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195 Phase I Selections from the 08.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES, LLC
2317-A Market Place
Huntsvillle, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 694-3056
Dr. Edward J.
AF 08-001      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Accurate and Efficient Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves over Unbounded Regions in 3D
Abstract:The proposed project will rectify the current bottleneck in the simulation of 3D magnetic fields around high-current pulsed power devices. In the existing software, fields in the air are approximated by an artificial magnetic diffusion equation, which is both computationally expensive and nonphysical. The proposed solution avoids any nonphysical quantities and relies on exact conditions for the quasi-static component of the field and on very accurate absorbing boundary conditions for the wave component, developed and validated by our consultant Prof. S. Tsynkov. Specific and verifiable advantages of our approach are: (i) High accuracy. The treatment of the unbounded outer region relies on a precise physical and analytical description of the exterior field and interface conditions. (ii) Dramatically reduced computational complexity: no grid is needed in the exterior region. (iii) Ease of coupling with the existing simulator, such as Mach3. (iv) Generality and efficiency for multiple simulations. Phase I includes innovative R&D of modeling 3D fields, with both quasi-static and wave effects of Maxwell’s equations included. Solutions to test problems will be calculated and compared with analytical and accurate numerical benchmarks to fully demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach. In Phase II, the innovative 3D algorithms will be implemented as software tools, coupled with the Air Force 3D-MHD codes and extended to problems with complex geometries of interest to Air Force .

TECH-X CORP.
5621 Arapahoe Ave, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 444-2451
Ammar H Hakim
AF 08-001      Awarded: 5/15/2008
Title:Three-Dimensional Fast-Multipole Solvers for Magnetic Fields for Use in High-Current Pulsed Power Application Systems
Abstract:This proposal presents an innovative concept and a novel approach to achieve topic solution. The innovative concept is known as the Next Generation Troop Seat (NGTS). It is a semi-rigid foam and fabric seat which achieves its capabilities through the integration of a Dynamic Structural Beam (DSB). In the mishap environment the patented and proven DSB provides a higher strength to weight ratio than currently employed conventional seat components. It also provides the energy attenuation that makes the seat “crashworthy”. In limited evaluations DSB based crashworthy troop seats have demonstrated to be stronger, lighter and cheaper than existing fielded and proposed systems. The novel approach is to reduce overall program risk by developing three new variants of the NGTS. Each of these variants will specifically address, at the lightest weight possible, the three established performance criterions. The recent, over the last decade or so, implementation of crashworthy troop seats has identified that weight is the critical issue in their employment. By providing three variants the implementer will be able to choose the best solution for their application and not be limited by the weight constraint of a single solution. BENEFIT: The Multi-Variant/Capability Next Generation Troop Seat (M- V/C NGTS) is a lightweight crashworthy troop seat that offers the US DoD several options for its rotary-wing aircraft. Each variant addresses a critical segment of the fleet while balancing the compromises of weight and performance. As a result, implementation of the M-V/C NGTS will enhance troop safety across the entire aircraft fleet.

VARITECH SERVICES
2801 Florida St NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 878-9363
Dr. Gerald f Kiuttu
AF 08-001      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:3D Magnetic Field Modeling
Abstract:We propose to employ a novel Boundary Element Method (BEM) numerical technique to develop a parallel computer code that will allow simultaneous solution, in three dimensions (3-D), of the vacuum magnetic vector potential and magnetic field structure for complex geometries. The primary advantages of the chosen approach are the reduction of the dimensionality of the problem from three (volume) to two (surface) dimensions, and the avoidance of wasteful computation of fields and potentials away from conductor surfaces of interest. Furthermore, artificial external problem domain boundaries with generally unknown boundary conditions are avoided. The resulting code can either be employed stand-alone, for design purposes, or in combination with existing magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) or static magnetic diffusion codes based on finite-difference, finite-volume, finite- element, or even time-domain BEM techniques.

FORM FIT & FUNCTION LLC
71 East 26th Street
Paterson, NJ 07514
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 442-2290
Dr. Odilo Vazquez
AF 08-003      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Innovative Research for Crashworthy Stowable Troop Seating for Helicopters
Abstract:F3 Engineering (F3) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of developing and producing an innovative concept for crashworthy, lightweight, and rapidly stowable/removable helicopter troop seats with crash protection equivalent to the current flight crew seats. F3 will utilize our experience in development of energy management systems using Magnetorheological Fluid Technology (MRFT). F3 proposes a Magnetorheological Advanced Energy Absorber concept (MAEA) that integrates with current seat structures replacing traditional energy absorbers. The MAEA will include electronically controlled shock absorbing hardware that, in a crash, will absorb the energy to reduce the risk personnel injury. This system will determine the gross weight of the system, including the seat structure and occupant and will control the seat response in a crash event. The proposed system is modular, where shock attenuation will be located as needed, regardless of the configuration of the troop seat(s). Phase I efforts will include the evaluation of historical crash test data on seats and seat occupants, mathematical modeling and simulation of the proposed MAEA system and the development of feasible concepts worthy of further investigation and empirical testing.

GLATZ AERONAUTICAL CORP.
320 Monterey Place
Newtown, PA 18940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 527-9880
Mr. Jeffrey D. Glatz
AF 08-003      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Multi-Variant/Capability Next Generation Troop Seat (M-V/C NGTS)
Abstract:This proposal presents an innovative concept and a novel approach to achieve topic solution. The innovative concept is known as the Next Generation Troop Seat (NGTS). It is a semi-rigid foam and fabric seat which achieves its capabilities through the integration of a Dynamic Structural Beam (DSB). In the mishap environment the patented and proven DSB provides a higher strength to weight ratio than currently employed conventional seat components. It also provides the energy attenuation that makes the seat “crashworthy”. In limited evaluations DSB based crashworthy troop seats have demonstrated to be stronger, lighter and cheaper than existing fielded and proposed systems. The novel approach is to reduce overall program risk by developing three new variants of the NGTS. Each of these variants will specifically address, at the lightest weight possible, the three established performance criterions. The recent, over the last decade or so, implementation of crashworthy troop seats has identified that weight is the critical issue in their employment. By providing three variants the implementer will be able to choose the best solution for their application and not be limited by the weight constraint of a single solution.

IMPACT DISPERSAL SYSTEMS, LLC
P.O. Box 493
Smithville, TN 37166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 464-5676
Mr. Phillip (Pete) Love
AF 08-003      Awarded: 4/17/2008
Title:Impact Dispersal System for Crashworthy Stowable Troop Seating for Helicopters
Abstract:The seats used to carry troops in large Special Operation or Search & Rescue helicopters only provide limited protection in the event of a crash. These troop seats do not adequately attenuate the energy during a crash pulse or restrain the crewmember during impact and roll- over events. The crashworthy features of helicopter seats today incorporate some type of a mechanical device in order to absorb the energy from an impact. These energy absorbers use a pre-defined load-displacement profile in their design, which can be overly sensitive and not compatible with the wide range of troop and equipment weights. The Impact Dispersal System is a new invention that takes a different approach to reducing impact force by dispersing the force away from the point of impact. The system explodes the dispersion at the point of impact and then systematically shuts down according to the amount of force produced by the impact. Our goal is to incorporate this system into an existing helicopter troop seat in order to enhance crash protection. The lightweight and rapidly stowable/removable features of the existing troop seat will be kept with the incorporation of the Impact Dispersal System.

WOLF TECHNICAL SERVICES, INC.
6836 Hawthorn Park Drive
Indianapolis, IN 46220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 842-6075
Mr. Michael Pepe
AF 08-003      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Innovative Research for Crashworthy Stowable Troop Seating for Helicopters
Abstract:Innovative energy absorbing systems and restraint components are proposed as elements of a stowable seat design for troops transported in helicopters. A low-profile retractable energy absorber concept will be developed. The crash performance of troops in seats based on the novel design will be simulated.

ARMORWORKS, INC.
305 N. 54th Street
Chandler, AZ 85226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 598-5723
Dr. Ken-An Lou
AF 08-005      Awarded: 4/17/2008
Title:Mobile Aircrew Crashworthy Seating Systems for Helicopters
Abstract:This Phase I program would examine the feasibility of developing an innovative mobile aircrew crashworthy seating prototype that allows the cabin crewmembers the freedom to perform the majority of their airborne tasks but also allows for easy and rapid repositioning or stowing of the seat to accommodate cargo/troop ingress/egress, hoist operations, etc. The seating system will provide adequate crew protection and restraint during a crash pulse at least equivalent to the flight crew seats. Also we will develop and evaluate differnet EA and restraint technology concepts that have been suggested and developed to provide the best possible crash protection to the entire aircrew population. We will demonstrate design success via computer modeling/simulation and prototype testing. This SBIR Phase I will yield a quantitative set of seat design guidelines and models that can be implemented to military helicopter and civil rotorcraft. Later Phase II studies could include more engineering development and prototype seat tests.

EAST/WEST INDUSTRIES, INC.
80 Thirteenth Avenue
Ronkonkoma, NY 11779
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 981-5900
Mr. Frank Knoll
AF 08-005      Awarded: 4/18/2008
Title:Mobile Aircrew Crashworthy Seating Systems for Helicopters
Abstract:Feasibilty study of implementation of new technologies for accomodation of occupant with or without equipment, integrated and automatic adjusting restraint and flexible mounting of Mobile Aircrew Operator Seat for helicopters.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-1599
Dr. Zhiqing Cheng
AF 08-005      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Mobile Aircrew Crashworthy Seating Systems for Helicopters
Abstract:Infoscitex proposes an innovative seating system for helicopter mobile aircrew, which is designed based upon a number of creative ideas. (a) A turning table, as the base of the entire structure, allows the seat to turn around by any degree. (b) A retractable sliding track, mounted on the turning table, allows the seat to move in any direction by as far as 4 ft. (c) A robot seat frame, using four pneumatic control rods to control seat frame motion, provides adaptable support and optimal energy attenuation to each individual occupant. (d) An extensible five-point harness belt allows the occupant to rapidly transition from seated to half-standing and to full standing position and provides security to aircrew while reaching out of the aircraft to perform mission duties. (e) A seat cushion with optimized configuration and material provides improved seating comfort. The seat is stowable, and its weight is minimized for its sophisticated structure. In phase I, we will further develop our proposed concept, perform conceptual design, complete and refine the system architecture, and prove our preliminary concept using virtual testing. In phase II, the concept will be fully tested and proved, and a prototype will be constructed, analyzed, tested, and evaluated.

ENGINEERED YARNS CO.
Div. of Pascale Industries, Inc. 939 Currant Road
Fall River, MA 02720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 673-3307
Mr. Vikram Sharma
AF 08-006      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:Multifunctional Materials & Component Technologies for Managing Micro-Climate Domain in the Integrated Aircrew Ensemble (IAE) Architecture
Abstract:EY agrees with Air Force that integration of technologies on archaic aircrew ensemble architecture of 1960’s doesn’t allow leveraging the full potential of the component functionalities in the resulting “Christmas Tree Architecture”. EY proposes an IAE architecture where specific functionalities are designated into two main domains. Micro-Climate Domain – Layers of ensemble that are next to the skin and Macro- Climate Domain – where external interaction is fundamentally more critical. Micro-Climate focuses on user physiological and thermal balance issues, Macro-Climate Domain would focus on ballistics and survival related issues. One magic material solution for aircrew ensemble that has all the desired functionalities and work across multiple platforms does not exist. EY proposes a managed risk approach of developing, adapting and integrating multifunctional materials & components (TRL – 6 and above) to develop an IAE ensemble that helps manage the Aircrew’s Micro-Climate. Engineered Yarns (EY) proposes to develop and demonstrate the following low risk multifunctional technologies for IAE. •Bi-Layer no Melt No Drip fabrics for Fire Protection, Thermal and Physiological management •Controlled Air Permeable Electro-Spun Web for CB Protection, Thermal and Physiological management •Hydrogel Based Smart Closure System – User comfort and thermal balance •High Bulk Low Weight Fabrics for Reduced Layers

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mrs. A. Hill
AF 08-006      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:Novel NanoStructured Self-Assembled Fabric Coatings for Future Aircrew Life Support Equipment
Abstract:NanoSonic proposes to develop an innovative fabric coating for future aircrew life support equipment that is flame-resistant, antimicrobial, breathable, durable, comfortable, and provides water-immersion protection superior to current legacy aircrew life support equipment using Electrostatic Self-Assembly (ESA) processing. ESA is an environmentally-friendly, low-cost fabrication process that can be utilized to fabricate countless types of functional materials and coatings on a variety of substrates and fabrics. The proposed coatings can be applied to new or existing fabrics. Because the volume percentages of functional nanoclusters needed for ESA is as low as 0.02% volume percent, the coatings are extremely low-weight for fabrics to which they are applied. Therefore, the proposed self-assembled fabric coatings would enable aircrew to comfortably don and transport the necessary life support equipment during operations. Because the nanostructured coating is non-obtrusive to the fabric to which it is applied, the fabric would remain nearly as breathable after the coating is applied as it was before, which would allow for adequate ventilation for the aircrew personnel. Improved performance and reduced weight of the proposed self-assembled protective suit would ensure that aircrew’s performance and comfort would not be burdened by wearing the protective ensemble, thus increasing effectiveness and improving survivability.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Matthew
AF 08-007      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:SiGe Digital Imaging Sensors for Night Vision Goggles
Abstract:In this project, Agiltron and RTI International propose a SiGe digital imaging sensor to replace the image intensifier tube in night vision goggles. The SiGe digitial imaging sensor will satisfy all modern warfighter requirements, including reductions in size, weight, power consumption, and cost; digitization of the output image; spectral coverage of both the visible and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands; higher sensitivity; and higher resolution. The SiGe digital imaging sensor consists of a Si-based CMOS imaging sensor with monolithically integrated SiGe photodiodes to extend the cutoff wavelength deep into the SWIR. By introducing SWIR capability to the mature CMOS imaging technology, we uniquely exploit the advantages each technology offers to realize a digital imaging sensor for night vision applications with unprecedented functionality and low cost.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 442-7013
Dr. Peter Martin
AF 08-007      Awarded: 4/17/2008
Title:Solid State Night Vision Sensor
Abstract:Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes to develop a broadband (400nm ¡V 1600 nm) CMOS-based focal plane array (FPA) that provides video imaging capability in daylight conditions, and also in moonlight and moonless night conditions. The FPA will incorporate the Trex Photoconductor on Active Pixel (POAP) FPA technology. In the past year, Trex has demonstrated broadband visible-SWIR FPA imaging capability using a hybrid amorphous silicon/microcrystalline germanium (a-Si:H/ƒÝc-Ge) photodiode (400 nm ¡V 1600 nm VIS/SWIR spectrum) coated on a CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The proposed Phase I effort will involve the design, fabrication and demonstration of an improved a-Si:H/ƒÝc-Ge photodiode on a novel CMOS ROIC that has been previously developed for commercial cell phone applications. The design will be based on test data from the on-going development of the a-Si:H/ƒÝc-Ge photodiode technology. We will demonstrate the FPA imaging capability in illumination conditions that are consistent with night vision applications. We will work closely with the Air Force to define the design specifications of the proposed FPA. The proposed Phase II effort will involve the fabrication, testing/optimization and delivery of four prototype VIS/SWIR FPAs to the government. We are presently investigating multiple avenues of potential Phase III commercialization of the proposed technology.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. Andrew
AF 08-007      Awarded: 5/2/2008
Title:Solid State Night Vision Sensor
Abstract:In Phase I, a 1280 x 1024 element InGaAs Solid State LLLTV (Low Light Level Television) Imager with 0.4- to 1.7-micron sensitivity will be developed to achieve visible (VIS) and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral range that is well matched to the nighttime sky irradiance. The extended spectral response (including the 1064 nm and 1550 nm) laser lines, allows the ability of the Solid State LLLTV imager to serve multiple purposes, including enhanced situational awareness. A high pixel density is achieved by directly bonding the detectors to readout integrated circuits (ROICs) manufactured using conventional CMOS technology. Whereas, typically detector arrays are bump bonded to ROICs, in the Phase I program, the InGaAs detector array and the Si ROIC will be bonded into a robust, monolithic structure using ‘via-less’, ‘face-to-face’, room temperature, 3D heterogeneous InGaAs die-to-Si wafer bond. Increase visible response is achieved in the InGaAs detector, but removing the Inp substrate and back-illuminating the array. In Phase I, the LLLTV’s components will be characterized first individually, and then together, and the technology’s improved image quality, reduced pixel size, and low power requirements for NVGs will be established so that in Phase II, prototypes can be delivered to AFRL for evaluation.

OXAZOGEN, INC.
1910 West St. Andrews Road
Midland, MI 48640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5590
Dr. Abhijit Sarkar
AF 08-008      Awarded: 5/9/2008
Title:Non Focal Plane Laser Protection Technology Based on Combinatorial Optical Limiting Approaches
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I proposal offers to develop a solid, non-focal plane based laser protection technology that will meet the requirements of fast response time, high transparency under normal illumination conditions, and increased broadband (400 to 1400 nm) spectral response for the protection of eyes and sensors from laser beams. A novel approach to composite optical power limiters (OPLs) based on multi-component non-linear optical (NLO) materials, namely carbon nanotubes and organic NLO chromophores, that will be blended together in a common matrix is proposed. A proprietary hyperbranched polymer that forms excellent optical quality films and non-yellowing, scratch resistant coatings will be used as the host material. Oxazogen’s solid state OPL technology represents a paradigm shift from currently available technologies and has the potential to provide the best overall laser protection. Current laser protection technologies do not provide an adequate solution to the simultaneous challenges of fast response time, low energy threshold over broadband radiation. Salient features of Oxazogen’s approach include an easy to process solid state material, the ability to be coated on a variety of optical substrate, and the fact that it can be used as an independent filter, requiring no reworking of current system configurations.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Optoelectronic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Baolong Yu
AF 08-008      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Alternating Nanostructured Multilayer Optical Limiter
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an optical limiter without a focusing lens to provide sufficient attenuation to prevent eye damage at incident radiation levels that would otherwise cause retinal injury, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new nonfocal plane Alternating Nanostructured Multilayer Optical Limiter (ANMOL), based on nonlinear periodic optical structures consisting of alternating layers of interval films with the same linear indices of refraction and opposite Kerr nonlinearities that enhance optical reflection to meet the high optical density requirement for non-facial plane laser eye protection. The innovative design of the multilayer film structures and use of nanostructured materials for fabrication will enable the ANMOL to perform frequency-agile laser eye protection at an optical density >4 through the near-infrared and visible spectrum (400-1400 nm) without the use of a focal plane. The ground state luminous transmittance in the visible spectrum will achieve 50%. The response time of the ANMOL will be below 2 ns. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ANMOL by computer modeling and testing a proof-of-principle prototype. In Phase II POC plans to develop an engineering prototype for laser eye protection through testing in a laboratory environment.

TIPD, L.L.C.
9030 S. Rita Road, Ste 120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 465-5081
Dr. Arkady
AF 08-008      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:Optical Limiters Without Focal Planes
Abstract:The overall goal of the program is to develop an optical limiter without a focusing lens that provides sufficient attenuation to prevent eye damage at incident radiation levels that would otherwise cause retinal injury. High transmission (>15%), high on-state optical density (>4) and rapid response (nsec) are desired. Several new laser eye protection device designs are proposed and will be examined in detail in the course of the Phase I program. Each device exploits a fundamentally different optical limiting mechanism in organic and polymeric materials, namely nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction and nonlinear scattering. State-of-the- art nonlinear optical (NLO) polymers will be used as the optical limiting materials in coupled cavity, photonic band gap, and nonlinear photonic crystal device structures. Early in Phase I, potential candidate devices will be down-selected based on criteria such as limiting threshold, response time, low intensity transmission, and dynamic range among other key factors. Unique coupled cavity designs exploit intracavity enhancement without significantly limiting bandwidth. Photonic band gap devices will attempt to exploit recently developed NLO polymers with exceptional nonlinear index changes. Nonlinear scattering devices will take advantage of newly developed techniques for polymer melt infiltration into photonic crystal structures.

ULTIMARA
500 Mansion ct. suite 307
Santa Clara, , CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 663-0081
Dr. Salah Khodja
AF 08-008      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Optical Limiters Without Focal Planes
Abstract:We propose to develop light weight optical limiters without focusing lens that provides sufficient attenuation, optical limiting >=104, at incident radiation levels that would otherwise cause retinal injury. At the same time it maintains a ground state transmittance of 50%. These optical limiters will have a tremendous improvement on the safety of the solders and the commercial laser operators. In the proposed optical limiter without focal plane the high energy beam is diffused on the substrate plan and off the optical axis of the limiter due to destructive interference of the high energy beam induced by optical nonlinear material. As the incident radiation increases by one fold the nonlinear phase increases by multiple folds, nonlinear effect, as result less and less radiation is transmitted and more radiation is diffused in the substrate. The phase nonlinearity is orders of magnitude higher than the nonlinear absorption from e.g. reverse saturable absorbers (RSA’s) or though two photon absorption (2PA). Furthermore, the nonlinear phase shift is highly sensitive and has a nonlinear energy threshold that is order of magnitude lower than the nonlinear absorption threshold. Therefore the nonlinear phase interferometers effect, which occurs at low optical radiation level below retinal damage threshold, enables the design of optical limiters without focal plan, a clever design allows the optical limiter to be light weight on thin substrate. This is the first time to our knowledge such an optical limiter is proposed. This proposed optical limiter without focal plane will be of immediate use for as a passive filter for visible in IR spectrum optical sensors protection and as a goggles in any field that employs high energy laser eye protection, e.g. medical laser surgery, dental laser surgery, laser operators, lab technicians,

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Lawrence
AF 08-009      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:Low-Power Direct-View Flexible Displays
Abstract:Agiltron proposes to develop a new non-glass flexible display with a compact folded size (<1 inch radius of curvature), large full-color image (7 to 10 inch diagonal size), high resolution (1024x768 pixels/image), high contrast, and high video frame rate. The proposed flexible display is low cost, robust, low power, and has a long lifetime. The design is simple in construction and ready to be implemented and tested based on commercially available optics and electronics components. In Phase I, a laboratory proof of principle will be demonstrated. During Phase II, a fully functional prototype will be built and tested.

UNIVERSAL DISPLAY CORP.
375 Phillips Blvd
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 671-0980
Dr. Michael Hack
AF 08-009      Awarded: 4/4/2008
Title:Low-Power Direct-View Flexible Displays
Abstract:The goal of this U.S. Army SBIR program is to develop non-glass, ejection-safe digital displays to replace printed paper maps and checklists on pilots’ knees in tactical cockpits, and to also enable large displays that can be rolled up for stowage. In this proposal UDC and L3 Displays will develop low power consumption flexible full color video rate phosphorescent OLED displays that can be rolled around a cylinder for stowage. If successful, in Phase II the team will deliver four breadboard subsystems with 6” diagonal 480 x 480 pixel full color displays wrapped around a 2.5” diameter cylinder containing power supplies, and wireless communication electronics. The resultant display device will show full motion video and have wireless connectivity enabled by the electronics contained within the cylindrical housing. To our knowledge, this display represents the world’s largest and highest resolution OLED display fabricated on a metal substrate, and also the first designed to wrap around a cylinder for stowage. At the end of Phase I we will deliver a design study of our proposed Phase II display systems, and a mock-up of this Phase II deliverable.

OPTICS 1, INC.
3050 E Hillcrest Drive Suite 100
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 296-0469
Mr. Jon Blanchard
AF 08-010      Awarded: 4/17/2008
Title:High-Resolution Wide-Field Night Vision Goggle
Abstract:The goal of the program is conduct research and perform trade studies to determine solutions for a high resolution night vision goggle which will have 20% better resolution than currently fielded systems. A helmet mounting connector will also be designed to replace the banana clip connector that is currently in use. The overall intent is to define the system specifications, investigate candidate design approaches, and choose a best approach for prototyping in a later phase of the program.

SA PHOTONICS
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Dr. Michael Browne
AF 08-010      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:High-Resolution Wide-Field Night Vision Goggle
Abstract:Night vision has been a key enabling technology for the past 30 years that has allowed US pilots to “own the night”. In many engagements, our dominance of the nighttime environment was the decisive factor in victory. One of the big disadvantages of night vision systems is that they have not provided pilots with good peripheral vision, since most have a total field of view (TFOV) of only 40 degrees. The PNVG addresses the need for wide field of view and has received very positive reviews from aviators. In the 15 years since the PNVG was designed, tremendous advances have been made both in the area of microdisplay technology and in the area of high-resolution digital night vision sensors. Our high resolution night vision system (HRNVS) will have improved resolution, 2) improved weight and center of gravity, 3) reduced peripheral obscurations compared to PNVG. Our decades of experience in designing head mounted displays convinced us that these three factors will make a compelling case for a new panoramic night vision goggle system. In addition, we have designed a novel helmet interface kit and mount which we believe will be lighter and easier to use than the current “banana clip” system.

