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109 Phase I Selections from the 08.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
BOSTON DYNAMICS
78 Fourth Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 868-5600
Mr. William C Blank
OSD 08-CR1      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Human Social, and Culture Behavioral Modeling Game-Based Simulation
Abstract:We propose the design, creation, and delivery of the Advanced Group Interaction Simulator (AGIS), a simulation platform and application with particular focus on sophisticated crowd dynamics, game-like storyboarding and play, and complete accessibility for the scenario creator. Users will be able to create their own behavior and control algorithms from a spectrum of basic and more complex group dynamic and crowd behaviors directly through the user interface (no programming). Users will also be able to create their own behavior and control algorithms by adding and extending those building blocks via PERL scripting at runtime (no compile required). In addition, users will be able to create their own group interaction plug-in modules (C++ .dll libraries) to the application from a well-documented API interface, allowing them to once again modify and extend the behaviors, or even create their own new ones from scratch. AGIS will start by using DI-Guy AI Scenario as core software and then dramatically build and extend upon it. This allows AGIS to leverage the ongoing advances, 500+ characters, 2000+ motions, and the well-tested, broad and deep SDK API of this industry leading COTS software. AGIS will have strong commercial potential and strong marketing backing as part of our Human Simulation product line.

GAMESTHATWORK
620 Lakeshore Dr
Berkeley Lake, GA 30096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 806-5428
Mr. Dov Jacobson
OSD 08-CR1      Awarded: 7/3/2008
Title:Human Social, and Culture Behavioral Modeling Game-Based Simulation
Abstract:We do not offer a perfect simulation of social behavior. Instead we offer a digital sandtable where users can experiment with new ideas. Radically different interfaces meet the needs of radically different users. The system can be engaged at any of four levels, At the outermost level, it is a videogame. The player accepts mission instructions and confronts the challenges. His skill and ingenuity are matched against his opponents, human or synthetic. The layer below belongs to the Scenario Designer. Using a special editor, he establishes the Player’s missions, sets up obstacles, adversaries and allies. At the third level inward are the simulation formulae. Modeling experts and subject matter experts have access to these and can change parameters and proportions to revise the behavior of the synthesized populations. At the core lies the simulation logic itself. It inevitably embodies certain assumed principles. Fortunately, the logic can be unplugged and replaced with a completely different AI engine. A change to the behavior logic, to the simulation parameters or to the current scenario will affect the player’s experience and the game outcome. But the integrity of game itself – its mechanisms of display and interface and network play will remain unaltered.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd. Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 08-CR1      Awarded: 6/11/2008
Title:GameSim (tm): Game-based Simulation for Human ,Social, and Cultural Training
Abstract:Game-based simulation is rapidly becoming the preferred strategy for training military planners in handling a variety of missions including insurgencies, small wars, and/or emergent conflicts. What game-based training simulations lack today is: the need for socio-cultural sensitivity in training scenarios; low cost, versatile platform capable of supporting both single and multiplayer interaction via a PC, network, or Internet. Phase I of this effort is concerned with developing the system concept and technical architecture of a game-based simulation that combines scenario scripting/editing, storytelling, and pedagogically-driven user feedback/performance assessment in a low cost, small footprint package.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Edward A. Rietman
OSD 08-CR1      Awarded: 6/24/2008
Title:Dynamic, Agent-Based, Societal Model for Factional Adversarial Games
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc., proposes to develop a novel, dynamic, agent-based, societal model for studying coalition formation and factional competition. Our unique approach uses a detailed representation of human behaviors and environmental elements pertaining to coalition formation, strategic decision-making and factional competition/cooperation: geography, culture, religion, language, individual and collective emotions, history, and resource availability and needs. The proposed model consists of: (1) a global environment (World) and subsequent geographical regions: Spaces, Sites, Districts, and Villages, which are hierarchically arranged; (2) individual Villages that consist of tribes and resources; and (3) human agents endowed with individual and collective learning and decision-making capabilities. Phase I will: (i) develop the proposed societal model; (ii) develop a Java agent-based software simulation tool for the model, using Ethos as societal description and representation framework and RePast as simulation platform; (iii) Develop rule-based and game-tree search factional decision-making algorithms for controlling the brains of the modeled agents; and (iv) simulate a scenario of factional adversarial game based on the Afghan tribal structure and demonstrate both qualitative and quantitative prediction capacities of the proposed model.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 872-6720
Dr. Randolph Jones
OSD 08-CR1      Awarded: 6/23/2008
Title:AI Middleware for Human Social-Cultural Behavior Training Games
Abstract:For effective training in higher-level decision-making and social-interaction skills, there is a need for computer game technology to provide more realistically human-like non-player characters. As a cost-effective path for integrating greater social-cultural realism into game simulations, we propose a set of AI (Artificial Intelligence) Middleware layers that allow easy extensibility and configuration at a variety of levels of abstraction in game designs. We plan to determine an appropriate game concept and engine, create AI Middleware that is particularly geared toward social-cultural human behavior, and develop an example game instantiation of the design. The implemented game engine will have a relatively open architecture, and plug-in application programmer interfaces (APIs) that provide control of non-player characters (NPCs) in standard ways as well as in ways specific for the modeling of social-cultural human behavior. The system will support alternative human behavior architectures, and provide scripting and behavior-modeling interfaces to allow rapid development of simple and/or well-understood behavior models, but also provide an appropriate migration path for developers (and possibly end users) to improve the models in the areas where more sophistication is desirable.

ECROSSCULTURE
777 29th Street, Suite 202
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-1978
Ms. Rachel Shannon
OSD 08-CR2      Selected for Award
Title:Innovations for second language retention and reacquisition
Abstract:We propose novel retention and reacquisition strategies based upon current, empirical research. We propose to extend current theory in various ways. We describe an innovative cross-sectional experiment with various components which will demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a multi-modal approach to second language (re)training. This experiment will use a large population of ex-military L2 Arabic linguists in a design including controlled pedagogical interventions to test several important hypotheses.

KUMA LLC
245 Park Avenue
New York , NY 10167
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 562-7370
Mr. Amir Hekmati
OSD 08-CR2      Awarded: 4/23/2009
Title:Second Language Training
Abstract:Language retention is a significant and growing issue for the US military (and US businesses) as Soldiers face increasing overseas deployments and heightened level of interactions with local populations. The success of these one-on-one interactions set the stage for the success of the overall mission. However, languages knowledge (particularly for languages learned after childhood) deteriorates quickly with non-use and, unfortunately, the first skills lost are usually the more important ones -- the mission- specific language knowledge learned last. KUMA GAMES is a world-renowned consumer video game developer, with tens of millions of downloads around the world of our unique “episodic game” experience. Additionally, we are an experienced simulation developer with multiple training projects for USA CASCOM-TD. Our unique capabilities include world- class game development, linguistic training expertise, TV-quality video production, proprietary internet-based scenario delivery, and access to key 3rd party technologies including voice recognition and advanced graphics tools. Utilizing our tools, experience, and huge library of existing 3D assets we can provide an effective, cost-efficient, rapidly-deployable and easily updatable language retention toolset for trainers and Soldiers deployed around the world. It is our intention to refresh languages skills in an intense and immersive 3D environment, which would be made available as part of an online/offline language exercise portal utilizing the follow five key capabilities. Soldiers would: - participate in machine-guided evaluative exercises - work with expert language trainers via network-based video game “multiplay”, repurposed here for remote learning - participate in iterative exercises conducted by culture-specific virtual characters and a world-class voice recognition technology to refresh and tune vocabulary and pronunciation - exercise their knowledge in intense, voice-enabled first-person scenarios customized for their language skill level and mission-specific communication needs - participate in a global "social" network of Soldiers and trainers -- utilizing KUMA's advanced communications tools -- for ongoing language and cultural guidance.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
OSD 08-CR2      Awarded: 9/3/2008
Title:Second Language Retention Intelligent Training System
Abstract:Military personnel who take part in intense periods of second language (L2) training are at risk of losing their second language skills during periods of underutilization. This proposal describes a research effort aimed at addressing this problem through the creation of the Second Language Retention Intelligent Training System (SLR-ITS). Our solution consists of three main elements. The first is developing an initial theoretical model of L2 retention and a research design to test this model. The second element is translating the theoretical model into pedagogical materials and a training methodology. The final element is developing a prototype of the SLR-ITS that makes use of this translation in both a scenario-based training environment and in a training environment aimed at portable devices (e.g. iPod). This work draws on the experiences of Stottler Henke in creating intelligent training systems and on the experiences of our consultants, Dr. Bardovi-Harlig and Dr. Stringer, in second language acquisition. The expected benefits of this research program are an increase in the effectiveness of L2 training and a decrease in the need for L2 retraining.

TACTICAL LANGUAGE TRAINING, LLC
11965 Venice Blvd Suite 402
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 566-7272
Dr. W. Lewis Johnson
OSD 08-CR2      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:Second Language Sustainment Training with the Tactical Language and Culture Training System
Abstract:In this project we will develop a language training module concept that addresses the problem of language attrition. The concept addresses the multiple aspects of this problem: durable language acquisition that is resistant to attrition, diagnosis of language attrition when it occurs, and skill maintenance training focused on the skills that trainees are in the process of losing. The design of the training concept will draw on research in the psychology of language attrition, while building upon best emerging technologies and methods for language training. The concepts will extend the Tactical Language and Culture Training family of training systems, including Tactical Iraqi and Tactical French, resulting in practical training solutions that transition into Navy and Marine Corps use, yielding concrete training benefits to Sailors, Marines, and language learners generally. We will conduct follow-on evaluations of the effectiveness of the approach in helping Sailors and Marines to retain their language skills.

VCOM3D, INC.
3452 Lake Lynda Dr., Suite 260
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-7309
Dr. Edward M. Sims
OSD 08-CR2      Selected for Award
Title:Mobile Second Language Trainer
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR, Vcom3D proposes to develop and evaluate a pedagogical method and instructional system for Second Language Training with improved retention based on theories of language attrition and its remedies. Key features of the proposed system include visual cuing coupled with tasks requiring graduated interval recall; interactive scenarios in which the user engages in authentic nation-building negotiations in the target language; parallel development of supporting authoring tools; and implementation on a handheld device that supports anytime, anywhere learning. The proof-of-concept system will be evaluated at the University of Central Florida’s Institute for Simulation and Training (IST), using a representative population of students. This evaluation will provide estimates of training effectiveness and usability, and indicate refinements required for Phase II development of the language training and associated authoring tools.

ECROSSCULTURE
777 29th Street, Suite 202
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-1978
Dr. Paulette Foss
OSD 08-CR3      Awarded: 9/2/2008
Title:Development and Testing of an Effective Rapid Assessment Framework
Abstract:We propose to develop a rapid ethnographic assessment framework and methodologies based upon the literature and over 40 years of application by team members. Importantly, our team members' experience has been in conflict zones in Darfur, Bosnia, East Timor, El Salvador, Ethiopia, and others. We propose to develop a framework based upon different assessment periods... very rapid which involves a single day and long term which occurs from weeks to months. Our effort includes the analysis of various Human Social Cultural Behavioral computational models to ascertain how they can be used to establish 1) efficient procedures and 2) collect the right data. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility in Ethiopia - close to the Eritrean border - in a quasi- experimental format with two field-workers collecting data independently in a controlled comparison.

EURASIA GROUP, LTD.
475 Fifth Avenue, 14th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 213-3112
Dr. Geoff Porter
OSD 08-CR3      Awarded: 9/15/2008
Title:Rapid Ethnographic Assessment Program
Abstract:This project proposes to develop a rapid ethnographic assessment tool designed specifically to be used by military personnel participating in Security, Stabilization, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) missions who are untrained in social science research methods. Within the Department of the Navy, potential users include Naval Special Warfare, Marine Special Operations Command (MARSOC), and the Maritime Civil Affairs Group (MCAG) within Naval Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC). Each of these force elements is uniquely positioned to collect ethnographic data prior to large- scale military operations. Because potential or acute political instability is a precursor to United States military involvement in foreign countries, the proposed methodology is informed by both anthropology and political science, the former providing a local level perspective and the latter providing a ‘top-down’ approach assessing group relationships with central government(s) and structural/institutional drivers of stability. The interdisciplinary methodology is differentiated from the US Army Human Terrain System (HTS) because it provides Naval forces the capability to conduct assessments using organic assets, and will support broad elements of the SSTR mission set, to include the Department of State’s Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) Post- conflict Reconstruction Essential Tasks. This methodology will be tested in the Gulf of Guinea.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
OSD 08-CR3      Awarded: 9/21/2008
Title:Rapid Ethnographic Assessment Program
Abstract:As the Department of Defense continues to emphasize the importance of more effective stabilization and reconstruction operations, the need is clear for decision support tools that can help troops working day-to-day in different cultures. The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to provide OSD and Human Terrain Team analysts with additional insight into the potential cultural effects of different military missions. An ethnographic data collection plan will be developed and automated to synthesize data from multiple sources. Innovative algorithms will be developed to provide military planners insight into potential cultural risks as a result of military missions. The resulting Ethnographic Planning Tool will be capable of comparing task options to minimize potential risks and impacts to host-country cultural elements. The data fusion framework integrating the ethnographic data sources will be built on an infrastructure initiated by investments from the Missile Defense and Navy offices to provide a robust decision trade-space during acquisition decisions. The Phase I program will solidify the Phase II requirements by having selected OSD analysts interact with the proof-of-concept graphical user interface and database structure to conduct ethnographic-based mission planning. The Phase II program will develop a prototype tool and validate its operation and use concept.

