---------- MDA ----------

159 Phase I Selections from the 07.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Michael MacDougal
MDA 07-001      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Broad Spectral Range Detectors for Vis/SWIR Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:Aerius proposes to build detectors with low dark current and a cutoff wavelength of 3.0 um, using InP-based detectors. These detectors do not suffer from the same problems conventional "extended-wavelength" suffer, such as high dark current, low quantum efficiency, and limited spectral range. Aerius proposes to achieve, high quality, high uniformity extended short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) detectors that can also be sensitive to short wavelengths in the visible. Realizing this material would extend the capabilities of satellites and kill vehicles by detecting both reflected light and thermally generated wavelengths in one detector, reducing the cost and mass of detector deployment.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Lawrence Domash
MDA 07-001      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Nano-Enabled Broadband Infrared Anti-Reflection Coatings
Abstract:In this program, Agiltron and the group of Professor D. W. Wang at Boston College propose a novel nano-porous coating for next generation MDA IR anti-reflection (AR) coatings for detectors and optics. The collaborative research leverages recent progress in nano-material development at Boston College, and Agiltron's recently developed nano-coating processes. The proposed IR AR coatings will possess engineerable nano-porosity and predefined index profile characteristics along with extremely precise thickness control. These coatings can be expected to yield graded index profiles as well as discrete multilayers leading to the first universal IR AR solution for critical surfaces. The coatings will also possess superior radiation hardness, broadband anti-reflection, good thermal-mechanical stability, and both high and low temperature stability critical for a space environment. Additionally, our nano-porous coatings are obtained by a low cost wet chemistry process compatible with state of the art detector fabrication. Nano-porous coatings can also be applied to other IR optical components such as IR lenses and windows. The feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated in Phase I. In Phase II, we will test its applicability to practical sensor surfaces and show net improvements in detector performance.

LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 891-2243
Dr. William McGovern
MDA 07-001      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Long-to-Very-Long-Wavelength Infrared Band-Pass Filters for Space Infrared Detectors
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal requests innovative sensor solutions to improve strategic space sensors. One route of improvement is selective band-pass filtering of radiation before it reaches the detector. Such filtering can improve detection by blocking out-of-band interferences and allowing transmission of the desired spectral components. Filtering can improve a cheaper detector with a broader detection profile into a high performance detector. Filtering can also improve signal-to-noise of a detector by eliminating out-of-band radiation from reaching the detector and causing spurious signal or A/D saturation. Comparable band-pass filters in the mid-infrared are typically thick multilayer dielectrics subject to poor adhesion between layers, thermal mismatch stress, or moisture sensitivity which can lead to destructive delamination. The innovative very-long-wavelength-region band-pass filter design proposed here has high transmission, can tolerate cryogenic temperatures, ionizing radiation and vibration making them launch-capable. The 2mm-thin proposed band-pass filter allows insertion into tight spaces. Lake Shore has demonstrated prototype band-pass filters with center bands from 14 - 25 microns in the infrared spectrum. By using innovative fabrication, it will be possible to extend this range down to the long-wavelength-infrared region. New IR detectors, developed in-tandem with Lake Shore band-pass filters can produce a high-performance solution for MDA applications.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando RoadBuilding 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2016
Dr. Hirsohi Nakahara
MDA 07-002      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Space Power Management & Energy Storage Technologies
Abstract:Quallion currently manufactures hermitically sealed, prismatic 15Ah and 72Ah lithium-ion cells for the aerospace community. The cells are undergoing real-time life testing at various government agencies, in which the 15Ah cell has demonstrated over 12,000 LEO cycles at a 60% depth of discharge (DOD). Under these conditions, Quallion expects the cell to perform over 50,000 cycles. In this effort, Quallion will modify its existing long-life high energy density chemisty to meet high rate capabilities. Once modified, Quallion will incorporate this chemistry into the same form-fit factor of our current satellite cells.

VPT, INC.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Dr. Glenn Skutt
MDA 07-002      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High-Efficiency, Radiation-Hardened, Power Converter System for Distributed Space Applications
Abstract:VPT Inc. proposes to develop an innovative radiation-hardened, high-efficiency, thick-film hybrid DC-DC power converter that addresses demanding MDA space application needs. The targeted technology will provide efficiencies of greater than 90% for multiple low output voltages. The proposed system includes a single output isolated DC-DC converter with synchronous rectification to convert a standard MDA 28V bus directly down to 5.0V as well as multiple non-isolated point of load converters to obtain output voltages from 3.3V to as low as 0.8V. This system will be based on VPT standard product, Mil-PRF-38534 Class K hybrid DC-DC converters and recent VPT radiation analysis and testing including Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS), Radiation Lot Acceptance Testing (RLAT), Flash Xray (FXR), Single Event Upset (SEU). In the SBIR Phase I VPT will perform the following: (a) develop a multiple output converter breadboard using the new VPT hybrid converters and demonstrate electrical performance including high efficiency, (b) select and characterize new radiation-hardened components (c) perform circuit design changes and analysis to achieve 500kRads of total dose radiation performance and 60MeV of single event upset capability, (d) evaluate planar winding magnetics for high efficiency and wide temperature range of operation.

ADVANCED SCIENCE & NOVEL TECHNOLOGY
27 Via Porto Grande
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 564-9236
Dr. Sean P. Woyciehowsky
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Performance Rad Hard Analog to Digital Converter Architectures
Abstract:Electronic components for future space based radar systems on chip (SOC) must function correctly in natural and radiation filled environments while providing state-of-the-art performance. The corresponding SOC must employ advanced, extra low-power, radiation-hardened (RH), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) capable of operating at multi-giga sampling speeds. To satisfy the described needs, we propose to develop an ADC block with 9 bits of resolution and up to 10Gs/s of sampling speed. The 9 bit wide data will be demultiplexed by a factor of eight to a rate of 1.25Gb/s for direct loading into a following FPGA where signal processing will be performed. Our patent-pending radiation-hardening techniques incorporate a methodology based on protection and redundancy, which provides both total ionization dose (TID) and single-event upset (SEU) tolerance within the IC. The proposed high performance characteristics of the ADC will be achieved by utilizing an advanced SiGe IC fabrication technology.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Dr. Michael Hoskins
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Sample-Rate Ultra-Wideband Track-and-Hold Demultiplexer (2007047)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop a Radiation-Tolerant Ultra-Wideband Track-and-Hold (T/H) Demultiplexer to address MDA's future needs for microwave signal sampling/data conversion. This development is motivated by the difficulties in achieving high-speed interleaved analog-to-digital converter (ADC) assemblies with good accuracy. A switched-emitter-follower T/H amplifier in the SiGe BiCMOS process with the capability for 15 GHz sampling bandwidth, 6 - 8 Gs/s sample rate, and 8 - 9 bit accuracy will be studied. This high-speed T/H will be used as the front end of a two-rank T/H sampler/demultiplexer that provides a 2:1 output sample rate reduction, enabling the use of lower rate ADCs in an interleaved assembly without the usual sample timing mismatches that degrade performance. The T/H demultiplexer can also operate as a subsampler to down convert any Nyquist bands within the 15 GHz bandwidth. This T/H circuit is expected to offer unprecedented bandwidth and operating speed while maintaining accuracy suitable for meeting the X-band and microwave data conversion goals of many military systems. Under Phase I, Hittite will perform a design study with circuit simulations to determine the feasibility and performance of the basic T/H amplifier and the two-rank demultiplexer. Prototype circuits will be built and tested in Phase II.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del CampoSuite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 864-7858
Mr. William Poland
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Multiplexed, Rad Hard ADC
Abstract:The proposed part is a rad-hard, 16-input, 14-bit ADC, with aggregate speed of 200 MSPS. The 16 inputs are sampled individually and can be configured as 16 single-ended inputs or 8 differential inputs. The ADC provides 14 data outputs, a data-ready signal, and an over-range indicator. The digital outputs of the ADC are CMOS low-voltage differential signal (LVDS) outputs. The part will be fabricated using Texas Instruments' BiCom3X, a SOI process with CMOS and complementary SiGe bipolar transistors. SiGe bipolar transistors typically have very high total dose hardness, and we are not aware of an ELDRS problem. The SOI wells prevent latch-up and restrict the silicon volume that can produce photocurrents from either ionizing dose rates or single event strikes. Our designers, Bill Poland, Jim Swonger, Wayne Dietrich and John Branning, have designed over 140 ASICs, many of them rad-hard. They worked together on a 14-bit rad-hard ADC, on which the proposed part is based. Nu-Trek is an emerging suppler of rad-hard parts, with four parts coming on sale in 2008. The Nu-Det has already been inserted into the MKV and NGIMU. The Clam/NED is slated for insertion in the Army's FCS.

ORORA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
18378 Redmond Fall City Road
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-9196
Dr. Ying Wei
MDA 07-003      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Performance Rad Hard Analog to Digital Converter Architectures
Abstract:Orora Design Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a template-based solution to the design of high-performance radiation-hardened analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Research will be focused on innovatice architectures for a Delta-Sigma ADC of 2.5 MSPS data rate at 16-bit or greater resolution with 250mW or less power consumption, and a pipelined ADC of 180MSPS data rate at 14-bit or greater resolution with 540mW or less power consumption. Baseline radiation goals are 300Krad total dose, and single-event latchup immune and single-event upsets with LET greater than 15, and bit error rates less than 1E-10 errors/bit-day. The output of this research is template-based architectures and a behavioral model library that captures expert radiation-hardening design techniques and can be adapted to different design performance requirements and fabrication processes. In addition, a set of enabling computer-aided design tools will be developed in a mainstream EDA design environment and can be used by avionic electronics designers. The technical novelty of this research consists of (a) joint optimization of architectures, processes, and circuits for varying applications and radiation hardness, (b) hierarchical radiation-aware parametric behavioral modeling, and (c) adaptive design templates.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
MDA 07-004      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:An Advanced Thermal Management System for Gimbal-Mounted Sensors
Abstract:Future missile detection systems will require improved thermal management for cooling gimbal-mounted sensors and optics. Current systems utilize cryocoolers placed on the gimbal, which necessitates the cryocooler heat to be rejected directly from the gimbal. A far superior approach in terms of payload mass would locate the warm elements of the cryocooler on the stationary platform near the spacecraft heat rejection system, and place only the cold elements required to cool the optics and sensors on the gimbal. On the proposed program, we plan to develop an innovative cryocooler for cooling gimbal-mounted sensors and optics. The cryocooler is based on space-proven turbo-Brayton technologies which will be adapted to the unique requirements of this application. The inherent attributes of the turbo-Brayton cycle permit the warm components of the cryocooler to be mounted off gimbal, which will drastically improve thermal management and reduce payload mass. The warm and cold components of the cryocooler will be connected using custom flexible tubing, which has been demonstrated to provide the flexibility and life required for gimbaled systems. In Phase I we will develop a preliminary design of the cryocooler and its components, develop performance curves, and perform trades to establish a packaging and integration concept.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P Scaringe
MDA 07-004      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Experimental Demonstration of an Improved Cryocooler Configuration to Lower the Gimbaled Mass and Volume for Infrared Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to reduce the weight of the cryocooler system, improve the efficiency of the cryocooler system, provide multiple cryocooler temperatures, and improve the configuration of the gimbaled flexible joint. At first glance, this set of claims seems incredibly ambitious; however, as disclosed in this proposal, these achievements can be obtained by implementing an improved cryogenic cooler. The proposed configuration can also provide multiple cooling temperatures, allowing both the cryogenic cooling and the electronics thermal control from a single cooler. This Phase I effort includes the experimental demonstration of this cryocooler (in a bench-top configuration), as well as a demonstration of an improved gimbaled flexible joint. Phase I also includes a comparison with current state-of-the-art technology to verify mass, reliability, and energy benefits. Clearly, Mainstream has the prior experience in this area, and the effort proposed in Phase I, which includes a preliminary design and bench-top demonstration experiments, exceeds the scope of effort proposed in the Phase I solicitation; however, Mainstream is well into this research and excited about the commercial potential for this technology. Phase II will address the fabrication and demonstration of a complete system.

SOUTH BAY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
7525 W. 81st St.,
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 337-7230
Mr. John Ikegami
MDA 07-004      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Heat Rejection Methods for Space Cryocoolers
Abstract:Future space EO systems will require cryogenic subsystems that are substantially more powerful than those presently in use. Input power levels are expected to increase by a factor of 2X to 4X, necessitating changes from the payload level down to the cryocooler subsystem level. Payload-level changes involve the inclusion of more robust power busses and heat rejection systems, while changes to the cryocooler subsystem will focus on optimization of the internal heat rejection schemes to allow the thermo-mechanical units to run at relatively cool internal operating temperatures despite the increased power load. The South Bay Science and Technology Corporation (SBSTC), as the prime contractor, and Raytheon, as subcontractor, propose to develop high efficiency Closed-Cycle Cryocooler waste heat rejection designs as part of a system solution for electro-optical (EO) space payload power and mass reduction.

2LRESEARCH
190 Green Valley Road
Owens Crossroads, AL 35763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 656-9652
Mr. Luis R. Lopez
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Relational Pattern Analysis Tool for Legacy Conversion
Abstract:This project develops a technology to automate the interpretation and understanding of complex trees of source code and related artifacts for conversion to run on newer hardware, operating systems and languages. The center of our proposed innovative approach is to map and parse a complex source code tree (plus related artifacts such as `makefiles') into an appropriate process and object oriented schema tree. From this representation we propose to generate relational database queries, stored procedures and advanced algorithms that extract dependencies and partitioning with respect to hardware, operating system, distributed processing, application programming interfaces [APIs], etc. The proposed tools will help analysts visualize, analyze and gain a deep, multi-level understanding of legacy code. This approach supports automation of legacy code functional inventory, language translation and re-partitioning. The solution is extremely flexible and applies to multiple versions of Ada (ANSI/MIL-STD 1815A, ISO-8652:1987, ISO/IEC 8652:1995/Amd 1:2007). We also propose to develop a plug-in for a popular software tool such as Eclipse. This approach has potential to yield order of magnitude reductions in the man-hours/cost required to modernize Ada applications.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Curt Wu
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:LANguage Conversion Engine (LANCE)
Abstract:From 1987-1997, DoD required Ada for every software project where new code generation was more than 30% of the effort. With the decline in Ada's popularity, it has become increasingly difficult to find skilled Ada developers to maintain this legacy code. Code maintainers that don't know Ada typically convert the code to a language they understand and this is a tedious error-prone process. What is needed is a toolkit that converts Ada into more widely supported languages, provides guidance on translation, and plugs in to the maintainer's IDE. Such a toolkit must provide a view of each module within the context of the legacy application and weigh the relative merits of various conversion options. The converted code must also be validated against the legacy code to ensure accurate and effective conversion. Our proposed LANguage Conversion Engine (LANCE) will not only accurately translate and validate Ada code but also provide the necessary guidance to wrap or rewrite code that can not or should not be translated. This guidance will include the necessary metadata to integrate the various code modules that have been translated, wrapped, and rewritten. Finally, the system's software repository will store translated code modules for cataloging and reuse.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5900
Dr. Marc Abrams
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Legacy Software Conversion Tool
Abstract:Under MDA07-005 Harmonia, Inc., in partnership with Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS), will build a system to cost effectively modernize legacy information, sensor, space platform, and weapons systems such as the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) written in languages such as Ada83. We develop an innovative new toolset that guides the engineer through a comprehensive methodology to inventory and understand the legacy system to be modernized, estimate the cost benefit of reusing versus rewriting the legacy code, extract and translate reusable components from the legacy system for use in new architectures, and verify the correctness of the translated code. Our toolset improves upon the state of the art in several ways: breaks the "black box" of most conversion methods to facilitate a human-involved process of discovery; reduces cost by automating tedious migration tasks; fosters and encourages "educated conversion," allowing the engineer to understand the code as it is converted; preserves understanding for future engineers through a repository of reusable components, documentation, and annotations; and utilizes flexible methodology and Open Source technology including Eclipse to provide a robust platform for migrating legacy code to C++ that is extensible to C++ .NET, Java, and other languages within STSS and beyond.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Mr. Donald J. Reifer
MDA 07-005      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Legacy Software Conversion Tool
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I SBIR is to develop a non-translator-based, language-independent methodology and toolset architectural design for legacy code modernization. The methodology proposed build models of the application and then analyzes them using to ensure that they properly represent the software as it actually runs on the platform and in the environment to which it is targeted. The methodology relies on aspects to capture processor/platform dependencies and domain models for a determination of which functions it makes sense to carryover for redesign. The utility and effectiveness of the methodology will be verified during Phase I through the use of a pilot project. Correspondence between the actual code and the modernized software will be demonstrated at least in part prior to Phase II when a more extensive proof-of-concept will be attempted.

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Dr. Koorosh Guidanean
MDA 07-006      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Low Cost Calibration Test Objects for MDA Systems
Abstract:Development of the electro-optical sensors for use by the MDA requires flight testing against calibration targets that have well characterized radio frequency, optical and infrared cross sections. These tests are very expensive therefore there is a compelling need for low cost calibration targets. Providing well characterized visible and radar targets is reasonably straight forward, however IR is not. To solve this problem we are proposing to develop black balloons that are inflated with a liquid inflatant that has a surface tension below the critical value that allows complete wetting of the inside surface of the balloon. This will provide an isothermal target to within a fraction of a degree. If the balloon is made of a material like black Kapton then the reflected radiation will be specular, so both the IR and the visible spectrums will be independent of the viewing angle or solar angle. Also since the Kapton is carbon filled its radar signature will also be well characterized. This very simple target balloon design when married with existing L'Garde flight proven designs for the balloon canisters and ejectors will meet the MDA price goal of less the $250,000.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
6800 Burleson RoadBuilding 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Victor Dube
MDA 07-006      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Modular Adaptive Low-cost Test System (MALTS)
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes the low-risk adaptation of existing flight-proven MDA Targets & Countermeasures (TC) subsystems to meet the requirements of this topic. In an increasingly tight budgetary environment, the frequent calibration testing needed by new, modified and operational sensors must be accomplished in a much more cost and schedule efficient manner. SPEC's Modular Adaptive Low-cost Test System (MALTS) concept is a much simplified lower-cost derivative of an equivalent system developed and flown under the MDA/LMCO BMDS Targets & Countermeasures Prime Contract (TCPC). SPEC and teammate ITT Industries are very familiar with the requirements for well characterized test objects, as a result of being a current provider of MDA target systems and with personnel long involved in ballistic missile penaids and SDIO targets, going back to the mid-1960's on the Minuteman-II Penaids Program(s) and continuing on every US ICBM reentry system since then. The baseline MALTS concept, fully compliant with topic requirements, consists of a programmable pneumatic ejector and a spherical inflatable test object. Both have been flown successfully and are suitable for launch on sounding rockets, ICBMs, space launch vehicles or from satellites. Recurring unit flight test cost will be well under the $250K goal.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
2000 West Cabot Blvd.Suite 150
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 375-3035
Dr. Larry Roderick
MDA 07-007      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Passive Cooling of Laser Diodes for Use on Satellites
Abstract:A novel concept integrating, k-Corer (a material system which consists of encapsulated annealed pyrolytic graphite) saddle with a loop heat pipe evaporator is proposed. Due to five fold increase compared to the baseline aluminum, the proposed concept can enable much higher heat flux levels at lesser resistance to the radiator. In addition, the proposed concept will not have any weight penalty compared to baseline aluminum. During phase I, a saddle, designed for a LHP evaporator will be designed, fabricated and evaluated towards meeting the program goals of 60 W cooling at heat flux of 700 W/cm2

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Mr. Walter Zimbeck
MDA 07-007      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Loop Heat Pipe Laser Diode Array Cooling System
Abstract:A two-phase loop cooling system will be developed for thermal management of high heat laser diode arrays on satellites. To achieve the high heat flux capacity necessary for this application (700 W/cm2) and the tight temperature control, a novel flat plate, high flux evaporator will be developed. For close integration of the evaporator to the laser diode bars, thermal expansion matched materials will be used to construct the evaporator. The Ph I effort will focus on evaporator design, system modeling and fabrication and characterization of a prototype evaporator. A full-scale prototype system will be built and tested in Phase II.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1202
Dr. Henry R. Sebesta
MDA 07-008      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Next Generation Gimbal (NGG)
Abstract:Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes innovations in the design and mechanizations of space gimbals and their electrical and pointing controls. This new paradigm for a gimbal design is denoted the Next Generation Gimbal (NGG) and yields a gimbal system that is lighter, uses less power, and exhibits better performance. The technology innovations that will be exploited in creating the NGG include:  On-Gimbal IMU for precise and accurate pointing control and stabilization;  Momentum storage and exchange mechanisms to achieave more efficient power utilization than conventional gimbal motors;  Innovative mode logic and control algorithms to optimize overall mass, power, function, and performance;  Advanced gimbal subsystem control electronics hosted on flexible, small, low-power FPGA processors with characteristics suitable for space environments;  Material selections that are compatible with optical payload gimbal applications. The combination of these new gimbal design approaches, advanced technologies, and new control and operating philosophies offer great promise and allows us to reach the goals of SBIR Topic MDA07-008.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1224
Mr. Darren R. Laughlin
MDA 07-008      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Disk Resonator Gyroscope (DRG) Electronics Optimization
Abstract:Proposed Missile Defense Agency (MDA) systems, such as the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS), require high precision gyroscopes for high-resolution Line of Sight (LOS) stabilization and pointing control for the acquisition, pointing and tracking (APT) systems. To achieve these mission objectives, MDA is very interested in the development of compact, high performance, space qualified micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyros. The recently developed MEMS Disc Resonator Gyro (DRG) has the potential of fulfilling the MDA MEMS gyro requirement. Research associated with the volume manufacturing for the DRG is currently underway by Sensors in Motion (SIM). However, miniaturized, low power, and radiation hardened electronics have not yet been developed for the DRG and ultimately required for satellite applications. ATA proposes to develop miniaturized, radiation hardened electronics for the DRG for realization of MDA's MEMS gyro needs. High performance DRGs incorporating compact optimized electronics would be used extensively in precision inertial reference units (IRUs) and inertial measurement units (IMUs) with the advantage of much smaller size and weight, less power, and also less cost due to the mass production implications of MEMS devices in general. High performance MEMS DRGs would facilitate MDA's space-borne applications that cannot be fulfilled with current gyro technology, i.e. HRGs, RLGs, FOGs, and DTGs, because of size, weight, power, and cost limitations.