DIFFRACTION, LTD.
182 Mad River Park
Waitsfield, VT 05673
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 496-6640
Dr. Paul Vichi
AF 08-011      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Head-Lock Mount for Advanced Night Vision Goggle (NVG)
Abstract:Diffraction LTD proposes to develop a novel occipital head-lock system to support advanced night vision goggles (NVG) used by Air Force personnel not wearing typical aviation or combat helmet. Phase I efforts will demonstrate the feasibility of a lightweight, direct head mount that maintains optimal NVG performance in the absence of a helmet, minimizes user fatigue, and reduces the risk of injury. Designs will focus on derivations of an occipital head-lock system with fine adjustment that ensures stable alignment of NVGs under variable conditions, is compatible with existing communication systems and specialty head- gear, i.e. chem.-bio masks/hoods, etc, and demonstrates reduced potential for torque-jolt. Using finite element analysis and human biodynamics software we will evaluate newer, lightweight materials to be used in place of bulky metal components, optimize hinge points and brackets to reduce weight and improve stiffness, and adjust designs to provide optimal fit and comfort across a broad range of users. This device will provide a superior mechanism for employing NVGs without helmets in both static and dynamic work settings, while minimizing stress and fatigue on a user’s head and neck.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. Jonathan Portny
AF 08-011      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Head Mounting Device for Advanced Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Systems
Abstract:The current flight helmet provides impact protection while enabling communications and serving as a platform to mount helmet mounted devices (HMD) such as night vision goggles (NVG). However, aircrew flying air mobility and air refueling aircraft do not wear flight helmets although they must be able to use these HMDs during their missions. Similarly, ground crews, such as regulars, maintainers, bomb loaders, and aeromedical evacuation personnel operating at night use a head harness to mount their NVGs in lieu of a helmet, as do ground troops driving or navigating in a terrain vehicle. The platform needs to fit correctly and accommodate the targeted anthropometric range of heads so it is comfortable and stable while NVGs are in use. Factors such as NVG weight, distribution of weight, and system center of gravity are important to aircrew fatigue, neck strain, injury due to egress, and the system’s effectiveness. Infoscitex proposes a solution which addresses the most important issues when using a non-helmet mounted HMD/NVG by adapting a component of a system that has been successfully in use for decades. In Phase I, Infoscitex will design the overall system, fabricate prototypes, and perform a detailed simulation of the device under realistic operating conditions.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Optoelectronic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander
AF 08-011      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Advanced Head Mounting Environmental Device for NVG
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a lightweight, durable head-mounted system that allows the use of Night Vision Goggles (NVG) without a bulky helmet, POC proposes an Advanced Head Mounting Flight Environmental Device (AHMED) for the NVG based on a new head harness (wearable over the chemical mask) with a capless conformal strap going under the wearer’s chin with chin bone support. The AHMED’s unique head harness with a chin strap compensates the torque created by weight of the NVG device located in front of the user’s eyes, and its NVG disconnect device aligns the NVG relative to the user’s eyes. Innovations in AHMED’s novel design provide stability of NVG and preserve compatibility with the chemical protection assembly. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the AHMED system by presenting a preliminary design analysis that demonstrates minimal force stressors on the head and minimal fatigue on the neck for a variety of crew head shapes and sizes, and by assembling and testing a scaled-down demonstration prototype. One or more prototype devices will be built to ascertain the proper fit and to identify potential issues related to force concentrations on the head and neck fatigue.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Michael Graul
AF 08-013      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Framework for Enabling Adaptive Scenario Generation for Training (FEAST)
Abstract:We propose to design and demonstrate a Framework for Enabling Adaptive Scenario Generation for Training (FEAST). We will design an innovative methodology that enables dynamic scenario generation and adaptation for individual and team learning in simulation-based environments. We propose (i) a robust knowledge based approach to facilitate the rapid generation and refinement of distributed mission operations training scenarios and (ii) innovative knowledge discovery and automated reasoning methods to allow for the seamless evolution of scenario design knowledge over extended time. The proposed Phase I effort will (i) establish requirements for a dynamic scenario generation for individual and team learning in simulation-based environments, (ii) design a FEAST solution architecture, and (iii) demonstrate proof-of-concept FEAST technology. Phase II will design and demonstrate focused and scalable FEAST simulation-based training application.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Lisa Holt
AF 08-013      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Pedagogically Adaptive Scenarios for Training – Automated! (PAST-A!)
Abstract:Soar Technology proposes to build PAST-A! (Pedagogically Adaptive Scenarios for Training – Automated!), a tool to generate and deliver training scenarios that not only target specific training objectives, but can provide trainees with the deliberate practice needed to support skill acquisition. PAST-A! enables trainers to create scenarios by specifying desired training characteristics and scenario requirements. Scenarios will then be generated from a library of existing engagements encoded using an engagement markup language (EML) that specifies important training meta data, mission characteristics, Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) configurations, and scenario execution scripts. PAST-A! will not only generate scenarios of desired complexity that satisfy a given set of training requirements, it will also generate pedagogically appropriate branch points and monitor trainee performance to help trainers and operators make instructionally sound adaptations during scenario execution. In addition, configuration files for the generated scenarios will be output to the DMO, automating the initialization of scenarios for the operators. PAST-A! will include an expert diagnostician agent to monitor trainee performance during scenario execution, providing both instructors and operators with real- time assessment information, thus facilitating real-time scenario adaptation (through choice of scenario branches or other real-time changes).

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-9034
Mr. David Schell
AF 08-013      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Intelligent Scenario Generation Tools for Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) Training and Rehearsal
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. and Aptima, Inc. (the Team) propose to research a proof-of-concept software solution that will be able to assess a student, team, or team-of-teams training record(s) to determine the needed instruction to continue, enhance, review, or reiterate training objectives for the Distributed Mission Operations (DMO). Mission Essential CompetenciesSM will be used in our evaluation, analysis, and data collection to determine a more precise curriculum (syllabus) to be used. The Team is looking to employ a scenario generator, that with a Domain Expert and an Instructional Expert, will be constantly monitoring actions of participants. Unmet training objectives will be handled by dynamically reintroducing them into the current scenario via the scenario generator. Failures will be addressed to the participant(s) during debriefing and the individual’s or team’s model will be updated with all outcomes. This solution will be extensible to a variety of training domains, from tactical employment (an F-16 4-ship working with an AWACS Air Weapons Officer) to operational command-and-control (the Air & Space Operations Center), and should be extensible to a variety of training environments, from single-seat fighter simulators to distributed, multi-site exercises.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2489
Ms. Jeanine Ayers
AF 08-014      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) Common Performance Measurement Development, Tracking, and Warehousing System
Abstract:With the migration towards integrated LVC training there is an increasing need to understand human performance both within and across systems and environments. The problem with current data formats is that they are often incompatible, with no common specification across training environments and systems. As a result, it is nearly impossible to effectively and efficiently identify, generate, extract, and track performance data across LVC environments and systems, thus hindering current efforts to assess trainees’ performance as they interact with live, virtual, and constructive components of an exercise. Col. Louis Olinto, Commander of the AF Agency for Modeling and Simulation, suggests “no longer is there an option for stand-alone systems”. We argue this statement applies to stand-alone and incompatible data formats as well, and is why we will develop a system that enables development, analysis, and usability of integrated performance data from LVC environments in support of performance assessment and review by achieving (1) a universal tagging specification for extracting performance data, (2) an integrated warehousing system for performance data, (3) a common method for identifying the data type (system, observer, communication) and source (LVC) needed to produce useful and integrated measurement, and (4) a method for presenting integrated performance data.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D.
AF 08-014      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:A framework for intelligent Fusion Of Real-Time Measures Across Live-Virtual-Constructive Environments (FORMAL)
Abstract:While billions of dollars have been spent over the past several years on the development of training systems, testing infrastructures, and Live- Virtual-Constructive (LVC) interoperability, there is still no common approach to objective human performance measurement. The purpose, after all, of a Distributed Mission Operations environment is to deliver comprehensive training exercises to the warfighter, to improve warfighter competencies, skills, and knowledge. The reliable and valid objective measurement of individual and team performance within these environments is crucial to identifying the true impact of such exercises on warfighter readiness. To address the need for improved objective human performance assessment, we propose to design and demonstrate a framework for intelligent Fusion Of Real-Time Measures Across Live-Virtual-Constructive Environments (FORMAL). The primary goal of our FORMAL framework is to design seamless, scalable, and sustainable technology for defining, capturing, and disseminating complex continuous human performance objects across heterogeneous data environments. To accomplish this goal, we will leverage our unique experience in both data fusion systems and human performance assessment to design a framework that uses of best-of-breed computational intelligence methods and cutting-edge data storage and access techniques to capture, aggregate, correlate, distribute and share objective performance measures.

LUMIR RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC.
301 East Fairmont Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(904) 254-9390
Mr. Eric Watz
AF 08-014      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) Common Performance Measurement Development, Tracking, and Warehousing System
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR, the Lumir team will draw upon its considerable experience and expertise in developing, implementing, and researching human performance measurements to design a common set of human performance metrics that are valid across multiple discrete environments. The Phase I effort will also establish a common data format, that will allow the collection and reusability of Performance Measurement Objects throughout numerous USAF installations including live fly, LVC, and simulation sites. In Phase II a system prototype will be developed that will include implementations of the common data format, data translation capabilities, along with data storage and warehousing capacity and a set of tools and services that provide access to the stored, common data.

ADVANCED ACOUSTIC CONCEPTS, INC.
425 Oser Avenue
Hauppauge, NY 11788
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 845-9053
Mr. Thomas
AF 08-015      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Binaural Capture and Synthesis of Ambient Soundscapes
Abstract:Advanced Acoustic Concepts (AAC) will develop a reliable, validated, and fully documented system for digitally recording ambient soundscapes and resynthesize the desired soundscape for binaural presentation to human listeners via headphones. The system will take advantage of the established acoustical signal processing technology of AAC and the state-of-the-art psychoacoustics research and audio recording and processing expertise of Montana State University and Dr. Rob Maher. The system proposed by AAC will exploit the directional recording capability of the microphone array through the process of beamforming. The system will also be able to reproduce a given soundscape based on known parameters using a database of existing auditory environments and statistical models. This will allow the system to reproduce a variety of different listening environments to fit particular user applications.

MBFARR, LLC
93 Mt. Hamilton Rd
San Jose, CA 95140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 757-7171
Mr. Rick Moncrief
AF 08-015      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:Binaural Capture and Synthesis of Ambient Soundscapes
Abstract:A system for the accurate capture and recording of the audible range of a 3D spatial sound field in its raw information laden form absent of unnatural alteration, all effort in support of subsequent re-synthesis and re-rendering to any attitude chosen by a listener. Such a system has not been found to yet exist. Our initial solution is a feasibility study extending B-format microphone techniques to 0 dB SPL coupled with novel spatial equalization of the w, x, y, and z components of the calculated sound field. Storage of raw audio from the tetrahedron of microphones and their calibration characteristics preserves basic field data for later improved analysis. A fact we will use to repeatedly study and propose methods for the identification of the separable components or "sound objects" from the soundscapes. Cataloging the sound objects characteristics and soundscape visitation pattern will facilitate synthesis of artificial but similar sounding environments. Ultimately, a listener will be able to observe the synthesized or captured sound field from selectable attitudes through selectable HRTF transfer functions or other improved schema. The primary market outside defense applications of the technology will likely be interactive game developers that are continuously pressured for novel differentiation of their product.

SENSIMETRICS CORP.
48 Grove Street Suite 305
Somerville, MA 02144
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 625-0600
Dr. Joseph G.
AF 08-015      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Binaural Capture and Synthesis of Ambient Soundscapes
Abstract:Phase I work is proposed to design, to begin implementation of, and to evaluate a high-quality, portable soundscape capture and synthesis system. The aim of such a system is to record all relevant acoustic information in a particular environment so that it can be re-synthesized for subsequent presentation to a human listener. The current effort will yield a system where the synthesized soundscape preserves both the source levels and perceived source locations of the original soundscape. Source levels will be captured and synthesized accurately over a dynamic range that spans from the threshold of hearing to 110 dB SPL and over a frequency range spanning 100-12000 Hz.. Realistic source localization cues will be provided in the form of (1) binaural (ITD and ILD) cues resulting from microphone mounting on a cylindrical model head and (2) spectral cues resulting from directional microphone-cluster processing. Additionally, the synthesized soundscape will permit listener head-movement in order to increase the realism and sense of immersion. The resulting system will be evaluated to verify level accuracy over the desired dynamic range and the equivalence of source localization and masking between the original and synthesized soundscapes.

SOUND ANSWERS, INC.
4856 Alton Drive Suite 100
Troy, MI 48085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 275-5567
Ms. Gabriella
AF 08-015      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Binaural Capture and Synthesis of Ambient Soundscapes
Abstract:Sound Answers plans to develop a technique that captures the soundscape, i.e. the typical sound of an environment, along with the topographical information of that environment so that a database of sounds and topographies is created to represent different possible environments. Single microphone, binaural head and spherical beamformer recordings will be conducted. Pros and cons of single microphone vs. binaural/spherical beamformer recordings will be assessed and recommendations for the best soundscape recording technique will be established. The recommended technique will also be demonstrated at the end of Phase I.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-3966
Mr. Paul Picciano
AF 08-017      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:SATCAST-Space Awareness Toolkit for Calculating Anomalies to Satellite Tasking
Abstract:The potentially catastrophic impact of enemy attacks on U.S. space assets, hence military missions, has led to recent efforts to improve Defensive Counter Space (DCS) workflow capabilities by increasing Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Critical for enhanced SSA, and therefore DCS workflow, is the ability to (a) distinguish natural space weather effects from enemy attacks on satellites and (b) assess satellite functionality and its impact on mission capability. Aptima proposes to develop a proof-of-concept of a Space Awareness Toolkit for Calculating Anomalies to Satellite Tasking (SATCAST). In Phase I, the Aptima team proposes a two-pronged approach to develop a system to augment Space Situational Awareness (SSA). First, we believe a dynamic interface is needed to support the range of users and variety of tasks supported by SSA. Second, we propose to utilize historical space weather data and associated platform effects as a way to devise decision support algorithms and models. The algorithms and database will be designed to aid in discriminating natural phenomena from hostile acts, predict potential impact on current and future missions for planning, contribute to the Single Integrated Space Picture (SISP), and preserve Space Superiority for our nation.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D.
AF 08-017      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Achieving SSA Through Representation of Meta-information and Intelligent Search Technology (ASTROMIST)
Abstract:A critical element of our global military dominance is the overwhelming capabilities afforded by the US military space segment. Successful space operations are dependent upon accurate and actionable space situational awareness (SSA), a concept that goes beyond simple cataloging of the location and orbit of objects in space to include the ability to identify and discriminate natural and man-made phenomena in space. Current tools to support SSA have limited capabilities for data exploration, selection, search, and pattern recognition, and there has been no effort to integrate workflows across various systems. To address the need for an aid to bolster space situational awareness, we propose to design and demonstrate an extensible system for Achieving SSA Through Representation of Meta-information and Intelligent Search Technology (ASTROMIST). Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a Work-Centered Support System (WCSS) analysis on the domain to develop a structured categorization of factors commonly considered in space operations, with a specific focus on space weather. Second, we will design and demonstrate a system to visualize relevant information and meta-information, and provide automated pattern recognition through intelligent agent-based search. Third, we will develop an evaluation methodology to determine the effectiveness of the developed techniques.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. Jim McCracken
AF 08-017      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Space Weather Integration Fusion Technology (SWIFT)
Abstract:The Design Knowledge Company (TDKC) is pleased to present this proposal titled Space Weather Integration Fusion Technology (SWIFT). Our Phase I approach includes a thorough technology assessment, applied systems engineering, commercialization preparation, and real- world experimentation in order to derive an operationally-viable solution. our SWIFT approach addresses all aspects of the problem, during Phase I we will: (1) investigate the integration of existing Air Force space weather programs and assets with TDKC’s existing Satellite Threat Evaluation Environment for DCS (STEED) development; (2) research the primary space weather events of interest (solar radiation storms, coronal mass ejections, etc.) ; (3) deploying a SWIFT prototype in AFRL/RHEC facilities leveraging existing 3D display products; (4) identify applicable space weather data services (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System, NOAA Space Weather Reporting System, etc.) ; and (5) research and develop effective work-flow considerations, data fusion, visualization patterns, cognitive resources, and perceptual monitoring requirements.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-8019
Mr. Barry A. Trent
AF 08-019      Awarded: 4/18/2008
Title:Border Gateway Protocol with Mobility Extensions
Abstract:The inter-domain routing protocol BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), was designed for statically configured land-based networks which experience infrequent topology changes. BGP is remarkably successful in the stable “network-of-networks” environment it was designed for and is one of the fundamental protocols of the Internet. Any internetworking scheme that will connect to the Internet today must be compatible with BGP. Cutting-edge military and commercial networks have begun to undercut some of the fundamental assumptions on which BGP is based. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are becoming more prevalent and will continue their growth. MANETs are characterized by frequent topology changes and geographic movement of nodes. Indeed, in the Mobile Airborne Network and other military applications, entire MANET networks become mobile. The task of maintaining a stable, reliable routing mesh between “networks-of-networks” where the networks themselves are inherently mobile strains BGP to the breaking point. The Border Gateway Protocol with Mobility Extensions (BGP-MX) is the initial phase of an eventual replacement for BGP. BGP-MX will control mobility-induced configuration changes to the underlying BGP protocol. The approach will maintain full compatibility with existing BGP networks, while overcoming the static nature of existing BGP implementations and allow for seamless integration of MANETs into the GiG.

WINCOM LABS
2015 Nelson Ave #B
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 372-4204
Dr. Prachee Sharma
AF 08-019      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Interdomain routing for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs)
Abstract:MANETs are highly susceptible to fluctuations in wireless link quality due to inherent mobility. Mobility results in frequent changes in the propagation environment. Periods of connectivity interspersed with periods of link outages occur with durations being a function of mobility patterns and suitability of protocols in handling such topological changes. Establishment of reliable routes between multiple MANET networks becomes a challenging problem that the traditional inter- domain networking based upon BGP/TCP connectivity cannot address. Of interest in this SBIR is the development of robust routing strategies to connect MANETs with heterogeneous links. We argue that an inter- domain routing framework for MANETs must consider attributes of individual networks to choose routers and routing protocols. We propose a framework BGP-MANET that is able to make router and routing-protocol decisions and adapt the choices to changes in attributes of participating networks. An approach is included to optimally select inter-networking routers and routing protocols as a function of MANET capabilities, MANET link failure behavior and optimization metrics of intra-networking protocols. A multi-modal optimization technique is proposed to accommodate ingress and egress node parameters within a framework comprising: Strategies in selecting inter-domain routers; Route computation strategy; Route Adaptation strategies with changing MANET behavior and deployment environments.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2467
Dr. Georgiy Levchuk
AF 08-021      Awarded: 4/21/2008
Title:BESTNET: Behavior Signature of Terrorist Networks
Abstract:Operational terrorists organize their activities largely through small groups based on relationships among friends and family. Their operations and organizations must stay invisible to survive, while coordinating activities in real geophysical locations by actual actors using real resources. Finding patterns within these activities is critical to disrupting hostile actions, but these patterns are embedded in innocuous activities. This raises severe data and analysis problems: too much highly fragmented, noisy data, too complex for human analysts to comprehend. Identifying and disrupting terrorist organizations requires tools to analyze networks of individuals, organizations, activities, and resources. The Behavior Signatures of Terrorist Networks (BESTNET) system will help analysts to identify and track people, places, and resources in adversarial organizations by fusing data of multiple types from multiple sources. It will go beyond SNA approaches by explicitly considering physical locations, activities, and resources, as well as people. BESTNET builds upon Aptima’s proven network identification technology, NetSTAR, which performs probabilistic network pattern identification on noisy data about network nodes, links and their attributes. We will link its rich network analysis capabilities with our existing technology for cultural modeling, and will further extend it by modifying organizational optimization methods to assess mission performance of alternative RED organizations.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4913
Dr. Jerry Jenkins
AF 08-021      Awarded: 4/21/2008
Title:Enabling the Modeling and Destabilization of Terror Networks using a Novel Rule-Based Boolean Pseudo-Dynamic Approach
Abstract:The primary objective of this effort is to design and develop a platform enabling the analysis of terror networks using a novel systems-biology based Boolean Pseudo-Dynamics (BPD) framework. This platform will involve development of strategies to identify the critical individuals within the terror network using both static centrality based, and BPD based dynamic metrics that account for an individual’s contribution towards the robust and efficient operation of the terror network. In Phase I open- source terror networks will be identified and the network interactions will be described using logical Boolean rules that take into account metrics of strategy, task, trust, and monetary exchange. Successful completion of the Phase I effort will result in a platform comprising a suite of tools enabling the analysis of critical individuals responsible for functioning of the terror network based on novel systems biology- centered, and social network analysis approaches. In Phase II, the project scope will be expanded to include additional computational algorithms and a GUI, with the goal of demonstrating terror network destabilization strategies via node insertion and/or deletion. Validation of the proposed approach will also be undertaken for a larger network comprising of greater than 100 individuals.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 682-1735
Ms. Jessica Bradley
AF 08-021      Awarded: 4/21/2008
Title:Social Networks in Context
Abstract:The asymmetric threat poses perhaps the most dangerous risk to US forces and assets both overseas and at home. Because of the sheer amount of data available, building dynamic, complex social networks to represent terrorist activities can be very difficult. To overcome this problem, we must identify and utilize advanced techniques to automatically build social networks while also understanding the context they represent. The Decisive Analytics Corporation (DAC) Team proposes an approach termed SOcial Networks In Context (SONIC). SONIC builds on social networking capabilities DAC has already built and additionally provides the capability to identify and understand the roles of different nodes, understand the semantic relationships between entities and automatically identify important clusters of entities within a dynamic social network. Our advanced algorithms developed under this effort will be immediately tested on live data from the theater through DAC’s BOBCAT system – a tool that is on the GSA schedule and in the hands of the Warfighter performing predictive analysis on Iraq data today.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Mr. Wassim Ferzali
AF 08-022      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Real Time Optimal Management of Airborne Network Topology (ROMANT)
Abstract:Mayflower Communications Company, Inc. (Mayflower) proposes a Topology Management & Control (TM&C) technology, the Real-time Optimal Management of Airborne Network Topology (ROMANT), to meet the Air Force objective, namely, to develop an approach for dynamic network topology management and control. The proposed ROMANT TM&C enables dynamic Topology Management & Control with minimal signaling overhead. The ROMANT system continuously discovers and assesses the current topology, determines how it could be optimized, and then controls the network resources to achieve this optimal topology. ROMANT technology uses efficient distributed algorithms for topology assessment and optimization. ROMANT technology is designed to provide reliable and dynamic TM&C in a network whose nodes are widely varying in capability, capable of high dynamics and high-speed mobility. The proposed ROMANT technology leverages Mayflower’s expertise in airborne networking, and builds on technology developed under several SBIR programs and Internal R&D. The ROMANT system, when proven feasible in the Phase I study for the Air Force application, has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. Mayflower will develop a cost effective ROMANT prototype system in Phase I and II, and ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond.

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Dr. Abhishek Tiwari
AF 08-022      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:Mobility Aware Topology Control (MAToC) for Airborne Network
Abstract:Real time topology management for the dynamic Airborne Network can result in lower interference, higher network capacity and lower node power consumption. UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC) proposes a deliberative/reactive topology management solution that uses the knowledge of airborne network deployment mission and airborne node mobility. In addition to the advantages cited earlier, UC presents an architecture that promises low real-time computation overhead, graceful performance degradation, adaptive to traffic loading and resistance to jamming. The proposed Mobility Aware Topology Control (MAToC) works in conjunction with any routing protocol that proactively tries to disseminate network topology. Professor Mario Gerla from University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Lockheed Martin Corporation Information Systems and Global Services Division (LMC- IS&GS) act as collaborators for the proposed effort.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Joseph Gorman
AF 08-023      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Knowledge-based Access and Data Integration (KADI)
Abstract:The array of rapidly-improving sensors onboard combat aircraft shows great potential to enhance the current situational awareness capabilities of the United States Air Force. Such non-traditional sensors collect a wide and diverse range of data that can offer a more accurate and comprehensive Common Operational Picture of the battlespace when fused with conventional ISR collection capabilities. At present, much of the utility and timeliness of this data is lost due to separation and stove piping of these systems such that fusion with conventional ISR systems can only be performed with human intervention. The Department of Defence’s Global Information Grid (GIG) will need to provide shared situation awareness for Full-spectrum Dominance of the battlespace by the warfighter by establishing machine-to-machine interfaces to facilitate the automated discovery, understanding, use, and sharing of the information and services accessible via the GIG. We are pleased to offer Knowledge-based Access and Data Integration (KADI), a Service Oriented Architecture framework that consumes data from disparate and heterogeneous sensor sources and combines it with semantic classification and retrieval techniques to provide a rich, remotely accessible information environment that is responsive to warfighter needs.

SECURBORATION, INC.
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 154
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Mr. Lee Krause
AF 08-023      Awarded: 4/24/2008
Title:Unconventional Sensor Data Access and Integration
Abstract:Non-Traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (NTISR) is a growing capability for the US military. The concept of every platform, vehicle, soldier, sailor, and airman being a sensor contributing to situational awareness of the operational environment is now firmly entrenched in the psyche of commanders. However, much of the information these non-traditional sensors provide is not readily available in a format that is useful to intelligence analysts. In particular, many of the imaging and video sensors use non-standard data formats lack important metadata tag information to assist analysts with exploitation and dissemination of the data. Securboration has teamed with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company to develop the Semantic Processor for Unconventional Sensors (SPUNCS). SPUNCS will access unstructured, imagery-based, sensor data, reformat the data into DoD standard formats and tag the data with both required fields and more semantically rich fields to aid exploitation centers, analysts, and decision makers in using the information. Combining Lockheed Martin Aeronautics’ expertise in aircraft sensors and data formats and Securboration’s expertise in NTISR and semantic web technology, we will create a marketable technology for the US military and any commercial enterprises dealing with unstructured imagery data.

