---------- DARPA ----------

260 Phase I Selections from the 08.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Milan Buncick
DARPA 08-001      Awarded: 4/29/2009
Title:Nonlinear Plasmonic Devices
Abstract:Surface plasmons (SPs) have been studied by a wide spectrum of scientists, ranging from physicists, chemists and materials scientists to biologists. Plasmonics represents an opportunity to develop a new class of photonic devices by concentrating and channeling light using subwavelength structures. Such circuits would first convert light into SPs, which would then propagate and be processed by logic elements, before being converted back into light. When embedded in dielectric materials the circuitry used to propagate SPs can also be used to carry electrical signals. Combining plasmonic-based photonic circuits with electronic circuits can lead to very high speed communications and computing capability. The objective of this proposal is to: (1) develop plasmonic structures that use local field enhancement to create nonlinear effects in electro optic (EO) polymers to investigate the plasmons/EO interaction as a function of device shape and (2) develop plasmonic optical devices using plasmonic structures and EO materials. In order to take advantage of the EO properties of the polymer, we will design and build plasmonic devices with resonant properties in the MWIR and NIR wavebands. The plasmonic devices will be designed and fabricated to optimize local field enhancement to stimulate the non-linear response of the EO material.

Convergent Solutions
5218 Theresa Way
Livermore, CA 94550
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 455-1642
Edward Kansa
DARPA 08-001      Awarded: 5/19/2009
Title:Nonlinear Plasmonic Devices by Magnetic Nano-Assembly
Abstract:The proposed project will advance the physical principles and engineering concepts of compact nonlinear plasmonic devices. Magnetic nano-manufacturing of nanoparticle superstructures is proposed as a new platform for a broad range of nonlinear plasmonic devices such as all-optical switches, optical limiters, optical frequency converters, and others. Specific and verifiable advantages of our approach are as follows: (i) A broad and commercially viable manufacturing platform for the analysis, design and fabrication of various nonlinear plasmonic devices, including the specific device explored in Phase I: Nonlinear Non-reciprocal (One-Way) Optical Waveguide. (ii) Although the focus of the project is on devices, the proposed technological platform is also suitable for nano- fabrication of optical metamaterials, including ones with nonlinear characteristics. (iii) Inexpensive, and yet precise, assembly of complex nanoparticle superstructures that provide strong plasmonic field enhancement. (iv) Generality: particles of any kind (plasmonic, non-plasmonic, polymer, etc.) can be assembled in a reliable and reproducible way. Nano-assembly can be performed on surfaces (patterned or non-patterned) and/or in the bulk. (v) Advanced simulation techniques for the optical fields of plasmonic structures. Phase I involves innovative R&D devoted to feasibility analysis of compact nonlinear plasmonic devices with sizes compatible with electronic circuitry. We will optimize the design of a specific ultra-compact nonlinear plasmonic device – a Nonlinear Optical Diode, and will evaluate its potential photonic and electronic characteristics. We will demonstrate the feasibility of experimental assembly of such a device. In Phase II, design and material parameters of specific devices proposed in Phase I will be finalized. A prototype, ultra-compact plasmonic device will be fabricated and experimental observations will be conducted. Performance of the plasmonic device will be evaluated. A plan for future R&D and commercialization will be finalized and imple-mented.

ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5154
Russell Hollingsworth
DARPA 08-001      Awarded: 9/2/2009
Title:Plasmonic Enhanced Raman Sensors
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop engineered substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using novel plasmonic resonant cavities sensitive to linear polarization over a narrow wavelength range. Raman spectroscopy can identify a wide range of contaminants, including chemical/biological warfare agents, explosives, natural toxins in drinking water, and waste products requiring environmental clean-up. Detailed performance predictions will be obtained through finite element modeling (FEM) of the harmonic Maxwell’s equations. The FEM provides detailed field information, including E field, B field, energy density, and time dependent information with subwavelength resolution, which greatly aids in understanding the underlying physical mechanisms. Test structures will be made using well established nanofabrication facilities, and characterized with spectral and polarization sensitive far field techniques. Raman enhancement factors will be measured using molecules with well characterized cross sections.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Steve Savoy
DARPA 08-001      Awarded: 6/4/2009
Title:Nonlinear Plasmonic Devices
Abstract:Over the past fifty years, technological advancements in the microelectronics industry have been astounding. As a result of this success, today’s microfabricated devices are inexpensive, can be produced in large volumes, and can be fabricated with billions of sub-100 nm logic elements as small area microchips. Further increases in computational density will require even more innovation, as fundamental limitations in semiconductor lithography are approached. One strong candidate for continued miniaturization is the integration of optical signals with electronics at the transistor level. It is widely believed that the complete integration of electronics and photonics on a sub-micron scale will be accomplished in the near future. Optical signals offer an almost unlimited bandwidth and low loss, and therefore, it is highly desirable to couple optics and electronics at the wafer level to develop novel logic device architectures. However, the natural spatial scale of light determined by its diffraction is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of a typical electronic component (e.g., a transistor). As a consequence, diffraction of light is the major obstacle to a variety of applications requiring concentrating optical energy in a small volume: light simply cannot be confined to dimensions much smaller than half of its wavelength. To fulfill the need for such a device, Nanohmics Inc. and Drs. Gennady Shvets and Alex Demkov at The University of Texas at Austin propose to develop an optically gated Ponderomotive Effect Transistor (PET) consisting of a plasmonic antenna placed in the gate area. The plasmonic antenna concentrates the intensity of the otherwise broadly focused laser beam in the gate region and locally modifies the band structure of the electrons and holes.

Ultimara
500 Mansion Ct. Suite 307
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 663-0081
Salah Khodja
DARPA 08-001      Awarded: 4/2/2009
Title:Nonlinear Plasmonic Devices
Abstract:We propose to develop ultra compact nonlinear plasmonic devices for optical interconnect compatible with the electronic circuitry. In our proposal, we will employ engineered metallic nanostructures that combine energy concentration by plasmonic lenses and retardation-based plasmonic resonances to even further boost the efficiency of materials exhibiting frequency conversion. These nonlinear plasmonic devices will offer a tremendous improvement in size and performance to overcome the limitation of traditional integrated optical components for optical interconnect. In fact, the mode volumes can be reduced orders of magnitude below the wavelength. The unique optical properties of metallic nanostructures provide an unparalleled ability to concentrate light into small volumes and enable realization of the smallest possible, low-power, nonlinear optical components. The proposed metallic nanostructures will find application in low power frequency conversion devices and similar structures may be used for compact switching, modulation and limiting. This is the first time to our knowledge such a nonlinear plasmonic devices is proposed. The proposed nonlinear plasmonic devices is expected to alleviate the problems associated with the large size of present day optical components and provide an optimal solution for the optical interconnect.

Adsys Controls, Inc.
2110 Artesia Blvd Suite 623
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 493-7643
Brian Goldberg
DARPA 08-002      Awarded: 8/12/2009
Title:Autonomous Detection, Acquisition, Pointing, and Tracking of Small UAVs
Abstract:Enemy forces are accelerating their use of small, inexpensive, hard-to-detect UAVs, threatening the US intelligence advantage and putting our forces at risk. The need is clear to implement a counter-measure to the proliferation of small enemy UAVs. Use of a High Energy Laser (HEL) to deny the small UAV mission has been identified as a viable technique, but initial detection and tracking of these vehicles is a challenge. The Adsys Controls team proposes an innovative system solution, employing a modular, full 3600 surveillance subsystem utilizing redundant acoustic and optical sensing methodologies to cover the broad spectrum of potential threats. A beam control subsystem will deliver the HEL beam to the target aimpoint. To meet the demanding technical objectives, Adsys Controls has assembled a team including Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp and Bruel & Kjaer, both of whom are industry leaders in optical and acoustic sensing systems, respectively. In the Phase I effort, Adsys will perform a requirements flowdown, develop the surveillance and beam control designs, simulate performance, and demonstrate feasibility by identification of vendors to supply key components. The Phase I activity will include Phase II program planning, which would conclude with a prototype system being built and tested.

