) of weapons, and considerable variability in weapon accuracy. FloDesign, Inc. and its large business partner, FN Manufacturing, LLC (FNM), have successfully completed (i.e.in July of 2007), a series of tasks to investigate and advance the understanding and science of noise/flash suppression, suppressor self-cleansing, and generally determine the feasibility of applying aerospace mixer/ejector science to muzzle blast suppression. It was, incidentally, noted that noise and flash suppression are closely related components of the muzzle blast. This SBIR effort will apply the design guidance gained previously to integrated barrel suppressors.

INNOVATIONS PLUS, LLC
4800 N. 57th Street Suite 101
Lincoln, NE 68507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 430-7678
Mr. Robert O. Walters
NAVY 07-161      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Integral Suppressed Weapon Barrel
Abstract:Innovations Plus seeks to dramatically reduce hearing damage associated with small arms fire in the USMC. Noise induced hearing loss is on the rise for U.S. servicemen and women. In 2004, the VBA paid out more than $400 million for service related auditory disabilities. Scientific methods and processes will be utilized to research, design, build and test an Integral Suppressed Weapon Barrel (ISWB). Such a device must be small enough to utilize existing accessories without modifications yet big enough to meet expectations. Our team has the “know how” and the tools to solve this problem. The Co- Investigator’s patented process can reduce typical barrel and suppressor weight by 35% without compromising structural integrity and increase heat dissipation by a factor of 3.7. The resultant product is lighter with an increased life span. Our T&E consultant is the best. Mr. Alan C. Paulson has published hundreds of articles and four books regarding suppressors. He will thoroughly evaluate our brassboard before it is delivered to the USMC for feasibility verification. Once commercialized, our ISWB will significantly reduce noise induced hearing injuries from small arms fire and improve the soldier’s situational awareness. This will save millions of dollars each year.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Chris Lyons
NAVY 07-162      Awarded: 2/22/2008
Title:40mm Low/Medium Velocity Air Bursting Munitions System (2007050)
Abstract:Most small/medium caliber munitions operate as point-detonation weapons without an air- burst capability which limits their effectiveness against hidden targets, scattered targets, and foot soldiers. The effectiveness of those weapons could be improved significantly by adding an air-burst capability to those munitions. A more effective approach is an active proximity sensor built into the projectile itself. Such proximity sensing fuze requires a miniaturized radar transceiver that is small enough to fit into the projectile and operates with little prime power. In the past two decades, Hittite Microwave Corporation has developed MMIC-based radar transceivers for such applications. Today, Hittite’s MMIC sensors are used in a wide variety of fuzes in munitions including: M734A1, XM782, EX419, and DSU-33. Hittite’s continued effort to miniaturize and reduce the power consumption led to demonstration of a proximity fuze for M-80 sub-munitions (EX433). More recently, Army developed an air-bursting fuze for 40-mm munitions using Hittites’ miniaturized low-power MMIC transceiver. Hittite proposes to utilize its established FM-CW Radar MMIC transceiver technology and combine it with a signal processing technique developed for automotive pre-crash applications that utilizes unique patented algorithms specifically designed to accurately predict the offset in trajectory of on-coming targets using a static antenna radiation pattern. Hittite algorithms are based on the mapping of synchronously detected Doppler in two or more range bins of a predetermined zone, and all calculations are done without the use of multiplication or division so that the technique can be implemented using simple commercially available RISK microcontroller for closing velocities in excess of 2000 m/s. Hittite Microwave Corporation is a manufacturer of fuze sensors with a history of supplying more than 1.5 million MMIC transceivers. Hittite is also a supplier of low-cost MMIC parts to the commercial market with a long established track record of transitioning its R&D results into commercial products.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Sergey Sandomirsky
NAVY 07-162      Awarded: 2/28/2008
Title:Smart Optical Proximity Fuze
Abstract:To address the U.S. Navy Marine Corps need for a new generation of 40 mm low/medium- velocity munitions that could provide higher lethality due to airburst capability, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Smart Optical Proximity Fuze (SOProF) for 40 mm rounds. This proposed SOProF is based on two POC innovations: (1) use for the first time of a new optical fuze design for low-velocity 40 mm rounds, and (2) novel integration of state-of-the-art optical and optimized electronic components. These innovations, utilizing the principle of laser triangulation, will enable the new airburst 40 mm projectile to hit camouflaged and defilade targets without any fuze preset and with minimal modification of the fire control system. SOProF will activate a round payload at the required distance of 2-3 m from the target. In Phase I POC will design and build a prototype SOProF, making maximum use of COTS components, and will demonstrate the feasibility of the SOProF prototype by laboratory and field testing with dummy practice rounds. In Phase II POC plans to optimize the SOProF design for assembly with HE M-406 and M433 40 mm projectiles, and will conduct range testing in cooperation with the customer.

SPERIENT, INC.
1813 Rutan Drive
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 548-5555
Mr. E. Tom Rosenbury
NAVY 07-162      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:40mm Low/Medium Velocity Air Bursting Munitions System
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to assess the use of Micro Power Radar (MPR) to aid in providing the individual Marine Infantryman with air bursting munitions to enhance his battlefield effectiveness. Current fuzes compute the time of flight and set the fuze for a time or counting revolutions with an input to the system to tell it to detonate after a specific number of turns. These technologies allow for significant variability in the actual height of the airburst thereby limiting the expected effectiveness. The addition of non-inertial sensors to the munitions could ameliorate the problems faced by current fuze technology. Based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short voltage impulses, MPR has a sensitive window for accurately detecting reflections from boundaries and could be implemented as a smart fuze that always knows how far the round is from the impact point. Designing a fuze that can be depended upon to burst at 2 meters (or another to be determined specific value) from the target would greatly increase the effectiveness of the round. A fire control system or possibly a weapon upgrade kit that attaches to the current legacy systems device for programming the round’s impact height if variability is part of the design. Beyond using MPR for smart fuzes, it could be applied to munitions testing or other impact testing in the commercial sector.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. Robert Mulligan
NAVY 07-163      Awarded: 6/24/2008
Title:Low Profile Multimodal Acoustic Treatment
Abstract:The noise signature of the USMC Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is excessively high for human safety factors, and impedes stealthy land operation which places military personnel at high risk of detection by adversaries. A dominant contributor of the noise is due to the air-cooled heat exchanging system that draws a large volume of air through a compact space in a short period of time. For this Phase I project, Infoscitex proposes to develop new broadband noise abatement materials that could be retrofitted to the EFV to counteract airflow generated noise. Phase I activities will involve analyzing the cooling subsystem for noise generation locations, producing novel materials with enhanced absorption capabilities, performing acoustic tests on materials, and developing a design concept that integrates these material into the cooling sub-system.

INTERNATIONAL MEZZO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7167 Florda Blvd
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 706-0191
Mr. Jeffrey McLean
NAVY 07-163      Awarded: 7/30/2008
Title:Air Flow Noise Reduction Techniques
Abstract:The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) currently is extremely noisy. The goal of the proposal is to reduce noise produced by the cooling system for the engine, which consists of fans,heat exchangers, and ducting to the outside. Mezzo is developing mirco tube heat exchangers that provide a much improved ratio of heat transfer/pressure drop compared to conventional heat exchangers (i. e. plate-fin heat exchangers). Mezzo's approach to reducing noise is to replace the heat exchanger currently in use with one that will meet the heat exchanger specifications, while reducing dramatically the pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Reducing the required positive pressure generated by the fan will make it possible to use much quieter fans, as well as fans that require less power. Quieter fans will result in a much quieter system.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Dr. Edward Bennett
NAVY 07-163      Awarded: 7/30/2008
Title:Low Noise Axial Fan Optimization for the Marine Corps Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle
Abstract:The Marine Corps Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) experiences excessive air handling unit noise and the cooling fan does not meet the requirements that have been established for its operation. During the past fifteen years, substantial progress has been made in noise mitigation through the use of computational fluid mechanics (CFD). In particular, the automotive industry has invested millions of dollars in engine cooling systems in order to provide more quiet fans that will go in their automobiles. A major technique that has been applied to the rotating blades of fan systems in order to suppress noise is the technique of “sweeping” the blades. MSI proposes to use a swept rotor blade in order to suppress the noise of the EFV fan. In order to maximize prototype development, MSI will utilize new aero-acoustic software that when coupled to CFD will predict the sound levels produced by a rotating blade row. Traditionally, designs have been performed using CFD and FEA, and then been subjected to experimentation. MSI will use the aero-acoustic software to minimize fan noise along with specialized sound pressure level field testing to back up and confirm the analysis results.

ADVANCED ANTI-TERROR TECHNOLOGIES CORP. (A2T2)
896 W Minneola Ave۝ Suite 57
Clermont , FL 34711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 373-9281
Ms. Liz
NAVY 07-164      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Sniper Detection
Abstract:PALS for Sniper Detection (PALS-SD) is a straightforward near-term evolution of A2-T2’s existing PALS 3D for enhanced long-range facial identification technologies. Essentially, our existing multi-modal Electro-Optical/IR/Laser-Sight/Designator/Range-Finder configurations will be upgraded to include an eye-safe pulsed laser and sensor that discriminately detects reflections from eyes and optics. Further our software will remove most animal eyes detected based on eye reflection signatures. Our multiple modes enable reliable long-range detection, mitigate false positives, and exceed requirements by including real-time multi-modal confirmation processes options. By design our detection with confirmation processes dramatically reduces the time-delays, risks, physical efforts, and costs currently used to determine if the threat detected is real (via binoculars, UAV, or building physical entry, etc). Our spiral development processes include both virtual simulations and real-world testing. Additionally, the PALS-SD upgraded laser module will also have the option of adding a dazzle laser as required. Beyond discouraging potential threats with non-lethal means, we also provide direct fire aiming enhancements and indirect-targeting data. Indirect-fire data is supplied by our PALS sensor module’s built-in GPS location and orientation, along with returned laser range find data. We include these lethality enhancements in keeping with our internal-mission statement of “Helping enemies have a bad day”.

APPLIED SCIENCE INNOVATIONS, INC.
185 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 833-6897
Dr. Mikhail Gutin
NAVY 07-164      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Sniper Detection
Abstract:Applied Science Innovations, Inc. proposes development of the real-time, Advance- Warning System for Active Detection of Snipers s (AWADS). Unlike existing systems that react after the sniper takes a first shot, the novel AWADS electro-optical system will detect a potential sniper at a distance, before the sniper has a chance to take a shot. Compared to emerging systems based on reflection from optics, AWADS will automatically classify and discrimination between a pair of eyes and a riflescope, and between a casual observer and persistent surveillance. Countermeasures based on anti- reflective coatings on a reticle will fail AWADS, unlike other optical sniper detection systems. AWADS is safer to accidental eye exposure at close range, compared to other systems. It will work autonomously, with no user participation. Detection range will exceed 600 meters, optimized for urban environment. Phase I will produce systems design, algorithm development, and experimental demonstration of AWADS in laboratory conditions and outdoors, to reach technology readiness level 5. In Phase II, a fully functional, preproduction prototype will be built. Commercial marketing plan will be developed. In Phase III, AWADS will be commercial available for defense and civilian commercial applications.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. Andrew Paul
NAVY 07-164      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Counter-Sniper High-Speed Autonomous Optical System (CHAOS)
Abstract:The problem of sniper detection and neutralization proves to be one of the more significant issues facing the troops presently deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan today. This unfortunate reality has spurred both industry and the DoD to press for immediate and effective solutions to the detection and neutralization of the sniper threat. In the case of sniper detection the urgency and importance is exemplified by the existence of no less than fourteen different systems ranging between acoustic, passive IR, and active optical search systems designed to address the problem. Areté Associates is proud to offer a unique approach to address the detection of sniper optics and neutralization of sniper threats in a compact robust package that will provide the autonomy currently absent in existing approaches. Areté’s a counter-sniper high-speed autonomous optical system (CHAOS) being proposed here is based on the physics of optical augmentation (OA), occasionally referred to as the “cats eye” effect, and leverages existing Areté program activities in the area Afocal beam steering. Although the physics of OA is well understood in the detection of optical systems, it will be shown that the CHAOS design approach being proposed provides a unique capability with respect to autonomous operation, laser dazzle counter measure, and threat coordinate localization. The overall goal of the project is to prove the feasibility of the proposed design approach through demonstration during the first phase. Additionally, design and analysis will be combined with the demonstration results to show traceability to the objective system design that is to be developed and demonstrated during Phase II of the program.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Dr. Fedor Dimov
NAVY 07-164      Awarded: 5/17/2008
Title:Holographic Preventive Advanced Counter-Sniper Device
Abstract:To address the Navy need for technology that will detect a potential sniper at a distance, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Holographic Preventive Advanced Counter- Sniper (HoPACS) device based on the latest advances in holography, laser-scanning techniques, and CMOS technology. Based on the Bragg angle selectivity of shift and angle multiplexed thick transmission holograms, and the pattern imaged on a CMOS sensor as a result of illuminating the holograms with laser light, we can produce at least a 120- degree field-of-view sensor in which every hologram pair selects one particular laser beam direction thereby indicating the direction of a potential threat. This laser beam is initially irradiated by a small diode laser, scanned 360 degrees by the miniature scanner, reflected from the sniper’s optics and detected by HoPACS. Three identical sensors will cover a 360-degree field of regard in azimuth and at least 45 degrees in elevation, and will detect and neutralize a sniper with a dazzling laser before he can shoot. In Phase I, Luminit will demonstrate HoPACS feasibility by building and testing a benchtop HoPACS. In Phase II, Luminit plans to build a prototype HoPACS. The resulting system will be commercially available by the close of Phase III.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
NAVY 07-164      Awarded: 5/23/2008
Title:Preshot Sniper Detection
Abstract:To address the Navy need for prefire sniper detection, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Preshot Sniper Detection (PSD) system that identifies covert snipers before they shoot, even in cluttered urban environments, in <2-3 sec. The PSD system is based on a multimodal, high-resolution, imaging optics package with no moving parts and processing hardware that accurately detects snipers, covering 360 deg. x 45 deg., day and night, at up to 600 m standoff distance, with a minimum false alarm rate (FAR) of <10^3, in a portable form factor (3 in. dia. x 6 in. length, <5 lb.) that operates continuously for >24 hours with a military rechargeable battery. The innovative PSD’s three-step alarm (yellow, orange, red) via sensor modality, autonomously informs Marines of sniper locations/ranges with visual target images. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of PSD 360 deg. x 45 deg. detection by building and testing a functional laboratory prototype. In Phase II POC plans to develop a fully functional Phase II prototype to demonstrate its high-probability sniper detection capability.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Dr. James Hauck
NAVY 07-164      Awarded: 6/12/2008
Title:360 Degree Urban Sniper Warning System
Abstract:In recent years, military engagements have moved from the traditional battlefield to urban or suburban settings. In this environment, security patrols are much more likely to encounter an IED or hidden gunman than an organized (or uniformed) squad of soldiers. The urban warfighter needs the capability to detect potential snipers, at a distance, before they shoot. The challenge is to find potential snipers in a cluttered environment where the sniper may be mostly hidden from view except their eyes, &/or a rifle scope, or gun barrel. Complicating this problem may be non-target glints from a wide variety of sources. SARA proposes a common-housing, Multi-sensor approach to Detection, Recognition and Identification of possible snipers, particularly for friendly units moving through an Urban environment. Some COTS elements will complement essential & unique multi-wavelength optical devices, based on SARA’s imaging and dazzling technologies. Other inventions include electronics and software for detection and cueing. The MSSF system provides an ever-vigilant 360 degree “coverage” such that when a possible sniper is suspected, the MSSF provides an alarm and an annotated image to the operator.

TORREY PINES LOGIC, INC.
12651 High Bluff Dr. #100
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 382-7200
Dr. Leo Volfson
NAVY 07-164      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Sniper Detection
Abstract:Present proposal established analytical and scientific basis for the creation of Advanced Mirage Technology. Torrey Pines Logic, Inc. (“TPL”) has been developing Mirage optical augmentation technology since 2001. While the Mirage 1200 unit is currently available as a finished product and has been tested in the field since 2003, there are number of improvements that can be considered for a second generation product. Current Mirage 1200 device provides optical augmentation capabilities to the dismounted operator. Device is portable, hand-held and extends identification of the optical systems pointed at the operator to 1200 meters. At present there are no optical augmentation systems in the arsenal of the dismounted warrior. Most of the effort has been concentrated on acoustical or flash detection (“after/during the shot”), while the information from the theater suggests that any hostile action is always preceded by optical observation. TPL has previous designed and fielded Mirage 1200 system shown beneficial and capable in the field. Of course, Mirage 1200 has been designed with known and available technologies at the time of the concept, thus new approaches can be implemented for major performance improvements. It is desirable to create a next generation of Mirage technology, not only smaller and lighter, but, crucially, capable of very fast operation and identification. The ultimate goal is to scan 360 degrees surroundings in urban terrain in under 1 second. In order to achieve such a goal, new technologies in scanning, beam steering, processing, emitters and detectors have to be considered.

CASCADE DESIGNS
4000 1st Ave S
Seattle, WA 98134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 676-6047
Mr. Tim Oriard
NAVY 07-165      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:On site sterilizing solution production system
Abstract:Chlorine bleach (a 6% solution of sodium hypochlorite in) is the main disinfectant used in the food service and food production industry. It is also used for water supply treatment. It is inexpensive and available in many parts of the world. The very property that makes it such a good chemical disinfectant also causes problems with shelf life and storage. It is a strong oxidizer; storage container integrity and spills are constant concerns and effective shelf life can be as little as 3 months. This causes major problems for pre- deployment stock storage, stock rotation, staging, shipping, on-site storage and, in the final analysis, reliability regarding disinfectant and sanitization effectivity. Functioning as a direct replacement for commercial bleach, on-site production of mixed oxidants can potentially address these problems. Requiring only water, salt and electricity, such a system would not require the storage, transportation, or use of hazardous chemicals. In addition, a mixed oxidant system could be compact in size, and have low maintenance and life cycle costs. The research that is proposed to evaluate the potential for such a system is seen to build on an extensive base of knowledge that exists in the water treatment and purification industry.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. Andrew Houde
NAVY 07-165      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:On site sterilizing solution production system
Abstract:Sanitation and disinfection of food products and food-contact surfaces is a major concern of forward deployed military forces. Current DoD protocols call for the use of oxidizing agents such as sodium hypochlorite and other mixed oxidants to neutralize potentially harmful biological compounds. Although oxidizers such as sodium hypochlorite are readily-available in large quantities, their hazardous nature places significant burdens on military operations in terms of transportation and storage. In this Phase I SBIR program, Infoscitex Corporation (IST) and Cascade Designs, Inc. (CDI) propose the development of a device capable of providing the USMC and other components of the DoD with a disinfecting solution derived from non-hazardous precursors that are air- transportable, shelf-stable, and low cost. The Phase I project will focus on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a laboratory prototype of the device. In Phase II, the development efforts will be expanded to focus on device design refinement, manufacturing technology, and performance evaluations. As a result of the Phase II program, IST and CDI will supply pre-commercial prototypes to the USMC for evaluation.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Anthony Giletto
NAVY 07-165      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:On-Demand Disinfectant Generator
Abstract:Currently, the U.S. Navy uses a 4wt% sodium hypochlorite solution (bottled bleach) as a general disinfectant/sanitizer in the field. The solution is used for processing fresh fruits and vegetables, water purification, surface sanitizing, and general cleaning use. However, the limited shelf-life of bleach (6 months) and the hazardous nature of the solution make transporting, storing, and using bleach problematic. The Navy seeks to replace bottled-bleach with an on-site system that generates a concentrated disinfectant on-demand and preferably requires no consumables. This Phase I SBIR proposal describes the evaluation of three different disinfectants and their associated on-demand generation technologies as a replacement for bottled bleach. The three disinfectants, which are generated electrochemically, are potent, well-known germicides currently used for similar applications. During the Phase I research period, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature will determine what concentrations of these alternative disinfectants are required to match the performance of bleach in the field. This information will then be combined with the performance specifications of each of the electrochemical generation systems to determine the best technology to replace bottled bleach. The Phase I work will conclude with the fabrication and assembly of a breadboard disinfectant generation system.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2357
Dr. Brian France
NAVY 07-165      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:One-to-one Bleach Replacement with an Electrochemical Bleach Generator
Abstract:Deployed U.S. forces use bleach, a 5% solution of sodium hypochlorite, for water purification, surface sanitization, general cleaning as well as fresh fruit and vegetable processing. However, bleach is difficult to transport and has a short shelf life, making it is highly desirable to produce the disinfectant bleach on-site. The bleach production device needs to be capable of generating solutions with concentrations of bleach identical to those now used, enabling the continued use of military dilution tables and manuals concerning the use of bleach. Unfortunately there is currently no available equipment of a suitable size and cost that will produce a 5% bleach solution. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) therefore proposes to develop a device that is capable of converting common table salt (NaCl) to sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution using only electricity. TDA’s device will not require additional chemicals that pose a safety, shelf life or shipping issue. This system will be simple to operate, requiring a minimum of training and operator involvement.

ASTRON WIRELESS TECHNOLIGIES, INC.
22560 Glenn Drive Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Mr. Joseph R. Jahoda
NAVY 07-166      Awarded: 7/24/2008
Title:On The Move (OTM) High Frequency (HF) Communications Capability for the EFV
Abstract:The objective of the Phase 1 and 2 SBIR Topic N06-040, “Ultra-Wide Band Antenna (UWBA) For Electronic Attack Aircraft”, is to provide to the Navy innovative, new, and advanced techniques to increase the band coverage of the improved tactical Jamming Systems aboard the EA-6B and EA-18G aircraft (see figure 3-1), with very limited space. At the present time, the antennas used with the ALQ-99 do not provide all of the desired capability in one suite of antennas. The appropriate antennas must be selected to “missionize” each aircraft flight. The ALQ-99 JTS Pod (see figure 3-2) is to be populated with a full set of antennas to cover all bands of operation.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling Drive Suite 100
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
NAVY 07-166      Awarded: 8/25/2008
Title:On The Move (OTM) High Frequency (HF) Communications Capability for the EFV
Abstract:The EFV is a strong asset in the arsenal of the US Marines. One of the targeted efforts of the Marines is to improve the HF communications capability of the vehicle by upgrading the current fixed-base whip antenna to an antenna that supports a Near Vertical Incident Signal (NVIS) mode of operation. Point-to-point terrestrial communications at the HF Band (2-30 MHz) provides flexibility in link range unavailable at other bands. In order to support a NVIS mode, the peak-of-beam of the antenna must point towards zenith within approximately 10„a so that the transmitted signal reflects from one of several layers of the ionosphere. FIRST RF proposes two possible design solutions. The first approach utilizes a pair of configurable vertical monopoles. The second approach is a loop antenna. Omni-directional coverage On the Move (OTM) is achieved.

ADVANCED MATERIALS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CORP.
7525 Coastal view Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 338-3872
Dr. John Ogren
NAVY 07-167      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process for Defect free, Affordable, High Pressure, Thin Walled Hydraulic Tubing for Navy Aircraft
Abstract:The objective of the technical effort is to eventually identify a material and a process that produces thin wall high pressure tubing for high performance aircraft, specifically Navy aircraft. The need for improvements stems from disastrous failures and the subsequent failure investigations that have indicated a need for a more fracture-tolerant tubing material. The first phase of the effort will consist of four distinct activities: 1. Titanium Alloy, TI-425.will be evaluated as a replacement material for Ti-325, the alloy used in current high pressure hydraulic tubes. The former is a relatively new alloy, stronger than Ti-325, with good cold-working performance. This activity will use flat plates. The goal is to identify an oxygen level and thermal treatment that results in a condition such that the 425 alloy is still stronger (and more crack resistant) than the 325 alloy while, exhibiting superior ductility ( and thus, workability). 2. Manufacturing studies will be conducted with major Titanium suppliers to insure that the research results can be economically transferred to large-scale industrial practice 3. Systems-level studies will be held with a major aircraft manufacturer to determine the impact of the change in tubing material on systems performance. 4. Liasion will be established with laboratories involved in Pressure Impulse Testing

DYNAMET TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Eight A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-5967
Ms. Susan M. Abkowitz
NAVY 07-167      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Novel Alloys and Innovative Low Cost Manufacturing Process for Defect Free, Improved, High Pressure Titanium Hydraulic Tubing for Navy Aircraft
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal addresses the Navy’s need to improve the reliability and safety of titanium thin-walled, high pressure hydraulic tubing used in naval aircraft. Powder metal processing will be used to produce novel, cold formable titanium alloys that are more damage resistant and damage tolerant than the standard tubing alloy, Ti-3Al- 2.5V. Tubing will be produced from P/M tube hollows and evaluated to establish the technical feasibility of using P/M tube hollows as starting stock to produce titanium hydraulic tubing. In Phase I several innovative titanium alloys will be evaluated for cold formability, damage resistance and damage tolerance by; smooth and notched tensile properties, scratch hardness, indentation hardness, microstructure and chemistry. These tests will identify the most promising alloys for the production of hydraulic tubing and establish the initial economic and technical viability of making tubing from P/M tube hollows. Impulse tests and low cycle fatigue testing of tubes will be conducted in the Phase I Option to establish that tubes produced from the alloys developed in Phase I are indeed superior to Ti-3Al-2.5V. The proposed technology will answer the need for affordable, damage resistant and damage tolerant titanium thin-walled high pressure hydraulic tubing for military and commercial aircraft.

GREAT LAKES COMPOSITES
12061 West Lakeshore Drive
Brimley, MI 48715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 248-3354
Mr. Joel A. Dyksterhouse
NAVY 07-167      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:DRIFT ProcessThermoplastic Composites Materials & Innovative Manufacturing Process for Thin Wall, High Pressure Hydraulic Tubing for Navy Aircraft
Abstract:Great Lakes Composites will utilize its extensive background in thermoplastic composites materials to provide an innovative solution to develop a high pressure, thin-walled hydraulic tubing for Navy aircraft. GLC will utilize the patented Direct Re-Inforced Fiber Technology (DRIFT) process to heat fuse thermoplastic resin to continuous fibers, to efficiently and thoroughly impregnate the fibers without damage, improving the reliability and safety of hydraulic tubing. GLC anticipates that thermoplastic composites tape-form materials, wrapped to form the tubing, will exceed the Navy’s expectations, as well as significantly reduce failures. The additional benefits of cost and weight reduction, along with re-formability in the field will further contribute value-added benefits for both the Navy and potential commercial markets. The resulting properties of the thermoplastic composites materials tubing will include a minimum of 5000 psi, a continuous use temperature of greater than 400◦ F, an outside diameter of 0.25” to 0.75” with a wall thickness of 0.022” to 0.065” respectively, and a minimum of 10 feet to 30 feet or more in length. It is anticipated that the resulting thermoplastic composites materials tubing will have zero degradation of properties under continuous exposure to hot hydraulic fluids and be resistant to ‘chafing’ of the outer surface.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Mark Windoloski
NAVY 07-168      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:NDE for Residual Stress Relaxation
Abstract:Fatigue lives of rotating engine components are greatly enhanced through application of shot peening and other processes that impart residual compressive stresses to their surfaces. X-ray diffraction measurements, however, confirm that these stresses relax during service. Furthermore, residual stresses may relax rapidly or gradually and can vary by location. This proposal addresses the need for a nondestructive method of measuring and tracking residual stress relaxation with scanning MWM-Arrays. JENTEK’s patented MWM-Arrays have demonstrated capability to measure shot peen quality in nickel alloys and we are confident we can transition a solution for stress relaxation tracking in nickel alloy components, within two years. This proposed program will also address stress relaxation in titanium alloys. JENTEK currently has two active programs that will provide leverage to this program. Under Air Force funding, we are adapting our technology for manufacturing quality assessment of Low Plasticity Burnishing and Laser Shock Processing. Under a separate Air Force program, we are adapting our technology for IBR inspection for cracks and mechanical damage. Scanning MWM-Arrays, already integrated into automated engine disk inspection systems in use at Navy depots, have the potential to provide crack detection and residual stress relaxation tracking with a single inspection.

LAMBDA TECHNOLOGIES
3929 Virginia Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 561-0883
Mr. Douglas Hornbach
NAVY 07-168      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Residual Stress Measurements Program to Support Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of Critical Rotating Components of Propulsion Systems
Abstract:Surface enhancement processes are extensively used to introduce compressive residual stresses (CRS) and enhance the fatigue performance in titanium and nickel alloy rotating components for Navy propulsion systems. CRS can relax in rotating components as a result of thermal exposure and cyclic stresses, adversely impacting the fatigue life and strength. Relaxation can occur rapidly depending upon the relative component temperatures and cyclic stresses. Inspection of the components is performed on a routine basis to characterize damage levels in accordance with Technical Manuals (TM). However, the CRS are currently not monitored and tracked during routine inspection. As part of the inspection cycle, components are re-shot peened to overcome any residual stress relaxation that may have occurred. Intervals at which the components are re- peened may or may not be appropriate for the rate of compressive relaxation. A portable XRD measurement device capable of quickly quantifying the CRS would allow the Navy to track the surface residual stress in support of condition based maintenance of critical components. The measurement device would allow for field measurement of critical features of blades and disk components. The device would be capable of not only measuring the surface residual stress but also the cold working which has a significant impact on the rate of relaxation.

PROTO MANUFACTURING, INC.
1980 E Michigan Avenue
Ypsilanti, MI 48198
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 743-0600
Mr. Stanley G. Berkley
NAVY 07-168      Awarded: 4/9/2008
Title:Residual Stress Measurements Program to Support Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of Critical Rotating Components of Propulsion Systems
Abstract:The fatigue properties of metals used in modern turbine engines are improved by cold working processes, such as the various forms of peening. Peening imparts compressive residual stresses (RS), which inhibit, or prevent, the initiation and propagation of cracks in critical locations of turbine engine components. The problem is that the RS state of critical rotating components, whether peened or not, is seldom known. This is complicated by the fact that RS relaxes with operational usage; thus, later in the component’s life cycle it becomes possible for the RS to become tensile—a potentially dangerous condition for critical components. RS is a key factor that must be fully understood to ensure the requisite fatigue life. Currently, NAVAIR has no means of reliably and nondestructively measuring RS in the tight locations of critical rotating components. Proto has considerable experience in measuring RS in numerous components of several USAF engines, including the F-22 engine, and is recognized as the world’s leader in x-ray diffraction RS technology. Proto proposes to prove the feasibility and demonstrate its robust capability to perform RS measurements in the lab as well as the depot environment of FRC-SE. This proof-of-concept will be performed on a current fighter engine. Proto plans to develop and demonstrate a database management system, tailored for RS data, to archive, analyze and develop RS trends for input to fatigue life prediction. Proto further proposes to conduct laboratory testing and analyses to develop the RS/fatigue relationship for use in prognostics or life prediction in Phase II. The RS measuring capability proposed by Proto will contribute directly to Condition Based Maintenance by enabling direct measurements and supporting quantitative decision making in materiel disposition matters, such as to accept, rework or reject, for these high value engine components.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-0148
Dr. Fritz Friedersdorf
NAVY 07-169      Awarded: 1/2/2008
Title:Smart Sensor Hub for Corrosion Monitoring
Abstract:Corrosion of aircraft and rotorcraft is the single largest maintenance cost driver for the Navy and Marine Corps. In order to maximize aircraft availability and minimize inspection and maintenance demands, Luna proposes to develop a smart sensor hub to support corrosion monitoring of aircraft. The sensor hub will be the central application device for a complete corrosion monitoring system that detects early stages of corrosion and estimates corrosive severity. The smart sensor hub will perform wireless network communications, transducer communications, and data conversion and application functions. It will also provide power management to the transducer circuitry and energy scavenging devices to maximize service life. The system will have an open architecture and configurable interface with loading options to accommodate the widest possible range of sensors. Luna’s corrosion monitoring system will fuse diverse datasets for improved state awareness and reduced uncertainty in measuring corrosion damage and estimating useful life remaining. The Phase I program will conclude with a breadboard demonstration of the functional elements of the smart sensor hub including power management, control and communication, and data storage. Luna will also demonstrate corrosion sensor response to early stage corrosion damage of aircraft alloys

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth G. Blemel
NAVY 07-169      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Miniature Corrosion Sensor Hub to Monitor Difficult-to-Access Aircraft Structure with Complex Geometry.
Abstract:MSI specializes in design and commercialization of miniature intelligent low power instrumentation systems that process data from sensors in scripted Bayesian algorithms in a “rules engine” application. Recently MSI received a US patent a new monitoring methodology for difficult-to-access aircraft structure with complex geometry. Our product will incorporate a tiny processor and a power scavenger circuit in a tape that supports ribbonized sensitized fiber strands. The ribbonized sensitized strands will extend around, under, and on a structure such as a magnesium gearbox housing, a highly complex geometry casting up to 3 cu ft in size. Deterioration or damage to the ribbonized strands will indicate, probabilistically, that damage is occurring to the item under test. The sensor hub will incorporate a low power electronic circuit called the Embeddable Programmable Instrumentation Circuit (EPIC) which is designed for creating stand-alone low power monitoring systems for aircraft and ground vehicle CBM and PHM. The EPIC processor is very low power, capable of being powered by a energy scavenger circuit. The new module will support intermodule wireless communication, and provide interrogation and wireless offload of the state of health of the equipment being monitored to the inspector’s handheld or PC.