PARIETAL SYSTEMS, INC.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Dr. Robert B.
AF 08-024      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Predictive Clustering for IED Defeat
Abstract:Proliferation of sensors, particularly on board unmanned platforms, is quickly enabling persistent surveillance of areas of military interest. The ability to collect and store such surveillance data over large areas and long time periods provides a rich database to mine for patterns of IED activity, but current data mining is human-intensive and limited to forensic analysis of IED events to identify those who emplace and fabricate the IEDs. We propose to extend current capabilities to predictive analysis by developing an automated tool which predicts IED events (locations and times) based on historical data, to estimate patterns, and on real time data, to detect and extrapolate emerging instances of these patterns. Our predictive clustering algorithm computes a list of predicted threat events based on real time data, prioritized by likelihood and characterized by statistical uncertainty of location and time of each event. Complementing the predictive clustering algorithm, a forensic clustering algorithm processes historical sensor data and threat events to estimate parameters in the predictive clustering model. The Phase I effort will develop prototype predictive and forensic clustering algorithms and evaluate them using simulated data to determine performance operating characteristics and using realistic historical data to evaluate military utility.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 520-1888
Dr. Hua Li
AF 08-024      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:Defeating Emplaced Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) Using Fusion Algorithms
Abstract:The proposed Potential IED Threat System Plus Plus (PITS++) is an adaptive software system that quantitatively predicts the timing and location of IED emplacements by fusing geographic and social/political/demographical features. It combines SET Corporation's IED emplacement prediction algorithm with Lehigh University's case- based reasoning expertise in order to fuse multiple data sources and make predictions. It is an extension of our previous PITS work under DTO funding that demonstrated statistically significant performance. The original PITS system uses reinforcement learning technique to predict IED threats from geographic features. PITS++ extends that work in three important ways: 1) explicitly addressing the timing of IED emplacement; 2) incorporating machine learning methods to deal with non-linearity in the system; and 3) incorporating case-based reasoning technology to consider non-geographic features. We believe the enhancements will make the PITS more robust and more accurate in its IED emplacement predictions.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Allan Corbeil
AF 08-024      Awarded: 4/24/2008
Title:Defeating Emplaced Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) Using Fusion Algorithms
Abstract:IEDs are primary insurgent weapons that have caused almost half the U.S. casualties in Iraq. To date, our response has included improved vehicle armor, persistent surveillance, and electronic warfare to defeat Radio-Controlled IEDs. The CREW Duke system developed by SRC has been a phenomenal success in jamming RC-IEDs and has saved countless lives with over 12,000 units delivered. RF signal characteristics and vehicle positions are now recorded for post-mission analysis. These logs provide a sampling of the RF environment and history of U.S. convoy movements. Long-term GMTI radar detections of moving targets are also being recorded to support manual forensic analysis. TSC and SRC propose to fuse diverse data from GMTI radar and CREW Duke logs to predict IED attacks so that convoys can be warned to avoid high risk areas or change their operating procedures. In Phase I, TSC will enhance our existing anomalous movement detection algorithms to discover where insurgents may have emplaced IEDs. Our subcontractor, SRC, will help identify the best combination of information derived from CREW Duke logs, GMTI radar data processing outputs and other geospatial / intelligence sources to predict IED attacks. In Phase II, our team will mature and further evaluate this system concept.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Dr. Gowri Rajappan
AF 08-025      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Robust Assured Paradigm for Information Distribution in Airborne Networks (RAPID-AN)
Abstract:Mayflower Communications Company, Inc. (Mayflower) proposes a multilayer information distribution technology, the Robust Assured Paradigm for Information Distribution in Airborne Networks (RAPID-AN), to meet the Air Force objective, namely, to develop intelligent, efficient, and robust data distribution approaches for one-to-many and many-to- many data exchanges over airborne networks. RAPID-AN is built with an intelligent framework that can distinguish different traffic types and provide different levels of QoS based on the existing policy context, and ensure their end-to-end delivery. RAPID-AN also contains network coding mechanism to provide very high throughput for group communications. The network coding mechanism will be specifically designed to counter the effects of high dynamics and high-speed mobility. The proposed RAPID-AN technology leverages Mayflower’s expertise in airborne networking, and builds on technology developed under several SBIR programs and Internal R&D. The RAPID-AN system, when proven feasible in the Phase I study for the Air Force application, has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. Mayflower will develop a cost effective RAPID-AN prototype system in Phase I and II, and ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond.

MZEAL COMMUNICATIONS
166 Boulder Drive, Suite 108
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 665-0281
Dr. Rajini Anachi
AF 08-025      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Cognitive Airborne Networks for Defense Operations (CAN-DO)
Abstract:The objective of the CAN-DO project is to create an adaptive cognitive network whose components work together within the rapidly changing challenges and constraints of an airborne tactical wireless MANET to enable fast and reliable delivery of one-to-many and many-to-many information. mZeal Communications and teammate iRobot envision such a network as an information-delivery framework capable of modifying its own behavior: a resourceful, clever, and self-aware system of cooperating actors with plans and goals. According to this vision, the resources for which the network is responsible include not only the traditional nodes, ports, packets, and interfaces, but also the content and meaning of the information it carries. The central focus of our proposal is cross-layer network architecture, the sharing of information between layers of network function that have traditionally hidden their information from one another, as a unifying principle for solving the problems of one-to-many and many-to-many data exchange over an unstable infrastructure. We also identify the key helper technologies that will act together to make the architecture real: Software-Defined Radio, distributed intelligent agents, peer-to-peer multicast and adaptive applications.

MILCORD LLC
1050 Winter Street Suite 1000
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 839-7138
Dr. Alper Caglayan
AF 08-027      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:PSIR (Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism)
Abstract:Although a number of political governance and human rights indicators have been developed over the years, there are no analytical models that map these societal indicators to future radicalization. Here, we propose to research and develop an analytical software tool, PSIR (Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism) that predicts future radicalization based on current and historical societal indicators. For the societal indicators, we will evaluate scored political governance indicators collected in comparative political science research. For the radicalization metrics, we propose to develop a scoring process based that uses our in-house geocultural knowledge and statistics based on the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. We propose to develop models that find the causal relationships between the societal indicators and radicalism metrics, and the parameters that define quantitatively the dependency among these indicators. Our tool will enable the analysis and prediction of radicalization across various dimensions, different regions, and countries in a GIS visualization environment. Our approach also learns the temporal evolution of these indicators so that the analysts can make predictions on future value of radicalization based on changes in current conditions. Our tool will help commanders develop more effective plans that address the cycle of behaviors sustaining criminal activity and IED networks.

SECURBORATION, INC.
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 154
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-7371
Mr. Bruce
AF 08-027      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Mitigate IED threat by Leveraging an Effect-based Approach
Abstract:Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs have proven to be the insurgency’s most effective method to date in Iraq and Afghanistan for countering the military superiority of coalition forces. Their consequences are devastating to coalition troops and their use derails Combatant Commanders from establishing security, stability, and paving the way to meet U.S objectives. DoD has spent billions of dollars looking at ‘hardware’ solutions to the IED problem, but the positive results have been short lived. Clearly, to succeed against IEDs in present and future conflicts requires more than a pure military ‘hardware’ solution. The key is to understand the root cause and effect relationships motivating and enabling terrorist activities. To this end, Securboration is teaming with Dr. Eugene Santos from Dartmouth College to develop the Effects-Based Approach to Neutralizing IEDs, or EBANI. The concept is an effects- based computational model that incorporates cultural, motivational, historical, political and economic root causes throughout assessment, what-if analysis, and prediction of terrorist activity. While EBANI focuses on the IED threat, IEDs are basically a tool terrorists are using in an attempt to achieve their goals. The effects-based techniques in EBANI are also applicable to countering the terrorist’s next, currently unforeseen weapon.

TOPIA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1119 Pacific Ave Suite 1600
Tacoma, WA 98402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 572-9712
Mr. Michael
AF 08-028      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:A QoS Plan for IP-based Data Sharing Between the GIG and SWIM
Abstract:A QoS Plan (QoS-P) uses networking resources intelligently and dynamically, rather than using a hardware surfeit to achieve similar results. As more real-time applications are deployed in an IP setting, implementations of historical IP “best efforts” QoS do not suffice—in an IP-based network, especially one employing TCP, a QoS-P cannot simply emphasize control of the topological path and timing of differing protocols/data types—unknown future participants are able to alter QoS-P efficacy unless governance requires entrance into a known SLA creating end-to-end functionality. This possibility for change is inherent to IP’s historical vision and purpose as the “common glue” for diverse and transparent protocols, unlike predecessor ARPANET, which left reliability to its hosts. Topia acknowledges that network QoS is an essential function of IP and that hosts must be included in any comprehensive QoS-P. A QoS-P could not be built for IP in a random system. However, GIG and SWIM are net-centric and service-oriented, with SLAs (within the SOA service contracts) at their interfaces, and this makes a realistic network-wide QoS-P possible. This proposal ties these aspects of IP and of more traditional QoS-Ps to develop a realistic QoS-P for the transfer of radar data between GIG and SWIM.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 388-1260
Mr. Scott Thomas
AF 08-028      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:Information Sharing between the Global Information Grid (GIG) and the System Wide Information Management (SWIM) system
Abstract:The DoD and FAA have the need to share information between the GIG and the SWIM networks. Specifically, radar data between aircraft, ground radars and ground Air Traffic Management facilities must be exchanged to ensure safe and efficient operation of the aviation system. Building a real-time net-centric capability for sharing radar data in a multi-level security environment presents new and unique challenges. Many obstacles must still be overcome before a truly interoperable data-sharing environment that operates across political boundaries and security domains can be realized. Trident Systems proposes to design and develop the GIG-SWIM Gateway (GSG) to address this need. The GSG will utilize the CS-2000 content processing platform as the central component to provide secure, real-time data sharing. The CS-2000 is a compact, modular, high-speed network appliance capable of handling a wide range of applications and multiple simultaneous functions. Additionally, Trident will develop priority schemes and QoS plan suitable for handling FAA radar data tracks and other SWIM data. The recommend policies, including data security classifications and priorities, will be implemented & tested on GSG. In summary, the GIG-SWIM Gateway will enable the exchange of radar target reports between the GIG and SWIM network with minimum latency.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Mark Kozak
AF 08-029      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Multi-Sensor Tracking and Fusion for Space Radar Application
Abstract:Black River proposes a solution for Space Radar Multi-Sensor Tracking and Fusion that considers the specific advantages and challenges offered by LEO and MEO constellations. Our approach to this research topic is three-fold in that we will characterize the expected yield of the radar modes given various scenarios, develop a tracking and fusion methodology, and develop a closed loop end-to-end simulation architecture for performance evaluation. The multi-sensor/mode, multi- target tracking and fusion problem is addressed with a fully featured state-vector that consists of kinematic and pose estimates as well as feature attributes derived from HRR, SAR, and ISAR products. The fully featured state-vector is ideally a blueprint of the target, but in reality it is a sub-sampled vector with more dimensionality than kinematics alone. The advantage of the fully featured state-vector is that it can be used in the track-to-measurement assignment process or in a track-to-track fusion process. Another key component is an architecture that includes a sensor resource manager that is necessary to schedule the specific radar modes while optimizing collections and radar energy over multiple areas of interest.

ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEMS, INC.
108 Standard St.
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 524-9103
Dr. Brian M. Lamb
AF 08-029      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:Multi-Sensor Tracking and Fusion for Space Radar
Abstract:The proposed effort will implement and demonstrate novel techniques to significantly enhance the ability of space radar to track surface moving targets through the fusing of target HRR profiles with SMTI detections on multiple space radar platforms. This work builds upon our recent space radar simulation and HRR feature-aided space radar ground vehicle tracking efforts. Unlike other approaches, we do not make a priori assumptions regarding the signatures of ground targets, i.e., pre- measured HRR signature data or training data sets are not used. Hence, our method is not limited to previously characterized vehicles and is inherently robust. We intend to demonstrate space radar HRR feature-aided tracking algorithms in a multiple satellite space radar simulation with revisit intervals of 30 seconds or greater.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-8965
Mr. Tom Homsley
AF 08-029      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Multi-Sensor Tracking and Fusion for Space Radar Application
Abstract:A constellation of Space Radar (SR) sensors provides the capability to track surface moving targets to a high degree of accuracy. The incorporation of target characterization information from High Range Resolution (HRR) and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) modes into tracking and fusion (TAF) algorithms provides enhanced information to the intelligence analyst and decision maker. This study will examine the ability of multiple sensors to provide accurate position and identity of moving targets. Extremely accurate states are required to support imaging algorithms used to discriminate military targets from civilian targets. Accurate imaging of targets of interest requires sub-meter range accuracy as well as precise knowledge of the target heading which is related to the velocity vector accuracy. The tracking algorithms must provide range accuracy on the order of meters depending on the target spacing and scenario; the imaging pre- processing algorithms can reduce this error to levels approaching fractions of a resolution cell. Stringent requirements on heading accuracy may be obviated by the use of prominent point tracking in the case of ISAR images. The Radiance tracking and fusion (TAF) Tool has been used to investigate a number of different types of multi-platform radar sensor architectures.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Geoffrey Burnham
AF 08-031      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Wide Bandwidth Photonics Based Beamformer
Abstract:An innovative concept for a scalable beamformer that can be applied to the full range of Air Force radars is proposed. The concept is photonics based and currently supports transmit/receive applications over the 0.1 to 20 GHz band. The design provides a digitally controlled True Time Delay beamformer effectively adapted to a phased array in any portion of the spectral coverage. Fine pointing resolution is consistent with the proposed implementation. The Phase 1 approach will demonstrate the key beamformer characteristics followed by a Phase 2 program that will miniaturize the design and test a multi element implementation. Agiltron is working closely with BAE Systems on this unconventional approach leveraging Agiltron’s recent breakthrough in manufacturing high performance fiber delay lines and variable optical attenuators. The proposed concept overcomes the deficiencies associated with electronic beam forming components, offering frequency independent performance of controlling phase and amplitude in a small, lightweight package with minimal power consumption. Our approach provides unprecedented performance in terms of wide dynamic range, extremely low microwave signal loss, low noise and fast dynamic reconfigurability. The preferred solution set will be determined after developing optimization algorithms for digital receiver/exciters for the US Air Force.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 08-031      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Wideband,Lightweight, Beamformer
Abstract:FIRST RF will validate the application of various active TTD technologies into the proposed manufacturing approach with a paper design of a 0.5- 18 GHz wideband lightweight beamforming network. The size and weight objectives of the BFN will be shown to be 1 pound and 1 inch in depth. The RF design of the BFN will demonstrate 7.5-60 degree scan capability over this frequency range with the objective of continuous frequency coverage over the entire band of operation. The TTD module specification will be defined for both RF and physical characteristics. Previous designs from other FIRST RF programs will be used as a baseline for integration of the BFN design. Finally, FIRST RF will demonstrate the approach for building plug-in 16 element arrays with the manufacture and test of a passive 16 element array for physical and mass model verification of a wideband beamforming network phased array design. To validate the overall concept, patterns and bandwidth for this array will be tested with fixed delay lines prior to Phase II TTD module design and fabrication.

SURMET CORP.
31 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-4091
Mr. Thomas Mroz
AF 08-032      Awarded: 5/14/2008
Title:Improved Cost Effectiveness in ALON Transparent Armor
Abstract:Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON Optical Ceramic) is a transparent ceramic material which exhibits transmission from the ultraviolet (UV) through the midwave infrared (MWIR), along with excellent mechanical properties. ALON has isotropic optical and mechanical properties, by virtue of its cubic crystalline structure. Consequently, ALON is transparent in its polycrystalline form and can be made by conventional powder processing techniques. This combination of desirable properties and manufacturability makes ALON suitable for a range of applications, from IR windows, domes, and lenses to transparent armor. ALON transparent armor laminates represent the state of the art, offering superior multi-hit performance against armor piercing threats, at half the weight and thickness of conventional glass laminate systems. Currently, the greatest obstacle to widespread use of ALON transparent armor is high cost and limited production capacity. The goal of the proposed effort is to develop improved processing which will substantially decrease the cost, by increasing the yield, and throughput, for producing ALON for armor applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Norm Rice
AF 08-032      Awarded: 5/16/2008
Title:Low Cost Transparent Ceramic Armor Finishing(1001-187)
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes a new process that eliminates the costly polishing steps currently required to fabricate transparent optical quality ALON ballistic windows and domes. This process has the potential to reduce the overall cost of ALON by 25 to 40%. The process is inexpensive, easy to implement, and uses commercially available materials and equipment.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. David Forsyth
AF 08-033      Awarded: 5/27/2008
Title:Modeling of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Processes for Reliability Assessment
Abstract:The time and cost to perform a comprehensive probability of detection (POD) study are significant and burdensome to the process of deploying new inspection methods and techniques. The complexity and cost of this effort require the development of model-assisted methods to determine the POD of new inspection methods and techniques as they are introduced and maintained as part of a cost-effective maintenance process. TRI/Austin has teamed with other key organizations to demonstrate and validate model-assisted POD (MAPOD) as a technology to speed the development and reduce the costs of POD studies. With participation from Iowa State University’s Center for NDE, Computational Tools Inc., and NDE Technologies Inc.; the TRI Team will design and execute an experimental program to validate models of ultrasonic inspection (UT) of titanium components, and to then validate the MAPOD approach to POD estimation via comparison to a traditional MIL-HDBK- 1823 study. The TRI Team will commercialize the validated UT software as part of the existing UTSIM commercial product. In addition, the MAPOD process will be documented and supporting software developed and commercialized to facilitate the use of POD methods from traditional MIL-HDBK-1823 analyses to MAPOD methods.

VICTOR TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
P.O. Box 7706
Bloomington, IN 47407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 339-8273
Dr. Harold A.
AF 08-033      Awarded: 5/5/2008
Title:Reliability Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation via Eddy-Current Model-Based Inversion
Abstract:The reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques is currently determined through probability-of-detection (POD) studies that rely on measurments of actual hardware copies of representative flaws. There is now a need to eliminate the inefficiencies and expenses of this method by using model-based standards derived from sophisticated engineering computer codes, that are, in turn, derived from rigorous applications of physical theories. This proopsal applies the concept of model-based inversion that is based upon Victor Technologies' well- known eddy-current code, VIC-3D(c), to solve the problem of reliably assessing NDE techniques. We will introduce the notion of `Probability of Inversion,' and show that the classical model-assisted POD (MAPOD) becomes a simple corollary to it. Furthermore, we will develop a rigorous electromagnetic model for anisotropic media, such as Ti-6Al- 4V, which is a titanium alloy that is widely used in aerospace structures and engines. With these concepts we effectively enter the `digital age' of eddy-current NDE, leaving traditional emphasis on analog instruments behind.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Mark Windoloski
AF 08-034      Awarded: 5/14/2008
Title:Hybrid NDE Methods for Linear Friction Weld Characterization in IBRs
Abstract:Linear friction welding is an attractive process for performing full blade repair in Integrally Bladed Rotors (IBRs), as it produces good material properties and small heat-affected zones. An effective Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) method is required for Linear Friction Welds (LFWs) in IBRs that can provide full volumetric inspection. At the same time, the inspection must be performed within the limited space between blades and accommodate the varying curvature of the air foil surfaces. JENTEK’s patented Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM) and MWM-Arrays have demonstrated superior performance for detecting cracks in difficult-to-inspect areas of aircraft engine components. Our automated engine disk slot and blade dovetail inspection systems have been awarded the FAA-ATA Better Way Award and are standard practice at U.S. military depots. Under an on-going SBIR program, MWM- Arrays are currently being adapted for scanning air foils, fillets and leading/trailing edges of IBRs. This proposed program will address the need for full volumetric examination of LFWs by combining high frequency MWM scanning with either deep penetration, low frequency eddy current or with UT scanning. We will also evaluate capability to characterize the microstructure of the material in the thermomechanically affected zone adjacent to the LFW.

KEYSTONE SYNERGISTIC ENTERPRISES, INC.
698 SW Port Saint Lucie Blvd
Port Saint Lucie, FL 34953
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 343-7544
Mr. Bryant H Walker
AF 08-034      Awarded: 5/22/2008
Title:Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Techniques for Repaired Integrally Bladed Components
Abstract:Some modern gas turbine engines utilize integrally bladed rotors (IBR), sometimes called blisks (bladed disks), in the design of the fan and compressor. IBRs are unique because, during fabrication, the airfoil blades are bonded to a hub to form an integral structure, which offers performance benefits over the conventional dovetail design. There are many instances in operation when foreign object damage (FOD) to airfoils leads to the need for a partial or blend repair process. In some cases, material is added to restore lost strength and subsequently machined to reshape the airfoil; and in other cases, the integrity can be restored by simply blending out the FOD and rebalancing the component. Small damage is repaired using various patch-repair techniques. There are strict limits for which partial repair may be used, driven by the location and extent of the damage; and when the limits are exceeded, a decision must be made to condemn the component or apply a full-blade repair process. A full-blade repair requires the airfoil to be cut off and a new full-blade reattached, using a solid-state joining process. The critical nature of these components requires that the new joint of the full-blade repair be free of defects such as internal porosity, planar low- density defects, and surface nonconformities. Good joining procedures and statistical process control are effective in producing defect-free joints; however, NDE techniques must still be employed on a periodic basis to ensure that the structural integrity of the repaired joint is acceptable. The main challenges are that the inspection area has limited accessibility, the object varies in contour, and it has a changing cross section. Keystone is proposing to use pitch-catch ultrasonics and advanced eddy current NDE techniques to assure full coverage, detect

INTERNATIONAL TITANIUM POWDER, L.L.C.
20634 W. Gaskin Dr.
Lockport, IL 60441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(815) 834-2112
Dr. Donn R.
AF 08-035      Awarded: 4/3/2008
Title:Low Cost Titanium Refinement and Processing
Abstract:The Armstrong Process produces titanium by the reduction of titanium tetrachloride through reaction with sodium. The process allows continuous production by injecting gaseous titanium tetrachloride into a flowing stream of liquid sodium. The process can produce metals and alloys of any composition provided that the constituents have volatile compounds. Because of the nature of the reaction the Armstrong Process inherently produces powder where every powder grain is a homogenous sample of the desired alloy. Currently, ITP has identified (Al, B, Bi, C, Ga, Ge, Mo, Nb, P, S, Si, Sn, Ta, V with volatile compounds boiling at less than 270C and Be, Fe, Hf, In, Zr above 270C but below 490C) potential alloying elements that are suited for the Armstrong Process.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C.
AF 08-035      Awarded: 4/17/2008
Title:The Low Cost Production of Titanium Alloy Powder Directly from Ore
Abstract:The utilization of titanium is limited by its high cost that is a result of winning it from ores, processing to purify and alloy, and down stream processing to produce component parts. Producing titanium alloy powder directly from ore has the potential to rapidly produce low cost mill products. Known processing to produce titanium sponge has not been demonstrated to produce alloy powder. MER has demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing low cost ore, not suitable for other processing approaches, which can be thermally processed to produce a feed from which an alloy powder can be produced in a combined electrochemical-chemical processing technology. The processing will be further developed in collaboration with major titanium alloy powder users to define the types and limits of alloy element modifications possible. Preliminary processing suggest some alloy compositions can be produced in a powder for approximately the same cost as Kroll sponge which offers the potential to dramatically alter the titanium industry. This program will define processing to produce uniform alloying composition in each and every particle, particle morphology, and produce powder and consolidated billets for delivery.

SKY+ LTD.
180 Klamath Court
American Canyon, CA 94503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 561-7085
Dr. Michael C.
AF 08-036      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:Development of Rapid Prototyping Process for Ceramic Cores for Investment Castings
Abstract:The rapid prototyping of ceramic cores for investment casting of turbine components is a multi-faceted task. Such cores must have sufficient surface quality and dimensional accuracy to meet the rigorous requirements of turbine components. Appropriate RP techniques and materials must therefore be chosen that not only allow green ceramic parts to be produced, but further, meet the demands of subsequent firing, casting, leaching operations and metallurgical response. During development, each of these inter related processing steps must be considered not as a stand-alone development task, but rather as a tightly linked component of an entire production scheme. Therefore, successful development is dependent upon an overall systemic approach wherein each process step undergoes a development program that fully considers the limitations and requirements of the preceding and subsequent processing steps. Consequently, an integrated development approach is necessary in order to arrive at a solution which is capable of meeting all of the goals of this complex task.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-8988
Mr. Walter Zimbeck
AF 08-036      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:Direct Fabrication of Investment Casting Cores by Ceramic Stereolithography
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will develop a tool-less direct core fabrication technology based on ceramic stereolithography. The technology will eliminate the high cost and long lead time associated with injection molding tooling and will reduce prototyping costs for advanced cored airfoils by > 50%. The rapid prototyping process will allow parallel exploration of various core designs, which will accelerate the development of higher performance airfoils and turbine engines. The Phase I effort will build on previous related development at TA&T and by our collaborators. Phase I will entail material property evaluation to ensure compatibility with the casting process, fabrication of advanced core designs and assessment of surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. Phase I will culminate with a casting demonstration using cores fabricated by the new process.

MAVERICK CORP.
11379 Grooms Road
Blue Ash, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 469-9919
Dr. Robert A. Gray
AF 08-037      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:High-Temperature, Abrasion-Resistant Coating
Abstract:Fighter aircraft such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) must fly with precision and reliability, especially in extreme environments. In order to perform missions effectively and economically, the JSF aircraft has many moving parts that are subject to high wear conditions across large temperature and load ranges. Coatings are often used to protect composite surfaces that are located on the outside of the aircraft. Although these coatings are easy to apply, they are generally thin and do not perform above 350ºF (177ºC) without degradation in performance. Advanced wear-resistant coatings that operate at elevated temperature are needed for today’s fighter aircraft. The technical innovation being proposed is the development of a BMI or polyimide coating that will offer high-temperature stability and wear resistance for use in F-35 JSF applications. The research effort will progress from chemical screening and cure cycle optimization of the base coatings, to nano-modifications of the coating, followed by extensive abrasion and TOS testing. A large amount of chemical and physical characterization testing is planned to provide a thorough assessment of each coating. The wear and thermal performance, processing characteristics, and cost benefits for each coating will be determined and compared to the baseline.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. John Bulluck
AF 08-037      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:High-Temperature, Abrasion-Resistant Coating
Abstract:The F-35 JSF aircraft imposes a demanding set of reliability requirements, particularly in regard to operation temperature. Millions of dollars are spent every year repairing coatings that cannot withstand high temperatures while maintaining mechanical properties, including those on BMI composite parts for the JSF. The current Teflon-filled coating on the F-35 aft boom covers abrades easily during use at 450oF and short durations at 650°F. TRI/Austin proposes an innovative coating approach to utilize a thermally stable vinyl functional polysilazane binder with an inorganic, high temperature, pigment package that will have superior thermal stability coupled with outstanding abrasion resistance. This coating can be spray or brush applied, and test formulations have already shown excellent results. The technical objectives are to develop optimum coating formulations for polymer coated BMI composites and demonstrate superior thermal protection; confirm that the coating provides excellent adhesion, flexibility, and color as well as resistance to abrasion, chemicals, corrosion, and impact; and investigate test methods to confirm the coating's resistance to abrasion at elevated temperatures. This new high-temperature, abrasion-resistant coating should find many applications in military and commercial aircraft as well as in automotive parts, industrial equipment, and improving commodity materials.