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES, INC.
18411 Gothard StreetUnit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Mr. Wayne Steffier
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Flight-Weight Ceramic Composite Monopropellant Rocket Thruster Assembly
Abstract:Rocket thrusters based on hydroxyl-ammonium nitrate (HAN) monopropellants are of interest for Network Centric Airborne Defense Element (NCADE) missile axial and divert propulsion applications because of their inherent system simplicity, low toxicity, high specific impulse (~275s), and 50% greater density-specific impulse over hydrazine (Isp220s). Their high combustion temperatures (33300F), however, pose significant challenges on chamber and bedplate materials. In order to exploit the performance benefits of HAN, advanced materials, such as SiC composites, reticulated SiC foams and lightweight end-closure joining methods are needed. SiC composite and SiC foam catalyst bedplates have demonstrated superior performance qualities in recent hot-fire testing at AEROJET, while significantly decreasing weight and manufacturing cost over alternative designs and materials. Hyper-Therm HTC's SiC composite thrust chambers and SiC foam bedplates have been selected by AEROJET for several MDA missile applications, however composite chambers have not yet been demonstrated using HAN. Moreover, a method for efficiently joining the composite chamber to the metallic forward end-closure is essential to the success of affordable flight-weight composite propulsion devices. The objective of this program is to develop a flight-weight composite monopropellant rocket thruster consistent with the requirements of NCADE for hot-fire evaluation. High-performance SiC composite thrust chambers incorporating ultra-lightweight SiC foam catalyst bedplates and utilizing a weight-efficient end-closure joining method will be developed in Phase I and prepared for hot-fire testing by AEROJET using HAN early in a Phase II program.

PLASMA PROCESSES, INC.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 851-7653
Mr. Timothy McKechnie
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/29/08
Title:Light Weight Thrust Chambers for Advanced Interceptor Axial Propulsion
Abstract:The Network Centric Airborne Defense Element (NCADE) is an affordable boost- and ascent- phase ballistic missile interceptor system. NCADE has the same form, fit and interface as the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAMT). The boost- and ascent-phase capability of NCADE is enabled by high-altitude launch and a high performance two-stage propulsion system. The second stage uses a hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) based monopropellant for all upper stage propulsion, including axial, divert and attitude control system, to provide endo- and exoatmospheric flight. The combustion environment of high-performance HAN formulations is both high temperature (>1700C) and corrosive (nitric acid, steam, carbon dioxide). The biggest technical challenge for HAN based propulsion systems is developing low-cost, lightweight thrusters and hot gas valves to withstand the extreme temperature environment of combustion products. Lining carbon-carbon chambers with a thin layer of rhenium or iridium is an innovative way to both economically use refractory metals and improve the performance of high temperature composite chambers. This proposal will evaluate using iridium-lined carbon-carbon to form a composite structure for HAN axial thrusters and DACS gas generator components.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Clifford T. Tanaka
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Chemical Vapor Composite (CVCT) SiC for HAN Propulsion Systems
Abstract:Trex will develop rocket motor components suitable for liquid HAN monopropellant propulsion systems utilizing its patented CVC SiCT process. CVC SiC enables production of high quality SiC capable of handling extreme temperatures up to 3700oF, well within the requirement for the HAN propellant. Furthermore, near net shape fabrication of rocket motor components, such as nozzles, flame liners and pintles is possible via CVCT. Finally, addition of solid particles and chopped fibers has been demonstrated, which yield stress-free, robust composite SiC materials required for the extreme pressure and thermal loads in the intended application. The proposed Phase 1 will produce prototype, near net shape CVC SiCT fiber-reinforced composites, thereby demonstrating a cost-effective manufacturing process for these high temperature components.

VALLEY TECH SYSTEMS
129 N. Cloverdale Blvd #5
Cloverdale, CA 95425
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 996-9220
Mr. Michael Oberth
MDA 07-009      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Multi Nozzle Grid Technology Application to MDA Missile Systems
Abstract:As the US missile defense capability matures there is a growing need for new technologies that enable smaller packaging envelopes and higher mass fractions with improved performance. One such promising technology is the use of Multi Nozzle Grids (MGN) in place of conventional rocket nozzles. The MGN technology packages an array of small "nozzlettes" that individually exhibit high performance expansion ratios and collectively provide large delivered thrust. An MGN nozzle provides the benefit of reducing conventional nozzle lengths (up to 10:1), reducing system weight while potentially improving overall delivered performance. To demonstrate the benefits of the MNG technology to an MDA missile system Valley Tech Systems (VTS) is proposing a Phase I SBIR program for the conceptual design modeling and establishment of processing methods for an MNG nozzle. This Phase I program will provide the design and analyses foundation to proceed into a Phase II demonstration that substantiate the MGN technology benefits to the MDA missile system.

MILLI SENSOR SYSTEMS & ACTUATORS
93 Border Street
West Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-4872
Dr. Donato (Dan) Cardarelli
MDA 07-010      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Actively Stabilized MEMS IMU for Autonomous Guidance and Navigation
Abstract:Without the means for stabilizing the scale factor and bias of MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers, they cannot become precise and accurate instruments. With stabilization, however, autonomous navigation is possible and GPS reliability can be improved. We propose to introduce active stabilization methods and test devices and carry out the proof-of-concept tests during Phase I. We will make use of existing hardware from related programs. The significance of the bias stabilization method to performance is that the formerly limiting 1/f - derived bias instability can be greatly reduced, with the potential of obtaining less than 1 deg/hr. An added importance of the scale factor and bias stabilization methods is the reduction in testing required and the corresponding drop in cost.

SA PHOTONICS
650 5th StreetSuite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. James Coward
MDA 07-010      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Advanced Interceptor Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Components
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose a program to develop a low cost navigation grade Fiber Optic Gyro development program. There has long been a desire to build a low cost fiber optic gyro using single mode fiber, but various noise sources have precluded this dream from being realized. The scientists at SA Photonics, utilizing their more than 30 combined years of navigation grade Fiber Optic Gyro development experience, have created simple innovative solutions for these noise terms that will finally achieve the long anticipated goal of a low cost navigation grade single mode fiber optic gyro. In Phase I, we will analyze and predict the performance of the proposed low-cost gyro and demonstrate experimentally our key enabling technologies.

SYSENSE CORP.
300 East Magnolia Suite 300
Burbank, CA 91502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 238-2330
Dr. Ashitosh Swarup
MDA 07-010      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:Advanced Interceptor Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Components
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a low-powered, low-noise, high-sensitivity, jam-resistant P/M code capable GPS receiver which can continuously track a GPS signal under high-g environments. The system incorporates several innovative technologies. First, the system is designed to keep the intrinsic system noise to a minimum. Second, a sensor suite incorporating an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is interfaced to the system and an ultra-tightly coupled algorithm incorporating a nonlinear filter to integrate the equations of motion increases the system sensitivity, allowing it to operate in environments where signal strength is severely. Third, the system is designed to be jam-resistant. In addition, the system has been designed for low power consumption and portable dimensions using commercially available off-the-shelf components. Using such components also helps keep system cost to a minimum while providing the required system performance.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. John Player
MDA 07-011      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:High Performance Structures with Synergistic Composite Conductors
Abstract:IST is proposing to integrate electrical conductors and antennas directly into composite structures using a new Synergistic Composite Conductor (SCC). IST's novel SCC technology enables small cross section electrical conductors that can be printed on or embedded into composites without degrading their structural performance. The benefits of this approach include better resistance to vibration and shock related wear, and inherent EMI shielding. There are also secondary weight advantages due to the elimination of electrical wiring clamps and the associated fastener holes which in turn allows for thinner composite cross sections. Printing or embedding the "wires" in the composite also provides support along their entire length which enables wires to be sized solely by current requirements and not g-loading. This will lead to thinner gauge wires and further synergistic weight savings. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of these new synergistic composite conductors and set the stage for electrical systems to be integrated into a larger demonstration article in the Phase II program. The Phase II will culminate in the fabrication of an electrical circuit or communications antenna embedded in a structural composite.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Richard O Claus
MDA 07-011      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Multifunctional Metal RubberT Composite Structural Materials
Abstract:This SBIR program would develop multifunctional structural composite materials based on NanoSonic's Metal RubberT. The Metal RubberT composites would offer mechanical stiffness-to-weight comparable with conventional cross-ply laminate face sheet and structural composite materials, but also incorporate high electrical conductivity, broadband RF/EMI shielding, and uniform thermal conductivity typically not available in polymer matrix composite systems. Metal RubberT is a self-assembled nanocomposite material that combines conducting nanoclusters and advanced polymers into free-standing sheets. These materials would be combined as plies with high performance reinforcement fibers to create cross-ply laminate composites during Phase I. Prior work has demonstrated low mass density (<1g/cc), highly electrically conductive (10-6 ohm∙cm), and useful RF and microwave shielding properties for NanoSonic's Metal RubberT ply materials. During Phase I, NanoSonic would modify the chemistry of its current Metal RubberT materials to allow their consolidation into composite structural materials using normal processing routes. Multiple Metal RubberT composite structural test articles would be delivered and evaluated to determine RF/EMI, electrical conductivity, thermal uniformity, useable temperature range, UV degradation and outgassing properties. NanoSonic would work with a large aerospace prime contractor involved in multiple MDA platforms and systems to design multifunctional requirements into Metal RubberT composite performance, and evaluate properties of test articles.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, INC.
9550 Ridgehaven Ct
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Mr. Gary Wonacott
MDA 07-011      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Synergistic Structures for Interceptor Kill Vehicles
Abstract:The MDA has been investing in advanced structures and components technology development and demonstration programs for exoatmospheric interceptors for the ERIS, BP, SBI, EKV and GBI, and the MKV weapon systems. Significant advances have been achieved in mass and volume reduction for these interceptor kill vehicles; however, to achieve the mass reductions required for the next generation KV's, whether in space or on the ground, it will require the elimination of mass associated with enclosures for electronics. SDC proposes to leverage its 25 years of experience with kill vehicle requirements, technology, as well as SDC's strong relationship with KV system contractors to develop designs that fully integrate electronics subsystems into the primary structure. The feasibility of embedding three distinct types of electrical components into the composite interceptor structure will be explored: power and ground, data communication busses and antennas and processing components. This study will explore the benefits of embedding the components into the structure, determine which components would provide the best weight advantage, and conclude with the design and fabrication of a composite interceptor subcomponent. An element of the study will be the use of modular construction to change high value components in space via man or robotics.

DAVIDSON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
530 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-3114
Dr. Christian Tournes
MDA 07-012      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Interceptor Algorithms
Abstract:The evolution of advanced missile threats calls for interceptors with increased maneuver agility operating seamlessly in and between the boundaries of low endo-, high endo- and exo-atmospheric regimes and blurs the separation of interceptor fly-out and autonomous kill-vehicle end-game. In order to meet with increased target maneuver capabilities, the kill vehicle must supplement when possible its thruster based divert capability with aerodynamic lift which is the source of considerable model uncertainties. This poses major control architectural challenges and raises serious robustness issue difficult to meet using traditional control techniques. This proposal is about the use of novel Higher Order Sliding Mode HOSM control techniques in the design of seeker tracker and observers, guidance and automatic pilot. HOSM control is output based and not plant model oriented. It requires very limited knowledge of the plant and is perfectly robust to model uncertainty. Using the fly out characteristics and endgame guidance requirement of several known interceptors such as the ground based Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), sea based Standard Missile (SM3), and ground based midcourse Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) and given an assumed advanced maneuvering threat this effort will explore the potential of developing a new agile kill vehicle GN&C that can operate in all phases of flight: boost, midcourse, and terminal and its associated guidance, navigation and control laws for the most advanced threats without being constrained by the current approaches.

GUIDED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1453
McDonough, GA 30253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 898-9100
Dr. J. Eric Corban
MDA 07-012      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Adaptive Methods for Target Tracking, and Guidance and Control for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense System
Abstract:Ballistic missiles pose formidable challenges for target tracking and intercept because of their spiraling dynamics and significant maneuverability potential as they re-enter the atmosphere at high speeds. Recent studies have shown that conventional methods to estimation, guidance and control design are unable to guarantee sufficient accuracy against such highly maneuvering targets. This is not unexpected since the coupling between the individual elements is not accounted for completely using the conventional design paradigm, and the separation principle which is implicit in such designs can break down in engagements that require high maneuverability. To meet these challenges we propose developing i) adaptive integrated guidance and control (G&C) designs for increased performance and robustness to uncertain interceptor dynamics, ii) adaptive target-state estimation designs for increased performance and robustness against maneuvering targets, iii) an integrated design method for combining adaptive target-state estimation and adaptive G&C designs for improving overall system performance, and iv) collision avoidance methods to avoid mutual kill-vehicle collisions. The adaptive methods are based on flight proven Neural-Network based adaptive control algorithms. We expect that our strategy for integrated adaptive designs can produce never before achieved levels of lethality for the intercept of future maneuvering targets.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5218
Dr. Genshe Chen
MDA 07-012      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Seamlessly Integrated GNC Algorithms for Multi-Missile Interception
Abstract:We propose an integrated missile interception approach that ensures seamless transition between fly out guidance phase and end game guidance phase under environments with complex noises and multiple weapon/sensor resources. Several distinctive key features are as follows: 1) Rather than attempting achieving fly-out guidance laws that will invariably require information on time-to-go, continuous feed on target motion, linearization or other unrealistic assumptions, our fly-out guidance approach is based on fast on-line solution to a 3-D optimal control problem. The guidance allows optimally determined two-pulse fly-out strategy, easily incorporates any updated target motion data, and affords seamless transition to end-game guidance; 2) A new end game guidance law which considers time-varying parameters, nose-tail bicontrol, estimation delay, and intentional/chaotic spiraling will be developed; 3) Variable Structure Interacting Multiple Model (VSIMM) estimation theory is applied to support our guidance and control algorithm. Such estimation approach is efficient for tracking different "class" target and/or in "dense" environment, i.e. in presence of a number of different threats corrupted by non-Gaussian clutters. The special structure of our VSIMM will greatly reduce computational complexity; 4) We will also refine game theoretic resource management algorithm and other supporting modules which will optimally utilize available weapons and sensor resources.

EM PHOTONICS, INC.
51 East Main StreetSuite 203
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Dr. Fernando Ortiz
MDA 07-013      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Hardware Accelerated Super Resolution for MDA Interceptors
Abstract:MDA is currently developing advanced interceptors for its BMDS. Imaging technology is crucial to this effort for several purposes, including navigation, false-alarm/decoy identification, and estimation of position and speed of potential targets. Although high-resolution imaging systems are readily available, these require (1) power-hungry CMOS arrays (or FPAs) and (2) large-aperture optics, which are heavy, expensive and may not be compatible with the aerodynamic profile of high-speed interceptors. Fortunately, signal processing methods have been developed that enable high-resolution image-capture using low-resolution equipment exclusively, a family of algorithms know as super-resolution. Although super-resolution algorithms have been studied extensively by the research community, their implementation and deployment have been limited due to high computational cost and the inability to work in real-time in realistic applications. We propose the acceleration of super resolution routines using readily available hardware; in particular, an FPGA platform will be utilized given its compatibility with the power/size/cost requirements of missile interceptors.

INTUITIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6767 Old Madison PikeSuite 240
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-1992
Dr. J. Wayne McCain
MDA 07-013      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:FPGA Based High Performance Avionics
Abstract:Intuitive Research and Technology Corporation (INTUITIVE) is proposing to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to demonstrate proof-of-principle of Field Intuitive Research and Technology Corporation (INTUITIVE) is proposing to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to demonstrate proof-of-principle of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology as avionics performance enhancing technology. Currently, state of the art missile systems have three separate Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) for seeker image processing, flight computing, and communications. FPGA-based High Performance Avionics (F-HPA) will combine these three LRU's on a single circuit card; significantly reducing weight, cost, and power consumption while dramatically increasing reliability and maintainability. Further, FPGAs provide and inherent anti-tamper capability, which is accomplished with 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encrypted FPGA configuration streams and encrypted chip-to-chip communication. FPGAs also provide extremely high performance computing for certain types of algorithms. 200 Mega-pixels per second image processing is well within current FPGA technology capabilities.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle StreetSte. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
MDA 07-013      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Multi Gigahertz Hardened Processor For MDA HAENS Applications
Abstract:xxx

RADIATION ASSURED DEVICES, INC.
5017 North 30th Street
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0800
Dr. Terrence Deaton
MDA 07-014      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Radiation Hard Interceptor Components Test Methods for Missile Defense
Abstract:MDA is in need of complete sensor test capability that enables test planning, test execution and test data analysis. Much of the test expertise and equipment capable of supporting these activities was dispersed following the termination of the various DTRA programs supporting them and limited emphasis on radiation effects in all MDA activities. We propose to establish an initial LWIR sensor test capability at RAD Longmire Laboratory using the government-owned NICS chamber, incorporating the NODDS scene generation capability and the methodology and hardware developed at Longmire Laboratory for sensor testing. Phase I of the proposed program will consist of an assessment of the NICS hardware, specifically the scene generation subsystems, and the feasibility of this incorporation. This reconstitution will allow rapid restart of sensor test activities at MDA and development of new test paradigms for space and MDA sensors as new technologies become available while retaining the services of all the critical experts in the area. Following this initial phase, the program will establish a process for bringing new capabilities on line, develop new test paradigms and transition these to the community.