MICROSTRAIN, INC.
310 Hurricane Lane Suite 4
Williston, VT 05495
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 862-6629
Mr. Steven W. Arms
NAVY 07-169      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Miniature Corrosion Sensor Hub to Monitor Difficult-to-Access Aircraft Structure with Complex Geometry.
Abstract:Embedded wireless sensors for corrosion monitoring of critical aircraft components are needed for improved condition based maintenance and future structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. The objective of this Phase I SBIR proposal is to design, develop, and test a corrosion measurement and data collection system that can utilize multiple types of corrosion sensors. A key design criterion is that the system be extremely low power which will enable its use with energy scavenging power sources, such as vibration based energy harvesters. The basic architecture incorporates a hub which manages data collection and storage from multiple distributed remote corrosions sensing nodes (CSN’s). Communication between the hub and the CSN’s is achieved using a micro power variation of the RS-485 bus architecture, which allows for up to 256 distributed nodes. The hub incorporates high density non-volatile flash memory for data storage and utilizes an IEEE802.15.4 radio link for offloading the collected data to a remote handheld or personal computer. The CSN’s can employ any type or corrosion sensing method, including resistive, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS), and inductive techniques. Future distributed nodes could be developed that support various other structural sensors, including strain, pressure, and vibration sensors.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Naumov
NAVY 07-170      Awarded: 1/2/2008
Title:3D Optical Defectoscope System
Abstract:To address the Navy need for a cost-effective nondestructive evaluation system to facilitate high rate, high-precision inspection of hybrid ceramic bearings, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new 3D Optical Defectoscope (3DOD) system based on shearing of scattered light from defects of ceramic elements. The 3DOD performs precision 3D mapping of surface and subsurface defects in ceramic elements at a high operation rate. Innovative implementation of shearography, polarization control, and new optical design, all of these make 3DOD applicable for inspection of ceramic surface features. Implementation of shearography, which is a proven NDE method, offers robustness against environmental disturbances, optical alignment, and high sensitivity to detect defects with a resolution of 0.2 microns. The 3D defect measurement provides high detection probability, with very low false negative and false positive rates. The 3DOD design includes fiber optic bundles and a universal handling module that makes it applicable for both rolling and ball ceramic elements. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the 3DOD prototype by 3D defect mapping for ceramic rolling elements. In Phase II, POC plans to develop an automated prototype for inspection of ceramic ball bearings.

VIBRANT CORP.
3801 Academy Parkway North N, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 314-1504
Mr. Tom Togami
NAVY 07-170      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Hybrid Bearings Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE)
Abstract:The objective of this proposed effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of Vibrant Corporation (Vibrant) improving current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to allow for surface and subsurface feature inspection of hybrid bearings. Under the proposed effort, an NDE capability will be developed and demonstrated that can quickly and cost effectively detect various types of manufacturing defects found in ceramic rolling elements used in hybrid bearings including surface and bulk flaws. The NDE capability will be adapted from the Process Compensated Resonance Testing (PCRT) technology currently used for metal and ceramic parts in the automotive and aerospace industries. PCRT uses Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) coupled with genetic sorting algorithms and the Mahalanobis-Taguchi statistical method. PCRT is able to determine patterns within the resonant spectra of acceptable and unacceptable parts. These patterns will then be used to generate a sorting tool that can consistently separate parts with any combination of acceptable variations from those with a single occurrence of an unacceptable variation, i.e. critical flaw.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Carl S. Byington, P.E.
NAVY 07-171      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:A Lightweight, In-Situ Corrosion Sensing Module (CorrSeM)
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with The Boeing Company and IMR Test Labs, proposes to develop a low power, lightweight, miniature sensing device capable of sensing parameters which contribute to corrosion development in aircraft structures and components. By monitoring the primary drivers of corrosion as opposed to only its formation and effects, maintainers will be able to more proactively address corrosion within a more prognostic condition-based maintenance framework. The Phase I program objective is to demonstrate a prototype Corrosion Sensing Module (CorrSeM) for monitoring environmental factors contributing to corrosion development. Impact will leverage its experience in developing in-situ embedded sensing solutions to architect, design, and build a prototype system for laboratory data collection and demonstration of Phase I feasibility. The ability of the prototype to track corrosion drivers will be verified through controlled ISO and ASTM test methods. At the end of Phase I, Impact will create a development plan leading towards inexpensive, lightweight, miniature solutions which meet or exceed performance expectations. Successful completion of Phase I objectives will allow for smooth transition into a Phase II program focused on rigorous testing of the CorrSeM’s capabilities under both laboratory and real-world scenarios and the development of miniature CorrSeM prototypes.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-0148
Dr. Fritz Friedersdorf
NAVY 07-171      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Smart Environmental Corrosivity Sensor Suite for Aircraft Applications
Abstract:Corrosion of aircraft and rotorcraft is the single largest maintenance cost driver for the Navy and Marine Corps. In order to maximize aircraft availability and minimize inspection and maintenance demands, Luna proposes to develop a miniature, light weight sensor suite that will measure corrosive severity of aircraft operational environments. The smart corrosivity sensor suite will monitor multiple environmental parameters and quantify cumulative corrosive effects that an aircraft experiences. The light weight and small size of the self contained sensor suite will permit instrumentation of critical components and “corrosion hotspots” within the aircraft. The sensor suite will be designed as a smart transducer interface module for compatibility with a network capable application processor such as the miniature corrosion sensor hub (Topic NAVY 07-169). The sensor suite will be a low power device for long life use with a battery or energy scavenging module (Topic NAVY 07-178). Luna’s environmental corrosivity sensor suite will fuse measurements of environmental parameters and corrosivity for improved state awareness and reduced uncertainty in estimating coating system breakdown and structural material damage. The Phase I effort will be concluded by demonstrating the correlation of the breadboard prototype sensor suite response with corrosion of aircraft alloys in accelerated environmental corrosion tests.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Yunping Yang
NAVY 07-171      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Miniaturized Fiber-Optic Spectroscopic Corrosive Sensor System
Abstract:To address the Navy’s need for an environmental sensor suite to monitor corrosion- influencing parameters for aircraft structural materials, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Miniaturized Fiber-Optic Spectroscopic (Mini-FOS) Corrosion Sensor system. This system is based on fusion of several environmental and chemical sensors innovatively integrated on a single optic fiber for monitoring all relevant parameters simultaneously. The self-contained system will be compact (<1 ounce, <1 cubic inch) and powered by an energy scavenging circuit to generate 1 mW/cc. With a detection sensitivity of parts-per-billion for chemicals, ~0.01 degrees C for temperatures, and 0.01% for humidity, this system will collect and store data at a rate of at least one Hertz during flight. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of Mini-FOS by investigating the system design by computer modeling, and fabricating and testing a breadboard prototype (TRL 4) in a simulated corrosive environment. In Phase II an advanced, miniaturized Mini-FOS engineering prototype with TRL 5 will be assembled and tested both at POC and at a Navy facility.

ARIZONA PARADROGUE SYTEMS DIVOF WEST COAST NETTING
5075 Flightline Dr
Kingman, AZ 86401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(928) 681-3160
Mr. Robert Najaka
NAVY 07-172      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Innovative Concepts for Stabilization and Control of Aerial Refueling Drogues
Abstract:Arizona Paradrogue Systems, a drogue coupling assembly, a drogue coupling assembly development and manufacturing firm and SySense, Inc, systems development firm specializing in navigation and control design for autonomous air refueling systems have teamed together to develop a fully stabilized and controllable drogue. APS and SySense plan to generate an analytical model of a stabilized/controllable drogue through numerical analysis simulating tanker, receiver and drogue bodies in turbulent air as well as navigation and electro-optical devices as sensors to provide control and feedback information to actuators installed on the drogue. The design will be based on existing APS drogue designs and will bolt on to existing drogue refueling systems requiring no additional mechanical modifications to the hose/reel system. Phase I investigation shall focus on using the C-130 high speed basket as the model in order to demonstrate the concept. Transverse force data on the drogue shall be obtained through wind tunnel testing using a basket modified with manual devices to simulate canopy manipulation. This data shall then be combined with sensor and navigation data to complete the analysis. The Phase I option shall expand the analysis to include C-130 Low Speed basket, Buddy Store and Variable Speed Drive. A full scale prototype will be constructed to demonstrate the concept in the Option phase.

NIELSEN ENGINEERING & RESEARCH, INC.
605 Ellis Street, Suite 200
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-9457
Dr. Daniel Pruzan
NAVY 07-172      Awarded: 1/2/2008
Title:Innovative Controllable Drogue Refueling System
Abstract:Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) is proposing to develop an innovative controllable drogue system based on their CDC7 technology. During the Phase I effort, a second generation CDC7 design, which meets the Navy's specific needs, will be developed through numerical analysis and full-scale wind tunnel testing. System feasibility will be demonstrated through dynamic simulations that include the tanker, hose, controllable drogue, sensors, receiver, and atmospheric turbulence. These analyses will demonstrate that NEAR's controllable drogue system can maintain the refueling basket at a specified stabilized location relative to the tanker even in severe atmospheric conditions. In addition to this aerodynamic performance, the proposed drogue system is reliable, durable (minimizing FOD potential), lightweight, compatible with existing USN/USAF refueling systems, and requires no receiver modifications. While the proposed work plan is very ambitious, it is made achievable through the use of 1) NEAR's existing refueling technology and numerical modeling capabilities, 2) a development team with significant experience in the field of aerial refueling, and 3) external funding from a commercialization partner that is established in the aerial refueling industry. The Phase I program will provide a strong foundation for subsequent development and flight testing of the controllable drogue in the Phase II contract.

AERO SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, INC.
358 East Fillmore Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 220-1290
Dr. Dean Long
NAVY 07-173      Awarded: 1/2/2008
Title:Practical Assessment of Noise/Performance Trade for High NPR Nozzles
Abstract:With improvements in high performance military jet aircraft engines and the increase in complexity of the exhaust systems the noise produced has become problematic. Reducing these noise levels, while maintaining overall system performance, has become the driving issue in new nozzle designs. This proposal will focus on nozzle designs of practical application that can be implemented on current high NPR engine configurations, such as chevrons (or serrations) cut into the trailing edge of the nozzle. In Phase I we will address the practical aspects of making the noise/performance tradeoff for high pressure ratio nozzles. Data will be collected on models in a subscale test facility and evaluated using near field holography and shadowgraph imagery to identify the source characteristics. This will aid development of both CFD and noise prediction algorithms in Phase II.

SPECTRAL ENERGIES, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Dr. Sivaram P. Gogineni
NAVY 07-173      Awarded: 1/2/2008
Title:Exhaust Jet Noise Reduction for Tactical Aircraft
Abstract:A class of high amplitude and high bandwidth actuators called localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have recently been developed at OSU and used for control of high-speed and high Reynolds number jets. The control included successful noise mitigation in a Mach 0.9 jet and mixing enhancement (and very preliminary results for noise mitigation) in a Mach 1.3 ideally expanded jet. The control relies on high bandwidth of the actuators and excites various instabilities in the jet to achieve the goal of mixing enhancement or noise mitigation. The proposed Phase I work will explore the effectiveness of this technology in more practical supersonic exhaust jets operating with various flow regimes (i.e. ideally-, over-, and under-expanded) and high temperature. Phase I work will pave the way for detailed parametric study of the control issues to achieve maximum noise mitigation in Phase II, where we will also explore integration and commercialization issues.

TTC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. Box 1527
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-7127
Dr. Ken Alabi
NAVY 07-173      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Exhaust Jet Noise Reduction for Tactical Aircraft
Abstract:The absence of a comprehensive, integrated aerodynamic/aero-acoustic modeling and analysis framework represents an impediment to achieving significant noise reduction within constraints imposed by the engine cycle, realistic geometry, and airframe. We close the gap by developing a suite of advanced, high fidelity nozzle performance and jet noise-based tools integrated into a unified software package with validation cases and applicability assessments. The flow field software will be based on TTC Technologies, Inc. multi-disciplinary high-order CFD tool, AEROFLO, which predicts temporal and spatial flow fields at all speeds (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic). The tools, ranging from RANS to LES, will be installed as modules interfaced with a comprehensive set of aeroacoustic source modules populated with fundamental physics-based aeroacoustic and semi-empirical models, to allow a range of prediction methods via “pull- down” menus. A large-scale noise model based on a RANS/PSE approach developed by UTRC and Caltech will also be implemented. The simulation codes will be rigorously validated using UTRC acquired data with limitations documented in terms of accuracy, robustness, sensitivity, turnaround time plus recommendations for improvements. The tool will provide a comprehensive approach to the design and development of nozzle components that attenuate exhaust jet noise.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Darrell Schlicker
NAVY 07-174      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Hand-held Corrosion Scanner/Imager
Abstract:As a result of the environment in which they operate, Naval aircraft are subject to pervasive corrosion damage. On-board sensors can signal when corrosion may be occurring, but there is a need for a portable corrosion scanning system that can confirm the degree and location of actual corrosion damage. JENTEK’s patented Meandering Winding Magnetometer sensors and arrays (MWM-Array) have proven capabilities for detecting and imaging corrosion damage on complex aircraft components, such as gear box housings and fuselage lap joints. They are thin and flexible, can be customized to suit the component and will conform to curved parts and areas with varying curvature. JENTEK has recently completed a NAVAIR funded Phase II program (Field Portable System for Electromagnetic Imaging of Cracks Under Fasteners ) that succeeded in integrating the functionality of the laptop computer into the impedance instrument and reducing the overall system weight from 28 pounds to 12 pounds. This proposed program will continue the design evolution to meet the Phase I goals of system volume less than 0.5 cubic feet and system weight under 10 pounds. Additionally, MWM- Arrays will be adapted to provide corrosion detection and imaging on specific components of interest to NAVAIR.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave. Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
Dr. An-Dien Nguyen
NAVY 07-174      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:A Portable Corrosion Detector for inspecting Aircraft Structures with Complex Geometries.
Abstract:Aging aircraft commonly suffers from several types of degradation including corrosion, cracking and lack of bonding. Severe corrosive environment of naval aircrafts results in corrosion as the fundamental reason for aging aircraft. A corrosion detection system, independent from geometrical complexities, needs to be developed to detect active corrosion. AE method can be used to detect corrosion growth on-line for periodically active corrosion or off-line for active corrosion during measurement. In this proposal, we propose to develop a hand-held detector using of state-of-the-art AE method to detect active corrosion growing on naval aircraft components. During the Phase I and Phase I Option periods of this project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of developing an AE system with optimized settings to detect active corrosion growing on naval aircraft components. The system will have a grading system as a part of analysis software.

PHOTON-X, INC.
4835 University Square Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3416
Mr. Blair Barbour
NAVY 07-174      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Portable 3D Corrosion Detector for inspecting Aircraft Structures with Complex Geometries.
Abstract:Photon-X is pleased to propose the next generation of corrosion detection devices to assist the Navy achieve its goal of reducing the impact of corrosion of aircraft maintenance cost. Our technology is an innovative integration of Spatial Phase Imaging (SPI) applied to both high-resolution video imaging and Terahertz (THz) imaging that captures full 3D volumetric analytical information of both surface and subsurface corrosion. The proposed detector is highly sensitive to submicron size defects such as corrosion in early stages much more effectively than any current technology. It will also provide quantitative volumetric data of corrosion location and severity. Each of the two technologies has been developed for other applications and has been proven to be very strong technology. We will measure the complex 3D geometries of the part and the small deformations that will occur on the surface and under layers of paint at the submicron level on the part. The system can be developed into a portable cost effective method to detect corrosion in critical parts before catastrophic failure. This proposed effort will determine the feasibility of integrating these technologies and establish a small handheld cost efficient corrosion detector and determine a path forward towards a Phase II effort.

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS LLC
22 Salisbury Way
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 269-8148
Dr. Bhal Tulpule
NAVY 07-175      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Intelligent Sensor Node for Distributed Engine Control for Advanced Propulsion System Application
Abstract:The implementation of intelligent propulsion concepts for the next generation of advanced propulsion systems requires development of advanced enabling technologies such as smart sensors, which are capable of intelligently using all of the available sensors for the synthesis of robust control strategies and the automated management of the health of the engine in order to complete a given mission. The proposed Intelligent Sensor Node (ISN) is a high temperature capable, modular design with the capability to interface with and manage multiple engine control sensors for pressure, temperature and other parameters, and communicate with the FADEC. The ISN can be reconfigured for interfacing with different classes of control sensors without hardware changes, and contains all of the circuitry needed for signal conditioning, acquisition, digital calibration and compensation. The ISN is an enabling building block for the realization of distributed FADEC control system architectures, and is equally applicable to hybrid or legacy FADEC system applications.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS CORP.
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 565-9004
Dr. Behzad Moslehi
NAVY 07-175      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Intelligent and Robust Sensor Network for Distributed Engine Control
Abstract:The Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) centralized architecture has become the norm in aero-engine control systems. This architecture, which limits the design choices, accounts for ~20% of total weight and acquisition cost of the engine. Any modification to the system hardware is costly and inefficient. The limitations of electronics in high-temperature environments is another major issue. Distributed control architectures together with enabling high-temperature sensors and standardized interfaces will be able to provide a future-proof platform for next-generation systems. Photonics technology, including standardized fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), is becoming increasingly prevalent in many commercial systems including aircraft. Many systems, including avionics, now use 10-gigabit fiber-optic Ethernet. Also in use in aircraft systems are Fiber Channel and Firewire. IFOS proposes to address the problem with the development of a fiber-optic communications and control architecture based on Dense WDM (DWDM) and providing standardized optical network interfaces on a highly-reliable bi-directional optical network. In Phase I, IFOS will (1) develop a backbone architecture design concept appropriate for aero-engine control systems supporting many sensors with standardized interfaces, including IFOS’ high-temperature multiplexed sensors, and demonstrate its feasibility through performance calculations and simulations, (2) ensure the system design meets all requirements for engine control systems

MOUND LASER & PHOTONICS CENTER, INC.
P.O. Box 223
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4481
Dr. Larry Dosser
NAVY 07-176      Awarded: 1/2/2008
Title:Short Pulse Laser Texturing of Wear Resistant Surfaces
Abstract:This program seeks to develop and optimize laser textured wear resistant coatings with adaptive solid film lubricants to protect and extend the life of aircraft engine components. Patterns of micron-sized dimples on surfaces act as reservoirs for smart, nanostructured solid film lubricants that adjust tribological surface properties in response to changing conditions to minimize wear. Optimization of the dimple depth, diameter, and pattern is necessary to obtain best performance from the adaptive lubricant. This program will determine that optimization for a variety of substrate metal and coating combinations of interest to DoD prime contractors. Best results from testing on coupons will be applied to realistic parts in an Option task. Based on Phase I results, projections will be made for processing costs and times in a production environment and estimates will be made of life cycle cost savings for target aircraft engine components. This program is a collaboration between a company with core expertise in laser ablation and surface texturing (MLPC) and a company with expertise in wear resistant coating deposition, solid film lubricants, and wear testing (TXI), with cognizance and input from a Prime Contractor (Rolls-Royce) that will provide an early commercialization transition opportunity for successful program outcomes.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Andrew Washabaugh
NAVY 07-177      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Micromechanical Models for Dielectric Behavior of Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract:The proposed program will enhance material and sensor models to provide improved understanding of dielectric property information regarding Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) material condition. These models are to be used to assess thermochemical degradation of CMC’s and also to assess the condition of materials during manufacture. JENTEK has developed a family of electroquasistatic and magnetoquasistatic sensors and arrays that have successfully solved a wide range of previously intractable NDE problems. These sensors and sensor arrays use model-based inverse methods to estimate electromagnetic properties that are correlated with many conditions of interest, such as thermal degradation of component materials. JENTEK’s Interdigitated Electrode Dielectrometer is being adapted for manufacturing quality control of CMC’s. The goals of this Phase I program are to extend standard micromechanical models to predict dielectric behavior of coated fiber CMC’s, to incorporate these models into anisotropic layered material representations for dielectric sensor models, and to relate composite constituent behavior with thermal exposure conditions. To address this need, we will work with CMC thermostructural modelers (MR&D), manufacturers (COI Ceramics), and an end user (Pratt & Whitney). In Phase II, we will refine the models to support in-service material evaluation and self-consistent prediction of dielectric, thermochemical, and structural behavior.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-6130
Mr. Kent Buesking
NAVY 07-177      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Micromechanical Assessment of Thermochemically Induced NDE Changes in Advanced Composites
Abstract:The Joint Strike Fighter is considering the use of organic and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature engine components. Material coupons and flight tests have shown that when these materials are exposed to high temperatures in the presence of air, salt fog, and humidity they can react chemically. The chemical reactions may cause a significant loss in composite strength even though there is no physical evidence of damage. Standard non destructive evaluation techniques such as ultrasonics, radiography, and thermography have not been able to accurately identify and monitor the chemical changes. Fortunately emerging NDE techniques based on electrical resistivity, electromagnetics, and dielectric properties have shown promise in relating chemical changes to NDE signal. These techniques, however, are in their infancy and the measurements are sensitive to sensor design, scanning technique, and data interpretation. In order to develop the electromagnetic-based NDE methods into useful engineering tools, it is necessary to understand the theoretical dielectric properties of advanced composites. The development of a micromechanical model for composite dielectric properties will support the development of NDE techniques and standards that can monitor chemically induced changes in advanced composite engine components. Materials Research & Design proposes to build upon their demonstrated understanding of composite material theory and develop a micromechanical model that relates composite dielectric behavior to constituent properties, fiber volume fraction, and fiber orientation. The theory will be tested for feasibility by comparison to NDE signals measured on CMCs of interest. The program will be undertaken by a team of MR&D and Jentek Sensors, Inc. MR&D will develop the theory, debug the computer code, procure CMC specimens, define the test plan, correlate the data, and prepare the reports. Jentek, as a subcontractor to MR&D, will consult on the theoretical assumptions, measure the NDE response, and reduce the raw data.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Jack Salerno
NAVY 07-178      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:MEMS vibro-mechanical energy scavenging device for powering wireless sensors
Abstract:AGILTRON proposes to realize a new MEMS energy scavenger capable of powering in- situ micro sensors and their wireless modules under harsh operational environments. The design overcomes current shortcomings and achieves sufficient power output, reliability, miniature size, and low cost. The approach incorporates several innovations including stable electromagnetic structure, efficient power generation, wide frequency response, and advanced packaging. The approach is suitable for near term commercialization. In the Phase I program, a state-of-the-art MEMS vibration array, ruggedized assembly and package that meet the power and reliability operational requirements for naval aircraft environments will be demonstrated. Fully functional devices will be produced in Phase II.

MICROSTRAIN, INC.
310 Hurricane Lane Suite 4
Williston, VT 05495
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 862-6629
Mr. Steven W. Arms
NAVY 07-178      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Development of a Miniature, Vibro-Mechanical Energy Harvester for Powering Wireless Sensors
Abstract:In the proposed work, we will develop a highly efficient and miniaturized vibration energy harvesting device suitable for use on drive system components of helicopters. The goal is to provide power to run a wireless corrosion hub and sensors (to be developed simultaneously in a separate program). The target power generating capability is 5mW under vibration conditions typical of steady state flight. The size and mass of the system will be miniaturized. Target metrics are 0.0.1mW/gram, and 0.5mW/cc. The harvester will be implemented using our proven strain optimized, resonating cantilever beam with Macro Fiber Composite piezoelectric elements. An integral energy harvesting circuit will be based on one of our two proven circuit designs, our Managed Switching design, or out Capacitive Discharge design. The principle technical challenges will be in minimizing the size and mass of the device while still achieving target power output. This will be achieved by stacking multiple layers of MFC material on the beam, and implementing design features to minimize the beam’s stiffness. Ensuring long term reliable operation in hostile environments is a second technical challenge. We will accomplish this through careful selection of materials, and by incorporating environmental sealing and overload stops into the enclosure design.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4427
Dr. Charles Lakeman
NAVY 07-178      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:XMR- A Novel Vibration Harvesting System for Wireless Sensors
Abstract:Wireless sensors promise to reduce the Navy’s aircraft maintenance costs via real-time monitoring of corrosion-prone components. The promise of wireless sensors lies in their reduced susceptibility to failure, reduced weight and configurational flexibility compared with conventional wired sensors. However, because of the costs of replacing batteries in sensors deployed in inaccessible locations, a significant challenge for wireless sensors is power. In this Phase I effort, TPL proposes to develop a vibration harvesting power system comprising a new vibration harvesting module developed at Washington State University and TPL’s patent-pending power management and storage system. The new harvester design is highly efficient, tunable over a broad frequency range (several 10s Hz), relatively inexpensive to manufacture, and is no larger than a stack of 3 US quarters. TPL’s power management system efficiently stores the harvested energy in electrochemical energy storage devices to efficiently meet steady state and pulse power loads (up to 500mW) as well as provide back-up power in the absence of harvestable vibrations. Designed for “ZigBee”-type applications, this system can be customized for any user-specified profile. Successful completion of the proposed effort will pave the way for a unique solution to providing power for the Navy’s remote, wireless systems.

P.C. KRAUSE & ASSOC., INC.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Dr. Jason Wells
NAVY 07-179      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:F-35 Three-Bearing Swivel Nozzle (3BSN) Door Actuator
Abstract:The lowered cost of maintenance, lowered weight, and reduced installation complexity of smart electric actuators continues to justify the transition from hydraulic actuation to EMAs/EHAs. This SBIR proposal will extend the advantages of EMA technology into high- temperature, high-vibration applications with a first commercialization target being the JSF F35 Lightning II aircraft platform. During the SBIR Phases I research, PCKA will collaborate with NAVAIR and Lockheed Martin to establish the actuator requirements. Once the requirements are defined, PCKA will identify suitable actuator architectures for the application and then optimize the design in terms of weight, reliability, maintainability, manufacturability, and cost. Key design constraints will be the thermal and vibration environment which may necessitate the use of specific motor technologies, high- temperature wire insulation, lubrication, and electronics. In Phase II, PCKA will fabricate a prototype of the optimal design and perform qualification tests including EMI/EMC, vibration, shock, and altitude. If successful, developed technologies will ultimately transition to DoD programs under a Phase III contract.

TURNKEY DESIGN SERVICES, LLC
12757 S. Western Ave. Suite 229
Blue Island, IL 60406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(708) 293-1120
Mr. Scott Borchers
NAVY 07-179      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:F-35 Three-Bearing Swivel Nozzle (3BSN) Door Actuator
Abstract:Turnkey Design Services, LLC of Blue Island, IL proposes to replace an existing high temperature electro-hydraulic actuator on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter with a smart electro-mechanical actuator. With the advancement of electronics over the last several years, aircraft system integrators have been replacing electro-hydraulic actuation systems with electro-mechanical actuation systems. Electro-mechanical actuators are now being used to control flaps, open weapon, refueling and cargo bay doors and deploy landing gear (fly-by-wire concept). They are being used in every area on the aircraft where temperature permits, however, due to motor and electronic component material limitations the temperature environment is limited. The proposed electro-mechanical smart actuator utilizes several technologies specific to high temperature applications above 200 deg C. The proposed motor is a high temperature Switch Reluctance Motor with high temperature windings. The electronics utilize silicon on insulator (SOI) and silicon carbide (SiC) technology to provide integrated motor controls and system health monitoring capability without active cooling

PHARAD LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive, Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 590-3333
Dr. Rodney Waterhouse
NAVY 07-180      Awarded: 7/9/2008
Title:Wideband Adaptive Printed Antenna with Minimal Pattern Undulation for UAS Communications
Abstract:In this Phase I effort Pharad will investigate a new antenna structure that can be stealthily integrated or mounted on the surface of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) platform and is capable of operating efficiently over a wide band of frequencies; from L-band to Ku- band (1 – 18 GHz). Importantly, the new printed antenna will have minimal radiation pattern variation or gain undulation across this entire frequency band. The antenna will combine several new antenna and material engineering concepts with adaptive RF engineering techniques to enable good Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) and minimal pattern undulation over multiple octaves of bandwidth. The resulting antenna structure will be conformal in nature and be able to easily integrated or mounted on the surface of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. In Phase I we will use rigorous full-wave electromagnetic simulation tools to accurately model the VSWR and radiation performance of our new adaptive antenna. In this part of the project we will also fabricate several proof of concept prototypes of the radiator and test the VSWR and radiation performance of these prototype radiators in our antenna test and measurement facilities.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Dr. Daniel D. Reuster, PhD
NAVY 07-180      Awarded: 7/24/2008
Title:Surface Mounted Communications Antennae using Microstructure
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research program is twofold. Spectra Research will demonstrate new computational tools and design methodologies for optimizing antenna performance of electrically small antennas and antenna arrays. In addition, Spectra Research will show advanced antenna constructs that incorporate metamaterials to reduce EMI, coupling, profile/size, and to increase radiation efficiency in broadband communication antennas mounted on advanced composite platforms. The proliferation of antenna systems on the modern airborne platforms (such as the N-UCAS) that utilize advanced planar composite technology places great demand on the development of tools and technologies for the design and integration of small communication antennas and broadband antenna arrays. Incorporating additional antennas into the platform often causes an issue with parasitic coupling and electromagnetic interference (EMI) between radiating or receiving structures. As a consequence, new antenna concepts that provide for multiple functions in a common aperture must be explored and perfected. Advanced antenna design tools and techniques must accurately simulate the antenna structure and optimize the antenna performance, while exploiting the advantages of a complicated electromagnetic environment that may include custom materials (ie. electronic bandgap (EBG) structures) as well as artificial dielectrics and magnetics.

SURMET CORP.
31 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 345-5727
Mr. Uday Kashalikar
NAVY 07-180      Awarded: 8/13/2008
Title:Metamaterial-Based Electrically Small Antenna
Abstract:Metamaterials have unusual electromagnetic properties such as backward wave propagation, negative refraction, subwavelength resolution imaging and tailor made refractive index, which allow for several novel applications such as electrically small, low profile and leaky wave antennas. These metamaterials offer significant promise in meeting the demanding N-UCAS antenna requirements, surveillance sensors, communication links, navigation systems, command and control systems. Notable NIM include resonant metamaterials, photonic crystals and planar periodic arrays of passive lumped circuit elements. Surmet will demonstrate innovative design and use of metamaterials to produce tunable electrically small antennas. Key Phase I objectives are: a) to design and develop electrically small antenna element suitable for phased array applications demonstrate its performance characteristics; and b) mitigate electromagnetic interference using metamaterial as a magnetic ground plane surrounding the antenna. Surmet has teamed with a renown expert in metamaterials area, and will use internal specialized thin film fabrication capabilities to experimentally prove the concept. The Phase II program will involve team-up with a Navy antenna systems prime contractor. Phase II will scale up the technology and build and test antennas per J-UCAS requirements. This will lay a foundation for Phase III commercialization effort to start technology insertion activities.

APPLIED SCIENCE INNOVATIONS, INC.
185 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 833-6897
Dr. Mikhail Gutin
NAVY 07-181      Awarded: 6/20/2008
Title:Closed-Loop Fabrication of Free-Form Optics
Abstract:To meet the need of the Navy in fabrication and measurement of conformal windows such as toroidal to precise optical tolerances from ceramic materials, Applied Science Innovations (ASI) proposes development of the Closed-Loop Fabrication of Free-Form Optics (CLF3O), building directly on ASI’s successful development of a new tool for metrology on conformal aspheric domes and corrector optics. The proposed CLF3O system is a modular attachment for integrating a standard commercial interferometer with an existing optical fabrication tool. Proposed measurement and processing will ensure precise determination of location and orientation of the window being fabricated and tested, in addition to measurement of the optical figure of both surfaces. The proposed CLF3O attachment will enable one iterative procedure of fabrication and measurement, in which the part will remain in place until finished to specification. Phase I will focus on the optomechanical design of the modular attachment for integration with both a fabrication machine and a standard interferometer, and on application-specific processing algorithms. In Phase II, the tool will be installed in one of the manufacturing facilities to produce a window with the shape selected in agreement with the Government and the dimensions on the order of 200 x 200 mm.

THIRD WAVE SYSTEMS, INC.
7900 West 78th St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55439
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 832-5515
Dr. Troy Marusich
NAVY 07-181      Awarded: 7/28/2008
Title:Conformal Sensor Window
Abstract:Conformal sensor windows offer advantages over axisymmetric surfaces in the ability to reduce drag and weight. Materials of interest include spinel, polycrystal alumina, and ALON. However, the description, fabrication and metrology of these surfaces can be costly, or even impossible. Fabrication of these surfaces is difficult, since they are not axisymmetric and can have varying local radii of curvature, rendering grinding, lapping and polishing of these surfaces untenable. A method to overcome these difficulties in fabrication is to apply ductile mode machining (DMM) to eliminate grinding, lapping and polishing. DMM has been successfully applied to SiC mirror and Infrasil 302 glass transmission surfaces to achieve the requisite surface finish and figure error for axis- symmetric optics. Through the use of physics-based modeling, DMM conditions can be identified where material removal results in ductile chip formation, damage free surfaces and excellent surface finish. This SBIR activity extends the technology of DMM to torroidal configurations enabled by physics-based modeling technology. We will further develop and enhance its modeling capability for application to spinel workpieces. In Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of DMM to machine a spinel torroidal window in a laboratory environment with Breault performing the requisite metrology.