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL & ENGINEERING SERVICES
750 Cross Pointe Rd., Suite E
Gahanna, OH 43230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 861-7015
Dr. Kyle
AF 08-038      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:Modeling and Simulation for Robust Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Increasing the power density of current jet aircraft engines requires the replacement of conventional high temperature materials by new materials capable of operating at higher temperatures. Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) represent excellent candidates for increased use in hot engine parts due to their ability to withstand temperatures in excess of 2000 C. Due to the complexity of the manufacturing CMCs, limited guidelines exist that can readily transfer between different components. Consequently experimental approaches are needed to develop detailed manufacturing procedures. The extensive development time and budget needed for this approach can be significantly reduced if predictive design tools for the RMI process were available. This work will develop analytical tools to analyze the multiple interdependent physical phenomena of relevance for the manufacture of CMCs. The analyses will be integrated into a design tool capable of providing engineers with an environment to analyze the CMC manufacturing process thus reducing the need for iterative experimental approaches. Consequently, the costs associated with manufacturing critical CMC components will be dramatically reduced and provide engines with improved thrust and fuel efficiency while reducing emissions.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4995
Dr. Ashok Gidwani
AF 08-038      Awarded: 4/15/2008
Title:Multiscale Modeling for Melt Infiltration Process in Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Manufacturing
Abstract:CFDRC proposes to develop a comprehensive, high-fidelity commercial quality simulation tool for modeling the melt infiltration process in Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) manufacturing. The code will accurately predict the transient melt infiltration process with tightly-coupled detailed physics-based component-level and micro-scale models for the infiltration front and solidification in the porous preform. The foundation for this tool will be the proven multi-physics CFDRC code. In Phase I, we will demonstrate feasibility of simulating melt infiltration processes at the component level through submodels for capillary transport in porous media coupled with reaction kinetics and associated temperature and volumetric changes. In Phase II, we will improve the scope, speed and accuracy of the tool using a novel multiscale modeling approach. Tightly coupled pore-scale multiphase simulations will feed into component-level models with advanced numerical tools unique to CFDRC. These advanced tools include free surface modeling with capillary forces and variable viscosity, surface reactions and heat interactions, particle tracking, parallel processing, and stochastic solvers based on Lattice- Boltzmann and Kinetic Monte-Carlo methods. These capabilities will be coupled and integrated into a user-friendly software package. The development will be performed in close collaboration with Goodrich, a leading CMC provider, to insure relevance and facilitate technology insertion.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Adam Goff
AF 08-039      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Inhibited Electrically Conductive Adhesive for Rapid Aerospace Fastner Preparation
Abstract:Current practices for joining aluminum and composite airframe elements together involves a labor intensive process. Titanium fasteners are hand abraded or grit blasted, installed, coated with a chromated primer, and sealed with an electrically conductive sealer. The process requires both significant labor hours and significant down time, as the chromated primer and conductive sealer must be cured before subsequent coating. The objective of the proposed program is to replace the labor and time intensive multistep fastener preparation process with a single step. Using internal expertise in the areas of corrosion, coatings, and nanocomposites, Luna will formulate a two component adhesive that adheres well to the titanium fastener and surrounding aluminum, prevents corrosion of the metals, exhibits sufficient conductivity, and levels the recess flush to the outer mold line. Through a more complete understanding of the corrosion processes, and a holistic approach to corrosion prevention, the Luna system will be able to save time and costs while removing chromated primers from the preparation process. The proposed material would save direct and indirect cost for the Air Force and be applicable to the commercial aerospace industry as well.

SYSTEMS & MATERIALS RESEARCH CORP.
19300 Crosswind Circle
Spicewood , TX 78669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 535-7791
Dr. Malcolm D. Prouty
AF 08-039      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Rapid Method for Aircraft Fastener Surface Preparation
Abstract:Each of the more than 40,000 fastener heads in the F-35's outer mold line must be covered with a special thermoplastic conductive polymer fill prior to application of the primer and final finish coatings that will ultimately define the stealth of the aircraft. This is currently a time- consuming, labor-intensive operation, and the potential for fastener-to- fastener quality differences is high. Systems and Materials Research Corporation (SMRC) proposes development of the Rapid Intelligent Fastener Fill System (RIFFS), an automated handheld tool which the operator simply places over a fastener head. With the press of a button, RIFFS will secure itself to the airframe, accurately measure the cavity depth, then dispense, melt and compress a metered load of thermoplastic material into the fastener head cavity - all in under 30 seconds. Unlike current fastener fill procedures which take considerably longer and leave large amounts of excess thermoplastic material to be removed and disposed of, RIFFS dispenses 1-5 thin dots, designed to slightly overfill the cavity when melted and compressed. RIFFS delivers low power (2 watts) microwave energy to the dots, rapidly and uniformly melting them as a dielectric plunger compresses the conductive thermoplastic material into the fastener head cavity.

DIRECTED VAPOR TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2 Boar's Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Dr. Erik Svedberg
AF 08-040      Awarded: 5/19/2008
Title:Wear-Resistant Coatings for Aircraft Structures
Abstract:An aircraft of today has many moving parts that are subjected to high wear conditions; naturally this puts a high demand on the reliability. The need for new coatings and approaches that improve the wear resistance is clear. Furthermore, a need for smart materials where lifetime indicators can be incorporated is a logical next step in the evolution of coatings. This SBIR proposal suggests an advanced vapor deposition process that can be used to deposit materials combinations that have a high wear resistance as well as a measurable lifetime. The process is suitable for aircraft components with non-line-of-sight areas, such as interior surfaces of pipes or even more complex shapes. The proposal further suggests a combinatorial selection process for the materials combinations that can optimize the compatibility with the substrate material as well as optimizing the wear resistance of the coating. By measuring easily accessible physical properties of the film during maintenance intervals for the aircraft component it will be possible to determine the useful lifetime for the remaining wear resistant film and arrange for replacement prior to failure.

TRIBOLOGIX, INC.
7086 Corporate Way
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 654-7776
Mr. Andras Korenyi-
AF 08-040      Awarded: 5/19/2008
Title:Nanostructured PVD Smart Wear Resistant Coatings for In-Situ Health Prognostics
Abstract:This project is a collaboration between Tribologix, Inc. with core expertise in the deposition and testing of hard wear resistant coatings, and Mound Laser & Photonics Center, Inc., for development of a low cost smart coating wear sensor, and General Electric Aviation, a manufacturer of Gas Turbine Engines for military and commercial applications. Our approach uses the spectral response of layers found in our nanostuctured graded hard coatings combined with a low cost reflectance sensor capable of accurately detecting a change in color as the material is worn away. The focus in Phase I will be to optimize a new class of advanced hard wear resistant coatings which are based on nano composite structures as well as in situ health prognostics. Under this effort we shall grow gradient coatings that vary in color or reflectivity as a function of composition. For example, Titanium Nitride (TiN) is a gold coating, Titanium Carbo Nitride (TiCN) is a pink or blue coating and Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN) is a dark grey or black coating. These colors vary with the degree of C, N and Al in the coating structure. Each coating type has a unique spectral response. We will use appropriate lighting sources and a spectrometer to quantify and detect the color change as a function of composition. After we have calibrated these measurements, we will then make a gradient coating and measure the color change as the coating is worn away. We will be able to create the wear with a pin-on-disk arrangement initially, allowing us to directly correlate the optical signal with the wear and friction history. We will effectively create a situation in which the optical signal indicates the remaining thickness of the coating, and thus the remaining wear life with out interrupting the rotation of the sample.

ATMOSPHERIC PLASMA SOLUTIONS
11301 Penny Road Suite D
Cary, NC 27518
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 341-8325
Mr. Peter J. Yancey
AF 08-041      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Innovative Coating Removal Techniques
Abstract:The US armed forces need an environmentally friendly, quick, effective, and non-destructive method to remove paint from plastic and carbon fiber composite surfaces. An earth friendly paint removal process for painted metal is also desired by many commercial sectors such as aviation, marine, and automotive applications. Current processes for the removal of paint from composite materials are slow, expensive, and/or damaging to the environment. AP Solutions proposes the use of a highly ionized non-thermal atmospheric plasma process to quickly and efficiently remove coatings from a wide variety of composite and temperature sensitive substrates. AP Solutions Plasma Flux technology is inherently scalable to meet both field applications as well as large scale depot operations.

ENERGY RESEARCH CO.
2571-A Arthur Kill Road
Staten Island, NY 10309
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(718) 608-0935
Dr. Arel Weisberg
AF 08-041      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Real-Time Control of Laser Coating Removal
Abstract:Energy Research Company (ERCo) proposes the development of an instrument that provides novel real-time control of laser decoating processes by detecting the coating as it is being removed. The technology allows for precise and selective removal of the desired coating layer while preserving any underlying coatings and the base material. The instrument’s real-time operation allows the coating removal rate to be unimpeded and to proceed at its optimum speed. The quality of the decoating process will thereby be greatly improved while throughput of the laser decoating system will be unaffected. ERCo has demonstrated the technique in its laboratory and has shown that very accurate coating removal can be obtained. In Phase I, ERCo will demonstrate the device’s ability to automatically and accurately control the removal of topcoat and/or primer layers while preserving underlying layers and the substrate material. The technology can also be adapted for controlling other coating removal methods.

SHAPE CHANGE TECHNOLOGIES
2985 E. Hillcrest Drive Suite 108
Thousand Oaks, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 497-2549
Dr. Peter Jardine
AF 08-044      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Characterization and Modeling of TiNi based Foams for Integration into High Speed Penetrators
Abstract:Large shock-loading events generated by a warhead penetrating a hardened bunker are difficult both to characterize and model, making the engineering to protect both the explosive and arm its fuzing mechanism exceeding difficult. Experimentally, shock loads propagating into existing warhead are hard to measure, and therefore make verification of shock and impact models difficult to verify.One solution to this incredibly difficult challenge is to significantly mitigate the incoming shock, such that the measurements of the shock loads are more reliable, increasing the computer simulations and more importantly, allowing for engineering improvements in the warhead and fuzing system. SCT and ARA will characterize and model a novel metal foam material for these applications that has shown excellent shock mitigation at high strain loading.

SYNTRONICS
3500 Shannon Park Drive
Fredericksburg, VA 22408
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 374-1000
Mr. Brian Tacke
AF 08-044      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:High Speed Penetration Modeling
Abstract:For High Speed Penetration Modeling of warheads to provide maximum benefit to the Air Force, the development of high fidelity data collection instrumentation and improved diagnostic tools is a fundamental and necessary “first step” to assess the overall effectiveness of these penetrating warheads. The data collection system must survive dynamic, high energy impacts to capture the critical data. Considering that the defensive capabilities of hard targets are ever evolving with incorporation of improved technologies that employ high strength and high performance materials, the need for high fidelity data collection becomes even more important in the future. This proposal presents a robust, low cost, approach to develop small, high performance data collection devices and systems that will provide the operational characteristics to meet these requirements. The proposed development approach has been utilized previously for similar testing requirements when collecting data internal to gun launched projectiles, and sampling multiple sensors configured on devices subjected to explosive events. A development methodology based upon these prior designs forms the basis for further development to address the data collection for high speed warheads, and subsequently provide high fidelity data to simulation modeling tools.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Frank Zeller
AF 08-044      Awarded: 4/11/2008
Title:High Speed Penetration Modeling
Abstract:Penetrating warheads filled with High Explosives (HE) can prove ineffective in destroying deeply buried and harden military complexes. The objective of this proposed effort is to develop and empirically validate Finite Element Modeling (FEM) simulations that can accurately represent materials and assemblies response to high speed impacts and harsh environments. Dynamic FEM on representative test articles containing HE will be generated using LS-DYNA, which will give load paths, stress distribution, strains, and component deformation at various impact velocities. The developed LS-DYNA impact simulations will be compared to penetrator tests on test articles containing simulant HE materials at the University of Texas Institute for Advanced Technology. Design of Experiment (DOE) will be conducted to replicate thermal and vibration events resulting from storage and field-use that can adversely affect mechanical or electrical components' function; small-scaled samples filled with HE or HE simulant will be prepared and aged to access the potential effects of micro cracks or voids on detonation characteristics. Analytical tests will be conducted to evaluate changes in HE after accelerated life testing. The results of this research will be improved performance penetrating warheads that are more reliable, predictable, and deliver maximize lethality to harden complexes.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
AF 08-045      Awarded: 5/5/2008
Title:Penetration Survivable Advanced Energetics
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is pleased to offer the following proposal in response to solicitation AF 08-045, Penetration Survivable Advanced Energetics. We will describe our current capability in modeling of heterogeneous material response to damage which may occur during a penetration event. During a penetration event when the explosive is placed under both compression and tension a variety of damage modes can occur which could cause the explosive to not survive the event. These damage modes could include particle fracture, dewetting (debonding), scission, localized shear heating, void collapse, and energetic response (detonation, deflagration, or burning). In Phase I we will propose a modeling and simulation program that utilizes existing capabilities in modeling energetics to advance development of bulk response models in existing production first principle codes. We will layout a model development and improvement plan for Phase II which includes demonstrating the model’s validity through controlled testing.

WASATCH MOLECULAR, INC.
2141 St. Mary's Dr. Suite 102
Salt Lake City, UT 84108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 795-9472
Dr. Scott
AF 08-045      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Penetration Survivable Advanced Energetics
Abstract:It is well established that the heterogeneity of energetic materials at the mesoscale localizes deformation energy, generating “hot spots”. It is imperative to understand the nature of hot spot spatial distributions, as their coalescence leads to sustainable reaction. Given the difficulties in determining hot spot distributions experimentally, this is an ideal scenario for contributions via numerical simulation. However, important mesoscale details are only partially known, including detailed material morphology, inelastic material properties, and appropriate interfacial physics models. Here we propose simplifying the problem by examining two-dimensional surrogate materials with simplified morphologies and interfacial physics, permitting extensive validation data to be obtained. Molecular dynamics simulations will calibrate models for frictional sliding between grains and in cracks, including melting. A particle simulation technology that has been demonstrated to handle interfacial physics exceptionally robustly and efficiently will be validated and then used to resolve hot spot spatial distributions. By examining pristine and damaged systems, the importance of certain mesoscale characteristics will be isolated, and conclusions drawn regarding sensitivity to penetration events. A validated simulation capability will demonstrate the application of existing technology to a tailored, complex system, and provide a firm foundation for examining more realistic systems, and developing improved engineering material models.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 320-8940
Mr. John Dennison
AF 08-047      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Flight Control Technology for Tightly Controlled Hard Target Impact
Abstract:This project develops an innovative, enabling technology for precision attitude control of guided munitions. An imaging sensor system is used to precisely measure airframe attitude relative to the velocity vector, eliminating the time dependent heading angle inaccuracies common to all GPS/INS based attitude measurements. During the downward flight of a guided munition, a body-fixed, boresighted imaging sensor detects the expansion of the scene as the munition approaches the ground. Innovative Image Processing algorithms are used to determine the Imagery Center of Expansion (ICE). Since the scene expands radially away from the velocity vector, the number of camera pixels between the ICE and the boresighted munition centerline is a direct measurement of the velocity vector angle. The Phase I program simulates the imaging sensor, develops image processing algorithms, creates an electrical/software architecture concept for real-time operation, and examines ultra-high bandwidth attitude control actuators required for precision airframe control consistent with the accurate angle measurement from Areté’s imaging sensor system. The Phase II program will develop a prototype imaging sensor system that demonstrates the ability to measure the velocity vector angle in a real- time hardware-in-loop simulation. Phase III commercialization will be encouraged via demonstrations with government and industry primes.

PHYSICS, MATERIALS & APPLIED MATH RESEARCH, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 903-2345
Dr. Kevin Kremeyer
AF 08-047      Awarded: 3/24/2008
Title:Upstream Energy Deposition for Increased Speed and Precise Attitude/AoA Control of Hard Target Penetrators
Abstract:The proposed approach involves repetitively depositing a line of energy ahead of a high-speed hard-target penetrator. The heated gas will expand, pushing air aside to create a straight, low-density column, through which the penetrator will propagate. This procedure removes over 90% of the drag on the vehicle, enabling much greater speeds, for both propelled and unpropelled platforms. The low-density tube furthermore exerts forces and moments on the body to keep it centered/aligned along the created path. These effects have been verified in a separate AFRL program on hypersonic platforms, and relevant energy-deposition hardware has been built and tested.

NUMEREX
2309 Renard Place SE Suite 220
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 277-4272
Dr. John W.
AF 08-049      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Computational Modeling for Combined Shock/Electromagnetic Initiation of Energetic Materials
Abstract:In the interest of promoting precision strike and persistent area dominance, both key factors in the Global War on Terror, there is a need to develop novel means to control the explosive yield of compact munitions. We propose to develop state-of-the-art computational tools to model, design, and deploy advanced initiation technology to control the deflagration-to-detonation transition of high energy density materials, offering the flexibility to package said materials on a variety of platforms while retaining the capability to strike a range of targets with the low collateral damage needed for MOUT enviroments.

RHAMM TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
332 Skyland Drive
Bellbrook, OH 45305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 465-5909
Dr. Ronald L.
AF 08-049      Awarded: 4/2/2008
Title:Compact Multifunctional Ordnance for Urban Combat
Abstract:RHAMM Technologies, LLC and Battelle Memorial Institute are proposing an approach for developing and demonstrating a novel technology that includes two viable and distinct approaches to achieve scalable warhead effects. The RHAMM team will model, down select to, and demonstrate one of these two lethality mechanisms to show that it is possible to scale or control lethal effects from blast/fragmenting warheads using detonable fill materials. The RHAMM team is confident that the technology can be readily developed, demonstrated, and incorporated into a weapon system of interest to the Air Force.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Mr. Douglas
AF 08-050      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:Adaptive Structures for Micro Munition Platforms
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force has significant interest in the development of adaptive structures for micro munition platforms. However, power, mass and cost constraints significantly limits the applicability of existing adaptive structure concepts for these smaller platforms. To address these challenges, CTD is proposing the use of solid-state, electrically- driven actuators that require minimal power and are capable of high actuation rates (>10 Hz). The proposed approach is based on the use of these actuators in combination with CTD’s existing morphing wing- skin technology providing increased wing-morphing functionality. If successful, the proposed technology would eliminate the need for traditional flight control devices such as ailerons. The proposed Phase I plan encompasses requirements definition, prototype hardware design and manufacture, and technology assessment. To that end, CTD has partnered with the University of Florida’s Research and Engineering Education Facility (REEF) to assist in assessing the technology via relevant wind-tunnel testing.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-8963
Dr. Andrew Thies
AF 08-050      Awarded: 3/25/2008
Title:Micro Munition Adaptive Structure Flight Control Technology
Abstract:Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) provide an important military and civilian capability to very rapidly deploy an aerial platform for surveillance and observation with minimal resources (i.e. single operator). As a surveillance platform they can be used for reconnaissance, target identification, assessing bomb damage, search and rescue, locating survivors, etc. The development of effective MAVs for these missions will require simple, light, power efficient actuators that can be used for control and to morph the aircraft to fit a broader flight envelope as needed by the mission. Radiance proposes to develop a piezoelectric actuator based on the proven concept of PBP actuation as has been implemented in UAV design. This actuator will provide an aero-surface morphing capability as well as control surface action to replace current servo technology. Actuators of this kind have been shown to be simple, lighter and require less power than traditional actuation systems; all aspects that improve the aircraft performance.

CENTEYE, INC.
4905 Reno Road NW
Washington, DC 20008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 238-9545
Dr. Geoffrey L.
AF 08-051      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Processing for Flexible Sensors
Abstract:We will develop "flexible sensing" techniques that will enable a single sensor to perform the functions of both a "seeker" and a "target detection device". One set of approaches will comprise resolution enhancement and other techniques to extract target identification and tracking information, as would be provided by a "seeker", from a low resolution / high update rate sensor. Hyperacuity-based approaches will be considered. The other set of approaches will comprise low latency downsampling and feature extraction circuits that may be added to a high resolution / low update rate sensor to provide target detection information. For Phase I and Phase II, this research will be performed in the context of a target application involving a micro air vehicle tasked to identify a target of interest, pursue it, and trigger an endgame action when sufficiently close. This target application will allow us to develop techniques and identify principles in a real-world context that may be adapted to guided munition and other applications in Phase III.

INVARIANT CORP.
4800 Whitesburg Dr #30-353
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 885-9794
Mr. David R.
AF 08-051      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Processing for Flexible Sensors
Abstract:In contrast to the typical single aperture systems found in weapons today, arthropod compound eyes are multi-aperture optical systems. The compound eye has evolved into many forms, each one of which is specifically adapted to the optical environment of the insect or crustacean that it resides upon. The applications of artificial compound eye sensors range from highly complex applications such as terminal seeker optics and missile approach warning systems, to guidance sensors for micro-robots. This effort proposes the use of compound eye sensors as a replacement to dual mode sensors for use in target detection, tracking, and guidance integrated fuzing.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 396-4424
Dr. Bob Bless
AF 08-051      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Processing for Flexible Sensors
Abstract:Guidance Integrated Fuzing (GIF) provides a low-cost single sensor solution to the contrasting weapon seeker requirements realized throughout a typical weapon kill chain. The proposed algorithm suite provides the required flexibility to handle both the long-range, low- resolution, low update rate acquisition phase and the short-range, high- resolution, high update rate guidance and fuzing phase for air-to-air (ATA) and air-to-ground (ATG) engagements, while imposing minimal requirements on the specific seeker implementation.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 738-6279
Dr. David Coombs
AF 08-051      Awarded: 3/27/2008
Title:Processing for Flexible Sensors
Abstract:AFRL/RWGI seeks performance and cost improvements by pursuing a Guidance Integrated Fuzing (GIF) approach that will enable a single sensor to supply the information requirements for tracking the target from detecting the target through fuzing the weapon. Judicious selection of sensor and clever application of algorithms will enhance the sensor system’s ability to trade off spatial and temporal resolution to enable this revolutionary breakthrough. Current seeker and fuzing sensors are developed separately and each optimized to its intended function. This can lead to increased cost and complexity of the systems, greater SWAP demands (which drives up cost), and increased logistics cost. The key to our approach lies in seeking optimal digital solutions that enhance sensor resolution capability and explicitly enable the system to trade spatial resolution and contrast against temporal resolution. This will stretch the operating range to span the requirements from detecting targets at long range to high rate low latency target position update for fuzing.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Thomas
AF 08-053      Awarded: 5/22/2008
Title:Fusion of Vibration and Oil Debris Sensor Data for Improved Engine Bearing Health Management
Abstract:Safety incidents due to failure of rolling element bearings in aircraft gas turbine engines are a significant cost to the Department of Defense. Oil debris monitoring (ODM) has been shown to be effective as an early indicator of engine bearing faults. On a complex engine with multiple components that produce wear debris, the addition of vibration monitoring can provide a localized prediction of exactly which component is degrading or failing. Data fusion of vibration and ODM sensor data has been shown to improve the statistical performance of bearing and gear fault detection and isolation while simultaneously maintaining or reducing false alarms and missed alarm diagnosis in a test rig environment. This type of integrated monitoring system has not been fully demonstrated on an aircraft engine. This SBIR will integrate the hardware, software, and data from mature, robust, commercially available vibration and ODM sensors into a versatile Engine Health Management (EHM) system. IAC has teamed with GasTOPS for development of this system. The results and systems developed on this SBIR can be directly applied to improving EHM performance for the F135 and other gas turbine engines.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Nathan Brown
AF 08-053      Awarded: 5/15/2008
Title:Advanced Oil Filter Load Monitoring for Aircraft Engine Bearing Diagnostics
Abstract:Early indication of impending main engine bearing failure is critical, especially for single engine fighter aircraft such as the JSF. Bearing degradation leading to failure is characterized by increasing amounts of bearing race and rolling element spalling and wear debris entering the engine lube oil flow. The amount of shed bearing debris indicates remaining useful life. Magnetic chip collectors are widely fielded, but suffer low capture efficiency and lack online measurement capability. Aircraft engine lubrication filters, however, capture virtually all bearing damage particulates. Accurately trending oil filter blockage using differential pressure measurements provides useful indication of bearing damage progression. To address the critical need for improved engine diagnostic capabilities, Luna Innovations will advance the state of the art in filter monitoring for bearing diagnostics by leveraging the technical experience of industry leaders to develop and apply load trending algorithms for filter construction and particulate loading specific to aircraft engine bearing damage. Also in Phase I, Luna will investigate the feasibility of directly sampling fluid parameters to reduce filter loading uncertainty. The diagnostic strategy ultimately resulting from this effort will be especially valuable when fused with orthogonal techniques (e.g., vibration monitoring) to provide a robust bearing health monitoring approach.

MITEK ANALYTICS LLC
281 EL VERANO AVE
PALO ALTO, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 400-3172
Dr. Dimitry
AF 08-054      Awarded: 5/15/2008
Title:Information Decision Software Tools for Turbine Propulsion PHM Systems
Abstract:The project will develop software tools to enable optimal estimation of engine fault state in embedded avionics system. The tools will address vulnerabilities of existing PHM systems and allow achieving low (the smallest theoretically possible) false alarm rates while simplifying system engineering and sustainment. The fault states will be estimated/detected from the residuals and BIT data using empirical and/or physical fault models. Existing PHM approaches combine several heuristics for characterization of engine health deterioration and design of engine fault alarms. This project will rely on recent breakthroughs in estimation and optimization that allow integrating all data (discrete and parametric) and all fault states (discrete and continuous) in one optimal solution. The tuning parameters of the solution would include sensor noise covariances, BIT/BITE mis-detection probabilities, fault probabilities, fault interdependencies, and model confidence. First, we will develop off-line tools for model-based system analysis and design. Second, we will develop embedded software functions for computationally efficient on-line implementation of the approach. The embedded computational functions could be employed similar to other packaged mathematical software, such as matrix arithmetics. Phase I will demonstrate viability and performance of the approach to design and analysis of PHM for an F-110 engine vane actuator subsystem.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
8777 E.Via de Ventura Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-7909
Dr. Asif Khalak
AF 08-054      Awarded: 5/16/2008
Title:A Two Stage Data Fusion Strategy for False Alarm Mitigation in Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Systems
Abstract:Scientific Monitoring, Inc. (SMI) proposes a novel two-stage comprehensive strategy for fault diagnosis for the purpose of reducing the occurrence of No Fault Found (NFF) events in Propulsion Health Management (PHM) activities. The strategy includes modeling and algorithmic elements that account for uncertainty at two distinct stages in the fault detection process: (a) anomaly detection, and (b) information/decision fusion. The Phase I contract will develop the strategy into a software prototype and assess the prototype using a combination of simulation-based validation testing and experimental validation from actual engine flight data.