MYMIC LLC
200 High Street Suite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Mr. Phillip jones
OSD 08-CR3      Awarded: 8/8/2008
Title:Rapid Ethnographic Assessment Program
Abstract:MYMIC proposes a new capability, an ethnographic engine called RAVEn (Rapid Assessment and Visualization for Ethnography) that will support planners at the operational and tactical level. RAVEn will be a knowledge management capability that will generate a high level of ethnographic situational awareness. RAVEn will provide the planner with a clear categorization scheme for the collection and visualization of available ethnographic data using the PMESII construct while identifying knowledge gaps and accelerating the collection process of new ethnographic information.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 754-4920
Mr. Ken Doris
OSD 08-CR4      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Dynamic Modeling of Safe Routes
Abstract:Applied Visions, Inc. (AVI) proposes to develop an Adaptive Visualization of Safe Optimized Routes (AVIsor) - a tool that will assist route planners in identifying and visualizing safe convoy paths in the dynamic urban battlespace. AVIsor will build upon our work on a similar SBIR project sponsored by the Navy for the Tactical Tomahawk Weapon program. The result of that effort, the Tactical Target Analysis and Prediction System (TTAPS), uses computer gaming technology, including agent-based artificial intelligence algorithms, to predict the likely destinations and paths of targets vehicles. For this project we will adapt that technology to efficiently generate and visualize safe convoy paths based on multiple regional factors including civilian reaction, local infrastructure, traffic and their effects on the choice of best paths though the road network.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 306-7757
Dr. Kevin Gildea
OSD 08-CR4      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Culturally Aware Routing and Risk Management Application (CARRMA)
Abstract:Attacks against land-based convoys have become one of the defining characteristics of Operation Iraqi Freedom, with ambushes by snipers and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) accounting for an enormous proportion of U.S. casualties. The vulnerability of convoys has been exacerbated by several factors. For one, there is the nonlinear nature of the battlespace in Iraq: Unlike conflicts between conventional forces, there is no rear area in which supply operations are relatively safe from attack. Indeed, even among individual Iraqi citizens, feelings about the presence of coalition forces are mixed and subject to change as political and economic conditions shift. Thus, a given neighborhood or tribe might be considered as predominantly pro-American at one time, but subsequently viewed as less tolerant of the presence of coalition forces. To complement phase-in of the MRAP, we believe it is technically feasible to design a system designed to reduce the likelihood of ambush in the first place. One capability of this system will be to plan and adaptively manage convoy routes.

MILCORD LLC
1050 Winter Street Suite 1000
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 839-7138
Dr. Alper Caglayan
OSD 08-CR4      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:ARCORP - an Adaptive Risk-based Convoy Route Planning decision tool
Abstract:This proposal describes ARCORP, an Adaptive Risk-based Convoy Route Planning decision tool that extends our Course of Action (COA) development framework and Risk- based Route Planning (RBRP) application prototype. RBRP is a Web application that enables users to plan missions, minimizing risks of attack. Using past incident data derived from SIGACT and MTF reports, the route planning application learns the risk associated with various features and fuses this knowledge with geospatial knowledge layers into the route planning process. In this effort, we will pursue two areas of significant new research that is not addressed on our RBRP project. First, we will develop trafficability models, algorithms, and a decision tool that analyzes a fused social, cultural, geospatial, and event knowledgebase. For example, ARCORP will apply knowledge from past experience learned from historical patterns of dismounted and motorized traffic to predict trouble spots associated with scheduled events such as outdoor bazaars, religious services, job recruitment queues, and other events. Second, we will develop adaptive learning mechanisms to represent dynamic events such as traffic conditions, route conditions, and attacks in our models. To support these capabilities, we will also perform research in geospatial and socio-cultural data sources, collection methods, and knowledge engineering.

RE2, INC.
32 Thirty-Ninth St.
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-6382
Dr. Patrick Rowe
OSD 08-CR4      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:An Advanced Risk-Based Route Planning System
Abstract:Typical route planning systems only take a few factors into account when planning an optimal path, namely the overall length of the path and the type of road in order to find the shortest traversal time. This proposal intends to augment existing known path and route planning algorithms - taking additional factors into account when planning a path. The concept of the “shortest traversal time” will be augmented by assigning environmental ‘risk factors’ to different segments of the candidate path. These factors include descriptors such as hostility to foreign presence, time of day, sensitive areas or buildings, or areas with known risks for snipers or IED attacks. The logistics planner or operator can use this software to find the shortest paths with an acceptable risk factor. The advanced path planning software will be able to find the optimal path and it can provide a series of alternative paths. Operators can also specify a known path and have the algorithm calculate the risk level. The advanced path planning software will be able to identify why a particular path was assigned a particular level of risk, what the different risk factors are, and why the path was recommended or rejected.

ROBOTIC RESEARCH LLC
814 W. Diamond Ave. Suite 301
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-0008
Mr. Alberto Lacaze
OSD 08-CR4      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Three Dimensional planning of safe routes
Abstract:Unique challenges exist for U.S. and allied forces within post-conflict areas controlled by hostile forces. Route planning through an area where the customs, lifestyles and social norms are not thoroughly understood presents one of the challenges for these forces. The proposed solution utilizes a three dimensional search technique in (x,y,t) complemented by a probabilistic three dimensional representation of hazards. These hazards depend on the cultural mores as well as the level of aggressiveness. We have assembled a strong team with Robotic Research, General Dynamics and Rababy and Associates that has extensive experience developing, testing and deploying planning solutions.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Patrick A. Toole
OSD 08-CR4      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Dynamic Modeling of Safe Routes
Abstract:The timely determination of the safest routes and schedules for supply convoys is a critical need for post-conflict operations; however, the computational challenge increases exponentially with the number of destinations and the number of supply convoys. We will combine a form of A* algorithm with a combinatorial optimization algorithm to solve for the best convoy schedules. We will utilize a discrete directed graph with dynamic edge costs that represent a degree of ‘safe-ness’ by incorporating factors which include neighborhood hostility, traffic, and time of day. We propose to develop and compare two combinatorial optimization methods, Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm, to provide timely near-optimal, multiple-convoy to multiple-destination delivery schedules. This work will build upon one of our existing operationally deployed GIS applications featuring an optimization module and routing algorithms. Deliverables will include two performance demonstrations: (a) planning for supply convoy scheduling and, (b) rapid re-planning for the convoy commander. We will also deliver a standalone software application which can be used in live exercises to evaluate the efficacy of the developed technology. Phase II will advance the optimization method and develop the capability as a web service application.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Dr. Gene Tu
OSD 08-EP1      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Efficient Thermal Energy Storage (TES) for Mega-Joule Class Weapon Systems
Abstract:High capacity Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems that can rapidly store peak waste heat using phase change material (PCM) and then dissipate it gradually during normal operation are the most ideal and the most compact Thermal Management (TM) systems possible for advanced weapon systems such as high power laser diode arrays and microwaves. These weapon systems are typically powered cyclically and intermittently with peak requirement potentially reaching up to 1000 kJ/s or 1000 kW per system and with a substantially lower average thermal dissipation requirement during normal operation. Various PCM materials offer high latent heat of fusion and the highest possible thermal storage density. Furthermore, their near isothermal characteristics during the phase-change and re-constitution processes are perfectly compatible with advanced micro-electronic systems that need to operate within a very narrow temperature range in order to achieve the optimal performance. Three different heat thermal energy storage (TES) approaches are proposed for evaluation. The feasibility will be evaluated and critical technical issues will be identified and evaluated in Phase I. A successful demonstration of the proposed technology will lead to full scale development and demonstration for a real system in Phase II.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2323
Dr. Robert Copeland
OSD 08-EP1      Awarded: 5/22/2008
Title:High-capacity, High-rate Thermal Storage System
Abstract:When the average thermal dissipation requirement is substantially lower than the peak requirement, a thermal storage system is an excellent candidate. The system takes up the brief, high-powered pulse and dissipates it slowly. This strategy shrinks the system and reduces the weight of the system. Depending on the specific application, cycle times may be relatively short, with rates of 1,000 kJ/sec (one megawatt) or greater. An important application is the thermal management of Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) systems. Different phase change materials (PCMs) are needed for different applications. In this project we will develop a high-capacity, high-rate TES that can deliver 1,000 kJ/kg at 20C (laser applications) to 70C (microwave applications) The proposed system can handle a high heat rates (1,000 kJ/sec) and high heat fluxes (e.g., >100 watts/cm2). Several candidate storage materials have been identified that can approach or exceed the goal of 1,000 kJ/kg storage capacity. In Phase I, TDA will perform a system study to select the most promising materials. Laboratory testing will be done to proof the concept and a preliminary design will be prepared. Weight, volume, and power requirements will be determined, and a prototype TES system will be built in Phase II.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave. PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Mr. David J. Burton
OSD 08-EP2      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Silicon-Modified Nanofibers for Advanced Lithium Ion Anodes
Abstract:Advanced rechargeable battery technology providing higher energy densities and higher specific energies is being sought by the OSD to extend the range and capability of small electronic systems. In this proposal, an anode material is proposed based on carbon nanofiber alloyed with silicon. While many researchers have tested carbon-silicon alloys created through various schemes, these materials suffer always from rapid capacity fade after an initial high capacity. The cause for this rapid diminution in capacity is a large change in volume of the silicon that occurs during charging and discharging, leading to fracture of the material and loss of electrical contact. To overcome this barrier, Applied Sciences has employed a patented process for depositing amorphous silicon onto a carbon nanofiber substrate. Anode materials produced from this combination and tested in a half-cell configuration at General Motors Research Center strongly support achieving anode capacities in excess of 2000 mAh/g with high cycle numbers and charge rates.

ELECTRO ENERGY, INC.
30 Shelter Rock Road
Danbury, CT 06810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 797-2699
Mr. Robert Plivelich
OSD 08-EP2      Awarded: 7/17/2008
Title:High-Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:The project focuses on the development of an improved capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The target gravimetric capacity of 1,500 mAh / g is approximately a five-fold improvement versus current state of the art.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Sohrab Hossain
OSD 08-EP2      Awarded: 5/30/2008
Title:Advanced High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries
Abstract:The present lithium-ion battery technology needs further improvement with respect to specific energy (Wh/kg) and energy density (Wh/l) for military, aerospace, and transportation applications. The improvement in specific energy and energy density can be achieved by choosing (i) an electrochemical couple having high specific capacity of individual electrode materials and/or (ii) an electrochemical couple having high open-circuit voltage. A new battery chemistry consisting of a novel high practical capacity anode, high capacity, high voltage cathode, and a new electrolyte that can stand up to 5 V vs Li is proposed for the development of high energy density lithium-ion batteries. In Phase I, the proposed materials will be produced, characterized, and qualified for the development of lithium-ion cells. Several prototype lithium-ion cells will be fabricated with the proposed materials anode and their performance with respect to specific energy and long-term cycling will be evaluated.

NEI CORP.
400 E Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-3141
Dr. Amit Singhal
OSD 08-EP2      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:High voltage and high energy density Li-ion batteries
Abstract:Safe, non-toxic, high voltage and high energy density Li-ion batteries, along with good power density are needed in a variety of military, space and commercial applications. The specific power and energy density of Li-ion batteries can be enhanced by utilizing cathode materials that have higher cycling voltage and specific capacity. We have identified a cathode material composition that can deliver exceptionally high capacity and which avoids using the expensive and toxic cobalt as a constituent in the active material. The innovation in composition is combined with ultrafine particle size to maximize intrinsic and extrinsic Li-ion conductivity of the material, and stabilize the structure against the degradation by the electrolyte at high charge voltages. Working in collaboration with a University partner, first principles computational methods will be used as a pre-screening and explanatory tool for experimentation. Based on the computational results, cathode materials with specific compositions and ultrafine particle size will be produced. Electrochemical properties of cathode materials will be tested in both Li and Li-ion configurations, in partnership with a Li-ion battery manufacturer. In Phase II, prototype batteries will be fabricated and tested for performance, along with optimization and scaling of the synthesis process for producing cathode particles.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Joseph Gnanaraj
OSD 08-EP2      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Advanced Materials and Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing advanced battery chemistries that provide batteries operate safely at specific energies higher than 100 Wh/kg, energy densities over 600 Wh/l. The olivine-type phosphate cathodes are attractive. The stable nature of the olivine-type structure having a PO43− polyanion with a strong P–O covalent bond provides not only excellent cycle-life but also a safe system. Further, olivines are resistant to overcharge and thermal degradation, and are inherently safer than oxides that may release oxygen at inopportune times. The robust covalent bonding of PO43−, however, reduces the compounds’ ionic conductivities, and olivines require additional treatment with conductive aids to perform at reasonable capacities. Yardney Technical Products proposes to develop a high voltage (5V) olivine-type phosphate cathode, and a suitable electrolyte system for high energy Li- ion battery.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Weibo B. Chen
OSD 08-EP3      Awarded: 5/22/2008
Title:Highly Efficient, Lightweight, High Temperature Blower for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Abstract:Long-endurance unmanned vehicle (UV) and munition systems require lightweight, compact, and efficient power systems. Advanced fuel cells are promising technologies that can be used for both primary propulsion and auxiliary power units for these applications. A lightweight, high temperature, efficient cathode blower is a critical component to enable a compact SOFC power unit to achieve the high specific power and low specific fuel consumption requirements for long-endurance UVs. We propose to develop a reliable, lightweight, highly efficient blower that can meet the OSD’s challenging performance specifications. The miniature, efficient blower will reduce the take-off weight of UVs and increase their endurance. The innovative blower will be built using Creare’s proven high-speed micro turbomachinery technologies. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by modeling performance of the blower and performing proof-of-concept tests. In Phase II we will build and test the blowers and deliver prototype systems for testing in relevant environments.

PHOENIX ANALYSIS & DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES
7755 S. Research Dr. ASU Research Park, Suite # 110
Tempe, AZ 85284
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 813-4884
Mr. Rob Rowan
OSD 08-EP3      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:High-Temperature Blower Development for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Applications
Abstract:This proposal outlines the design of a very low weight blower system that will provide cathode air for a small ( ~ 2 kW) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power system. This design (the HTCAB) will derive from a proven blower system that PADT has already developed (LCAB). The improved HTCAB blower system will offer the following advances: 50% more flow, a 10% improvement in efficiency, an 85% increase in power density, a 15% reduction in volume, integration of a sensorless controller, and an increase in allowable inlet temperature to 100C. The aerodynamic improvments be will be built and tested in phase I, but the rest of the changes will be designed and reviewed but not built until phase II. The proposed benefits will be achieved by increasing the width of the aerodynamic flowpath, eliminating the aft bearing carrier, eliminating a number of heat sinks, changing to low density plastic (Ultem)for some parts, changeing to magnesium for the motor housing, and providing space for a sensorless controller.