VI MANUFACTURING, INC.
6368 Dean Parkway
Ontario, NY 14519
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 265-0160
Mr. Michael Bechtold
NAVY 07-181      Awarded: 7/24/2008
Title:Conformal Sensor Window
Abstract:Freeform optics allow for greater versatility in optical design that will give the designer the ability to decrease the number of optics in an assembly lowering the amount of mass and volume required to attain the same optical properties. Currently the design and fabrication of freeform optics are costly due to the difficulties introduced with mainly the fabrication and metrology of these parts. By giving the designer realistic constraints as to what can be fabricated along with continued improvements in fabrication methods, large improvements can be gained in the properties of optical assemblies mainly due to the mass and volume advantages that are provided by the use of freeform optics. OptiPro has a unique opportunity for combining its newly developed solution for the Navy’s ogive SBIR metrology program, to it’s extensive knowledge of CAD/CAM and, “freeform capable” computer numerically controlled precision optical grinding and polishing products. OptiPro’s technologically advanced optical manufacturing capabilities along with a “support partnership” with the Penn State University Electro Optics Center in the area of finishing materials and processes, gives us a very strong team and, clear path towards solving the difficult problems associated with, grinding, finishing and measuring of Conformal optics.

CERANOVA CORP.
P. O. Box 278
Hopkinton, MA 01748
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 460-0300
Dr. Mark V. Parish
NAVY 07-182      Awarded: 8/6/2008
Title:Aerodynamic Infrared Dome
Abstract:Future high-speed missiles require aerodynamic infrared dome shapes that reduce drag and have greater ability to withstand aerothermal heating. Infrared domes currently have a hemispheric shape because this shape introduces minimal optical distortion and is easy to fabricate. By exchanging a conventional hemispheric dome for a pointed dome, drag is reduced and aerothermal heating is reduced allowing a combination of increase speed, range, and payload. CeraNova will produce a polished, optically figured, ogive-shape, infrared-transmitting dome of polycrystalline alumina for US Naval applications using a combination of proprietary near-net forming, deep concave surface grinding and polishing, and unique metrology technologies.

OPTIMAX SYSTEMS, INC.
6367 Dean Parkway
Ontario, NY 14519
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 265-1020
Mr. Charles Klinger
NAVY 07-182      Awarded: 7/22/2008
Title:Aerodynamic Infrared Dome
Abstract:An innovative technique for rapid polishing of optics called VIBE is discussed. How it can be applied to the fabrication of aerodynamic domes in the shape of an ogive is presented. Preliminary results are presented that show the VIBE process can effectively polish ALON. In addition, the very significant improvement in the rate of polishing with VIBE as compared to conventional processing is documented.

SURMET CORP.
31 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 345-5777
Dr. Lee Goldman
NAVY 07-182      Awarded: 8/7/2008
Title:Aerodynamic Infrared Dome
Abstract:Infrared domes currently have a hemispheric shape because this shape introduces minimal optical distortion and is easy to fabricate. Future high-speed missiles require aerodynamic infrared dome shapes that reduce drag and have greater ability to withstand aerothermal heating. Several Navy SBIR topics have addressed fundamental issues of fabricating a subscale ogive shape from infrared-transparent polycrystalline alumina and developing methods to grind and polish the outer and inner surfaces to the intended shape. To this point, aerodynamic domes meeting optical tolerances have not been produced. The Navy desires to advance the technology and lower the cost for making ogive infrared domes by expanding the candidate midwave infrared materials to include ALON and spinel and by investigating alternate grinding and polishing approaches. Surmet proposes herein to leverage work performed under internal funding as well as on previous SBIR contracts to address these issues. Specifically, under the Phase I contract Surmet proposes to 1) demonstrate the ability to apply green machining techniques to form near-net shape ALON (and in phase II, spinel) ogive dome blanks and 2) identify, perform initial demonstrations, and downselect novel optical finishing techniques for final finishing of ogive domes using the various technical capabilities of Surmet Corporation.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Christopher Rhodes
NAVY 07-183      Awarded: 7/2/2008
Title:Advanced Low Temperature Ionic Liquids for Naval Electrochemical Devices
Abstract:The development of improved performance supercapacitors, batteries, electrochromic devices, sensors, and other electrochemical devices is critical to meet the current and future needs of Naval Air Systems. The ability of electrochemical devices to operate over extreme temperature limits (-70 to +100 degrees Celsius) is essential to tactical aircraft, strike weapons, and other systems, which can encounter sub-freezing temperatures during operation. The performance of current electrochemical devices is particularly limited at low temperatures by the low conductivities and high viscosities of current organic solvent-based electrolytes. Ionic liquids offer improved safety and higher voltage windows than current electrolytes, however specific ionic liquids that permit adequate low temperature (sub-zero Celsius) operation have not been developed. During the Phase I project, Lynntech will develop low temperature ionic liquid systems with high conductivities, low viscosities, high voltage windows, and chemical and electrochemical stability with electroactive polymers. The Phase I project will optimize the electrolyte composition, determine the ionic liquids’ physical and electrochemical properties from -70 C to +100 degrees Celsius, and evaluate the electrolyte’s performance in electroactive polymer-based supercapacitors. During Phase II, Lynntech will optimize and scale up the process and demonstrate the ionic liquid’s performance in prototype devices.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Bryan V. Bergeron
NAVY 07-183      Awarded: 6/30/2008
Title:High Conductivity Low Temperature Ionic Liquids
Abstract:Physical Sciences Incorporated (PSI) proposes to develop, characterize, and evaluate new ionic liquids (ILs) and eutectics with enhanced physical and chemical properties for electrochemical supercapacitor applications. The ILs will be synthesized with high yield and high chemical purity as confirmed by standard analytical techniques. Results from differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and cyclic voltammetry experiments will validate that these ILs/eutectics can function effectively as electrolytes over a broad temperature range (±70 deg C) and large electrochemical window (±2V). The most promising electrolyte will be studied in an electrochemical system as a proof-of- concept. In Phase II, we will continue to develop and characterize innovative ILs and eutectic formulations. The new materials will have reduced viscosity, and an enhanced thermal stability, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical window compared to those studied in Phase I. Performance of the ILs/eutectics will be assessed in multiple electrochemical systems such as batteries, supercapacitors, and electrochromics. By the completion of Phase II, we will demonstrate ~ 10^3 reversible cycles of an electrochemical device using an IL/eutectic electrolyte at -70 deg C. Cost analysis and design specifications will be performed for limited rate production of several candidate materials.

APPLIED EM, INC.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
NAVY 07-184      Awarded: 9/2/2008
Title:Metamaterial-Based Electrically Small Antenna
Abstract:Small antennas are required to support surveillance sensors, communication links, navigation systems, command and control systems, and precision strike capabilities on Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) .Research advancements in meta-materials show promise in the design of high efficiency small antennas. Under this project, Applied EM is proposing to develop electrically small antenna designs using degenerate band edge (DBE) and magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) configurations. Extensive simulation studies will be conducted to design DBE antenna prototype achieving Chu-Harrington limit. Loading effects of lumped or distributed capacitive/inductive elements on DBE elements will be considered to overcome the fundamental gain bandwidth product limit. Multi-arm transmission line coupled DBE antenna will be also investigated to design antennas that can be structurally integrated within the UCAV.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Dr. Hawkins Kirk
NAVY 07-184      Awarded: 8/6/2008
Title:Metamaterial-Based Electrically Small Antenna
Abstract:This effort is focussed toward improvements in efficiency-bandwidth performance of electrically small antennas derived from innovative electromagnetic meta-material designs. Optimizations are sought that approach and/or exceed the conventional Chu-Wheeler limit. Emphasis includes consideration of special design and construction techniques and relative compatibilities with advanced planar/conformal composite aerospace material technology to be used in future Naval aircraft.

SI2 TECHNOLOGIES
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5300
Dr. Joseph Kunze
NAVY 07-184      Awarded: 8/15/2008
Title:Design and Manufacture of a Structurally Integrated Metamaterial Antenna (1000-086)
Abstract:SI2 proposes to develop an electrically small metamaterial antenna with an increased efficiency/bandwidth product that is capable of being structurally integrated using N- UCAS advanced composite materials and SI2’s manufacturing technologies. The proposed concept utilizes several novel metamaterial miniaturization technologies and leverages SI2’s proprietary conformal electronics manufacturing technology to integrate the metamaterial antenna system with the structure. Both the metamaterial and manufacturing innovations will enable an electrically small antenna system with an increased performance to size and weight ratio. To help ensure applicability of our efforts, and to begin work towards technology transition, SI2 has teamed with a prime contractor who will provide system requirements and implementation opportunities. The Phase I program will demonstrate the electromagnetic (EM) performance of the metamaterial antenna through state of the art modeling and simulation. The manufacturability and ability to integrate the metamaterial antenna with a composite structure will be established through the design and manufacture of a hardware demonstrator. The follow-on Phase II program will refine the concept and develop a functional structurally integrated metamaterial antenna prototype. Testing of the prototype will validate the simulation and the metamaterial antenna’s improved radiation efficiency/bandwidth product compared to a conventional antenna.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Dr. Daniel D. Reuster, Ph.D
NAVY 07-184      Awarded: 7/10/2008
Title:Metamaterial-Based Electrically Small Antenna
Abstract:Spectra Research proposes an innovative approach that employs advances in numerical modeling, fragmented aperture antenna design methodologies, and metamaterials research toward the development of an advanced electrically small antenna. In the Phase I program Spectra Research will investigate the development of electrically small antennas that demonstrate improved radiation efficiency over broad bandwidths. Antenna topologies will be selected that are compatible with employment on advanced composite platforms. Innovative approaches that improve overall antenna performance while minimizing antenna profile are desired solutions for all volumetrically restricted platforms. Both Cartesian and cylindrical FDTD simulations will be employed to provide a set of design rules that then may be used to modify analytical approximations. The technical objectives of the Phase I program are to demonstrate that fragmented aperture and fragmented volume antenna designs with metamaterial augmentation can be utilized to great advantage in meeting the requirements of the solicitation. Specifically the research team will utilize our advanced antenna technologies in concert with unique metamaterial approaches to produce a common aperture antenna architecture that has broadband utility, and demonstrates superior performance over selected frequency ranges.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. James Ezick
NAVY 07-185      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Static Analysis Tool for Interface Compliance Verification and Program Comprehension
Abstract:Our objective is to develop a static analysis tool that can be used by both software developers and verification specialists to verify compliance with standard interface specifications. As an additional capability, our tool will provide both developers and verification specialists with a robust interactive query-driven program comprehension capability that will significantly reduce the overhead of manual code review. While our tool will be applicable to any large C or C++ code base, we will specifically address issues relevant to the analysis of code developed to the Software Component Architecture (SCA). Our Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by developing an initial prototype. Particular points of emphasis in our Phase I prototype will be to demonstrate the flexibility and extensibility of our approach. In Phase II we will produce an advanced prototype applicable to third-party applications. The transition target for this system is the JTRS Testing & Evaluation Lab (JTEL) which maintains test capability and certifies code in support of the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) initiative. We will be aided in developing a more robust commercial product and in identifying additional transition opportunities though our collaboration with Mercury Computer Systems who are supporting our proposal.

TECHNOLOGY UNLIMITED GROUP
1885 Sefton Place
San Diego, CA 92107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 865-5173
Mr. John Reddan
NAVY 07-185      Awarded: 3/17/2008
Title:Algorithm Development for Standard Interface Compliance Verification
Abstract:This SBIR will implement the Software Analysis of Interface compLiance (SAIL) automatic interface test tool, which will support analysis of software interface implementations relative to a ‘Reference Interface’. The Reference Interface (RI) consists of a compilable (i.e. source code) definition of the interface standard, and is supported by a Reference Test Definition (RTD) which defines the functional test sequences to be applied to the RI. The SAIL software tool will verify multiple aspects of Interface Compliance: (1) Semantic Compliance, consisting of verification of compliance with the published interface standard (Reference Interface), and examination of the interface for extensions or sub- setting; and (2) Functional Compliance consisting of verification of basic functionality of functions or methods defined in the interface, and verification of error handling. SAIL will perform compliance testing relative to the Reference Interface while providing the user to extend and/or control tool perform through the following mechanisms: (1) User definition of standard interface (Reference Interface), (2) User definition of functional performance requirements, and (3) Plug-in extensions to the functionality verification portion of the tool.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Yongli Xu
NAVY 07-186      Awarded: 5/8/2008
Title:High Temperature Superconductor Circuit Integration with CMOS Electronics on Sapphire
Abstract:Various DoD systems are starting to incorporate superconducting devices for sensing and/or manipulating electromagnetic fields, from filters for shipboard communication systems, to superconducting transmission lines for use as a microwave power limiters, to the development of electrically small antennas. With the breakthroughs in the materials and fabrication technologies, it thus becomes feasible to design a system on sapphire with multiple HTS detectors, or analog filters alongside CMOS electronics, with the CMOS performing first stage amplification and/or feedback and/or digital signal processing, with only 10s of microns separating the two, both operating in the cold side. Such a system should have major performance advantages over the present state of the art. However, this effort has not been taken beyond the device concept demonstration. We propose to use the Peregrine semiconductor processing and ion damage Josephson junction fabrication technology to make monolithic devices with HTS detectors/filters integrated with CMOS electronics. The ion damage technology allows fabricating identical junctions with high reproducibility. This project seeks to take the technology to the stage where it is clear to industry that monolithic co-fabrication is viable for DoD systems.

TICOM GEOMATICS, INC.
9130 Jollyville Road Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 345-5006
Dr. Barbara Craig
NAVY 07-187      Awarded: 6/26/2008
Title:RF-based Geolocation I/Q Data Rate Enhancement: SHIFTER
Abstract:Real-time precision geolocation of COMINT signals of interest is a top priority in the GWOT. As communication signals and standards such as 3GSM, WCDMA, and CDMA2000 proliferate at unprecedented rates, the number of emitters is scaling dramatically. In the GWOT, almost any signal could be a potential signal of interest. The use of this kind of commercial technology and related technologies by extremists continues to expand dramatically. Clearly, the signals of interest target set is growing at a high rate. The Navy and the larger Intelligence Community is aggressively deploying fully interoperable net- centric systems for precision COMINT geolocation to help meet this challenge. It is reasonable to expect that sensor density will increase by a factor of 10 across the IC in the next five years. Consequently, current geo-processing techniques will soon become overwhelmed with signal data, will not be able to effectively manage high sensor counts and will have only a limited capability to simultaneously prosecute the growing class of high value targets. Addressing these challenges is the focus of this SBIR proposal, called SHIFTER. SHIFTER will “shift” the geolocation processing algorithms and processing hardware and software into the “high gear” needed to improve efficiency and scalability.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Mr. Kent Krumvieda
NAVY 07-188      Awarded: 4/8/2008
Title:Networked Positioning of Unattended Ground Sensors using JTRS radios
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) proposes the development of a prototype combat positioning system that will reduce fratricide, increase situational awareness (SA), and enhance combat effectiveness for UGS-to-Soldier based CID applications. The system design will use GPS, Tactical Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS), a modified-mobile adhoc network MANET, local ranging signals and a mesh network that will provide sub- meter position information, velocity, time (PVT) as well as ID. The sub-meter position is obtained using DFC’s legacy innovative positioning algorithms that uniquely combine (in a weighted least squares sense) lower accuracy absolute positions with highly accurate relative positions. Furthermore, DFC takes advantage of the mesh rigidity where appropriate. The minimal configuration can be a mixed network of dynamic nodes with or without GPS. GPS receivers only need be single carrier (L1) receivers processing the lower accuracy CA signal. This can be accomplished without any infrastructure. Should L1L2 P(Y) code receivers, and infrastructure be available additional accuracy and robustness can be gained. DFC will leverage its legacy positioning algorithms, GPS signal generator software and GPS soft¬ware receiver (Kober, W., 2004), implemented on a Field Programable Gate Array (FPGA), to develop this CID system. The original GPS software receiver design was sponsored in part by AFRL/SN, AFRL/MN and USASMDC.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison K. Brown
NAVY 07-188      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Networked Positioning of Unattended Ground Sensors using JTRS radios
Abstract:Unattended sensors are an important element of the Future Combat System (FCS) architecture. These include Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS), autonomous weapons such as the Intelligent Munition System (IMS) and miniaturized Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV) and Air Vehicles (UAVs). All of these applications have a requirement to use GPS for positioning. A “catch 22” exists between GPS security policy and operational security doctrine in cases where the system is left unattended or is not recovered (munitions excepted). While security policy requires a PPS solution, security doctrine states that PPS devices cannot be left unattended. Under this SBIR effort, NAVSYS proposes to develop a networked GPS positioning solution for UGS based on our patented TIDGET technology. The TIDGET uses COTS GPS components to capture a snapshot of GPS data which will be transmitted over the FCS network to an attended location with a JTRS radio where the GPS crypto processing can be performed. This allows a PPS solution to be calculated for the UGS without requiring crypto equipment to be left unattended in the field. We shall prepare a design for a Phase II system to demonstrate this capability and will provide simulation results to show the expected performance and network loading.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 505-7897
Mr. Eric Lindahl
NAVY 07-189      Awarded: 7/13/2008
Title:PSIBED - Parametric Structures for Integrative Backscatter models and Environmental Database
Abstract:Understanding shallow underwater environment is increasingly important, but shallow water acoustic models depend on a large number of factors that interact in a non-linear fashion. There are many different acoustic back scatter models, but many of the models haven’t changed in years and some of the new ones rely on stochastic methods. What’s needed is a general acoustic model and environmental parameter structure that can parameterize existing models and associated environmental data, as well as act as a new acoustic modeling framework for shallow underwater environmental awareness. 21st Century Systems, Incorporated is pleased to introduce our parametric structure for integrative bottom backscatter models and environmental database (PSIBED…pronounced “seabed”). PSIBED develops a parametric space built on powerful geometric algebraic formalism for generalizing backscatter models as advanced layered sediment algebraic “versors.” The PSIBED algebraic signatures are used to describe and integrate models with parameters and environmental databases. PSIBED uses a multi-dimensional Clifford Fourier Transform structure for representing complex underwater environments and handles propagation of uncertainty as a first class property of PSIBED. Preliminary experiments reveal the potential to obtain, store, and utilize acoustic bottom backscatter information. This technology will ultimately lead to better underwater systems for use by manned and unmanned systems.

MARINE ACOUSTICS, INC.
809 Aquidneck Avenue
Middletown, RI 02842
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 847-7508
Dr. William Elliison
NAVY 07-189      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Generalized Environmental Acoustic Model Structure for Bottom Backscatter
Abstract:Existing OAML-approved active acoustic models are under continuous evolution to take advantage of new theoretical and numerical developments and more powerful computational resources. These models are supported by OAML-approved environmental databases that are also constantly updated to accommodate the newly developed models and recent measurements throughout the world. The databases that describe the bottom include the Digital Bathymetric Data Base (DBDBV) multi-resolution bathymetric databases, the Low-Frequency Bottom Loss (LFBL) database, the Bottom Sediment Type (BST) database, and the Bottom Backscattering Strength (BBS) database. Recent physics based research on coupled scattering mechanisms and physics-based clutter as functions of the bottom’s geoacoustic parameters and bathymetry have offered the opportunity for a wholly new approach to developing a prototype generalized bottom database. This approach is based on understanding and describing the underlying physical mechanisms of reverberation and clutter (including bistatic geometries), and provides the ability to harness and integrate the information from the existing databases and new measurement techniques into a generalized bottom database. This database would furnish physics-based and/or empirical bottom parameters to model undersea acoustic propagation, deterministic bottom reverberation and stochastic clutter for emulation of false alarms.

EOSPACE, INC.
8711 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 869-6975
Dr. Suwat Thaniyavarn
NAVY 07-190      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Ultra-High-Efficiency Lithium Niobate Modulators
Abstract:Lithium Niobate electro-optic modulators with improved efficiency achieved via novel device geometriesThe objective on this proposed work is on the development of LiNbO3 modulators designs that consider novel device geometries to achieve low Vpi, and low optical loss performance beyond the current state of the art. The modulator design is compatible with modulation bandwidths to Ka band. The effort will address all aspects of device fabrication, and justify the feasibility/practicality of the approach. The proposed approach will be focusing on practical implementation leading to a relatively low-cost, high-yield manufacture process.

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
900 Middlesex Turnpike Building #5
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 670-4990
Dr. Gary E. Betts
NAVY 07-190      Awarded: 5/13/2008
Title:Broadband Si-on-LiNbO3 Modulator with Low Insertion Loss and High Slope Efficiency
Abstract:A novel broad-bandwidth modulator is proposed that has the potential for achieving low switching voltage in conjunction with low optical insertion loss. This is in stark contrast to conventional modulator designs that typically offer lower switching voltage only at the expense of higher insertion loss. Combining this novel modulator with a commercial diode laser is estimated to achieve a modulation slope efficiency of ~ 10 W/A. In Phase I Photonic Systems, Inc. will analyze and optimize the novel modulator geometry. Key parameters will be confirmed via measurements on a phase modulator that will also be fabricated as part of Phase I. Phase II will extend the novel modulator concept to the implementation of an intensity modulator with a bandwidth of 20 GHz.

RAINBOW COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2362 Qume Drive, Suite F
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 577-0109
Dr. Sean Zhang
NAVY 07-190      Awarded: 5/30/2008
Title:Lithium Niobate Thin Film Based Novel Geometric Electro-Optic Modulator
Abstract:Rainbow Communications proposes to investigate a compact, highly efficient, low driving voltage, broad bandwidth, high extinction ratio, low optical insertion loss, zero frequency chirp, electro-optic modulator based on thin-film lithium niobate materials, selected domain inversion technique, and optical-wave and electrical-wave velocity matched traveling- wave electrodes configuration for applications in RF photonic links and optical communication. The proposed EO modulator will be capable of modulating the intensity of optical light up to 40GHz with sub-volt driving voltage and up to 20-dB extinction ratio. The total fiber-to-fiber insertion is as low as 3-dB with zero frequency chirp. Several unique features distinguish it. First, Rainbow will fabricate a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer waveguide structure on a thin-film LiNbO3 material. Second, the domain of one arm of MZ will be inverted by using Rainbow¡¯s unique electrical poling process. Third, by using thin-film structure and optimized traveling-wave electrode design, this EO modulator can achieve both very broad bandwidth, over 40GHz and very low driving voltage, much less than 1-V with high extinction ratio. Fourth, by using Rainbow¡¯s novel package design and optical-fiber to waveguide coupling optimization, overall optical loss is very low and the efficiency of proposed EO modulator can be reach very high.

SRICO, INC.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Dr. Sri Sriram
NAVY 07-190      Awarded: 5/29/2008
Title:Thin Films of Lithium Niobate for High Efficiency Electro-Optic Modulators
Abstract:In the past twenty-five years, electro-optic modulator technology has made significant advances in terms of performance. Modulator bandwidth, a key technical parameter, has been extended to 40 gigahertz in the commercial world and to 100 gigahertz and beyond in research laboratories. The greatest problem has been to achieve such bandwidths while still maintaining low drive switching voltage, low insertion loss, high linearity and high extinction ratio. Material electro-optic coefficient, optical loss, dielectric loss and permittivity all contribute to these parameters, with lithium niobate currently representing the best balance of materials properties. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project develops novel materials processing techniques that extract the maximum possible performance out of the lithium niobate electro-optic material. The new technology promises to substantially improve the performance capability of existing electro-optic modulators for Navy platforms.

COBRA DESIGN & ENGINEERING, INC.
3230 Bennett St. N
St. Petersburg, FL 33713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 528-1621
Mr. John J. Tischner
NAVY 07-191      Awarded: 6/3/2008
Title:A LIGHTWEIGHT, UHF SATCOM DIPLEXER FOR USE IN EXPENDABLE BUOY SYSTEMS
Abstract:The existing Diplexer Designs currently employ bulky, machined cavity housings and cannot meet the requirements of a UHF SATCOM full duplex capability while staying within the weight budget. Cobra Design & Engineering, Inc. intends to employ a tubular coaxial resonator construction consisting of meandering tubes with interconnected ends. This method will allow the components to be lightweight, affordable and rugged enough to withstand the shock environment while meeting the electrical requirements of a full duplex UHF SATCOM Diplexer. Initial analysis of this concept suggests minimal insertion losses and a unit weight that is very close to the required limit.

NUWAVES LTD.
Research and Technology Center 122 Edison Drive
Middletown, OH 45044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 360-0800
Mr. Ted Longshore
NAVY 07-191      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:A LIGHTWEIGHT, UHF SATCOM DIPLEXER FOR USE IN EXPENDABLE BUOY SYSTEMS
Abstract:Existing filter technology does not suit the mechanical and electrical needs for use in expendable buoy systems. Current diplexer designs do not provide adequate rejection of the high power transmitter signal within the receive channel within the specified size, weight and acceleration constraints required for the Navy Buoy System. The proposed research includes the analysis and simulation of a high Q transmit filter that provides the required 90 dB transmit to receive stop band attenuation with low insertion loss to the transmit signal. One potential solution, which leverages NuWaves’ expertise in planar filters, utilizes an interdigital filter plated on a center circuit board. NuWaves’ initial simulations prove the sufficiency of the above approach. Phase I deliverables include a trade-off analysis of the expected diplexer performance vs. the design parameters. The expected diplexer performance will be based on a non-ideal simulation which includes real-world resistances and parasitics. The mechanical aspect of the effort includes physical size and packaging, thermal heat dissipation, resistance to high G acceleration, and housing metallization.

WAVECON
1432 Mandeville Place
Escondido, CA 92029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 747-6922
Mr. Kenneth M. Johnson
NAVY 07-191      Awarded: 5/20/2008
Title:A LIGHTWEIGHT, UHF SATCOM DIPLEXER FOR USE IN EXPENDABLE BUOY SYSTEMS
Abstract:This is a study for the development of a diplexer for Navy Bouy application. Approaches to the diplexer are a receive band-pass and a transmit band-stop filter with a diplexing circuit. These are designed using lumped components or transmission lines. Preliminary analysis shows that for the transmit filter, a transmission line band-stop filter using cross- coupling can meet the Navy requirements. For the receive filter a rod coupled filter using cross-coupling will also meet the Navy requirements. The band-stop filter can be a surface mount structure and thus will meet the shock requirement of 55 G's. For the receive filter, foam filling and rugged design can be used to meet the shock requirement.

APPLIED DEFENSE SOLUTIONS, INC.
PO Box 971
Exton, PA 19341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 450-6586
Mr. Henry Grabowski
NAVY 07-192      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Reuse Planning Tool for Increasing Capacity in Geo-synchronous Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Systems
Abstract:Leveraging existing demand-based frequency and spatial allocation methods we will attempt to provide a baseline algorithm set and architecture for the development of a system wide frequency reuse planning tool for UHF satellite communications

XPRT SOLUTIONS, INC.
615 HOPE ROAD, BUILDING 3B
EATONTOWN, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 460-9001
Mr. Junghoon Lee
NAVY 07-192      Awarded: 4/8/2008
Title:Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Reuse Planning Tool for Increasing Capacity in Geo-synchronous Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Systems
Abstract:This proposal is to develop an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) reuse tool software product to help maximize the capacity of UHF SATCOM resources. The technical objectives of the Phase I efforts are: • to investigate analysis methodologies concerning UHF SATCOM frequency Reuse, • to establish the Reuse methodologies and the analysis approaches, • to demonstrate a prototype model assessing the feasibility for use in an integrated Reuse Planning Tool, and • to provide the preliminary design for the Reuse Planning Tool. As a first step for the development of a comprehensive tool, this proposal primarily focuses on developing frequency reuse methodologies and the SATCOM analysis. In particular, Navy’s legacy UHF SATCOM operation on MUOS will be analyzed in detail. The proposed tool will be developed on software platforms including MATLAB, STK, and QualNet. Feasibility of the proposed tool development approaches will be shown by demonstrating the integration of various software applications on the multiple platforms. The results of this study will be a basis on further development of the tools for wide range of applications to military and commercial SATCOM planning and operation.

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS SUPPORT, LLC
1640 Marsh Harbor Lane
Mount Pleasant, SC 29464
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(864) 710-2030
Dr. Edward W. Page
NAVY 07-193      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Planning and Management of QoS-Based Mobile Wireless Networks
Abstract:Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are expected to play a vital role in the network-centric warfare paradigm. Among the many technical challenges that must be solved before MANETs can fulfill their envisioned role is the issue of network management. Policy- based network management is an effective tool for ensuring that users receive the Quality of Service(QoS), security, and other network capabilities they need. Policy-based networks employ intelligence in the form of rules to deal with situations that are likely to occur. When the policy-based network management scheme is targeted toward achieving QoS performance goals, the rules are designed to regulate both users and network resources to provide differentiated services among users. MANETs must employ a distributed approach to network management in which the individual nodes actively participate in the network management process. The proposed research is directed toward the development of prototype tools for expressing performance goals, monitoring network conditions, and taking actions to adapt network performance in real time. The results of the proposed effort will provide an architectural foundation for developing cognitive networks capable of allocating network resources to applications in an optimal manner in order to meet end-to-end performance goals

IRI COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS CORP.
11950 San Vicente Blvd Suite #214
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 260-1034
Dr. Izhak Rubin
NAVY 07-193      Awarded: 5/5/2008
Title:Utility Oriented Planning and Management of Multi Segment QoS based Robust Mobile Wireless Networks
Abstract:We propose to develop a tool that will be used for the planning and management of QoS based mobile wireless networks. Our innovative techniques include: 1. Resources are allocated to aggregate classes of flows. 2. Significant performance advantage is gained by capitalizing on the availability of multiple communications transport segments and related routes. 3. A segment’s route may offer features that make it uniquely suitable for handling certain flows. They are measured by utility functions. The latter are aggregated to yield an overall measure of effectiveness. 4. We will develop management algorithms that provide for the joint routing and capacity allocations to be made for each flow class. Our models and methods will be applied to provide for failure, performance and topological planning and management operations for mobile wireless networks. 5. The proposed tool will include effective graphical user interfaces to define the underlying network system, traffic flows, and the per segment utility measures. Our combined mathematical and simulation based techniques enable the tool to carry out the planning process, and under each set of monitored network status conditions, to compute the required management actions and resource allocations, in realtime and in a highly effective manner.

REFERENTIA SYSTEMS, INC.
550 Paiea Street Suite #236
Honolulu, HI 96819
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 423-1900
Mr. John Smith
NAVY 07-193      Awarded: 7/24/2008
Title:Network Planning and Real-time Automated Management System (NetPARAMS)
Abstract:Mobile ad-hoc networking is a technology that offers great value to warfighters. It promises self-forming, self-healing distributed networking ideally suited to the constantly changing environments of the battlefield. However, the reality of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) has yet to come level with the promises. Military network planning does not yet enable planners to use MANETs as a connectivity extender, and to date MANETs are not reliable enough in either connectivity or throughput to reliably carry mission-critical information for the military. Given MANET’s mobile nature, it is necessary that MANETs evolve from self-forming to self-managed networks so as to help relieve planning requirements. The idea behind self-management is that MANET nodes collaborate to optimize their own routing and quality of service. In this effort, tools will be created to move MANETs close to self-managed networks and provide network monitoring and management that covers network from the wireline to the wireless. Algorithms will be generated and simulated to improve MANET connectivity and QoS. A planning tool will be created to help network planners use MANETs, and existing network management software will be modified to provide wireline and MANET monitoring and management.

AURIGA MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS LLC
650 Suffolk Street Suite410
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-1117
Dr. Nickolas Kingsley
NAVY 07-194      Awarded: 5/30/2008
Title:Shipboard Low Noise Amplifier Assembly.
Abstract:Auriga Measurement Systems and M/A-COM team up in this program to address the issue of mast-mounted shipboard low noise amplifier assemblies, which are required to have not only rigorous electrical performance but also to withstand severe weather and corrosive environments. The assembly being created in this work will contain a high power self-protective non-reflective limiter, a high linearity LNA and a low-noise bypass switch. To provide reliable, operator-free performance this assembly will feature built-in- test (BIT) and repair capability. In the event of a failure, the assembly will be capable of detecting the problem, notifying the operator, and automatically repairing the problem for seamless operation. Most of the components will be integrated onto a single MMIC. The end result will be a low-cost, compact assembly capable of state-of-the-art LNA performance. The small size will allow for easy integration onto existing and future mast top assemblies. In Phase I, a detailed design analysis will be performed and a layout will be generated. In Phase I Option, a prototype assembly will be built using commercial components and tested. In Phase II, the MMIC designed in Phase I will be fabricated, hermetically packaged, thoroughly tested, and prepared for commercial and military applications.

GIRD SYSTEMS, INC.
310 Terrace Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 281-2900
Dr. James Caffery, Jr.
NAVY 07-195      Awarded: 5/13/2008
Title:Land Mobile Satellite Communications – Improved Mathematical and Simulation Methods for Stressed Environments
Abstract:The need for accurate satellite channel models and their implementation as a simulation tool is addressed in this proposal. Improved mathematical models are proposed which provide the flexibility to model diverse environments, and to do so more accurately than current models, for both stationary and non-stationary channels. Two simulation model strategies will be investigated for implementation of the mathematical models in software. In preparation for possible Phase II prototype implementation, a preliminary, high-level prototype design will be developed based on the results of the simulation model testing.