DSPCON
380 Foothill Road
Bridgewater, NJ 08807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 722-5656
Mr. Mitchell
AF 08-055      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Expanding the Processing Capability of On-Line Propulsion Health Management (PHM)
Abstract:Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is viewed by the Air Force as a critical technology for improving aircraft system affordability via reduced maintenance costs, and improved platform survivability and availability . Ideally, PHM eliminates “surprises” in operations and maintenance. DSPCon proposes to develop a powerful, modular, expandable, open- standards addition of processing capability that will increase the speed of PHM decisions by an order of magnitude over current Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC)-based hardware and software. It is anticipated that PHM decisions representing accurate fault isolation with a low probability of false alarm are needed every 20 msec. Through the use of optimized signal processing algorithms and commercially available high speed hardware, the DSPCon platform will provide a greatly improved computational capability over current PHM solutions. The DSPCon platform will accommodate anticipated PHM requirements including sensor data rates of 200kHz or more, and data bus rates of 100 megabits per second or more. DSPCon will consult with major jet turbine engine manufacturers throughout the program to ensure a comprehensive understanding of PHM requirements for gas-turbine engines.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Joel Bock
AF 08-055      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Fast, Reconfigurable Computing for PHM
Abstract:Propulsion Health Management (PHM) of advanced aircraft propulsion systems refers to a multi-faceted approach of sensitive and precise monitoring of gradual subsystems degradation. The objective is to first ensure mission reliability, while extending the useful lifetime of the high- value asset. In applied propulsion engineering research, PHM diagnostics and prognostics have been shown to be feasible in tracking day-to-day engine health; it is expected that real-time engine control functions should be possible. Real-time models running on-board to support Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) are not only conceivable, but are under active development. Augmenting future FADEC systems with real-time PHM sensor integration, data fusion and decision support algorithms, physics modeling and inlet flow control will require significant computational resources. The U.S. Air Force recognizes the need for technological breakthroughs to support this high-throughput, compute-intense environment. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Corporation (IAC) outlines a plan to address this critical need for advanced PHM technology with a combined hardware and software systems approach. This approach features cutting edge, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) high-performance computing on military-qualified IAC systems, and a novel software architecture that enables rapid development and deployment of high-level PHM algorithms on this platform

BLADE DIAGNOSTICS CORP.
6688 Kinsman Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 398-0643
Dr. Jerry H. Griffin
AF 08-056      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) Maintenance and Life Management
Abstract:Blade Diagnostics Corporation will integrate a new capability into its Mistuning Inspection Machine so that the effect of aerodynamic as well as structural mistuning can be evaluated when inspecting blend repairs on the F119 1st stage fan. This Smart BlendTM technology will transform the MIM into a virtual engine test for blended blades. Consequently, at the end of this effort a technology will be in place that will allow the DoD to use relatively low cost blending operations to repair a larger number of IBRs/Blisks while reducing the likelihood of HCF failure from mistuning. This capability fits directly with the goals of the DoD’s VAATE program and the P-SAR initiative. With Pratt &Whitney as an active participant in the program, there is every expectation that the capability developed in this SBIR will be promptly transitioned to operational service to meet what are already important Air Force needs. The proposed technology has dual use potential in that it can also be applied to commercial as well as military engines.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5232
Dr. George Zhao
AF 08-056      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Wireless On-engine Health Monitoring of Integrally Bladed Rotors
Abstract:The ability to sustain turbine engine IBRs in a safe and affordable manner is critical. IBRs usually operate in a harsh environment, experience high centrifugal and thermal stresses. Cumulative microscopic cracks at critical loading areas, if not detected and repaired in time, may lead to a catastrophic disk or blade burst and thus engine failure. This proposal tries to address the health management issue of IBR from the inspection and microcrack detection point of view, which is the basis for life prediction and repair. We propose a wireless on- engine health monitoring approach. It applies light, thin film patch transducers to the IBR and inspects rotor for small cracks and embedded flaws. The signal is coupled wirelessly to the sensor patch so that the inspection can be done even when the IBR is rotating. The envisioned system has minimal effect on the rotor performance, instantaneously provides reliable and quantitative data such as crack location and severity level; minimizes and eventually eliminates the need for engine disassembly for purely inspection purpose.

COMBUSTION SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, INC.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Dr. Michael Klassen
AF 08-057      Awarded: 6/2/2008
Title:Chemical Kinetics for Vitiated Flows
Abstract:The flame stability in typical augmenters is largely determined by vitiated air composition and high preheat temperature of the incoming flow. Presence of significant quantities of CO2 and H2O in the vitiated air will affect the oxidation characteristics of jet fuels by increasing the third- body collision efficiencies of initiation and recombination reactions. Traditionally, kinetic models are validated against data acquired for unvitiated air. Thus, it is essential to validate the kinetic models against data obtained at typical augmenter operating conditions. Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc. proposes to acquire new experimental data using vitiated air at low pressures. The data will include ignition delay time data (at CSE), laminar flame speed data (at Georgia Tech) and flow reactor experiments (at Princeton University). CSE will also develop a model reduction tool to generate reduced models from detailed kinetic mechanisms that are validated against the experimental data acquired in this project. These reduced kinetic models can be implemented in CFD for practical augmenter simulations for commercial applications. In Phase I, experiments will be performed to obtain low pressure ignition delay time and laminar flame speed data. CSE will also evaluate various model reduction strategies to reduce detailed kinetic models for augmenter applications.

INNOVATIVE ENERGY SOLUTION
Purdue Technology Center 9800 Connecticut Dr
Crown Point, IN 46307
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(773) 456-0775
Dr. Jacques P.
AF 08-057      Awarded: 5/12/2008
Title:COMPREHENSIVE JP-8 MECHANISM FOR VITIATED FLOWS
Abstract:Despite the importance of jet fighter afterburner designs, there exists very little data on the majority of the individual components of jet fuel, especially JP-8, to enable development of a detailed kinetic mechanism. Although the Multi University Research Initiative program has been initiated for that purpose, it is oriented for the main engine combustor where the process is different from afterburners. A kinetic mechanism for combustion in afterburners raises new level of complexities since the combustion is vitiated: low pressure, minimal oxygen, and high temperature. Innovative Energy Solution is assembling a world class team of experts in chemical kinetics and computational fluid dynamic to develop a robust and sophisticated chemical kinetics module for predicting elementary reactions of vitiated combustion as exist in afterburner environments. This module, for eventual insertion into a computational fluid dynamic package, will go beyond simple chemistry as it will predict relevant micro level chemical reactions during combustion in vitiated flow. Using the unique properties of the single pulse shock tube to generate the needed low pressure rate coefficients, the company is planning an array of experiments for validating and cross-validating the model while taking a lead in defining the fluid dynamic portion of the problem.

SATCON APPLIED TECHNOLOGY, INC.
27 Drydock Avenue
Boston, MA 02210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 897-2448
Mr. Gerald Foshage
AF 08-058      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:High Temperature Permanent Magnet Actuator Motor
Abstract:A transition from a centralized, hydraulically based power source to a multi-source electric power base is eliciting a need for an electrically powered aircraft. This electrical power base will be composed on multiple, independently operated electric units, working together to power the craft. A premeditated obstacle to this innovative approach is achieving a level of power density that will meet weight and volume criteria in aircraft application. High power density electrical machines innately present thermal management issues. These issues stem from condensed power dissipation in a smaller volume and surface area. The temperatures associated with this application demand attention in the motor design and selection of materials that will meet life requirements of an application. SatCon Applied Technology proposes to meet these challenges by developing a motor with high power density, magnet and insulation systems that withstands the aircraft high temperature environment. A feasibility study of permanent magnet formulation, temperature sensitivity, and affecting environmental variables will be conducted. The end result will be a comprehensive understanding of long life insulation systems capable of withstanding high temperatures in a compact motor design. Cooling methods appropriate to manage temperatures in the aircraft will be evaluated and the most appropriate solution implemented.

SPRUNG-BRETT RDI, INC.
4623 Bronx Blvd.
Bronx, NY 10470
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 960-4321
Mr. Michael K.
AF 08-058      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:High Temperature Permanent Magnet Actuator Motor
Abstract:A novel highly integrated electric actuator with an electrically based thermal management system is proposed for further study and feasibility assessment. A permanent magnet system is initially chosen and several candidate designs are presented for exploration under GFI(Air Force) stipulated criteria. Technical reports containing conceptual designs and modeling data results will be delivered along with commercialization/manufacturing strategies. The company has established a technical team of university researchers and industry leaders to facilitate research development and transistion to manufacturing.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Dr. Hooshang
AF 08-059      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Starter/Generator Efficiency Enhancement for High Performance Tactical Aircraft
Abstract:Advanced military weapon system platforms place a premium on subsystem weight, space and reliability, while demanding increased power density for ever increasing electrical loads ranging from avionics to advanced high energy weapons. In each of these systems the efficiency of the starter/generator is crucial and designs that will minimize electrical and/or mechanical losses are needed. The overall objective of this proposed SBIR program is to demonstrate the feasibility of minimizing the system mechanical losses such as windage and friction through novel design and integration approaches. Under Phase I, parametric design studies will be conducted, preliminary tests with existing MiTi high speed motor generators will be conducted and a preliminary design of a Phase II test facility will be completed. MiTi® will also assess the impact of proposed modifications to enhance power density and total system weight. Under Phase II, detailed design modifications to an existing MiTi starter/generator will be completed, the hardware be fabricated and tested under full speed and load to demonstrate the efficiency improvements possible by reducing the windage and friction losses. To ensure applicability of the results to the widest range of DOD systems, scaling tests will be conducted.

XDOT ENGINEERING & ANALYSIS, PLLC
124 Commonwealth Cir
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 296-6094
Dr. Erik E. Swanson
AF 08-059      Awarded: 7/10/2008
Title:Windage Loss Reduction for High Speed Electrical Machinery
Abstract:The efficiency of electric motors and generators operating with high rotor surface speeds is reduced due to viscous shear and aerodynamic effects. These losses are generally referred to as “windage loss.” In some specific, high speed machines of particular interest to the aircraft community, it has been suggested that the losses could be as high as 10% to 15% of rated power. For the case of liquid cooled machinery in modern tactical aircraft, heat input at these levels can result in unacceptable fuel temperature rise, leading to undesirable performance tradeoffs. In this Phase I SBIR project, Xdot Engineering and Analysis proposes to investigate two innovative approaches for directly reducing these windage losses. The first is especially relevant to switched- reluctance machines such as those for aircraft applications. The second is relevant for a wider class of machines. Both can be applied with minimal or no change to the overall electrical/magnetic design of the machine. Applied individually, or in synergistic combinations, the aim is to achieve a reduction in windage power loss of at least a factor of 2, with a goal of an order of magnitude or more.

FLIGHT WORKS, INC.
28265 Flechas
Mission Viejo, CA 92692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 387-9552
Mr. Nadim Eid
AF 08-061      Awarded: 7/8/2008
Title:Pump-fed Micropropulsion System for High Performance Nanosats
Abstract:Miniaturization of propulsion systems for small spacecraft presents unique challenges which, to date, have rendered such small spacecraft unable to have significant orbit change/control and attitude control capabilities. Under a Phase I SBIR, Flight Work Inc. will design a HAN- based pump-fed micropropulsion system and demonstrate the potential of the technology by developing and characterizing a low cost micro- pump for HAN-based propellants. The goal is to develop a system with dry mass less than 1 kg (for 4 kg of propellant), less than 25 W of power, more than 0.1 N thrust, and ISP greater than 240 s. The introduction of the pump in the system allows eliminating relatively heavy valves, regulators and lines while using plastic tanks/bags for propellant storage. This reduction in system complexity and mass will allow nanosats to conduct missions with ∆V’s similar to those of today’s larger spacecraft. The pumps are based on proven recently- developed high performance gear pumps driven by DC motors and developed for small turbojets, UAV’s gasoline engines, methanol fuel cells and other applications. Also, because the power to the pump can be modulated, thrust is easily controlled and adjusted to best match mission needs.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Ms. Stephanie
AF 08-061      Awarded: 6/7/2008
Title:Ceramic Microthruster Clusters for Nano- and Microsatellites
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a high throughput chemical micropropulsion system for nano- and microsatellites will be developed. The microthruster will use an all- ceramic construction to withstand the high temperatures associated with the high Isp, clean burning, high-energy-density, non-toxic liquid monopropellant. The developed high throughput propulsion system will enable micro- and nano-satellites to execute precision orbital transfer and rendezvous missions, allow precision pointing of the spacecraft and its sensors, and make incremental orbital adjustments. In Phase I, modeling and simulation will be carried out to select propellant composition, i.e., oxidizer/fuel ratio, and microthruster geometry to maximize the Isp. Catalysts evaluation for decomposition of the liquid monopropellant, and materials selection for microthruster construction will be completed. Microthruster fabrication techniques will also be identified for construction and testing of a fully functional microthruster in Phase II.

XCOR AEROSPACE, INC.
1314 Flight Line P.O. Box 1163
Mojave, CA 93502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 824-4714
Mr. Dan DeLong
AF 08-061      Awarded: 6/21/2008
Title:High Propellant Throughput Microthrusters for Next-Generation Nanosatellites
Abstract:XCOR proposes to develop a family of small propulsion systems based on small thrusters (1 to 250 N). We will address the issues such as good thrust/weight ratio at small size, low toxicity propellants, and will demonstrate an increase in performance and maneuverability for microthruster technology compared to cold gas or monopropellants. The proposed propulsion system uses self-pressurizing nitrous oxide and ethane with specific impulse approximately 265 seconds for the smaller sizes and 280 seconds for the larger sizes where the injector geometry is more favorable for good mixing. XCOR has developed a 10 N thruster that will be modified with a high expansion vacuum nozzle and partial radiative cooling for this application. The technical objectives of the Phase I program will be to show a complete propulsion system design that masses 5 kg and has a useful propellant mass fraction. A further objective is to look at the trade between thruster types for a larger, more capable, higher thrust system in the 10 kg class and do a preliminary design on the larger system by the end of Phase I.

AEROPHYSICS, INC.
2521 7 Mile Point Rd
Allouez, MI 49805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 370-2376
Mr. Jason D.
AF 08-062      Awarded: 6/10/2008
Title:Bismuth Hall Thruster Plume Impact Study
Abstract:Because of its condensable nature Bi may cause unacceptable spacecraft contamination when used as a Hall thruster propellant. Experiments are proposed to determine the potential for bismuth deposition on spacecraft surfaces. The proposing team’s extensive experience with bismuth technology has uncovered surprising bismuth/surface interaction kinetics that will greatly complicate deposition measurements: based on evidence observed over three years of bismuth thruster operation the proposing team has discovered that the largest source of bismuth contamination during ground-testing is attributable to facility effects. A Phase I research effort is described to assess and minimize the role of facility wall interactions in ground-test measurements of bismuth deposition rates. Plume properties will be measured in a 2-kW Bi thruster via Faraday probe, RPA, and ExB probe. Deposition rates will be quantified through QCMs. Careful control techniques utilizing both an electrically biased QCM as well as a collimated QCM staring into a patented “bismuth trap” will allow identification of facility-induced deposition rates separately from those that would occur in space. A Phase II program is described for building and testing a 20-kW bismuth thruster for contamination studies on a flight-relevant device. The possibility of using a bismuth plume for defensive counter-space is considered.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. James Szabo
AF 08-062      Awarded: 6/3/2008
Title:Bismuth Hall Thruster Spacecraft Interactions Study
Abstract:Busek Co. Inc. and Stanford University propose to develop diagnostics to characterize the plume properties and quantify contamination effects of Hall thrusters operating on condensable propellants. Phase I proof- of-concept analysis and experiments will demonstrate the ability of the proposed diagnostic techniques to accurately measure the plume. In Phase I, Busek will characterize the plume of an existing bismuth Hall thruster using Faraday and Langmuir probes, and determine whether specialized probe development is required. Busek will also design a plume contamination and erosion experiment for Phase II. In a Phase I subcontract, Stanford and Busek will design, build, and test a probe for determining sticking and scattering coefficients of neutral bismuth as a function of incident angle. In Phase II, a similar ion probe will be built and used to determine surface interaction coefficients as a function of energy and angle. Both the neutral and ion probes will be tested with the Busek thruster running Xe and Bi. In Phase II, the Bi plume and its effects on key spacecraft materials will be measured in detail. The data will enable accurate numerical plume/spacecraft interaction models and lead to a flight model thruster with T/P much greater than possible with Xe.

PLASMA CONTROLS, LLC
1180 La Eda Lane
Fort Collins, CO 80526
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 581-2239
Dr. Casey C. Farnell
AF 08-062      Awarded: 6/13/2008
Title:Bismuth Hall Thruster Contamination Characterization and Mitigation
Abstract:Hall thrusters operated with bismuth propellant provide performance and cost advantages over devices operated with xenon propellant. However, bismuth propellant also has the potential to transport onto, and contaminate, spacecraft surfaces. Before the promise of bismuth thrusters can be exploited, the threat of contamination must be (1) quantified by Air Force (AF) modelers and (2) found to be mitigate-able. Before starting, the modelers require data on bismuth neutral and ion properties like condensation probability, sputter yield, charge exchange cross section, etc., as a function of energy, angle of incidence, surface material, etc. Other necessary data include the effects of bismuth film thickness on the optical properties (i.e., solar absorptivity and hemispherical emissivity) of cover glass, radiators, and Kapton blankets for example. Plasma Controls, LLC proposes to meet these AF needs through the development of robust plasma diagnostic tools that can operate in plasmas containing condensable conductive constituents. Our approach is to use an existing bismuth ion source along with existing vacuum chamber test facilities, sputter deposition tools, thin-film characterization instruments, and related support equipment of our collaborator, Colorado State University, to develop and test the proposed Plasma Controls diagnostic equipment and obtain preliminary bismuth data required by the Air Force.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Dr. Edward J. A.
AF 08-063      Awarded: 6/25/2008
Title:Lightweight, Low Cost, Hybrid Matrix Composites (HMCs) for Solid Rocket Motor Cases
Abstract:This proposed Air Force Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Project seeks to demonstrate a new class of composite materials, called Hybrid Matrix Composites (HMCs), designed to operate in the 600 to 1200F temperature range, for Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) cases for future ballistic and space-lift vehicles. This proposed SBIR program is supported by ATK Launch Systems, Raytheon Missile Systems, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. Specifically, the objectives of this proposed SBIR program are to: • Replace Conventional OMC SRM Cases with HMC (Hybrid Matrix Composite) Cases and Eliminate External Insulation. • Decrease SRM Case Weight and Manufacturing Costs. • Increase SRM Propellant Mass Fraction. • Integrate SRM Case with Combustion Liner as a Single Component. • Investigate “Higher Efficiency” Combustion Liner Materials for Internal Insulation.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, INC.
9550 Ridgehaven Ct
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Ms. Christine Benzie
AF 08-063      Awarded: 6/18/2008
Title:Materials Development for High Performance Solid Rocket Motor Cases
Abstract:Achieving increase performance with current rocket motor technology (i.e., graphite reinforced epoxy case materials) will rely on reducing the inert mass of the rocket motor case. Meeting the booster performance goals with innovative materials technologies is a much lower system level cost approach than by increasing the booster diameter or length. Higher temperature rocket motor cases resins have been identified as a technology that is capable of delivering the improved performance that next generation boosters demand. Optimizing the thermal performance of the case with resins with higher temperature capability than epoxy materials affords the designer the ability to reduce the TPS volume. The volume and mass saved by the higher operating temperature case will provide increased burn out velocity as a minimum. Additionally, replacing the inert volume with propellant will achieve even higher performance. This SBIR project will demonstrate the performance improvement of a rocket motor case using domestic graphite fibers and higher temperature resins that are currently available in the industry. Subscale rocket motor cases will be filament wound and subjected to high temperature testing to validate the translation of fiber strength in the wound construction.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Rock Rushing
AF 08-063      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:Materials Development for High Performance Solid Rocket Motor Cases
Abstract:Extreme elevated temperatures are reached in solid rocket motors (SRM) applications which have traditionally required the use of both interior and exterior thermal insulation materials. The development of more thermally stable composites would mitigate the need for these insulation layers. TRI/Austin is teaming with a major producer of SRM's to develop a multifunctional material approach to address this problem. Three technical objectives will be pursued simultaneously to address thermal stability issues of the entire composite system, not simply the matrix resin. By addressing the properties of both the matrix resin and the reinforcement interface, significant improvements in overall composite performance at elevated temperatures are anticipated. The next generation rocket systems will rely on technology options that provide inert component size and weight reductions. This motor design approach will enable motors to carry more propellant thereby doubling any potential benefits (less weight/more energy storage) for Future Strategic Strike ICBM designs. The proposed multifunctional material approach can improve the matrix glass transition temperature of the composite case system, while eliminating the need for traditional elastomeric insulation material system.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6331
Dr. Susan
AF 08-064      Awarded: 6/27/2008
Title:High Frequency, High Resolution Infrared Health Management System for Rocket Engine Turbomachinery
Abstract:The success of a rocket launch depends upon the reliability of the launch vehicle, with the riskiest part being the engine’s turbomachinery. The top two life issues for turbopumps are the turbine blades and the bearings. Currently in turbopumps, there is no direct measurement of turbine blade health, and the existing methods for rolling element bearing health monitoring rely on indirect measurements, such as accelerometers and acoustic emission probes for vibratory data, and thermocouples on the bearing outer ring. As soon as a microcrack forms on a turbine blade or bearing raceway, there is an increase in heat generation due to the frictional rubbing of the crack surface. This increased heat generation is the first detectable sign of a fault. The health management system FTT is proposing would be able to detect this first indicator of damage. FTT is proposing to develop a high speed, high resolution infrared (IR) sensor for rocket engine turbomachinery health management. The improvement in health management directly supports operationally responsive space goals for turnaround time and life as well as IHPRT objectives.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 277-8396
Mr. Gary Key
AF 08-064      Awarded: 6/20/2008
Title:Health Management Tools for Rocket Engine Turbomachinery
Abstract:Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) will develop innovative modeling tools, sensors, and signal processing for the prediction of the health of rocket engine turbomachinery. The ultimate goal is real-time health management technology capable of monitoring turbomachinery performance. The benefit is reduced turnaround time and increased safety and availability for reusable rocket engines. Health management technology can quickly identify faults or abnormal conditions in an engine following use and can ensure that it has been restored to a normal health state prior to return to service. The same technology technology improves safety through its ability to detect anomalies in flight and to initiate appropriate corrective action, minimizing mission impact and reducing catastrophic failures. The research provides the ability to: --Identify and assess feasibility of tools that allow health monitoring of a rocket engine turbopump. --Develop innovative system architecture integrating modeling, novel sensors, and signal processing to predict rocket engine health. --Identify data sets that can validate the tool. FTI’s approach combines expertise in the development and application of data-derived prognostic health management technology with in-depth knowledge of rocket engine turbomachinery to provide a single rocket engine health management capability for use either in flight or on the ground.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Gregory J.
AF 08-064      Awarded: 6/21/2008
Title:Health Management Tools for Rocket Engine Turbomachinery
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, propose to develop and demonstrate foundational elements of an advanced Health Management system for Rocket engine turbopumps. The project team intends to build off of a best-in-class technology review and architecture/implementation trade studies to initially develop prototype diagnostic and prognostic modules for turbopump bearings that can expand to other subcomponents that pose reliability or life cycle cost concerns. The technical approach will leverage existing COTS sensor validation and advanced signal processing tools and couple them with bearing physics-of-failure models so that accurate remaining useful life estimates can be generated. While the Phase I effort will focus on ground-based Health Management tools that can be used to increase operational availability and reduce life cycle support cost for next generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV), spiral development to on-board real-time capability is targeted in follow-on phases where justified. Demonstration of the developed technology will be performed in the Matlab/Simulink environment with real algorithms operating on real data sets. Furthermore, the output of the diagnostic/prognostic modules will be integrated into a maintenance reasoning concept enabling readiness certification for the next mission and providing recommendations for accelerated or delayed inspection/repair intervals to help optimize maintenance turnaround times for these critical propulsion system components.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Kurt Hohman
AF 08-065      Awarded: 6/25/2008
Title:Catalyst-Free, Highly-Throttleable, Electric Propulsion Thruster
Abstract:The future of monopropellant thrusters is moving towards high performance green propellants based on hydroxyammonium nitrate (HAN) and ammonium dinitramide (ADN). Ideally, a multi mode propulsion system will include a higher specific impulse thruster for maneuvers that require propellant conservation to complement a higher thrust chemical thruster, with both thrusters utilizing the same propellant. We propose to develop an electric thruster that operates on almost any monopropellant, including hydrazine for near term missions, while maintaining high performance over a wide range of operation. The key to success is the elimination of the catalyst bed, shown to be a hindrance for both high performance (HAN, ADN) chemical thrusters and electric propulsion. Elimination of the cat bed should also increase the throttling capabilities of the electric propulsion engine. This catalyst- free thruster will also overcome thermal and life issues of the catalyst bed and allow for utilization of almost any propellant imagined. In Phase I we will demonstrate the operation of our electrically catalyzed thruster operating on a selected monopropellant. Key technologies include the liquid propellant injector and thruster starting. Pressure and temperature measurements will prove the success of our design.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Prakash B. Joshi
AF 08-065      Awarded: 6/27/2008
Title:Microwave Electro-Thermal Thruster for Multi-Mode Propulsion System
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc., in collaboration with our subsidiary Research Support Instruments, proposes to develop a Microwave Electro-Thermal (MET) propulsion system that can be operated using a variety of working fluids, in particular, fluids that are compatible with a chemical propulsion system and an attitude control system (ACS). Our approach is to develop a high specific-impulse microwave system, a high-thrust chemical system, and a high impulse monopropellant ACS such that when integrated together they form a high performance multi-mode propulsion (MMP) system from which individual propulsion modes can be selected on orbit depending upon mission needs. Thus, our three- mode propulsion system will uniquely provide the flexibility needed to Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions envisioned by the Air Force. The candidate working fluids for the MET will be energetic propellants that are also long-term storable and easy to handle. In Phase I we will demonstrate feasibility of the MET with a baseline working fluid as well as two other propellants. In Phase II, we will develop a prototype system that will be tested for propulsive performance and space environmental compatibility.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Matthew J.
AF 08-065      Awarded: 6/20/2008
Title:Low-Cost, High-Efficiency HAN/HEHN-Based Multi-Mode Propulsion System
Abstract:Launch-on-demand satellites require both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp). In this project, Ultramet will develop a multi-mode propulsion system that is capable of delivering an Isp of 291 seconds (density Isp of 453 s) in high-thrust mode using HAN/HEHN monopropellant. The propellant will be burned in Ultramet’s radiation- cooled oxide-iridium/rhenium (Ox-Ir/Re) combustion chambers capable of handling the ultrahigh temperature. In high-Isp mode, Busek radio frequency electrothermal thrusters will be employed after propellant decomposition in an American Pacific Corporation (AMPAC) gas generator with an Ultramet Ox-Ir/Re liner. Attitude control will be accomplished by directing generator gases to a small Busek thruster or by using small Ox-Ir/Re thrusters. Such a propulsion system will be able to accommodate many different types of orbital maneuvers, including Hohmann transfers, phase changes, and plane changes. Much of the required hardware has already been developed. Busek thrusters have been tested extensively, and Ultramet’s radiation-cooled combustion chambers have been hot-fired with O2/H2 and HAN/HEHN. The focus of the proposed project will be to further develop a HAN/HEHN catalyst and combine it into an integrated system with AMPAC’s gas generator and Ultramet’s Ox-Ir/Re combustion chamber under AMPAC’s current work.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2770
Mr. Scott Munson
AF 08-066      Awarded: 6/12/2008
Title:SYREN - Acoustic Resonance Igniter
Abstract:To meet the performance goals of the next generation of liquid hydrocarbon boost and upper stage rocket engines, the Air Force will require a new family of reliable and reusable igniters. ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate a highly-reliable, non-toxic ignition system designed for use with LOX-hydrocarbon rocket engines, as well as other rocket engine cycle components such as pre-burners or gas generators. This ignition system will be based on a well- documented physical phenomenon known as acoustic resonance. A resonance igniter offers the promise of a reliable ignition system with no power required other than for operating the igniter propellant valves. Except for these valves, the system will have no moving parts or other external components that may be subject to failure. While some previous research activities have demonstrated the viability of a resonance igniter, no one has developed a truly functional system capable of meeting the future needs of the Air Force launch vehicles. ORBITEC proposes to take that critical next step and develop the SYREN acoustic resonance igniter to the point where it is a mature technology for boosters, upper stage engines, and other rocket engine combustion components. This proposal responds to topic AF 08-066, which requests innovations in reliable, reusable, and non-toxic ignition systems for booster and upper stage liquid rocket engines.