R&D DYNAMICS CORP.
15 Barber Pond Road
Bloomfield, CT 06002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 726-1204
Dr. Giri Agrawal
OSD 08-EP3      Awarded: 5/22/2008
Title:Foil Bearing Supported Centrifugal Cathode Air Blower
Abstract:The proposed technology will reduce the size and weight of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power systems for unmanned air vehicle and munition (UAV) applications thus making future UAV's lighter and more fuel efficient. In addition, the proposed technology will further enable the Air Force’s move toward more electric aircraft. The technological advance will have a spillover benefit to land and sea based vehicles utilizing SOFC power systems. A high technology cathode air blower will be designed and built in Phase I. The cathode air blower is able to operate at very high speeds > 100,000 rpm because the rotating assembley will be supported on foil air bearings. This high speed operation allows for a very small, light weight and efficient air blower which enables more power dense SOFC power systems.

ACUMENTRICS
20 Southwest Park
Westwood, MA 02090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 461-8251
Mr. Tony Litka
OSD 08-EP4      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Advanced Hybrid Thermoelectric-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Energy Conversion for High Efficiency Portable Power
Abstract:The proposal would provide the design and basic product development work to augment the power generation efficiency of fuel cells developed by Acumentrics Corp. by converting waste heat into electricity by highly efficient thermoelectric (TE) power generation. Three paths will be explored in Phase I to add a TE generator to the SOFC. The first will explore the use of a material that is used in commercial products and currently achieves a 6-9% conversion efficiency. The second will utilize a novel material developed jointly by researchers that have demonstrated a 16-20% conversion efficiency with this material in prototype arrays. The third approach will be to amplify the efficiency of the selected TE material by using a novel glass-encased nanowire technique developed by a third company that harnesses quantum confinement to increase efficiency. This technique holds promise both for increasing TEG conversion efficiency and for dramatically reducing the complexity and cost of creating an actual commercial device. The goal of Phase I will be to establish the most realistic pathway to a small SOFC-TE generator that can achieve over 45% combined efficiency when running on light hydrocarbon fuels such as propane.

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 530-4987
Mr. Michael A. Homel
OSD 08-EP4      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Advanced Hybrid Thermoelectric-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Energy Conversion for High Efficiency Portable Power
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a hybrid thermoelectric (TE) - solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) portable generator to achieve high conversion efficiency by applying the applicant's expertise in SOFC technologies and the development of an improved high temperature thermoelectric device. The hybrid system configuration can improve system efficiency by 30% relative to existing SOFC or conventional generators.

NANODYNAMICS ENERGY, INC.
901 Fuhrmann Blvd.
Buffalo, NY 14203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 880-1019
Dr. Caine Finnerty
OSD 08-EP4      Awarded: 7/3/2008
Title:Advanced Hybrid Thermoelectric-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Energy Conversion for High Efficiency Portable Power
Abstract:Technology is rapidly advancing both in the area of thermoelectric (TE) modules and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Advanced solid oxide fuel cells are theoretically capable of converting over 60% of the energy available in the fuel (based on the fuels lower heating value) to electricity at operating temperatures around 800 degrees C. The remaining 40% of the energy is converted to heat. With the development of high performance thermoelectric materials, it now appears that a significant portion of the waste heat produced by an SOFC system can be converted into useable electrical energy by thermoelectric devices. An integrated SOFC-TE hybrid, therefore, offers the potential of increased efficiency (lower fuel consumption) than a conventional SOFC. This project proposes a parametric investigation of the integration of the application of advanced SOFC and thermoelectric technologies to maximize the efficiency of a portable power generator with 250Watts of net output power. A laboratory test of a thermoelectric device heated by a solid oxide fuel cell is also discussed. A conceptual design of the integrated 250 Watt SOFC-TE power system will be created.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGY
3300 A Westminister Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 554-5511
Dr. Timothy Lin
OSD 08-EP5      Awarded: 7/8/2008
Title:High-temperature, Electrically-insulating Coating for Magnet Wires
Abstract:In this SBIR project, Aegis Technology proposes to develop a high-temperature, electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires used in electro-mechanical and power conversion components. The development of such coating will enable the resultant components and systems to operate at high temperatures, high power densities and high frequencies, offering the advantages such as high efficiency, small size and light weight. In this Phase I, we are to demonstrate a novel magnet wire insulation concept based on a Si3N4-based ceramic coating material, which can be cost-effectively processed by a polymer-based precursor. With a proper control of processing, it is likely to form a nanocrystalline-microstructure coating with a thickness varying from a few nanometers (thin film) to a few micrometers (thick film). With such a ceramic coating, the insulation properties, thermal stability and mechanical strength can be substantially enhanced, making the resultant magnet wires can work reliably high temperatures far exceeding than 300 C.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Victor M. Arrieta
OSD 08-EP5      Awarded: 9/24/2008
Title:Continuous Coating Process for Magnet Wire Insulation
Abstract:In recent decades, advancements in electronic components have led to devices that generate significantly more heat per unit area. The processes by which waste heat is removed are less efficient, and the system must operate at higher temperatures. Magnet wire is a key component in many of these devices, and the durability of the insulating coating is critical to operation at elevated temperatures. Additional stresses on the wire insulation also come from the use of high-frequency, pulse-width-modulation control schemes. The integrity and lifetime of the magnet wire coating is therefore directly related to system performance and reliability. In previous work, Ultramet developed a rapid, low- cost method of applying oxide, nitride, and carbide interface coatings to carbon and silicon carbide fibers at low temperatures (as low as 100°C) through ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (UVCVD). Ultraviolet energy is used to decompose coating precursor gases at much lower temperatures than when thermal energy is used alone. The low temperature process has clear advantages over alternative coating methods because it is not line-of-sight and therefore can uniformly coat intricate shapes such as individual fine fibers. In this project, Ultramet will extend the current technology by applying BN coatings as insulation on magnet wire. The UVCVD process will also be transitioned from batch to continuous deposition, which will further reduce the cost of the coating process. The continuous process will also have increased manufacturing capabilities because it is not limited by downtime between batches or by reactor size.

ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Dr. Roberto Marcelo Schupbach
OSD 08-EP6      Awarded: 11/20/2008
Title:High Reliablility, High Power Density, Silicon Carbide (SiC) Based Solid-State Circuit Breakers for Next Generation Military Weapons Platforms
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project seeks to develop an advanced flexible self-powered robust high power density solid-state circuit breaker (SSCB) through the incorporation of emerging silicon carbide (SiC) device technology and the implementation of advanced thermal management schemes. APEI, Inc. will analyze different SiC device technology presently available and carry out the initial design of a full- scale SiC-based SSCB. Additionally, APEI, Inc. will demonstrate the advantages of the proposed approach through the hardware implementation of a scaled-down (700 V / 50 A) Phase I technology demonstration prototype. Phase II work will target the complete development and testing of a full-scale SiC-based SSCB.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Bruce R. Pilvelait
OSD 08-EP6      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:A Fast Acting Solid-State Circuit Breaker for Electrical Power Systems
Abstract:Increased demands for electric vehicle performance have resulted in large power requirements and the potential for extremely large fault currents. This is true not only for over-the-road electric and hybrid vehicles, but also for ships and aircraft, which are increasingly moving toward all-electric propulsion. Without fast and reliable means to limit fault currents and isolate faulted sections, overall power capacity and mission performance will be constrained. Recent advances in extremely fast (sub-micro- seconds), high voltage and current (hundreds of volts and amps), and high temperature semiconductor switching devices (300 degrees C) provide the opportunity to develop advanced solid-state protection devices. This will allow large loads to be isolated quickly, enabling the move to greater system power capacity. Creare will develop a bi-directional, fast acting switch which can substantially increase electric power capacity. In Phase I, we will demonstrate feasibility with a comprehensive design study and prototype demonstration. We will demonstrate advanced fault management performance, the capability to withstand high voltage and current magnitudes, and an implementation plan that results in a scalable and cost effective protection device. During Phase II, we will demonstrate field operation in military hybrid electric vehicles with our partner, DRS Technologies Inc.

SEMISOUTH LABORATORIES
201 Research Blvd.
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-7607
Dr. David C. Sheridan
OSD 08-EP6      Awarded: 12/15/2008
Title:Scalable Solid-State Circuit Breaker (SSCB)
Abstract:Solid-state circuit breakers have significant advantage over electromechanically relays due to the use of various types of solid-state transistors used to control the power flow. These transistors are generally much faster than their mechanical counterparts, switching orders of magnitude, hence allowing superior fault isolation capabilities. Unfortunately, the currently available current and voltage range of solid-state circuit breakers do not cover the specifications for the MEA or Army hybrid vehicle requirements. The limitations of the current solid-state relays are inherent to the fact that the switching transistors are built upon silicon technology. Silicon Carbide (SiC) JFET technology from SemiSouth has the ability to dramatically eliminate this current limitation, and impact near-term revolutionary system insertion opportunities. The optimal solution will be to develop a complete Solid State Circuit Breaker based on this innovative, reliable, scalable SiC Vertical JFET technology. During this Phase I program, SemiSouth will develop leverage existing Air Force funded development and prototype funding of large area 800V/20A SiC VJFET devices to build a prototype 600V/50A SSCB module and provide complete characterization of the module’s electrical characteristics and thermal design space in anticipation of scaling the VJFETs and SSCB design to 1200V and 200A+.

ADVANCED COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6105
Mr. Richard Bonner
OSD 08-EP7      Awarded: 5/15/2008
Title:Dropwise Condensation on Hydrophobic Wick Structures
Abstract:The proposed SBIR project will develop an innovative heat transfer mechanism involving dropwise condensation promoted by a non-wetting self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a porous metal wick. Dropwise condensation on a bare surface has shown the ability to increase condensation heat transfer coefficients by orders of magnitude over film condensation. By condensing on a wick, heat transfer coefficients are expected to be further increased over on bare surfaces because of the increased surface area of the porous metal wick and the more effective liquid removal from the cooled surface by a Laplace gradient mechanism. To promote dropwise condensation on the wick, the wick will be coated with a self-assembled monolayer with low surface energy, to make the surfaces non-wetting to low surface tension fluids such as fluorocarbons and refrigerants. The proposed condensation technology is applicable in pumped two-phase flow devices such as hybrid two-phase loops, passive two-phase flow devices such as loop heat pipes, and gravity aided heat pipes or thermosyphons. In Phase I, we will develop sintered metal wick with SAM fabrication procedure, experimentally demonstrate the improved condensation heat transfer coefficient, perform life test of SAM under thermal loading, and design liquid cooled condenser heat exchanger integrating dropwise condensation.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Mr. Bill Miller
OSD 08-EP7      Awarded: 5/19/2008
Title:Advanced Compact Condenser for Electronics Cooling
Abstract:Innovative thermal management approaches are required to address the increasing demand of safely dissipating large amounts of heat from very small electronic component. Removal of waste heat via evaporative cooling technologies presents the best opportunity to enable the integration of high power electronic systems into future military platforms where size, weight, and efficiency are a premium. Advanced cooling technologies, such as microchannel and spray cooling technologies have demonstrated heat transfer coefficients in excess of 105 W/m2K and with low pumping powers. In order to fully realize system level benefits, similar advances in condenser technology are required. Innovative compact condensers are urgently required. A compact high performance condenser requires high and comparable heat transfer coefficients on both the refrigerant-side and the coolant-side. Innovative technologies, such as drop-wise condensation, microchannel cooling, and advanced cooling using high conductivity carbon-based materials are identified for further evaluation on performance, repeatability and durability. Prototype condenser using the most promising technologies will be fabricated and tested.

ASPEN SYSTEMS, INC.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 281-5322
Mr. Steven Casey
OSD 08-EP7      Awarded: 5/13/2008
Title:Compact Condensers for Electronics Cooling
Abstract:To enable the integration of high power electronics into future military platforms, an efficient compact condenser technology which is compact, lightweight, and efficient is needed to remove waste heat from these electronics. Aspen Systems endeavors to meet this need by proposing an advanced condenser design concept which promises to enhance heat transfer on the mini-, micro-, and nano-scales to achieve heat transfer coefficients in excess of 50,000 W/m2-K while minimizing pressure drop. Furthermore, this innovative design concept is compact, low-profile, lightweight, high-strength, and scalable across a wide range of capacities. These benefits are largely derived from its basic flat plate configuration which is manufactured and assembled using modern, reliable techniques. The low-profile, block-like form, and flat footprint allow ease of installation and integration into or on top of electronics enclosures. Aspen Systems is a leader in developing microclimate conditioning systems based upon vapor-compression technology. Aspen develops refrigeration components and integrated packaged systems for electronics cooling and has particular core competencies in micro-channel heat exchangers for both evaporators and condensers. Aspen is well-positioned to support long-term development efforts and commercialization for micro-channel heat exchangers and refrigeration systems.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael G. Izenson
OSD 08-EP7      Awarded: 5/15/2008
Title:Ultra-High Heat Flux Condenser for Electronics Cooling
Abstract:Temperature control systems for high-power electronics in future military platforms are likely to use two-phase cooling systems, either in the form of two-phase pumped loops or vapor compression refrigeration systems. Either type of system will require a compact condenser to reject heat from the system. We propose to develop an innovative heat exchanger that couples an extremely compact, microchannel condenser with a very-high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger. The technology enables very low thermal resistance and uses only well-established, low-cost fabrication processes and can be adapted to a wide range of sizes and form factors. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by defining a complete set of specifications for the condenser, designing and building a proof-of-concept condenser, and demonstrating heat transfer coefficients of 50,000 W/m²-K or greater. In Phase II we will design, build, and demonstrate a full-scale prototype to reject 5 kW of heat from a two-phase loop operating at 70°C to a fresh water cooling loop at a temperature of 25°C.