QUESTINY ENGINEERING GROUP, INC.
PO Box 548
Belmont, CA 94002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 592-5201
Mr. Keith R, Barker
NAVY 07-195      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:Land Mobile Satellite Communications – Improved Mathematical and Simulation Methods for Stressed Environments
Abstract:Phase I of this effort proposes to examine more realistic propagation channel models/techniques that reduce MUOS signal fading and support an improved MUOS/UFO communications performance simulator. These techniques include the effects of polarization and antenna gain, user transitions into and out of shadowing, examining MIMO techniques and using more realistic ionospheric scintillation models. This new combined MUOS/UFO communications simulator will aid the planning of military UHF communications networks worldwide and can support the transition from UFO to MUOS.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 792-8904
Ms. Colleen M. Keller
NAVY 07-196      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:Modeling Human Decision Making and Agent-Based Modeling of C3 Architectures in Warfare Assessment Models - MP 113-07
Abstract:Constructive Warfare Assessment Models are used by the OPNAV N81 Assessments to support budget planning decisions for future Navy programs. These models simulate approved Major Combat Operations and Global War on Terrorism scenarios that often span days to weeks, cover multiple warfare areas, and that attempt to capture details of tactics, CONOPS, threat behavior, weather, coalition forces' contributions, and equipment performance. One area that has been lacking in validity is command and control and tactics execution - areas that require modeling of human decisionmaking in a military context. It is not possible to separate the human decisionmakers and operators from equipment performance; instead, better representations of the humans-in-the-loop must be developed to capture true systems performance. This SBIR proposal provides examples from recent warfare assessment modeling of poor representation of human decisionmaking and proposes methods for improved simulation of these phenomena leveraging innovative uses of agent-based simulation.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 207-2237
Dr. Douglas Reece
NAVY 07-196      Awarded: 5/29/2008
Title:Knowledge-Rich Agents for Modeling Naval C3
Abstract:Current traditional warfare assessment simulations have been criticized for their simplistic modeling of command and control behavior, often resulting in inappropriate reactions to complex tactical situations, which can produce erroneous simulation results. Soar Technology, in partnership with Rolands & Associates, proposes to address this problem in the specific context of the Naval Simulation System (NSS). We will identify a framework to integrate agent software with NSS to allow different kinds of intelligent agents to enhance command and control behavior. We will also prototype a knowledge-rich intelligent agent based on Soar, a cognitive architecture for human behavior modeling that has been used successfully to build agents in military simulations over the past 10-15 years. Such knowledge-rich agents have the potential to bring human-level decision- making capabilities to simulations like NSS, resulting in more accurate modeling and assessment of new tactics.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 616-1293
Mr. Ryan Houlette
NAVY 07-196      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:Modeling Human Decision Making and Agent-Based Modeling of C3 Architectures in Warfare Assessment Models
Abstract:We propose to build for the Navy a decision modeling system that can generate realistic, robust command and control behavior in a campaign-level constructive warfare simulation. This system will consist of a model editor and a model execution engine. The model editor will enable analysts to manipulate all aspects of the behavior model without the assistance of a programmer, via an intuitive visual editor in which the user assembles behaviors from building blocks, similar to drawing tools like Visio. Visualization tools will allow the analyst to quickly understand, modify, and extend complex models. The model execution engine, which will integrate easily with constructive simulations, will dynamically determine what actions are taken by simulated entities. It will support both strategic and reactive behavior in situated intelligent agents that can reason about and adapt to adversary behavior. It will allow the analyst to observe the “mental state” of the model in order to understand the rationale behind its actions and decisions. The proposed system will represent an evolution beyond the current generation of behavior models, enhancing the realism, sophistication, and usability of warfare models. We will absolutely demonstrate the feasibility of our ideas through the development of a Phase I prototype.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Charlene S. Ahn
NAVY 07-196      Awarded: 5/1/2008
Title:Modeling Human Decision Making and Agent-Based Modeling of C3 Architectures in Warfare Assessment Models
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop the capability within a constructive simulation to model military command and control decisions given information from many sources. In particular, Toyon will address the problem of intelligently redeploying forces given changing conditions reflected in the information provided by military sensors, including complex reactions such as learning from past experience. Toyon will use a layered approach; one layer will be a threat propagation layer, where single elements are modeled by a dynamic Bayesian network and relations between elements are modeled by a cellular-automaton based approach. The second layer will scalably simulate human command and control decisions by modeling each asset as an agent bound by simple local rules. In Phase I, we will develop these algorithms to specifically address the problem of re-deployment of ISR assets. We will show the utility of our work in a proof- of-concept scenario where the complex behavior of the cellular automaton and agent- based algorithms will allow a richer decision-making process than a simplistic rule-based decision tree. In Phase II, we shall design and implement a prototype model integrated within a mission-level simulation to model sophisticated C3 behaviors in a campaign-level scenario of utility to the Navy.

GENESIC SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
25050 Riding Plaza Suite 130-801
South Riding, VA 20152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(571) 265-7535
Dr. Ranbir Singh
NAVY 07-197      Awarded: 7/11/2008
Title:High Voltage High Frequency SiC Switch
Abstract:The stringent power quality, size, weight and volume specifications for operating high power hardware in more-electric warships require the development of >100 kHz, 2 kV Silicon Carbide based power devices. GeneSiC proposes the development of a single chip power subcircuit using a unique and innovative Silicon Carbide SuperJFET technology. Apart from better circuit integration this approach offers more than an order to magnitude higher switching frequency, 2X higher current density, higher chip yield and highly reliability as compared SiC power MOSFETs. The reduction of interconnect parasitics and passives dramatically improves the temperature, radiation and power density metrics. The first challenging task of this program is the analytical, epitaxial and cell layout designs of these high risk/high reward concepts. Next, a novel SiC fabrication process sequence will be implemented in a commercial SiC foundry. The economical production of these devices allows a large number of these basic building blocks to be produced. A MIL-STD device test plan and circuit performance routine will be implemented. A comprehensive cost model will be developed for commercial feasibility. The initial demonstration of design and analysis of 2 kV power circuit is targeted, to enable MW-class power devices in Phase II and beyond.

SEMISOUTH LABORATORIES
201 Research Blvd.
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-7607
Dr. Adndrew Ritenour
NAVY 07-197      Awarded: 7/23/2008
Title:High Voltage High Frequency Switch
Abstract:SemiSouth Laboratories, Inc. (SemiSouth), a leading developer and manufacturer of silicon carbide (SiC) power-electronics device technology, proposes the development of a low-cost hybrid switch based on the company’s silicon carbide high-voltage junction field effect transistor (JFET) products. SemiSouth has two principal objectives for Phase I. First, to establish the feasibility of the proposed four-terminal switch by building a 1.5 kV prototype using available 1.6-kV SiC JFETs and COTS electronic components that provide the electrical isolation between the control inputs and the high-voltage outputs; and second to scale the design of the current 1.6-kV SiC JFET to 2-kV in preparation for a possible Phase II effort.

TRUENANO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1097 Love Ct.
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 997-7649
Dr. Tomoko Borsa
NAVY 07-197      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:High-Voltage SiC Switch with Nanosecond Response Time
Abstract:TrueNano Technology Corporation will develop the design and simulate a high-voltage SiC switch with nanosecond switching transients. Our novel approach is based on a vertically scaled bipolar junction transistor with a high voltage termination structure. This structure is expected to meet the stated objectives and result in a reliable and manufacturable device suitable for deployment in both military and commercial applications.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison K. Brown
NAVY 07-198      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Low cost, lightweight, low power Precise Positioning System (PPS) GPS Solution for Software Defined Radios
Abstract:Under this proposed effort, NAVSYS will leverage our expertise with developing ultra- low power GPS solutions to develop a software GPS receiver solution that can be embedded in military software defined radios that will be used for handheld, sensors and weapon applications. The objective of this effort is to develop a top-level software design for a lightweight GPS application, “GPS-Lite”, which is capable of performing PPS GPS positioning within a small form factor JTRS radio. We shall focus this effort on developing a design suitable for transition into the JTRS HMS radios that is also extensible to all tactical radio form factors and adaptable to sensor and weapon use. The architecture study performed shall identify the radio resources that will be used by the GPS-Lite application and the software components to be implemented. We will consider methods for partitioning the GPS-Lite functions to optimize use of the processing and security resources within the JTRS HMS to minimize the power required to compute a GPS PPS fix. We will also perform lab testing to validate the processor and relative power consumption requirements and develop a plan to build an unclassified prototype of the GPS-Lite application under Phase II for test and evaluation.

SIGTEM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
P.O. Box 5546
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 312-1132
Dr. Chun Yang
NAVY 07-198      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Advanced GPS Solution for Software Defined Radios
Abstract:We propose an advanced GPS solution for software defined radios (SDR) for military users. Different from conventional software GPS receivers that merely mimics what a hardware receiver does, the proposed GPS solution sets forth advanced signal processing techniques along the signal and data processing chain, some of which are difficult, if not impossible, to implement within conventional receiver architectures, thus allowing the realization of the full potential a software receiver can possibly offer. For military applications, the design emphases are therefore placed on dynamic range, interference suppression, and weak signal operations. In the Phase I base effort, the proposed algorithms will be formulated and a subset of which will be investigated for implementation within the Software Communications Architecture (SCA). In the Phase I option effort, the design of a hardware accelerator will be conducted to implement a cascaded DFT/IDFT on FPGA. In Phase II, the validated algorithms and their designs will be prototyped for demonstration.

Applied NanoWorks, Inc.
9 University Place
Rensselaer, NY 12144
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 471-5780
Kyle Litz
NAVY 07-199      Awarded: 4/21/2008
Title:Advanced Propellant Bonding Agent
Abstract:ANW seeks to develop a new class of propellant bonding agents based on its proprietary titanyl compound discovered in March 2007. This titanium based compound has already demonstrated an ability to act as a plastic and epoxy cross-linker that improves performance beyond existing specialty chemical additive levels. ANW believes similar improvements can be achieved in solid fuel propellant systems. ANW proposes researching and identifying compatible chemical reactants that will chemically bond to its titanyl molecule and act as a cross-linker in the Navy’s solid fuel propellant systems. ANW’s proposal is broken into 6 tasks including synthesizing reactive linkers, identifying the best linkers, characterizing physical properties of the derivatives and analyzing both chemical and physical characteristics of the bonding agent. Improvements in stability and mechanical properties will improve propellant aging, frequency of insensitive munitions (IM) and will reduce life- cycle costs while improving safety for existing solid fuel systems.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Robert Kovar
NAVY 07-199      Awarded: 5/1/2008
Title:Multifunctional Bonding Agent for High Energy Propellants
Abstract:Bonding agents (BAs) are critical components of solid propellants that facilitate processing by improving interfacial interaction between the surfaces of oxidizer grains and the binder resin. The BA cures with the binder to produce void-free solid propellants that exhibit desirable storage and burning properties. New, multifunctional high energy propellants (MHEPs) contain oxidizer components that are not compatible with current BAs or with Polyether PUR binders. Infoscitex proposes to develop a new, soluble Multifunctional Bonding Agent (MBA) that interacts strongly with each type of propellant grain; including, AP, AN, AN, NE, GAP and ADN. The MBA migrates to the grain surface where it hydrogen-bonds to form a thin, tenacious surface layer that reacts with PE-PUR binder resins during cure. The MBA will enable production of void-free MHEP propellants that exhibit superior strength, toughness, stability and burning characteristics. In Phase I, the MBA will be synthesized and processed with MHEP oxidizers to produced the new propellant. Tensile strength and elongation will be measured to demonstrate improved interfacial interaction with MHEP oxidizers and chemical reaction with binder resins. In Phase II, the MBA will be refined, scaled-up and formulated into prototype MHEPs that exhibit superior stability, performance and reliability.

JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Neil Goldfine
NAVY 07-200      Awarded: 9/27/2008
Title:Mapping and Tracking Early Stage Damage for Structural Health Monitoring of Material Handling Equipment
Abstract:It is imperative that catastrophic failures be prevented in critical load handling equipment, such as missile hoists. Improved NDE methods are required that can be rapidly applied in the field to assure integrity of structural components without requiring extensive training of field personnel. JENTEK’s Meandering Winding Magnetometer array (MWM®-Array) sensors have proven capabilities for detecting early stage fatigue damage and cracks in metallic components and the ability to produce highly repeatable, spatially registered digital images of material properties. MWM-Arrays are thin and flexible, conform to curved parts and parts with varying curvature, can be fabricated in a wide variety of shapes and sizes to enhance inspection of specific components and can be embedded for structural fatigue and stress monitoring. By making baseline scans of critical components and creating digital maps of material conditions, very small changes can be detected throughout the life of the steel components that can identify early stage fatigue damage, early stage fatigue cracks, results of an overload event, and changes in precursor conditions, such as residual stress state, that can identify areas of higher susceptibility to future damage. This proposal addresses the need to adapt and customize this technology for specific critical load handling equipment.

LEEOAT Company
2631 Colibri Lane
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 431-8180
Eli Wiener-Avnear
NAVY 07-200      Awarded: 9/26/2008
Title:Fieldable NDI System for the Detection of Material Degradation in Handling Equipment
Abstract:In Phase I of the SBIR program, LEEOAT Company will develop, conceptually design and simulate a fieldable NonDestructive Inspection (NDI) system for on-line detection of material degradation in handling equipment. The NDI system will provide cost-effective health management of the safety of the equipment and their components. The proposed system is based on LEEOAT Company unique micromachining processes, as well as on special high resolution and sensitive imaging technologies recently developed by the company for the detection of hidden microscopic faults. The effort will also include theoretical modeling and simulations of the NDI system, as well as laboratory demonstration of the effectiveness of the techniques to detect material degradation in metal components. Finally, LEEOAT Company will estimate the cost/effort for the fabrication and testing of the NDI system prototype, to be performed in Phase II of the SBIR program.

UNITECH, LLC
228 Patterson Ave.
Hampton, VA 23669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 723-3880
Mr. Robert C. Boyd
NAVY 07-201      Awarded: 4/2/2008
Title:Use of Bus Pipe Technologies to Replace Medium and High Voltage Cables
Abstract:U.S. Navy has the goal of an improved power distribution system for future naval construction. This power distribution system must be designed for survivability and continuity of electrical power supply. In general, ship service electric power and future electric propulsion power requirements are approaching hundreds of megawatts. Today’s shipbuilders face major challenges with the use of standard cable systems at medium voltage levels due to cable stiffness, and cable bend radius requirements for distributing high current around the ship. This proposal demonstrates the advantages of the Insulated Bus Pipe (IBP) technology, installation benefits and weight and space savings associated with IBP as an alternative to traditional shipboard cable systems. The IBP system is currently used in the utility industry and in shipboard applications on several passenger cruise ships. IBP is a more efficient medium & high voltage transmission line over cable for Integrated Power System (IPS) on ships due to weight reduction, cable volume, and installation time. The U.S. Navy has determined that current commercial IBP system can not pass a 3 hour gas flame circuit integrity flame test. It is the focus of this proposal to improve the high temperature performance by developing an insulating matrix to handle the temperatures associated with the 3 hour gas flame circuit integrity flame test.

MARITIME APPLIED PHYSICS CORP.
1850 Frankfurst Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 524-3330
Mr. Thomas Bein
NAVY 07-204      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV) At-sea Fueling
Abstract:The first objective is to design a system for this initial fueling immediately following launch, with apparatus that can be connected prior to launch. The second objective is to significantly reduce the time to refuel a USV between mission sorties by refueling it from the LCS without bring it aboard the LCS. The third and final objective is to move the fuel source offboard from the LCS to another craft, such as a dedicated “fuel tanker” USV. With this system, the fuel can be taken to the mission area to refuel the USV during its mission. This saves the lost mission time of returning to the LCS for refueling. In addition, reducing the dependency on the LCS will free the LCS to execute other tasks that may be a considerable distance from the USV’s mission area. Each of the three systems developed to meet the specified objectives will work as a standalone solution; together, they will be capable of fueling USVs in all of the specified scenarios.

VEHICLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1900 Campus Commons Drive Suite 300
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 620-0703
Dr. Douglas E. Humphreys
NAVY 07-204      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV) At-sea Fueling
Abstract:Weight and space are at a premium for the LCS. Since fuel represents a significant portion of the total weight, USV’s will be launched with partial fuel volume to save weight. This proposal addresses a light weight fuel handling system capable of fueling and re- fueling USV’s from the LCS or other vessels without manning the USV. The technology solution that is proposed here is a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control system that synchronizes the relative motions between the USV and the mother ship using the USV control system. VCT is uniquely positioned to provide a solution to this problem with its extensive track record of developing high fidelity hydrodynamic and dynamics simulations for use in control system design and testing. VCT is a leading provider of vehicle control systems for US Navy systems. We have delivered 14 Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) software suites to a wide variety of contractors over the past decade. These systems range in size from the man-portable Nekton 3” Next Generation Countermeasure to the 46” square LExUS UUV and the Cutthroat Large Scale Vehicle (LSV-2).

APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES CORP.
475 Bridge Street Suite 100
Groton, CT 06340
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 448-3253
Dr. William Milewski
NAVY 07-205      Awarded: 3/4/2008
Title:Reduced Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Motions For Reliable Recovery
Abstract:Safe and reliable launch and recovery of small offboard assets is important to the concept of operations for the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), as they are deployed to complete a wide range of missions. The LCS design specification requires launch and recovery of watercraft to be completed within fifteen minutes in conditions through Sea State 4. These operations are expected to be difficult because many of the missions will be conducted using unmanned surface vessels (USV). Several recovery concepts have been proposed. However, the development of a single, reliable system has been complicated by the pursuit of two LCS design variants with significantly different general arrangements and seakeeping properties. This proposal describes design and analysis of a wave monitoring and control system to reduce the relative motion between the USV and the LCS during the recovery process. The wave monitoring system will be used to provide initial conditions for forecasting conditions at the LCS to estimate calm periods as well as to provide input to the control system. The overall system is intended to work with existing recovery hardware for both over-the-side and stern launch and recovery systems.

VEHICLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1900 Campus Commons Drive Suite 300
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 620-0703
Dr. Douglas E. Humphreys
NAVY 07-205      Awarded: 3/4/2008
Title:Reduced Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Motions For Reliable Recovery
Abstract:USVs will be launched and recovered from the LCS in sea states up to 4. A number of efforts, including previous SBIR projects, have focused on USV recovery by the LCS. None of the efforts has focused specifically on reducing the relative motion between the USV and the mother ship. The objective of the proposed work is to reduce the relative motion between the USV and LCS during recovery to increase the probability of recovery. The technology solution that is proposed here is a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control system that synchronizes the relative motions between the USV and the mother ship using the USV control system. VCT is uniquely positioned to provide a solution to this problem with its extensive track record of developing high fidelity hydrodynamic and dynamics simulations for use in control system design and testing. VCT is a leading provider of vehicle control systems for US Navy systems. We have delivered 14 Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) software suites to a wide variety of contractors over the past decade. These systems range in size from the man-portable Nekton 3” Next Generation Countermeasure to the 46” square LExUS UUV and the Cutthroat Large Scale Vehicle (LSV-2).

PEREGRINE POWER LLC
27350 SW 95th Avenue, Suite 3022
Wilsonville, OR 97070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 682-7001
Mr. Dallas A. Marckx
NAVY 07-206      Awarded: 3/19/2008
Title:Energy Scavenging with TE Devices
Abstract:The applicant is proposing a method for scavenging heat generated by power semiconductors in solid state converters used by the Navy and others. Thermoelectric devices (TEDs) are inserted in the device package in such a way that the thermal path is not only not impaired, but is in fact enhanced by the insertion of the TEDs. In the Base Work of Phase I, the team will develop appropriate models and validate them with selected lab experiments. The size and weight, along with performance, of the device package will be projected to show feasibility. In the Option Work, a package with a real power device will be fabricated and tested.

WMK TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
101 Clematis Avenue Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 375-3035
Dr. Larry Roderick
NAVY 07-206      Awarded: 3/19/2008
Title:Advanced Direct Energy Conversion for Power Electronics Cooling
Abstract:A new metal matrix composite material consisting of natural graphite particulates processed into a designed reinforcement architecture that, after pressure infiltration casting with molten Al alloy, results in materials with thermal conductivity (TC) controllable over a range of 600 to 750 W/mK and thermal expansion controllable over the range of 7 to 3 ppm/K. This material is proposed as a spreader and as a natural circulation cooled heat sink to be integrated with a solid state thermoelectric module to generate energy from waste heat sources. This energy can be utilized for powering a pump for circulating fluid for cooling a power conversion module. The cold plate for the power conversion module can also be made from this high thermal conductivity material and can be optimized for low pressure drop and low power consumption in pumping liquid through the cold plate. The proposed scheme can not only maximize the power generated from any given thermoelectric or other solid state technology, but also use that power most efficiently by minimizing the power drop through the channels

NAVALIS ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, LLC
14614 N. Kierland Blvd Suite S-160
Scottsdale, AZ 85254
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 765-4041
Mr. Stephen P. Markle PE
NAVY 07-207      Awarded: 3/5/2008
Title:Wastewater Treatment Module
Abstract:Navalis has developed and tested a family of scalable marine advanced oxidation wastewater treatment systems that have high potential to meet the physical and operational requirements of SBIR NAVY 07-207. The modular component nature of the Navalis Orion™ makes it ideally well suited for arrangement into a transportable system for use as an LCS Wastewater Treatment System Mission Module. Navalis proposes its 2.5 gpm Orion variant (3,000 gallons/day) as the base system for this project. Testing of the parent design gives a high degree of assurance that it will be able to process waste of volume and strength expected aboard LCS, provide quick start capability, use a minimum of tankage (no additional onboard tankage requirements) and provide effluent meeting the requirements of IMO Resolution MEPC.159(55), with real-time effluent quality monitoring. The focus of Phase I will be to tailor our system to the requirements of the LCS as a reconfigurable mission system. Phase II will be to build a working prototype for Developmental Testing at Navalis, NSWCCD to demonstrate and validate the performance goals established in Phase I, and in Phase III, through Operational Test & Evaluation, demonstrate and certify the functionality of the module in each of its required functions.

REACTIVE INNOVATIONS, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 952-6947
Ms. Karen Jayne
NAVY 07-207      Awarded: 3/5/2008
Title:Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment Module
Abstract:Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes a SBIR phase I program to demonstrate a modular wastewater treatment system to supplement Littoral Combat ship (LCS) wastewater capacity for increased or mission system demands. Wastewater treatment utilizing large storage tanks currently in use on cruise vessels and some Navy ships will not meet the requirements for a supplemental compact system. In addition, regulations governing effluent discharge into open waters are becoming increasing stringent as the intensification of industrial activities in the last 100 years has inevitably caused severe environmental pollution with dramatic consequences to the atmosphere, aquaculture, our water supply, and agriculture. Advanced wastewater treatments are currently being developed for water conservation and recycling in both centralized and decentralized applications. We propose a novel chemical oxidation system to treat graywater and blackwater onboard naval vessels. Our proposed approach will advance onboard treatment of wastewater by utilizing a flow through tankless reactor which both generates an extremely powerful oxidant and chemically reacts that oxidant with contaminated waste streams with no toxic byproducts.

ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3721 Macintosh Drive Vint Hill Tech Park
Warrenton, VA 20187
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 428-3327
Mr. Rodin Lyasoff
NAVY 07-208      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Watercraft Controlled Approach System
Abstract:Athena Technologies Incorporated (Athena) proposes to demonstrate a watercraft recovery control system to control, monitor and manage the recovery sequence of watercraft aboard small surface combatants. The solution leverages Athena’s capabilities in vision-augmented estimation, control and path planning, and the field-proven multistate nonlinear Kalman filter (KF) attitude solution currently used in Athena's GuideStar™ products. The objective is to provide active real-time tracking of multiple vehicles throughout the approach and recovery sequence, under a variety of environmental conditions, through sea-state 4 conditions. The proposed system will be used to track vehicle progress toward the recovery point, provide guidance recommendations to the operator, and evaluate the feasibility of a successful docking, generating warnings when appropriate. This information will be presented to the operator within an efficient, user-friendly interface, on a rugged outdoor-viewable display, which will be usable as a secondary display when the operator is directly controlling the vehicle during the recovery evolution.

ROBOTIC RESEARCH LLC
814 W. Diamond Ave. Suite 301
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-0008
Mr. Karl Murphy
NAVY 07-208      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Operator-aided Autonomous Recovery System (OARS)
Abstract:The U.S. Navy’s plans for addressing asymmetric threats of the twenty-first century relies heavily on Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs) and manned Organic Offboard Vehicles (OOVs) for reconnaissance, force protection, mine detection, special operations, anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and intelligence collection mission. Rapid launch and recovery of these vehicles will be critical to mission success. Currently, mechanical recovery techniques are highly dependent upon the unique operator controls resident on each watercraft to guide the vehicle into a final recovery position. In the case of USVs, the operator is hampered by limited sight lines to the incoming vehicle and surrounding seas, and has a challenging “reverse-perspective” for controlling the incoming vehicle. This current process results in operational limitations, increased recovery timelines, and increased risk of damage to the deployed vehicle and the ship. Robotic Research, LLC in partnership with General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS), proposes the development of the Operator-aided Autonomous Recovery System (OARS), a standard control system for recovery of USVs and manned OOVs from a Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). OARS will make use of an established Hierarchical Control Architecture and Tactical Control Unit that have been effectively used for the control of several successful Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs).

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 329-8526
Dr. Robert Woodley
NAVY 07-209      Awarded: 3/7/2008
Title:Rapid Asymmetric Multi-agent Aerial Intent Determination (RAM-AID)
Abstract:The Navy’s conversion to a ‘Rapid Response – Force Protection’ tactical mindset due to asymmetric threats requires a change in hardware to support the new tactics. Exposing a potential adversary’s intent is key to determining the actions a commander should take. Unfortunately, with regards to aerial attacks from low slow-flying aircraft near shore, the Navy has few tools beyond what was historically available: human eyes and crew- served weapons. Most of the powerful capabilities, such as long range radar and the AEGIS weapon system function poorly near shore. The Navy needs a solution similar to AEGIS, but capable of functioning in a wider range of areas. 21st Century Systems, Incorporated is pleased to propose to research and develop the Rapid Asymmetric Multi- agent Aerial Intent Determination system (RAM-AID), which will be an Intelligent Agent decision support system that will use available sensor data to track, fuse and provide decisions and concise recommendations to the commander and ATFP decision makers; based on discernable and interpretive analysis of intentions. By coupling advanced persistent passive and active sensors with the exceptionally fast decision support capability inherent in intelligent agent software, a commanding officer will have an optimal solution set for this asymmetric threat in rapid fasion.

ADVANCED OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
6767 Old Madison Pike Suite 410
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-0036
Dr. Keith Farr
NAVY 07-209      Awarded: 3/7/2008
Title:Autonomous Persistent Surveillance and Targeting for the Asymmetric Air Threat (APSTAAT)
Abstract:Maritime asymmetric air threat detection begins with an in depth comprehension of the tactical picture. Security lies in the ability to sense threats in all environments. Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. (AOS) and Technology Systems, Inc. (TSI) have joined together to propose APSTAAT, a system for autonomous persistent surveillance for the asymmetric air threat. Low, slow flyers are threats to surface combatants at anchor or steaming in the littorals. APSTAAT will provide autonomous threat ID and allow a single operator to act as an entire watch team, supporting optimized manning concepts. The system will provide persistant surveillance even during times when the ship is at a relaxed readiness condition. APSTAAT consists of three software/hardware modules that can be integrated into the existing DDG 1000 system design or other surface combatants. These modules include: an Object Recognition System, an Expert System, and an Augmented Reality display. Accepting inputs from the wide variety of existing sensors. APSTAAT finds and assesses the threats, fuses and geo-registers the data in an augmented reality view, and hands off precision targeting data to weapons mounts. This powerful combination gives the commander unparallel situational awareness and the edge he needs to win the fight.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Mr. Chadwick Cox
NAVY 07-210      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Security for Unmanned and Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC) will develop an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) security system. This generic system will be applied to a user Unmanned (Sea) Surface Vessel (USV) as well as UVs operating from the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) or for the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC). The system has potential applications on Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs), Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs), and Unmanned Aerial Vehciles (UAVs). During Phase I, a prototype will be demonstrated on a real USV.

ADVANCED ACOUSTIC CONCEPTS, INC.
425 Oser Avenue
Hauppauge, NY 11788
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 872-0024
Dr. Sebastian Pascarelle
NAVY 07-210      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Unmanned Vehicle Security System
Abstract:Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs) deployed beyond the direct observation of the host Littoral Combat Ship are susceptible to significant threats due to vandalism, piracy, and/or fouling from fishing gear. Advanced Acoustic Concepts (AAC) and Accurate Automation Corporation propose a multi-sensor fusion and dissuasion solution that is robust and cost effective for protection of USVs. This Unmanned Vehicle Security System (UVSS) will consist of a set of optimally selected surveillance sensor technologies assembled via a “peer review process” in which “best of breed” solutions are identified from a representative field of competitors. This represents a departure from the tradition approach of offering a “magic bullet” solution, and allows the system to integrate the best technologies available regardless of the origin. AAC has a successful history of applying the best of breed/peer review process to Navy surface fleet sonar systems, and provides expertise in underwater and air acoustic surveillance as well as signal processing and sensor integration. Accurate Automation has extensive expertise in USV development and USV threat dissuasion technologies, and will be developing both lethal and non-lethal dissuasion systems for the UVSS. Once the optimal set of surveillance sensors and dissuasion tools have been identified, a system design will be produced.

ADAPTIVE INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS
2636 Fireside Circle
Lexington, KY 40513
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(859) 537-9871
Dr. YuMing Zhang
NAVY 07-211      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:A Modified GMAW System for Distortion Reduction and Travel Speed Increase through Separate Heat Input and Deposition Rate Control
Abstract:Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is the most widely used welding process. It is also the major process used in shipbuilding. In traditional GMAW and all its modifications, the current which melts the wire is the same as the current which heats the base metal. The base metal heat input is thus proportional to the heat which melts the wire. To maintain a minimally acceptable productivity as measured by the wire melting speed, the base metal heat input is typically much greater than the required to control the distortion at an acceptable level. In the modified GMAW proposed to reduce the post-weld distortion and increase the travel speed, a bypass torch is added to an existing GMAW system to bypass part of the current so that the base metal current is smaller than the wire melting current. Further, by controlling the bypass current, the base metal current can be controlled at whatever the desired level is while the melting current can also be controlled at whatever the desired level is. Hence, in the modified GMAW, the productivity is decoupled from the base metal current and the base metal heat input can thus be reduced without affecting the productivity. As a result, reducing heat input thus distortion and increasing travel speed can be achieved simultaneously. The Phase I project will prove the feasibility of the modified GMAW technology for its practical use in welding a typical ship structure material DH36 at flat, horizontal and vertical (down or up) positions.

ALASKA NATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
PO Box 241085
Anchorage, AK 99524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(907) 569-0268
Dr. Joseph Imlach
NAVY 07-212      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Exercise Torpedo Buoyancy (Recovery) System
Abstract:ANT has recently developed a similar recovery system for our own autonomous vehicle. ANT’s current system lifts a vehicle of lighter negative buoyancy (~64lbs rather than 200 lbs). The system is also designed to operate at less maximum depth (200 m, rather than 900 ft). These changes will necessitate the use of a larger volume lift bag and a modified compressed gas canister for the MK54 torpedo.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Mr. Anthony Desimone
NAVY 07-212      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Exercise Torpedo Buoyancy (Recovery) System
Abstract:Retrieval of field exercise torpedoes by the US Navy requires an inflatable Buoyancy Recovery System (BRS). The current hot gas system is expensive to operate/maintain with expended material and is labor-intensive to refurbish. Systima is proposing a new, lower cost torpedo buoyancy system which eliminates the need to cleanout the byproducts of the inflation system, the associated inflation system solid propellant grain costs, and assembly/operation complexity of the current solid propellant based torpedo buoyancy systems. The Systima inflation system approach is estimated to provide a cost savings in excess of $1,000,000 per year. By utilizing modern, refillable, high pressure composite gas bottles as the energy source for inflation of the system, a lightweight, high performance system is engineered which also features improved handling and logistics due to the lack of explosive components. Robustness is enhanced through a differential pressure control system and deployment features are designed to provide safer, easier retrieval by naval personnel.

WARWICK MILLS
301 Turnpike Road, PO Box 409
New Ipswich, NH 03071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 878-1565
Mr. Tim Smith
NAVY 07-212      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Exercise Torpedo Buoyancy (Recovery) System
Abstract:This proposal is for a flotation system for an exercise torpedo. The proposed system reduces both operating cost and development cost when compared to the existing system which uses a pyrotechnic gas generator. The proposed system is reuseable, with minimal refurbishment cost.

3 PHOENIX, INC.
13135 Lee Jackson Hwy Suite 330
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 956-6480
Mr. David Oliver
NAVY 07-213      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Improved Clutter Management Techniques for High Resolution Radars
Abstract:The team of 3 Phoenix, Inc. and Northrop Grumman Corporation propose to develop and evaluate technology that provides a substantial performance improvement to the problem of clutter discrimination. The team describes algorithms proposed to achieve substantial performance improvement. The proposed technology includes algorithms to perform detection of targets in heavy clutter, algorithms for extracting novel physics-based target features, and classifier technology for discriminating sea spikes from periscopes. Under Phase I, we propose to implement the algorithms and use recorded radar data to evaluate the technology. We propose to analyze the feasibility of implementation of the technology in software.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 437-2440
Dr. Lawrence D. Stone
NAVY 07-213      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Radar Periscope Detection using Likelihood Ratio Detection and Tracking - MP 120-07
Abstract:Based on a version of the Likelihood Ratio Detector and Tracker (LRDT) periscope detection system developed for ONR’s Uncluttered Tactical Picture program, Metron proposes to develop a PDR LRDT that will provide substantially improved detection performance compared to the ARPDD Slow Target Automatic Detector (STAD) used in CVN PDR. PDR LRDT will form real time estimates of clutter statistics to use in its measurement likelihood functions and will provide a clutter reduction system for the CVN PDR system. PDR LRDT will also be designed to provide automatic detection and alerts for swarms of small boats approaching a CVN.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Yelena Isyanova
NAVY 07-214      Awarded: 3/14/2008
Title:Multi-wavelength high-energy pulsed laser source
Abstract:Q-Peak proposes to develop a multi-wavelength, high-energy, all solid-state source based on the combination of an efficient, high-energy, 1047-nm Nd:YLF laser, a tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and a multi-wavelength Raman laser. The pulse-pumped, repetitively Q-switched, Nd:YLF Master Oscillator – Power Amplifier (MOPA) system will provide 250-mJ, ~200-nanosecond pulses at 1047 nm with the pulse format and rate in accordance with the requirement to the temporal mode of operation. The Nd:YLF output will pass through a second-harmonic generation (SHG) crystal to be efficiently converted to green output at 523.5 nm. The green power will act as a pump for an LBO-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO), which generates two output beams, a signal and an idler. The signal output from the LBO OPO will be tunable in the near infrared (NIR) from 700 nm to 750 nm, by angular tuning the OPO nonlinear crystal, with pulse energy of ~ 50 mJ. The green power will also be used as a pump for a Raman laser. The Raman laser will provide pulsed, multiple-wavelength- output in the visible wavelength band from 550 nm to 600 nm with maximum pulse energy of ~50 mJ.