SIERRA ENGINEERING, INC.
603 East Robinson Street Suite 7
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 363-6161
Dr. Jeffrey A. Muss
AF 08-066      Awarded: 6/17/2008
Title:Resonance Igniter for Rocket Engine Ignition
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR is the design and demonstration of an opposed flow acoustic resonance igniter concept that can be applied to a range of rocket propellant combinations. Along with the hardware demonstration, we plan to exercise the analytical tools necessary to model the transient ignition phenomena in both the igniter and the main chamber. The Phase I effort will address several of the key capabilities necessary to complete this demonstration – ignition characteristics of an opposed flow acoustic igniter, transient CFD modeling of heating and ignition in the resonance tube, and CFD modeling of the transient ignition of the main combustor by the igniter exhaust.

WILLIAM P.PESCHEL, ENGINEERING CONSULTANT
2421 Glyndon Ave
Venice, CA 90291
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 306-2287
Mr. William P.
AF 08-066      Awarded: 8/5/2008
Title:Highly Reliable, Reusable, Non-Toxic Rocket Engine Ignition Systems
Abstract:Development of an existing microwave generated plasma igniter including a detailed computational modeling effort is proposed. This igniter generates a continuous high temperature oxygen plasma and offers a non-toxic approach to rocket ignition using LOX oxidixer with either kerosene, methane and hydrogen fuels. The proposed development effort will focus on experimentally demonstrating the highly operable, highly reusable, and highly reliable features already inherent in the fundamental igniter design. Modeling and simulation efforts relating to this igniter will be directed toward predicting ignition and flame spreading characteristics applicable to future Air Force booster and upper stage engines.

EN URGA, INC.
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 497-3269
Dr. Yudaya Sivat
AF 08-067      Awarded: 7/14/2008
Title:Experimental Characterization of Particle Dynamics Within Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:This Phase I project will evaluate the feasibility of high-speed microscopic imaging and statistical correlation velocimetry to determine the particle size and velocity in solid rocket motors. Statistical correlation velocimetry relies on obtaining an ensemble of high-speed videos of turbulent flows (both reacting and non-reacting). These videos are analyzed using a statistical correlation technique to provide full flow field velocity information. High-speed microscopic imaging is used to obtain a series of direct images of the particles. These direct images are analyzed to provide important information regarding the morphology of the particles. During the Phase I work, the feasibility of the system to will be evaluated using a segmented solid rocket motor. The diagnostic development will be completed at En’Urga Inc., The experiments will be conducted at Purdue University. Different mixes of propellants will be used so as to vary the particulate size and velocity and provide for a complete evaluation of the feasibility of the system. During the Phase II work, additional diagnostics to estimate the temperature, particulate concentrations, and gas concentrations will be added to form a novel tool for studying metalized propellants in solid rocket motors. After evaluation at Purdue University, the system will be ported to Edwards Air Force Base.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2706
Dr. Jordi
AF 08-067      Awarded: 7/18/2008
Title:Experimental Characterization of Particle Dynamics Within Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:The development of experimental diagnostic techniques is needed for characterizing particle dynamics within solid rocket motors (SRMs) for implementation in SRM modeling codes. Development of robust, accurate computational tools for predicting flow, heat transfer, and material response within SRMs can enable significant improvements in launch vehicle performance, development, life-cycle cost, and reliability. The Department of Defense (DoD) has identified the need for experimental characterization of particle size and dynamics throughout the motor from particle creation at the propellant burn surface to nozzle exit for accurate modeling of the internal environment of next-generation SRMs. Limited data are available to describe the particle size distribution, shape, and gas/particle velocity. The approach to the problem involves 1) reviewing available data and understanding its scope and accuracy, 2) defining priorities of the experiment regarding SRM locations and design parameters and data to be collected (e.g., particle size, shape, and velocity) for these locations and design parameters, and 3) demonstrating applicability, limitations, and improvements in state-of-the-art diagnostic tools for these experiments. The diagnostic techniques must provide data that are useful for optimization of modeling and simulation tools for motor designs. This will support current and future DoD ballistic missile and space launch applications.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Allan Dokhan
AF 08-067      Awarded: 7/8/2008
Title:An Innovative Experimental Characterization of Particle Dynamics within Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate an innovative experimental apparatus that will characterize the particle dynamic behavior under pressure, temperature, and flow conditions of large solid rocket motors (SRM). In phase I, we propose to use a variety of time resolved optical measurements and visual scattering imaging to capture droplet behavior and distribution under SRM conditions.

MESOSCRIBE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
25 Health Sciences Drive Suite 125
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6455
Dr. Huey-Daw Wu
AF 08-068      Awarded: 5/16/2008
Title:Novel Design and Fabrication of Conformal GPS & Communications Antenna for UAV
Abstract:This Phase I project will develop and demonstrate the feasibility of innovative broadband conformal antenna concepts for UAVs. There is significant interest to integrate VHF (30-300 MHz), UHF (300 MHz – 1 GHz), L-band (1-2 GHz), S-band (2-4 GHz) and X-band (8-12 GHz) antennas into the aircraft structure to provide multiband, 360-degree coverage without the weight penalty of conventionally mounted radars, rotadomes, canoes and radomes. MesoScribe Technologies Inc. in partnership Ohio State University and EDO Corp. propose an integrated strategy combining design, simulation and Direct Write antenna fabrication to implement the combined GPS & Communications antenna technology onto the tail/fuselage of a surrogate UAV. The AF 08-068 program will serve as a platform to meet the project objectives as well as validate a new approach to integrate conformal antennas within military systems.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Bradley Davis
AF 08-068      Awarded: 5/16/2008
Title:A Low-Cost, Lightweight MTM Enhanced Conformal Antenna for GPS/Communication Systems
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will result in the design, simulation and construction of a prototype of a multi-band GPS/Communication system antenna. To accomplish this task, NanoSonic is staffed or has teamed with a unique combination of engineers, chemists and materials scientists capable of designing, simulating and fabricating this array. NanoSonic will consult with the USAF and a defense prime integrator for guidance and application metrics. The NanoSonic PI is antenna engineer with many years experience in both hardware implementation and simulation software construction. In Phase I NanoSonic would design a suitable antenna meeting the constraints for gain, polarization, bandwidth, scanning and physical characteristics. In the design of the antenna, NanoSonic would employ a state-of-the-art computational electromagnetics code to achieve rapid design iterations. NanoSonic would then construct structured antennas using the unique inkjet and self-assembly processes that are used to create Metal Rubber™ in combination with unique dielectric and metamaterial substrates to create a conformal antenna. These self assembled materials can be applied to severe, doubly curved surfaces without de-bonding or cracking; the inkjet process has been employed to fabricate array antennas and microstrip feeds. NanoSonic foresees integrating these processes to create highly integrated antennas and antennas in structural composites.

ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS, INC.
305 E. Haley Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-3331
Mr. Bradley Short
AF 08-069      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:Improvements to Sense and Avoid (SAA) Systems for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
Abstract:In this SBIR proposal ASC is offering to develop a UAV Sense and Avoid system that will combine ASC’s existing Flash 3D video sensor with Carnegie Mellons 2D optical sensor and avoidance software. In Phase I, ASC, working with Carnegie Mellon, will collect UAV-relevant data with its existing Flash Ladar Video Camera (FLVC) and with CMU’s EO sensor. ASC will utilize this data and simulation along with and its existing FLVC designs to develop an initial system concept design of its Optical Radar Sense and Avoid Sensor for a small UAV. Incorporating our existing 3-D focal planes, ASC will fabricate, test and deliver a breadboard Ladar camera in Phase II. This system will be suitable for demonstration of collision avoidance in a heavy traffic environment. ASC designs its own focal plane readout integrated circuits (ROICs), optics, lasers and mechanical systems, and has an excellent record of system integration and commercialization. CMU has a long history of success in unmanned vehicles including its recent win at the DARPA Urban Challenge. Flash Ladar provides an innovative approach that can provide compact solutions unmatched by traditional Radar. By combining this capability with Carnegie Mellon’s collision avoidance system, we will provide a complete system solution for UAV collision avoidance.

OCEANIT LABORATORIES, INC.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Dr. Chris Sullivan
AF 08-069      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Improvements to Sense and Avoid (SAA) Systems for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
Abstract:Current sense and avoid systems (S&A) using visible/infrared/RF sensor technology require SWAP (space, weight, and power) that far exceeds that available in mini-UAS. An aircraft of this size still represents a significant mid-air collision hazard to other aircraft operating in the same airspace. These types of UAS are frequently operated in close proximity to the ground and cultural features (buildings, towers, etc.). While the performance levels needed for these lower, slower UAS are relaxed relative to that needed for a large UAS such as a Global Hawk, the severe SWAP limitation presents a technical challenge to creating an S&A capability for this class of aircraft. Oceanit has developed a unique approach based on technology developed for the Department of Defense that will enable a reliable, low SWAP system, for S&A on mini-UAS. This effort will show the feasibility of multi-sensor discrimination hardware and techniques toward meeting the S&A requirements of a mini-UAS under 45 lbs

CARR ASTRONAUTICS CORP.
1725 I St. NW STE 300
Washington, DC 20006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 466-4712
Dr. James L. Carr
AF 08-070      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:Automated Pixel Geo-Registration for Precise Imaging
Abstract:We study the problem of sensor calibration as it might be applied to a tactical UAV system where operability and robustness are paramount. A large number of airframes and diversity of sensor types argues for an approach that is low cost (exploiting calibration targets in the field) and applicable for various sensors. The study considers various approaches to sensor calibration and measurements enabling such calibrations with the objective of not sacrificing accuracy even when only limited prior knowledge about the sensor is provided to the calibration algorithm. Calibration approaches are verified by computer simulation and the limits on accuracy for individual measurements are established using flight data from SPIRITT (or NRL or simulated scenes). A baseline calibration approach is recommended and an implementation is developed that can be carried forward into Phase II.

SIMWRIGHT, INC.
2053 Fountain Professional Court Suite A
Navarre, FL 32566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 939-8707
Mr. Dan Matthews
AF 08-070      Awarded: 5/19/2008
Title:Automated Pixel Geo-Registration for Precise Imaging
Abstract:SimWright Inc. proposes a capability to georegister objects for gimbaled hyperspectral systems in: surveillance, reconnaissance, and tracking modes while enabling targeting. The concept proposes significant georegistration error reduction between features commonly identified in multiple sensor sweeps than traditional systems by combining existing tiepoint correlation algorithms integrated with a Kalman Filter and correlated with periodic DPPDB/ NTM updates. Three trade studies will be performed 1) evaluating feasibility of adapting tie-point algorithms, and KF to perform frame to frame correlation in real-time, 2) evaluating extending the capability for georegistration across full sensor sweeps and 3) accuracy, cost and feasibility tradeoffs in system and subsystem design. The complex nature of subsystem errors in real-time gimbaled sensors requires an accurate knowledge of subsystem error components. Combining tiepoint algorithms, a particular Kalman filter, and a DPPDB/ NTM (when fielded) update capability permits engineers to diagnose system errors to create error models (e.g. platform attitude (yaw), gimbal errors). We propose a cost effective flight test for final validation of the Phase I algorithmic architecture. SimWright has a ten year heritage integrating inertial navigation systems, and developing software solutions for photogrammetry, image processing, analysis, 3D visualization and metadata creation.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 477-1019
Dr. David Slater
AF 08-071      Awarded: 3/31/2008
Title:Hyperspectral Persistent Surveillance Exploitation Algorithms
Abstract:We will develop the INV-PS system for combining motion constraints, spectral properties, and spatial properties for target detection and tracking in persistent surveillance data. INV-PS will learn adaptive spectral and spatial models that can be applied to targets with a wide range of characteristics. The models will support detection and tracking in complex environments over time intervals that vary from less than a second to several days. The approach is derived to allow tracking in the presence of illumination changes, spectral mixing, occlusion, and variable target motion. In addition, INV-PS is designed to allow different sources of information to be incorporated in a principled manner. INV- PS uses efficient algorithms that support real-time processing on the sensor platform. The new models and algorithms will be assessed over a range of data. A detailed commercialization plan is given for the new software.

NUMERICA CORP.
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-9725
Dr. Juan Vasquez
AF 08-071      Awarded: 3/31/2008
Title:Multi-Target Track and ID with Persistent Hyperspectral Data
Abstract:Military operations in urban warfare provide an added emphasis to effectively detect, track, and ID ground targets in challenging environments. Given the high dynamic nature of ground targets and the ambiguity that may result from closely spaced targets, incorporation of feature data from sensors such as hyperpsectral imagery (HSI) cameras provides a means to disambiguate the tracking of these targets. The benefit of using these sensors in multi-target tracking is the ability to build feature models for target tracks based on the spectral information over multiple wavelengths. The video-based tracking community has demonstrated the ability to resolve closely spaced targets by incorporating color features versus intensity data alone. The addition of 20 to 200 additional wavelengths has the potential to significantly improve a target tracker’s ability to distinguish among targets. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the ability of our algorithms to (i) simulate an urban scene and embedded targets along with models to generate sensor measurement data (ii) generate detections from HSI imagery based on a combination of motion and feature segmentation (iii) mitigate the effects of spectral smearing (iv) perform HSI feature-aided tracking of multiple targets in an urban setting using both real and simulated data.

BCO, INC.
799 Middlesex Turnpike
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-2525
Mr. Martin Schrage
AF 08-074      Awarded: 5/20/2008
Title:Electronic Bumper for Rotorcraft Brownout Approach and Landing
Abstract:BCO’s Phase I goal is to design an electronic bumper for rotorcraft using a rugged COTS radar module that is in production in lots of 10,000 for use on automobiles. This automotive radar is a K-Band unit with a phased-array antenna that can be stepped through 140º in azimuth and which provides 20-inch range resolution. A chain of nine of the radar modules is capable of providing the hemispheric coverage sought for the electronic bumper. The projected selling price for BCO’s electronic bumper design is well within the $10,000 target. There is a tradeoff between range and update rate. When scanning out to 80 feet the hemisphere can be scanned at up to 125 times per second. With update rates of up to 3 times per second, scanning out to 490 feet is achievable. The Principle Investigator has been designing a system for automotive-vehicle detection and testing the design with production units of the radar since March of 2007. The target detection, scene analysis and hazard identification algorithms required for the electronic bumper will build on that work. The electronic bumper design will rely heavily on retrospective detection and track initiation techniques operating on stored scene time histories.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 269-3613
Mr. Paul Techau
AF 08-074      Awarded: 5/27/2008
Title:Electronic Bumper for Rotorcraft Brownout Approach and Landing
Abstract:In a number of arid regions of the world, recirculation of dust by the rotorwash of helicopters results in the loss of visual cues during helicopter approach and landing. This condition is typically referred to as brownout. This is a serious problem for all services and leads to numerous aircraft and personnel losses in Afghanistan and Iraq. The effectiveness of the conventional approach of using spotters positioned in aircraft doorways to call out and maintain clearance from obstacles has obvious limitations, especially in the most degraded visual environments. An “Electronic Bumper” system would detect and track major obstacles including other aircraft in flight during brownout and virtually all low/no visibility approach and landing. An active RF system is preferred, one operating at high-enough frequency and bandwidth to provide the needed system resolution. SNC’s electronically reconfigurable aperture (ERA) technology is ideally suited to this task. ERA is a patented electronically steerable array technology that has been demonstrated at across the range of frequencies of interest. This proposal describes a Multiple Scanning Array Radar (MSAR) that will achieve the required functionality. The hardware and processing architecture is described, along with the approach to demonstrating that the system will meet all requirements.

NGIMAT CO.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-3944
Dr. Zhiyong Zhao
AF 08-074      Awarded: 5/20/2008
Title:Electronic Bumper for Rotorcraft Brownout Approach and Landing
Abstract:nGimat proposes to develop a lightweight, low-cost electronic bumper system for maintaining safe clearance from obstacles during brownout approach and landing. To address the system requirements, nGimat will use a phased array system. In Phase I, we will develop a system level concept, design and analyze the antenna system, and build and test critical component to assure a successful transition and completion of a possible Phase II. Trade studies will be carried out through extensive modeling and simulation. In Phase II we will build a prototype antenna array, along with the appropriate hardware/software, perform field test, and conduct further risk analysis to meet the cost/weigh/performance goals.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Bruce Johnson
AF 08-077      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Innovative Micro Air Vehicles & Control Techniques for Urban Environments
Abstract:The objective of this proposed effort is to develop improved algorithms for Micro Air Vehicles to allow operation in urban canyons and loitering in areas of interest. This work will build on existing algorithms for developed for vehicle control and sensing the complex urban environment developed by NAVSYS and researchers at MIT. The proposed approach will provide adaptive non-linear flight control algorithms that can provide hover capability for fixed wing aircraft. This approach allows the advantages of fixed wing aircraft speed and flight distance to be combined with the surveillance advantages of hovering craft. Under Phase I we will: extending the robustness of existing flight control algorithms for the extreme flight dynamics that can be anticipated in the urban environment by incorporating adaptive model reference control; extending the development of dynamic trajectory planning used successfully in MIT’s Grand Challenge vehicle to MAV applications; using new, computationally efficient, feature extraction algorithms that will allow robust navigation through the complex urban environment for collision avoidance even when GPS signals are unavailable or degraded. Under Phase I we will develop the algorithm design and provide simulation results to demonstrate the expected performance of a system to be flight test under Phase II.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-8963
Dr. Andrew Thies
AF 08-077      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Innovative Micro Air Vehicles & Control Techniques for Urban Environments
Abstract:Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) will provide an important capability for both military and civilian uses, including reconnaissance, target identification, search and rescue, and bomb damage indication. The development of effective MAVs for these missions will require the production of a real-time autonomous flight navigation and obstacle avoidance system for operation in complex urban environments which is suitable for implementation on these small vehicles. The flight platforms will have limited payloads which will require trade-offs in computational power and sensor type, including sensor resolution and frame rate. To conduct the obstacle detection and collision avoidance Radiance proposes a MAV flight control system that utilizes appropriate sensors in real time to autonomously construct a 3-D obstacle map, which effectively encapsulates physical objects within the MAV's potential flight path, and guide the MAV along a safe trajectory that positions the MAV for successful completion of its mission objectives. The geometry building algorithms are envisioned to provide the added benefit of geometric feature extraction and detecting real-time change within the geometry to identify non-cooperative moving objects.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. Glen R.
AF 08-078      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Innovative Lightweight Onboard Aerodynamic Palliatives for Helicopter Brownout Dust Abatement
Abstract:Rotorcraft brownout, which is caused by the entrainment of dust and ground debris by the rotorwash during take-off and landing, is a critical operational problem, and has caused a significant number of military helicopter accidents in Iraq and Afghanistan. Brownout affects safe operations due to the reduction of visibility, in addition to damaging engine components and rotor blades. Recent experience gained from operations in brownout with a variety of rotorcraft configurations, as well as ongoing work with validated analyses, indicates that aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft may offer a true solution to the brownout problem, at least in terms of pilot visibility. Therefore, the effort proposed herein seeks to develop innovative lightweight onboard aerodynamic solutions to brownout that can be retrofitted to current rotorcraft and incorporated into future designs without degrading performance or requiring additional onboard equipment or consumables. This effort will leverage work for the US Army developing physics- based analysis tools for the engineering simulation of rotorcraft brownout conditions and expertise in rotorcraft aerodynamic design, testing and performance analysis, to demonstrate that lightweight active aerodynamic solutions to brownout are not only viable, but also practical and cost effective without posing a risk to performance, operations or personnel.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
AF 08-078      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:Ionizing Brownout Mitigation System
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for airborne dust abatement to restore visual loss, called brownout, during helicopter approach and landing in dry arid regions, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Ionizing Brownout Mitigation (IBOM) System. It is based on energy-efficient, safe, directional electromagnetic pulsation repelling dust particles from a helicopter. The IBOM omnidirectional transmitter array with its unique RF beam installed on the exterior of the helicopter bottom scatters away dust in suspension mode. The innovation in the IBOM dust outward acceleration will enable IBOM to not only provide enough energy to disperse dust particles against the recirculation force caused by rotorwash, but also to be safe and power-efficient through solid-state RF sources and beam shaping. In Phase I, POC will build a IBOM system and demonstrate the feasibility of IBOM as a proof of concept, with a full-scale Phase II system prototype. In Phase II POC plans to design/fabricate to fully functional IBOM hardware and control software optimized for minimal complexity, and to demonstrate that a TRL-4 prototype is capable of recovering visibility lost by dust recirculation in a real or simulated dust environment.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Mr. Ray Trimmer
AF 08-079      Awarded: 5/23/2008
Title:Algorithm to Emulate RF Signal of Multiple Targets for Countermeasures Technique Assessment
Abstract:Long-range semi-active Surface to Air Missiles (SAM), Air-to-Air Missiles (AAM), and Air-to-Air Anti-Radiation Missiles (AA-ARM) represent a threat to US aircraft. These missile guidance systems employ monopulse antennas and receivers which are less vulnerable to conventional Electronic Attack (EA) techniques. Conventional EA techniques coupled with sophisticated angle countermeasures can increase the success of U.S. Forces counter air operations (offensive and defensive), theater missile defense, and suppression of enemy air defenses. The development and testing of EA countermeasures is very expensive. Man/hardware-in-the-loop laboratory simulation is the most cost-effective methodology for evolving/maturing advanced EA countermeasure technologies because the battlefield can be brought to the laboratory through multi-spectral synthetic battlespace simulation. Current laboratory RF threat environment simulators do not provide the required fidelity to accurately simulate the parameters needed to develop these advanced EA countermeasure techniques. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by developing an innovative solution to control (steer) the RF signals within the Triad antenna array network (AAN) to support the advanced countermeasure development. During Phase I, DRA will develop a top level design and conduct a proof of concept demonstration of key technology element. During Phase II, DRA will develop a prototype capability and demonstrate key performance characteristics.