TORCH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4035 Chris DriveSuite C
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-6000
Mr. Neil Miller
MDA 07-014      Awarded: 02/26/08
Title:Radiation Hard Interceptor Components Test Methods for Missile Defense
Abstract:In our Phase I effort, we propose to develop a concept that addresses radiation hardening techniques for electro-optical sensor and electronics unit subsystems. This development will demonstrate feasibility of the concept to be incorporated into the BMDS architecture to provide reliable operation for its projected mission life. We will conduct research and analysis efforts to identify, investigate, and demonstrate unique electronics designs, test methods, and test hardware to mitigate the effects of radiation environments. This concept has merit to provide reliable operation of BMDS interceptors in perturbed environments consistent with high altitude nuclear bursts or prolonged natural space radiation. We will determine feasibility of inserting hardening and/or evaluating radiation hardened sensors using proposed concepts without significantly impacting sensor mass, cost and producibility. We will develop an experimental approach that demonstrates the radiation hardness capability of the concept. We will provide some initial modeling and analysis to support our conclusions. Our approach would be practical implementation with the existing Sensor HWIL capability to demonstrate our proposed concept.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Dr. Milan Buncick
MDA 07-015      Awarded: 02/29/08
Title:Interceptor Seekers
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is build an, all electronic, photonic band gap (PBG) scanning device using high performance electro-optic (EO) polymers for beam steering. The PBG device will take advantage of the superprism effect in PBG structures. PBG's h have been shown to have an effective refraction several orders of magnitude greater than conventional materials. The beam will be steered by an EO deflector and the steering angle will be amplified by the PC. This device can lead to high speed, high reliability, beam steering systems with no moving parts suitable for deployment on missile systems, space platforms and small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 07-015      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:HgCdTe Detectors Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions for High Operating Temperatures
Abstract:High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared detector arrays operating at 77K can be tailored for response across the infrared spectrum and are commonly utilized for infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). However, the cooling systems required to achieve the desired sensitivity makes them heavy and therefore unsuitable for many applications. Infrared arrays operating above ~200K could be thermoelectrically-cooled and integrated in lighter and more compact interceptor systems. This superior operating temperature could be provided by a system based on HgCdTe infrared detectors operating under non-equilibrium conditions. The concept is to suppress Auger recombination and the corresponding dark current, leading to dramatic increase in detector dynamic impedances and detectivities. This technology provides sensitive infrared FPA operation with response across the infrared spectrum at high temperatures, is compatible with multi-band response and large format technology, and therefore meets all major MDA sensor requirements. In Phase I, we will demonstrate high performance single detectors with response in the MWIR and LWIR bands and high operating temperature. Our goal is to achieve detectivities >10^9 cm.Hz0.5/W at operating temperature >200K. The efforts in Phase I may be extended to two-color detection, large-format full focal plane arrays and longer wavelength operation (VLWIR out to 14 um) in later phases.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara BoulevardSuite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 07-015      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Arrays for Missile Tracking at High Frame Rates
Abstract:Missile seekers would benefit from a focal plane array (FPA) that allowed high-speed single or multiple-windowing acquisition of the target or targets while maintaining situational awareness of the rest of the field of view. Such data reduction helps where bandwidth is limited, e.g. arrays with formats larger than 1Kx1K, allowing tracking of high-speed missiles at high frame rates. Readout multiplexers with this Variable Acuity Superpixel Imaging (VASI) capability were recently developed by Novasensors under DOD SBIRs. In Phase 1, QmagiQ will develop and deliver a high quantum efficiency longwave infrared focal plane array on a 320x256 readout with this new capability. In Phase 2, we will develop and deliver a 1Kx1K sensor engine to an MDA program (e.g. THAAD) to field-test the full benefits of this first-generation "smart" FPA with features such as on-chip data compression, multiple windowing, and random-pixel-addressability.

ANALYTICAL SERVICES, INC.
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-2115
Dr. Mike Guthrie
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Drag and Lift Characteristics for Irregularly-Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:Analytical Services, Incorporated, teamed with Davidson Technologies, proposes a new approach to the characterization of drag and lift coefficient distributions for debris resulting from missile intercepts. The proposed approach utilizes both theoretical considerations and available measured data obtained from flight tests or other sources. This approach uses the measured data to obtain best estimates of a "true distribution" derived from actual debris/fragment physical attributes. The ASI team proposes to use government furnished data from flight tests or other sources, along with transport and dispersion model propagators, to estimate a consistent set of drag and lift coefficient distributions with error estimates. This work is important because of the widespread use of transport and dispersion models along with debris distribution models, i.e., KIDD, and the use of software derivative products, such as Range Safety software, in the prediction of debris footprints.

ANDREWS SPACE, INC.
505 5th Ave SSuite 300
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 438-0671
Mr. Bob Henke
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Characterization of Debris Fragments
Abstract:The problem of debris propagation and impact location has been studied since the formation of the Missile Defense Agency because accurate prediction of where and with what probability the fragments created during an intercept will impact the ground is crucial to the determination of possible collateral damage. The Kinetic Impact Debris Distribution (KIDD) fragmentation model provides a tool for predicting the post-intercept behavior these fragments. However, the KIDD model is limited by the extent to which the aerodynamic characteristics of the debris are quantified. Andrews Space proposes the development of a surrogate-based debris aerodynamics model, drawing on empirical data, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and statistical principles to quantify the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly shaped fragments during both the subsonic and important high-Q phases of flight. This model will be based on 1) a careful statistical classification of actual debris based on physical characteristics, 2) the development of a family of debris surrogates from this classification, 3) the analytical (CFD) modeling of these surrogates to validate their applicability and behavior in different flight regimes, and 4) the collection of wind tunnel data (during a Phase-II follow-on) to benchmark the aerodynamic characteristics of the surrogates.

AVID LLC
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1400
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-0067
Mr. Sam Wilson
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Aerodynamic Drag and Lift Characteristics for Irregularly-Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:The focus of this proposal is the aftermath of a successful missile intercept, where the resulting fragments fall toward land or sea. This study will develop an approach to quantify shape parameters in a useful way to feed to a designed algorithm set governing lift and drag. The goal will be to enable trajectory analysis based upon lift and drag characteristics. Driving parameters such as the size, mass, velocity, and the material structure will be defined and evaluated as they correlate to a fragment's lift and drag.Existing approaches have focused on the shape evaluation, formulating a plan to standardize shape parameters to enable a generic set of algorithms. Complex non-linear departure modes, such as tumbling, are difficult to replicate in a wind tunnel environment. For Phase I, computational methods, simulating the aerodynamics, are the most cost effective way of predicting non-linear departures for lift and drag. AVID intends to address this problem in three parts, geometry definition, aerodynamic analysis, and predictive techniques to correlate data. During Phase I, research into each set of prediction methodologies will be conducted with a method selected for further development during Phase II. In preparation for Phase II, AVID will develop a measurement approach for experimentally validating the aerodynamic characteristics of the fragments derived in Phase I. Novel wind tunnel testing techniques and deviations from more standard testing methods will be explored for the best possible test matrix to replicate fragment rotational free fall after impact.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4930
Dr. Peter Liever
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Irregularly Shaped Fragments
Abstract:An innovative aerodynamic database generation methodology is proposed for arbitrary fragment shapes. This will be achieved with automated CFD methods, using the framework of the Unified Flow Solver (UFS). The UFS features an Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement (AMAR) procedure for seemlessly coupling rarefied and continuum algorithms inside a simulation. The AMAR automatically creates Cartesian computational grids for arbitrary shapes and executes the analysis in an automated process. This simulation system will provide the analyst with a push-button computational tool for generating a deterministic ensemble of steady-state and tumbling body aerodynamic datasets. The deterministic collection of simulation results from this process will be utilized to formulate probabilistic fragment drag and lift cross range models that can be applied in existing debris tracking modules. This method will capture the complex variability of the lift magnitude and direction with sensitivities to shape, inertial and flow irregularities. In Phase I, A moving body capability will be added to UFS for simulating moving fragment flowfields, and the code will be validated and demonstrated for subsonic to hypersonic and continuum to rarefied aerodynamics predictions. In Phase II, the developed tools will be applied for generating datasets for fragment shapes at a range of combinations of Mach, Reynolds, and Knudsen numbers over the entire potential fragment trajectory space suitable for application in MDA debris tracking tools.

CFD THERMICS, LLC
22647 De Kalb Drive
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 224-5685
Dr. Yanbao Ma
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:A Fully Coupled CFD and Rigid-Body-Dynamics Simulation Tool for Predicting Drag and Lift Characteristics of Irregularly-Shaped Fragments
Abstract:Debris fragments are a major concern when characterizing the debris environment for both spacecraft and ground-based systems. One of the major technical difficulties in the characterization of debris fragmentation is the uncertainty is predicting the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly shaped fragments. The lift and drag characteristics are functions of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, fragment shape and orientation, Kundsen numbers for rarefied gas environment. Currently, there is no general theory for the properties of the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly shaped fragments. In this Phase I proposal, we propose to develop a new fully coupled implicit 3-D CFD and rigid-body-dynamics simulation tool for arbitrary motion of irregular shaped fragments in a wide range of flow conditions. We will address the correlation of drag and lift characteristics and the correlation of these characteristics to other fragment properties for a full spectrum of flow regimes including free molecular, hypersonic, supersonic, transonic, and subsonic flows. We will also determine the motion of the fragments of various shapes. The new simulation tool is expected to be valuable to the development of accurate prediction tools for the aerodynamic lift and drag characteristics of irregularly-shaped intercept fragments.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Aerodynamic Drag and Lift Characteristics for Irregularly-Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is pleased to offer this SBIR Phase I proposal. In the proposed effort, we will supplement existing experimental and engineering methodologies to assess the aerodynamics of fragments generated during missile defense intercepts. Our approach utilizes an innovative combination of high-fidelity computational techniques for continuum and rarefied flows, high-performance computing resources, and advanced solution-automation processes. Using this first-principles-based methodology, we will develop a framework to generate high-fidelity databases of fragment aerodynamic properties over a wide range of flow conditions.

FLOW PARAMETRICS, LLC
68 Bushy Hill Road
Ivoryton, CT 06442
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 625-8850
Dr. Andreja Brankovic
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Characteristics of Missile Fragments Using a Digital Wind Tunnel
Abstract:Lift and drag characteristics of arbitray, irregularly shaped fragments will be computed using a combination of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) method. Cartesian meshes will be generated for the shapes, and accurate lift and drag characteristics will be post-processed using the simulation data bases. Outputs will be in the form of tables that can be utilized by existing fragment trajectory software.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Hartmut H. Legner
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Novel Fragment Aerodynamic Models over Entire Velocity and Altitude Range
Abstract:A novel method is proposed to model the aerodynamic lift and drag coefficients for complex fragment shapes resulting from the impact of Missile Defense Agency (MDA) interceptors with target vehicles. The force coefficients are needed for the entire spectrum of flight velocities and impact altitudes ranging from low-earth orbit to near-ground. Our Phase I approach considers a high altitude model (LEO to 45 km) and a low altitude model (45 km to 0 km). In the upper high altitude region we build upon previously successful models and bridge the free molecular regime and the continuum regime with truly unique functions derived from actual re-entry flight data. In the lower altitude region, we model the individual fragments with separate flow models for each region (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic) while distinguishing the methods further by laminar or turbulent shear flow and by low or high angle of attack. The analysis will be guided by perturbations of generic shapes such as spheres, cylinders, plates, and needles in order to make use of existing data bases. The Phase II will emphasize the generation of coefficients as well as experimental and CFD validation and actual debris field simulations.

TECHNOLOGY IN BLACKSBURG, INC.
265 Industrial Drive
Christiansburg, VA 24073
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 381-8502
Ms. Sandra Gunter
MDA 07-016      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Aerodynamic Characteristics of Irregularly Shaped Intercept Fragments
Abstract:Techsburg, Inc. proposes to leverage our expertise in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel testing to numerically predict the lift and drag characteristics of irregularly-shaped intercept fragments and experimentally validate a subset of the results using our in-house supersonic wind tunnel facility. We will apply 3D laser scanning technology to digitize the geometry of sponsor-supplied intercept fragment samples, and then construct CFD grids based on this geometry. CFD simulations will then be conducted over a wide range of fragment geometries and flow conditions. We will measure the aerodynamic loads acting on fragments at Mach 1.6 over a range of orientations using the Techsburg Supersonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel, with the goal of experimentally validating the CFD results. Finally, the CFD and test data will be parameterized into correlations that can be used as part of existing fragment trajectory prediction codes.

COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, INC.
8001 Braddock RoadSte 210
Springfield, VA 22151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 764-7501
Dr. Steven L. Berg
MDA 07-017      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:First-Principles Earthshine and Skyshine Models
Abstract:Earthshine and skyshine illuminate missiles and space-based sensors. It is important to quantitatively understand their contribution to the incident infrared, visible, and ultraviolet irradiance on missiles and sensors to be able to assess their impact on the missile defense mission. Computational Physics, Inc. (CPI) proposes to develop and demonstrate an architecture capable of hosting a first-principles earthshine/skyshine model that will facilitate the assessment of earthshine and skyshine on missile defense systems. CPI will survey the missile defense modeling and simulation (M&S) community's user needs related to earthshine and skyshine, and also survey the current understanding of the key sources and phenomenology contributing to earthshine and skyshine. These surveys will be used to derive specific requirements for the earthshine/skyshine model, to maximize the utility of the model to its users. In addition, CPI will evaluate existing software technologies for their applicability in providing a robust architecture for the model. Key attributes that the technology must support include interoperability, extensibility, and maintainability.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. James Duff
MDA 07-017      Awarded: 02/28/08
Title:UV-IR Robust, Accurate Earthshine and Skyshine (RAES) Model
Abstract:Target detection, classification and tracking by missile defense sensor systems from post boost phase through mid-course to reentry is affected not only by background contrast but also by the irradiance contributing to the target signature by extended sources including direct and reflected sunshine, earthshine, airglow, moonshine and other celestial sources. The total irradiance on the target from Earthshine/Skyshine and Airglow emissions is important for predicting signature during dawn, dusk and night time conditions. In addition, external sources, including solar heating, earth reflected solar and earth thermal emissions, make important contributions to target heating. The earthshine/skyshine external sources are difficult to model accurately and have not received adequate attention in existing signature models. To fulfill MDA needs, Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes in this SBIR Phase I to provide a first principles detailed model for accurate determination of earthshine and skyshine radiance in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectral regions. To develop this model, dubbed Robust Accurate Earthshine Skyshine (RAES), we will build on SSI's extensive experience in atmospheric radiance models, and team with Photon Research Associates (PRA) to incorporate their terrain and cloud models, and with Teledyne Solutions Inc. (TSI), the developer of the OSC target model.

MILSYS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
408 E. Fourth StreetSuite 204
Bridgeport, PA 19405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 272-5050
Mr. Robert Lee
MDA 07-018      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Fidelity Missile Hardbody Plume Interaction Modeling
Abstract:This project will demonstrate the coupled use of two High-Fidelity fluid dynamic solvers, the AVUS CFD code and the SOCRATES-P DSMC code, to simulate propulsive missile flowfield characteristics from launch to the intercept point. The demonstration case, under this proposed Phase I effort, will concentrate on integrating several advanced simulation technologies for modeling missile plume and hardbody flowfield/thermal response interactions. This effort will accurately model combined plume/hardbody IR signatures with a specific emphasis on plume-related events at high altitudes. The SOCRATES-P Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code for flowfields above 90 km will be coupled to existing government owned/developed models for six-degree-of-freedom trajectory dynamics, material thermal response, aeroheating, and aerodynamics to perform a complete simulation package capable of including all pertinent physical effects related to combined missile hardbody/plume IR signatures. Needed phenomenology, code requirements, and program design will be emphasized in Phase I, with subsequent code development and validation being the focus of Phase II. In the continuing Phase II effort, these fluid modules will then be integrated into the Plume Object Environment Model (POEM) toolkit, currently in development under a separate MDA sponsored project.

PROPULSION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
848 Town Center Drive
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(267) 276-0181
Ms. Margaret W. Taylor
MDA 07-018      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Fidelity Missile Hardbody Plume Interaction Modeling
Abstract:Considerable effort has been expended by the missile defense community to obtain accurate, well validated simulation tools for the prediction of optical signatures. Since sensors must detect and track threat missiles from launch to impact, plume optical signatures are utilized during the boost phase and hardbody signatures are utilized after burnout. Past efforts have focused primarily on independant assessments of hardbody and plume signatures. Accordingly, the complete propulsion system and plume-induced heating effects on the hardbody signatures (e.g. plume-induced boundary layer separation, hot nozzles, etc.) during the boost phase are neglected. Both the current hardbody (OSC, ATAP) and plume flowfield (SPF-III, CHARM, SOCRATES) codes include methodology that accounts for continuum, transitional and rarefied flow regimes. However, these codes are completely uncoupled from each other. In view of the need described above it is the objective of this SBIR to develop a common flowfield solver, from launch to impact, that can accurately predict missile hardbody and plume flowfields simultaneously, accounting for all important propulsion system and plume-induced heating effects on the hardbody. The work planned for this Phase I SBIR is to establish the feasibility of our approach towards the development of this common flowfield solver.

ACTA, INC.
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Dr. Gamage Wije Wathugala
MDA 07-019      Awarded: 02/25/08
Title:Hypervelocity Intercept Modeling with First-Principle, Physics-Based Tools
Abstract:ACTA Incorporated (ACTA) is pleased to propose a six-month SBIR Phase I feasibility Project titled "Hypervelocity Intercept Modeling With First-Principle, Physics-Based Tools." The Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space at Sunnyvale, California will support ACTA with their technical expertise and experience. The stated objective of this solicitation topic is to develop techniques and tools for high-fidelity, first-principle, physics-based modeling of damage and debris from hypervelocity missile defense intercepts and use these tools to generate data sets to support the development and validation of fast-running algorithms.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 07-019      Awarded: 03/18/08
Title:Hypervelocity Intercept Modeling with First-Principle, Physics-Based Tools
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is pleased to offer the following proposal in response to solicitation MDA-073-019. In Phase 1 Corvid will demonstrate the state-of-the art in the use of first principle physics based modeling to predict damage and debris from missile defense intercepts. The resulting demonstration will show the ability of such tools to accurately model missile defense intercepts in 1 to 15 km/sec range. We will describe, based on our on past extensive experience and expert input from practiced users, what these models can be used for and what improvements need to be made to make them useful in the prediction of data of debris size, shape, mass, and velocity of fragments for a wide range of BMDS intercept conditions. We will offer a modeling path to interim solutions for intercept modeling as well as for development of a full toolset to provide data that is critical to support the development and validation of fast-running intercept damage and debris algorithms.

BFA SYSTEMS, INC.
990 Explorer Blvd.Suite B
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-8791
Mr. Tony Summers
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Lethality Predictive Toolset
Abstract:The Ballistic Missile Defense Shield (BMDS) developed by the United States Government relies on layered defense designed to defeat incoming missiles in boost, mid-course, and terminal phases of flight. To maximize effectiveness of the shield, two types of intercepting missile concepts exist: hit-to-kill and blast fragmenting warheads. The first relies on the incepting missile's kinetic energy to destroy the target, the second on large number of high-speed fragments to perforate and/or ignite critical missile components. Accurate lethality modeling of endgame events continues to be of high importance to the evolving BMDS system. Decisions makers and war-fighters need real time assessments of lethality. Additionally, elements need system-level tools to conduct effectiveness studies and determine hit-point algorithms as a function of target construct. With respect to the effectiveness of blast-fragment systems, the synergistic effect of multiple fragment impacts and the resulting non-shock to detonation response of multiple fragment impacts into cased high-explosive payloads remain unresolved. With this proposal, the BFA/ITT team seeks to improve modeling techniques for multiple fragment impacts and hopes to develop criterion for resulting shock and non-shock to detonation of cased high-explosives. The resulting algorithms and criterion will be captured in modular-based software package for use within the MDA.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 03/18/08
Title:Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Lethality Predictive Toolset
Abstract:Corvid Technologies, with our partners MILTEC Corp. and Lockheed Martin, is pleased to offer the following proposal in response to solicitation MDA-07-019, Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Predictive Toolset. In Phase I we will identify the state-of-the art in modeling two critical lethality code development areas: 1) Fragment Flood Loading and 2) High Explosive non-shock to detonation transitions (SDT). Success of the BMDS program is based on kinetic energy intercepts of a variety of target/payload combinations. These payloads include nuclear, explosive, and chem-bio fills. The phenomenology of an intercept must be well understood to make a predictive assessment of the effectiveness of the BMDS element. Doing so, through computer simulation, is a key to a successful and affordable BMDS.