INTERNATIONAL MEZZO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7167 Florda Blvd
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 706-0191
Dr. Jeffrey McLean
OSD 08-EP7      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Compact Condensers for Electronics Cooling
Abstract:Mezzo Technologies designs and fabricates micro channel heat exchangers that offer high performance in non phase change applications (gas-gas, liquid-liquid, and gas-liqid). The potential exists or Mezzo's heat exchangers to also provide excellent performance in applications involving phase change (condensers and evaporators). Mezzo proposes a very compact design for the Phase I effort that can serve as the generic platform for an extensive Phase II test program to produce an optimal condenser design. The Phase I effort will focus on modeling, fabricating and testing a condenser. The combination of model prediction and test results will serve as the starting point for the extensive Phase II design effort. Mezzo's design provides the following advantages: 1. Advantages of micro scale passages result in compact, low weight heat exchanger 2. Flexibility in terms of plumbing (i. e. the high pressure refrigerant can be plumbed to allow flow throuh either set of passages). 3. Mezzo's manufacture approach is low cost. This makes it possible to fabricate and test a matrix of heat exchanger designs.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-3435
Dr. Steven Seghi
OSD 08-EP7      Awarded: 5/12/2008
Title:Advanced Condensers Utilizing Microchannel Evaporator Networks (ACUMEN)
Abstract:Described is a highly compact two-phase microchannel condenser concept based on a two-phase loop evaporator design developed for cooling high performance servers in racks on Navy ships/submarines, a novel design that has demonstrated open-air evaporative heat transfer coefficients with water of 250,000 W/m2 K. The idea is to utilize the existing microchannel evaporator design approach -- which combines 20 micron width copper microchannels with a larger pore size low thermal conductivity "supply wick" in a flat form factor -- and apply that same design approach to a microchannel condenser. Based on axially-grooved heat pipe condenser heat transfer coefficients that are about twice those in the evaporator, and cylindrical two-phase loop evaporators that function very effectively as condensers when heat load sharing, proposed microchannel condenser is expected to achieve heat transfer coefficients equal to or greater than the previously mentioned water value. The technology should be highly effective with typical two-phase working fluids, and it can be integrated into a variety of two-phase heat transport systems, including ones that are capillary pumped, liquid mechanically pumped, or vapor compression pumped. The team that successfully carried out the previous SBIR program for the Navy is maintained: TA&T, ATK, B&K Engineering, and Aavid Thermalloy.

THERMACORE, INC.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 519-3133
Dr. Sergey Semenov
OSD 08-EP7      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Compact Condensers for Electronics Cooling
Abstract:Multiphase heat transfer technology is one of the most efficient methods of waste heat removal in high power electronics cooling. It is especially advantageous where size, weight, and efficiency are the most important factors. A multiphase heat transfer system consists of evaporator, transport lines, condenser, and a mechanical pump in case of an active cooling system. Typically, the evaporative heat transfer coefficients are much higher than the condensation heat transfer coefficients. For example, microchannel refrigerant evaporators exhibit over a hundred thousand W/m2K, while microchannel condensers have refrigerant heat transfer coefficients on the order of several thousand W/m2K. Therefore, the condenser is the limiting component of the cooling system. Improvement of the condenser heat transfer coefficients would allow for reductions in cooling system size and weight. Military systems would especially benefit from cooling systems that are more compact and lightweight. Consequently, the objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to develop a compact and efficient condenser design with a heat transfer coefficients in excess of 50,000 W/m2K. The proposed approach is to utilize the drop wise condensation mechanism combined with a porous wick structure for condensate absorption. The Phase 1 effort begins with technical requirements definition. Based on these requirements, Thermacore will design a high efficiency compact condenser system based upon drop wise condensation and an innovative approach for removal of the condensate. The goal is to avoid film condensation as it is used in conventional condenser systems. In addition, the compact condenser design will be integrated with a loop heat pipe evaporator, processed and thermally tested. Feasibility of the condenser design will be also verified by modeling. The Phase I work will conclude with a demonstration of a 50,000 W/m2K heat transfer coefficient of the condenser system.

CLEVER FELLOWS INNOVATION CONSORTIUM
302 10th St.
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 272-3565
Dr. Philip Spoor
OSD 08-EP8      Awarded: 9/19/2008
Title:Rotating 30K Coolers for HTS Motors and Generators
Abstract:On-board rotating cryocooling can eliminate a major cost, size, and reliability limitation from superconducting motors and generators. Qdrive acoustic-Stirling sealed, oil-free, and non-wearing cryocooler technology is uniquely suited to rotating service, as demonstrated in a miniature model. This Phase I project will extend the design to ship- power scale coolers, using multiple 2-stage coldheads and will develop integration with superconducting rotor geometry in cooperation with a leading HTS device developer, to establish feasibility and enable full-scale hardware proof in Phase II.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Patrick J. Magari, PhD
OSD 08-EP8      Awarded: 8/24/2008
Title:Shaft-Mounted Cryogenic Refrigerator for HTS Motors and Generators
Abstract:Due to their high-power density and efficiency, large-capacity, high-temperature, superconductor (HTS) motors and generators offer a number of advantages over conventional electrical machines for ship propulsion and power generating systems. One of the key practical issues with HTS machines is the ancillary support equipment required to accommodate the low cryogenic rotor operating temperature (~30 K). In particular, cryogenic refrigeration is problematic since available cryocoolers cannot be mounted on the HTS machine shaft, requiring the use of slip couplings to pass cryogenic helium to and from the shaft. The objective of the currently proposed Phase I SBIR project is to evaluate the potential of developing a shaft-mounted cryocooler to eliminate these couplings, as well as reduce the size and mass of the cryocooler. There are substantial constraints on size, weight, and reliability in this application that present significant challenges for most existing cryocooler technologies. Our approach is based on proprietary reverse-Brayton cryocooler technology, which will be unaffected by HTS machine rotation and should provide many other benefits such as ultra-high reliability, light weight, compactness, and flexible packaging. Our approach eliminates the need for an auxiliary cryogenic circulator and can be easily scaled across a broad range of HTS machine cooling requirements.

AFCO SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT, INC.
150 Broadhollow Rd
Melville, NY 11747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 424-3935
Mr. Godfrey Vassallo
OSD 08-IA1      Awarded: 6/30/2008
Title:Software Partitioning to Migrate Critical Software Components to Trusted Hardware
Abstract:ASD proposes to develop and integrate an Application Partitioning Toolkit (APT). The APT provides an environment for the partitioning, analysis and the construction of a distributed application. The initial target of the toolkit is the OSD06-IA7 secure coprocessor and application monitor. The toolkit consists of the following components: 1. A Windows based development environment, which is able to work with both source level as well as binary executable representations of target applications. 2. A Portable Executable file format analysis and manipulation module with a corresponding human interface. 3. A C to VHDL translator. 4. A host based interface library for run time linkage of the distributed components. 5. A VHDL compiler and logic synthesis tool chain. 6. Static and dynamic program slicing, analysis and reporting modules. 7. A secure coprocessor embedded software/firmware development environment. A development test-bed that can be used to test, analyze and debug the distributed application. The test-bed will contain an exposed PC (motherboard, hard disk, power supply, etc.), a specially constructed secure coprocessor card with exposed test and probe points, and corresponding documentation for the firmware (Board Support Package), hardware (schematics and data sheets), and development guide. is, partitioning and the construction of a distributed application.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Robert Dick
OSD 08-IA1      Awarded: 6/30/2008
Title:Software Partitioning to Migrate Critical Software Components to Trusted Hardware
Abstract:Despite the increased levels of application security offered by secure coprocessors, the barrier of entry into this realm has been prohibitively high for software developers. Coprocessors do not incorporate sufficient computational resources to host entire applications; therefore it is up to developers to refactor applications by hand in order to derive components that will be tailored to run on the trusted hardware. We propose to ease the transition of software, either in compiled or in source code form, onto secure coprocessor hardware by providing a suit of innovative tools that will automate the software partitioning process, as well as streamline the entire software production lifecycle for partitioned applications from development, to distribution, and finally to execution on client machines. “Secure Division(tm)”, our proposed toolset, will leverage a state-of-the-art program slicer to split software components in a manner guaranteed to be correct, provide high levels of security, and minimize performance penalties. We will include a secure runtime environment in our toolset that is specifically designed to allow dynamic execution of code on the trusted hardware without compromising its integrity.

BLUERISC, INC.
28 Dana Street
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-0599
Mr. Kristopher Carver
OSD 08-IA1      Awarded: 6/30/2008
Title:Binary Level Software Partitioning to Trusted Hardware
Abstract:In this proposal we outline the infrastructure for automating the partitioning/mapping of code snippets and data at the binary level in hardware-assisted software protection solutions. All techniques will be developed with the objective of achieving the highest possible security and flexibility. The approach has several innovative components including the ability to select the critical codes with a graphical user interface at the binary level (including source-level semantic information such as procedure names), the ability to protect applications compiled for various host CPU and HPD ISAs, cross-compilation to HPDs, and support for distributed applications and HPDs. The approach supports both static and dynamic mapping to HPDs: e.g., the HPDs used for co-execution can be dynamically changed at runtime providing additional security and performance benefits.

CRUCIAL SECURITY, INC.
14900 Conference Cntr Dr Suite 225
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9456
Mr. Sean Bullington
OSD 08-IA1      Awarded: 7/1/2008
Title:Software Partitioning to Migrate Critical Software Components to Trusted Hardware
Abstract:Crucial Security will research and develop techniques for the automated partitioning of software systems. The techniques will facilitate a system which can modify the source code or binary form of an application in order to partition user-defined critical code segments for the purpose of running the segments in a separate, trusted, and distributed environments. We will investigate how to determine and define specific attributes that accurately describe a critical code segment while mitigating the occurrence of false positives. Additionally, we will develop techniques to determine the feasibility of running the critical code segments outside of the original software system, based on the operating requirements of the existing piece of software and the environment in which the code segment will execute. Finally, we will develop techniques to automatically parse and manipulate source and binary code in order to meet the conditions required for the code to execute in a separate environment. The end result of Phase I will be a proof of concept utility which will demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques on both the source and binary forms of a test application.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Jonathan Springer
OSD 08-IA1      Awarded: 7/1/2008
Title:Software Partitioning for Protecting High-Performance Code
Abstract:Modern devices of all kinds are increasingly dependent upon software, and that software increasingly constitutes a distinct military assert and battlefield advantage. Hardware anti-tamper solutions offer substantial protection for software assets, but can be difficult to apply due to architectural constraints leading to performance or cost tradeoffs. Software partitioning can resolve these tradeoffs by allowing the use of mixed environments combining protected and unprotected hardware. Tranditional program slicing techniques can handle simple partitioning tasks but are not well-suited to software involving substantial loop structure, which is often the most sensitive aspect of the software. In this work, we will enhance the powerful loop transformation and mapping framework present in Reservoir's R-Stream compiler to handle software partitioning for loop-oriented codes. This will make partition-based software protect viable for a broad class of high-performance software, such as signal processing.

ASSURED INFORMATION SECURITY, INC.
245 Hill Road
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 336-3306
Dr. Joseph Sharkey
OSD 08-IA2      Awarded: 6/20/2008
Title:Software Protection via Alternative Mode Execution
Abstract:This project will examine the feasibility of using alternative modes of execution on x86 processors as a means of providing protection for sensitive applications. The research will aim to answer two main questions: 1) can alternate modes of execution provide an environment that is suitable for running an application; and 2) do these modes provide a better level of protection or isolation for the application then what is afforded by the Operating System (OS). Part of this study will also include a detailed examination of the differences between processor modes to identify differences in the observed runtime environment provided to an application (i.e. 16-bit vs. 32-bit operand size, physical vs. virtual addressing, etc).

CRUCIAL SECURITY, INC.
14900 Conference Cntr Dr Suite 225
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9456
Mr. Michael Myers
OSD 08-IA2      Awarded: 6/25/2008
Title:Covert Loading and Execution of Software Protections to Reduce Adversarial Detection
Abstract:Our proposal is that we will document available methods for loading and executing stealth software, and critically analyze the effectiveness of each approach with regards to the goals of securing against discovery, tampering, or debugging/disassembling. We will select our ideal approach for stealthy software loading and execution and develop the concept into a minimal software prototype for Phase I.

CYBER DEFENSE AGENCY, LLC
3601 43rd Street South
Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 268-0873
Mr. Rico Valdez
OSD 08-IA2      Awarded: 6/23/2008
Title:Utilizing Hardware Features for Covert Loading and Execution of Software
Abstract:Current methods for the covert loading and execution of software typically operate at ring zero or are hypervisor based. Detecting the presence of hidden processes is a cat and mouse game when using traditional kernel-based techniques, and timing analysis and other methods have demonstrated the ability to detect the presence of a hypervisor as well. Modern hardware platforms provide opportunities to execute code completely outside of the context of the operating system. Some of the challenges of covertly executing code on the hardware resources, outside the context of the operating system, involve interfacing with the overlying OS and finding ways to meaningfully interact with it. To fully explore the possibilities of covert loading and execution of software, we must further investigate the approaches for leveraging the hardware resources of a system to execute code covertly. This research looks at BIOS modifications, peripheral cards, and Systems Management Mode (SMM), as well as an investigation into the capabilities introduced with the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI), and the possibilities for covert code execution using this emerging architecture.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Mr. Thomas Johnson
OSD 08-IA2      Awarded: 6/23/2008
Title:Covert Loading and Execution of Software Protections to Reduce Adversarial Detection
Abstract:A number of software defenses exist that frustrate attempts to examine or tamper with a protected application. However, attackers are unlikely to approach the defenses head-on. One weak point is during installation and deployment of defenses. There is sort of a “who came first” game played between the protected application and the attacker. If the attacker arrives first, then they can observe the defenses as they are setup, gaining great insight into how the protections can be subverted. This opening must be prevented. We envision a technique that enhances existing defenses by protecting the loading phase of the sensitive application. Under this system, attackers are denied access to system initialization and sensitive software is made inseparable from the OS, thereby preventing attack before protection can be raised against it.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Mr. Jonathan Kline
OSD 08-IA2      Awarded: 6/20/2008
Title:Covert Loading and Execution of Software Protections to Reduce Adversarial Detection
Abstract:Pikewerks proposes to research and develop methods to securely load and execute sensitive software modules in a covert manner that cannot easily be defeated by even the most dedicated adversaries. The mechanisms developed will enhance software protection systems by making them more robust against reverse-engineering efforts. Software loading approaches can be divided into pre-boot and post-boot mechanisms. Pre-boot approaches typically include BIOS or boot sector modifications. Post-boot approaches typically include the use of documented OS, user, and kernel driver loading mechanisms as well as undocumented methods such as the exploitation of unpublished vulnerabilities. Pikewerks will focus on pre-boot methods of software loading and covert execution. Research will focus on several different methods of covert software execution, and a prototype will be generated that demonstrates the feasibility of covert loading using either the best method or combination of methods discovered during the research.