MATRIX RESEARCH LLC
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Dr. Robert W. Hawley
AF 08-079      Awarded: 6/5/2008
Title:Algorithm to Emulate RF Signal of Multiple Targets for Countermeasures Technique Assessment
Abstract:Matrix Research and Engineering will develop an optimal algorithm for producing the best possible emulation of multiple target signals using triad antenna array network. Phase I of the effort will develop and refine an initial algorithm and demonstrate it on a simple 6 element triad array. To minimize the expense of the hardware we will constrain ourselves to using only one triad per target emulated. The approach will use a least squares approach to compute the optimal setting of attenuators and phase shifters that result in the closest possible wavefront impinging on the aperture under test to the desired one based on the emulated target geometry. Various optimization schemes will be considered to minimize issues when a target transition between triad arrays. Scalability will also be addressed during Phase I. The algorithm will easily support the use of more than 3 antennas per target as well as scale to a greater number of targets emulated by a large array of networked triads. During Phase II the concept will be validated on larger triad arrays. Special attention will be taken to ensure ease of setup and use of the software during this phase of the program.

NUWAVES LTD.
Research and Technology Center 122 Edison Drive
Middletown, OH 45044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 360-0800
Mr. Tim Wurth
AF 08-082      Awarded: 5/2/2008
Title:Fiber-Optic RF Distribution (FORD) & Digital Control Signals Network Across a PCB in GPS User Eqpt
Abstract:High performance RF circuits found in highly robust GPS user equipment are especially sensitive to inter-board electromagnetic interference, which results in spurious signals and poor circuit–to-circuit isolation. NuWaves’ innovative solutions will be applied to designing and developing state-of-the–art miniature Fiber Optic RF Distribution (FORD) transmit and receive modules. NuWaves will investigate the use of fiber optics as a means for distributing Radio Frequency (RF) and high-speed digital control signals across a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The use of fiber optics will be studied as a way of significantly reducing inter-board Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). During the phase I effort, NuWaves will perform cost/benefit trade-off study of fiber optic technologies taking into account size, weight, power, and cost factors. Detailed circuit modeling, simulation, hardware prototyping, and performance characterization will be accomplished to validate the FORD concepts.

ULTRA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 652-0008
Dr. Joseph Ahadian
AF 08-082      Awarded: 5/13/2008
Title:Ruggedized RF Photonic Networks Using Flip-Chip VCSEL Transceivers
Abstract:We will integrate RF circuitry within VCSEL-based transceivers designed to couple light into multi-mode fiber and/or printed circuit board waveguides. VCSELs offer SWAP and cost advantages over traditional modulator/edge-emitter devices by reducing power consumption, allowing for dense integration into chip-scale packages, lower cost devices and relaxed packaging tolerances. We will leverage the existing flip-chip packaging technology developed for a mil-grade 10 Gbps transceiver by replacing the digital circuitry with RF circuitry. The packaging technology includes lenses that couples all VCSEL to minimize modal noise effects, low parasitic flip-chip electrical bonds to reduce EMI, current-source VCSEL drivers for better RF linearity and potential for integrating up to 12 channels into a single package. The Phase I program will have key tasks: 1) definition of system requirements, 2) definition/prioritization of interconnect architecture in a trade-off study, 3) RF characterization of existing components, and 4) preliminary design of key circuit blocks.

ALPHA OMEGA ELECTROMAGNETICS, LLC
24 Cascade Road
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 626-7682
Mr. Robert G Schmier
AF 08-085      Awarded: 6/2/2008
Title:Two-Beam Transmit Satellite Antenna for Limited Field-of-View (FOV)
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR effort is to develop and demonstrate a low cost, low weight, two independent simultaneous transmit beam antenna for use in SATCOM systems like the Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) downlink. The current MILSATCOM system supports one downlink antenna beam in the frequency band 20.2-21.2 GHz. The goal of TSAT is to transform communications so that every warfighter in the field has rapid access to information for decision-making purposes. In addition, TSAT will be required to move much more data like that associated with visible images and radar images as well as facilitate communications on the move, a feature none of the previous satellite constellations offered. In order to achieve this increased capability in the near future, the MILSATCOM capacity must be increased through the use of multi-band, multi-beam satellite antennas. The primary objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate a simultaneous and completely independent two-beam transmit antenna that has the capability to support MILSATCOM down link.

PLANET EARTH COMMUNICATIONS LLC
1983 San Luis Ave. #31
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7456
Mr. Michael J.
AF 08-085      Awarded: 6/4/2008
Title:Two-Beam Transmit Satellite Antenna for Limited Field-of-View (FOV)
Abstract:Trade studies to provide two independent simultaneous transmit down- link beams for geostationary orbit MILSATCOM applications will be completed. Two direct radiating active array solutions will be analyzed. Both use a 32” x 32” array aperture as required for 1 degree half power beamwidth with approximately 450 elements arranged in a triangular array element lattice to minimize the number of components needed. Both utilize a novel method for obtaining maximum EIRP, acceptable SSPA noise power ratio and power added efficiency. One solution utilizes a beamformer comprised of 2D Rotman lens stack for frequency independent simultaneous beam formation. The approximately 300 lens beam ports are selected by a 2 x 300 beam RF switch. A second solution utilizes a beamformer comprised of a 2 x 450 corporate fed active phased array. Each active element will have two independent phase shifters to enable the simultaneous independent beam formation. Two array fed reflector configurations will be also analyzed. Corporate feed array with two phase shifters/variable attenuators per element and confocal lens stack fed configurations will be considered. Two non- array fed reflector configurations will be analyzed. Analysis trades for performance, cost, weight, power, isolation, and coupling will be performed. Spatial intermodulation effects will be calculated.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Mr. Jason O.
AF 08-086      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Advanced Modeling and Control for Aeroservoelastic Design
Abstract:It is well-understood that actuator nonlinearities, such as free-play, can induce limit cycle oscillations (LCO) in otherwise stable closed-loop systems. In flight control systems, free-play specifications are often set conservatively in order to preclude free-play-induced LCO. However, conservative free-play requirements can increase the manufacturing cost of actuators and give rise to a costly program of regular inspections. An analytical method to safely relax free-play limits could significantly reduce actuator manufacturing and lifecycle costs. Importantly, in addition to accurate aeroelastic modeling to predict LCO, proven adaptive control methods exist to mitigate the effects of uncertain actuator nonlinearities, such as free-play. Thus, maximum benefit would be derived from a tool that combines accurate aeroservoelastic modeling and adaptive control to relax free-play manufacturing tolerances, mitigate the adverse closed-loop effects of actuator free-play, and adapt to changes in free-play over time. Barron Associates and its partners propose to develop an Advanced Modeling and Control for Aeroservoelastic Design (AMCAD) Toolbox to provide the Air Force with a rigorous analytical method to establish safe free- play limits for flight control surfaces. AMCAD will feature our recently- developed, computationally-efficient aeroelastic flutter prediction methodology and a proven adaptive control technique for actuator nonlinearity compensation.

ZONA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale , AZ 85258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 945-9988
Mr. Ping Chih Chen
AF 08-086      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:A System Approach using CartEuler-based Nonlinear Aeroelasticity for FP/LCO Analysis and Design of Control Surfaces
Abstract:The ZONA Team proposes to develop a nonlinear aeroelastic/aeroservoelastic methodology for free-play (FP)/LCO analysis and prediction for aircraft control surfaces at various trim conditions and subjected to gust/pilot commend excitations. In phase I, a CartEuler-based FP/LCO methodology (CEFM) will be established with a ZONA-developed Cartesian Euler solver fully integrated with a ZONA nonlinear flutter/LCO module (NLFLTR). The Cartesian grid/ boundary condition features of CartEuler allows it to perform rapid but accurate nonlinear aeroelastic simulation for complex aircraft configurations. The CEFM solutions will be validated with wind tunnel test data to be obtained by Duke University with an existing model of typical airfoil section at various FP angle and AoA under gust excitations. Next, using CEFM we will fully investigate various F-16/HT cases, including strained/unstrained structures and under gust/pilot-commend excitations for the impacts of nonlinear aerodynamic and nonlinear structural effects on each free-play and LCO responses from a 3D system perspective. Computed solutions of CEFM for the F-16/HT cases will be compared with those of ZAERO. Based on the computed CEFM results, a useful free-play scaling law will be developed that can be readily applied to establish improved control surface free-play criteria for modern aircraft.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Daniel Gutchess
AF 08-087      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Image-based Navigation for Cloud Avoidance (INCA)
Abstract:Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) such as Global Hawk must exercise due regard for the safety of other aircraft by performing sense and avoid, providing an “equivalent level of safety”, compared to manned aircraft. However, the Air Force frequently needs to fly UAS missions covertly using emissions control procedures, precluding the use of transponder-based systems or radar for collision avoidance. Most passive sensors, however, do not have the ability to “see through” clouds and other visual obscurants, necessitating flights to remain within visual meteorological conditions (VMC). To address this need, we propose a system based on passive sensing to detect and avoid clouds, called Image-based Navigation for Cloud Avoidance (INCA). INCA performs cloud detection in either visible or long wave infrared imagery, using a combination of motion, color, and texture cues. To enable navigation, the system goes beyond simple 2D image detection, and estimates 3D range information using structure from motion. When the current flight path violates VMC minima, a path replanning algorithm based on A* uses the 3D information to compute alternate flight paths. A closed-loop evaluation framework incorporating a flight simulator tests cloud detection performance over a range of operating conditions and tests the efficacy of avoidance maneuvers.

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Dr. Joseph Yadegar
AF 08-087      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:EO/IR Due Regard Capability for UAS Based on Intelligent Cloud Detection and Avoidance
Abstract:Current Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) flights, including the Global Hawk weapon system, face limitations on their utilization of civil airspace because they have no capability to sense-and-avoid (SAA) other air traffic. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Regulation states that remotely/autonomously operated aircraft must have an equivalent level of safety, comparable to see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft, to satisfy FAA safety requirements, and must exercise due regard for the safety of other aircraft by detecting them and maneuvering to avoid them. UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC) proposes novel algorithms (through research, development and augmenting/refining existing in house algorithms) for providing due regard using existing EO/IR sensors based on the detection of cloud and sky regions. Specifically, UC will corroborate the feasibility of (i) Segmentation of images into homogenous regions and region merging (ii) novel algorithms for extracting and selecting visual features (iii) novel algorithms for the classification of pixels and segmented regions into three classes: sky, cloud and others, and tracking the cloud regions through time. These modules and their integration with existing SAA processing chain will be designed, developed and tested in consultation with the Air Force Program Manager and SAA prime contractor, Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC).

APES, INC.
6669 Fyler Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 644-6040
Dr. Thomas Mills
AF 08-088      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Verification of Cold Working and Interference Levels at Fastener Holes
Abstract:The USAF recognizes that benefits to cold working fastener holes include significantly increased life of a structure subjected to fatigue loading. However, full realization of this potential from a maintenance and engineering standpoint is hindered by the fact that there is currently no adequate field technique for determining how well the material structure immediately surrounding the hole has responded to the cold working process. Thus, there is a distinct need be able to: 1. Determine the success of a cold working treatment at a fastener hole, 2. Quantify the results of the treatment in a robust crack growth and residual life analysis, 3. Monitor the evolution or relaxation of the residual stress state as usage on the component accumulates, and 4. Understand the effectiveness of the residual stress field in the presence of a crack. Our team’s approach strives to provide depot-supportable measurement of cold work residual stresses using NDI techniques currently in the USAF maintenance infrastructure. We also aim to provide the ASIP community with the life assessment tools (based on AFGROW) and criteria needed to capture the benefits of cold working in life extension and to guard against stress relaxation, the influence of cracks, and inadequate processing.

PROTO MANUFACTURING, INC.
1980 E Michigan Avenue
Ypsilanti, MI 48198
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 743-0600
Mr. Stanley G.
AF 08-088      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Verification of Cold Working and Interference Levels at Fastener Holes
Abstract:Cold working (Cx) and interference fit fasteners are well known to effectively impart favorable residual stresses (RS) and improve structural fatigue life around fastener holes. Heretofore, there has been no reliable means of measuring the RS or the effectiveness of Cx in the immediate vicinity of fastener holes, so reliance was placed on Cx process controls. In addition, the effects of various levels of Cx on remaining fatigue life have not been quantified. Accordingly, design credit for Cx is seldom taken and its favorable effects are not accounted for in structural fatigue life analyses. The Proto Team solution to this problem has two elements: A portable NDI/E system for quantitatively measuring in a production environment the levels of RS imparted by Cx and a reliable life prediction methodology that can exploit the output surface RS data. Proto has recent experience using advanced x-ray diffraction (XRD) technology to nondestructively measure RS fields around Cx holes and will demonstrate that capability concurrently during fatigue cycling of a representative coupon set with Fatigue Technology Inc. UDRI will introduce the RS/fatigue cycling data into finite element analyses and current life prediction models and correlate the life prediction output with fatigue test results.

HILL ENGINEERING, LLC
5022 Bailey Loop
McClellan, CA 95652
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 304-7296
Dr. Michael R. Hill
AF 08-089      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Design/Life Prediction Tools for Aircraft Structural Components with Engineered Residual Stresses
Abstract:Hill Engineering is committed to the development and application of engineered residual stress, which is the intentional use of residual stress treatments coupled with sound engineering analysis to improve the performance of metallic structure. Hill Engineering’s experience with recent aerospace programs has highlighted the need and opportunity to develop analytical engineering approaches (and tools) that can robustly and efficiently take advantage of the potential benefits of residual stress treatments. The goal of the present work is to perform a proof of concept demonstration of a design tool for fatigue assessment of surface treated airframe structural components. Key tasks include the prediction of residual stress and fatigue performance (durability and damage tolerance) in surface treated fatigue coupons, which represent the geometry of an important F-22 structural member. Experiments (residual stress measurements and fatigue tests) will be performed to validate the predictions. This proof of concept work will leverage existing Hill Engineering design tools and on-site experimental capabilities in residual stress measurement and fatigue testing.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Avinash
AF 08-089      Awarded: 3/28/2008
Title:Life Prediction Tools with Engineered Residual Stresses
Abstract:The Air Force has identified a need for the development of predictive design tools that can be used to accurately determine the fatigue life of components containing both applied and engineered residual stresses and determine the optimal location and processing parameters for residual stress introduction. Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Third Wave Systems, and Fracture Analysis Consultants, propose to develop an integrated analysis tool that will achieve this objective. The technical approach is based on integrating design capabilities for 3D modeling for residual stress prediction, 3D computational fracture mechanics, and life prediction calculations. The approach will also take into consideration statistical variants due to modeling accuracy, loading conditions, and material behavior. This integrated approach will allow for the identification of component high stress/life-limiting regions, determination of engineered residual stress process application regions, computation of damage tolerance effects due to different residual stress inducing processes, and the determination of relative cost benefit per flight hour gained due to each processing method considered.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Brad Rosenberg
AF 08-090      Awarded: 6/10/2008
Title:Resource Relationship Management for Defensive Counterspace (RRM4DCS)
Abstract:Effective defensive counterspace (DCS) begins with the ability to maintain space situational awareness (SSA). The detection and discrimination of spacecraft events has moved from low-level alarms, to the application of data fusion (DF) across multiple levels, and most recently, to the use of resource management (RM) to complement data fusion and translate operational requirements into responses for satellites, ground stations, and links to warfighters. There are severe complexities in managing a large number of resources supporting several concurrent missions across commands. To assist JSpOC operators with Level 2 Resource Management, we propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of decision-aids and automated algorithms for Resource Relationship Management for Defensive Counterspace (RRM4DCS). Our approach is founded on the Dual Node Network (DNN) Data Fusion & Resource Management (DF&RM) architecture and extends our current research in Level 2 and Level 3 data fusion as a member of the AFRL/RV Data Fusion Research Team to Level 2 resource management within the JSARS program. Our proposed approach features the formulation of a resource relationships ontology, an analysis of alternatives of optimization approaches, the design of a level 2 RM node network, and refinement of existing Level 2 Data Fusion to support resource relationships management. BENEFIT: These decision-aids and automated algorithms developed under this effort will enable operators to reduce the time required for generating responses and increase the quality of appropriate response actions for defensive counterspace operations. We see direct application of the proposed effort to the JSpOC via the JSpOC Situational Assessment

DATA FUSION & NEURAL NETWORKS
1643 Hemlock Wy
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 469-9828
Dr. Christopher
AF 08-090      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Distributed Satellite Resource Management for Defensive Counterspace
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to tightly couple automated SSA assessment and DCS response decision aids to provide prioritized response alternatives to assist space operators to manage competing objectives, coordinate responses, and rapidly prioritize response alternatives within dynamic environments. The DF&NN team will develop the threat scenario data using new intelligence data sources, extend the JSARS SSA capability, analyze response management alternatives, and then design and develop an interacting combination of situation assessment and response management algorithms for an automated closed-loop DF&RM feasibility experiment. We propose new data sources and response resources to drive improved SAFIRE coordinated data fusion and response decision aids with SSA/DCS Battlespace Visualization Initiative (BVI) visualization capabilities that will support the JSpOC and space squadron operators. The sensor data is planned to be obtained through an experimental MTSI-related program that links BMDS COMNET to AFSPC, from AFSPC/A9, from the Space Catalog, and from the Blue and Red space order of battle (SOB). The DF&NN team will provide MTSI Subject Matter Experts (SME) personnel to help define plausible and relevant scenarios that will highlight SAFIRE envisioned operational utility and define the appropriate concept of operations (CONOPS). The effort will be closely coordinated with the SAFIRE team.

ARCHCOM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1335 W. Foothill Blvd.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 969-0681
Dr. David C. Scott
AF 08-091      Awarded: 5/1/2008
Title:Optical Transmitter for Inter-satellite Communications
Abstract:For many communication applications the demand for more bandwidth is a never ending problem. Military system applications often can exceed commercial demands by an order of magnitude or more as SIGINT and IMINT data collection and transmission are keys to our National Security. Fiber optic systems using optical carriers have been demonstrated up to 160Gbps and RF modulation at over 100GHz has been demonstrated as well. In communication applications where the system must maximize dynamic range, the use of modulators with low modulator drive voltage can provide many benefits. Typical optical transmitters currently employed consist of a discrete DFB laser module followed by a discrete LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator. This configuration is often too bulky for applications where size, weight, and power trade-offs are of primary concern. What is needed for these applications are high speed optical transmitters that are compact monolithically integrated chips. Archcom’s proposal is to monolithically integrate its state of the art InP-based DFB laser technology with its InP-based multiple quantum well p-i-n 50GHz modulator technology. The monolithically integrated chip will achieve bandwidths in excess of 50GHz, modulator drive voltages less than 2V for extinction ratios of 10dB, and output optical powers of 30mW.

FREEDOM PHOTONICS LLC
75 Willow Springs Lane Suite 201
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 685-8240
Dr. Jonathon Barton
AF 08-091      Awarded: 5/8/2008
Title:Optical Transmitter for Inter-satellite Communications
Abstract:In this project, we propose to develop a rad hard, monolithically integrated widely tunable optical transmitter capable of operating at data rates of greater than 100Gbps, utilizing advanced multilevel modulation schemes. The transmitter will be developed using an Indium Phosphide monolithic integration platform, minimizing the size, weight and power of the module. The multilevel modulation scheme used provides the best bit rate scalability for lasercom satellite links.

MULTIPLEX, INC.
5000 Hadley Road
South Plainfield, NJ 07080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 757-8817
Dr. K. Y. Liou
AF 08-091      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:Ultra High-Speed and Compact Optical Transmitter for Inter-satellite Communications
Abstract:Compact, high-speed, and multi-functional optical transmitters are needed for inter-satellite communication systems. Multiplex, Inc., University of California – San Diego, and Lockheed Martin propose to develop ultra high speed (> 40Gb/s) optical transmitters with high output power (> 13dBm) by monolithically integrating a laser, electro- absorption modulator and a semiconductor optical amplifier on InP chips, producing ultra compact transmitter assemblies capable of fast wavelength tuning in the 1550-nm band. Innovative laser and dilute-core or peripherally coupled modulator waveguides will also be designed for integration on the optical chip with potential growth path to even higher bandwidth and power for space communications. The successful development of the optical transmitter will impact future DoD inter- satellite communication links and stimulate commercial applications by demonstrating innovative and manufacturable technologies for components and subsystems.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Robert Taylor
AF 08-092      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:Passively Deployed Lightweight Solar Array Structure for Thinned-Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:Current deployable solar array systems are based on designs that have been in existence for more than 30 years. In general, these heritage designs can be divided into two classes: 1) hinged-panel arrays, which are mechanically simple but mass inefficient, and 2) tensioned- membrane arrays, which are mechanically complex but mass efficient. Arguably, no deployable solar array designs exist that are both mechanically simple and mass efficient. Furthermore, the largest heritage systems (i.e., tensioned-membrane arrays) are limited to less than 15 kW of total power and 50 W/kg of specific power. Higher power generation capability (i.e., greater than 50 kW) with efficient packaging (i.e., greater than 250 W/kg) is becoming an important requirement for many future Air Force missions. GaAs-based multi-junction solar cells can now be thinned (below 20 microns-thick) in order to produce flexible solar cells of the same efficiency as current, much thicker, state-of-the-art rigid solar cells. If these thinned cells are integrated onto next-generation, ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array structures that exploit the novel design characteristics of the cells, 6 fold improvements to the specific power (>500W/kg) of space deployable solar arrays can be attained in the near term for systems up to 100kW in size. Thin, flexible-cell arrays offer a potential solution to the above challenges, as they are capable of more compactly stowing for launch, while having a lower mass than traditional arrays. Unfortunately, the benefits attained by populating array structures derived from heritage deployable technologies with these thin, flexible-cells are not sufficient. In order to achieve the desired power output and specific power goals for next-generation solar power systems, lightweight solar array

DEPLOYABLE SPACE SYSTEMS
955 Nysted Dr
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 736-0700
Brian Spence
AF 08-092      Awarded: 5/9/2008
Title:Lightweight Solar Array Structure for Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:Future military and commercial spacecraft missions are driving the need for power generation systems that can provide extremely high specific power (W/kg), ultra-low stowage volume (kW/m3), extremely high power capability, high reliability, and affordability. Current state-of-the- art optimized solar arrays rely on heavy composite honeycomb structures and are approaching performance plateaus (~100W/kg and ~13kW/m3). The recent technology development of high-efficiency ultra-thin multijunction solar cells (~20um thickness) with projected 33% efficiency allows for a dramatic optimization of the deployable solar array structural system. Ultra-thin multijunction solar cells when combined with an appropriately optimized deployable structure promises to produce a solar array system that provides specific power in excess of 500 W/kg and stowed packaging efficiency greater than 40 kW/m3. The proposed Phase 1 effort will establish concept feasibility of an innovative tensioned membrane solar array system structure and increase its technology readiness level for future development efforts. The tensioned membrane solar array system provides significant performance improvements over current state-of-the-art solar array technologies and enables future mission applications. BENEFIT: The proposed Tensioned Membrane solar array promises to provide high specific power, compact stowage volume, high reliability, and affordability when compared to current state-of-the-art systems. The discriminating performance will enable future missions. The proposed technology has the potential to ultimately replace existing solar array systems currently used for most Military, civilian, and commercial applications. The total solar array system market is estimated at $500M

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Robert
AF 08-092      Awarded: 6/9/2008
Title:Laser Hardened Coatings for Advanced Satellite Solar Cell Arrays
Abstract:Currently deployed defense space systems are hardened against naturally occurring environmental radiation. Man-made radiation threats such as lasers and other directed energy weapons pose a different danger entirely. Solar cell arrays can be disabled or damaged during a high power directed energy attack. In the proposed Phase I program, Infoscitex will characterize the damage mechanism to advanced solar cell arrays and evaluate active responsive thin film materials for threat reduction. The active response will reduce damage at the initial attack site and effectively increase survivability of the surrounding cells, dramatically reducing propagation of damage. The materials-based countermeasures will not require external power, respond almost instantaneously and have minimal impact on solar cell efficiency. In the Phase II effort, it is envisioned that different generations of optimized systems will be tested on actual solar cell systems to evaluate survivability after a simulated attack. Qualified DoD platform vendors, coating materials and solar cell arrays will be active participants in both the Phase I and Phase II programs to ensure incorporation of the technology into deployable systems.

MEVICON, INC.
1185 Bordeaux Rd., Suite D
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 744-1335
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 08-092      Awarded: 4/25/2008
Title:“Strength Through Curvature” Enabled Optimization of Advanced Solar Array Structures for Future Thinned Multi-Junction Solar Cells
Abstract:This proposal is targeted at advancing solar array performance metrics (particularly specific power) by providing a novel and innovative support structure for future thinned, multijunction crystalline solar cells. Leveraging its “Strength Through Curvature” expertise, Mevicon, teamed with ATK-Space Systems Goleta, proposes an array architecture derived from ATK’s space-qualified UltraFlex architecture. In particular, we propose the investigation of the use of induced curvature to stiffen UltraFlex substrate gores populated with thinned multijunction cells. The curvature-stiffened blankets will allow the previously required membrane tensioning preload to be reduced/minimized, which should, in turn, enable a significant reduction in the support structure mass, yielding further improvements in the UltraFlex’s already impressive performance metrics. In the PI, we propose to perform more detailed system-level feasibility studies, develop detailed component-level analysis of substrate material selection and curvature designs, perform critical path proof-of-concept experimental tests to confirm predicted behavior, and finish with a detailed point design. This prepares the way for a PII focused on protoflight hardware development and the subsequent PII/PIII transition to flight demonstration opportunities. The likelihood of this transition occurring is increased by the teaming with ATK in this Phase I effort.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Dr. Nahum Gat
AF 08-093      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:Maneuvering boosting missile tracking using agile filters
Abstract:Recently Russia has tested several times an improved version of an ICBM (Topol and Topol-M) that are said to be able to penetrate any missile defense system. The proposal addresses the threat posed by such advanced Russian missile technology. The proposed effort is then addressing an extension of the monocular passive ranging (MPR) technique to space based sensors. If MPR from space is accurate enough, it would allow a single space tracking system to fix 3D position of boosting threat like the Topol missiles and establish a track file on such targets. Early fix and track file shortens the CBMC2 timeline and improves the kill probability of the target. The proposed capability could negate the measures that the advanced Topol missile may be using during boost phase to avoid BPI. Passive ranging over the entire boost stage requires spectral techniques that work from the troposphere, through the stratosphere, mesosphere, and into the thermosphere during day and night and under various background and target scenarios. Agile filters may provide the required MPR capability. The proposed investigation will assess the feasibility and accuracy and develop a CONOPS for boost phase maneuvering target track file development. Range retrieval will use a combination of target models such as SPURC / CHARM along with atmospheric RT model such as SAMM that consider high altitude LTE and NLTE, combined with OKSI's ASCOPE technique for solving inverse problems.