RHAMM TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
332 Skyland Drive
Bellbrook, OH 45305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 465-5909
Dr. Ronald L. Hinrichsen
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Improvements to the BMDS Hit-to-Kill Lethality Predictive Toolset
Abstract:Currently fast running penetration algorithms, such as FATEPEN, TATE, or Walker-Anderson, are used to rapidly determine the damage imparted to targets by threats, but ultimately can't treat events where damage done by the threat is highly dependent on the response of the target. One possible solution to this problem is to create a set of threats that could be modeled by current fast running algorithms, such as fragments and simple blasts that accurately reproduce the damage caused by more complex threats like multiple fragments, or reactive projectiles. A standardized methodology is needed for creating this frag-blast equivalent threat, so that different reactive projectiles, or multi-frag threats can be compared. This is the objective of this SBIR. RHAMM Technologies, LLC has combined its modeling and simulation expertise with General Sciences, Inc's firsthand knowledge and experimental expertise to create a first rate team, well positioned to develop the analytical tools needed to credibly enhance predictions of the lethality of reactive materials and fragment flood loading events.

TESLA LABORATORIES, INC.
2711 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 200Airport Plaza I
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 334-4824
Dr. Patrick James
MDA 07-020      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Enhancing HTK Lethality Modeling Tools
Abstract:Existing Core simulation models used for defense development and evaluation fail to accurately model lethality for many standoff engagement options such as the use of multiple projectiles and thus cannot validly drive new defense technology development. This program will develop new physics-based computer models for incorporation into existing Core Lethality Models to increase simulation functionality and better predict missile defense strategy effectiveness. This will assist the development of emerging weapon systems tasked to neutralize enemy missile attack threats. The proposed models to be developed will allow simulation of impacts by multiple projectiles and the effects of Fragment Flood Loading (FFL) during impacts in trial interaction scenarios between new candidate standoff engagement lethality enhancing concepts and attacking missiles. Phase I will develop State-of-the-Art FFL models, validate them against known data, and create a simulation tool for modeling the impact, penetration, debris generation and motion, and sympathetic effects such as component failure, fuel loss, and energetic material reaction for multiple projectiles such as targeted by standoff kinetic missile engagement to determine the resultant engagement lethality. This will allow rapid screening, development, and optimization of potential alternative lethality enhancing configurations not adequately covered by existing simulations models such as PEELS.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
MDA 07-021      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Maneuvering Target Phenomenology
Abstract:Propulsion systems may perform a variety of maneuvers during the ascent phase of flight that can impact the performance of an interceptor or other parts of an MDA system designed to perform threat detection, discrimination, and tracking. Our Phase I effort focuses on building on extending existing plume signature software. A main technical objective is to establish the various components and appropriate methodology in order to develop a high-fidelity transient plume signature modeling/simulation tool to properly model the signature emissions from these propulsion systems at high altitudes. The code architecture must consider the complexities in modeling transient, geometric, and chemical aspects of plume-atmosphere and plume-plume interactions. Focus will be on the integration of existing plume CFD and DSMC codes and the necessary chemistry and radiation modeling. Since the plume radiative emissions necessarily depend on the propulsion system of interest, and particularly the propellants used, a chemical kinetics and thermodynamic database for important chemical reaction mechanisms for plume-plume and plume-atmospheric species will benefit this program. While the Phase I focuses on the various components of a computation tool, development during the Phase II will lead to a model applicable for predicting signature of low and high-thrust systems at all altitudes.

ADHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 346-1685
Dr. Ronald Allred
MDA 07-022      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Preimidized Powder Towpregs for Low Cost, High Performance Missile Cases
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is soliciting proposals for new missile materials to expand the capability of current air-to-ground missile systems. This expansion of capability dictates the development of lighter weight materials that are capable of short duration exposures to temperatures as high as 800F. A novel approach to filament winding using high-temperature matrix materials is proposed. This approach uses preimidized polyimide powder impregnated tows ("powder towpreg") incorporating carbon nano-fibers as the direct feed for a filament winding process. While powder towpreg is not new, the use of preimidized powder and non-autoclave processing with incorporated nano-material in the matrix is. By using preimidized powder to shorten cure cycles and non-autoclave cure, considerable cost savings can be realized. The incorporation of nano-fiber reinforcement in the matrix should lead to improved properties that result in lighter weight parts as well. These 100% solids materials better use the expensive high-temperature polyimide resins (low resin loss), provide better uniformity of the matrix resin throughout fabricated parts, reduce cure cycle times due to preimidization, and should provide superior mechanical properties in the final components. As such, this approach has the potential for reducing costs of future aircraft and spacecraft structures and propulsion systems by a variety of means.

KION DEFENSE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1957A Pioneer Rd
Huntingdon Valley, PA 19006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 682-2060
Dr. Frank Kuchinski
MDA 07-022      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Lightweight Composite Thermal Protection System
Abstract:As the technical capabilities of our adversaries improve, it becomes necessary to improve our Ballistic Missile Defense systems capability. Of particular interest are improvements in Thermal Protection Systems and aerostructures for missile interceptors. Greater aerothermal heating and higher stresses require that the outer structure survive higher heat loads and/or dissipate the heat to protect internal components. To address these problems, the team of KiON Defense Technologies (KDT) and our missile systems partner proposes the development of advanced lightweight TPS and aerostructural materials. In Phase I, KDT will demonstrate feasibility by producing composite articles and conducting appropriate tests. Specifically, KDT will employ a sandwich structure design comprising fiber-reinforced skins of proprietary hybrid resins and a syntactic foam core. The skins will be reinforced with quartz or carbon-based fabrics. The skins will be both mechanically attached and chemically bonded to the foam core. In Phase II, KDT will scale-up the process and conduct testing to optimize performance and reduce cost. Upon Phase II completion, KDT will supply materials and technical support for full-scale manufacturing. Successful program completion will provide enhanced ablation capability under thermomechanical stresses in the form of lightweight TPS and aerostructures that can withstand extreme conditions.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-1224
Mr. Gary Tremblay
MDA 07-022      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Lightweight Multi-Functional Nano-Composite Structures for MKV Interceptor Structures (PVG07-062)
Abstract:Lightweight and high performance miniature kill vehicle interceptors are required for interceptor systems, such as the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV), being developed by MDA. A lightweight interceptor structure is a critical component required to integrate component and subsystems and provide the structural strength and stiffness to meet the overall interceptor performance requirements. Conventional light-weighting approaches use graphite fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite materials to provide structural performance. Typically, parasitic weight is then added to the structure to provide additional subsystem functionalities, such as EMI shielding and thermal management for electronic housings. Lighter weight and lower cost miniature interceptors can be provided by incorporating structural, thermal, electrical, and radiation shielding functionality in multi-functional composite structures. Vector has demonstrated the use of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) composite structures manufacturing technology for the fabrication of lower cost and higher performance precision, complex interceptor structures using hybrid designs of graphite composites and metallic materials to incorporate these multi-functional properties. The next generation of multi-functional composite structures will use nano-materials technology instead of hybrid design approaches. The Vector team includes Applied Science Inc. (ASI), a world leader in carbon nano-fiber (CNF) materials technology development and production, and Nanosperse, Inc. (NSI), a world leader in nano-composite resin technology development. ASI's milled CNF and NSI's nano-resin technologies have been shown to significantly improve mechanical, thermal, electrical, and radiation hardness properties of polymer composite structures. The proposed program will combine these nano-materials technologies with Vector's RTM manufacturing process to demonstrate nano-composite manufacturing technology for multi-functional lightweight composite structures for miniature kill vehicle interceptor structures

DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-1230
Mr. Ted Stern
MDA 07-023      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Modular Multi-Threat Survivable Solar Array (PDRT07-036)
Abstract:This effort develops a modular Survivable Solar Array (SSA) for improved protection against high radiation and thermal environments. We incorporate advanced survivability techniques into conventional solar panel technology to protect against Ground Based Lasers and improve radiation shielding. The SSA comprises four hardened assemblies - front-side shield, high thermal capability photovoltaic assembly, hardened thermal radiator, and shielded structural support - which together with countermeasures, will be developed to the highest level of survivability and performance (Watts/kg, Watts/m2 and $/Watt). The Phase I effort starts with a threat engagement and survivability analysis of SSA Module design options incorporating various combinations of passive hardening schemes, in combination with active approaches including array turning, retraction, or shutters. The enhancement of radiation shielding achieved through laser hardening is evaluated. Anticipatory countermeasures based on knowledge of the threat origin as well as responsive measures using threat activated response are evaluated for further enhancement. Concentrator and planar conceptual designs are analyzed, and the best approach is selected for design development and fabrication of a test panel. The SSA uses a standardized modular approach which benefits scale-up, qualification traceability and maintainability. The Phase II effort will complete the detailed design, perform survivability testing and demonstrate a kilowatt-sized multi-module panel.

ENSER CORP. THE
5430 70th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, FL 33781
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 520-1393
Mr. David Harney
MDA 07-023      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Automated Quality Control for Thermal Battery Pellets
Abstract:The overall objective of this program is to develop methodologies for: automatic removal of the pellets from the press, precise measurement of the pellets (weight, thickness), calculation of density, inspection of pellets for chips and cracks, and segregation of non-compliant pellets. Automation of the above processes will ultimately lead to increased throughput with reduced cycle times. Phase I will consist of an engineering study of the various methods, designs to implement these methods, analysis features and benefits of the designs, cost analysis and timeliness to implement, and selection of the most promising approach. In Phase II, selected designs will be translated into working models and tested on a bench scale. Once the system integration/ performance issues have been identified and resolved, the design will be integrated onto a selected press and again tested. Redesign and redeployment iteration(s) will continue in order to prove in the design of choice and validate the technical approach.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando RoadBuilding 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2002
Dr. Hisashi Tsukamoto
MDA 07-023      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense System Innovative Power Generation and Storage Devices
Abstract:In response to this solicitation, Quallion is proposing the introduction of lithium ion battery technology elements into a reserve type battery application. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries have been in commercial use since 1995 when Sony Corporation first introduced them into their product lines. Since that time, lithium ion batteries have grown to become one of the most popular types of battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, no memory effect, and a slow loss of charge when not in use. Although originally intended for consumer electronics, lithium-ion batteries are now growing in popularity with the defense and aerospace industries because of their high energy density. In addition, Quallion will leverage off its own lithium-ion cell production capability and introduce a more controllable and reliable process in manufacturing a reserve type battery.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Mr. Steve Kirkwood
MDA 07-024      Awarded: 02/16/08
Title:Low Cost >5000F ZrOC Based Miniature Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS)
Abstract:In this proposed MDA Phase I SBIR program, MATECH/GSM proposes to demonstrate its newly developed ZrOC fibrous 5000F structural TPS for DACS components to be used in missile defense, such as MKV, SM-3 block-2, and AKV (Agile Kill Vehicle). Prototype components will be fabricated and tested under relevant solid rocket motor conditions, ultimately bringing this material technology to a technology readiness level of seven (TRL-7) by the end of the Phase I and Phase II programs, should they be awarded. This MDA SBIR Phase I is supported by key missile propulsion manufactures ATK Elkton and Aerojet. Both ATK and Aerojet have partnered with MATECH on this SBIR and will actively participate in the evaluation of this material to solve their immediate problems.

PLASMA PROCESSES, INC.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 851-7653
Dr. Daniel Butts
MDA 07-024      Awarded: 01/26/08
Title:Reduced Cost TaC-based Rocket Nozzle for Solid Boost Motors
Abstract:Missile defense interceptors will provide our nation with the capability of defeating threats to our homeland and our deployed troops. However, the fielding of these advanced interceptors is strongly dependent upon technologies that enable production of high performance, low cost interceptor components. Advanced missile defense interceptors require extremely high thrust axial motors to engage hostile targets in their boost phase. The nozzles must survive high thermal stresses with minimal erosion to maintain high kill velocities. Plasma Processes, Inc. has demonstrated the ability to produce high quality vacuum plasma sprayed TaC-based materials. However, merging quality material and low cost fabrication techniques with innovative nozzle designs is greatly needed. In a Phase I effort, Plasma Processes, Inc., with support from Lockheed Martin, proposes to demonstrate the fabrication of non-eroding nozzle throats using an innovative design employing Tantalum Carbide based materials. This employment of novel materials, innovative nozzle design and low cost fabrication techniques can ultimately lead to improved performance and reduced costs for advanced missile defense interceptors.

UTRON, INC.
8506 Wellington Road, Suite 200
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Dr. Karthik Nagarathnam
MDA 07-024      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Near Net Shape Manufacturing of Actuator Components by Rapid Combustion Driven Powder Consolidation Technology
Abstract:In response to MDA's need for fabricating actuator components for DACS and other systems, UTRON proposes an innovative manufacturing technology called the high pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction (CDC) to manufacture near net shape quality actuator system components such as gears with improved densification, mechanical and microstructural attributes. The actuator gear system components are to be fabricated using advanced ferrous based alloys and select composites. Process advantages include higher densities, reduced shrinkage, rapid compaction process cycle times, reduced materials wastage, superior sub-micron surface finish, synthesis/process flexibility of novel nanocomposites, simple to complex geometry fabrication at competitively lower manufacturing costs compared to the traditional P/M and other fabrication methods. The major focus of Phase I is to demonstrate the proof of concept to fabricate the proposed materials in various geometries such as 1 inch diameter disks, mechanical test samples, rings and small scale gear at high CDC compaction pressures (150 tsi) and scientifically evaluate the physical, geometrical, microstructural, and mechanical properties with optimal sintering/heat treatments. More advanced alloys, scaling up and complex geometries will be developed in Phase II. The proposed work has been planned in collaboration with General Dynamics and Southern Research Institute.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0520
Dr. Badawi Dweik
MDA 07-025      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Improved Manufacturing Processes for Advanced Capacitors
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project addresses improving manufacturing methods and performance of an all-solid high energy/power density high-voltage capacitor packaged in a low-cost, bipolar multi-cell configuration. These devices can be used in a wide range of portable electronic systems especially in demanding industrial, defense and aerospace applications. The Phase I program will demonstrate a novel and inexpensive method for manufacturing multi-cell capacitors, which are expected to have advantages resulting in sustainable cost and volume savings compared to current capacitors. Substitution of a solid polymer electrolyte for liquid electrolyte will result in a device that is much easier to fabricate and manufacture without the possibility of electrolyte leakage, thereby enhancing reliability, life and safety features. Successful completion of this Phase I program would demonstrate the manufacturing viability of a new class of capacitors that offers a more durable solution for high efficiency, high reliability and low cost storage capacitors for applications currently occupied by aluminum, ceramic, and tantalum capacitors. Phase I will identify methods of simplifying packaging and manufacturing processes, as well as improving the energy density and reducing the capacitor size. High-voltage capacitor units will be fabricated and characterized to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

TEMEKU TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13873 Park Center RoadSuite 217
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 751-6651
Mr. James Means
MDA 07-025      Awarded: 03/04/08
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost, High Reliability Electronic Packaging
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is seeking new and innovative designs for improved large surfaced based Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA) with high power efficiencies, increased functionality, and more efficient cooling systems. It is anticipated that AESA cooling systems must be capable of managing heat loads ranging from 3-8 kW/ft (32-86 kW/m). The Subambient Cooling System (SACS) developed by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, under MDA Advanced Systems (AS) funding, has demonstrated the ability to manage extremely high heat loads but is limited with the currently available commercial heat exchangers. Temeku Technologies, Inc., proposes to design and show feasibility of an alternative heat exchanger concept for SACS in Phase I, and deliver proof-of-concept via building and validating a prototype for demonstration in the ensuing Phase II. The proposed heat exchanger concept is expected to exceed conventional heat exchanger system performance and be suitable for use in the highest heat loading conditions for AESA.

AMETHYST RESEARCH, INC.
Southern Oklahoma Technology Center2610 Sam Noble Parkway
Ardmore, OK 73401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 227-9414
Dr. Wayne Holland
MDA 07-026      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Defect Mapping of Wafers for Increasing Yield and Operability of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:The yield and operability of high performance infrared detectors, particularly those based on HgCdTe, are severely compromised by materials defects. Recently, ARI has demonstrated during its UV hydrogenation process that deuterium effectively `decorates' defects in materials such as ZnCdTe and HgCdTe. In essence, the distribution of deuterium in the sample directly `maps' defects in the material. This finding provides a revolutionary tool for materials assessment during HgCdTe FPA processing and production. In particular, when the `deuterium decoration' process is used in conjunction with Nuclear Resonance analysis it will allow for defect `maps' of ZnCdTe substrates, epilayer/buffer ZnCdTe and HgCdTe films to be obtained non-destructively. The impact that this technology, when fully developed, on processing, yield rates, and operability of HgCdTe FPA's cannot be overstated. In this SBIR Phase I project, ARI will demonstrate a prototype system for wafer mapping for use by the FPA production houses. To this end, ARI has teamed with BAE, Raytheon Vision Systems, Teledyne Imaging Sensors, DRS and Lockheed Martin in order to ensure as rapid a transfer as possible of this manufacturing technology to MDA platforms.

SP3 CORP.
2220 Martin Ave.
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 492-0630
Mr. Jerry Zimmer
MDA 07-026      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Transmission Diamond IR Windows without AR Coatings
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing large diamond IR windows with transmission levels above 95% without the use of traditional AR coatings. The windows will have structured surfaces that create diffractive or negative index optical surfaces that will substantially eliminate reflections at IR wavelengths.

SP3 CORP.
2220 Martin Ave.
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 492-0630
Mr. Jerry Zimmer
MDA 07-026      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:CTE Matched Layered Diamond Heat Spreaders
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a diamond based thermal heatspreader with high thermal conductivity and CTE matching to any type of semiconductor device such as GaAs or other III-V compound laser diodes. This structure is constructed from layers of diamond and metals so the morphology is identical at any point on the surface and the edge quality is determined by a accuracy of a photolithographic patterning process rather than any inhomogenities of the material.

SMITH & CO.
5100 Channel Avenue
Richmond, CA 94804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 237-5986
Mr. Steve Smith
MDA 07-027      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Mitigating Lead-Free Issues in Electronic Circuit Board Manufacturing With an Advanced Conformal Coating to Manage Tin Whisker Risk
Abstract:The use of pure tin plating on the leads of electronic components is prohibited in many military contracts, because over time the pure tin grows conductive whiskers that causes short circuits. Unfortuneately, pure tin plating is now used by many of the component manufacturers as part of the "lead-free" movement. One of the tin whisker risk mitigators that has been tried is the use of conformal coatings on the circuit boards to captivate the tin whiskers as the grow. Multi-year testing has shown that available coatings are punctured by tin whiskers. This proposed project will demonstrate the feasibility of a "Whisker Tough" conformal coating, one that is tougher than the tin whiskers and will not be punctured. Five years of conformal coating/tin whisker testing, plus 2 years of whisker puncture "failure mode" research and modeling have preceded this proposal. Smith & Co has collaborated with both Raytheon Missile Systems and the Navy Best Manufacturing Practices Center of Excellence on this effort. Combined with the specialty knowledge obtained from the development of 29 proprietary coatings, sealers, and adhesives, the R&D so far indicates that a "Whisker Tough" coating can be created.