COMPUTER NETWORKS & SOFTWARE, INC.
7405 Alban Station Court B-225
Springfield, VA 22150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 644-2103
Dr. Chris Dhas
OSD 08-IA3      Awarded: 6/25/2008
Title:A Scalable Cross-Layer Framework for Distributed Trust Evaluation in Sensor Networks
Abstract:Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are popular due to the fact that they are potentially low cost solutions to a variety of real-world challenges. However, the unreliable communication channel and unattended operation makes security difficult and multiple attacks have been discovered. Research has gone into securing the network using efficient key distribution and management mechanisms but use of a single shared key in the WSN is not a good idea because an adversary can easily obtain the key and is processing intensive. A mission using a sensor network can be considered successful if a response to a query is obtained with a high degree of reliability. By attaching ratings to each node based on their interaction with other nodes, trust levels can be maintained based on ‘reputation’ with other nodes. The trust level provides a way to categorize query-forwarding as reliable or not. We propose to develop a system that provides a ‘trust level’ mechanism that effectively rates a node’s interaction with its neighbors, provides a scalable solution for large-scale networks, and provides a set of ratings that are an accurate representation of the interactions between nodes in response to a query. The system can be deployed as a software/middleware solution.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5209
Dr. Julia Deng
OSD 08-IA3      Awarded: 6/24/2008
Title:Agent-based Trusted Querying Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:Corresponding to the increasing trends of using sensor network for the daily operations in both commercial and defense sectors, designing an efficient query processing mechanism for wireless sensor networks has also been paid attentions. While recent research efforts on database based query processing approach dramatically improves the efficiency of query processing, another critical component, security, is still missing. In reality, the sensor networks are expected to be deployed in various hostile environments, for example, battlefield, and these unattended wireless sensors are faced with a variety of risks and can easily be hijacked or compromised. Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes a novel Agent-based Trusted Querying Framework (ATQF). The intent of this work is to incorporate theories of trust from social networks into sensor networks in order to provide a trusted query processing infrastructure that returns the highest-fidelity response to the end-nodes of a sensor network. One significant difference between the proposed approach and traditional reputation-based trust models is that the trustworthiness is not only evaluated from the Reputation, but also takes the Risk into account. We will show that adding the Risk value into the trust management model make the scheme more efficient and accurate.

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Dr. Abhishek Tiwari
OSD 08-IA3      Awarded: 7/9/2008
Title:Learn to Trust Thy Neighbor: Proactive Trust Management System (PTMS) for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are systems that may contain hundreds to thousands of low-power and low-cost sensor nodes. The potential applicability of such systems is enormous and includes environment monitoring, security surveillance and intrusion detection, monitoring chemical plants for safety, wireless body area networks, among others. As WSN technology matures, an increasing number of such systems will be deployed in real world, hostile environments. As a result, WSNs will be the subject of a wide variety of possible attacks. While the different basic cryptographic building blocks and hardened hardware architectures currently available for most WSN platforms allow protection on a single node basis, once a node has been compromised, such building blocks are not efficient in preventing wider scale attacks. To that end, UtopiaCompression (UC), in conjunction with its consultants Lockheed Martin and Prof. Mario Gerla, proposes a reputation-based solution: Proactive Trust Management System (PTMS) for WSNs. Our innovative solution is specifically designed to address resource constrained WSNs and is based on temporal and spatial outlier detection mechanisms as well as on a Dempster Shafer theory based reputation system. During Phase I, UC will produce a simulated prototype of our system and validate its performance through comparison with alternative approaches.

BLUERISC, INC.
28 Dana Street
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-0599
Mr. Jared Eldredge
OSD 08-IA4      Awarded: 6/24/2008
Title:Autonomous Network Edge Trust Assurance
Abstract:In this proposal, we outline a comprehensive system enabling security measurements and interactions in distributed HPD-protected end-point systems, based on new measures of end-point trust that can be exchanged between authorized services/applications/resources. Trustedness sharing is done in such a way that it is not leaked or compromised even in end-points that are otherwise compromised including their OSs. The proposed approach has a unique combination of services and capabilities that go much beyond state-of-the-art to assure network edge trust and to provide end-point trust-based management/authorization of security features in a networked distributed environment such as envisioned for the GIG.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Mr. Ricardo Yepez
OSD 08-IA4      Awarded: 6/23/2008
Title:Entropy-Trust-Homology Operational Security (ETHOS)
Abstract:Secure and semi-secure distributed networks rely on static security protocols and certificate authorities to attempt to assure trust between network participants. Trust is based on what others initially think of the participant and not on what the participant actually says or does. Trust should be based not only on initial impressions but also on subsequent participation in the network. KBSI proposes an Entropy-Trust-Homology Operational Security (ETHOS) method of securing trust based on the information that is exchanged between the different edges of the communication network. Trust entropy metrics would be developed based on the pattern of information entropy flow between edges and on usage behavior. The metrics would be updated by a hardware device residing at each edge. The hardware device would use graph-based data mining techniques to update the metrics and autonomically collaborate with other edges in a distributed manner. The distributed collaboration would result in a secure, verifiable network where trust is based on what the edges do rather than solely on who the edges say the are.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Dr. Mark Heileman
OSD 08-IA4      Awarded: 6/26/2008
Title:Assuring Trust between the Edges
Abstract:In order for the DoD to leverage the advantages enabled by network-centric operations, it is critical to ensure the quality of the information that feeds decision-making processes. The ability of an enemy to compromise network elements in order to inject spurious information must be viewed as one of the biggest threats to missions supported by network-centric operations. In this research project we will develop an open architectural framework, along with a supporting protocol stack, that allows the trust associated with network elements to be evaluated and acted upon within a networked environment. This will include a sophisticated semantic technology service that may be out-of-band to previously established operations, and allows subjective information to be incorporated into trust calculations. We will also provide an analysis of the security of the overall architecture.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Robert A. Dick
OSD 08-IA5      Awarded: 10/21/2008
Title:Trusted Data Distribution with Privacy Protection and QoS through Auditable Anonymity
Abstract:Currently deployed network security solutions focus on protecting authenticity and integrity, but NOT privacy and anonymity. And, current anonymity technology cannot be leveraged to rectify this situation for net-centric warfare infrastructures like GIG because it does not support highly dynamic services effectively. Also, no existing anonymous systems support vital, enterprise-class features such as QoS and pseudonymity via secure logging. “Bluemoon”, however, is an entirely new, privacy-preserving architecture that leverages innovative anonymous “hook” technology to solve these challenges. A recently developed Bluemoon prototype already provides full unobservability and unlinkability for both data sources and destinations, as well as greater security and flexibility than any current-generation offering in the field. The proposed SBIR research will yield a version of Bluemoon, dubbed “Enterprise Bluemoon”, that includes enhancements in QoS and secure logging, and provides a total solution for preserving privacy and anonymity in high assurance, dynamic networks. This proposal describes: (a) the existing research that has gone into creating Bluemoon technology and building the initial prototype (which already meets many of the requirements for a Phase II product) and (b) the enhancements we will develop to effect Enterprise Bluemoon, which addresses all five of the IA gaps identified in the QDR.

NUPARADIGM GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS, INC.
12977 North Outer Forty Drive, Suite 200
St. Louis, MO 63141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 401-6850
Mr. John A. Sturm
OSD 08-IA5      Awarded: 11/20/2008
Title:Trusted Data Distribution with Privacy Protection and QoS through Auditable Anonymity
Abstract:As the SBIR RFP requests, we plan to develop the concepts for innovative IA tools & techniques and study the feasibility that the tools/techniques will guarantee the authenticity, integrity and delivery of distributed data sources while maintaining the privacy (anonymity) of users and audit information (pseudonymity) per the Common Criteria within the GIG-NCES (Global Information Grid - Net-Centric Enterprise Services) framework. Our approach will be to study the feasibility of deploying a family of services that aid the Warfighter and other designated “roles” by tailoring the implementation of Information Assurance (IA) technology to proactively support and enhance their mission tasks. Without understanding the unique challenges faced by Warfighters in different contexts, IA can represent a costly burden by consuming his resources while leaving a trail for the enemy to use to decipher his mission intentions. Many times the Common Criteria (CC) has been viewed as a necessary evil that slows system development and adds cost, but clever planning can turn the CC into a real benefit by protecting the Warfighter in the conduct of his mission.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4863
Mr. Michael E. Lee
OSD 08-IA6      Awarded: 10/1/2008
Title:SPANS: Software Protection using Anti-tamper and Network Security
Abstract:US software is constantly being attacked by enemies in attempts to reverse engineer the software to extract useful information, military secrets, and intellectual property. This SBIR proposes a solution to this problem: multiple software guards and a secure, efficient communication channel for the exchange of attack information. Six aspects of our proposed solution are especially unique: 1) multiple information assurance-based techniques to protect software applications, 2) multiple anti-tamper-based techniques to protect the integrity of the application’s network information, 3) inter-guard communication based on proven, efficient wireless transmission techniques and covert channels (preventing divide-and-conquer attacks), 4) separate guards providing different anti- tamper techniques (including third parties techniques), 5) stealth corruption to destroy software functionality without alerting attackers, and 6) exclusive use of the solution for the DoD, DHS, and their contractors. The complete solution will be an automated tool that incorporates this advanced protection into the software development process. In Phase I, a preliminary version of the system will be developed. To show feasibility, several security engineers will perform reverse engineering attacks against the solution. In Phase II, we will add automation and integration with third-party techniques and conduct extensive testing of the solution.

MCQ, INC.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Mr. Ron Knobler
OSD 08-IA6      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Information Assurance and Anti-Tamper System Level Protection for Unattended Network Nodes
Abstract:McQ designs and develops remote unattended sensor systems for DoD and other applications. As part of our on-going research into anti-tamper, information assurance (AT/IA) and reverse engineering techniques, we have developed a battery of processes that can help to insure that our systems are less vulnerable to attacks by an adversary. Many of these processes are extensible to the GIG-NCES at-large. For this project we plan to extend much of what we have done already in the realm of opcode encryption, communication encryption, physical protection, device authentication, user authorization, automated tamper protection and other techniques to improve their performance and usability. We also plan to further explore a host of other areas with which we have experience and expertise such as system restoration. Because of our experience with unattended ground sensors, remote weather stations, roadside monitoring systems, remote acoustic monitoring systems and other networked automated remote monitoring systems, McQ brings “real world” perspective while using the latest in security and cryptographic technology to assist in the IA/AT challenge that is presented to GIG-NCES systems. Our goal is to ultimately demonstrate the features of a comprehensive IA/AT security plan and system design using our OmniSense® family of networked remote sensor systems.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Vijay Bandekar
OSD 08-IA6      Awarded: 12/22/2008
Title:Novel Information Assurance and Antitamper System Based on Collaborative Intelligence
Abstract:To address the OSD need for innovative tools and techniques that will guarantee the integrity and authenticity of data within the Global Information Grid Net-Centric Enterprise Services (GIG-NCES), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Service Architecture for Tamper-Resistant Software Components (SATSOC) system. This proposed system is based on aware software components, aware application service environments, intelligent event monitoring systems, knowledge-based tamper detection, an antitamper bus, and a central antitamper detection and penalization system. The innovation in collaborative and net-centric intelligent systems and multimode wireless networks will enable the SATSOC system to prevent or delay reverse engineering attempts, strengthen protection layers of GIG-NCES nodes, and seamlessly merge information assurance and antitamper approaches into a unified technique that enables policy-driven management of GIG-NCES node security. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the SATSOC system by assembling and testing the components. In Phase II POC plans to develop a prototype to demonstrate how our approach solves information assurance and antitamper problems, by integrating the SATSOC system into one or more unmanned GIG-NCES nodes and interfacing with C2 systems.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Dean Mumme
OSD 08-IA6      Awarded: 10/29/2008
Title:A Trusted Platform Security Management for Data Authenticity and Integrity
Abstract:For tactical networks, a need exists to allow a node to determine the trust level of another node or network resource in order to determine whether it can be used for a specified purpose. In the case that a resource’s trust level is below an acceptable standard, it may be necessary to determine whether the resource can be repaired or isolated. To address this problem, it is desirable to extend this approach to a system of information assurance layers and anti-tamper layers to strengthen the level of protection. This effort will develop a Trusted Platform Security Manager (TPSM) that can be used to meld information assurance and anti-tamper concepts into a single platform. The resulting TPSM will provide improved data integrity, data availability, data authentication, and data storage as an out-of-band solution via multiple layers of protection. RAM Laboratories will partner with a large system integrator, Lockheed-Martin, to define a path to fielding this technology in an operational setting. The TPSM will target platform applications including forward-deployed small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) surveillance platform, which includes multiple sensors, mission computer, and computing algorithms.