REDWOOD PHOTONICS LLC
172 Component Drive
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 910-4762
Dr. Andrew T. Ryan
NAVY 07-214      Awarded: 3/14/2008
Title:Laser Technology for Shipboard Defense
Abstract:Laser pulse generation has emphasized either minimum pulse duration, typically to maximize peak power, (mode-locked pulses), or maximum energy per pulse (q-switched solid state lasers). Both of these approaches have pushed pulse durations well below 100 ns. Modern broad stripe diode lasers with relaxation times in the nanoseconds can be modulated to produce the required pulse durations and energies with simple modulation of the drive current and mimimal risk to the diodes themselves. However, diode lasers capable of achieving the power levels required emit light outside the spectral region of interest have notoriously poor beam quality as well as substantially greater divergence angles than required for ship self-defense applications. During the course of this Phase I program, a novel technique for spatial and spectral conversion of diode laser pump light into the wavelengths and divergence angles of interest will be designed and analyzed. A proof of concept will be demonstrated using a Nd:YAG laser as a simulated diode laser pump. The final report will include preliminary design parameters for scaling up the proof of concept for a Phase II prototype to achieve 50 mJ 200 ns pulses at 1 kHz repetition rates in each of the desired wavelength regions.

SA PHOTONICS
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. James Coward
NAVY 07-214      Awarded: 3/14/2008
Title:Laser Technology for Shipboard Defense
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose a program to develop a double-band shipboard defense laser system (DOSLS) based on our High Energy, and Tunable pulse Optical Source (HETOS) technology for shipboard defense applications and other military and commercial applications. The proposed light system is flexible, scalable and affordable. It will be constructed using mainly commercial fiber-optic components and therefore, is reliable, highly efficient, rugged, compact, lightweight, easy to use and low cost. DOSLS' performance either equals or exceeds the requirements in every category. In a HETOS design there are three key enabling technologies that offer significant improvements over other methods of generating a visible/near IR source, they are: • Regenerative fiber amplifiers (RFA) • Generation of optical pulses with adjustable pulse width and pulse repetition rate • Low loss Band Separator and Signal Combiner (BSSC) The regenerative fiber amplifiers reuse pump power and therefore improve efficiency and reduce the total number of stages of fiber amplifiers. This enables a HETOS to have >100X reduction of prime DC power consumption for burst mode operations compared to a conventional laser source using bulk optics.

CHESAPEAKE SCIENCES CORP.
1127B Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 535-1646
Mr. Daniel Baker
NAVY 07-215      Awarded: 3/17/2008
Title:Fiber Optic Vector Sensor Arrays
Abstract:Twinline and vector sensor towed arrays correct the left-right ambiguity inherent in hydrophone systems and offer significant performance and tactical advantages against noisy interferers in a non-isotropic noise environment. A vector sensor array is preferred because it provides similar capability to twinline and uses a single line array versus towing two independent arrays. This difference dramatically reduces submarine deployment, retrieval, stowage and handling requirements. Vector sensor arrays are comprised of a series of sensor “suites” that consist of three orthogonal accelerometers and a hydrophone. Multiple spatially separated, fiber optic accelerometer and hydrophone sensors are used in each suite to improve flow induced noise performance. Using Chesapeake Sciences’ TB-33 fiber optic hydrophone and towed array architecture coupled with the Navy’s model for a fiber optic accelerometer provides an ideal opportunity to leverage the designs into a single vector sensor array. TB-33 automated manufacturing and minimal outboard electronics improves reliability and decreases manufacturing costs. Our Phase 1 effort focuses on designing a Thinline Optical Directional Array (TODA), developing a performance specification and prototype sensor. Phase II plans include assembly of a prototype array for extended Shallow Water Advanced Prototype (SWAP) in-water testing and analyses.

VIP SENSORS
302 Calle Paisano
San Clemente, CA 92673
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 429-3558
Mr. Alexis Karolys
NAVY 07-215      Awarded: 3/17/2008
Title:Fiber Optic Fabry Perot Vector Sensor Arrays
Abstract:Conventional accelerometers are non-optimal for many submarine sensor applications, especially for hydrophone towed arrays. Limitations include size and weight, need for heavy copper conductors, susceptibility to electromagnetic interference and electrical cross talk, and limited cable drive capability. VIP Sensors proposes to develop a sensor measuring system consisting of optical MEMS vector sensors distributed on a single optic fiber, each working at different frequency ranges. A broadband high intensity LED is used as a light source for the serially connected accelerometers. Each optical sensor, tuned to work at a unique frequency of the spectrum, shifts (modulates) its corresponding input signal frequency proportional to the measured pressure and lets pass all other frequency signals. The light at the end of the optic fiber contains the information for all sensors at different preset frequency slots, in a scheme similar to Wave Division Multiplexing. An optical demultiplexer located at the fiber end separates the signal spectrum. A photodiode array converts the photons to electrons and specialized circuitry quantifies the frequency shift corresponding to each sensor. The sensor is sculptured on silicon wafer using MEMS processes. It consists of a mass hanging on a flexure hinge. A strand of optical fiber is attached on the surface of the sensor chip with an intrinsic Fabry Perot cavity laid between the mass and the rigid frame. The inertia force rotates the hanging mass about the flexure hinge. The mass displacement stretches or compresses the fiber. The strain in the fiber changes the length of the Perot cavity, which causes the shift of the incoming light wavelength. The shift of wavelength is thus proportional the inertia force or acceleration.

---------- MDA ----------

159 Phase I Selections from the 07.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Michael MacDougal
MDA 07-001      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Broad Spectral Range Detectors for Vis/SWIR Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:Aerius proposes to build detectors with low dark current and a cutoff wavelength of 3.0 um, using InP-based detectors. These detectors do not suffer from the same problems conventional "extended-wavelength" suffer, such as high dark current, low quantum efficiency, and limited spectral range. Aerius proposes to achieve, high quality, high uniformity extended short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) detectors that can also be sensitive to short wavelengths in the visible. Realizing this material would extend the capabilities of satellites and kill vehicles by detecting both reflected light and thermally generated wavelengths in one detector, reducing the cost and mass of detector deployment.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Lawrence Domash
MDA 07-001      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Nano-Enabled Broadband Infrared Anti-Reflection Coatings
Abstract:In this program, Agiltron and the group of Professor D. W. Wang at Boston College propose a novel nano-porous coating for next generation MDA IR anti-reflection (AR) coatings for detectors and optics. The collaborative research leverages recent progress in nano-material development at Boston College, and Agiltron's recently developed nano-coating processes. The proposed IR AR coatings will possess engineerable nano-porosity and predefined index profile characteristics along with extremely precise thickness control. These coatings can be expected to yield graded index profiles as well as discrete multilayers leading to the first universal IR AR solution for critical surfaces. The coatings will also possess superior radiation hardness, broadband anti-reflection, good thermal-mechanical stability, and both high and low temperature stability critical for a space environment. Additionally, our nano-porous coatings are obtained by a low cost wet chemistry process compatible with state of the art detector fabrication. Nano-porous coatings can also be applied to other IR optical components such as IR lenses and windows. The feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated in Phase I. In Phase II, we will test its applicability to practical sensor surfaces and show net improvements in detector performance.

LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 891-2243
Dr. William McGovern
MDA 07-001      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Long-to-Very-Long-Wavelength Infrared Band-Pass Filters for Space Infrared Detectors
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal requests innovative sensor solutions to improve strategic space sensors. One route of improvement is selective band-pass filtering of radiation before it reaches the detector. Such filtering can improve detection by blocking out-of-band interferences and allowing transmission of the desired spectral components. Filtering can improve a cheaper detector with a broader detection profile into a high performance detector. Filtering can also improve signal-to-noise of a detector by eliminating out-of-band radiation from reaching the detector and causing spurious signal or A/D saturation. Comparable band-pass filters in the mid-infrared are typically thick multilayer dielectrics subject to poor adhesion between layers, thermal mismatch stress, or moisture sensitivity which can lead to destructive delamination. The innovative very-long-wavelength-region band-pass filter design proposed here has high transmission, can tolerate cryogenic temperatures, ionizing radiation and vibration making them launch-capable. The 2mm-thin proposed band-pass filter allows insertion into tight spaces. Lake Shore has demonstrated prototype band-pass filters with center bands from 14 - 25 microns in the infrared spectrum. By using innovative fabrication, it will be possible to extend this range down to the long-wavelength-infrared region. New IR detectors, developed in-tandem with Lake Shore band-pass filters can produce a high-performance solution for MDA applications.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando RoadBuilding 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2016
Dr. Hirsohi Nakahara
MDA 07-002      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Space Power Management & Energy Storage Technologies
Abstract:Quallion currently manufactures hermitically sealed, prismatic 15Ah and 72Ah lithium-ion cells for the aerospace community. The cells are undergoing real-time life testing at various government agencies, in which the 15Ah cell has demonstrated over 12,000 LEO cycles at a 60% depth of discharge (DOD). Under these conditions, Quallion expects the cell to perform over 50,000 cycles. In this effort, Quallion will modify its existing long-life high energy density chemisty to meet high rate capabilities. Once modified, Quallion will incorporate this chemistry into the same form-fit factor of our current satellite cells.

VPT, INC.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Dr. Glenn Skutt
MDA 07-002      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High-Efficiency, Radiation-Hardened, Power Converter System for Distributed Space Applications
Abstract:VPT Inc. proposes to develop an innovative radiation-hardened, high-efficiency, thick-film hybrid DC-DC power converter that addresses demanding MDA space application needs. The targeted technology will provide efficiencies of greater than 90% for multiple low output voltages. The proposed system includes a single output isolated DC-DC converter with synchronous rectification to convert a standard MDA 28V bus directly down to 5.0V as well as multiple non-isolated point of load converters to obtain output voltages from 3.3V to as low as 0.8V. This system will be based on VPT standard product, Mil-PRF-38534 Class K hybrid DC-DC converters and recent VPT radiation analysis and testing including Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS), Radiation Lot Acceptance Testing (RLAT), Flash Xray (FXR), Single Event Upset (SEU). In the SBIR Phase I VPT will perform the following: (a) develop a multiple output converter breadboard using the new VPT hybrid converters and demonstrate electrical performance including high efficiency, (b) select and characterize new radiation-hardened components (c) perform circuit design changes and analysis to achieve 500kRads of total dose radiation performance and 60MeV of single event upset capability, (d) evaluate planar winding magnetics for high efficiency and wide temperature range of operation.

ADVANCED SCIENCE & NOVEL TECHNOLOGY
27 Via Porto Grande
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 564-9236
Dr. Sean P. Woyciehowsky
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Performance Rad Hard Analog to Digital Converter Architectures
Abstract:Electronic components for future space based radar systems on chip (SOC) must function correctly in natural and radiation filled environments while providing state-of-the-art performance. The corresponding SOC must employ advanced, extra low-power, radiation-hardened (RH), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) capable of operating at multi-giga sampling speeds. To satisfy the described needs, we propose to develop an ADC block with 9 bits of resolution and up to 10Gs/s of sampling speed. The 9 bit wide data will be demultiplexed by a factor of eight to a rate of 1.25Gb/s for direct loading into a following FPGA where signal processing will be performed. Our patent-pending radiation-hardening techniques incorporate a methodology based on protection and redundancy, which provides both total ionization dose (TID) and single-event upset (SEU) tolerance within the IC. The proposed high performance characteristics of the ADC will be achieved by utilizing an advanced SiGe IC fabrication technology.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Dr. Michael Hoskins
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Sample-Rate Ultra-Wideband Track-and-Hold Demultiplexer (2007047)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop a Radiation-Tolerant Ultra-Wideband Track-and-Hold (T/H) Demultiplexer to address MDA's future needs for microwave signal sampling/data conversion. This development is motivated by the difficulties in achieving high-speed interleaved analog-to-digital converter (ADC) assemblies with good accuracy. A switched-emitter-follower T/H amplifier in the SiGe BiCMOS process with the capability for 15 GHz sampling bandwidth, 6 - 8 Gs/s sample rate, and 8 - 9 bit accuracy will be studied. This high-speed T/H will be used as the front end of a two-rank T/H sampler/demultiplexer that provides a 2:1 output sample rate reduction, enabling the use of lower rate ADCs in an interleaved assembly without the usual sample timing mismatches that degrade performance. The T/H demultiplexer can also operate as a subsampler to down convert any Nyquist bands within the 15 GHz bandwidth. This T/H circuit is expected to offer unprecedented bandwidth and operating speed while maintaining accuracy suitable for meeting the X-band and microwave data conversion goals of many military systems. Under Phase I, Hittite will perform a design study with circuit simulations to determine the feasibility and performance of the basic T/H amplifier and the two-rank demultiplexer. Prototype circuits will be built and tested in Phase II.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del CampoSuite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 864-7858
Mr. William Poland
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Multiplexed, Rad Hard ADC
Abstract:The proposed part is a rad-hard, 16-input, 14-bit ADC, with aggregate speed of 200 MSPS. The 16 inputs are sampled individually and can be configured as 16 single-ended inputs or 8 differential inputs. The ADC provides 14 data outputs, a data-ready signal, and an over-range indicator. The digital outputs of the ADC are CMOS low-voltage differential signal (LVDS) outputs. The part will be fabricated using Texas Instruments' BiCom3X, a SOI process with CMOS and complementary SiGe bipolar transistors. SiGe bipolar transistors typically have very high total dose hardness, and we are not aware of an ELDRS problem. The SOI wells prevent latch-up and restrict the silicon volume that can produce photocurrents from either ionizing dose rates or single event strikes. Our designers, Bill Poland, Jim Swonger, Wayne Dietrich and John Branning, have designed over 140 ASICs, many of them rad-hard. They worked together on a 14-bit rad-hard ADC, on which the proposed part is based. Nu-Trek is an emerging suppler of rad-hard parts, with four parts coming on sale in 2008. The Nu-Det has already been inserted into the MKV and NGIMU. The Clam/NED is slated for insertion in the Army's FCS.

ORORA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
18378 Redmond Fall City Road
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-9196
Dr. Ying Wei
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Performance Rad Hard Analog to Digital Converter Architectures
Abstract:Orora Design Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a template-based solution to the design of high-performance radiation-hardened analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Research will be focused on innovatice architectures for a Delta-Sigma ADC of 2.5 MSPS data rate at 16-bit or greater resolution with 250mW or less power consumption, and a pipelined ADC of 180MSPS data rate at 14-bit or greater resolution with 540mW or less power consumption. Baseline radiation goals are 300Krad total dose, and single-event latchup immune and single-event upsets with LET greater than 15, and bit error rates less than 1E-10 errors/bit-day. The output of this research is template-based architectures and a behavioral model library that captures expert radiation-hardening design techniques and can be adapted to different design performance requirements and fabrication processes. In addition, a set of enabling computer-aided design tools will be developed in a mainstream EDA design environment and can be used by avionic electronics designers. The technical novelty of this research consists of (a) joint optimization of architectures, processes, and circuits for varying applications and radiation hardness, (b) hierarchical radiation-aware parametric behavioral modeling, and (c) adaptive design templates.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
MDA 07-004      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:An Advanced Thermal Management System for Gimbal-Mounted Sensors
Abstract:Future missile detection systems will require improved thermal management for cooling gimbal-mounted sensors and optics. Current systems utilize cryocoolers placed on the gimbal, which necessitates the cryocooler heat to be rejected directly from the gimbal. A far superior approach in terms of payload mass would locate the warm elements of the cryocooler on the stationary platform near the spacecraft heat rejection system, and place only the cold elements required to cool the optics and sensors on the gimbal. On the proposed program, we plan to develop an innovative cryocooler for cooling gimbal-mounted sensors and optics. The cryocooler is based on space-proven turbo-Brayton technologies which will be adapted to the unique requirements of this application. The inherent attributes of the turbo-Brayton cycle permit the warm components of the cryocooler to be mounted off gimbal, which will drastically improve thermal management and reduce payload mass. The warm and cold components of the cryocooler will be connected using custom flexible tubing, which has been demonstrated to provide the flexibility and life required for gimbaled systems. In Phase I we will develop a preliminary design of the cryocooler and its components, develop performance curves, and perform trades to establish a packaging and integration concept.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P Scaringe
MDA 07-004      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Experimental Demonstration of an Improved Cryocooler Configuration to Lower the Gimbaled Mass and Volume for Infrared Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to reduce the weight of the cryocooler system, improve the efficiency of the cryocooler system, provide multiple cryocooler temperatures, and improve the configuration of the gimbaled flexible joint. At first glance, this set of claims seems incredibly ambitious; however, as disclosed in this proposal, these achievements can be obtained by implementing an improved cryogenic cooler. The proposed configuration can also provide multiple cooling temperatures, allowing both the cryogenic cooling and the electronics thermal control from a single cooler. This Phase I effort includes the experimental demonstration of this cryocooler (in a bench-top configuration), as well as a demonstration of an improved gimbaled flexible joint. Phase I also includes a comparison with current state-of-the-art technology to verify mass, reliability, and energy benefits. Clearly, Mainstream has the prior experience in this area, and the effort proposed in Phase I, which includes a preliminary design and bench-top demonstration experiments, exceeds the scope of effort proposed in the Phase I solicitation; however, Mainstream is well into this research and excited about the commercial potential for this technology. Phase II will address the fabrication and demonstration of a complete system.

SOUTH BAY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
7525 W. 81st St.,
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 337-7230
Mr. John Ikegami
MDA 07-004      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Heat Rejection Methods for Space Cryocoolers
Abstract:Future space EO systems will require cryogenic subsystems that are substantially more powerful than those presently in use. Input power levels are expected to increase by a factor of 2X to 4X, necessitating changes from the payload level down to the cryocooler subsystem level. Payload-level changes involve the inclusion of more robust power busses and heat rejection systems, while changes to the cryocooler subsystem will focus on optimization of the internal heat rejection schemes to allow the thermo-mechanical units to run at relatively cool internal operating temperatures despite the increased power load. The South Bay Science and Technology Corporation (SBSTC), as the prime contractor, and Raytheon, as subcontractor, propose to develop high efficiency Closed-Cycle Cryocooler waste heat rejection designs as part of a system solution for electro-optical (EO) space payload power and mass reduction.

2LRESEARCH
190 Green Valley Road
Owens Crossroads, AL 35763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 656-9652
Mr. Luis R. Lopez
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Relational Pattern Analysis Tool for Legacy Conversion
Abstract:This project develops a technology to automate the interpretation and understanding of complex trees of source code and related artifacts for conversion to run on newer hardware, operating systems and languages. The center of our proposed innovative approach is to map and parse a complex source code tree (plus related artifacts such as `makefiles') into an appropriate process and object oriented schema tree. From this representation we propose to generate relational database queries, stored procedures and advanced algorithms that extract dependencies and partitioning with respect to hardware, operating system, distributed processing, application programming interfaces [APIs], etc. The proposed tools will help analysts visualize, analyze and gain a deep, multi-level understanding of legacy code. This approach supports automation of legacy code functional inventory, language translation and re-partitioning. The solution is extremely flexible and applies to multiple versions of Ada (ANSI/MIL-STD 1815A, ISO-8652:1987, ISO/IEC 8652:1995/Amd 1:2007). We also propose to develop a plug-in for a popular software tool such as Eclipse. This approach has potential to yield order of magnitude reductions in the man-hours/cost required to modernize Ada applications.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Curt Wu
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:LANguage Conversion Engine (LANCE)
Abstract:From 1987-1997, DoD required Ada for every software project where new code generation was more than 30% of the effort. With the decline in Ada's popularity, it has become increasingly difficult to find skilled Ada developers to maintain this legacy code. Code maintainers that don't know Ada typically convert the code to a language they understand and this is a tedious error-prone process. What is needed is a toolkit that converts Ada into more widely supported languages, provides guidance on translation, and plugs in to the maintainer's IDE. Such a toolkit must provide a view of each module within the context of the legacy application and weigh the relative merits of various conversion options. The converted code must also be validated against the legacy code to ensure accurate and effective conversion. Our proposed LANguage Conversion Engine (LANCE) will not only accurately translate and validate Ada code but also provide the necessary guidance to wrap or rewrite code that can not or should not be translated. This guidance will include the necessary metadata to integrate the various code modules that have been translated, wrapped, and rewritten. Finally, the system's software repository will store translated code modules for cataloging and reuse.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5900
Dr. Marc Abrams
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Legacy Software Conversion Tool
Abstract:Under MDA07-005 Harmonia, Inc., in partnership with Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS), will build a system to cost effectively modernize legacy information, sensor, space platform, and weapons systems such as the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) written in languages such as Ada83. We develop an innovative new toolset that guides the engineer through a comprehensive methodology to inventory and understand the legacy system to be modernized, estimate the cost benefit of reusing versus rewriting the legacy code, extract and translate reusable components from the legacy system for use in new architectures, and verify the correctness of the translated code. Our toolset improves upon the state of the art in several ways: breaks the "black box" of most conversion methods to facilitate a human-involved process of discovery; reduces cost by automating tedious migration tasks; fosters and encourages "educated conversion," allowing the engineer to understand the code as it is converted; preserves understanding for future engineers through a repository of reusable components, documentation, and annotations; and utilizes flexible methodology and Open Source technology including Eclipse to provide a robust platform for migrating legacy code to C++ that is extensible to C++ .NET, Java, and other languages within STSS and beyond.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Mr. Donald J. Reifer
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Legacy Software Conversion Tool
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I SBIR is to develop a non-translator-based, language-independent methodology and toolset architectural design for legacy code modernization. The methodology proposed build models of the application and then analyzes them using to ensure that they properly represent the software as it actually runs on the platform and in the environment to which it is targeted. The methodology relies on aspects to capture processor/platform dependencies and domain models for a determination of which functions it makes sense to carryover for redesign. The utility and effectiveness of the methodology will be verified during Phase I through the use of a pilot project. Correspondence between the actual code and the modernized software will be demonstrated at least in part prior to Phase II when a more extensive proof-of-concept will be attempted.

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Dr. Koorosh Guidanean
MDA 07-006      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Low Cost Calibration Test Objects for MDA Systems
Abstract:Development of the electro-optical sensors for use by the MDA requires flight testing against calibration targets that have well characterized radio frequency, optical and infrared cross sections. These tests are very expensive therefore there is a compelling need for low cost calibration targets. Providing well characterized visible and radar targets is reasonably straight forward, however IR is not. To solve this problem we are proposing to develop black balloons that are inflated with a liquid inflatant that has a surface tension below the critical value that allows complete wetting of the inside surface of the balloon. This will provide an isothermal target to within a fraction of a degree. If the balloon is made of a material like black Kapton then the reflected radiation will be specular, so both the IR and the visible spectrums will be independent of the viewing angle or solar angle. Also since the Kapton is carbon filled its radar signature will also be well characterized. This very simple target balloon design when married with existing L'Garde flight proven designs for the balloon canisters and ejectors will meet the MDA price goal of less the $250,000.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
6800 Burleson RoadBuilding 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Victor Dube
MDA 07-006      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Modular Adaptive Low-cost Test System (MALTS)
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes the low-risk adaptation of existing flight-proven MDA Targets & Countermeasures (TC) subsystems to meet the requirements of this topic. In an increasingly tight budgetary environment, the frequent calibration testing needed by new, modified and operational sensors must be accomplished in a much more cost and schedule efficient manner. SPEC's Modular Adaptive Low-cost Test System (MALTS) concept is a much simplified lower-cost derivative of an equivalent system developed and flown under the MDA/LMCO BMDS Targets & Countermeasures Prime Contract (TCPC). SPEC and teammate ITT Industries are very familiar with the requirements for well characterized test objects, as a result of being a current provider of MDA target systems and with personnel long involved in ballistic missile penaids and SDIO targets, going back to the mid-1960's on the Minuteman-II Penaids Program(s) and continuing on every US ICBM reentry system since then. The baseline MALTS concept, fully compliant with topic requirements, consists of a programmable pneumatic ejector and a spherical inflatable test object. Both have been flown successfully and are suitable for launch on sounding rockets, ICBMs, space launch vehicles or from satellites. Recurring unit flight test cost will be well under the $250K goal.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
2000 West Cabot Blvd.Suite 150
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 375-3035
Dr. Larry Roderick
MDA 07-007      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Passive Cooling of Laser Diodes for Use on Satellites
Abstract:A novel concept integrating, k-Corer (a material system which consists of encapsulated annealed pyrolytic graphite) saddle with a loop heat pipe evaporator is proposed. Due to five fold increase compared to the baseline aluminum, the proposed concept can enable much higher heat flux levels at lesser resistance to the radiator. In addition, the proposed concept will not have any weight penalty compared to baseline aluminum. During phase I, a saddle, designed for a LHP evaporator will be designed, fabricated and evaluated towards meeting the program goals of 60 W cooling at heat flux of 700 W/cm2

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Mr. Walter Zimbeck
MDA 07-007      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Loop Heat Pipe Laser Diode Array Cooling System
Abstract:A two-phase loop cooling system will be developed for thermal management of high heat laser diode arrays on satellites. To achieve the high heat flux capacity necessary for this application (700 W/cm2) and the tight temperature control, a novel flat plate, high flux evaporator will be developed. For close integration of the evaporator to the laser diode bars, thermal expansion matched materials will be used to construct the evaporator. The Ph I effort will focus on evaporator design, system modeling and fabrication and characterization of a prototype evaporator. A full-scale prototype system will be built and tested in Phase II.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1202
Dr. Henry R. Sebesta
MDA 07-008      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Next Generation Gimbal (NGG)
Abstract:Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes innovations in the design and mechanizations of space gimbals and their electrical and pointing controls. This new paradigm for a gimbal design is denoted the Next Generation Gimbal (NGG) and yields a gimbal system that is lighter, uses less power, and exhibits better performance. The technology innovations that will be exploited in creating the NGG include:  On-Gimbal IMU for precise and accurate pointing control and stabilization;  Momentum storage and exchange mechanisms to achieave more efficient power utilization than conventional gimbal motors;  Innovative mode logic and control algorithms to optimize overall mass, power, function, and performance;  Advanced gimbal subsystem control electronics hosted on flexible, small, low-power FPGA processors with characteristics suitable for space environments;  Material selections that are compatible with optical payload gimbal applications. The combination of these new gimbal design approaches, advanced technologies, and new control and operating philosophies offer great promise and allows us to reach the goals of SBIR Topic MDA07-008.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1224
Mr. Darren R. Laughlin
MDA 07-008      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Disk Resonator Gyroscope (DRG) Electronics Optimization
Abstract:Proposed Missile Defense Agency (MDA) systems, such as the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS), require high precision gyroscopes for high-resolution Line of Sight (LOS) stabilization and pointing control for the acquisition, pointing and tracking (APT) systems. To achieve these mission objectives, MDA is very interested in the development of compact, high performance, space qualified micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyros. The recently developed MEMS Disc Resonator Gyro (DRG) has the potential of fulfilling the MDA MEMS gyro requirement. Research associated with the volume manufacturing for the DRG is currently underway by Sensors in Motion (SIM). However, miniaturized, low power, and radiation hardened electronics have not yet been developed for the DRG and ultimately required for satellite applications. ATA proposes to develop miniaturized, radiation hardened electronics for the DRG for realization of MDA's MEMS gyro needs. High performance DRGs incorporating compact optimized electronics would be used extensively in precision inertial reference units (IRUs) and inertial measurement units (IMUs) with the advantage of much smaller size and weight, less power, and also less cost due to the mass production implications of MEMS devices in general. High performance MEMS DRGs would facilitate MDA's space-borne applications that cannot be fulfilled with current gyro technology, i.e. HRGs, RLGs, FOGs, and DTGs, because of size, weight, power, and cost limitations.

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES, INC.
18411 Gothard StreetUnit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Mr. Wayne Steffier
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Flight-Weight Ceramic Composite Monopropellant Rocket Thruster Assembly
Abstract:Rocket thrusters based on hydroxyl-ammonium nitrate (HAN) monopropellants are of interest for Network Centric Airborne Defense Element (NCADE) missile axial and divert propulsion applications because of their inherent system simplicity, low toxicity, high specific impulse (~275s), and 50% greater density-specific impulse over hydrazine (Isp¯220s). Their high combustion temperatures (33300øF), however, pose significant challenges on chamber and bedplate materials. In order to exploit the performance benefits of HAN, advanced materials, such as SiC composites, reticulated SiC foams and lightweight end-closure joining methods are needed. SiC composite and SiC foam catalyst bedplates have demonstrated superior performance qualities in recent hot-fire testing at AEROJET, while significantly decreasing weight and manufacturing cost over alternative designs and materials. Hyper-Therm HTC's SiC composite thrust chambers and SiC foam bedplates have been selected by AEROJET for several MDA missile applications, however composite chambers have not yet been demonstrated using HAN. Moreover, a method for efficiently joining the composite chamber to the metallic forward end-closure is essential to the success of affordable flight-weight composite propulsion devices. The objective of this program is to develop a flight-weight composite monopropellant rocket thruster consistent with the requirements of NCADE for hot-fire evaluation. High-performance SiC composite thrust chambers incorporating ultra-lightweight SiC foam catalyst bedplates and utilizing a weight-efficient end-closure joining method will be developed in Phase I and prepared for hot-fire testing by AEROJET using HAN early in a Phase II program.

PLASMA PROCESSES, INC.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 851-7653
Mr. Timothy McKechnie
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/29/08
Title:Light Weight Thrust Chambers for Advanced Interceptor Axial Propulsion
Abstract:The Network Centric Airborne Defense Element (NCADE) is an affordable boost- and ascent- phase ballistic missile interceptor system. NCADE has the same form, fit and interface as the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAMT). The boost- and ascent-phase capability of NCADE is enabled by high-altitude launch and a high performance two-stage propulsion system. The second stage uses a hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) based monopropellant for all upper stage propulsion, including axial, divert and attitude control system, to provide endo- and exoatmospheric flight. The combustion environment of high-performance HAN formulations is both high temperature (>1700øC) and corrosive (nitric acid, steam, carbon dioxide). The biggest technical challenge for HAN based propulsion systems is developing low-cost, lightweight thrusters and hot gas valves to withstand the extreme temperature environment of combustion products. Lining carbon-carbon chambers with a thin layer of rhenium or iridium is an innovative way to both economically use refractory metals and improve the performance of high temperature composite chambers. This proposal will evaluate using iridium-lined carbon-carbon to form a composite structure for HAN axial thrusters and DACS gas generator components.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Clifford T. Tanaka
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Chemical Vapor Composite (CVCT) SiC for HAN Propulsion Systems
Abstract:Trex will develop rocket motor components suitable for liquid HAN monopropellant propulsion systems utilizing its patented CVC SiCT process. CVC SiC enables production of high quality SiC capable of handling extreme temperatures up to 3700oF, well within the requirement for the HAN propellant. Furthermore, near net shape fabrication of rocket motor components, such as nozzles, flame liners and pintles is possible via CVCT. Finally, addition of solid particles and chopped fibers has been demonstrated, which yield stress-free, robust composite SiC materials required for the extreme pressure and thermal loads in the intended application. The proposed Phase 1 will produce prototype, near net shape CVC SiCT fiber-reinforced composites, thereby demonstrating a cost-effective manufacturing process for these high temperature components.

VALLEY TECH SYSTEMS
129 N. Cloverdale Blvd #5
Cloverdale, CA 95425
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 996-9220
Mr. Michael Oberth
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Multi Nozzle Grid Technology Application to MDA Missile Systems
Abstract:As the US missile defense capability matures there is a growing need for new technologies that enable smaller packaging envelopes and higher mass fractions with improved performance. One such promising technology is the use of Multi Nozzle Grids (MGN) in place of conventional rocket nozzles. The MGN technology packages an array of small "nozzlettes" that individually exhibit high performance expansion ratios and collectively provide large delivered thrust. An MGN nozzle provides the benefit of reducing conventional nozzle lengths (up to 10:1), reducing system weight while potentially improving overall delivered performance. To demonstrate the benefits of the MNG technology to an MDA missile system Valley Tech Systems (VTS) is proposing a Phase I SBIR program for the conceptual design modeling and establishment of processing methods for an MNG nozzle. This Phase I program will provide the design and analyses foundation to proceed into a Phase II demonstration that substantiate the MGN technology benefits to the MDA missile system.

MILLI SENSOR SYSTEMS & ACTUATORS
93 Border Street
West Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-4872
Dr. Donato (Dan) Cardarelli
MDA 07-010      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Actively Stabilized MEMS IMU for Autonomous Guidance and Navigation
Abstract:Without the means for stabilizing the scale factor and bias of MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers, they cannot become precise and accurate instruments. With stabilization, however, autonomous navigation is possible and GPS reliability can be improved. We propose to introduce active stabilization methods and test devices and carry out the proof-of-concept tests during Phase I. We will make use of existing hardware from related programs. The significance of the bias stabilization method to performance is that the formerly limiting 1/f - derived bias instability can be greatly reduced, with the potential of obtaining less than 1 deg/hr. An added importance of the scale factor and bias stabilization methods is the reduction in testing required and the corresponding drop in cost.