SUNDEW TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
3400 Industrial LaneUnit 7
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-2341
Dr. Ofer Sneh
MDA 07-027      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Mitigating Lead-Free Issues in Electronic Circuit Board Manufacturing and Repair
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to demonstrate consistent and significant mitigation of tin whiskers growth and associated electronic circuit failure. Atomic Layer Deposition encapsulating films (ALD-Cap) are flexible ceramic films, with exceptional conformality, adherence and mechanical strength. Developed primarily as a low-cost environmental protection and corrosion barrier, ALD-Cap was successfully used to protect MMIC components used by the Navy, as well as other environmentally sensitive devices and components. Tin whiskers pose major safety, reliability and mission readiness threats to all makers and users of high performance and/or high reliability electronics. In the very near future, most military and other high-reliability electronics will likely require both environmental/corrosion protection and tin-whiskers containment/failure-risk-mitigation. ALD-Cap may provide a crucial solution for both problems. These ceramic coatings are more than 50 times tougher than Parylene, the toughest conformal coating attempted so far. At the same time ALD-Cap coatings are proven to be flexible and crack resistant. Tin whiskers growth will be conducted on test samples according to known procedures of inducing whiskers growth. ALD-Cap coating effectiveness in suppressing whiskers will be assessed. Further coating optimization and extended failure testing will be performed in Phase II.

VISTA ENGINEERING & CONSULTING, LLC
1500 1st Ave. NoSuite B117
Birmingham, AL 35203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 307-6550
Mr. John Cassimus
MDA 07-027      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:POSS-Based Conformal Coating with Active Tin Whisker Mitigation Properties
Abstract:It is proposed that a Phase I SBIR be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of developing a POSS-based (Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes) coating that performs the multifunctional needs of a conformal coating that actively mitigates tin whisker growth. New conformal coating materials are needed to mitigate the risk of tin whisker caused short circuits on electronic assemblies. Development of a new conformal coating that successfully prevents tin whisker penetration would greatly reduce the risk of tin whisker induced failure over the service life of a military system. POSS, with its nano-SiO molecular structure, has unique properties as a coating that make it environmentally stable, an excellent moisture barrier, and nonvolatile. These unique properties of the POSS feed stock present an unusual opportunity to the electronics industry; a conformal coating that also actively mitigates tin whisker nucleation and growth through chemical interaction with the tin oxide surface. Vista Engineering, working with a Hybrid Plastics' patented formulation will test a group of the POSS derivatives and application variables during Phase I and select a set of promising POSS formulations for Phase II development.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill AvenueBuilding #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
Mr. John Leon
MDA 07-028      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Production Enhancements for Integrated Anti-Tamper Technologies
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) will work together with Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems and Sensors (LM MS2-Eagan). The objective of this effort is to develop and implement production enhancements for Anti-Tamper (AT) technology for the protection of critical technology against exploitation. MDA is seeking to develop improved manufacturing and production techniques for use when integrating Anti-Tamper into weapon systems or component manufacturing process. In particular MDA's focus is to develop protection that (1) addresses a significant challenge associated with implementing AT utilizing current manufacturing and production processes or (2) makes AT implementation a seamless part of the weapons system or component manufacturing process. Integration of any Anti-Tamper component, device, software and/or firmware is a difficult challenge for the program manager and the various systems that support the weapons platform. ISC took the approach of building a generic, "COTs-Type" Anti-Tamper device under previous MDA SBIR efforts. The AT device is called "MDEM" and is similar in height and structure of other components found on printed circuit board. This supports MDA's focus for seamless integration of the ISC AT device into weapon platforms when block upgrades are required or for new weapon systems that have an AT requirement.

QORTEK, INC.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
MDA 07-028      Awarded: 01/19/08
Title:Production Enhancements for Integrated Anti-Tamper Technologies
Abstract:The primary objective of this Phase I program will be to demonstrate a greatly improved manufacturing and production techniques for die packaging of anti-tamper capabilities. We aim to show through manufacture engineering research, software development and hardware prototypes, a new low-cost technique for multi-threat capable Anti-Tamper (AT) device manufacture and AT software-based multi-threat Die production packaging that will reduce the present risks associated with direct hardware AT integration with a range of security critical devices (such as FPGA, ASIC, memory and RF die wafers). Being guided by an MDA prime contractor/end-use integrator of the technology will substantially focus the efforts and improve chances for successful integration of protective techniques/technologies into several key MDA missions that are ongoing. The results will be largely applicable to many forms and types of hardware AT device packaging.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons RoadBuilding G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Mr. Adam Langdon
MDA 07-029      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:The task of identifying and successfully destroying a missile threat requires a vast network of RADARs, sensors, software, and other resources working together flawlessly. Information from these systems must be fused to provide with their operators an accurate and complete picture of the battlespace. With up-to-date, fused information on threats and targets, operators can make quick, informed decisions. Creating this accurate picture of the battlespace requires many different RADARs dispersed around the globe. By combining data from different views and different features, a much more detail picture can be formed. However, translation of all of this data into concise, useful, and timely information remains extremely difficult. Recognizing this need, the DoD is seeking methods to improve their ability to fuse sensor data and ultimately deliver an accurate comprehensive picture of the battlespace. The proposed EDAptiver RIFRAF solution meets these needs by delivering a flexible framework for sensor fusion and knowledge representation. The resulting capabilities will result in new methods for developing sensor fusion algorithms and allow the MDA to continue to expand and improve its global sensor network with confidence.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom DriveSuite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Roy Streit
MDA 07-029      Awarded: 03/17/08
Title:Intra-Family Track Discrimination Using Supervised and Semi-Supervised Statistical Learning Methods - MP 121-07
Abstract:We are proposing to incorporate support vector machines (SVM's) as well as related, but more analytically tractable methods such as proximal SVM's, into a multi-hypothesis tracker (MHT) and to use the combined SVM/MHT algorithm to discriminate launch families into intra-family similarity groups. We also propose to consider the use of semi-supervised statistical learning methods [5] since they exploit both labeled and unlabeled data in the design of the discriminator. Semi-supervised methods take advantage of available archived data which, even if it has limitations, may be still useful to include as unlabeled data. The joint use of both labeled and unlabeled data is generally accepted statistical practice and is an active research area in the machine learning community.

POTOMAC FUSION
4460 Brookfield Corporate DriveSuite H
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 669-2226
Mrs. Kathleen Lossau
MDA 07-029      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:Today's fusion and tracking systems rely on sensor feeds and a-priori information to process and relate collected information. Little information is extracted from imagery data such as FLIR, SAR and EO; not enough emphasis is placed on sensor pedigree and confidence (uncertainty); and therefore networked Multi-INT sensors are not fully exploited. This proposal describes a process for combining emerging Multi-INT sensor fusion algorithms within a generic fusion exploitation framework to enhance the user's battlespace awareness thru automated sensor data fusion and visualization. Potomac Fusion's `Fusion Exploitation Framework' combines sensor information (collected using a community agreed upon standard) with a workflow that processes modular, integrated fusion algorithms that exploit SIGINT and imagery-based information to produce a more accurate picture of the threat. Using sensors that collect on various aspects of the problem such as: o Different parts of the RF spectrum o Using SAR, EO, IR for target recognition o Composite/Feature extraction from Hyper-spectral, Radar, EO, and various IR capabilities we are able to more completely and confidently identify and categorize the observed information.

C & P TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
317 Harrington AvenueSuites 9 & 10
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Mr. Ke Yong Li
MDA 07-030      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Mitigation of Radar Clutter Using Algorithmic Techniques
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop enhanced clutter and interference suppression methods to perform target detection and identification in presence of a cluttered environment. In addition, protection against mainbeam jamming is also addressed here using distributed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) sensor technology. For this purpose smart transmit beamforming using together with adaptive nulling algorithms at the receiver side are proposed. The transmit array pattern can be synthesized to minimize the impact of the jammer. As a result, even a mainbeam jammer that is close by is also illuminated, the jammer strength is significantly reduced thus enabling target detection. The return signals are used to generate adaptive weight vectors to combine the receiver outputs in such a way as to place effective nulls automatically along the jammer directions, thus enhancing the output signal to interference/jammer plus noise ratio. Moreover, these adaptive weight vectors can be implemented for various look directions. Thus a transmit pattern together with an adaptive receiver array in the MIMO mode results in superior clutter nulling and is an effective counter-measure against mainbeam jamming.

SIGNAL PROCESSING, INC.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
ROCKVILLE, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 505-2641
Dr. Chiman Kwan
MDA 07-030      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:A High Performance Framework for Radar Clutter Suppression, Target Tracking and Identification
Abstract:We propose a high performance system for clutter suppression, target tracking, and identification. First, we propose a novel clutter rejection approach that applies an adaptive subspace projection algorithm. As compared to conventional clutter suppression methods, our adaptive clutter rejection algorithm is independent of target detection methods and does not assume any target signal model. Our method is applicable to any kinds of clutter, including infrared, cloud, etc. Second, we propose to apply adaptive chirplet transform to extract the time-varying Doppler frequencies in the target signals. Conventional target detection methods are based on Fourier transform method and do not work for time-varying Doppler frequencies. Our simulations showed that we can still detect dim targets even when the raw data have a signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR) of less than -50 dB, which is a significant result. Third, we propose to apply latest ballistic target tracking algorithm to track multiple moving targets. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and yields near optimal tracking performance. Fourth, based on the tracking results and target shape information, it is possible to differentiate real missiles from decoys. In Phase 1, we plan to implement the proposed framework and perform extensive simulations to validate its performance. In Phase 2, we will develop a real-time system.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Dr. Paul D Mountcastle
MDA 07-030      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Mitigation of Radar Clutter Using Algorithmic Techniques
Abstract:TSC will develop a promising new generalized Space-Time Adaptive Processing (Generalized STAP) algorithm that discriminates among classes of scatterers by forming adaptive filters over the fundamental measurement dimensions of radar element, pulse time and wideband frequency. The new generalized formalism will be applied to the problem of Three-Dimensional (3D) radar imaging of the reentry vehicle (RV) or another object in the ballistic missile threat complex that strongly suppresses radar dipole clutter and jammers, using a network of ground-based radars operating at X-band. The generalized STAP algorithm is a novel synthesis of ideas from TSC's successful 3D radar imaging programs with the principles of adaptive signal processing. TSC will demonstrate the new Generalized STAP signal processing technique for multiple radars operating in a monostatic configuration (multi-monostatic case), and also for a fully coherent geographically distributed constellation of ground based X-band radars of the kind that is conceived for the Next-Generation X-band BMDS radar. In Phase I, TSC will simulate multisensor radar data and develop prototype radar signal processing algorithms that detect and image radar targets in the presence of strong tumbling dipole clutter and jamming.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock StreetSuite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Mr. Kent Krumvieda
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 03/17/08
Title:Game Theory In Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, see attached support letter, propose the development of a BMD Operation Plan Response (BOPR) gaming framework. BOPR is a testbed that will allow the simulation and analysis of multiple Red team attack strategies and Blue team defensive responses. BOPR will be able model all relevant aspects of both red and blue's weapons, and strategies. Blue strategic responses based on a prioritized list of past events, current events and predicted future events. These events are probalistically based on a-priori estimates of the red teams weapons and capabilities. The fidelity of the models can be implemented at various and mixed levels of realism. This allows the seamless incorporation of new strategies, weapons, ECM, ECCM, and other capabilities quickly and economically. The BOPR will easily simulate situations where resources (radars, missiles, communications bandwidth, time, etc.) are constrained or limited. This gaming framework can easily be used to create custom simulations as well as exhaustive Monte-Carlo simulations for analysis and evaluation. All weapons, sensors, networks, an environmental components are modeled as encapsulated class objects. This will allow in phase-II the capability to perform plug-and-play experiments will different models. Weapons/Missiles objects have models of propulsion, navigation, sensors, terminal package type with associated CEP. Sensors and weapons can be air, ground or spaced based which can be autonomous or linked in a distributed manner using DFC's legacy distributed sensor management & resource management software. Communication and data networks can be modeled in either a centralized our decentralized manner with a user specified topology. Environmental conditions are modeled in so far as they impacts sensors, weapons and communication systems. All aspects of tracking and measurement to track association i.e., (detection, initiation, confirmation, track maintenance, pruning, track loss, and deletion) will be handled by DFC's proven suite of legacy tracking and data association algorithms.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Game2WinT: Game-based Optimization of BMDS Assets
Abstract:The sheer complexity of a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) engagement renders conventional optimization techniques ineffective/inapplicable for sensor and weapon resource management. Game theory, a branch of applied mathematics and economics, provides a promising approach to such problems by extending conventional optimization approaches to situations where multiple players make decisions with a view to maximizing their respective payoffs, often at the expense of other players and their interests. In particular, game theory applies to Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) problems that are concerned with optimizing the use of available BMDS assets through effective allocation and management of the right sensors and weapons to incoming threats. Phase I of this effort will develop a mathematical model of a BMD engagement that demonstrates the effects of changes to offense and defense options which account for the factors mentioned above. Using game-theoretic techniques, Phase I will specify techniques for computing optimum strategies for both offense and defense using simulated data.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Michael Perloff
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Stochastic Modeling And Optimal Game-Theoretic Strategies For Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:The sensor and weapon resource management problem for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) considering adversary's choice of launch times, aimpoint locations, and countermeasures is a challenging game theory problem. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. of Woburn, MA and its subcontractor, Lockheed Martin MS2 Tactical Systems (LMTS) propose a novel general stochastic game-theoretic approach to the BMD problem that draws upon our previous joint work for Department of Defense in the areas of multisensor multitarget tracking, sensor management, controlled diffusion processes, and weapon target assignment. In Phase I of the project, SSCI and LMTS will develop realistic mathematical models for the tactical ballistic missile engagements and develop methods for optimal dynamic sensor and weapon resource management. By using game theoretical approaches, we will establish techniques for computing optimum strategies for offense and defense using simulated data. Phase II will result in integrated wargaming simulation framework suitable for the testing and evaluation of resource management algorithms in realistic and complex threat scenarios. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support during all phases of the project.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3902
Mr. Robert Kurzawa
MDA 07-031      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Game Theory In Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to develop a framework to apply game theory algorithms within a modified commercial simulation architecture in order to develop stressing engagement scenarios against which to measure the optimum employment of Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) assets. This project will leverage Sonalysts' commercial simulation approach and technology to provide computations, graphics, video capture, and simulation for a BMDS operations model. The proof-of-concept will demonstrate the ability to vary the effects of enemy offensive launch timing, aimpoint location, and countermeasures employment, in a "complete knowledge environment," to the optimum employment of BMDS assets. The proof-of-concept will also include the ability to modify game theories themselves within the same scenario. Finally, this tool will demonstrate that the model development and execution processes can be bundled into a cost-effective, compact package for use during testing, evaluation, and conceptual development of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). The application tool will be a modular design to incorporate modifications and updates with changes in functionality, technology, and missions.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Timothy Strand
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Hybrid Direct-Detect and Coherent Flash Ladar Receivers for Enhanced Sensitivity and Target Discrimination
Abstract:Aerius is proposing the extension of our demonstrated 1064 nm imaging Flash Ladar optical preamplifier pixel arrays (OPPAs) toward the develop and implementation of a hybrid coherent and direct-detection Ladar receiver for greatly enhanced detection sensitivity, target tracking and target discrimination. The OPPA consists of a 2-D array of Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (VCSOAs) that provide high optical gain and low noise to increase the sensitivity of PIN photodetectors to near-photon-counting levels. Aerius' approach leverages the OPPA's compatibility with advanced direct-detection and coherent Ladar receiver technology. The OPPA offers a direct-detection input referred noise equivalent power of 3 photons while the inherent stimulated emission optical amplification process is consistent with requirements for extension of the approach to coherent detection. The OPPA operates at room temperature, utilizes mature PIN detector array technology, and enables system performance improvements while reducing system cost, weight, and power. In Phase I Aerius will demonstrate hybrid direct- and coherent-detection using our existing OPPA prototypes. In Phase II Aerius will demonstrate a VCSOA-based OPPA hybrid imaging array receiver of at least 32x32 pixels.

MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7208
Dr. Ryan McClintock
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Feasibility Study of VLWIR InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice for Focal Plane Arrays.
Abstract:High performance infrared detectors in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) spectral bands are highly needed in a number of missile defense missions. The current state-of-the-art infrared detection technology for missile defense programs is based on the Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) compounds. However, at present it is becoming increasingly apparent that this detection technology is approaching the intrinsic physical limits of the material system. Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices are expected to enable high performance next generation VLWIR focal plane arrays due to the intrinsic advantages of these materials. Type-II does not suffer from the same issue as HgCdTe when moving towards the VLWIR. In addition, owing to its coupled quantum well design, the cutoff wavelength across a typical 2" wafer is relatively insensitive to normal variations in layer thicknesses. Finally, the band structures of these superlattices can be engineered to suppress Auger recombination mechanisms for certain superlattice compositions, covering a wavelength range from 2 mm up to at least 32 mm. The overall goal of this work is demonstrating the feasibility of VLWIR detectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices detectors for focal plane array imaging. After demonstration, this technology can then be applied to the realization of VLWIR FPAs.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara BoulevardSuite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Ultra-Large-Format 2Kx2K 2-Color Midwave/Midwave Infrared Focal Plane Array for the AirBorne Laser Program
Abstract:We propose to develop a 2Kx2K 2-Color focal plane array (FPA) that provides pixel-registered and simultaneous imaging in two MIDWAVE infrared spectral bands. We will use a novel bandgap-engineered sensor that minimizes spectral crosstalk between the two midwave bands better than current sensor technologies. The FPA also uses a readout multiplexer that provides massive on-chip data compression by super-pixelation. In Phase 1, we will model spectral crosstalk and develop and deliver a small-format 1-Color FPA in the more challenging of the two bands. Phase 2 will develop and deliver the ultra-large-format 2-Color FPA.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6821
Dr. Richard Myers
MDA 07-032      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Near-IR Enhanced CMOS Sensor for LADAR Imaging
Abstract:Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD), in collaboration with Harvard University and Raytheon, proposes to develop a silicon-based focal plane array with single-photon responsivity at 1064-nm, with the goal of creating next-generation LADAR receivers. This Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed idea by improving the near-infrared (NIR) single photon efficiency of RMD's existing CMOS Geiger photodiodes (GPDs) pixels, and presenting a clear path for achieving a detection efficiency performance approaching that of InGaAs GPDs. The enhanced array will be able to operate with the same low noise characteristics of standard silicon GPD devices without the need for additional cooling. Integration with LADAR readout integrated circuits presently under development will be possible. Future systems will have the capability of utilizing on-focal plane integrated circuits fabricated with a single, low-cost CMOS process.

ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, INC.
131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 761-2288
Dr. Robert P. d'Entremont
MDA 07-033      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Forecasting IR Satellite Imagery for Adaptive Sensor Tasking
Abstract:Accurate forecasts of infrared satellite imagery are needed to optimize tasking of valuable and limited space borne surveillance assets. Atmospheric constituents such as clouds, aerosols, and water vapor can negatively impact the ability of IR surveillance systems to monitor activities on the ground. Due to their chaotic nature, atmospheric impacts are particularly severe for applications that require ground monitoring over extended time periods. In our Phase I effort we will develop a prototype 0-72 hour IR imagery forecast system with particular emphasis on characterizing the impacts of clouds. We will build on our expertise and existing capabilities in a number of relevant areas including: analysis and short-term cloud forecasting from Meteorological Satellite (MetSat) imagery; use of mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models to forecast atmospheric state and diagnose cloud physical properties; application of Mie and Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (MADA) theory to estimate cloud radiative properties from forecasted physical properties; calculation of in-band Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) radiance values from knowledge of the surface characteristics and forecasts of the atmospheric state and cloud properties; and visualizations of forecasted scene elements derived from the TOA radiance estimates. A final demonstration of the prototype system will be conducts using live data inputs.