THE ATHENA GROUP, INC.
3424 NW 31 Street
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Dr. Jonathon D. Mellott
OSD 08-IA6      Awarded: 11/5/2008
Title:Information Assurance and Anti-Tamper System Level Protection
Abstract:The “smart dust” micro-radio concept developed by DARPA provides an outstanding demonstration of the potential of distributed micro-sensor networks connected by low- power radio frequency (RF) data links in a self-organizing network. Distributed micro- sensor and control networks are poised to become a major component in the global information grid (GIG), and have vast potential in DoD and Homeland Security applications such as border security and nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) threat detection sensor networks. GIG node products are now being manufactured for commercial applications, however, these initial devices do not yet address the important issues of security, robustness, and tamper resistance that are necessary to deploy these devices in mission-critical applications. In Phase I Athena will directly step from the current generation of GIG node products to produce a robust, secure GIG node, called Black Dust, that provides defense in depth through an innovative combination of single-chip module anti-tamper features and information assurance techniques.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. Vlad Hruby
OSD 08-PR1      Awarded: 6/16/2008
Title:Variable Thrust, Kerosene Fueled, Tactical Rocket Motor Development
Abstract:Busek proposes the development of kerosene/JP10 fueled small rocket motor suitable for tactical and in-space applications. The motor design and the choice of oxidizer will be driven by the requirements for broad and rapid motor throttleability, arbitrary number of absolutely reliable restarts without the use of hypergolic mixtures, performance comparable or better than presently available solid motors of comparable size, 10 year storability without performance degradation, low or no toxicity, and environmental requirements typical of tactical systems that may exclude oxidizers with freezing point significantly above that of JP10. To meet such a list of requirements Busek proposes innovative fuel flow rate regulation system capable of millisecond responsiveness, and innovative fuel atomization approaches to ensure reliable starting without hypergolic mixtures and high energy igniters. In Phase 1 Busek will develop a conceptual design of a liquid motor with the above described attributes using the Sidewinder motor as a reference against which the design will be evaluated. A subscale motor will be designed, build and tested in Busek facilities with the goal to validate the innovative fuel atomization augmented with electrospray techniques combined with electric ignition system. In Phase 2, Busek will work with a major prime that is currently supplying tactical motors.

GLOYER-TAYLOR LABORATORIES LLC
2212 Harton Blvd
Tullahoma, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 449-6457
Mr. Tim Lewis
OSD 08-PR1      Awarded: 6/18/2008
Title:AVATAR Multi-Role Morphing Missile
Abstract:Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories has identified a suite of technologies that can provide a tactical missile with a high degree of energy management capability and proposes to demonstrate these technologies by developing the AVATAR (Adaptive VAriable Trajectory Attack and Reconnaissance) Multi-role Morphing Missile. The 9-inch diameter by 13-foot long AVATAR missile is sized to be air launched from nearly any combat aircraft, including F/A-22, F-35, F-15, F-16, UCAS and bomber, using the BRU-61/A pneumatic carriage, or ground launched from the MLRS using the standard M26/M31 tubes. AVATAR provides long range precision strike capability, thereby extending the reach of existing combat systems. AVATAR technologies include the safe, non-toxi, long- term storable, high-performance GTV monopropellant, the efficient Highly Integrated Modular Structure (HIMS), and a revolutionary morphing structure. To manage the combustion stability risk, the breakthrough Universal Combustion Device Stability (UCDS) process will be used. UCDS accurately predicts the stability characteristics of the engine at any throttle setting and provides the physical insight needed to mitigate potential instability issues. The AVATAR technologies provide enhanced energy management capabilities, while addressing key historical impediments.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2729
Mr. William Knuth
OSD 08-PR1      Awarded: 8/26/2008
Title:Variable Thrust Liquid or Gel Propulsion for Mission Flexibility
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to develop a family of liquid/gel propellant, variable thrust propulsion systems to provide increased mission flexibility to battle planners to enhance warfighting strategies and enemy engagement capabilities. Variable thrust capability with non-toxic, space-storable propellants is also paramount for in-space applications such as rendezvous and docking Effective variable thrust capability is ideally achieved without loss of propulsion performance so mission efficiency is retained, and without loss of mixture ratio so that a propellant residual is not a consequence of throttled operation. In the proposed ORBITEC approach, which builds upon their evolution of Vortex Combustion Cold Wall (VCCW) chambers, performance and mixture ratio are essentially retained over the throttle range. A goal of 10:1 throttle range appears feasible. ORBITEC proposes to include both liquid and gel propellants in their program, and to undertake the development of the complete propulsion system including propellant tankage and pressurization. The resulting system is a self-contained autonomous propulsion package that needs only thrust level commands from the missile guidance package to perform its operations. In Phase I, the system will be defined and the lead system sized and analyzed. Key elements of the system will be demonstrated in laboratory testing. The conceptual design for the system to be proposed for Phase II will be prepared. In Phase II, a breadboard system will be hot fired to demonstrate operation and throttle range.

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, LLC
530 New Los Angeles Avenue, Suite115 # 122
Moorpark, CA 93021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 529-3800
Mr. Tedi Ohanian
OSD 08-PR1      Awarded: 6/24/2008
Title:Variable Thrust and Non-Toxic Liquid Propulsion for Mission Flexibility
Abstract:Our vision for the next generation missile propulsion is a flexible and non-toxic system using HAN and a storable fuel candidate, offering variable thrust with a high degree of mission tailoring. Additionally, such system will be capable of rapid transients to enable pulsed propulsion for tactical missions. To meet the rapid start and shutdown transient goals, we propose an innovative injector manifold design capable of reducing trapped propellant by as much as much 70% as compared to traditional designs. We will perform parametric systems and combustion analysis to characterize mass fraction and Isp sensitivities for candidate systems.

XCOR AEROSPACE, INC.
1314 Flight Line P.O. Box 1163
Mojave, CA 93502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 824-4714
Mr. Doug Jones
OSD 08-PR1      Awarded: 8/8/2008
Title:Variable Thrust Liquid or Gel Propulsion for Mission Flexibility
Abstract:XCOR is proposing to study the combination of desensitized nitromethane (CH3NO2) and gaseous oxygen (GOX) as a propellant combination. Nitromethane has a density of 1.14 and the amount of low density oxygen needed for stable combustion is very low. Compared to nitrous oxide and ethane, this combination has higher density, and a greater range of storage temperatures. What is innovative about this approach is the combination of using desensitized nitromethane for better storage and handling properties, along with a new, small and light spark igniter, and just enough gaseous oxygen to permit reliable ignition and stable combustion of the fuel. Nitromethane has long been recognized as a high performance monopropellant, but is too sensitive for real-world tactical handling. If this fuel is desensitized for safety, it no longer works as a monopropellant because the catalysts no longer work. Adding oxygen to desensitized nitromethane and using spark ignition, making it a true bipropellant system, eliminates these problems at the expense of greater system complexity. Since a very small amount of oxygen is needed, the overall system density is reasonably high.

ADVANCED POWDER SOLUTIONS, INC.
10010 Cucklebur
Houston, TX 77095
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 373-1729
Mr. Dean Baker
OSD 08-PR2      Awarded: 8/5/2008
Title:Rocket Propulsion Supporting Technology
Abstract:Refractory carbide materials posses the erosion resistance and high temperature strength required for the severe environments experienced by cutting tools, well bore equipment, and rocket nozzles. Refractory carbides (e.g. WC, TaC, and TiC) are usually formed by press and sinter techniques with an additional metallic binder or by forging with some binder. We propose fabricate ceramic metal matrix composites by melt processing, where the carbide phase and the metal phase are formed by eutectic reaction from the liquid. In this new family of materials the low temperature binder phase is replaced with a refractory metal phase, thereby increasing the high temperature strength of the composite, while maintaining room temperature ductility. This innovative approach is possible because of two recent technological advances: Advanced Powder Solutions’ nano encapsulation of ceramic powders by chemical vapor deposition and net shape laser additive manufacturing practice at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. The techniques allow us to synthesize these advanced materials into useful net shape parts.

COLUMBIA GORGE RESEARCH, LLC
2555 NE 205th Avenue PO Box 382
Fairview, OR 97024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 328-8518
Mr. Eric Udd
OSD 08-PR2      Awarded: 7/17/2008
Title:Rocket Propulsion Supporting Technology
Abstract:High speed fiber grating diagnostic systems may be used to measure the velocity, position and pressures associated propellant burning during a rocket motor firing. This Phase I SBIR is directed toward the demonstration of the feasibility of this type of system which may also be used to measure strain, pressure and moisture in the propellant region prior to firing.

ILLINOISROCSTAR LLC
P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 377-4409
Dr. Mark D. Brandyberry
OSD 08-PR2      Awarded: 8/28/2008
Title:Solid Rocket Motor Propellant Characterization and Material Reconstruction Using High Resolution Tomography
Abstract:Material characterization and volume imaging of as-produced solid propellant grains are important issues in the design process of solid rocket motors. In particular, it is critical that the ballistician have tools that will enable him/her to understand any defects or morphological changes in a grain that might be caused by the manufacturing process, as well as the determination of bulk thermomechanical material properties. We therefore propose to develop software tools for volume imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction of as-produced propellant grains from tomography volume-imaging techniques; develop computational tools that can model the morphology of the propellant grain, including first-, second-, and third-order statistics; and develop computational tools that can determine initial material properties, including elastic modulus, effective thermal conductivity and coefficients of thermal expansion, etc. These tools will be validated by comparison with experimental data.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-5698
Dr. Mark McKenna
OSD 08-PR2      Awarded: 6/27/2008
Title:Diagnostic Ultrasound for Structural Health in Solid Rocket Motor Components
Abstract:The degradation of solid rocket motor components due to aging has a significant negative impact on mission success for both aerospace and military applications. Luna, in teaming with Aerojet, will assemble a specifications database including appropriate ranges of material properties and geometries of individual SRM components to help focus the efforts to relevant applications. Using Aerojet-supplied samples, Luna will apply its high resolution ultrasonic measurement capability for materials characterization of critical SRM components. Measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation including stress/strain dependence will be made in order to assess shear and elastic moduli, as well as, third order elastic/viscoelastic properties. These measurements will be made under the context of their relationship with age related effects and become the foundation for the development of a numerical model of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in multilayer cylinders. This model will be used to optimize sensitivity and determine appropriate inspection parameters. Proof-of-concept testing on strain relief cylinders will evaluate this technique’s capability for assessing reduced modulus propellant and propellant-liner disbond in practically applicable samples. The results of this Phase I effort will lay the groundwork for a diagnostic measurement system capable of assessing the structural health of SRM components.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Matthew J. Wright
OSD 08-PR2      Awarded: 8/1/2008
Title:Foam-Based Ignition System for Non-Toxic Propellants
Abstract:Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)-based propellant promises many improvements over hydrazine and NTO/MMH propellants. Chief among these is improved safety, which will significantly decrease overall use costs. However, reduced toxicity monopropellants are difficult to ignite. Although this characteristic is an asset for safety, it is a liability for design. Before HAN-based propellants can be commercialized, a reliable ignition system must be established. Ultramet has completed several projects for DoD and NASA directed toward the development of an ignition system for HAN-based monopropellants that have led to many key advances. The goal of the proposed effort is to reliably ignite HAN-based monopropellants by using a variation of resistojet technology based on resistively heating Ultramet foam. Ultramet will develop an ignition system consisting of open-cell foam made of refractory materials that can be heated resistively and can then transfer thermal energy to the propellant stream to initiate decomposition. Ultramet will characterize the electrical and thermal characteristics of several refractory foams and demonstrate ignition characteristics using spot plate testing and hot-fire testing on test engine sizes appropriate for kinetic kill vehicle divert and attitude control system and microsatellite attitude control system applications. In follow-on work, pino testing, macrodifferential thermal analysis, and additional hot-fire testing would be performed.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-9500
Dr. David B. Stickler
OSD 08-PR3      Awarded: 6/11/2008
Title:Variable Thrust Hybrid Propulsion for Mission Flexibility
Abstract:A novel type of high burning rate hybrid rocket fuel is an enabling technology for a wide range of DoD rocket propulsion applications. This fuel system has been demonstrated to provide burn rate at least four times that of conventional polymers, while retaining the physical properties and specific impulse capability of HTPB based fuels. The result is a high density impulse capability utilizing storable propellant combinations, while eliminating environmental hazards. This fuel maintains a hydrodynamically rough surface to radically enhance convective heat transfer rate, and hence the fuel burn rate. This is achieved by incorporating a particulate fuel material dispersed within a continuum phase polymer matrix. The dispersed fuel material is chosen to transition from solid to gas much more readily than the polymer matrix, and with a particle size scale sufficiently large that the resulting surface voids provide a hydrodynamically rough surface. Combustion of this fuel system maintains the rough surface as theparticles are continually exposed. Secondary effects include increased surface area; decreased fuel phase change enthalpy; and potential for increased specific impulse by inclusion of high energy compounds. The high fuel burn rate enables increased propellant mass fraction while retaining the strength and storage stability of polymeric fuels.

EXQUADRUM, INC.
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0274
Mr. Kevin E. Mahaffy
OSD 08-PR3      Awarded: 6/16/2008
Title:Project TROLL
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to highly controllable rocket motor propulsion that also meets insensitive munitions requirements using an innovative approach to hybrid rocketry. In this proposal, Exquadrum presents an extremely flexible and adaptable approach to the control of rocket motors. This technology can be applied to applications ranging from attitude control systems to booster stages. The resulting propulsion systems can be made throttleable, and capable of multiple cycles of extinguishment and restart. The technology will be experimentally demonstrated during the proposed research program.

IN SPACE, L.L.C.
1801 Kalberer Rd. Suite G100
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-2107
Mr. B.J. Austin
OSD 08-PR3      Awarded: 6/16/2008
Title:Variable Thrust, Multiple Start Hybrid Motor Solutions for Missile and Space Applications
Abstract:Energy management in missile systems can provide substantial performance advantages, especially for modern missiles capable of all-aspect engagements. Maximum flexibility is offered by a system that can be throttled, shut off entirely and restarted when needed. The proposed project aims to achieve efficient combustion during throttling and restart capability without the need for a separate ignition system that adds to a vehicle’s mass and complexity. The innovative approach outlined in this proposal will utilize the catalytic decomposition of an oxidizer to enable flexible hybrid propulsion systems while also addressing both the low regression rate and slivering issues in hybrid rocket motors for missile or space launch applications. The Phase I effort will focus on generating conceptual designs of identified missile and upper stage propulsion systems, developing and assessing the performance and ignition characteristics of catalytic fuel grains for the oxidizers of interest, and experimentally investigating throttling capabilities and the fundamental control laws to achieve the desired thrust control. This research and development effort will be assist by the research and rocket testing facilities at Purdue University and the internal ballistics and combustion expertise at General Kinetics.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2732
Dr. Martin Chiaverini
OSD 08-PR3      Awarded: 6/7/2008
Title:Advanced Oxidizers for Hybrid Propulsion
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to develop a high-performance, non-toxic, storable oxidizer to replace current storable oxidizers for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems. The proposed candidate oxidizers have higher energy and oxygen content, greater density, lower volatility, and less corrosivity than the nitrogen oxides and nitric acid. In Phase I, physical properties and performance of the specific identified compounds will be determined to provide data for ranking the candidate fuels. Theoretical performance with selected fuels will be calculated and compared to baseline performance using SOTA oxidizers. The system-level benefits of propulsion systems using the new oxidizers will be quantified by comparison to existing systems. Hot-fire test plans for Phase II will be developed and initial synthesis of several candidate compounds will begin toward the end of the Phase I period.