SA PHOTONICS
650 5th StreetSuite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. James Coward
MDA 07-010      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Advanced Interceptor Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Components
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose a program to develop a low cost navigation grade Fiber Optic Gyro development program. There has long been a desire to build a low cost fiber optic gyro using single mode fiber, but various noise sources have precluded this dream from being realized. The scientists at SA Photonics, utilizing their more than 30 combined years of navigation grade Fiber Optic Gyro development experience, have created simple innovative solutions for these noise terms that will finally achieve the long anticipated goal of a low cost navigation grade single mode fiber optic gyro. In Phase I, we will analyze and predict the performance of the proposed low-cost gyro and demonstrate experimentally our key enabling technologies.

SYSENSE CORP.
300 East Magnolia Suite 300
Burbank, CA 91502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 238-2330
Dr. Ashitosh Swarup
MDA 07-010      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:Advanced Interceptor Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Components
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a low-powered, low-noise, high-sensitivity, jam-resistant P/M code capable GPS receiver which can continuously track a GPS signal under high-g environments. The system incorporates several innovative technologies. First, the system is designed to keep the intrinsic system noise to a minimum. Second, a sensor suite incorporating an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is interfaced to the system and an ultra-tightly coupled algorithm incorporating a nonlinear filter to integrate the equations of motion increases the system sensitivity, allowing it to operate in environments where signal strength is severely. Third, the system is designed to be jam-resistant. In addition, the system has been designed for low power consumption and portable dimensions using commercially available off-the-shelf components. Using such components also helps keep system cost to a minimum while providing the required system performance.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. John Player
MDA 07-011      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:High Performance Structures with Synergistic Composite Conductors
Abstract:IST is proposing to integrate electrical conductors and antennas directly into composite structures using a new Synergistic Composite Conductor (SCC). IST's novel SCC technology enables small cross section electrical conductors that can be printed on or embedded into composites without degrading their structural performance. The benefits of this approach include better resistance to vibration and shock related wear, and inherent EMI shielding. There are also secondary weight advantages due to the elimination of electrical wiring clamps and the associated fastener holes which in turn allows for thinner composite cross sections. Printing or embedding the "wires" in the composite also provides support along their entire length which enables wires to be sized solely by current requirements and not g-loading. This will lead to thinner gauge wires and further synergistic weight savings. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of these new synergistic composite conductors and set the stage for electrical systems to be integrated into a larger demonstration article in the Phase II program. The Phase II will culminate in the fabrication of an electrical circuit or communications antenna embedded in a structural composite.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Richard O Claus
MDA 07-011      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Multifunctional Metal RubberT Composite Structural Materials
Abstract:This SBIR program would develop multifunctional structural composite materials based on NanoSonic's Metal RubberT. The Metal RubberT composites would offer mechanical stiffness-to-weight comparable with conventional cross-ply laminate face sheet and structural composite materials, but also incorporate high electrical conductivity, broadband RF/EMI shielding, and uniform thermal conductivity typically not available in polymer matrix composite systems. Metal RubberT is a self-assembled nanocomposite material that combines conducting nanoclusters and advanced polymers into free-standing sheets. These materials would be combined as plies with high performance reinforcement fibers to create cross-ply laminate composites during Phase I. Prior work has demonstrated low mass density (<1g/cc), highly electrically conductive (10-6 ohm∙cm), and useful RF and microwave shielding properties for NanoSonic's Metal RubberT ply materials. During Phase I, NanoSonic would modify the chemistry of its current Metal RubberT materials to allow their consolidation into composite structural materials using normal processing routes. Multiple Metal RubberT composite structural test articles would be delivered and evaluated to determine RF/EMI, electrical conductivity, thermal uniformity, useable temperature range, UV degradation and outgassing properties. NanoSonic would work with a large aerospace prime contractor involved in multiple MDA platforms and systems to design multifunctional requirements into Metal RubberT composite performance, and evaluate properties of test articles.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, INC.
9550 Ridgehaven Ct
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Mr. Gary Wonacott
MDA 07-011      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Synergistic Structures for Interceptor Kill Vehicles
Abstract:The MDA has been investing in advanced structures and components technology development and demonstration programs for exoatmospheric interceptors for the ERIS, BP, SBI, EKV and GBI, and the MKV weapon systems. Significant advances have been achieved in mass and volume reduction for these interceptor kill vehicles; however, to achieve the mass reductions required for the next generation KV's, whether in space or on the ground, it will require the elimination of mass associated with enclosures for electronics. SDC proposes to leverage its 25 years of experience with kill vehicle requirements, technology, as well as SDC's strong relationship with KV system contractors to develop designs that fully integrate electronics subsystems into the primary structure. The feasibility of embedding three distinct types of electrical components into the composite interceptor structure will be explored: power and ground, data communication busses and antennas and processing components. This study will explore the benefits of embedding the components into the structure, determine which components would provide the best weight advantage, and conclude with the design and fabrication of a composite interceptor subcomponent. An element of the study will be the use of modular construction to change high value components in space via man or robotics.

DAVIDSON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
530 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-3114
Dr. Christian Tournes
MDA 07-012      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Interceptor Algorithms
Abstract:The evolution of advanced missile threats calls for interceptors with increased maneuver agility operating seamlessly in and between the boundaries of low endo-, high endo- and exo-atmospheric regimes and blurs the separation of interceptor fly-out and autonomous kill-vehicle end-game. In order to meet with increased target maneuver capabilities, the kill vehicle must supplement when possible its thruster based divert capability with aerodynamic lift which is the source of considerable model uncertainties. This poses major control architectural challenges and raises serious robustness issue difficult to meet using traditional control techniques. This proposal is about the use of novel Higher Order Sliding Mode HOSM control techniques in the design of seeker tracker and observers, guidance and automatic pilot. HOSM control is output based and not plant model oriented. It requires very limited knowledge of the plant and is perfectly robust to model uncertainty. Using the fly out characteristics and endgame guidance requirement of several known interceptors such as the ground based Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), sea based Standard Missile (SM3), and ground based midcourse Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) and given an assumed advanced maneuvering threat this effort will explore the potential of developing a new agile kill vehicle GN&C that can operate in all phases of flight: boost, midcourse, and terminal and its associated guidance, navigation and control laws for the most advanced threats without being constrained by the current approaches.

GUIDED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1453
McDonough, GA 30253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 898-9100
Dr. J. Eric Corban
MDA 07-012      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Adaptive Methods for Target Tracking, and Guidance and Control for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense System
Abstract:Ballistic missiles pose formidable challenges for target tracking and intercept because of their spiraling dynamics and significant maneuverability potential as they re-enter the atmosphere at high speeds. Recent studies have shown that conventional methods to estimation, guidance and control design are unable to guarantee sufficient accuracy against such highly maneuvering targets. This is not unexpected since the coupling between the individual elements is not accounted for completely using the conventional design paradigm, and the separation principle which is implicit in such designs can break down in engagements that require high maneuverability. To meet these challenges we propose developing i) adaptive integrated guidance and control (G&C) designs for increased performance and robustness to uncertain interceptor dynamics, ii) adaptive target-state estimation designs for increased performance and robustness against maneuvering targets, iii) an integrated design method for combining adaptive target-state estimation and adaptive G&C designs for improving overall system performance, and iv) collision avoidance methods to avoid mutual kill-vehicle collisions. The adaptive methods are based on flight proven Neural-Network based adaptive control algorithms. We expect that our strategy for integrated adaptive designs can produce never before achieved levels of lethality for the intercept of future maneuvering targets.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5218
Dr. Genshe Chen
MDA 07-012      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Seamlessly Integrated GNC Algorithms for Multi-Missile Interception
Abstract:We propose an integrated missile interception approach that ensures seamless transition between fly out guidance phase and end game guidance phase under environments with complex noises and multiple weapon/sensor resources. Several distinctive key features are as follows: 1) Rather than attempting achieving fly-out guidance laws that will invariably require information on time-to-go, continuous feed on target motion, linearization or other unrealistic assumptions, our fly-out guidance approach is based on fast on-line solution to a 3-D optimal control problem. The guidance allows optimally determined two-pulse fly-out strategy, easily incorporates any updated target motion data, and affords seamless transition to end-game guidance; 2) A new end game guidance law which considers time-varying parameters, nose-tail bicontrol, estimation delay, and intentional/chaotic spiraling will be developed; 3) Variable Structure Interacting Multiple Model (VSIMM) estimation theory is applied to support our guidance and control algorithm. Such estimation approach is efficient for tracking different "class" target and/or in "dense" environment, i.e. in presence of a number of different threats corrupted by non-Gaussian clutters. The special structure of our VSIMM will greatly reduce computational complexity; 4) We will also refine game theoretic resource management algorithm and other supporting modules which will optimally utilize available weapons and sensor resources.

EM PHOTONICS, INC.
51 East Main StreetSuite 203
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Dr. Fernando Ortiz
MDA 07-013      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Hardware Accelerated Super Resolution for MDA Interceptors
Abstract:MDA is currently developing advanced interceptors for its BMDS. Imaging technology is crucial to this effort for several purposes, including navigation, false-alarm/decoy identification, and estimation of position and speed of potential targets. Although high-resolution imaging systems are readily available, these require (1) power-hungry CMOS arrays (or FPAs) and (2) large-aperture optics, which are heavy, expensive and may not be compatible with the aerodynamic profile of high-speed interceptors. Fortunately, signal processing methods have been developed that enable high-resolution image-capture using low-resolution equipment exclusively, a family of algorithms know as super-resolution. Although super-resolution algorithms have been studied extensively by the research community, their implementation and deployment have been limited due to high computational cost and the inability to work in real-time in realistic applications. We propose the acceleration of super resolution routines using readily available hardware; in particular, an FPGA platform will be utilized given its compatibility with the power/size/cost requirements of missile interceptors.

INTUITIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6767 Old Madison PikeSuite 240
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-1992
Dr. J. Wayne McCain
MDA 07-013      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:FPGA Based High Performance Avionics
Abstract:Intuitive Research and Technology Corporation (INTUITIVE) is proposing to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to demonstrate proof-of-principle of Field Intuitive Research and Technology Corporation (INTUITIVE) is proposing to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to demonstrate proof-of-principle of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology as avionics performance enhancing technology. Currently, state of the art missile systems have three separate Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) for seeker image processing, flight computing, and communications. FPGA-based High Performance Avionics (F-HPA) will combine these three LRU's on a single circuit card; significantly reducing weight, cost, and power consumption while dramatically increasing reliability and maintainability. Further, FPGAs provide and inherent anti-tamper capability, which is accomplished with 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encrypted FPGA configuration streams and encrypted chip-to-chip communication. FPGAs also provide extremely high performance computing for certain types of algorithms. 200 Mega-pixels per second image processing is well within current FPGA technology capabilities.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle StreetSte. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
MDA 07-013      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Multi Gigahertz Hardened Processor For MDA HAENS Applications
Abstract:xxx

RADIATION ASSURED DEVICES, INC.
5017 North 30th Street
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0800
Dr. Terrence Deaton
MDA 07-014      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Radiation Hard Interceptor Components Test Methods for Missile Defense
Abstract:MDA is in need of complete sensor test capability that enables test planning, test execution and test data analysis. Much of the test expertise and equipment capable of supporting these activities was dispersed following the termination of the various DTRA programs supporting them and limited emphasis on radiation effects in all MDA activities. We propose to establish an initial LWIR sensor test capability at RAD Longmire Laboratory using the government-owned NICS chamber, incorporating the NODDS scene generation capability and the methodology and hardware developed at Longmire Laboratory for sensor testing. Phase I of the proposed program will consist of an assessment of the NICS hardware, specifically the scene generation subsystems, and the feasibility of this incorporation. This reconstitution will allow rapid restart of sensor test activities at MDA and development of new test paradigms for space and MDA sensors as new technologies become available while retaining the services of all the critical experts in the area. Following this initial phase, the program will establish a process for bringing new capabilities on line, develop new test paradigms and transition these to the community.

TORCH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4035 Chris DriveSuite C
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-6000
Mr. Neil Miller
MDA 07-014      Awarded: 02/26/08
Title:Radiation Hard Interceptor Components Test Methods for Missile Defense
Abstract:In our Phase I effort, we propose to develop a concept that addresses radiation hardening techniques for electro-optical sensor and electronics unit subsystems. This development will demonstrate feasibility of the concept to be incorporated into the BMDS architecture to provide reliable operation for its projected mission life. We will conduct research and analysis efforts to identify, investigate, and demonstrate unique electronics designs, test methods, and test hardware to mitigate the effects of radiation environments. This concept has merit to provide reliable operation of BMDS interceptors in perturbed environments consistent with high altitude nuclear bursts or prolonged natural space radiation. We will determine feasibility of inserting hardening and/or evaluating radiation hardened sensors using proposed concepts without significantly impacting sensor mass, cost and producibility. We will develop an experimental approach that demonstrates the radiation hardness capability of the concept. We will provide some initial modeling and analysis to support our conclusions. Our approach would be practical implementation with the existing Sensor HWIL capability to demonstrate our proposed concept.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Dr. Milan Buncick
MDA 07-015      Awarded: 02/29/08
Title:Interceptor Seekers
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is build an, all electronic, photonic band gap (PBG) scanning device using high performance electro-optic (EO) polymers for beam steering. The PBG device will take advantage of the superprism effect in PBG structures. PBG's h have been shown to have an effective refraction several orders of magnitude greater than conventional materials. The beam will be steered by an EO deflector and the steering angle will be amplified by the PC. This device can lead to high speed, high reliability, beam steering systems with no moving parts suitable for deployment on missile systems, space platforms and small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 07-015      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:HgCdTe Detectors Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions for High Operating Temperatures
Abstract:High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared detector arrays operating at 77K can be tailored for response across the infrared spectrum and are commonly utilized for infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). However, the cooling systems required to achieve the desired sensitivity makes them heavy and therefore unsuitable for many applications. Infrared arrays operating above ~200K could be thermoelectrically-cooled and integrated in lighter and more compact interceptor systems. This superior operating temperature could be provided by a system based on HgCdTe infrared detectors operating under non-equilibrium conditions. The concept is to suppress Auger recombination and the corresponding dark current, leading to dramatic increase in detector dynamic impedances and detectivities. This technology provides sensitive infrared FPA operation with response across the infrared spectrum at high temperatures, is compatible with multi-band response and large format technology, and therefore meets all major MDA sensor requirements. In Phase I, we will demonstrate high performance single detectors with response in the MWIR and LWIR bands and high operating temperature. Our goal is to achieve detectivities >10^9 cm.Hz0.5/W at operating temperature >200K. The efforts in Phase I may be extended to two-color detection, large-format full focal plane arrays and longer wavelength operation (VLWIR out to 14 um) in later phases.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara BoulevardSuite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 07-015      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Arrays for Missile Tracking at High Frame Rates
Abstract:Missile seekers would benefit from a focal plane array (FPA) that allowed high-speed single or multiple-windowing acquisition of the target or targets while maintaining situational awareness of the rest of the field of view. Such data reduction helps where bandwidth is limited, e.g. arrays with formats larger than 1Kx1K, allowing tracking of high-speed missiles at high frame rates. Readout multiplexers with this Variable Acuity Superpixel Imaging (VASI) capability were recently developed by Novasensors under DOD SBIRs. In Phase 1, QmagiQ will develop and deliver a high quantum efficiency longwave infrared focal plane array on a 320x256 readout with this new capability. In Phase 2, we will develop and deliver a 1Kx1K sensor engine to an MDA program (e.g. THAAD) to field-test the full benefits of this first-generation "smart" FPA with features such as on-chip data compression, multiple windowing, and random-pixel-addressability.

ANALYTICAL SERVICES, INC.
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-2115
Dr. Mike Guthrie
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Drag and Lift Characteristics for Irregularly-Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:Analytical Services, Incorporated, teamed with Davidson Technologies, proposes a new approach to the characterization of drag and lift coefficient distributions for debris resulting from missile intercepts. The proposed approach utilizes both theoretical considerations and available measured data obtained from flight tests or other sources. This approach uses the measured data to obtain best estimates of a "true distribution" derived from actual debris/fragment physical attributes. The ASI team proposes to use government furnished data from flight tests or other sources, along with transport and dispersion model propagators, to estimate a consistent set of drag and lift coefficient distributions with error estimates. This work is important because of the widespread use of transport and dispersion models along with debris distribution models, i.e., KIDD, and the use of software derivative products, such as Range Safety software, in the prediction of debris footprints.

ANDREWS SPACE, INC.
505 5th Ave SSuite 300
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 438-0671
Mr. Bob Henke
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Characterization of Debris Fragments
Abstract:The problem of debris propagation and impact location has been studied since the formation of the Missile Defense Agency because accurate prediction of where and with what probability the fragments created during an intercept will impact the ground is crucial to the determination of possible collateral damage. The Kinetic Impact Debris Distribution (KIDD) fragmentation model provides a tool for predicting the post-intercept behavior these fragments. However, the KIDD model is limited by the extent to which the aerodynamic characteristics of the debris are quantified. Andrews Space proposes the development of a surrogate-based debris aerodynamics model, drawing on empirical data, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and statistical principles to quantify the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly shaped fragments during both the subsonic and important high-Q phases of flight. This model will be based on 1) a careful statistical classification of actual debris based on physical characteristics, 2) the development of a family of debris surrogates from this classification, 3) the analytical (CFD) modeling of these surrogates to validate their applicability and behavior in different flight regimes, and 4) the collection of wind tunnel data (during a Phase-II follow-on) to benchmark the aerodynamic characteristics of the surrogates.

AVID LLC
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1400
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-0067
Mr. Sam Wilson
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Aerodynamic Drag and Lift Characteristics for Irregularly-Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:The focus of this proposal is the aftermath of a successful missile intercept, where the resulting fragments fall toward land or sea. This study will develop an approach to quantify shape parameters in a useful way to feed to a designed algorithm set governing lift and drag. The goal will be to enable trajectory analysis based upon lift and drag characteristics. Driving parameters such as the size, mass, velocity, and the material structure will be defined and evaluated as they correlate to a fragment's lift and drag.Existing approaches have focused on the shape evaluation, formulating a plan to standardize shape parameters to enable a generic set of algorithms. Complex non-linear departure modes, such as tumbling, are difficult to replicate in a wind tunnel environment. For Phase I, computational methods, simulating the aerodynamics, are the most cost effective way of predicting non-linear departures for lift and drag. AVID intends to address this problem in three parts, geometry definition, aerodynamic analysis, and predictive techniques to correlate data. During Phase I, research into each set of prediction methodologies will be conducted with a method selected for further development during Phase II. In preparation for Phase II, AVID will develop a measurement approach for experimentally validating the aerodynamic characteristics of the fragments derived in Phase I. Novel wind tunnel testing techniques and deviations from more standard testing methods will be explored for the best possible test matrix to replicate fragment rotational free fall after impact.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4930
Dr. Peter Liever
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Irregularly Shaped Fragments
Abstract:An innovative aerodynamic database generation methodology is proposed for arbitrary fragment shapes. This will be achieved with automated CFD methods, using the framework of the Unified Flow Solver (UFS). The UFS features an Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement (AMAR) procedure for seemlessly coupling rarefied and continuum algorithms inside a simulation. The AMAR automatically creates Cartesian computational grids for arbitrary shapes and executes the analysis in an automated process. This simulation system will provide the analyst with a push-button computational tool for generating a deterministic ensemble of steady-state and tumbling body aerodynamic datasets. The deterministic collection of simulation results from this process will be utilized to formulate probabilistic fragment drag and lift cross range models that can be applied in existing debris tracking modules. This method will capture the complex variability of the lift magnitude and direction with sensitivities to shape, inertial and flow irregularities. In Phase I, A moving body capability will be added to UFS for simulating moving fragment flowfields, and the code will be validated and demonstrated for subsonic to hypersonic and continuum to rarefied aerodynamics predictions. In Phase II, the developed tools will be applied for generating datasets for fragment shapes at a range of combinations of Mach, Reynolds, and Knudsen numbers over the entire potential fragment trajectory space suitable for application in MDA debris tracking tools.

CFD THERMICS, LLC
22647 De Kalb Drive
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 224-5685
Dr. Yanbao Ma
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:A Fully Coupled CFD and Rigid-Body-Dynamics Simulation Tool for Predicting Drag and Lift Characteristics of Irregularly-Shaped Fragments
Abstract:Debris fragments are a major concern when characterizing the debris environment for both spacecraft and ground-based systems. One of the major technical difficulties in the characterization of debris fragmentation is the uncertainty is predicting the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly shaped fragments. The lift and drag characteristics are functions of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, fragment shape and orientation, Kundsen numbers for rarefied gas environment. Currently, there is no general theory for the properties of the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly shaped fragments. In this Phase I proposal, we propose to develop a new fully coupled implicit 3-D CFD and rigid-body-dynamics simulation tool for arbitrary motion of irregular shaped fragments in a wide range of flow conditions. We will address the correlation of drag and lift characteristics and the correlation of these characteristics to other fragment properties for a full spectrum of flow regimes including free molecular, hypersonic, supersonic, transonic, and subsonic flows. We will also determine the motion of the fragments of various shapes. The new simulation tool is expected to be valuable to the development of accurate prediction tools for the aerodynamic lift and drag characteristics of irregularly-shaped intercept fragments.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Aerodynamic Drag and Lift Characteristics for Irregularly-Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is pleased to offer this SBIR Phase I proposal. In the proposed effort, we will supplement existing experimental and engineering methodologies to assess the aerodynamics of fragments generated during missile defense intercepts. Our approach utilizes an innovative combination of high-fidelity computational techniques for continuum and rarefied flows, high-performance computing resources, and advanced solution-automation processes. Using this first-principles-based methodology, we will develop a framework to generate high-fidelity databases of fragment aerodynamic properties over a wide range of flow conditions.

FLOW PARAMETRICS, LLC
68 Bushy Hill Road
Ivoryton, CT 06442
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 625-8850
Dr. Andreja Brankovic
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Characteristics of Missile Fragments Using a Digital Wind Tunnel
Abstract:Lift and drag characteristics of arbitray, irregularly shaped fragments will be computed using a combination of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) method. Cartesian meshes will be generated for the shapes, and accurate lift and drag characteristics will be post-processed using the simulation data bases. Outputs will be in the form of tables that can be utilized by existing fragment trajectory software.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Hartmut H. Legner
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Novel Fragment Aerodynamic Models over Entire Velocity and Altitude Range
Abstract:A novel method is proposed to model the aerodynamic lift and drag coefficients for complex fragment shapes resulting from the impact of Missile Defense Agency (MDA) interceptors with target vehicles. The force coefficients are needed for the entire spectrum of flight velocities and impact altitudes ranging from low-earth orbit to near-ground. Our Phase I approach considers a high altitude model (LEO to 45 km) and a low altitude model (45 km to 0 km). In the upper high altitude region we build upon previously successful models and bridge the free molecular regime and the continuum regime with truly unique functions derived from actual re-entry flight data. In the lower altitude region, we model the individual fragments with separate flow models for each region (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic) while distinguishing the methods further by laminar or turbulent shear flow and by low or high angle of attack. The analysis will be guided by perturbations of generic shapes such as spheres, cylinders, plates, and needles in order to make use of existing data bases. The Phase II will emphasize the generation of coefficients as well as experimental and CFD validation and actual debris field simulations.

TECHNOLOGY IN BLACKSBURG, INC.
265 Industrial Drive
Christiansburg, VA 24073
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 381-8502
Ms. Sandra Gunter
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Characteristics of Irregularly Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:Techsburg, Inc. proposes to leverage our expertise in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel testing to numerically predict the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly-shaped intercept fragments and experimentally validate a subset of the results using our in-house supersonic wind tunnel facility. We will apply 3D laser scanning technology to digitize the geometry of sponsor-supplied intercept fragment samples, and then construct CFD grids based on this geometry. CFD simulations will then be conducted over a wide range of fragment geometries and flow conditions. We will measure the aerodynamic loads acting on fragments at Mach 1.6 over a range of orientations using the Techsburg Supersonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel, with the goal of experimentally validating the CFD results. Finally, the CFD and test data will be parameterized into correlations that can be used as part of existing fragment trajectory prediction codes.

COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, INC.
8001 Braddock RoadSte 210
Springfield, VA 22151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 764-7501
Dr. Steven L. Berg
MDA 07-017      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:First-Principles Earthshine and Skyshine Models
Abstract:Earthshine and skyshine illuminate missiles and space-based sensors. It is important to quantitatively understand their contribution to the incident infrared, visible, and ultraviolet irradiance on missiles and sensors to be able to assess their impact on the missile defense mission. Computational Physics, Inc. (CPI) proposes to develop and demonstrate an architecture capable of hosting a first-principles earthshine/skyshine model that will facilitate the assessment of earthshine and skyshine on missile defense systems. CPI will survey the missile defense modeling and simulation (M&S) community's user needs related to earthshine and skyshine, and also survey the current understanding of the key sources and phenomenology contributing to earthshine and skyshine. These surveys will be used to derive specific requirements for the earthshine/skyshine model, to maximize the utility of the model to its users. In addition, CPI will evaluate existing software technologies for their applicability in providing a robust architecture for the model. Key attributes that the technology must support include interoperability, extensibility, and maintainability.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. James Duff
MDA 07-017      Awarded: 02/28/08
Title:UV-IR Robust, Accurate Earthshine and Skyshine (RAES) Model
Abstract:Target detection, classification and tracking by missile defense sensor systems from post boost phase through mid-course to reentry is affected not only by background contrast but also by the irradiance contributing to the target signature by extended sources including direct and reflected sunshine, earthshine, airglow, moonshine and other celestial sources. The total irradiance on the target from Earthshine/Skyshine and Airglow emissions is important for predicting signature during dawn, dusk and night time conditions. In addition, external sources, including solar heating, earth reflected solar and earth thermal emissions, make important contributions to target heating. The earthshine/skyshine external sources are difficult to model accurately and have not received adequate attention in existing signature models. To fulfill MDA needs, Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes in this SBIR Phase I to provide a first principles detailed model for accurate determination of earthshine and skyshine radiance in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectral regions. To develop this model, dubbed Robust Accurate Earthshine Skyshine (RAES), we will build on SSI's extensive experience in atmospheric radiance models, and team with Photon Research Associates (PRA) to incorporate their terrain and cloud models, and with Teledyne Solutions Inc. (TSI), the developer of the OSC target model.

MILSYS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
408 E. Fourth StreetSuite 204
Bridgeport, PA 19405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 272-5050
Mr. Robert Lee
MDA 07-018      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Fidelity Missile Hardbody Plume Interaction Modeling
Abstract:This project will demonstrate the coupled use of two High-Fidelity fluid dynamic solvers, the AVUS CFD code and the SOCRATES-P DSMC code, to simulate propulsive missile flowfield characteristics from launch to the intercept point. The demonstration case, under this proposed Phase I effort, will concentrate on integrating several advanced simulation technologies for modeling missile plume and hardbody flowfield/thermal response interactions. This effort will accurately model combined plume/hardbody IR signatures with a specific emphasis on plume-related events at high altitudes. The SOCRATES-P Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code for flowfields above 90 km will be coupled to existing government owned/developed models for six-degree-of-freedom trajectory dynamics, material thermal response, aeroheating, and aerodynamics to perform a complete simulation package capable of including all pertinent physical effects related to combined missile hardbody/plume IR signatures. Needed phenomenology, code requirements, and program design will be emphasized in Phase I, with subsequent code development and validation being the focus of Phase II. In the continuing Phase II effort, these fluid modules will then be integrated into the Plume Object Environment Model (POEM) toolkit, currently in development under a separate MDA sponsored project.

PROPULSION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
848 Town Center Drive
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(267) 276-0181
Ms. Margaret W. Taylor
MDA 07-018      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Fidelity Missile Hardbody Plume Interaction Modeling
Abstract:Considerable effort has been expended by the missile defense community to obtain accurate, well validated simulation tools for the prediction of optical signatures. Since sensors must detect and track threat missiles from launch to impact, plume optical signatures are utilized during the boost phase and hardbody signatures are utilized after burnout. Past efforts have focused primarily on independant assessments of hardbody and plume signatures. Accordingly, the complete propulsion system and plume-induced heating effects on the hardbody signatures (e.g. plume-induced boundary layer separation, hot nozzles, etc.) during the boost phase are neglected. Both the current hardbody (OSC, ATAP) and plume flowfield (SPF-III, CHARM, SOCRATES) codes include methodology that accounts for continuum, transitional and rarefied flow regimes. However, these codes are completely uncoupled from each other. In view of the need described above it is the objective of this SBIR to develop a common flowfield solver, from launch to impact, that can accurately predict missile hardbody and plume flowfields simultaneously, accounting for all important propulsion system and plume-induced heating effects on the hardbody. The work planned for this Phase I SBIR is to establish the feasibility of our approach towards the development of this common flowfield solver.

ACTA, INC.
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Dr. Gamage Wije Wathugala
MDA 07-019      Awarded: 02/25/08
Title:Hypervelocity Intercept Modeling with First-Principle, Physics-Based Tools
Abstract:ACTA Incorporated (ACTA) is pleased to propose a six-month SBIR Phase I feasibility Project titled "Hypervelocity Intercept Modeling With First-Principle, Physics-Based Tools." The Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space at Sunnyvale, California will support ACTA with their technical expertise and experience. The stated objective of this solicitation topic is to develop techniques and tools for high-fidelity, first-principle, physics-based modeling of damage and debris from hypervelocity missile defense intercepts and use these tools to generate data sets to support the development and validation of fast-running algorithms.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 07-019      Awarded: 03/18/08
Title:Hypervelocity Intercept Modeling with First-Principle, Physics-Based Tools
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is pleased to offer the following proposal in response to solicitation MDA-073-019. In Phase 1 Corvid will demonstrate the state-of-the art in the use of first principle physics based modeling to predict damage and debris from missile defense intercepts. The resulting demonstration will show the ability of such tools to accurately model missile defense intercepts in 1 to 15 km/sec range. We will describe, based on our on past extensive experience and expert input from practiced users, what these models can be used for and what improvements need to be made to make them useful in the prediction of data of debris size, shape, mass, and velocity of fragments for a wide range of BMDS intercept conditions. We will offer a modeling path to interim solutions for intercept modeling as well as for development of a full toolset to provide data that is critical to support the development and validation of fast-running intercept damage and debris algorithms.

BFA SYSTEMS, INC.
990 Explorer Blvd.Suite B
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-8791
Mr. Tony Summers
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Lethality Predictive Toolset
Abstract:The Ballistic Missile Defense Shield (BMDS) developed by the United States Government relies on layered defense designed to defeat incoming missiles in boost, mid-course, and terminal phases of flight. To maximize effectiveness of the shield, two types of intercepting missile concepts exist: hit-to-kill and blast fragmenting warheads. The first relies on the incepting missile's kinetic energy to destroy the target, the second on large number of high-speed fragments to perforate and/or ignite critical missile components. Accurate lethality modeling of endgame events continues to be of high importance to the evolving BMDS system. Decisions makers and war-fighters need real time assessments of lethality. Additionally, elements need system-level tools to conduct effectiveness studies and determine hit-point algorithms as a function of target construct. With respect to the effectiveness of blast-fragment systems, the synergistic effect of multiple fragment impacts and the resulting non-shock to detonation response of multiple fragment impacts into cased high-explosive payloads remain unresolved. With this proposal, the BFA/ITT team seeks to improve modeling techniques for multiple fragment impacts and hopes to develop criterion for resulting shock and non-shock to detonation of cased high-explosives. The resulting algorithms and criterion will be captured in modular-based software package for use within the MDA.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 03/18/08
Title:Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Lethality Predictive Toolset
Abstract:Corvid Technologies, with our partners MILTEC Corp. and Lockheed Martin, is pleased to offer the following proposal in response to solicitation MDA-07-019, Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Predictive Toolset. In Phase I we will identify the state-of-the art in modeling two critical lethality code development areas: 1) Fragment Flood Loading and 2) High Explosive non-shock to detonation transitions (SDT). Success of the BMDS program is based on kinetic energy intercepts of a variety of target/payload combinations. These payloads include nuclear, explosive, and chem-bio fills. The phenomenology of an intercept must be well understood to make a predictive assessment of the effectiveness of the BMDS element. Doing so, through computer simulation, is a key to a successful and affordable BMDS.

RHAMM TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
332 Skyland Drive
Bellbrook, OH 45305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 465-5909
Dr. Ronald L. Hinrichsen
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Lethality Predictive Toolset
Abstract:Currently fast running penetration algorithms, such as FATEPEN, TATE, or Walker-Anderson, are used to rapidly determine the damage imparted to targets by threats, but ultimately can't treat events where damage done by the threat is highly dependent on the response of the target. One possible solution to this problem is to create a set of threats that could be modeled by current fast running algorithms, such as fragments and simple blasts that accurately reproduce the damage caused by more complex threats like multiple fragments, or reactive projectiles. A standardized methodology is needed for creating this frag-blast equivalent threat, so that different reactive projectiles, or multi-frag threats can be compared. This is the objective of this SBIR. RHAMM Technologies, LLC has combined its modeling and simulation expertise with General Sciences, Inc's firsthand knowledge and experimental expertise to create a first rate team, well positioned to develop the analytical tools needed to credibly enhance predictions of the lethality of reactive materials and fragment flood loading events.