CAELUM RESEARCH CORP.
1700 Research BoulevardSuite 250
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 614-6277
Dr. Kwo-Sun Kuo
MDA 07-033      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Self-Corrective Remote Imagery Prediction System (SCRIPS)
Abstract:The U.S. military has been using satellite IR images to monitor ground missile activities of hostile nations. Successful IR monitoring of ground features requires us to account for the intervening weather conditions that can have an adverse impact on intelligence gathering. The proposed Self-Corrective Remote Imagery Prediction System (SCRIPS) will produce up to 72 hours of forecasts for any bandpass of IR imagery based on forecast mesoscale atmospheric conditions. The SCRIPS will integrate existing and well tested atmospheric models such as radiative transfer, atmospheric correction, and cloud masking. SCRIPS will also utilize forecast atmospheric state conditions from numerical weather prediction system. We will periodically improve the approach through adjustment of the radiative transfer model and updating the baseline image database. In the Phase I effort, we will incorporate a suitable atmospheric correction algorithm and an appropriate forward radiative transfer algorithm, select an appropriate mesoscale weather prediction product, prototype SCRIPS to predict IR images and to automatically update baseline database and adjust radiative transfer parameters.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Peter Rochford
MDA 07-033      Awarded: 02/28/08
Title:Forecasts for Adaptive Sensor Tasking in the Infrared (FASTIR)
Abstract:Satellite ground imagery from space-based infrared (IR) sensors can be invaluable when monitoring areas of military significance during periods of rapid activity of several hours to days. IR ground imagery is strongly influenced by weather conditions such as cloud cover and water content that can adversely impact surveillance. Predictions of IR image availability and quality during adverse weather conditions can be critical in making decisions for real-time sensor management and adaptive sensor tasking to detect targets of interest. To provide such a predictive capability, we propose to develop the Forecasts for Adaptive Sensor Tasking in the Infrared (FASTIR) modeling system to provide 72-hour forecasts of remotely sensed IR images. The FASTIR approach is to directly propagate the satellite imagery forward in time using weather forecast information. Ground surface properties are derived from the imagery as the initial condition. FASTIR processing will entail using atmospheric correction, temperature-emissivity separation, and constructing the IR image using radiation transport codes. In Phase II, these FASTIR model elements will be fully implemented and integrated to forecast satellite IR imagery for any desired location on the earth surface.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Martin Theobald
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:Device Level Thermal Management Solutions for Phased Array Rada
Abstract:It is the intent of Hittite through this proposal to explore the feasibility of using chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-diamond as a passivating layer within the junction of a Gallium Nitride (GaN) microwave transistor. CVD-diamond being a material with very high thermal conductivity, and being located as close as possible to the heat dissipation source, will have the effect of reducing junction temperature creating a potential for increased radio frequency (RF) output power from the GaN device. The deposition will be constrained to an area over the transistor drain and source metallization as opposed to an entire wafer, thereby reducing fabricated wafer bow.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 02/26/08
Title:Integration of Bulk GaN with Diamond for Device-level Thermal Management Solutions
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal, Kyma Technologies will perform a proof of concept demonstration of high quality bulk GaN/diamond integration for advanced thermal management of high power density GaN-based device applications. The development effort will include separation of thin GaN layers from bulk substrates and bonding to diamond.

NITRONEX CORP.
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 424-5167
Dr. Edwin L. Piner
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Novel HEMT based on GaN on Diamond for High Power Amplifiers
Abstract:GaN based HEMTs are capable of achieving high power density at high frequency. Thus, solid-state high power amplifiers based on GaN will be smaller and lighter than incumbent technology. The use of a silicon substrate for GaN HEMTs provides a reliable GaN device which is also economical. MMICs based GaN on Si are ideally suited for applications in X-band radar systems that are part of the ballistic missile defense system developed by the MDA. The performance and reliability of GaN HEMTs is closely linked to the operating temperature. In this proposal, we will develop a novel GaN on diamond based HEMT structure with superior thermal conductivity relative to conventional approaches. In addition to significantly improving the thermal resistance, we will develop a novel process pathway that is inherently manufacturable and cost effective thus enabling the maximum usage of GaN technology for various military applications. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the material structure by performing iterative process development. In Phase II, we will focus on improving the maturity of the concept by further optimizing the process and by developing a functioning GaN on diamond HEMT device for evaluation of thermal and electrical performance.

WMK TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
101 Clematis AvenueUnit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James Cornie
MDA 07-034      Awarded: 04/09/08
Title:Direct Die Attached CTE Matched Ultra High Thermal Conductivity Graphite/Aluminum Heat Sinks for High RF Power Density Phased Array Radar Systems
Abstract:A new metal matrix composite material consisting of natural graphite particulates processed into a designed reinforcement architecture that, after pressure infiltration casting with molten Al alloy, results in materials with thermal conductivity (TC) controllable over a range of 600 to 750 W/mK and thermal expansion controllable over the range of 7 to 3 ppm/K. This material, with strategically located high TC "z" inserts is proposed as base plate heat sinks for advanced GaN based phased array radar systems. The material system will be fully characterized. FEA thermal models will be developed for a 4 by 4 channel prototype array which will be manufactured for attachment to T/R module emulators and evaluated by a prime contractor partner for thermal performance. The goal is to enable a two- to three-fold increase in power density in wide bandgap semiconductors and to manufacture radar arrays with greater than 100 channels within essentially a page sized format. The constituent materials are inexpensive. Hence, the proposed technology, at the proper manufacturing scale will provide materials with a cost per unit volume less than copper at 1.5 to 2 times the thermal performance and CTE matching to the T/R module.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Dr. Benjamin Simmons
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Reduced Height Waveguide Limiter Using Nanotube Technology
Abstract:The solid state semiconductor technology in radar systems supporting the U. S. Army's ballistic missile defense program increases its vulnerability to the effects of high power, fast rise-time EMP, HPM, and UWB pulses. Recent research has shown that using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can greatly improve the performance of a limiter. Improvements upon a previous X-band waveguide plasma limiter can be made by utilizing arrays of CNTs in a reduced height waveguide. This configuration offers several advantages over the current device. First, the CNTs offer greater field enhancement and survivability compared to metallic point electrodes, resulting in a faster reaction time, lower spike leakage, and greater reliability. Second, the reduced height waveguide will increase the electric field across the spark gap, which will also decrease the reaction time and reduce the spike leakage. Third, the use of CNT arrays allows the field enhancing electrodes to be present over the entire width of the waveguide on both of the H-plane surfaces without introducing significant insertion loss, leading to a reduction in flat leakage. Using a CNT array as a field enhancing electrode in a plasma limiter promises to offer faster reaction time, higher power handling capability, and greater reliability than existing systems.

PLASMA SCIENCES CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Dr. Peter Krueger
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Improved Plasma Limiter for Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in BMDS Radars
Abstract:Plasma Sciences Corporation (PSC) will build upon previous and ongoing research in transient voltage phenomena to develop a microwave front end limiter that can withstand high power RF interference with minimal impact on normal operations. Participating in the effort is Professor Popovic of Old Dominion University (ODU), a subject matter expert, who will support plasma computer modeling, simulation and analysis. Phase I efforts will demonstrate through modeling, simulation, and brassboard limiter tests, the feasibility of using plasma electromagnetic absorption and scattering properties to enhance performance of ongoing plasma limiter developments using reflective properties of an ionized gas to protect against high power transients. A Phase II effort will build prototype hardware for testing in a representative environment. In Phase III, PSC will work with radar prime contractors to integrate a prototype into an operational system and initiate limiter production.

TRITEC SYSTEMS, INC.
4825 University Square, Suite 7
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 653-6145
Mr. Anthony Kikel
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Innovative Hardware Technologies for Anti-Jam and Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Radars
Abstract:The Pseudo-Metamaterial Limiter (PML) will use chaotically generated non-linear structures to provide a low insertion loss HPM/EMP limiter. During this effort, a "pseudo" metamaterial will be researched. The term pseudo is added since the material structure will be formed by the high field electromagnetic wave that the material is intended to interact. The material will act as if it is a metamaterial but it will actually be a material formed by a chaotic process. The material properties will be non-linear to provide the "clipping" limiting function while the chaotic structure will be formed to couple with HPM/EMP and not couple with the desired small signal to avoid insertion loss. This effort will provide a mechanism for research and understanding pseudo metamaterial structures and provide insight into how to design and optimize these structures high performance limiter applications. This research is expected to be the basis for a new category of inexpensive, self-contained, high performance limiter devices that can be inserted into T/R Modules.

TRITEC SYSTEMS, INC.
4825 University Square, Suite 7
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 653-6145
Mr. Anthony Kikel
MDA 07-035      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Innovative Hardware Technologies for Anti-Jam and Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Radars
Abstract:The Branch Line Filter (BLF) will use chaotically generated fractal structures to couple with a chaotic jammer signal and not a desired radar return. During this effort, a branch line filter will be researched. A BLF or other fractal structures can be performed by selecting an iterative order commensurate with that of the expected chaotic interferences. The BLF will then be selective to a class of chaotic jammer signals. This property will be used in a planar circuit configuration to selectively terminate the chaotic jammer signal while providing a low loss transmission path for the desired receiver signal. This effort will provide a mechanism for research and understanding chaotic filter structures and provide insight into how to design and optimize these structures high performance jammer filter applications. This research is expected to be the basis for a new category of inexpensive, self-contained, high performance filter devices that can be inserted into T/R Modules.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Dr. William H. Weedon
MDA 07-036      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Phased-Array Module Interconnect Technology
Abstract:The design and development of phased-array radars requires the integration of solid-state components and adequate thermal mitigation within the array lattice constraints. The current trend is towards increasingly planar designs and a reduction in the array depth. The MDA SPEAR program is one example in which a planar T/R "tile" architecture is utilized. System-on-a-chip technologies such as SiGe will help miniaturize the modules, but is only part of the solution. Advanced multi-layer board technology is needed in order to integrate the active devices, provide the required RF manifold, DC power and digital control to the array, while providing adequate thermal conduction. In Phase I, Applied Radar will investigate novel board technologies such as HTCC and LTCC which enable next-generation phased-array architectures and reduce cost. In Phase II, a prototype module will be developed utilizing the developed board technology which integrates active array components into a demonstration array. The target frequency range is X-band, but the developed technology could be utilized for other frequency ranges.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling DriveSuite 100
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
MDA 07-036      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Electrical Interconnect Technologies for MDA Phased Array Radars
Abstract:FIRST RF proposes a revolutionary architecture for packaging and design of phased array antennas. This innovative technology has the capability to reduce the cost of phased array antennas by 80%. FIRST RF has identified the principal design features of current state-of-the-art phased array antennas. These features include: indirect interface between antennas and T/R modules requiring expensive multi-layer PCBs and one or two connectors per unit cell, control architectures also requiring multi-layer PCBs and packaging designs which require supplementary systems to provide necessary cooling to T/R module electronics. The combination of all these requirements and packaging into a unit cell that is less than half wavelength results in a cost prohibitive product. The proposed packaging integrates the antennas, T/R modules, beam forming network, and control circuitry on a common assembly that eliminates the overcrowded circuitry and packaging. Multilayer connections are replaced by coplanar connector-less circuits that can be manufactured, inspected, and tested in a single step. During the phase 1 proposed program a significant size array will be manufactured and tested to validate the concept.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Mr. Michael A. Deaett
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Adaptive Distributed Aperture Radar Mainlobe Jammer Suppression
Abstract:The mitigation of mainlobe jamming is essential to missile defense radar performance. Applied Radar is currently investigating distributed aperture and adaptive processing architectures that promise a new generation of advanced radar performance. Our proposed program will research the application of these distributed aperture radar techniques to determine the mainlobe jammer suppression possible with a range of distributed aperture geometries and radar waveform bandwidths. The integrated space-time processing of coherent multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) radar promises substantial mainlobe jammer suppression as well as the improved spatial resolution needed for midcourse discrimination of reentry vehicle targets in the presence of adversary ECM and clutter. It is important to realize that the processing burden of these new methods is substantial and, therefore, our investigations into advanced algorithm performance will include computational sizing estimates for several distributed aperture system architectures. The transition of the developed techniques into advanced array applications such as CG-X is facilitated by the use of an Open System Architecture framework that is being developed by our prime contractor partner. The application of this work to the SPEAR MDA radar system technology demonstrator is facilitated by currently existing teaming relationships with several technology companies.

AZURE SUMMIT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
12587 Fair Lakes Circle #342
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 963-2078
Dr. Mark Sullivan
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms, Waveforms, and Signal Processing
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I SBIR effort is to develop innovative techniques that exploit distributed apertures to defeat mainlobe jammers of MDA radar systems. Phase I will develop basic concepts for distributed aperture signal processing in this domain and establish their feasibility using a computer simulation model. A Phase II demonstration plan will be developed, with emphasis on a near real-time test using a potential near-term transition platform.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Novel Approach for Jammer Suppression
Abstract:When a distributed aperture radar is used to suppress jammers in conventional interferometric fashion, the separation of the individual antennas determines the width of the suppressed angular sector. This will be very much narrower than the mainbeam for a monostatic radar, but at the cost of ambiguous sectors where targets may also be suppressed. However, the distributed array presents an opportunity to suppress mainlobe jammers in another fashion that promises to be able to detect threats near the jammer and to have much less of an ambiguity problem. This jammer suppression technique, which MARK Resources proposes to develop, is entirely compatible with conventional multistatic operation, as well as with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) operation, including other types of processing for jammer suppression.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-8984
Mr. Stephen Welstead
MDA 07-037      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms, Waveforms, and Signal Processing
Abstract:Missile defense radars have traditionally consisted of large aperture ground-based arrays. These large aperture radars are expensive to build and not easily transportable. An alternative approach is the use of distributed aperture systems collectively acting as a single sensor. These systems use a number of smaller, relatively inexpensive arrays distributed over a wide spatial aperture. When coherently combined, the system of smaller distributed arrays can achieve or exceed the performance of a single large array. Radar system performance can be enhanced by exploiting the unique advantages of a large spatially distributed array. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) approaches can be leveraged to improve directional information about the target and sources of electronic countermeasures (ECM). Beamforming at the distributed aperture level can increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and can mitigate ECM through the placement of nulls. Multistatic approaches can also improve SNR. Waveform properties such as orthogonality play an important role in cooperative distributed apertures. The proposed effort will use a high-fidelity waveform tool to investigate MIMO, beamforming and multistatic approaches for distributed aperture radars for missile defense. These approaches will benefit the development of next generation radar systems using a distributed aperture architecture. Commercial applications of MIMO include improved cell phone performance.

EOSPACE, INC.
8711 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-8407
Dr. Walt Charczenko
MDA 07-038      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Compact and Robust RF-Photonic Modules for High Dynamic Range Radar Applications
Abstract:EOSPACE will design and develop a Compact and Robust RF-Photonic Module for improved Spur Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) link performance in MDA/Military Radar systems. The module will be designed to operate over an extended temperature range in an adverse environment, while reducing the size and weight of the module by at least a factor of two as compared to present day technology.

ODIS
Three Corporate Drive
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Heath Opper
MDA 07-038      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:Photonic control technology for Phased Arrays
Abstract: Phased arrays radars can expect considerable improvements with RF photonics. Current TR modules use numerous MMIC chips, ferrite circulators and phase shifters and quasi-optical true-time-delay (TTD). Transmission power distribution and synchronization across multiple RF interfaces can be improved. Large scale integration could address the problem of interconnecting boards with GHZ RF outputs but currently is not possible. Such integration with optical control will be a key enabling technology. ODIS proposes a monolithic IC solution based upon novel optoelectronic (OE) thryistor circuit design. Thyristor/HFET circuits implement a novel power amplifier using a gated OE oscillator driving a Class E output. The receive channel is implemented with an photonic link based upon linear phase modulation and coherent detection which achieves an SFDR of -92dB and SNR of -149dB. The photonic receive link also implements narrow channel microwave filtering in the optical domain. The photonic technology also enables novel AD architectures for the back end conversion or for direct digitization after the LNA. The photonic insertion is in the form of monolithic integrated circuits and the fabrication technology includes high temperature (850C) processing which pre-qualifies it for the mil-spec environment. Elimination of oxides results in rad-hard circuits. The in-plane photonics simplifies the package.

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
900 Middlesex TurnpikeBuilding #5
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 670-4990
Dr. Gary E. Betts
MDA 07-038      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Smaller RF-Photonic Circuits and Interconnections for Radar Applications
Abstract:A novel broad bandwidth modulator is proposed that has the potential for reducing link size by a factor of 75 and link dc power by a factor of 50. The novel modulator will also permit more environmentally robust packaging than has been possible with conventional electro-optic modulators. Finally the novel modulator is projected to permit even lower noise figure links - 3 dB - without any electronic LNA. Phase I of the proposed SBIR will quantify more fully the size, weight, and power (SWaP), packaging and link performance improvements that can be anticipated from a link, which is built around the novel modulator. Phase II will demonstrate the novel modulator concept by packaging the novel modulator and testing it over various environmental conditions.

AGNIK, LLC
8840 Stanford Blvd. STE. 1300
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-0146
Mrs. Kakali Sarkar
MDA 07-039      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:DIA: Distributed Information Assurance in Ballistic Missile Defense Systems using Scalable, Distributed Data Mining Technology
Abstract:This document proposes to develop a Distributed Information Assurance (DIA) system based on the distributed data mining technology for detecting distributed network attacks and identifying attackers' "signatures" for advanced situational awareness. It will offer the following key capabilities: 1. A multi-agent architecture for linking multiple, heterogeneous network-sensors (e.g., intrusion detection and malware detection systems, netflow data, tcpdump) for performing distributed and decentralized analysis of the data. The system will support local management of policy-based control for different sensors. 2. A collection of distributed data mining algorithms for decentralized outlier detection, clustering,and trend analysis for network data. These algorithms will lay the foundation of the DIA system. 3. A module for supporting the complete life-cycle of the information assurance management process in a BMDS. Following attack detection capabilities will be explored during Phase I: Detect distributed network "signatures" of attackers based on the distributed observations from different nodes in the network. Detect attack patterns on the coalition members in terms of clusters, outliers. Identify statistical properties of attack distribution in order to perform a trend analysis. Detect stealth network probes by attackers and worms. The proposed work will be performed at Agnik, a mobile and distributed data mining company.

ALTUSYS CORP.
P O Box 1274
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 878-4876
Dr. Lundy Lewis
MDA 07-039      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Real-Time Information Assurance Management Technologies
Abstract:The objective of the research is to produce a technology that will effectively automate the processes of recognizing security threats to BMDS under the conditions of unpredictable dynamic situations and the periods of heightened alerts. Our method will provide human operators with results in the context of tactical and operational BMDS situations and gives sufficient explanations needed for future corrective actions. Proposed work will use a novel technology of Multi-Agent Systems Based Situation Management (MAS-SM) developed at Altusys. MAS-SM integrates three key technologies: (a) Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Event Correlation, (b) Analogical Case-Based Reasoning, and (c) Distributed Multi-Agent Architecture of BDI-Agents with Situation Awareness (BDI-SA). We will follow the architectural principles MAS-SM and extend them to meet the specific requirements of MDA07-039: an understanding of incidents happening in missile defense systems and networks; a focus on the distribution, adaptability, correlation, and virtualization capabilities; a support for automatic actions to detect insider threats, external malicious attacks, and dynamic operational events; a comprehensive situational awareness of BMDS and surrounding operational context There will be a mutual benefit between the proposed work and our current Air Force SBIR "Situation Awareness and Impact Assessment for Cyber Network Defense" under contract FA8750-07-C-0126.