SPACE PROPULSION GROUP, INC.
760 San Aleso Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 799-1409
Dr. Arif Karabeyoglu
OSD 08-PR3      Awarded: 6/27/2008
Title:Nytrox/Paraffin-based Hybrid Propulsion for Mission Flexible Systems
Abstract:Space Propulsion Group, Inc (SPG) proposes to conduct investigations on Nytrox/paraffin-based hybrid rocket systems which promise high energy flexible propulsion solutions with high volumetric fuel efficiency while retaining the safety and cost advantages of classical hybrids. The benefits of the proposed hybrid concept result from a combination of two key SPG technologies: high-regression rate paraffin-based solid fuels and high performance Nytrox oxidizers which are refrigerated mixtures of nitrous oxide and oxygen. The high regression rate capability simplifies the fuel grain design, minimizes fabrication costs, improves fuel volumetric loading and reduces the fuel sliver mass fraction to less than 3%. The major advantages of Nytrox oxidizers are 1) higher density, Isp performance and safer operation compared to N2O, 2) partial self pressurization, non-cryogenic operation compared to LOX. Nytrox/paraffin based hybrids are ideal for systems that require operational flexibility due to the possibility of active throttling with very small performance penalty, a direct consequence of the relatively flat c*-O/F curve. Phase I work has two major components: 1) propulsion system design/optimization studies with emphasis on mission flexibility and 2) small scale motor testing to demonstrate the throttling and gas phase combustion with gaseous oxygen at the end of the liquid burn.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Mark Ostrander
OSD 08-PR4      Awarded: 6/25/2008
Title:Solid Propellant Thrust Control Using a Movable Nozzle
Abstract:Thrust management in a SRM-powered missile system allows the missile to successfully engage a wider range of targets, and a given propulsion option to be applicable across a range of missile platforms. Thrust control in a SRM is performed by controlling the choked throat area at the nozzle throat. Previous research has accomplished this by moving a pintle back and forth through a fixed nozzle. CFDRC proposes to reverse this paradigm and explore the movement of the nozzle in relation to a fixed pintle. Issues arising from this approach include sealing against hot gas in more places and potentially large actuation forces. There are engineering approaches such as pressure-balancing, which CFDRC has used with success in other programs that will be applicable here. CFDRC currently has identified three separate concepts for moving the nozzle that are promising. In Phase I, CFDRC will examine each of the three actuation approaches and weigh the cost and performance benefits. The Phase I will end with CFDRC testing at least one concept in a room-temperature actuation rig. In Phase II, the best-performing actuation concept will be developed into a flight-configured motor. CFDRC will team up with a propellant supplier to complete a working motor and it will be test-fired.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Michael J Fisher
OSD 08-PR4      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:High Performance Pulse Motor for Mission Flexibility
Abstract:Although solid rocket motors (SRM) are ideally suited to many propulsion applications, their lack of controllability restricts their mission flexibility. Following ignition of an SRM’s propellant grain, combustion continues until all propellant is consumed. Controllability of the motor’s thrust profile can provide improved missile performance and multi-role capability. One approach to gaining controllability is to use a pulse motor configuration, in which multiple solid propellant grains, physically separated by a barrier, are ignited individually, and burn independently, thereby providing multiple, discreet thrust pulses. Past development programs have proven technologies capable of providing thrust management but have not entered service mainly due to reduced propellant mass fraction and resulting loss in total impulse. A need exists for advanced materials and processes to overcome these performance losses and provide pulse motor thrust management payoffs at affordable cost and with high reliability and safety. Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to demonstrate feasibility of a high performance solid rocket pulse motor based on a modular design approach, with bonded end closures, incorporating innovative materials and manufacturing processes. Low cost, reliable manufacturing processes, coupled with advanced, lightweight, high performance materials, will provide the capability to achieve the desired thrust management and resulting performance enhancements.

EXQUADRUM, INC.
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Mr. Kevin E. Mahaffy
OSD 08-PR4      Awarded: 7/2/2008
Title:High-Performance, Agile Rocket Propulsion Technology
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to solid rocket motor propulsion with advanced energy management technology. In this proposal, Exquadrum presents a highly flexible and adaptable approach to the control of rocket motors. This technology can be applied to applications ranging from attitude control systems to booster stages. The resulting propulsion systems can be made throttleable and capable of multiple cycles of extinguishment and restart. The technology will be experimentally demonstrated during the proposed research program.

EXQUADRUM, INC.
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Mr. Kevin E. Mahaffy
OSD 08-PR4      Awarded: 8/5/2008
Title:Innovative Solid Propulsion (ISP)
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative but high simplified approach to energy management for solid rocket motors. In this proposal, Exquadrum presents a highly flexible and adaptable approach to the control of rocket motors. This technology can be applied to applications ranging from tactical missiles to booster stages. The resulting propulsion systems can be made throttleable, and capable of multi-pulse operation. The technology will be experimentally demonstrated during the proposed research program.

VALLEY TECH SYSTEMS
129 N. Cloverdale Blvd #5
Cloverdale, CA 95425
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 772-0376
Dr. Jeff Gladstone
OSD 08-PR4      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:Low Cost Reliable Dual Diameter Throat (DDT) for Multiple Mission Missiles
Abstract:Multiple mission missile architectures typically use a two-pulse rocket motor with inter- pulse coast capability. The technology currently used to accomplish this is a two pulse barrier motor with a single axial nozzle that delivers both the first and second pulse impulse. To optimize impulse performance it is desirable to have a two position axial nozzle throat that maintains its geometry during the first pulse and reduces the throat area for the second pulse. Valley Tech Systems has designed a simple, passively activated, easily producible single piece throat insert called the Dual Diameter Throat (DDT)to perform this task. The DDT is a simple passive component that increases the second pulse packaged impulse while minimizing recurring cost as compared with other two position throat concepts. Our Phase I program will study various DDT candidate configurations as applied to a selected advanced multiple missile propulsion system architecture. Requirements will be generated that meet the transient ballistic requirements of both rocket motor pulses. A combination of mechanical design, thermal and structural analyses will be accomplished to assist in this evaluation. A recommended DDT concept will be selected with a more detailed conceptual design accomplished. In addition subscale testing of key technology will be accomplished during the phase I program to demonstrate the feasibility of the DDT technology.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Nathaniel Demmons
OSD 08-UM1      Awarded: 5/21/2008
Title:Liquid Atomizing Fuel Injector for Heavy Fuel Internal Combustion Engine
Abstract:Rapid fuel droplet evaporation and near-homogeneous mixing with air can be obtained with small monodisperse droplets, bringing benefits to the performance of combustion chambers, and reduced pollutant emissions. Additionally, the greater homogeneity of the mixture produced by fine atomization permits operation at higher equivalence ratios, improving stability. Current fuel injector technology utilizes a high pressure (thousands of pounds per square inch) feed system driven through orifices to generate polydisperse fuel droplets. The quest for droplet size reduction has led to common rail systems operating at as high as 29,000psi. Such systems do not scale well to small engine applications due to their size, weight, and complexity. Busek proposes to investigate a novel approach for creating monodisperse micron-sized droplets at the mass flowrates required for a small heavy fuel internal combustion engine (ICE). Busek will accomplish this without the need for excessively high fuel feedsystem pressures currently used available injector systems. Busek has already achieved the desired droplet sizes and performed successful combustion testing of unmodified JP-8 at low mass flowrates. The goal of the Phase 1 effort shall be to test an augmentation technique for increasing mass flowrates, culminating in a proof-of-concept functional and characterized fuel injector.

COMPREHENSIVE FIELD DEMONSTRATIONS
450 Frontier Way
Bensenville, IL 30106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 654-7508
Mr. C Syptek
OSD 08-UM1      Awarded: 6/17/2008
Title:Charged Micro Fuel Injection for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:Charged fuel injection accelerates the fuel vaporization process to the point that heavy fuels can be efficiently combusted at significantly reduced ambient air temperatures and pressures in engines that range in horsepower from below 5 to around 200. Phase I will focus on analytically and experimentally demonstrating charged fuel injection within an off-the-shelf 8.5 hp Lombardini 6LD 400 direct injected diesel engine or an equivalent. Proof of concept effort will include: 1) numerical simulation of the charged fuel injection process within a direct injected engine, 2) high speed photography of the prototype charged fuel injection process, and 3) bench-top operation of charged fuel injection within the 8.5 hp Lombardini engine. Phase I will culminate in submission of a Phase II plan that defines the effort necessary to implement charged heavy fuel injection within engines ranging from 5 hp to 200 hp. All upgraded engine electrical systems, power required, mechanical components and injector detail designs will be fully compatible with JP5, JP8 and diesel fuel operation. During Phase II three prototype engines (approximately 10 hp, 100 hp, and 200 hp) will be configured with charged fuel injection and demonstrate efficient for heavy fuel operation at reduced ambient temperature and pressure levels. Our proposed coordination with multiple small engine developers through interaction with a Blue Ridge Diesel will accelerate transition of charged fuel injection into numerous commercial products.

KINETIC BEI, LLC
2197 Brookwood Dr.
South Elgin, IL 60177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 837-8975
Mr. Jack Jerovsek
OSD 08-UM1      Awarded: 6/10/2008
Title:Micro Fuel Injection (FI) for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:Kinetic BEI intends to design, build and test MicroJectors during this SBIR Phase I contract. A first generation prototype of the MicroJector currently exists. This SBIR would provide the opportunity to expand on previous work, fine-tuning the mechanical design of the miniature fuel injection system and bench testing second-generation prototypes. During this effort, spray patterns will be evaluated and CFD analysis will be conducted. With a mass of 33.3g, the MicroJector weighs less than half of the nearest fuel injector on the market. The MicroJector measures just 1.880” in length with a fuel pressure of 4,000 psi. Other advantages include low power consumption, excellent atomization, simplicity, and electronically-controlled variable injection rates. While some work has been accomplished in this area, more research is required. The opportunity to expand the research and development of this miniature/micro fuel injection system through a dedicated SBIR program will have far-reaching implications in both the military and commercial worlds. The MicroJector proposed in this Phase I has already demonstrated strong potential. Funding through this SBIR would provide the opportunity to add fidelity and advance the technology to a point where it can be utilized on current miniature engine development programs.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Joseph Homitz
OSD 08-UM1      Awarded: 6/10/2008
Title:Development of a Fuel Injection System for Very Small Internal Combustion Engines
Abstract:The U.S. Department of Defense is currently seeking micro fuel injection (FI) systems for very small, heavy-fuel internal combustion engines (ICEs). These small engines are required for lightweight, low volume applications such as unmanned aircraft systems, unmanned ground systems, and unmanned maritime systems. Fuel injection plays a key role in determining the useful work that can be extracted from the combustion process in these engines as well as the exhaust gasses that are emitted from the engine. As power density requirements and emission regulations are increased, new fuel injection technologies need to be developed beyond that of what is currently available. The major limitation with the current technology is that it is not capable of delivering sufficient amounts of fuel while distributing the fuel well throughout very small volumes. In an effort to overcome this limitation, Mainstream proposes to develop an innovative fuel injection concept for small heavy-fuel engines. During the Phase I effort mainstream will experimentally validate the benefits of using the proposed configuration using an actual heavy-fuel military diesel engine manufactured by Mainstream. In Phase II, Mainstream will take what was learned in the Phase I effort and use the information to develop a prototype injection system.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Daniel Mason
OSD 08-UM2      Awarded: 6/10/2008
Title:Development of a Supercharger for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:The OSD is seeking devices to increase the intake air flow and pressure to small engines in order to increase their power density and fuel efficiency, specifically for unmanned applications. Such unmanned systems require high efficiency and highly reliable power sources operating at near continuous duty cycle. By increasing the power density of these engines, they can be used in a larger variety of applications under various operating conditions. This includes high altitude flight for aircraft systems and extreme environmental conditions for ground-based and naval surface and subsurface systems. In this proposal, Mainstream presents a Phase I program to design, fabricate, and test a supercharger suitable for use in small heavy fuel engines. Mainstream will performance- test the device on its own 4-hp engine. This accelerated development program will validate the concept experimentally in Phase I. The Phase II program can therefore focus on the integration and long-term testing on OSD’s specific engine application.

M-DOT AEROSPACE
3418 South 48th Street, Suite 3
Phoenix, AZ 85040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-1911
Mr. Hugh Spilsbury
OSD 08-UM2      Awarded: 6/10/2008
Title:Microsupercharger and/or Turbocharger for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:Proposed is the preliminary design of an extremely small turbocharger sized for an 8 to 12 hp class engine. The entire unit will weigh roughly 240 grams. Design will incorporate pre-existing compressor and turbine designs for which hardware currently exists for Phase II test. Phase I will include design, fab and test of a 450,000 rpm, high durability, low-cost bearing system. Risk is medium to low since shaft speed, compressor performance and turbine performance have been demonstrated in test. A preliminary turbocharger design for PHase II fabrication and test will be generated. M-DOT will collaborate with UAV and engine makers in the design of the Phase II turbocharging system such that Phase II will culminate in the fabrication and test of a turbocharger and wastgate on an engine and potentially in a vehicle.