TESLA LABORATORIES, INC.
2711 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 200Airport Plaza I
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 334-4824
Dr. Patrick James
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Enhancing HTK Lethality Modeling Tools
Abstract:Existing Core simulation models used for defense development and evaluation fail to accurately model lethality for many standoff engagement options such as the use of multiple projectiles and thus cannot validly drive new defense technology development. This program will develop new physics-based computer models for incorporation into existing Core Lethality Models to increase simulation functionality and better predict missile defense strategy effectiveness. This will assist the development of emerging weapon systems tasked to neutralize enemy missile attack threats. The proposed models to be developed will allow simulation of impacts by multiple projectiles and the effects of Fragment Flood Loading (FFL) during impacts in trial interaction scenarios between new candidate standoff engagement lethality enhancing concepts and attacking missiles. Phase I will develop State-of-the-Art FFL models, validate them against known data, and create a simulation tool for modeling the impact, penetration, debris generation and motion, and sympathetic effects such as component failure, fuel loss, and energetic material reaction for multiple projectiles such as targeted by standoff kinetic missile engagement to determine the resultant engagement lethality. This will allow rapid screening, development, and optimization of potential alternative lethality enhancing configurations not adequately covered by existing simulations models such as PEELS.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
MDA 07-021      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Maneuvering Target Phenomenology
Abstract:Propulsion systems may perform a variety of maneuvers during the ascent phase of flight that can impact the performance of an interceptor or other parts of an MDA system designed to perform threat detection, discrimination, and tracking. Our Phase I effort focuses on building on extending existing plume signature software. A main technical objective is to establish the various components and appropriate methodology in order to develop a high-fidelity transient plume signature modeling/simulation tool to properly model the signature emissions from these propulsion systems at high altitudes. The code architecture must consider the complexities in modeling transient, geometric, and chemical aspects of plume-atmosphere and plume-plume interactions. Focus will be on the integration of existing plume CFD and DSMC codes and the necessary chemistry and radiation modeling. Since the plume radiative emissions necessarily depend on the propulsion system of interest, and particularly the propellants used, a chemical kinetics and thermodynamic database for important chemical reaction mechanisms for plume-plume and plume-atmospheric species will benefit this program. While the Phase I focuses on the various components of a computation tool, development during the Phase II will lead to a model applicable for predicting signature of low and high-thrust systems at all altitudes.

ADHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 346-1685
Dr. Ronald Allred
MDA 07-022      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Preimidized Powder Towpregs for Low Cost, High Performance Missile Cases
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is soliciting proposals for new missile materials to expand the capability of current air-to-ground missile systems. This expansion of capability dictates the development of lighter weight materials that are capable of short duration exposures to temperatures as high as 800øF. A novel approach to filament winding using high-temperature matrix materials is proposed. This approach uses preimidized polyimide powder impregnated tows ("powder towpreg") incorporating carbon nano-fibers as the direct feed for a filament winding process. While powder towpreg is not new, the use of preimidized powder and non-autoclave processing with incorporated nano-material in the matrix is. By using preimidized powder to shorten cure cycles and non-autoclave cure, considerable cost savings can be realized. The incorporation of nano-fiber reinforcement in the matrix should lead to improved properties that result in lighter weight parts as well. These 100% solids materials better use the expensive high-temperature polyimide resins (low resin loss), provide better uniformity of the matrix resin throughout fabricated parts, reduce cure cycle times due to preimidization, and should provide superior mechanical properties in the final components. As such, this approach has the potential for reducing costs of future aircraft and spacecraft structures and propulsion systems by a variety of means.

KION DEFENSE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1957A Pioneer Rd
Huntingdon Valley, PA 19006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 682-2060
Dr. Frank Kuchinski
MDA 07-022      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Lightweight Composite Thermal Protection System
Abstract:As the technical capabilities of our adversaries improve, it becomes necessary to improve our Ballistic Missile Defense systems capability. Of particular interest are improvements in Thermal Protection Systems and aerostructures for missile interceptors. Greater aerothermal heating and higher stresses require that the outer structure survive higher heat loads and/or dissipate the heat to protect internal components. To address these problems, the team of KiON Defense Technologies (KDT) and our missile systems partner proposes the development of advanced lightweight TPS and aerostructural materials. In Phase I, KDT will demonstrate feasibility by producing composite articles and conducting appropriate tests. Specifically, KDT will employ a sandwich structure design comprising fiber-reinforced skins of proprietary hybrid resins and a syntactic foam core. The skins will be reinforced with quartz or carbon-based fabrics. The skins will be both mechanically attached and chemically bonded to the foam core. In Phase II, KDT will scale-up the process and conduct testing to optimize performance and reduce cost. Upon Phase II completion, KDT will supply materials and technical support for full-scale manufacturing. Successful program completion will provide enhanced ablation capability under thermomechanical stresses in the form of lightweight TPS and aerostructures that can withstand extreme conditions.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-1224
Mr. Gary Tremblay
MDA 07-022      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Lightweight Multi-Functional Nano-Composite Structures for MKV Interceptor Structures (PVG07-062)
Abstract:Lightweight and high performance miniature kill vehicle interceptors are required for interceptor systems, such as the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV), being developed by MDA. A lightweight interceptor structure is a critical component required to integrate component and subsystems and provide the structural strength and stiffness to meet the overall interceptor performance requirements. Conventional light-weighting approaches use graphite fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite materials to provide structural performance. Typically, parasitic weight is then added to the structure to provide additional subsystem functionalities, such as EMI shielding and thermal management for electronic housings. Lighter weight and lower cost miniature interceptors can be provided by incorporating structural, thermal, electrical, and radiation shielding functionality in multi-functional composite structures. Vector has demonstrated the use of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) composite structures manufacturing technology for the fabrication of lower cost and higher performance precision, complex interceptor structures using hybrid designs of graphite composites and metallic materials to incorporate these multi-functional properties. The next generation of multi-functional composite structures will use nano-materials technology instead of hybrid design approaches. The Vector team includes Applied Science Inc. (ASI), a world leader in carbon nano-fiber (CNF) materials technology development and production, and Nanosperse, Inc. (NSI), a world leader in nano-composite resin technology development. ASI's milled CNF and NSI's nano-resin technologies have been shown to significantly improve mechanical, thermal, electrical, and radiation hardness properties of polymer composite structures. The proposed program will combine these nano-materials technologies with Vector's RTM manufacturing process to demonstrate nano-composite manufacturing technology for multi-functional lightweight composite structures for miniature kill vehicle interceptor structures

DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-1230
Mr. Ted Stern
MDA 07-023      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Modular Multi-Threat Survivable Solar Array (PDRT07-036)
Abstract:This effort develops a modular Survivable Solar Array (SSA) for improved protection against high radiation and thermal environments. We incorporate advanced survivability techniques into conventional solar panel technology to protect against Ground Based Lasers and improve radiation shielding. The SSA comprises four hardened assemblies - front-side shield, high thermal capability photovoltaic assembly, hardened thermal radiator, and shielded structural support - which together with countermeasures, will be developed to the highest level of survivability and performance (Watts/kg, Watts/m2 and $/Watt). The Phase I effort starts with a threat engagement and survivability analysis of SSA Module design options incorporating various combinations of passive hardening schemes, in combination with active approaches including array turning, retraction, or shutters. The enhancement of radiation shielding achieved through laser hardening is evaluated. Anticipatory countermeasures based on knowledge of the threat origin as well as responsive measures using threat activated response are evaluated for further enhancement. Concentrator and planar conceptual designs are analyzed, and the best approach is selected for design development and fabrication of a test panel. The SSA uses a standardized modular approach which benefits scale-up, qualification traceability and maintainability. The Phase II effort will complete the detailed design, perform survivability testing and demonstrate a kilowatt-sized multi-module panel.

ENSER CORP. THE
5430 70th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, FL 33781
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 520-1393
Mr. David Harney
MDA 07-023      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Automated Quality Control for Thermal Battery Pellets
Abstract:The overall objective of this program is to develop methodologies for: automatic removal of the pellets from the press, precise measurement of the pellets (weight, thickness), calculation of density, inspection of pellets for chips and cracks, and segregation of non-compliant pellets. Automation of the above processes will ultimately lead to increased throughput with reduced cycle times. Phase I will consist of an engineering study of the various methods, designs to implement these methods, analysis features and benefits of the designs, cost analysis and timeliness to implement, and selection of the most promising approach. In Phase II, selected designs will be translated into working models and tested on a bench scale. Once the system integration/ performance issues have been identified and resolved, the design will be integrated onto a selected press and again tested. Redesign and redeployment iteration(s) will continue in order to prove in the design of choice and validate the technical approach.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando RoadBuilding 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2002
Dr. Hisashi Tsukamoto
MDA 07-023      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense System Innovative Power Generation and Storage Devices
Abstract:In response to this solicitation, Quallion is proposing the introduction of lithium ion battery technology elements into a reserve type battery application. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries have been in commercial use since 1995 when Sony Corporation first introduced them into their product lines. Since that time, lithium ion batteries have grown to become one of the most popular types of battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, no memory effect, and a slow loss of charge when not in use. Although originally intended for consumer electronics, lithium-ion batteries are now growing in popularity with the defense and aerospace industries because of their high energy density. In addition, Quallion will leverage off its own lithium-ion cell production capability and introduce a more controllable and reliable process in manufacturing a reserve type battery.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Mr. Steve Kirkwood
MDA 07-024      Awarded: 02/16/08
Title:Low Cost >5000F ZrOC Based Miniature Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS)
Abstract:In this proposed MDA Phase I SBIR program, MATECH/GSM proposes to demonstrate its newly developed ZrOC fibrous 5000F structural TPS for DACS components to be used in missile defense, such as MKV, SM-3 block-2, and AKV (Agile Kill Vehicle). Prototype components will be fabricated and tested under relevant solid rocket motor conditions, ultimately bringing this material technology to a technology readiness level of seven (TRL-7) by the end of the Phase I and Phase II programs, should they be awarded. This MDA SBIR Phase I is supported by key missile propulsion manufactures ATK Elkton and Aerojet. Both ATK and Aerojet have partnered with MATECH on this SBIR and will actively participate in the evaluation of this material to solve their immediate problems.

PLASMA PROCESSES, INC.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 851-7653
Dr. Daniel Butts
MDA 07-024      Awarded: 01/26/08
Title:Reduced Cost TaC-based Rocket Nozzle for Solid Boost Motors
Abstract:Missile defense interceptors will provide our nation with the capability of defeating threats to our homeland and our deployed troops. However, the fielding of these advanced interceptors is strongly dependent upon technologies that enable production of high performance, low cost interceptor components. Advanced missile defense interceptors require extremely high thrust axial motors to engage hostile targets in their boost phase. The nozzles must survive high thermal stresses with minimal erosion to maintain high kill velocities. Plasma Processes, Inc. has demonstrated the ability to produce high quality vacuum plasma sprayed TaC-based materials. However, merging quality material and low cost fabrication techniques with innovative nozzle designs is greatly needed. In a Phase I effort, Plasma Processes, Inc., with support from Lockheed Martin, proposes to demonstrate the fabrication of non-eroding nozzle throats using an innovative design employing Tantalum Carbide based materials. This employment of novel materials, innovative nozzle design and low cost fabrication techniques can ultimately lead to improved performance and reduced costs for advanced missile defense interceptors.

UTRON, INC.
8506 Wellington Road, Suite 200
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Dr. Karthik Nagarathnam
MDA 07-024      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Near Net Shape Manufacturing of Actuator Components by Rapid Combustion Driven Powder Consolidation Technology
Abstract:In response to MDA's need for fabricating actuator components for DACS and other systems, UTRON proposes an innovative manufacturing technology called the high pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction (CDC) to manufacture near net shape quality actuator system components such as gears with improved densification, mechanical and microstructural attributes. The actuator gear system components are to be fabricated using advanced ferrous based alloys and select composites. Process advantages include higher densities, reduced shrinkage, rapid compaction process cycle times, reduced materials wastage, superior sub-micron surface finish, synthesis/process flexibility of novel nanocomposites, simple to complex geometry fabrication at competitively lower manufacturing costs compared to the traditional P/M and other fabrication methods. The major focus of Phase I is to demonstrate the proof of concept to fabricate the proposed materials in various geometries such as 1 inch diameter disks, mechanical test samples, rings and small scale gear at high CDC compaction pressures (150 tsi) and scientifically evaluate the physical, geometrical, microstructural, and mechanical properties with optimal sintering/heat treatments. More advanced alloys, scaling up and complex geometries will be developed in Phase II. The proposed work has been planned in collaboration with General Dynamics and Southern Research Institute.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0520
Dr. Badawi Dweik
MDA 07-025      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Improved Manufacturing Processes for Advanced Capacitors
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project addresses improving manufacturing methods and performance of an all-solid high energy/power density high-voltage capacitor packaged in a low-cost, bipolar multi-cell configuration. These devices can be used in a wide range of portable electronic systems especially in demanding industrial, defense and aerospace applications. The Phase I program will demonstrate a novel and inexpensive method for manufacturing multi-cell capacitors, which are expected to have advantages resulting in sustainable cost and volume savings compared to current capacitors. Substitution of a solid polymer electrolyte for liquid electrolyte will result in a device that is much easier to fabricate and manufacture without the possibility of electrolyte leakage, thereby enhancing reliability, life and safety features. Successful completion of this Phase I program would demonstrate the manufacturing viability of a new class of capacitors that offers a more durable solution for high efficiency, high reliability and low cost storage capacitors for applications currently occupied by aluminum, ceramic, and tantalum capacitors. Phase I will identify methods of simplifying packaging and manufacturing processes, as well as improving the energy density and reducing the capacitor size. High-voltage capacitor units will be fabricated and characterized to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

TEMEKU TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13873 Park Center RoadSuite 217
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 751-6651
Mr. James Means
MDA 07-025      Awarded: 03/04/08
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost, High Reliability Electronic Packaging
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is seeking new and innovative designs for improved large surfaced based Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA) with high power efficiencies, increased functionality, and more efficient cooling systems. It is anticipated that AESA cooling systems must be capable of managing heat loads ranging from 3-8 kW/ftý (32-86 kW/mý). The Subambient Cooling System (SACS) developed by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, under MDA Advanced Systems (AS) funding, has demonstrated the ability to manage extremely high heat loads but is limited with the currently available commercial heat exchangers. Temeku Technologies, Inc., proposes to design and show feasibility of an alternative heat exchanger concept for SACS in Phase I, and deliver proof-of-concept via building and validating a prototype for demonstration in the ensuing Phase II. The proposed heat exchanger concept is expected to exceed conventional heat exchanger system performance and be suitable for use in the highest heat loading conditions for AESA.

AMETHYST RESEARCH, INC.
Southern Oklahoma Technology Center2610 Sam Noble Parkway
Ardmore, OK 73401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 227-9414
Dr. Wayne Holland
MDA 07-026      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Defect Mapping of Wafers for Increasing Yield and Operability of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:The yield and operability of high performance infrared detectors, particularly those based on HgCdTe, are severely compromised by materials defects. Recently, ARI has demonstrated during its UV hydrogenation process that deuterium effectively `decorates' defects in materials such as ZnCdTe and HgCdTe. In essence, the distribution of deuterium in the sample directly `maps' defects in the material. This finding provides a revolutionary tool for materials assessment during HgCdTe FPA processing and production. In particular, when the `deuterium decoration' process is used in conjunction with Nuclear Resonance analysis it will allow for defect `maps' of ZnCdTe substrates, epilayer/buffer ZnCdTe and HgCdTe films to be obtained non-destructively. The impact that this technology, when fully developed, on processing, yield rates, and operability of HgCdTe FPA's cannot be overstated. In this SBIR Phase I project, ARI will demonstrate a prototype system for wafer mapping for use by the FPA production houses. To this end, ARI has teamed with BAE, Raytheon Vision Systems, Teledyne Imaging Sensors, DRS and Lockheed Martin in order to ensure as rapid a transfer as possible of this manufacturing technology to MDA platforms.

SP3 CORP.
2220 Martin Ave.
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 492-0630
Mr. Jerry Zimmer
MDA 07-026      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Transmission Diamond IR Windows without AR Coatings
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing large diamond IR windows with transmission levels above 95% without the use of traditional AR coatings. The windows will have structured surfaces that create diffractive or negative index optical surfaces that will substantially eliminate reflections at IR wavelengths.

SP3 CORP.
2220 Martin Ave.
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 492-0630
Mr. Jerry Zimmer
MDA 07-026      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:CTE Matched Layered Diamond Heat Spreaders
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a diamond based thermal heatspreader with high thermal conductivity and CTE matching to any type of semiconductor device such as GaAs or other III-V compound laser diodes. This structure is constructed from layers of diamond and metals so the morphology is identical at any point on the surface and the edge quality is determined by a accuracy of a photolithographic patterning process rather than any inhomogenities of the material.

SMITH & CO.
5100 Channel Avenue
Richmond, CA 94804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 237-5986
Mr. Steve Smith
MDA 07-027      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Mitigating Lead-Free Issues in Electronic Circuit Board Manufacturing With an Advanced Conformal Coating to Manage Tin Whisker Risk
Abstract:The use of pure tin plating on the leads of electronic components is prohibited in many military contracts, because over time the pure tin grows conductive whiskers that causes short circuits. Unfortuneately, pure tin plating is now used by many of the component manufacturers as part of the "lead-free" movement. One of the tin whisker risk mitigators that has been tried is the use of conformal coatings on the circuit boards to captivate the tin whiskers as the grow. Multi-year testing has shown that available coatings are punctured by tin whiskers. This proposed project will demonstrate the feasibility of a "Whisker Tough" conformal coating, one that is tougher than the tin whiskers and will not be punctured. Five years of conformal coating/tin whisker testing, plus 2 years of whisker puncture "failure mode" research and modeling have preceded this proposal. Smith & Co has collaborated with both Raytheon Missile Systems and the Navy Best Manufacturing Practices Center of Excellence on this effort. Combined with the specialty knowledge obtained from the development of 29 proprietary coatings, sealers, and adhesives, the R&D so far indicates that a "Whisker Tough" coating can be created.

SUNDEW TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
3400 Industrial LaneUnit 7
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-2341
Dr. Ofer Sneh
MDA 07-027      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Mitigating Lead-Free Issues in Electronic Circuit Board Manufacturing and Repair
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to demonstrate consistent and significant mitigation of tin whiskers growth and associated electronic circuit failure. Atomic Layer Deposition encapsulating films (ALD-Cap) are flexible ceramic films, with exceptional conformality, adherence and mechanical strength. Developed primarily as a low-cost environmental protection and corrosion barrier, ALD-Cap was successfully used to protect MMIC components used by the Navy, as well as other environmentally sensitive devices and components. Tin whiskers pose major safety, reliability and mission readiness threats to all makers and users of high performance and/or high reliability electronics. In the very near future, most military and other high-reliability electronics will likely require both environmental/corrosion protection and tin-whiskers containment/failure-risk-mitigation. ALD-Cap may provide a crucial solution for both problems. These ceramic coatings are more than 50 times tougher than Parylene, the toughest conformal coating attempted so far. At the same time ALD-Cap coatings are proven to be flexible and crack resistant. Tin whiskers growth will be conducted on test samples according to known procedures of inducing whiskers growth. ALD-Cap coating effectiveness in suppressing whiskers will be assessed. Further coating optimization and extended failure testing will be performed in Phase II.

VISTA ENGINEERING & CONSULTING, LLC
1500 1st Ave. NoSuite B117
Birmingham, AL 35203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 307-6550
Mr. John Cassimus
MDA 07-027      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:POSS-Based Conformal Coating with Active Tin Whisker Mitigation Properties
Abstract:It is proposed that a Phase I SBIR be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of developing a POSS-based (Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes) coating that performs the multifunctional needs of a conformal coating that actively mitigates tin whisker growth. New conformal coating materials are needed to mitigate the risk of tin whisker caused short circuits on electronic assemblies. Development of a new conformal coating that successfully prevents tin whisker penetration would greatly reduce the risk of tin whisker induced failure over the service life of a military system. POSS, with its nano-SiO molecular structure, has unique properties as a coating that make it environmentally stable, an excellent moisture barrier, and nonvolatile. These unique properties of the POSS feed stock present an unusual opportunity to the electronics industry; a conformal coating that also actively mitigates tin whisker nucleation and growth through chemical interaction with the tin oxide surface. Vista Engineering, working with a Hybrid Plastics' patented formulation will test a group of the POSS derivatives and application variables during Phase I and select a set of promising POSS formulations for Phase II development.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill AvenueBuilding #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
Mr. John Leon
MDA 07-028      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Production Enhancements for Integrated Anti-Tamper Technologies
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) will work together with Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems and Sensors (LM MS2-Eagan). The objective of this effort is to develop and implement production enhancements for Anti-Tamper (AT) technology for the protection of critical technology against exploitation. MDA is seeking to develop improved manufacturing and production techniques for use when integrating Anti-Tamper into weapon systems or component manufacturing process. In particular MDA's focus is to develop protection that (1) addresses a significant challenge associated with implementing AT utilizing current manufacturing and production processes or (2) makes AT implementation a seamless part of the weapons system or component manufacturing process. Integration of any Anti-Tamper component, device, software and/or firmware is a difficult challenge for the program manager and the various systems that support the weapons platform. ISC took the approach of building a generic, "COTs-Type" Anti-Tamper device under previous MDA SBIR efforts. The AT device is called "MDEM" and is similar in height and structure of other components found on printed circuit board. This supports MDA's focus for seamless integration of the ISC AT device into weapon platforms when block upgrades are required or for new weapon systems that have an AT requirement.

QORTEK, INC.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
MDA 07-028      Awarded: 01/19/08
Title:Production Enhancements for Integrated Anti-Tamper Technologies
Abstract:The primary objective of this Phase I program will be to demonstrate a greatly improved manufacturing and production techniques for die packaging of anti-tamper capabilities. We aim to show through manufacture engineering research, software development and hardware prototypes, a new low-cost technique for multi-threat capable Anti-Tamper (AT) device manufacture and AT software-based multi-threat Die production packaging that will reduce the present risks associated with direct hardware AT integration with a range of security critical devices (such as FPGA, ASIC, memory and RF die wafers). Being guided by an MDA prime contractor/end-use integrator of the technology will substantially focus the efforts and improve chances for successful integration of protective techniques/technologies into several key MDA missions that are ongoing. The results will be largely applicable to many forms and types of hardware AT device packaging.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons RoadBuilding G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Mr. Adam Langdon
MDA 07-029      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:The task of identifying and successfully destroying a missile threat requires a vast network of RADARs, sensors, software, and other resources working together flawlessly. Information from these systems must be fused to provide with their operators an accurate and complete picture of the battlespace. With up-to-date, fused information on threats and targets, operators can make quick, informed decisions. Creating this accurate picture of the battlespace requires many different RADARs dispersed around the globe. By combining data from different views and different features, a much more detail picture can be formed. However, translation of all of this data into concise, useful, and timely information remains extremely difficult. Recognizing this need, the DoD is seeking methods to improve their ability to fuse sensor data and ultimately deliver an accurate comprehensive picture of the battlespace. The proposed EDAptiver RIFRAF solution meets these needs by delivering a flexible framework for sensor fusion and knowledge representation. The resulting capabilities will result in new methods for developing sensor fusion algorithms and allow the MDA to continue to expand and improve its global sensor network with confidence.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom DriveSuite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Roy Streit
MDA 07-029      Awarded: 03/17/08
Title:Intra-Family Track Discrimination Using Supervised and Semi-Supervised Statistical Learning Methods - MP 121-07
Abstract:We are proposing to incorporate support vector machines (SVM's) as well as related, but more analytically tractable methods such as proximal SVM's, into a multi-hypothesis tracker (MHT) and to use the combined SVM/MHT algorithm to discriminate launch families into intra-family similarity groups. We also propose to consider the use of semi-supervised statistical learning methods [5] since they exploit both labeled and unlabeled data in the design of the discriminator. Semi-supervised methods take advantage of available archived data which, even if it has limitations, may be still useful to include as unlabeled data. The joint use of both labeled and unlabeled data is generally accepted statistical practice and is an active research area in the machine learning community.

POTOMAC FUSION
4460 Brookfield Corporate DriveSuite H
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 669-2226
Mrs. Kathleen Lossau
MDA 07-029      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:Today's fusion and tracking systems rely on sensor feeds and a-priori information to process and relate collected information. Little information is extracted from imagery data such as FLIR, SAR and EO; not enough emphasis is placed on sensor pedigree and confidence (uncertainty); and therefore networked Multi-INT sensors are not fully exploited. This proposal describes a process for combining emerging Multi-INT sensor fusion algorithms within a generic fusion exploitation framework to enhance the user's battlespace awareness thru automated sensor data fusion and visualization. Potomac Fusion's `Fusion Exploitation Framework' combines sensor information (collected using a community agreed upon standard) with a workflow that processes modular, integrated fusion algorithms that exploit SIGINT and imagery-based information to produce a more accurate picture of the threat. Using sensors that collect on various aspects of the problem such as: o Different parts of the RF spectrum o Using SAR, EO, IR for target recognition o Composite/Feature extraction from Hyper-spectral, Radar, EO, and various IR capabilities we are able to more completely and confidently identify and categorize the observed information.

C & P TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
317 Harrington AvenueSuites 9 & 10
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Mr. Ke Yong Li
MDA 07-030      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Mitigation of Radar Clutter Using Algorithmic Techniques
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop enhanced clutter and interference suppression methods to perform target detection and identification in presence of a cluttered environment. In addition, protection against mainbeam jamming is also addressed here using distributed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) sensor technology. For this purpose smart transmit beamforming using together with adaptive nulling algorithms at the receiver side are proposed. The transmit array pattern can be synthesized to minimize the impact of the jammer. As a result, even a mainbeam jammer that is close by is also illuminated, the jammer strength is significantly reduced thus enabling target detection. The return signals are used to generate adaptive weight vectors to combine the receiver outputs in such a way as to place effective nulls automatically along the jammer directions, thus enhancing the output signal to interference/jammer plus noise ratio. Moreover, these adaptive weight vectors can be implemented for various look directions. Thus a transmit pattern together with an adaptive receiver array in the MIMO mode results in superior clutter nulling and is an effective counter-measure against mainbeam jamming.

SIGNAL PROCESSING, INC.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
ROCKVILLE, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 505-2641
Dr. Chiman Kwan
MDA 07-030      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:A High Performance Framework for Radar Clutter Suppression, Target Tracking and Identification
Abstract:We propose a high performance system for clutter suppression, target tracking, and identification. First, we propose a novel clutter rejection approach that applies an adaptive subspace projection algorithm. As compared to conventional clutter suppression methods, our adaptive clutter rejection algorithm is independent of target detection methods and does not assume any target signal model. Our method is applicable to any kinds of clutter, including infrared, cloud, etc. Second, we propose to apply adaptive chirplet transform to extract the time-varying Doppler frequencies in the target signals. Conventional target detection methods are based on Fourier transform method and do not work for time-varying Doppler frequencies. Our simulations showed that we can still detect dim targets even when the raw data have a signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR) of less than -50 dB, which is a significant result. Third, we propose to apply latest ballistic target tracking algorithm to track multiple moving targets. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and yields near optimal tracking performance. Fourth, based on the tracking results and target shape information, it is possible to differentiate real missiles from decoys. In Phase 1, we plan to implement the proposed framework and perform extensive simulations to validate its performance. In Phase 2, we will develop a real-time system.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Dr. Paul D Mountcastle
MDA 07-030      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Mitigation of Radar Clutter Using Algorithmic Techniques
Abstract:TSC will develop a promising new generalized Space-Time Adaptive Processing (Generalized STAP) algorithm that discriminates among classes of scatterers by forming adaptive filters over the fundamental measurement dimensions of radar element, pulse time and wideband frequency. The new generalized formalism will be applied to the problem of Three-Dimensional (3D) radar imaging of the reentry vehicle (RV) or another object in the ballistic missile threat complex that strongly suppresses radar dipole clutter and jammers, using a network of ground-based radars operating at X-band. The generalized STAP algorithm is a novel synthesis of ideas from TSC's successful 3D radar imaging programs with the principles of adaptive signal processing. TSC will demonstrate the new Generalized STAP signal processing technique for multiple radars operating in a monostatic configuration (multi-monostatic case), and also for a fully coherent geographically distributed constellation of ground based X-band radars of the kind that is conceived for the Next-Generation X-band BMDS radar. In Phase I, TSC will simulate multisensor radar data and develop prototype radar signal processing algorithms that detect and image radar targets in the presence of strong tumbling dipole clutter and jamming.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock StreetSuite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Mr. Kent Krumvieda
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 03/17/08
Title:Game Theory In Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, see attached support letter, propose the development of a BMD Operation Plan Response (BOPR) gaming framework. BOPR is a testbed that will allow the simulation and analysis of multiple Red team attack strategies and Blue team defensive responses. BOPR will be able model all relevant aspects of both red and blue's weapons, and strategies. Blue strategic responses based on a prioritized list of past events, current events and predicted future events. These events are probalistically based on a-priori estimates of the red teams weapons and capabilities. The fidelity of the models can be implemented at various and mixed levels of realism. This allows the seamless incorporation of new strategies, weapons, ECM, ECCM, and other capabilities quickly and economically. The BOPR will easily simulate situations where resources (radars, missiles, communications bandwidth, time, etc.) are constrained or limited. This gaming framework can easily be used to create custom simulations as well as exhaustive Monte-Carlo simulations for analysis and evaluation. All weapons, sensors, networks, an environmental components are modeled as encapsulated class objects. This will allow in phase-II the capability to perform plug-and-play experiments will different models. Weapons/Missiles objects have models of propulsion, navigation, sensors, terminal package type with associated CEP. Sensors and weapons can be air, ground or spaced based which can be autonomous or linked in a distributed manner using DFC's legacy distributed sensor management & resource management software. Communication and data networks can be modeled in either a centralized our decentralized manner with a user specified topology. Environmental conditions are modeled in so far as they impacts sensors, weapons and communication systems. All aspects of tracking and measurement to track association i.e., (detection, initiation, confirmation, track maintenance, pruning, track loss, and deletion) will be handled by DFC's proven suite of legacy tracking and data association algorithms.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Game2WinT: Game-based Optimization of BMDS Assets
Abstract:The sheer complexity of a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) engagement renders conventional optimization techniques ineffective/inapplicable for sensor and weapon resource management. Game theory, a branch of applied mathematics and economics, provides a promising approach to such problems by extending conventional optimization approaches to situations where multiple players make decisions with a view to maximizing their respective payoffs, often at the expense of other players and their interests. In particular, game theory applies to Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) problems that are concerned with optimizing the use of available BMDS assets through effective allocation and management of the right sensors and weapons to incoming threats. Phase I of this effort will develop a mathematical model of a BMD engagement that demonstrates the effects of changes to offense and defense options which account for the factors mentioned above. Using game-theoretic techniques, Phase I will specify techniques for computing optimum strategies for both offense and defense using simulated data.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Michael Perloff
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Stochastic Modeling And Optimal Game-Theoretic Strategies For Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:The sensor and weapon resource management problem for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) considering adversary's choice of launch times, aimpoint locations, and countermeasures is a challenging game theory problem. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. of Woburn, MA and its subcontractor, Lockheed Martin MS2 Tactical Systems (LMTS) propose a novel general stochastic game-theoretic approach to the BMD problem that draws upon our previous joint work for Department of Defense in the areas of multisensor multitarget tracking, sensor management, controlled diffusion processes, and weapon target assignment. In Phase I of the project, SSCI and LMTS will develop realistic mathematical models for the tactical ballistic missile engagements and develop methods for optimal dynamic sensor and weapon resource management. By using game theoretical approaches, we will establish techniques for computing optimum strategies for offense and defense using simulated data. Phase II will result in integrated wargaming simulation framework suitable for the testing and evaluation of resource management algorithms in realistic and complex threat scenarios. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support during all phases of the project.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3902
Mr. Robert Kurzawa
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Game Theory In Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to develop a framework to apply game theory algorithms within a modified commercial simulation architecture in order to develop stressing engagement scenarios against which to measure the optimum employment of Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) assets. This project will leverage Sonalysts' commercial simulation approach and technology to provide computations, graphics, video capture, and simulation for a BMDS operations model. The proof-of-concept will demonstrate the ability to vary the effects of enemy offensive launch timing, aimpoint location, and countermeasures employment, in a "complete knowledge environment," to the optimum employment of BMDS assets. The proof-of-concept will also include the ability to modify game theories themselves within the same scenario. Finally, this tool will demonstrate that the model development and execution processes can be bundled into a cost-effective, compact package for use during testing, evaluation, and conceptual development of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). The application tool will be a modular design to incorporate modifications and updates with changes in functionality, technology, and missions.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Timothy Strand
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Hybrid Direct-Detect and Coherent Flash Ladar Receivers for Enhanced Sensitivity and Target Discrimination
Abstract:Aerius is proposing the extension of our demonstrated 1064 nm imaging Flash Ladar optical preamplifier pixel arrays (OPPAs) toward the develop and implementation of a hybrid coherent and direct-detection Ladar receiver for greatly enhanced detection sensitivity, target tracking and target discrimination. The OPPA consists of a 2-D array of Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (VCSOAs) that provide high optical gain and low noise to increase the sensitivity of PIN photodetectors to near-photon-counting levels. Aerius' approach leverages the OPPA's compatibility with advanced direct-detection and coherent Ladar receiver technology. The OPPA offers a direct-detection input referred noise equivalent power of 3 photons while the inherent stimulated emission optical amplification process is consistent with requirements for extension of the approach to coherent detection. The OPPA operates at room temperature, utilizes mature PIN detector array technology, and enables system performance improvements while reducing system cost, weight, and power. In Phase I Aerius will demonstrate hybrid direct- and coherent-detection using our existing OPPA prototypes. In Phase II Aerius will demonstrate a VCSOA-based OPPA hybrid imaging array receiver of at least 32x32 pixels.

MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7208
Dr. Ryan McClintock
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Feasibility Study of VLWIR InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice for Focal Plane Arrays.
Abstract:High performance infrared detectors in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) spectral bands are highly needed in a number of missile defense missions. The current state-of-the-art infrared detection technology for missile defense programs is based on the Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) compounds. However, at present it is becoming increasingly apparent that this detection technology is approaching the intrinsic physical limits of the material system. Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices are expected to enable high performance next generation VLWIR focal plane arrays due to the intrinsic advantages of these materials. Type-II does not suffer from the same issue as HgCdTe when moving towards the VLWIR. In addition, owing to its coupled quantum well design, the cutoff wavelength across a typical 2" wafer is relatively insensitive to normal variations in layer thicknesses. Finally, the band structures of these superlattices can be engineered to suppress Auger recombination mechanisms for certain superlattice compositions, covering a wavelength range from 2 mm up to at least 32 mm. The overall goal of this work is demonstrating the feasibility of VLWIR detectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices detectors for focal plane array imaging. After demonstration, this technology can then be applied to the realization of VLWIR FPAs.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara BoulevardSuite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Ultra-Large-Format 2Kx2K 2-Color Midwave/Midwave Infrared Focal Plane Array for the AirBorne Laser Program
Abstract:We propose to develop a 2Kx2K 2-Color focal plane array (FPA) that provides pixel-registered and simultaneous imaging in two MIDWAVE infrared spectral bands. We will use a novel bandgap-engineered sensor that minimizes spectral crosstalk between the two midwave bands better than current sensor technologies. The FPA also uses a readout multiplexer that provides massive on-chip data compression by super-pixelation. In Phase 1, we will model spectral crosstalk and develop and deliver a small-format 1-Color FPA in the more challenging of the two bands. Phase 2 will develop and deliver the ultra-large-format 2-Color FPA.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6821
Dr. Richard Myers
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Near-IR Enhanced CMOS Sensor for LADAR Imaging
Abstract:Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD), in collaboration with Harvard University and Raytheon, proposes to develop a silicon-based focal plane array with single-photon responsivity at 1064-nm, with the goal of creating next-generation LADAR receivers. This Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed idea by improving the near-infrared (NIR) single photon efficiency of RMD's existing CMOS Geiger photodiodes (GPDs) pixels, and presenting a clear path for achieving a detection efficiency performance approaching that of InGaAs GPDs. The enhanced array will be able to operate with the same low noise characteristics of standard silicon GPD devices without the need for additional cooling. Integration with LADAR readout integrated circuits presently under development will be possible. Future systems will have the capability of utilizing on-focal plane integrated circuits fabricated with a single, low-cost CMOS process.

ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, INC.
131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 761-2288
Dr. Robert P. d'Entremont
MDA 07-033      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Forecasting IR Satellite Imagery for Adaptive Sensor Tasking
Abstract:Accurate forecasts of infrared satellite imagery are needed to optimize tasking of valuable and limited space borne surveillance assets. Atmospheric constituents such as clouds, aerosols, and water vapor can negatively impact the ability of IR surveillance systems to monitor activities on the ground. Due to their chaotic nature, atmospheric impacts are particularly severe for applications that require ground monitoring over extended time periods. In our Phase I effort we will develop a prototype 0-72 hour IR imagery forecast system with particular emphasis on characterizing the impacts of clouds. We will build on our expertise and existing capabilities in a number of relevant areas including: analysis and short-term cloud forecasting from Meteorological Satellite (MetSat) imagery; use of mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models to forecast atmospheric state and diagnose cloud physical properties; application of Mie and Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (MADA) theory to estimate cloud radiative properties from forecasted physical properties; calculation of in-band Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) radiance values from knowledge of the surface characteristics and forecasts of the atmospheric state and cloud properties; and visualizations of forecasted scene elements derived from the TOA radiance estimates. A final demonstration of the prototype system will be conducts using live data inputs.

CAELUM RESEARCH CORP.
1700 Research BoulevardSuite 250
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 614-6277
Dr. Kwo-Sun Kuo
MDA 07-033      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Self-Corrective Remote Imagery Prediction System (SCRIPS)
Abstract:The U.S. military has been using satellite IR images to monitor ground missile activities of hostile nations. Successful IR monitoring of ground features requires us to account for the intervening weather conditions that can have an adverse impact on intelligence gathering. The proposed Self-Corrective Remote Imagery Prediction System (SCRIPS) will produce up to 72 hours of forecasts for any bandpass of IR imagery based on forecast mesoscale atmospheric conditions. The SCRIPS will integrate existing and well tested atmospheric models such as radiative transfer, atmospheric correction, and cloud masking. SCRIPS will also utilize forecast atmospheric state conditions from numerical weather prediction system. We will periodically improve the approach through adjustment of the radiative transfer model and updating the baseline image database. In the Phase I effort, we will incorporate a suitable atmospheric correction algorithm and an appropriate forward radiative transfer algorithm, select an appropriate mesoscale weather prediction product, prototype SCRIPS to predict IR images and to automatically update baseline database and adjust radiative transfer parameters.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Peter Rochford
MDA 07-033      Awarded: 02/28/08
Title:Forecasts for Adaptive Sensor Tasking in the Infrared (FASTIR)
Abstract:Satellite ground imagery from space-based infrared (IR) sensors can be invaluable when monitoring areas of military significance during periods of rapid activity of several hours to days. IR ground imagery is strongly influenced by weather conditions such as cloud cover and water content that can adversely impact surveillance. Predictions of IR image availability and quality during adverse weather conditions can be critical in making decisions for real-time sensor management and adaptive sensor tasking to detect targets of interest. To provide such a predictive capability, we propose to develop the Forecasts for Adaptive Sensor Tasking in the Infrared (FASTIR) modeling system to provide 72-hour forecasts of remotely sensed IR images. The FASTIR approach is to directly propagate the satellite imagery forward in time using weather forecast information. Ground surface properties are derived from the imagery as the initial condition. FASTIR processing will entail using atmospheric correction, temperature-emissivity separation, and constructing the IR image using radiation transport codes. In Phase II, these FASTIR model elements will be fully implemented and integrated to forecast satellite IR imagery for any desired location on the earth surface.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Martin Theobald
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:Device Level Thermal Management Solutions for Phased Array Rada
Abstract:It is the intent of Hittite through this proposal to explore the feasibility of using chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-diamond as a passivating layer within the junction of a Gallium Nitride (GaN) microwave transistor. CVD-diamond being a material with very high thermal conductivity, and being located as close as possible to the heat dissipation source, will have the effect of reducing junction temperature creating a potential for increased radio frequency (RF) output power from the GaN device. The deposition will be constrained to an area over the transistor drain and source metallization as opposed to an entire wafer, thereby reducing fabricated wafer bow.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 02/26/08
Title:Integration of Bulk GaN with Diamond for Device-level Thermal Management Solutions
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal, Kyma Technologies will perform a proof of concept demonstration of high quality bulk GaN/diamond integration for advanced thermal management of high power density GaN-based device applications. The development effort will include separation of thin GaN layers from bulk substrates and bonding to diamond.

NITRONEX CORP.
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 424-5167
Dr. Edwin L. Piner
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Novel HEMT based on GaN on Diamond for High Power Amplifiers
Abstract:GaN based HEMTs are capable of achieving high power density at high frequency. Thus, solid-state high power amplifiers based on GaN will be smaller and lighter than incumbent technology. The use of a silicon substrate for GaN HEMTs provides a reliable GaN device which is also economical. MMICs based GaN on Si are ideally suited for applications in X-band radar systems that are part of the ballistic missile defense system developed by the MDA. The performance and reliability of GaN HEMTs is closely linked to the operating temperature. In this proposal, we will develop a novel GaN on diamond based HEMT structure with superior thermal conductivity relative to conventional approaches. In addition to significantly improving the thermal resistance, we will develop a novel process pathway that is inherently manufacturable and cost effective thus enabling the maximum usage of GaN technology for various military applications. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the material structure by performing iterative process development. In Phase II, we will focus on improving the maturity of the concept by further optimizing the process and by developing a functioning GaN on diamond HEMT device for evaluation of thermal and electrical performance.

WMK TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
101 Clematis AvenueUnit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James Cornie
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 04/09/08
Title:Direct Die Attached CTE Matched Ultra High Thermal Conductivity Graphite/Aluminum Heat Sinks for High RF Power Density Phased Array Radar Systems
Abstract:A new metal matrix composite material consisting of natural graphite particulates processed into a designed reinforcement architecture that, after pressure infiltration casting with molten Al alloy, results in materials with thermal conductivity (TC) controllable over a range of 600 to 750 W/mK and thermal expansion controllable over the range of 7 to 3 ppm/K. This material, with strategically located high TC "z" inserts is proposed as base plate heat sinks for advanced GaN based phased array radar systems. The material system will be fully characterized. FEA thermal models will be developed for a 4 by 4 channel prototype array which will be manufactured for attachment to T/R module emulators and evaluated by a prime contractor partner for thermal performance. The goal is to enable a two- to three-fold increase in power density in wide bandgap semiconductors and to manufacture radar arrays with greater than 100 channels within essentially a page sized format. The constituent materials are inexpensive. Hence, the proposed technology, at the proper manufacturing scale will provide materials with a cost per unit volume less than copper at 1.5 to 2 times the thermal performance and CTE matching to the T/R module.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Dr. Benjamin Simmons
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Reduced Height Waveguide Limiter Using Nanotube Technology
Abstract:The solid state semiconductor technology in radar systems supporting the U. S. Army's ballistic missile defense program increases its vulnerability to the effects of high power, fast rise-time EMP, HPM, and UWB pulses. Recent research has shown that using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can greatly improve the performance of a limiter. Improvements upon a previous X-band waveguide plasma limiter can be made by utilizing arrays of CNTs in a reduced height waveguide. This configuration offers several advantages over the current device. First, the CNTs offer greater field enhancement and survivability compared to metallic point electrodes, resulting in a faster reaction time, lower spike leakage, and greater reliability. Second, the reduced height waveguide will increase the electric field across the spark gap, which will also decrease the reaction time and reduce the spike leakage. Third, the use of CNT arrays allows the field enhancing electrodes to be present over the entire width of the waveguide on both of the H-plane surfaces without introducing significant insertion loss, leading to a reduction in flat leakage. Using a CNT array as a field enhancing electrode in a plasma limiter promises to offer faster reaction time, higher power handling capability, and greater reliability than existing systems.

PLASMA SCIENCES CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Dr. Peter Krueger
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Improved Plasma Limiter for Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in BMDS Radars
Abstract:Plasma Sciences Corporation (PSC) will build upon previous and ongoing research in transient voltage phenomena to develop a microwave front end limiter that can withstand high power RF interference with minimal impact on normal operations. Participating in the effort is Professor Popovic of Old Dominion University (ODU), a subject matter expert, who will support plasma computer modeling, simulation and analysis. Phase I efforts will demonstrate through modeling, simulation, and brassboard limiter tests, the feasibility of using plasma electromagnetic absorption and scattering properties to enhance performance of ongoing plasma limiter developments using reflective properties of an ionized gas to protect against high power transients. A Phase II effort will build prototype hardware for testing in a representative environment. In Phase III, PSC will work with radar prime contractors to integrate a prototype into an operational system and initiate limiter production.

TRITEC SYSTEMS, INC.
4825 University Square, Suite 7
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 653-6145
Mr. Anthony Kikel
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Innovative Hardware Technologies for Anti-Jam and Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Radars
Abstract:The Pseudo-Metamaterial Limiter (PML) will use chaotically generated non-linear structures to provide a low insertion loss HPM/EMP limiter. During this effort, a "pseudo" metamaterial will be researched. The term pseudo is added since the material structure will be formed by the high field electromagnetic wave that the material is intended to interact. The material will act as if it is a metamaterial but it will actually be a material formed by a chaotic process. The material properties will be non-linear to provide the "clipping" limiting function while the chaotic structure will be formed to couple with HPM/EMP and not couple with the desired small signal to avoid insertion loss. This effort will provide a mechanism for research and understanding pseudo metamaterial structures and provide insight into how to design and optimize these structures high performance limiter applications. This research is expected to be the basis for a new category of inexpensive, self-contained, high performance limiter devices that can be inserted into T/R Modules.

TRITEC SYSTEMS, INC.
4825 University Square, Suite 7
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 653-6145
Mr. Anthony Kikel
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Innovative Hardware Technologies for Anti-Jam and Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Radars
Abstract:The Branch Line Filter (BLF) will use chaotically generated fractal structures to couple with a chaotic jammer signal and not a desired radar return. During this effort, a branch line filter will be researched. A BLF or other fractal structures can be performed by selecting an iterative order commensurate with that of the expected chaotic interferences. The BLF will then be selective to a class of chaotic jammer signals. This property will be used in a planar circuit configuration to selectively terminate the chaotic jammer signal while providing a low loss transmission path for the desired receiver signal. This effort will provide a mechanism for research and understanding chaotic filter structures and provide insight into how to design and optimize these structures high performance jammer filter applications. This research is expected to be the basis for a new category of inexpensive, self-contained, high performance filter devices that can be inserted into T/R Modules.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Dr. William H. Weedon
MDA 07-036      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Phased-Array Module Interconnect Technology
Abstract:The design and development of phased-array radars requires the integration of solid-state components and adequate thermal mitigation within the array lattice constraints. The current trend is towards increasingly planar designs and a reduction in the array depth. The MDA SPEAR program is one example in which a planar T/R "tile" architecture is utilized. System-on-a-chip technologies such as SiGe will help miniaturize the modules, but is only part of the solution. Advanced multi-layer board technology is needed in order to integrate the active devices, provide the required RF manifold, DC power and digital control to the array, while providing adequate thermal conduction. In Phase I, Applied Radar will investigate novel board technologies such as HTCC and LTCC which enable next-generation phased-array architectures and reduce cost. In Phase II, a prototype module will be developed utilizing the developed board technology which integrates active array components into a demonstration array. The target frequency range is X-band, but the developed technology could be utilized for other frequency ranges.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling DriveSuite 100
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
MDA 07-036      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Electrical Interconnect Technologies for MDA Phased Array Radars
Abstract:FIRST RF proposes a revolutionary architecture for packaging and design of phased array antennas. This innovative technology has the capability to reduce the cost of phased array antennas by 80%. FIRST RF has identified the principal design features of current state-of-the-art phased array antennas. These features include: indirect interface between antennas and T/R modules requiring expensive multi-layer PCBs and one or two connectors per unit cell, control architectures also requiring multi-layer PCBs and packaging designs which require supplementary systems to provide necessary cooling to T/R module electronics. The combination of all these requirements and packaging into a unit cell that is less than half wavelength results in a cost prohibitive product. The proposed packaging integrates the antennas, T/R modules, beam forming network, and control circuitry on a common assembly that eliminates the overcrowded circuitry and packaging. Multilayer connections are replaced by coplanar connector-less circuits that can be manufactured, inspected, and tested in a single step. During the phase 1 proposed program a significant size array will be manufactured and tested to validate the concept.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Mr. Michael A. Deaett
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Adaptive Distributed Aperture Radar Mainlobe Jammer Suppression
Abstract:The mitigation of mainlobe jamming is essential to missile defense radar performance. Applied Radar is currently investigating distributed aperture and adaptive processing architectures that promise a new generation of advanced radar performance. Our proposed program will research the application of these distributed aperture radar techniques to determine the mainlobe jammer suppression possible with a range of distributed aperture geometries and radar waveform bandwidths. The integrated space-time processing of coherent multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) radar promises substantial mainlobe jammer suppression as well as the improved spatial resolution needed for midcourse discrimination of reentry vehicle targets in the presence of adversary ECM and clutter. It is important to realize that the processing burden of these new methods is substantial and, therefore, our investigations into advanced algorithm performance will include computational sizing estimates for several distributed aperture system architectures. The transition of the developed techniques into advanced array applications such as CG-X is facilitated by the use of an Open System Architecture framework that is being developed by our prime contractor partner. The application of this work to the SPEAR MDA radar system technology demonstrator is facilitated by currently existing teaming relationships with several technology companies.

AZURE SUMMIT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
12587 Fair Lakes Circle #342
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 963-2078
Dr. Mark Sullivan
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms, Waveforms, and Signal Processing
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I SBIR effort is to develop innovative techniques that exploit distributed apertures to defeat mainlobe jammers of MDA radar systems. Phase I will develop basic concepts for distributed aperture signal processing in this domain and establish their feasibility using a computer simulation model. A Phase II demonstration plan will be developed, with emphasis on a near real-time test using a potential near-term transition platform.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Novel Approach for Jammer Suppression
Abstract:When a distributed aperture radar is used to suppress jammers in conventional interferometric fashion, the separation of the individual antennas determines the width of the suppressed angular sector. This will be very much narrower than the mainbeam for a monostatic radar, but at the cost of ambiguous sectors where targets may also be suppressed. However, the distributed array presents an opportunity to suppress mainlobe jammers in another fashion that promises to be able to detect threats near the jammer and to have much less of an ambiguity problem. This jammer suppression technique, which MARK Resources proposes to develop, is entirely compatible with conventional multistatic operation, as well as with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) operation, including other types of processing for jammer suppression.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-8984
Mr. Stephen Welstead
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms, Waveforms, and Signal Processing
Abstract:Missile defense radars have traditionally consisted of large aperture ground-based arrays. These large aperture radars are expensive to build and not easily transportable. An alternative approach is the use of distributed aperture systems collectively acting as a single sensor. These systems use a number of smaller, relatively inexpensive arrays distributed over a wide spatial aperture. When coherently combined, the system of smaller distributed arrays can achieve or exceed the performance of a single large array. Radar system performance can be enhanced by exploiting the unique advantages of a large spatially distributed array. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) approaches can be leveraged to improve directional information about the target and sources of electronic countermeasures (ECM). Beamforming at the distributed aperture level can increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and can mitigate ECM through the placement of nulls. Multistatic approaches can also improve SNR. Waveform properties such as orthogonality play an important role in cooperative distributed apertures. The proposed effort will use a high-fidelity waveform tool to investigate MIMO, beamforming and multistatic approaches for distributed aperture radars for missile defense. These approaches will benefit the development of next generation radar systems using a distributed aperture architecture. Commercial applications of MIMO include improved cell phone performance.

EOSPACE, INC.
8711 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-8407
Dr. Walt Charczenko
MDA 07-038      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Compact and Robust RF-Photonic Modules for High Dynamic Range Radar Applications
Abstract:EOSPACE will design and develop a Compact and Robust RF-Photonic Module for improved Spur Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) link performance in MDA/Military Radar systems. The module will be designed to operate over an extended temperature range in an adverse environment, while reducing the size and weight of the module by at least a factor of two as compared to present day technology.

ODIS
Three Corporate Drive
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Heath Opper
MDA 07-038      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:Photonic control technology for Phased Arrays
Abstract: Phased arrays radars can expect considerable improvements with RF photonics. Current TR modules use numerous MMIC chips, ferrite circulators and phase shifters and quasi-optical true-time-delay (TTD). Transmission power distribution and synchronization across multiple RF interfaces can be improved. Large scale integration could address the problem of interconnecting boards with GHZ RF outputs but currently is not possible. Such integration with optical control will be a key enabling technology. ODIS proposes a monolithic IC solution based upon novel optoelectronic (OE) thryistor circuit design. Thyristor/HFET circuits implement a novel power amplifier using a gated OE oscillator driving a Class E output. The receive channel is implemented with an photonic link based upon linear phase modulation and coherent detection which achieves an SFDR of -92dB and SNR of -149dB. The photonic receive link also implements narrow channel microwave filtering in the optical domain. The photonic technology also enables novel AD architectures for the back end conversion or for direct digitization after the LNA. The photonic insertion is in the form of monolithic integrated circuits and the fabrication technology includes high temperature (850C) processing which pre-qualifies it for the mil-spec environment. Elimination of oxides results in rad-hard circuits. The in-plane photonics simplifies the package.

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
900 Middlesex TurnpikeBuilding #5
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 670-4990
Dr. Gary E. Betts
MDA 07-038      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Smaller RF-Photonic Circuits and Interconnections for Radar Applications
Abstract:A novel broad bandwidth modulator is proposed that has the potential for reducing link size by a factor of 75 and link dc power by a factor of 50. The novel modulator will also permit more environmentally robust packaging than has been possible with conventional electro-optic modulators. Finally the novel modulator is projected to permit even lower noise figure links - 3 dB - without any electronic LNA. Phase I of the proposed SBIR will quantify more fully the size, weight, and power (SWaP), packaging and link performance improvements that can be anticipated from a link, which is built around the novel modulator. Phase II will demonstrate the novel modulator concept by packaging the novel modulator and testing it over various environmental conditions.

AGNIK, LLC
8840 Stanford Blvd. STE. 1300
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-0146
Mrs. Kakali Sarkar
MDA 07-039      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:DIA: Distributed Information Assurance in Ballistic Missile Defense Systems using Scalable, Distributed Data Mining Technology
Abstract:This document proposes to develop a Distributed Information Assurance (DIA) system based on the distributed data mining technology for detecting distributed network attacks and identifying attackers' "signatures" for advanced situational awareness. It will offer the following key capabilities: 1. A multi-agent architecture for linking multiple, heterogeneous network-sensors (e.g., intrusion detection and malware detection systems, netflow data, tcpdump) for performing distributed and decentralized analysis of the data. The system will support local management of policy-based control for different sensors. 2. A collection of distributed data mining algorithms for decentralized outlier detection, clustering,and trend analysis for network data. These algorithms will lay the foundation of the DIA system. 3. A module for supporting the complete life-cycle of the information assurance management process in a BMDS. Following attack detection capabilities will be explored during Phase I: Detect distributed network "signatures" of attackers based on the distributed observations from different nodes in the network. Detect attack patterns on the coalition members in terms of clusters, outliers. Identify statistical properties of attack distribution in order to perform a trend analysis. Detect stealth network probes by attackers and worms. The proposed work will be performed at Agnik, a mobile and distributed data mining company.

ALTUSYS CORP.
P O Box 1274
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 878-4876
Dr. Lundy Lewis
MDA 07-039      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Real-Time Information Assurance Management Technologies
Abstract:The objective of the research is to produce a technology that will effectively automate the processes of recognizing security threats to BMDS under the conditions of unpredictable dynamic situations and the periods of heightened alerts. Our method will provide human operators with results in the context of tactical and operational BMDS situations and gives sufficient explanations needed for future corrective actions. Proposed work will use a novel technology of Multi-Agent Systems Based Situation Management (MAS-SM) developed at Altusys. MAS-SM integrates three key technologies: (a) Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Event Correlation, (b) Analogical Case-Based Reasoning, and (c) Distributed Multi-Agent Architecture of BDI-Agents with Situation Awareness (BDI-SA). We will follow the architectural principles MAS-SM and extend them to meet the specific requirements of MDA07-039: an understanding of incidents happening in missile defense systems and networks; a focus on the distribution, adaptability, correlation, and virtualization capabilities; a support for automatic actions to detect insider threats, external malicious attacks, and dynamic operational events; a comprehensive situational awareness of BMDS and surrounding operational context There will be a mutual benefit between the proposed work and our current Air Force SBIR "Situation Awareness and Impact Assessment for Cyber Network Defense" under contract FA8750-07-C-0126.

NOETIC STRATEGIES, INC.
PO Box 22225
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 348-4254
Ms. Kelly Parker
MDA 07-039      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Real-Time Information Assurance Management Technologies
Abstract:In the real world of mission critical applications and systems that must not fail, there is an ever increasing need for effective security monitoring systems that are also designed not to impede the normal operation and use of heterogeneous distributed networks. The IAMS technology proposed here will be a next generation, distributed network security platform, that spreads itself across the enterprise creating a redundant security system that is highly resistant to attack. Due to the distributed nature, IAMS will make both global decisions as well as local decisions, even when a section is cut off from the rest of the network. It has the ability to communicate in a manner that is suitable for use on diverse mobile devices, such as cell phones and PDA's. It is deterministic, remotely reconfigurable, uses industry standards for communication and is an autonomic computing platform.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth G. Blemel
MDA 07-040      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:A Sentient Watchdog Instrument for MDA Systems
Abstract:MSI manufactures multi-processor instrumentation modules. Our latest product is the Embeddable Programmable Instrumentation Circuit (EPIC). The army has funded the EPIC for embedded diagnostics, prognostics and intelligent control of electrical systems in combat vehicles. A new Phase II NAVAIR contract funds transition to a radiation-hard ASIC chip installed in either connectors or LRU. The EPIC module is small enough to reside in the backshell of a M38999 connector or as a small module built-in or added into electronic systems. We propose new research that will develop and prototype an embedded instrument for aggressive situation security, the CM-Watchdog. The product we develop will have an aggressive goal seeking ability that uses the EPIC self checking architecture. The CM-Watchdog will extend use of the "Business Rule Engine", from control and diagnostics to tamper protection, configuration status monitoring, and intrusion protection and configuration assurance. The procedures and algorithms for security situation awareness will be embodied in the "Business Rules". The CM-Watchdog, in a component or in a connector backshell "doghouse" will use the rules to assure that a system is operating normally and any hardware or software changes are certified through the MDA CM cycle.

ORIELLE, LLC
PO Box 8922
Moscow, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 883-3816
Mr. Peter Mills
MDA 07-040      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Moded Configuration Management and Validation
Abstract:We propose to develop Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) enhancements for configuration management and validation to enable assured switching between operational and test modes. We will design a moded configuration management and validation suite that extends public-domain OSGi implementations with capabilities for trusted bundles, XML-based device inventories, and mode switching and configuration validation support. We will also design a web-based console for changing and monitoring modes across groups of participants. The provision of OSGi-based capabilities for moded configuration validation will have significant impact in maintaining the assured operational status of missile defense systems.

VISTOLOGY, INC.
5 Mountainview Drive
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 285-0315
Dr. Christopher Matheus
MDA 07-041      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Security Policy Reconciliation
Abstract:The Department of Defense Goal Security Architecture (DGSA) transition plan has established a framework and a long range road map for the implementation of security policies in the DoD information systems. DGSA establishes a number of requirements that should be implemented in order to achieve the goals of the roadmap. One of the requirements is that a representation for security policy rules be developed as well as tools to support policy management. Moreover, it stipulates that interpretation of security policies should be context dependent and the tools should support the security engineers in composing and reusing existing policies. Towards these goals, VIStology proposes to develop a formal, ontology-based representation for security policy rules that is amenable to policy reconciliation and composition. VIStology will analyze requirements for a policy representation language; review various representation languages and propose a language that will support easy policy representation, reuse, composition and reconciliation; propose tools for the support of policy management; develop initial prototypes of tools and policies, assess the usability of the proposed language and tools; develop a plan for the implementation and evaluation of a full-scale prototype of the proposed tools.

WW TECHNOLOGY GROUP
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Dr. Chris J Walter
MDA 07-041      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Security Policy Reconciliation
Abstract:In Phase I WWTG will develop enabling tools and processes for performing security policy reconciliation and composition. The combination of a proven, multi-formalism modeling tool offers a unique opportunity to improve upon the state of the art of security policy analysis and composition of large systems. This will advance the state of the art beyond devising formal processes and practices but will enable application of these concepts to specific implementations. It will provide BMDS the ability to integrate computer systems, components and applications to perform an integrated mission implementing cooperative security policies Specific advancements on the state of the art are realized through: (a) concepts for a formal process for analysis that is developed with a model-based approach, (b) representations of diverse, yet coordinated, behaviors affecting security policies and certification as executable models to produce high fidelity, repeatable and readily communicated artifacts and (c) a common modeling hub that supports the integration of heterogeneous simulation and modeling technologies through a tool bus technology that supports theorem proving, model checking, simulation, Markov models, Petri Nets, SANs (and more) and is open to integration with third party tools.

AVENDA SYSTEMS
2855 Kifer Rd, Suite #102
Santa Clara, CA 95051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 748-1993
Mr. Santhosh Cheeniyil
MDA 07-042      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Voice over IP Security Architecture (VISA)
Abstract:Avenda Systems proposes a voice over IP security architecture and solution called VoIP Inter-domain Security Architecture (VISA). VISA system will provide the architectural foundations to secure voice traffic within a security domain (intra-domain) and across a security domain (inter-domain). This is currently a feature gap in enterprise VOIP solutions. Avenda Systems has the expertise to develop a practical and highly effective security architecture for inter-domain VoIP traffic. Research and analysis in Phase I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete solution in Phase II, and a commercially viable product in Phase III.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Mark A Stacy
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Volume Signature Mapping System
Abstract:Significant advantages occur in cost reduction, technology maturity, and ease of implementation when using commercial-off-the-shelf components and systems boards in critical military applications. Because COTS components are well documented reverse engineering their contents is very straight forward. The first layer of protection for critical technology is the physical volume that encloses the system components. Any attempt to modify, penetrate, or remove this outer enclosure is one of the first indications of a tamper attack. CRG proposes to create a volume protection scheme that would measure and use a multitude of physical volume attributes and create a volume signature that would be used for volume protection. Since the attributes are defined by the physical construction and composition of the volume they do not require power to maintain their values. CRG's demonstrated expertise in the proposed technology presents MDA the opportunity to obtain an effective, reliable, and economical volume protection scheme for protecting critical information components of the ballistic missile defense system. The proposing team's track record of innovation in new anti-tamper technologies positions CRG for successful implementation of an effective, reliable, and economical volume protection method meeting a wide range of MDA's operational needs.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SWSuite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Dan Gall
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Solid Freeform Fabrication of Anti-Tamper Containers
Abstract:Defense Department entities with a mission need to transport critical technology material have a number of tamper indicating solutions, but few tamper protection solutions available to them. Those few protection solutions are not cost effective, nor are they as versatile as one might desire. The Missile Defense Agency in particular has a need to afford maximum protection of U.S. technologies in transit between its vendors. MDA's need is acute due to its agile development and best-in-breed teaming practices. This effort will focus on identifying new hardware design and protection techniques and technologies that will delay reverse engineering and exploitation. Current technologies have an assortment of issues, most notably high cost, inflexible form factors, inconvenient mounting options, and exposure of tamper protection technology to authorized insiders with a need to use the technology, but without a need to know about its inner workings.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-0966
Mr. Joseph Frederick
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Volume Protection
Abstract:Radiance Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop the conceptual framework, fabricate and demonstrate an innovative low-profile, multi-mode anti-tamper (AT) volume protection sensor suite that meets MDA requirements for portability and reusability. This program will leverage two technologies currently being developed, and integrate them with a new technology that renders critical technology circuitry useless. We will also provide the capability to destroy extremely localized critical circuit features using thermal energy at the micro level. X-ray and focused ion beam detection will be provided by a nano-particle-loaded thin film scintillator material that lines the volume. The volume also contains a number of MEMS-based micro-cantilever beam arrays that will detect vibrational energy due to grinding or scanning acoustic microscopy attacks. Under this proposed program, new research will develop a film of material called NOTAMPER. When activated it will render the critical technology features useless by applying thermal energy to melt micro-circuitry. The architecture will allow for additional layers of protection at a later date. This program will integrate all of the components into a protected volume that meets the MDA requirements for reusability and DOT transport requirements.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Innovative Volume Protection Using EMI Trigger Wrap(1001-158)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. proposes a new volume-protection anti-tamper (AT) technology for active protection of sensitive/secure equipment. The detection system integrates wireless communication abilities for real-time triggering of countermeasures. The proposed system is also easily customized to any size or shape, and can be installed quickly. A successful program will offer increased capability of detecting and responding to unauthorized intrusion into secure volumes or equipment.

SCITEC, INC.
100 Wall Street
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-3892
Mr. Ted Slusarchyk
MDA 07-044      Awarded: 02/20/08
Title:Debris Assessment from Spectrally Diverse Sensors and Air Sample to Aid Post-Intercept Weapons Typing
Abstract:A critical need for the ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is the determination of the warhead type contained within the intercepted threat. Knowledge of warhead type is essential for effective consequence mitigation and determining the National Command Authority response to the threat. Since missile defense threat scenarios include attacks on theater assets and our allies, the BMDS architecture must address the perceived risks of harmful fallout from intercepting potential WMD threats near host nations or in allied airspace. This SBIR effort will focus on WMD typing challenges for theater and regional threat scenarios where multiple defensive elements (ABL, SM-3, THAAD, PAC-3) may have opportunities for threat engagement. The capability to confidently confirm that certain WMDs were or were not present in an engaged threat complex will be key to alleviating concerns by our deployed forces and allies about the these complex engagement decisions. Due to cost and hazards of direct tests with WMD materials, the research will include fusion of data and sensors information from sources not typically available on current BMDS flight tests. Development will lead to cost effective enhancements to the C2BMC situational awareness for the warfighter on the nature of actual missile threat being engaged.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Christopher Farnham
MDA 07-045      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Optimized Planning for Threat Interception using Markets for Uncertainty Management (OPTIMUM)
Abstract:Emerging threats and technologies have significantly increased the requirements for successful battle management and fire control in ballistic missile defense applications. The growing interdependencies between weapons and sensor systems demand defensive planning tools that integrate weapon allocation with sensor management, and problems such as inventory management and weapon-to-target assignment create the need fo