NOETIC STRATEGIES, INC.
PO Box 22225
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 348-4254
Ms. Kelly Parker
MDA 07-039      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Distributed Real-Time Information Assurance Management Technologies
Abstract:In the real world of mission critical applications and systems that must not fail, there is an ever increasing need for effective security monitoring systems that are also designed not to impede the normal operation and use of heterogeneous distributed networks. The IAMS technology proposed here will be a next generation, distributed network security platform, that spreads itself across the enterprise creating a redundant security system that is highly resistant to attack. Due to the distributed nature, IAMS will make both global decisions as well as local decisions, even when a section is cut off from the rest of the network. It has the ability to communicate in a manner that is suitable for use on diverse mobile devices, such as cell phones and PDA's. It is deterministic, remotely reconfigurable, uses industry standards for communication and is an autonomic computing platform.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth G. Blemel
MDA 07-040      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:A Sentient Watchdog Instrument for MDA Systems
Abstract:MSI manufactures multi-processor instrumentation modules. Our latest product is the Embeddable Programmable Instrumentation Circuit (EPIC). The army has funded the EPIC for embedded diagnostics, prognostics and intelligent control of electrical systems in combat vehicles. A new Phase II NAVAIR contract funds transition to a radiation-hard ASIC chip installed in either connectors or LRU. The EPIC module is small enough to reside in the backshell of a M38999 connector or as a small module built-in or added into electronic systems. We propose new research that will develop and prototype an embedded instrument for aggressive situation security, the CM-Watchdog. The product we develop will have an aggressive goal seeking ability that uses the EPIC self checking architecture. The CM-Watchdog will extend use of the "Business Rule Engine", from control and diagnostics to tamper protection, configuration status monitoring, and intrusion protection and configuration assurance. The procedures and algorithms for security situation awareness will be embodied in the "Business Rules". The CM-Watchdog, in a component or in a connector backshell "doghouse" will use the rules to assure that a system is operating normally and any hardware or software changes are certified through the MDA CM cycle.

ORIELLE, LLC
PO Box 8922
Moscow, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 883-3816
Mr. Peter Mills
MDA 07-040      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Moded Configuration Management and Validation
Abstract:We propose to develop Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) enhancements for configuration management and validation to enable assured switching between operational and test modes. We will design a moded configuration management and validation suite that extends public-domain OSGi implementations with capabilities for trusted bundles, XML-based device inventories, and mode switching and configuration validation support. We will also design a web-based console for changing and monitoring modes across groups of participants. The provision of OSGi-based capabilities for moded configuration validation will have significant impact in maintaining the assured operational status of missile defense systems.

VISTOLOGY, INC.
5 Mountainview Drive
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 285-0315
Dr. Christopher Matheus
MDA 07-041      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Security Policy Reconciliation
Abstract:The Department of Defense Goal Security Architecture (DGSA) transition plan has established a framework and a long range road map for the implementation of security policies in the DoD information systems. DGSA establishes a number of requirements that should be implemented in order to achieve the goals of the roadmap. One of the requirements is that a representation for security policy rules be developed as well as tools to support policy management. Moreover, it stipulates that interpretation of security policies should be context dependent and the tools should support the security engineers in composing and reusing existing policies. Towards these goals, VIStology proposes to develop a formal, ontology-based representation for security policy rules that is amenable to policy reconciliation and composition. VIStology will analyze requirements for a policy representation language; review various representation languages and propose a language that will support easy policy representation, reuse, composition and reconciliation; propose tools for the support of policy management; develop initial prototypes of tools and policies, assess the usability of the proposed language and tools; develop a plan for the implementation and evaluation of a full-scale prototype of the proposed tools.

WW TECHNOLOGY GROUP
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Dr. Chris J Walter
MDA 07-041      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Security Policy Reconciliation
Abstract:In Phase I WWTG will develop enabling tools and processes for performing security policy reconciliation and composition. The combination of a proven, multi-formalism modeling tool offers a unique opportunity to improve upon the state of the art of security policy analysis and composition of large systems. This will advance the state of the art beyond devising formal processes and practices but will enable application of these concepts to specific implementations. It will provide BMDS the ability to integrate computer systems, components and applications to perform an integrated mission implementing cooperative security policies Specific advancements on the state of the art are realized through: (a) concepts for a formal process for analysis that is developed with a model-based approach, (b) representations of diverse, yet coordinated, behaviors affecting security policies and certification as executable models to produce high fidelity, repeatable and readily communicated artifacts and (c) a common modeling hub that supports the integration of heterogeneous simulation and modeling technologies through a tool bus technology that supports theorem proving, model checking, simulation, Markov models, Petri Nets, SANs (and more) and is open to integration with third party tools.

AVENDA SYSTEMS
2855 Kifer Rd, Suite #102
Santa Clara, CA 95051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 748-1993
Mr. Santhosh Cheeniyil
MDA 07-042      Awarded: 02/12/08
Title:Voice over IP Security Architecture (VISA)
Abstract:Avenda Systems proposes a voice over IP security architecture and solution called VoIP Inter-domain Security Architecture (VISA). VISA system will provide the architectural foundations to secure voice traffic within a security domain (intra-domain) and across a security domain (inter-domain). This is currently a feature gap in enterprise VOIP solutions. Avenda Systems has the expertise to develop a practical and highly effective security architecture for inter-domain VoIP traffic. Research and analysis in Phase I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete solution in Phase II, and a commercially viable product in Phase III.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Mark A Stacy
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Volume Signature Mapping System
Abstract:Significant advantages occur in cost reduction, technology maturity, and ease of implementation when using commercial-off-the-shelf components and systems boards in critical military applications. Because COTS components are well documented reverse engineering their contents is very straight forward. The first layer of protection for critical technology is the physical volume that encloses the system components. Any attempt to modify, penetrate, or remove this outer enclosure is one of the first indications of a tamper attack. CRG proposes to create a volume protection scheme that would measure and use a multitude of physical volume attributes and create a volume signature that would be used for volume protection. Since the attributes are defined by the physical construction and composition of the volume they do not require power to maintain their values. CRG's demonstrated expertise in the proposed technology presents MDA the opportunity to obtain an effective, reliable, and economical volume protection scheme for protecting critical information components of the ballistic missile defense system. The proposing team's track record of innovation in new anti-tamper technologies positions CRG for successful implementation of an effective, reliable, and economical volume protection method meeting a wide range of MDA's operational needs.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SWSuite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Dan Gall
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Solid Freeform Fabrication of Anti-Tamper Containers
Abstract:Defense Department entities with a mission need to transport critical technology material have a number of tamper indicating solutions, but few tamper protection solutions available to them. Those few protection solutions are not cost effective, nor are they as versatile as one might desire. The Missile Defense Agency in particular has a need to afford maximum protection of U.S. technologies in transit between its vendors. MDA's need is acute due to its agile development and best-in-breed teaming practices. This effort will focus on identifying new hardware design and protection techniques and technologies that will delay reverse engineering and exploitation. Current technologies have an assortment of issues, most notably high cost, inflexible form factors, inconvenient mounting options, and exposure of tamper protection technology to authorized insiders with a need to use the technology, but without a need to know about its inner workings.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-0966
Mr. Joseph Frederick
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Volume Protection
Abstract:Radiance Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop the conceptual framework, fabricate and demonstrate an innovative low-profile, multi-mode anti-tamper (AT) volume protection sensor suite that meets MDA requirements for portability and reusability. This program will leverage two technologies currently being developed, and integrate them with a new technology that renders critical technology circuitry useless. We will also provide the capability to destroy extremely localized critical circuit features using thermal energy at the micro level. X-ray and focused ion beam detection will be provided by a nano-particle-loaded thin film scintillator material that lines the volume. The volume also contains a number of MEMS-based micro-cantilever beam arrays that will detect vibrational energy due to grinding or scanning acoustic microscopy attacks. Under this proposed program, new research will develop a film of material called NOTAMPER. When activated it will render the critical technology features useless by applying thermal energy to melt micro-circuitry. The architecture will allow for additional layers of protection at a later date. This program will integrate all of the components into a protected volume that meets the MDA requirements for reusability and DOT transport requirements.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
MDA 07-043      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Innovative Volume Protection Using EMI Trigger Wrap(1001-158)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. proposes a new volume-protection anti-tamper (AT) technology for active protection of sensitive/secure equipment. The detection system integrates wireless communication abilities for real-time triggering of countermeasures. The proposed system is also easily customized to any size or shape, and can be installed quickly. A successful program will offer increased capability of detecting and responding to unauthorized intrusion into secure volumes or equipment.

SCITEC, INC.
100 Wall Street
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-3892
Mr. Ted Slusarchyk
MDA 07-044      Awarded: 02/20/08
Title:Debris Assessment from Spectrally Diverse Sensors and Air Sample to Aid Post-Intercept Weapons Typing
Abstract:A critical need for the ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is the determination of the warhead type contained within the intercepted threat. Knowledge of warhead type is essential for effective consequence mitigation and determining the National Command Authority response to the threat. Since missile defense threat scenarios include attacks on theater assets and our allies, the BMDS architecture must address the perceived risks of harmful fallout from intercepting potential WMD threats near host nations or in allied airspace. This SBIR effort will focus on WMD typing challenges for theater and regional threat scenarios where multiple defensive elements (ABL, SM-3, THAAD, PAC-3) may have opportunities for threat engagement. The capability to confidently confirm that certain WMDs were or were not present in an engaged threat complex will be key to alleviating concerns by our deployed forces and allies about the these complex engagement decisions. Due to cost and hazards of direct tests with WMD materials, the research will include fusion of data and sensors information from sources not typically available on current BMDS flight tests. Development will lead to cost effective enhancements to the C2BMC situational awareness for the warfighter on the nature of actual missile threat being engaged.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Christopher Farnham
MDA 07-045      Awarded: 02/19/08
Title:Optimized Planning for Threat Interception using Markets for Uncertainty Management (OPTIMUM)
Abstract:Emerging threats and technologies have significantly increased the requirements for successful battle management and fire control in ballistic missile defense applications. The growing interdependencies between weapons and sensor systems demand defensive planning tools that integrate weapon allocation with sensor management, and problems such as inventory management and weapon-to-target assignment create the need for predictive planning that can manage the uncertainty and risk that dominates missile defense. Here, we propose Optimized Planning for Threat Interception using Markets for Uncertainty Management (OPTIMUM), to provide a solution that integrates the whole of the layered defense system in a framework that incorporates many sources of uncertainty and provides a decision rationale to human operators, allowing them to quickly determine the consequences of overriding any system-generated decision. This approach uses market-based optimization, which applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to battle management and fire control by creating an artificial market for weapon and sensor capabilities. With a properly designed market, we can engineer a system that reaches competitive equilibrium, ensuring an optimal allocation of assets and resources.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark StreetSuite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5009
Mr. Peter David
MDA 07-045      Awarded: 02/28/08
Title:Multi-Hypothesis Contingency Driven Targeting
Abstract:Despite significant research, engagement management algorithms have not matured to the point of deployability - even the most advanced algorithms are still considered developmental. One reason for the absence of global engagement management algorithms in the deployed system is that providing good solutions to the weapon/target allocation problem is not sufficient. An automated engagement management tool must be able to process and respect the guidance contained in the pre-defined defense plan. Conversely, existing planning tools do little to acknowledge that their plans will be executed by automated engagement managed algorithms. The guidance and strategies contained within defense plans are not expressed in a form that is directly useable by engagement management algorithms. The DAC team proposes to close the gap between planning and execution through application of a novel class of algorithms that are able to rapidly identify near-optimal allocation schemes while remaining completely decoupled from their objective functions. By defining the defense plan's phases and contingencies in terms of different optimization constraints and objective functions, an engagement management algorithm will be able to automatically apply the guidance, policies and strategies defined by the plan to the execution phase of an engagement.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5241
Dr. Renato Levy
MDA 07-045      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:A Hierarchical Battle Management and Planning Aid Framework for Effective
Abstract:We present a hierarchical battle management and planning aids framework for effective situational awareness in stressful, time critical, and collaborative environments. The proposal herein gathers novel ideas, prior arts, and our own expertise and practices to provide an effective and practical approach for the aforementioned topic. The proposed framework is featured as unified task representation, reduced ad-hoc decision making upon dynamics and uncertainties, intelligent, scalable, easy and practical for deployment, and significantly reduced cognitive load for human operators, etc. We will (1) employ a service oriented architecture for the management (creation, categorization, editing and fast retrieval) of U.S. interception capabilities (interceptors and other weapon systems) and potential threats, (2) use a highly expressive knowledge representation method, extended hierarchical task networks (EHTNs), to specify suitable assignments between threats and corresponding U.S. capabilities through specifications of hierarchical task structures, (3) design an integrated hierarchical battle management and planning aids framework for effective situational awareness in stressful, time critical, and collaborative environments, and finally (4) explore and extend the framework to provide rationale and explanation to facilitate better understanding, re-plan (redistribute interceptors) and decision making of suitable interception allocation to threats for operators.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. James Ezick
MDA 07-045      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Advanced Constrained Optimization Algorithms Utilizing Next Generation Processors
Abstract:C2BMC systems must perform rapid automatic development of plans to assign and employ weapons in the face of BMD attacks; the systems that produce these plans are based on advanced constrained optimization solvers for extremely large problem instances. This proposal outlines a path toward developing scalable constrained optimization algorithm implementations utilizing next generation computational hardware. Specifically, we propose to investigate and develop algorithms that fuse some of the best features of propositional logic solvers with optimization algorithms for assignment and shortest path planning, and do to so in a manner that is amenable to parallelization and utilization of computational accelerators. The resulting technology will be exported as an open interface web service for a net centric planning architecture. The research and development will be performed with partner Lockheed Martin MS2, developers of the Aegis BMD capabilities.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Michael Perloff
MDA 07-045      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Genetic Algorithm Allocation and Assignment Tool for Missile Defense Battle Management
Abstract:An increasing number of countries are acquiring nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons together with missile systems that enable them to deliver these weapons beyond their borders. Short response times require effective, efficient planning tools for resource and weapons allocation, assignment, and placement so that these tasks can be executed effectively in a highly stressed environment with many potential targets and high uncertainty. Under this effort, we will develop a comprehensive, practical Genetic Algorithm (GA) based solution whose intrinsic representation accounts for attack and tracking uncertainty and weapons capability, supports shoot-look-shoot and contains event-driven alternatives. Scientific Systems (SSCI) has previously developed GA approaches for problems in missile routing, attack planning, search, and medical scheduling. The missile routing product, CMARS (Cruise Missile Autonomous Routing System) has been integrated into the Tomahawk Planning System (TPS) and is undergoing Phase III development. Our project team includes Prof. Dimitri Bertsekas of MIT, and Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTS). Prof. Bertsekas, a leading expert in optimization techniques, will aid us in formulating, testing and validating our methods, comparing them with other methods, and, if needed, in real-time, parallel, distributed implementation. LMTS will provide expertise in complex multi-target tracking, identification, and discrimination and knowledge of Missile Defense (MD) interceptors and strategies. The team's combined proven experience in advanced Genetic Algorithms, optimization techniques, advanced multi-target tracking techniques, and their knowledge of MD interceptors will ensure a successful demonstration in Phase I of a flexible, and effective Genetic Algorithm tool for Missile Defense (MD) weapons allocations and assignment, followed by development and thorough testing in Phase II, and successful transition to DoD and commercial products in Phase III. Raytheon also supports this effort and is interested in working with us in transitioning to Phase II and III applications.

BKF SYSTEMS
2380 Emerick Rd.
Cle Elum, WA 98922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 857-2500
Dr. Boris Kovalerchuk
MDA 07-046      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Track Correlation / Sensor Netting
Abstract:Detection, tracking, and identification of ballistic missiles can benefit significantly from improved correlation of the tracks and detections. Track and detections are coming from the optical sensors and the radar sensors for further fusion of data into the single picture of the situation. However, available association methods are not nearly robust enough. Several radar, EO, and IR sensor characteristics reduce the ability to match tracks correctly. Range and azimuth resolution, scale distortion, relief displacement (foreshortening and layover), and sensor shadow are among them. The objective of this proposal is to develop advanced, innovative, robust, real-time algorithms and software for the integration of passive or active EO sensor tracks or detections with radar generated tracks or detections. The solution will use metric data and features, provide a measure of confidence, identify clusters of tracks when objects are indistinguishable, and can be implemented in a centralized or distributed architecture. The main novelty of the proposed EAD algorithm is in the use of robust and affine invariant structural relations built on the features for accurate correlation.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd AvenueSuite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 644-3400
Dr. Barry Belkin
MDA 07-046      Awarded: 02/14/08
Title:Track Correlation / Sensor Netting
Abstract:The project objective is to develop a tracking algorithm that will fuse detections and tracks provided by a network of radar sensors with detections and tracks provided by a network of electro-optical (EO) sensors into multi-system tracks. The intent is to thereby achieve increased state estimation and classification accuracy in tracking ballistic missiles. Both target kinematic states and feature states are estimated. The target position-velocity vector (x,y,z,xdot,ydot,zdot) is modeled as 6-variate Gaussian. The state model accounts for Earth gravitation and atmospheric drag. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for kinematic state estimation as an effective tool in dealing with nonlinearities in both the state equation and measurement equation. Target feature states such as radar cross section and color temperature are estimated using conjugate prior methods. Data association is treated as a classical assignment problem. The cost of a pairwise association is defined as the negative log-likelihood of that association. Repeated use of the Munkres algorithm is made to find the least-cost joint association, as well as pairwise associations that must be included in any joint association and pairwise associations that must be excluded from any joint association. Clustering methods are applied to detections and tracks whose associations are uncertain.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark StreetSuite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 682-1615
Dr. Chris Smith
MDA 07-046      Awarded: 02/28/08
Title:Advanced Data Association and Predictive Tracking (ADAPT)
Abstract:A high-quality SIAP is the essential foundation of effective air defense, reliable combat identification and is the key to exploiting advanced offensive capabilities. To develop an effective SIAP, the tracking and fusion algorithms must overcome real-world challenges such as high target density, heterogeneous data sources, and communication bandwidth requirements. The DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation (DAC) team proposes to overcome these real-world problems through an innovative algorithm that has the potential to vastly improve the quality of measurement association, track correlation and fusion of sensor data with large uncertainty (e.g. high-density, passive sensors, electronic countermeasures, etc.). We propose to perform heterogeneous data fusion via a state-of-the-art fusion algorithm which will naturally and easily accommodate new and diverse sensor types as well as unanticipated sensor behavior in the face of increasingly difficult scenarios. Application of the proposed algorithms has been shown to produce fewer mis-associations and better run-time performance than other advanced tracking algorithms. Indeed, this innovative solution has garnered a commercial backing from Raytheon who has agreed to endorse the DAC team's solution through Phases I, II, and III.

NUMERICA CORP.
4850 Hahns Peak DriveSuite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Dr. Benjamin Slocumb
MDA 07-046      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Track Correlation / Sensor Netting
Abstract:The current missile defense system incorporates overhead IR sensors as well as ground-based radar sensors for detection and tracking of ballistic missile events. Data from these sensors are separately fused into tracks before finally being associated in the C2BMC using the Ballistic Launch Estimation Algorithm (BLEA). This architecture introduces significant latency in the use of the overhead IR data, and does not take advantage of potential state vector accuracy, data association, and feature estimation improvements that could be provided with direct IR-radar data fusion alternatives. Near-term upgrades to the C2BMC are intended to provide a track-based IR-radar fusion capability; however, the current upgrade path does not directly address the track latency problem nor the diversity of feature data available in the multiple sensor phenomenologies. The Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) system, in particular, will require rapid access to fused AN/TPY-2 radar and DSP infrared data in order to perform its enhanced boost phase and early midcourse intercept mission. We therefore propose to develop a tracking algorithm that includes the ability to perform measurement-based IR-radar data association and fusion, with a specific focus on providing early warning, enhanced track update rate, and greater track accuracy in support of mission functions such as discrimination and forward interceptor fire control. This IR-radar track fusion approach will also provide an initial entry point into future C2BMC requirements for distributed track processing from multiple phenomenology data.