JACQUARD COMPUTING, INC.
24390 La Homa
Yorba Linda, CA 92887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 394-3178
Dr. Walid Najjar
AF 08-094      Awarded: 6/4/2008
Title:Novel Mitigation Techniques for Reconfigurable Computers for Space Based Applications
Abstract:Achieving reliability from SEU through the use of well defined modular hardware components that implement computation operations as well as interfacing between FPGAs and from FPGAs to memory modules.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 294-1962
Keith Avery
AF 08-094      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Novel Mitigation Techniques for Reconfigurable Computers for Space Based Applications
Abstract:Reconfigurable systems popularity for space-based applications has grown considerably due to their flexibility and the ability to multiplex in real time different hardware configurations based on the demand of the system application. Commercial FPGA based designs are susceptible to Single Event Upsets (SEUs) caused by radiated charged particles. This is primarily due to the use of a commercial SRAM based FPGA. The traditional approach for Single Event Upset (SEU) mitigation on commercial parts consists of triple modular redundancy (TMR). Although proven effective this method adds a certain amount of logic overhead and a penalty in power consumption and processing speed. A more recent approach - called “scrubbing” - relies on simply reloading the configuration memory frames at defined time intervals. This approach is possible in the case of FPGA devices that support partial reconfiguration, such as the Xilinx Virtex II, Spartan 3, Virtex 2-Pro, Virtex 4 and Virtex 5. We propose to investigate all previously enumerated considerations and alternatives to determine the best SEU mitigation technique. In Phase I of the effort, we will explore different scrubbing methods and define the scrubbing circuitry capabilities based on the architecture’s characteristics. This phase will also comprise the investigation of scrubbing rates required in this architecture for a number of representative applications. It will also provide us with the tools and framework to evaluate in the same way different reconfigurable computer architectures. BENEFIT: If a Phase II and Phase III options are exercised for this proposal the AFRL and other DoD systems will have access to a component that will reliably allow the use of commercial FPGAs for space applications. This new scrubber

SEAKR ENGINEERING, INC.
6221 South Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 784-7673
Mr. Ian Troxel
AF 08-094      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Novel Mitigation Techniques for Reconfigurable Computers for Space Based Applications
Abstract:Demand for high performance On-Board Processing (OBP) for space- based applications is being driven by the advancement of high speed sensors, downlink rates that are orders of magnitudes less than sensor data rates, and the desire for autonomous real-time operations. ReConfigurable Computers (RCC) based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are an excellent candidate for high performance processing, but they are susceptible to Single Event Upsets (SEUs). Traditional mitigation techniques such as triplication of code coupled with majority voting, designated as Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR), have proven effective in mitigating SEU effects for RCC systems. However, these methods come at a premium in Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) and performance. For computationally-intensive systems with multiple gigabit data rates, these techniques while feasible might not be practical for the space environment where SWaP is a premium. To address the need for SEU mitigation while minimizing the impact to SWaP, novel mitigation techniques will need to be employed to fully capture the benefits of space based RCC processing systems.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 662-0701
Mr. David
AF 08-094      Awarded: 6/4/2008
Title:Novel Mitigation Techniques for Reconfigurable Computers for Space Based Applications
Abstract:The use of FPGAs in space applications is well understood, but there has always been the need to have an ability to reprogram such devices in the field. Until now, this was not possible without a great deal of risk due to rad effects, or a tremendous amount of additional circuitry to mitigate any rad effects. By applying the innovative TTMR and H-Core approaches, this SBIR will show how reprogrammable FPGAs can be used in a specific application, high-speed image processing, in a way that provides greater throughput than similar designs could achieve.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V.
AF 08-095      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:An Advanced Cryocooler for Space-Borne Applications
Abstract:Future Department of Defense (DoD) space electro-optical payloads will require reliable, efficient, and lightweight cryocoolers for sensor cooling. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are an ideal candidate for these payloads. The technology is reliable and space proven with one unit having provided over 5.5 years of successful operations on the Hubble Space Telescope without any change in performance. Recent advances in component technologies have dramatically reduced the mass and increased the efficiency of turbo-Brayton cryocoolers. Current turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are comparable in mass and efficiency with competing cryocooler technologies at modest loads and higher, and they have the inherent integration benefits of negligible vibration emittance and the ability to cool distributed loads and loads distant from the heat rejection site. The net result of these benefits is significant reductions in overall payload mass. During this multi-phase program, we will develop a turbo-Brayton cryocooler for a specific DoD mission. During Phase I, we will perform trade studies and develop a preliminary design of the cryocooler. The results will be presented at a preliminary design review and will provide payload integrators with critical data for system level trades.

SOUTH BAY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
7525 W. 81st St.,
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 337-7230
Mr. John Ikegami
AF 08-095      Awarded: 6/16/2008
Title:Low Cost Space Cryocooler System for Launch and Boost Phase Sensor Applications
Abstract:Future space based systems will require cryogenic subsystems that are substantially more efficient than those presently in use. Projected requirements for space-based launch and boost phase detection and tracking sensors are 10 W in the 70-110 K range and 20 W in the 160- 180 K range. The cryogenic cooling system must also be low in exported vibration so as not to impact unacceptably large jitter to the sensor. The traditional approach is to meet these objectives with a large, two-stage cryocooler coupled to complex control electronics that provide the necessary two-stage temperature control and, in the case of a linear cryocooler, exported vibration control. The South Bay Science and Technology Corporation, as the prime contractor, and Raytheon, as subcontractor, propose to develop a an alternate cryogenic system concept utilizing all low cost space-qualified elements to yield a Low Cost Space Cryocooler System for space-based launch and boost phase detection and tracking sensor applications. The work plan is structured to lead into the subsequent hardware phase.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
AF 08-096      Awarded: 5/1/2008
Title:Collaborative Analysis Simulation Tools for Space Surveillance Network (CAST4SSN)
Abstract:With the increased high interest of the U.S. Air Force in developing the decision assistance tools that can optimize, layer, network, and allow cooperation of the distributed airborne sensors in the space domain and its operations, there is a fundamental need for increased level of automation, coordination and intelligent collaboration among various physical agents in the current and future battlespace to produce a common understanding of readiness of resources and real-time status. One of the major concerns of this system development is the evolution from human intervention to machine autonomy/intelligence. Many technologies regarding standalone unit operation are well developed and tested. AGNC proposes the Collaborative Analysis Simulation Tools for Space Surveillance Network (CAST4SSN) for this task cooperation problem. The objective of this project is to establish a working hardware/software integration framework in order to enable a higher- level collaborative control and command over the task orientation architecture under minimal human supervision. AGNC proposes to develop the innovative CAST4SSN which encompasses collaborative tasking decentralized subsystems, task assignment and mission planning algorithms, as well as Human Machine Interface (HMI) and is future standard compliant for external Information Technology (IT) infrastructure expansion to complete a hierarchical command chain.

DCM RESEARCH RESOURCES, LLC
14163 Furlong Way
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 481-5397
Genshe Chen
AF 08-096      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Game Theoretic Multi-agent Modeling and Analysis Framework for Distributed Collaborative Systems with Aid of Data Mining and Data Fusion
Abstract:We propose a highly innovative modeling and analysis framework for distributed collaborative systems with aid of data-mining and data-fusion concept. Our approach has two major highly coupled parts: 1) Data fusion module. Mutliple-sensor data are fused to perform situation awareness. To generate the intent inference of the targets, we will extend Markov games via incorporating Multi-Cumulant Pareto Nash strategies and Graph concept. From a perspective of distributed decision making problem, we dynamically adapt Hierarchical Task Network and Auction algorithm for optimal meta-task decomposition and assignment. A collaborative search and tracking oriented sensor management algorithm based on Pursuit-Evasion game will be exploited to improve the performance of the multi-layered sensing system. 2) Data-mining module. Adaptation and pattern/feature recognition are carried out to dynamically select (or mine) appropriate features or feature sets and quickly associate them with the adversary intent and executable actions. In some time-critical scenarios, firstly, a primitive adversary intent estimation and the associated friendly force collaborative response actions can be quickly provided by the Data- mining module. Then, a refinement based on data-fusion will be carried out to improve the performance of the decision aids tool. Additionally, we will incorporate a semantic and textual processing technique to convert meta-tasks into actionable fusion processes BENEFIT: The proposed game theoretic decision aid tool for cooperative system modeling, simulation, and analysis has tremendous applications potential in many military applications. It can also be directly used for developing of advanced mission planning and emergency preparedness decision

PRICE ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS, LLC
5405 Alton Parkway Ste. 5A, #314
Irvine, CA 92604
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 351-2634
Mr. Ray Garcia
AF 08-097      Awarded: 8/20/2008
Title:Secure Active Global Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System.
Abstract:This proposal describes in detail the requirement for secure RFID tracking utilizing a “real-time” system to pinpoint the actual location of military assets. Current technologies/systems are passive and limited to scanning or reading from direct contact or very short range and do not support critical supply chain management with rapid movement of supplies and equipment during a wartime scenario. The technical objectives of this SBIR proposal include the design and verification of a functional long range, secure and reliable Radio Frequency Identification material inventory management system. PES will utilize its expertise and its ADAPTMESH system to develop optimum systems. PES will focus on Time Sync. Mesh Protocol (TSMP) that has a zero collision rate. PES and its associates are patented in lithium battery and ultra capacity and are developing optimum power packs including prismatic cells, a 200 Wh/kg prismatic battery with novel lithium nickelate, and developing new primary missile batteries for MDA. Integration will be proven by computer modeling in a lab environment with precision GPS coordinates. The system will be compatible with the current and next generation of military signal capabilities including Y-Code M-Code. Furthermore, the powering characteristics will allow for Selective Availability/Anti- Spoofing Module (SAASM) receiver usage. Also, powering hardware will be deployed with coatings that deter analysis of their internal operation.

SECURERF CORP.
175 Post Road West
Westport, CT 06880
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 519-9994
Dr. Iris Anshel
AF 08-097      Awarded: 8/19/2008
Title:Highly Secure Active, Satellite-enabled RFID System with Sensor Capability
Abstract:The proposed Phase I research will prove the feasibility of developing a secure, satellite-enabled, radio frequency identification (RFID) system for verifying the location of and tracking in-transit items without disclosing the location or nature of the communications to unintended individuals. SecureRF’s breakthrough cryptographic protocol, the Algebraic Eraser™, is the world’s first linear-based security algorithm that is small enough to fit on resource constrained devices. The anticipated result of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of implementing this protocol within an active RFID tag with GPS functions to authenticate the incoming satellite signal’s request, take the tag from a dormant state to quickly encrypt and transmit the tag’s location along with protected data on the tag and then return it to a dormant state. Implementing cryptography directly on RFID tags is a significant innovation as current security standards cannot address this need. SecureRF will develop the cryptographic model and show how it can be combined with current mature technologies to create a private, secure, active, global RFID system with sensors. The research team includes a leading RFID engineer and world-class cryptographers. In Phase II, a prototype of this system will be designed, developed and produced for field testing.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J.
AF 08-100      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:Remote Intelligent Diagnostics for Electronic Systems (RIDES)
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with a world class team of information management practitioners, test equipment/TPS manufacturers, diagnostic modelers, and platform integration experts, proposes to develop and demonstrate a real-time remote diagnostics environment for SPO and OEM support of forward deployed Air Force maintenance operations. This will include the design and development of a system architecture that enables a virtual assembly of resources to resolve troublesome diagnostic issues by employing open data architectures, intelligent model-based reasoners, standardized networked services, and standards-based information exchange. The system will integrate key aspects of network-centric access and control of aircraft data buses, test equipment, portable maintenance aids, information systems, and other off-board data sources with real- time, remote, live subject matter expertise, bolstered by dynamic model- based reasoning. A Phase I prototype demonstration will be delivered that will use a PMA or ATS and selected electronic LRU(s) to illustrate the feasibility of the remote electronics test application capabilities. Eventual outcomes of this program will include: improved diagnostic reasoning and ambiguity reduction for fewer CND and RTOK instances, greater operational availability and support cost reduction, greater information availability and continuity for improved repair at all levels of maintenance, and increased effectiveness of forward deployed maintenance operations.

NETWORK SENSING TECHNOLOGIES LLC
Network Sensing Technologies, LLC 2110 Lewis Turner Blvd
FT Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 226-4408
Mr. Michael
AF 08-100      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:REmote Monitoring and Operational Test Evalution Stimulator (REMOTES)
Abstract:Current Automated Test Equipment (ATE) often results in erroneous fault detection due to anomalies not foreseen by ATE engineers. NST proposes an innovative remote testing capability to stimulate, capture, monitor, and distribute SUT avionics data to/from FOL logistics centers to/from a remote body of SUT experts (SPO, Intermediate Level, Prime Vendor). The innovative approach utilizes network centric communications, an Automated Test Mark-up Language (ATML) extension for logistics, SUT specific XML data dictionaries with published schemas, a publish/subscribe data server to distribute the data dictionaries and SUT data to remote clients, COTS hardware, and NST’s REmote Monitoring and Operational Test Evaluation Stimulator (REMOTES) software to provide remote Mil-Std-1553 and ARINC testing capability. One or more SUT experts, at various remote locations, can be immersed within the test environment to monitor the SUT performance using any COTS java-enabled platform as well as inject test stimuli. With remote testing capability, many false positive fault detections may be isolated and possibly repaired at the field level and returned to service at a significant cost savings.

PIONEERING DECISIVE SOLUTIONS, INC.
20641 Flat Iron Rd. PO BOX 205
Great Mills, MD 20634
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8642
Dr. Ion Neag
AF 08-100      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:Real-Time, Remote Electronics Test Capability
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR is targeted at the development of a net centric distributed system supporting remote test and diagnostics of aircraft in Forward Operating Locations (FOLs). The remote diagnostics network will allow Subject Matter Experts remote access and direct control of weapons system buses. Pioneering Decisive Solutions, Inc. will be performing research of advanced bus test, measurement and integrated/embedded diagnostic capabilities and their integration into a net centric system based on capabilities currently being utilized in other industries (e.g., satellite bus testing industry and others).

(ES3) ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOLUTION, INC
550 West C Street, Suite 1630
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(478) 926-3067
Mr. Jay Randolph
AF 08-101      Awarded: 7/22/2008
Title:Development of Cad Plating Replacement with Alkaline Zinc-Nickel Electroplating for Threaded Fasteners/Components
Abstract:Aircraft structure and propeller systems utilize both high and low strength steel, cad plated threaded components and fasteners throughout its structure. Threaded joints and fasteners manufactured from these alloys require sacrificial protective coatings due to the corrosive environment. Cadmium (Cd) has been the baseline coating for such threaded joints and fasteners for many years due to its many desirable functional qualities. In addition to be corrosion protection, cadmium also provide excellent lubricity characteristics; however, cadmium is a toxic metal and known carcinogen that poses environmental and occupational safety and health risks throughout the life cycle of the plated parts. In Phase I of this project, ES3 will investigate cadmium plating alternatives; specifically, the original Dipsol Low Hydrogen Embrittlement alkaline Zn-Ni coating IZ-C17 and its latest derivative IZ-250Y, and conduct the feasibility study and testing necessary for USAF aircraft and propeller system usage by studying torque tension relationships and hydrogen embrittlement. Additionally, production features, such as tank chemistry, and barrel/rack plating techniques will be researched for utilization in a DoD depot or commercial production environment.

INTEGRAN TECHNOLOGIES USA, INC.
2541 Appletree Dr
Pittsburgh, PA 15241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 675-3730
Dr. Virgil Provenzano
AF 08-101      Awarded: 8/4/2008
Title:Development of Cad Plating Replacement with Alkaline Zinc-Nickel Electroplating for Threaded Fasteners/Components
Abstract:This proposal outlines a brush plating-specific advanced technology development program that would complement a recently awarded SERDP-funded Cd Replacement effort to be undertaken by Integran Technologies Inc., a company affiliated with the present applicants. The objective of the SERDP program is to develop a nanocrystalline Zn- based Cd replacement plating process that relies upon low hydrogen evolution and optimization of the pulse plating parameters in order to eliminate issues associated with embrittlement of high strength steel substrates, consistent with the objectives of this Air Force program. The goal of the present SBIR project proposed herein would be to complement the more fundamental on-going chemistry and plating process developments of the SERDP program with a project focused specifically upon brush plating issues in particular. As an example, one primary technical thrust of the SERDP effort will be the exploration of the pulse waveform shape optimization for complete elimination of hydrogen i.e. the utilization of pulse-reverse plating in order to “lift” hydrogen off from the fastener/component surface. Unfortunately, pulse-reverse plating may be incompatible with the non-consumable anodes commonly utilized in brush plating, thereby necessitating the development of a novel Zn-based plating technique that is embrittlement- free yet compatible with existing cadmium brush plating infrastructure.

AEGISOUND, LLC
2020 Kraft Drive Suite 3030
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-1284
Dr. Gary Gibbs
AF 08C-016      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Affordable High-Performance Hearing Protection/Communication System
Abstract:The development of affordable, high performance hearing protection and communication systems is critical for USAF and DOD aircraft maintainers who must work in the vicinity of jet exhaust noise during launch and recovery operations. Aegisound is in a unique position to leverage recently completed first-generation ANR hearing protector designs, intended for operation in JSF noise fields, to investigate further design improvements for affordability and even higher performance. This Phase I proposal addresses a range of performance issues for the use of ANR earplugs in harsh noise environments. Earplug design, controller design, and actuator design all play vital roles in high noise attenuation. Speech intelligibility and resistance to electromagnetic interference are also included as critical system requirements. All of these components and design criteria will be evaluated for performance versus their respective roles toward affordability. During the Phase I program, all relevant design and production issues will be identified and summarized with respect to affordable procurement of hearing protection systems that are useful in 150 dB noise environments. A detailed analysis of design metrics, production alternatives, cost drivers, and a plan for deployment of the proposed solutions will be provided at the conclusion of this work.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Ms. Kristen LeRoy
AF 08C-016      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Affordable High-Performance Hearing Protection/Communication System
Abstract:Hearing protection which targets the airborne vibrations traditionally associated with hearing has advanced considerably in the last two decades. Airborne noise can be blocked or reduced to the point where the limiting factor in the intensity of sound experienced by a subject is now in large part determined by the sound conducted through bone in the anatomy of the head and face. Air Force flight personnel and other military personnel are in considerable need of advanced hearing protection, which necessarily would provide protection beyond this bone conduction limit. While there remains room for improvement in traditional hearing protection, both active and passive, a considerably larger gain in nearer terms can be realized by turning our attention to bone-coupled noise. Infoscitex is a leading innovative engineering firm and proposes a device that attenuates bone-coupled vibrations. This device is designed to work with traditional hearing protection to result in a complete system for hearing protection and communication that provides hearing protection beyond the bone conduction limit. Our plan includes the proof of feasibility of this device, as well as complete system design and partnering for manufacture and delivery.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
AF 08C-016      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:High-Performance Hearing Protection and Communication
Abstract:To address this Air Force need for high-performance hearing protection/communication for use in very high noise levels (up to 150 dB) military fighter aircraft environments, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new High-Performance Hearing Protection (HIPHEP) system based on our proprietary high-output and -fidelity direct energy conversion driver (>130 dB SPL output), and an adaptive active noise controller (average 45 dB attenuation), providing a total attenuation of at least 50 dB and up to 75 dB NRR including passive absorption effects. The HIPHEP innovations -- a microsize smart material actuator as an earplug driver -- produces >130 dB high-quality acoustic output with unprecedented flat frequency response, even below 100 Hz, with POC’s complete active noise controller. The HIPHEP on a compact DSP board, consumes <10 mA, enough for more than 16 hr in operations, with POC’s low-frequency pressure suppression MEMS for enhanced communication intelligibility. In Phase I POC will conduct HIPHEP technology design/fabrication/experiments to demonstrate system performance suitable for military environments up to 150 dB and EMI fields up to 200 V/m with risk reduction and cost analysis. In Phase II POC will design, fabricate, and deliver ten affordable (<$1200/unit) HIPHEP protection/communication systems.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 329-3700
Mr. John F. Kline
AF 08C-016      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Micro-Actuator Speaker System 2 (MASS-2)
Abstract:Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI), with the help of Westone, Inc., proposes to develop the Micro-Actuator Speaker System 2 (MASS- 2): an active noise reduction (ANR) based hearing protection system for carrier deck environments. The core of MASS-2 will be a high- intensity version of the existing MASS microspeaker/microphone array developed at RSI for AFRL. RSI will develop a microfabricated device that can address the needs of higher sound levels (~150 dB) present on the flight deck. As part of the MASS-2 technology, an ANR algorithm will be developed to allow certain desirable noises and filter the others; RSI has patented a blind deconvolution technique called self- deconvolving data restoration algorithm, or SeDDaRA (US Patent 6,8595,64) that can be applied here. The Phase I MASS-2 program will involve design, fabrication, and test of a new configuration of the RSI microspeakers for higher sound output/sensitivity, developing an algorithm for active noise reduction/fitration, and characterization of the devices to predict their performance in an aircraft carrier application.

CUMING MICROWAVE CORP.
225 Bodwell St.
Avon , MA 02322
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 580-2660
Mr. Michael Heafey
AF 08C-042      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Mold-in-Place Coatings
Abstract:Cuming Microwave Corporation (CMC) has formed a team which is uniquely suited to perform the tasks required to fully demonstrate, characterize, and validate an on-aircraft mold in place (MIP) technology for aircraft coatings. Our team has already demonstrated the ability to apply thick coatings to complex shapes in confined spaces, while reducing cost and cycle time as well as eliminating VOC’s. The CMC Team has demonstrated all the technical elements required to successfully scale-up and demonstrate their MIP technology for aircraft validation. All the technology elements have been demonstrated to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. Because all the various technology elements are relatively mature, all that is required is manufacturing scale-up, system level technology integration and demonstration/validation of suitability for aircraft production. This high TRL maturity provides a low risk program for the Air Force.

PARAMOUNT INDUSTRIES
2475 Big Oak Road
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 239-6802
Mr. Luis Folgar
AF 08C-043      Awarded: 5/16/2008
Title:Direct Part Manufacturing (DPM) for Nonstructural Components
Abstract:From Paramount Industries¡¦ significant experience with Selective Laser Sintering, Paramount Industries knows the material performance and mechanical properties of a given SLS material is correlated directly with many material as well as process parameters that must be optimized to achieve the required performance parameters of strength, modulus, porosity, dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, and the compliance of any post-processing that may improve mechanical properties, enhance surface finish, or provide protective coating. However the optimization and processing of existing HT materials for SLS presents a dual technical challenge the optimization of the material properties and the optimization of the SLS process. The proposed Paramount Industries innovation includes the use of two high performance proven HT resistant materials that have been previously screened for SLS. To demonstrate the feasibility of delivering a mission supportive solution and adapting advanced SLS HT materials and SLS systems technology and material modifications for the fabrication of nonstructural components that meet all the end-user specified requirements, Paramount Industries is relying on an integrated support team of experts, people that has been assisting Paramount Industries for the past 9 years on internal R&D.

PROTOTYPE PRODUCTIONS, INC.
21641 Beaumeade Circle Suite 311
Ashburn , VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 838-0011
Dr. Jeffrey Schultz
AF 08C-043      Awarded: 5/20/2008
Title:Direct Part Manufacturing (DPM) for Nonstructural Components
Abstract:The traditional methods of manufacturing non-structural aerospace components require significant amounts of recurring and non-recurring costs, in addition to delays because of tooling and fixture fabrication, as well as, material availability. A large number of non-structural components for aircraft, such as clips, brackets, and ducting are presently being produced using traditional metal and plastic forming methods. Traditionally, metals have been the material of choice due to their capability to withstand higher service temperatures than previously capable with non-traditional manufacturing methods. With advances in materials and processes used for direct part manufacturing (DPM), the opportunity now exists to develop the right process and material(s) for transitioning many of the non-structural aircraft parts to DPM. With its expertise in traditional manufacturing and rapid prototyping to support manufacturing, Prototype Productions, Inc. will investigate and prove the feasibility of applying current DPM processes with select available materials, to produce non-structural aircraft parts that will meet the applicable mil-spec requirements.

ROYAL PLASTIC MFG., INC.
1046 E. 9th Street
Minden, NE 68959
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(308) 832-2760
Mr. Tim O'Dey
AF 08C-043      Awarded: 5/8/2008
Title:Direct Part Manufacturing (DPM) for Nonstructural Components
Abstract:As Joint Strike Fighter nears production and the existing aging aerospace fleet faces challenges in spares procurement, state of the art manufacturing technology must be developed to satisfy cost, performance and delivery requirements. Royal Plastic Mfg. has been researching Laser Sintering (LS) of high temperature engineering thermoplastics as a potential solution to these issues. Utilization of this emerging manufacturing technology holds great promise in reducing cost, weight and delivery lead time for a select group of aerospace part families.

SOLID CONCEPTS, INC.
28309 Avenue Crocker
Valencia, CA 91355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 821-1112
Mr. Kent Firestone
AF 08C-043      Awarded: 5/7/2008
Title:Direct Part Manufacturing (DPM) for Nonstructural Components
Abstract:Solid Concepts is one of the most technically advanced suppliers of rapid prototyping and manufacturing services in the world. Solid Concepts is a leading supplier of digital direct manufacturing of SLS production aerospace parts without tooling having secured multiple production contracts with components flying on both military and commercial aircraft programs. Solid Concepts is ISO-9001:2000 and AS-9100 certified with a stand-alone QA department offering CMM inspection capabilities. As the developer of the NyTek product family of SLS materials, Solid Concepts has analytical resources for polymer materials characterization as well as in-house capabilities for mechanical properties testing. Solid Concepts SBIR Phase-1 proposal is focused on researching technically significant polymer formulations and the associated SLS processing characteristics required to run them.