PRECISION COMBUSTION, INC.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Dr. Sharokh Etmemad
OSD 08-UM3      Awarded: 6/10/2008
Title:Micro-ignition Components for Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes a durable miniature catalytic glow plug as an enabling component for the use of heavy fuels in small, high power density engines for unmanned applications. The use of heavy fuels in such engines will have a major impact on availability of fuel supplies for such small engines while also reducing fuel consumption through the gains in efficiency inherent to high compression engine operation. The hot, reactive catalytic surface of the catalytic glow plug will allow ignition of fuel-air mixtures at lower surface temperatures and compression ratios than required for non-catalytic hot surface igniters, and at extended conditions. This will expand the envelope of durable ignition and operation, and will provide a range of enabling benefits for heavy fuel use, including more rapid starting and better operability, lower required compression ratio, improved ignitor life, reduced energy requirement, and overall reduction in system weight and size compared to higher voltage ignition systems. It will help enable heavy fuel use in unmanned applications, support increased fuel economy, and reduce system cost. PCI’s work will build on substantial prior development of catalytic ignition systems.

AXIS ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES
One Broadway, 14th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 225-4414
Dr. Eric F. Prechtl
OSD 08-UM4      Awarded: 6/13/2008
Title:Micro Fuel Pumps for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:The proliferation of small, unmanned systems has established a nascent market for small, lightweight power plants, including both internal combustion engines and turbine systems. Recently, researchers have successfully developed breakthrough technologies in this market, such as the Meyer Nutating Engine. While the underlying combustion technology has been proven, one limitation is that all commercially available support components, such as fuel-pumps and fuel injectors, are bigger than the base engine itself. Novel re- design of these required components is needed to realize the potential of power plant innovations for unmanned systems. Axis Engineering Technologies, in collaboration with Kinetic-BEI, proposes to develop an active material based fuel pump for use on a small, lightweight engine. In Phase I, two competing active material systems will be developed simultaneously, based on both piezoelectric ceramic and ferromagnetic shape memory alloy actuation. The side-by-side development of these competing technologies in Phase I shall yield a superior technology to carry forward into Phase II hardware development.

KINETIC BEI, LLC
2197 Brookwood Dr.
South Elgin, IL 60177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 837-8975
Mr. Jack Jerovsek
OSD 08-UM4      Awarded: 6/18/2008
Title:Micro Fuel Pumps for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:Kinetic BEI and Beginning Technologies Inc. have designed a very compact and simple micro-injection pump. This SBIR Phase I will provide the opportunity to further advance this emerging technology for use on several current miniature/micro engine development programs for the military and commercial worlds. The pump was designed to provide high pressure supply to common rail type injectors on a 10 mm3/injection fuel flow rate, and to be paired with a new MicroJector, also being designed by the Kinetic BEI and Beginning Technologies team (a Phase I proposal for further development of the MicroJector has been submitted under OSD81-UM1). The advantages of this pump design include small size, light-weight, low part count, and elimination of the rail pressure sensor, rail pressure control actuator, and the rail. In addition, the electronic control circuitry is simplified because the pump control loop is not necessary. To date, funding has been provided through engine development programs. The opportunity to focus specifically on development of this pump through a dedicated SBIR will yield tremendous benefits for both the military and commercial worlds. During this Phase I effort, detailed design work would be completed incorporating design improvements, and a prototype pump would be developed and bench tested.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Chris Mento
OSD 08-UM4      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Implementation of Unit Injectors in Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:The U.S. Department of Defense is currently interested in obtaining small engines that are lightweight, reliable, durable, fuel efficient, and low cost for many applications. Some of these applications include providing propulsion and power generation for small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), unmanned ground systems (UGS), and unmanned maritime systems (UMS), with power requirements in the 8 kW range. Engines of this size will require smaller components that may not be commercially available, such as ignition systems, fuel injectors, and fuel pumps. For fuel injection systems, it would be beneficial to use unit injectors, which combine the fuel pump and nozzle into one unit and allow for much higher fuel injection pressures in a smaller package, improving performance while reducing components and weight compared to conventional systems. Mainstream proposes to develop small unit injectors that would be applicable to small, heavy fuel engines for military applications. First, Mainstream will integrate existing commercial electronic unit injectors into one of Mainstream’s existing large engines and design a control strategy to maximize performance and efficiency. After the benefits of unit injection have been demonstrated with bench-scale tests and simulation models, design of the smaller unit injector for engines in OSD’s 8-kW target power range will follow.

PRINCEPT RESEARCH GROUP
33232 Electric Blvd
Avon Lake, OH 44012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 255-5083
Mr. Christopher Sheehan
OSD 08-UM4      Awarded: 6/25/2008
Title:Micro Fuel Pumps for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:A micro fuel injection system has been proposed to mix fuel and air directly in a combustion chamber quickly and in a controlled fashion to promote efficient and clean combustion. A system constituting of a high pressure fuel pump system, injector(s), distribution lines, injector drivers and control harness would support this micro fuel injection system. A novel pump design (using traditional elements) has been developed to support these fuel injector systems. Miniaturization of traditional fixed clearance pumps sized for the 5-200HP (30lb Thrust Class Inclusive) engine ranges has seen limited efforts. While high performance pumps exist, engine applications have not emphasized the need for miniaturization. Innovative engine technologies coupled with the high performance and small foot print needs of military and aerospace applications are driving the expansion of the technology envelope for optimized lower flow miniaturized pumps. Low flow/high pressure applications define a corner of the pump market that has been met through pump over sizing. This pump design is optimized for the aforementioned low flow applications. Particular attention has been paid to internal sealing, component tolerances, and performance optimization. Specifically, geometry considerations at the pump inlet allow for greater fill pressure and thereby higher altitude operations and performance.

TURNKEY DESIGN SERVICES, LLC
12757 S. Western Ave. Suite 229
Blue Island, IL 60406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(708) 293-1120
Mr. Srdjan Lukic
OSD 08-UM4      Awarded: 6/19/2008
Title:Micro Fuel Pumps for Small, Heavy Fuel Engines
Abstract:Turnkey Design Services, LLC of Blue Island, IL proposes to create a small lightweight “smart” fuel pump for unmanned vehicles using a small very efficient brushless motor with integrated controls and an internally-generated rotor pump. The overall size of the motor driven pump including electronics is about 2.5 ” long x 1” diameter. The proposed pump provides flow metering capability by adjusting the motor speed. The proposed motor uses high energy density rare earth magnets and specially designed windings to create the best efficiency for the required operating range of the pump. The controller is sensor less in order to eliminate the need for hall effects which take a significant amount of space. The smart pump is capable of monitoring and transmitting its current health status, as well as monitoring sensors for use in its internal control algorithms. The smart pump would be able to determine its rotary position, drive the pump to the commanded rotary speed (or flow), while managing its speed within a certain tolerance.

ENGINE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
12108 Burning Tree Rd.
Fort Wayne, IN 46845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(260) 338-1010
Mr. Jeffery L. Erickson
OSD 08-UM5      Awarded: 6/25/2008
Title:Integrated Power Generation for Small Unmanned Vehicles
Abstract:This program will improve the size, weight and efficiency of power generators by integrating a lightweight, high efficiency alternator with a quiet, fuel efficient and high power density heavy fuel engine. It will be capable of meeting DoD needs for reliable and efficient propulsion and power systems for unmanned aircraft, ground and maritime systems. The electrical power source will use a proprietary, compact and very high power-to-weight alternator using rare earth permanent magnets. It is scalable from 0.5 to 15 kW and larger. This electrical power source could also be adapted to other conventional engines if desired. The alternator will be fully integrated with an internally supercharged Migrating Combustion Chamber (MCC) engine. Microprocessor controls will provide for load following and stabilized power at varying loads. Electronic controls will allow the use of the alternator for starting the engine. The MCC engine’s mechanism and cycle of operation allow it to operate on low octane fuels like diesel and JP-8 without auto-ignition, detonation or wet stacking. This engine provides full expansion of the combustion gases inside the engine which increases efficiency and produces a very quiet, cool exhaust. The MCC engine is scalable from 2 HP to over 200 HP.

FISHER ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY
2801 72nd Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 345-9122
Mr. Jerry Mirsky
OSD 08-UM5      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Integrated Power Generation for Small Unmanned Vehicles
Abstract:The purpose of this program is to reduce the size, weight, and improve efficiency and reliability of the power generation system for UAV’s. The approach taken will not only accomplish this goal, but provide on board starting with virtually no weight or cost penalty (for systems with onboard starting there will be a tremendous size and weight reduction). There are four key components of this approach which will be analyzed. High pole count, high energy permanent magnet brushless technology will be used to provide a single integrated device for the purpose of starting small internal combustion engines in the 30 lbs thrust class and power generation. Advances in power electronic technologies, allows for the miniaturization of the conversion device to provide power for driving the starter and regulating the generator voltage. Direct to shaft mounting eliminates the need for any intermediate mechanical devices (e.g. gears, belts, couplings and clutches). Minimizing the size of the starter motor will be accomplished by reducing peak torque requirements of the internal combustion engine. We will analyze the effect of compression release and system inertia. These technology developments will focus on the rotary engine application, and can be expanded to include reciprocating and nutating machines.

SPYTEK AEROSPACE CORP.
450 Frontier Way, Unit D
Bensenville, IL 60106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 595-9133
Mr. Christopher Spytek
OSD 08-UM5      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Integrated Power Generation for Small Unmanned Vehicles
Abstract:The ever increasing utilization of unmanned air, ground and maritime vehicles has dictated the need for the DoD to more effectively integrate the generation of electrical power with the propulsion engine associated with unmanned vehicles. This issue applies equally to turbine and IC engines. The problem could be considered more vexing in the case of small turbine engines since the maturity of this integration is at a much lower level than an IC engine counterpart. Military assets that could immediately incorporate Spytek’s proposed ITB/generator technology are the Global Hawk and other small UAV’s of similar mission requirements which have increasingly greater electrical power demands, but largely on an intermittent basis i.e., electronic warfare attacks. The integration of a generator and an Inter-Turbine-Burner (ITB) between the gas generator turbine and an electrical generator turbine could meet this warfighter demand. Leveraging its previous AFRL sponsored work on Ultra-Compact Combustors and inter-turbine burners, Spytek Aerospace proposes to design and build a fully integrated ITB/generator module mounted to one of its existing gas turbine engine designs.

BAKER ENGINEERING, INC.
17165 Power Dr.
Nunica, MI 49448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 837-8975
Mr. Jack Jerovsek
OSD 08-UM6      Awarded: 6/3/2008
Title:Modeling & Simulation for Optimization of Heavy-Fuel Micro Rotary Engines
Abstract:Under this Phase I SBIR, Baker Engineering will conduct research through modeling and simulation for optimization of heavy fuel micro rotary engines. Research will be conducted using the UAV Engines Ltd. (UEL) model 74-1380 as the basis. Such a rotary would be the ideal engine for military engine applications that require high power density and the capability of running on heavy fuels at low specific fuel consumption levels. Utilizing the current state of injection technology and simulation software, accurate performance models can be established. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis and zero dimensional modeling will be utilized to refine advanced fuel delivery methods, rotor geometry, and evaluate induction configurations. A fuel injection system will be designed, and turbomachinery added. The result is a plan for successful operation of a micro Rotary Engine on heavy fuel with SFC of .35 lb/hp-hr.

CONVERGENT SCIENCE, INC.
6405 Century Ave. Suite 102
Middleton, WI 53562
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 467-5752
Dr. Peter Kelly Senecal
OSD 08-UM6      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Modeling & Simulation for Optimization of Heavy-Fuel Micro Rotary Engines
Abstract:The Department of Defense (DoD) is currently seeking strategies to provide efficient and dependable power systems for small unmanned systems. The engines must run on heavy fuel, be lightweight, produce high horsepower and have the ability to run in extreme environmental conditions. New technologies are needed to meet the DoD’s requirements for small, heavy-fuel engines, including injection systems, ignition components and air induction systems such as superchargers and turbochargers. Development of these new technologies can be greatly facilitated with the use of computational fluid dynamics and combustion modeling, however most codes are not able to adequately handle rotary engine concepts. With the development proposed in this program, the CONVERGE code, written by Convergent Science Inc., will be able to efficiently and accurately simulate rotary engines and also unconventional engine concepts such as the Nutating engine. Proposed objectives include adding the ability to handle sealing of adjacent surfaces, adding an arbitrary equation of motion for moving boundaries, and adding liquid properties for JP5 and/or JP8 fuel. These capabilities, coupled with the automatic and rapid grid generation of CONVERGE, will provide a tool that can be used in the design and optimization process of rotary engines operating on heavy fuel.

L.K. INDUSTRIES, INC.
9731 Center Street
Glenwood, NY 14069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 941-9202
Mr. Lawrence J. Krzeminski
OSD 08-UM6      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Modeling & Simulation for Optimization of Heavy-Fuel Micro Rotary Engines
Abstract:This program will conduct analytical studies to demonstrate how to convert the AR-741, rotary engine, to run on heavy fuel. Specifically, CFD modeling will be used to show how direct injection/stratified charge can be employed to convert this engine to heavy fuel. The direct injection will avoid predetonation, while the stratified charge or layering of the fuel air mixture will be investigated for a "lean burn" characteristic to achieve the best fuel economy. Further, the spray pattern will show a rich fuel mixture at the point of ignition for sufficient starting ease. The effects of turbocharging will also be modeled to achieve the desired SFC of 0.35. Thermodynamic cycle analysis will be used as a first order attempt to show the benefits of turbocharging and increased compression ratio on SFC. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) will be used for the combustion design; showing the optimum location for the fuel injectors/igniters, spray pattern, mixing, and the corresponding combustion process. CFD will be used to determine optimal rotor pocket geometery and the investigation of the benefits for "split" combustion chamber operation. Lastly, we believe that in order to achieve the desires SFC of 0.35 lbs/HP-hr turbocharging will be a neccessity.

PATRICK POWER PRODUCTS, INC.
6679C Santa Barbara Drive
Elkridge, MD 21075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 796-6100
Mr. Michael Griffith
OSD 08-UM6      Awarded: 5/27/2008
Title:Modeling & Simulation for Optimization of Heavy-Fuel Micro Rotary Engines
Abstract:PatPower proposes to investigate the adoption of their divided chamber combustion technology to the 741 series rotary engine. The work will comprimise a significant CFD study, which will focus on behavior of the air charge during the induction and compression phases. It will also characterize the fuel spray pattern and reaction to the air charge. A Phase I report will be issued, containing the results of the study and describing a means of incorporating the work into a running engine.