NUMERICA CORP.
4850 Hahns Peak DriveSuite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Dr. Aubrey Poore
MDA 07-046      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Track Correlation / Sensor Netting
Abstract:The tracking and data communication architecture for the current BMDS can be characterized as a "centralized" architecture in that sensor data are sent to a central node for correlation and fusion. Future plans are to evolve this architecture into a "distributed" one where correlation and fusion can occur at multiple nodes throughout the network. The distributed approach is needed to improve scalability and computational load sharing, and it eliminates single point of failure issues. However, to evolve the architecture to a distributed one requires a new distributed correlation-fusion capability. Thus, the goal of this program is to develop a distributed network-centric class of multiple frame data association (or correlation) methods that match the quality of the current centralized multiple hypothesis correlation (MHC) algorithm. Specifically, the new class of methods seeks to achieve a consistent operational picture across the network of platforms, to manage the communications network loading, and to process both IR and radar track reports. Moreover, the proposed distributed architectures will support measurement, tracklet, or track processing. Included in this development are bias estimation, ambiguity assessment of the association process, formation of clusters or complexes, and a cluster track to represent these clusters.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1275 Kennestone CircleSuite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 795-8181
Dr. Robert Bock
MDA 07-046      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Atmospheric Effects Mitigation for Improved Boost Phase Track Correlation Sensor Fusion
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes to develop multi-spectral track correlation algorithms to improve boost phase track radar-to-radar and optical-to-radar track correlation for multiple sensor fusion. These algorithms will enable enhanced effectiveness in track correlation subroutines and enable effective sensor fusion, thereby increasing the coverage area of BMD space-based optical sensor and forward-based radar components.

The proposed algorithms will exploit unique data available from the Total Atmospheric Effects Mitigation System, developed by PRA for MDA and the US Air Force, to address emerging challenges to current BMD sensors and systems. The approach accounts for spatial and temporal correlation in scintillation parameters to refine track filter performance and object classification schemes.

The Phase I objectives are to investigate and evaluate atmospheric effects mitigation algorithms applied to boost phase tracking and correlation and to plan Phase II concept that will demonstrate algorithm components in a test environment and full algorithm performance in a high fidelity simulation and experiment. The currently envisioned Phase II validation will include simulation testing of the Phase I algorithms in a validated demonstration tool, such as the Ballistic Missile Defense Benchmark or the Lockheed Martin Integrated Missile Defense Test Bed.

EXQUADRUM, INC.
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Mr. Kevin E. Mahaffy
MDA 07-047      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Confinement Removal before Ignition of Solid Propellant (CRISP)
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative technology that will degrade or eliminate the ability of a rocket motor's composite case to contain pressure when subjected to Fast or Slow Cookoff thermal conditions. The project team also proposes a new hypothesis to explain the fragment throwing phenomenon. During the proposed project, the feasibility of this approach to hazard mitigation will be experimentally demonstrated.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SWSuite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Aaron Small
MDA 07-047      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Slow Cook-Off Insensitive Munitions Solutions for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Missile defense systems are now required to conform to the insensitive munitions requirements of MIL STD 2105C. Meeting such requirements in the ballistic missile defense system will require a layered approach involving modified shipping containers and canisters, improvements in solid rocket motor casings, and less sensitive solid rocket propellant. One of the most difficult IM responses to mitigate is slow cook. Not only the propellant, but the casing and canister contribute to the response either through pressure build or through formation of lethal projectiles. Luna Innovations is proposing a method to address slow cook-off events for large diameter (greater than 12 inch) solid rocket motors. Luna's approach is to modify the response of the launch canister to initiate venting at a sufficiently low temperature to avoid the buildup of potentially explosive pressures. The venting temperature may be tuned to correspond with the temperature at which degradation of the propellant occurs.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Alicia Thompson
MDA 07-047      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Furazan Ingredient as a Solution for Slow Cook-Off Insensitive Munitions Tests
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and its team member Aerojet, propose to mitigate slow cook-off violence by adding a thermally-decomposing trigger to a propellant formulation to provide a benign ignition mechanism for large diameter SRMs. Physical Sciences and Aerojet have identified a potential furazan replacement for ammonium nitrate (AN) which eliminates the significant problems of AN such as hygroscopicity, phase changes/density changes, and performance losses while providing a benign reaction to slow cook-off. The proposed novel furazan-based compound is predicted to have characteristics comparable to AN (density, heat of formation) but have the advantage of decomposition upon melting, thereby allowing for a "burning reaction" in the slow cook-off tests. PSI will provide Aerojet with up to 25 grams of the furazan-based compound for testing of its energetic and thermal properties, sensitivity, and behavior upon slow cook-off in a propellant formulation. On a potential Phase II program, PSI will identify modifications to the proposed compound using established structure activity relationship that will improve the performance of the propellant formulation as well as perform scale-up of the furazan compound.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Allan Dokhan
MDA 07-047      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Multi-Functional High Performance IM-Compliant Composite Case for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:It is proposed to develop a multifunctional IM compliant, filament wound composite case for slow cookoff, bullet and fragment impact. In phase I, the proposed investigation will focus upon developing our composite case, conducting slow cookoff tests, and to filament wind one case design to a subscale analog MDA rocket motor. We propose to establish a fabrication technique that will be applicable at pre-existing large-scale production of MDA Solid Rocket Motor Systems.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Mr. Hunter Golden
MDA 07-047      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Slow Cook-Off Insensitive Munitions Solutions for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop highly reliable technologies for initiating and venting large diameter SRMs subjected to slow cook-off. Systima with support from Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK), Tactical Propulsion and Controls Division, proposes to integrate auto-ignition propellant, safe and arm mechanisms, and novel techniques to sever large diameter rocket motor casing. In slow cook-off conditions, thermally controlled rocket motor case venting, by skin severance, greatly reduces the probability of an explosion, violent reaction, or detonation. Since solid propellants deflagrate before detonation, severing the rocket motor case prevents detonations and explosions caused by the buildup of abnormally high pressures inside a thermally weaken rocket motor case. Equally important Systima's proposed concepts do not place reactive materials next to the solid rocket propellant. The proposed concepts will likely improve fast cook-off compliance and furthermore should not increase the solid rocket motor (SRM) sensitivity to other stimuli, such as bullet impact or sympathetic detonations.

EERGC CORP.
18A Mason
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 768-3756
Mr. Mark Sheldon
MDA 07-048      Awarded: 02/15/08
Title:Design of Gelled Hypergolic Propulsion Systems for Transportation Vessel Safety
Abstract:EERGC Corporation, in cooperation with subcontractor Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST), proposes to address the solicitation objective through a two-pronged approach which (1) improves the inherent safety of Liquid Hypergolic Propulsion (LHP) systems, by gelling the liquid propellants, and (2) developing a robust cleanup system to quickly neutralize hypergolic propellants in the event of accidental release during storage, handing, or transportation. The concept of the cleanup system is based on rapid neutralization of exposed hypergolic propellants by rapid dilution, closely coupled with rapid capture and sequestration of the neutralized waste. The cleanup system is general in its nature and can work with either gelled or liquid propellants. However, the use of gelled hypergolic propellants as an alternative to the equivalent neat liquid will be shown to be fundamentally safer in accidental release scenarios in the avoidance of accidental ignition, minimization of the extent of propellant and vapor spread, and in enabling more expedient mitigation with the device. The approach will utilize and expand upon the past experience of EERGC and NGST in fuel and propellant development, through a number of current and recent programs funded by the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and NASA.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Mr. Alton Reich
MDA 07-048      Awarded: 03/17/08
Title:Systems Approach to Liquid Hypergolic Propellant Shipboard and Air-Transport Safety of BMDS Elements
Abstract:The US Navy, through the Weapons Systems Explosive Safety Review Board (WSESRB), has never approved hypergolic liquid propellants for surface ship applications and the US Air Force has limitations on shipping LHP systems. For this proposed project, Streamline Automation will develop a modular and scalable suite of LHP Monitoring & Mitigation systems designed to allow safe air transport and sea-basing of BMDS assets. The system engineering approach will take into account the complex nature of the BMDS acquisition program, including the use of current and planned hypergolic leakage sensor systems. At low concentrations, the primary goal is personnel protection, and an active carbon based scrubber will be used. As the concentration increases, the primary goal will shift to preventing flammable or explosive concentrations from being reached. The mitigation response will also shift to injecting water to rapidly reduce the vapor concentration and dilute liquid puddles. Streamline Automation will coordinate with the Quality, Safety & Mission Assurance Office and with GMD, Aegis BMD, THAAD, and KE Interceptor program offices to comply with their joint requirement and interface specifications and operational concepts. The Phase 2 effort will focus on the development of a full-scale prototype system, and integration with the affected BMDS assets.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 07-049      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Insensitive Munitions Solutions for Large Scale Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is proposing to develop an armor solution that would provide protection to MDA solid rocket motor systems against the standard NATO bullet and fragment impact threats and lower energy threat that may also be threat hazards in the field. Corvid has developed a proven armor development methodology that has been successful in solving similar ballistic protection needs from concept development to hardware solution. We reduce development cycle time and testing costs by evaluating innovative armor systems numerically using state-of-the-art penetration dynamics modeling capability to capture the rate sensitive behavior of the materials proposed before building prototypes and physically testing them. The use of our methodology will lead to light-weight, multi-hit armor solutions that meet the key performance parameters define.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2304
Dr. J. Michael Alford
MDA 07-049      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Insensitive Munitions Solutions for Large Scale Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Under normal conditions, modern munitions are very unlikely to explode or burn accidentally even though they are composed of very hazardous materials. However, the propellants and explosives can be set off by heat or shock and triggered by fire, bullets, or shell fragments; it is this problem that is addressed by the Insensitive Munitions (IM) program. Of the six hazard IM tests, the most difficult (especially for large solid rocket motors) is slow cook-off, in which the munition is slowly heated until reaction occurs. To address the slow cook-off problem, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes an additive to conventional propellant formulations used in large solid rocket motors that will inhibit the combustion reactions at lower temperatures (up to 1000 C), preventing premature explosive venting of the gases. At higher temperatures the additive is a high energy fuel, and will contribute to (and not interfere with) the normal combustion reactions. In the Phase I project we will study the mixing of the additive with conventional propellant formulations, manufacture control and modified batches of propellant, and measure their propellant combustion and IM properties by standard test procedures.

CU AEROSPACE
2100 South Oak St.Suite 206
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 333-8274
Dr. David Carroll
MDA 07-050      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Pressure Singlet Delta Oxygen Generator
Abstract:The primary objective of CU Aerospace's Phase I work will be to investigate a relatively new, highly innovative high pressure singlet-delta oxygen generator (SOG) concept for the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). Estimates are that this SOG concept will significantly improve the pressure recovery of COIL systems while retaining efficiency. The results of the Phase I research will lay the foundation for developing a highly advanced COIL SOG for enhanced laser performance and improved pressure recovery in Phase II. Our team partner the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will assist CU Aerospace to perform experiments to determine spray droplet size and to examine the character of the spray inside this SOG design. A SOG model will be put together to aid in the design and understanding of the generator for the Phase II program. This research will lead directly to designs that will be fabricated and tested extensively with detailed diagnostics to evaluate each design's performance attributes in Phase II with a goal of a 1/40th scale demonstration in Phase II. Use of the well-calibrated and economical COIL facility at the University of Illinois will allow this advanced SOG to be implemented and examined in detail.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
890 Elkton DriveSuite 101
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 594-6191
Dr. Tom Henshaw
MDA 07-050      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:High Pressure Singlet Delta Oxygen Generator
Abstract:Directed Energy Solutions (DES) proposes a program aimed at revolutionary advancement of the current technology used in powering high-energy chemical iodine lasers. Our approach is to use a unique generator with a high specific surface area to produce high yields of singlet delta oxygen at high reactor pressures. The compact design of our SOG technology affords reduced generator and transit duct volume to the laser nozzle, and provides the ideal environment for high pressure operation. High pressure Singlet Delta Oxygen (SDO) production will be examined using an existing 1/40th ABL scale Singlet Oxygen Generator (SOG). Generator modeling, analysis and testing are used to develop a high pressure design at the 1/10th ABL scale. Design feasibility is verified with absolute concentration measurements of SDO yield, chlorine utilization and water vapor. The chemical resistance of various generator substrates to SDO and Basic Hydrogen Peroxide (BHP) will be examined. Identification and down selection of lightweight, robust generator materials will be performed.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Mr. David Thomas
MDA 07-051      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Hemispherical Reflectance Measurement of Heated Materials
Abstract:High Energy Lasers offer defense against a variety of threats, delivering significant amounts of laser energy to a specific location on a target at the speed of light. The effectiveness of the HEL system is directly related to the ability to transfer heat into the target material. The laser must dwell on the target for a period of time sufficient to deliver enough thermal energy to render it inoperable. There is a need for a measurement technique that can accurately characterize the thermal response of target materials exposed to representative HEL systems. AEgis will work closely with the customer to investigate concepts that can provide accurate measurement of the time evolution of the reflectivity of a sample exposed to a HEL system. The AEgis team has identified three innovative concepts with the potential to achieve the project goals: 1) Conformal Irradiance Sensor Array, 2) Scattered Reflection Imaging and 3) Laser Hardened Integrating Sphere. AEgis will investigate each of the three methods and provide an assessment of the applicability to the challenge. The AEgis team is uniquely positioned to leverage efforts from current DET S&T sensor projects, and to show a rapid development path to a fieldable device.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Dr. Sy Hamadani
MDA 07-051      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Advanced Hemispherical Reflectance Measurement of Heated Materials
Abstract:Measurements of Total Hemispherical Reflectance under high temperature conditions are needed for accurate assessment of lethality functions of the ABL program. During engagement by high power lasers, the surface temperature of solid targets changes rapidly causing drastic variations in the absorption and reflection characteristics. Current hemispherical reflectance measurement systems cannot perform under such fast heating rates (100 degrees per second). SARA's proposed methodologies to address this shortcoming will be addressed by investigating alternative techniques aimed at measuring Total Hemispherical Reflectance. In particular, we will demonstrate the possibility of measuring the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of a target under the fast heating rates of interest. Hardware and methodologies to perform such measurement will be presented and the BRDF of representative military targets (4130 steel and 6061 Aluminum) will be performed using an in-house two-kilowatt CW Nd:YAG laser capable of irradiating samples at 10 kW/cm2 and producing sample heating rates of hundreds of degrees per second. Software to derive the Total Hemispherical Reflectance from BRDF measurements will be developed. The results will be applied to the design of a subscale device in Phase II and scalability to full deployment in a field environment for a Phase III device will be demonstrated.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Jing Zhao
MDA 07-052      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title: High Performance Resonator Fiber Optic Gyro Made of Air Core Fiber
Abstract:Agiltron proposes an innovative resonant fiber optic gyro (RFOG) based on air-core optical fiber achieving high performance, compact size, lightweight and low fabrication cost. The proposed gyro uniquely combines the advantages of high finesse of a ring laser gyro (RLG) and the advantages of long optical path and miniature package of interferometer fiber optic gyro (IFOG). Critically, the utilization of air-core fiber dramatically reduces the undesirable nonlinear effects inducing long term drift and short term noise in silica fiber caused by the Kerr effect, Faraday effect, and Rayleigh backscattering by a factor of up to 500, and the Shupe thermal effect by factor 3 to 10 due to the light propagating inside of air core rather than silica. Moreover, the RFOG can provide high sensitivity with short fiber length and use a closed loop configuration and narrow bandwidth laser to detect the frequency shift, resulting in smaller drift and high signal to noise ratio. Phase I will identify the critical technology challenges, synthesize advanced architectures, perform concept feasibility analysis, build the basic resonator module, and define the Phase II approach.

FIBERNETICS
4257 E. Nisbet Rd.
Phoenix, AZ 85032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 283-5054
Dr. Ralph Bergh
MDA 07-052      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Performance Improvement
Abstract:Research is proposed to develop and demonstrate innovative, revolutionary approaches in components and architecture, to improve fiber optic gyro (FOG) performance without increasing current FOG size and weight. Gyroscopes are critical components of many inertial measurement units (IMU) including proposed MDA systems such as Airborne Laser (ABL). The FOG is potentially a more reliable and less costly inertial sensor than mechanical gyroscopes and ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs). However, in currently available units, manufacturing techniques and error sources have prevented FOGs from achieving precision performance at a reasonable cost and weight. Fibernetics will investigate new optical fiber, coil and architecture designs that will provide an expected order of magnitude improvement in performance over current high performance units with similar fiber length. FOG performance will be improved dramatically while maintaining the same size, weight, and power requirements. Phase I will focus on fiber, coil and FOG architecture designs. In Phase II, at least two engineering prototype FOGs will be fabricated, tested and evaluated.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave.Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
Dr. Micah Yairi
MDA 07-052      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Novel Precision Fiber Optic Gyroscope
Abstract:Gyroscopes are found in nearly every airplane, many cars, robots, missiles, and more. The reason for such broad, wide-spread use is simple: gyroscopes are excellent tools for determining rotation, and can be quite sensitive. Fiber-optic gyroscopes, though light weight and robust, have not been able to match the performance of ring-laser gyroscopes. To provide a solution, Los Gatos Research has developed a novel approach to gyroscope design that is based on fiber optics and lasers, but avoids many of the disadvantages of standard fiber-optic gyroscopes, providing dramatically increased-sensitivity.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Victor Grubsky
MDA 07-052      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Fiber Optic Gyro Performance Improvement
Abstract:To address the MDA's need for an ultraprecise, compact, and lightweight fiber optic gyroscope (FOG), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Micro-Fiber Optical Gyroscope (MIFOG). This proposed device is based on miniaturizing the size of the rotation-sensing fiber loop by replacing the conventional 80-micron fiber with a micro-fiber having a diameter of only 15-20 microns. To accomplish this goal, POC will develop a station for manufacturing the microfiber and packaging it into robust and compact sensing coils having standard fiber terminations on both ends for easy integration with existing gyro optical and electronic components. The reduction of the fiber size and weight will enable the MIFOG to become more compact and lightweight than the conventional FOGs, while at the same time achieving sensitivity up to 10 times higher by using much longer sensing fiber. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MIFOG by fabricating a 100-m long micro-fiber sensing element and demonstrating its capability for high-accuracy rotation sensing in gyroscopes. In Phase II POC plans to refine the micro-fiber manufacturing technology and produce highly sensitive and compact gyro coils with up to 10 km of ruggedized micro-fiber.

ADVANCED POWDER SOLUTIONS, INC.
10010 Cucklebur
Houston, TX 77095
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 939-0778
Mr. Asit Biswas
MDA 07-053      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Lightweight Composite for Chemical Laser Tank
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I program teaming with the primary ABL system integrator, Advanced Powder Solutions will develop a low cost light weight, high strength, high temperature resistant, iodine, chlorine, helium, ammonia, caustic compatible corrosion resistant composite material. For replacement of current heavier systems, the Phase I program will involve with the fabrication and testing of systems of direct interest to ABL use,using this innovative light weight composite material. Phase II will continue the characterization of these corrosion resistant materials and will fabricate more specific components for the ABL system.

PROFESSIONAL ANALYTICAL & CONSULTING SERV, INC.
PACS Inc. 409 Meade Drive
Coraopolis, PA 15108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 457-6576
Dr. Henry Nowicki
MDA 07-053      Awarded: 02/13/08
Title:Improved Iodine storage, shipping, handling and operations for COIL Lasers
Abstract:This SBIR could provide the next generation safe and on-demand delivery of vapor-phase iodine for a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL). Iodine is caustic, corrosive, toxic, it is an oxidizing agent, it can pick-up water and it can have trace contaminants. Our new delivery technology is designed to minimize these iodine problems. Apparently, the future vapor-phase iodine delivery subsystem for the COIL needs to be improved over the present process, which utilizes complex direct vaporization of solid iodine with a multiple step process. With our prior experiences in working with iodine, this project may be a piece of cake for us. During Phase I we expect to demonstrate a new concept and its feasibility for the safe handling, purification, shipping, safe storage, and delivery of vapor-phase iodine on-demand for the COIL using a proprietary new process. During Phase I a one-tenth scale unit will be planned for its building and testing in Phase II. We expect to provide the client the needed operational improvements for iodine delivery in Phase II. Phase I results are required before proceeding to build and test the prototype in Phase II. Phase I results could open the door for other military and civilian applications for safe storage and delivery of other hazardous chemicals.