Aerophysics, Inc.
2521 7 Mile Point Rd
Allouez, MI 49805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 370-2376
Jason Sommerville
DARPA 08-002      Awarded: 6/30/2009
Title:Peregrine Airspace Protection System for Denying Small UAV Intrusion
Abstract:Aerophysics, Raytheon Missile Systems, and Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI) have teamed to provide an innovative solution that will detect, track, and neutralize small UAVs. The system, termed Peregrine, is a RADAR-cued active/passive IR countermeasure based on the Quiet Eyes turret from Raytheon. Peregrine will use unique RADAR signal processing techniques to ID the Doppler return of small rotating propellers on UAVs despite weak traditional RADAR cross sections. Automated detection algorithms will be developed to surpress RADAR false alarms and identify targets for handoff to the electro-optic Quiet Eyes unit. The Quiet Eyes turret is a roll-nod gimbaled IR camera outfitted with a laser telescope sharing the beam line with the imager. The laser can be used to illuminate the target, provide range and geometry information via LIDAR, and jam/neutralize the sensors/airframe of a small UAV. The proposing team combines the capabilities of a university, a small innovative business, and a proven aerospace/defense manufacturing company. The blend of expertise will provide not only an effective system design but also the ability to transition the design into deployable hardware in a minimum amount of time.

KalScott Engineering, Inc.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 979-1113
Tom Sherwood
DARPA 08-002      Awarded: 6/23/2009
Title:Autonomous Detection, Acquisition, Pointing, and Tracking of Small UAVs
Abstract:The need to detect and track small aerial targets is identified. An approach to use a unique radar front-end sensor is described, which provides the initial detection capability. The data from the sensor is used to cue a high-speed, highly accurate pointing and tracking system with a Coude path capability. In Phase I, the system design will be completed. In Phase II, build-out and system testing will be undertaken. A strong industry and academic team is in place to execute this project.

KalScott Engineering, Inc.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 979-1113
Tom Sherwood
DARPA 08-002      Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title:Autonomous Detection, Acquisition, Pointing, and Tracking of Small UAVs
Abstract:The need to detect and track small aerial targets is identified. An approach to use a unique passive radar front-end sensor is described, which provides the initial detection capability. The data from the sensor is used to cue a high-speed, highly accurate pointing and tracking system with a Coude path capability. In Phase I, the system design will be completed. In Phase II, build-out and system testing will be undertaken. A strong industry and academic team is in place to execute this project.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 564-9610
Robert Swanson
DARPA 08-002      Awarded: 4/29/2009
Title:Autonomous Detection, Acquisition, Pointing, and Tracking of Small UAVs
Abstract:The use of UAVs has rapidly increased in the last several years. Commercially available technology has provided a means for exposing military and civilian personnel to advanced threats. The radar cross-sections of these platforms has also been drastically reduced through the use of composites. Oceanit proposes an electro-optical system to identify, track, small UAVs under 1-meter wingspan with sufficient accuracy to direct a high power laser to neutralize threat UAVs and their sensors. The system will provide 50 microradian pointing accuracy for small UAVs at ranges greater than 1 kilometer.

Science and Engineering Services, Inc.
6992 Columbia Gateway Drive Suite 200
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 539-1717
Jack Bufton
DARPA 08-002      Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title:Lidar-Assisted Detection, Acquisition, Pointing, and Tracking of Small UAVs
Abstract:An elastic backscatter lidar operating at a covert wavelength in the ultraviolet can be employed to perform high-precision three-dimensional pointing and tracking of small UAV targes in a tactical environment. Imaging of the rapidly pulsing lidar beam will control the airspace by acquiring a hard target return from any solid object in the airspace above a threshold that is well-below the cross-section of even a very small UAV. Detection of targets by wide-field and narrow-field passive optical sensors in the proposed sensor will hand-off to auto-tracking based on the lidar return. Boresighted imagery of the passive sensors will be used during both daytime and nighttime to confirm detection and destruction of the small UAV. The lidar beam and its imaging is solar blind. A coude optical system in the idar telescope mount will serve for laser beam weapon delivery. It is boresighted to the lidar and passive optical sensors.

Systems & Processes Engineering Corporat
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7734
Bradley Sallee
DARPA 08-002      Awarded: 6/10/2009
Title:Small UAV Tracking
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes LADAR system to detect, acquire, declare, point and track a small UAV at a range over 1Km in heavy weather. The system consists of a pair of LADARs drawing heavily on SPECs LADAR family, using SPECĄŠs LADAR ROIC, which captures the laser response waveform of the first three objects in range. One LADAR is optimized for search mode, continually scanning 2ƒà steradian, mapping fixed and slow moving objects, detecting moving objects and establishing trajectories. This LADAR will use large pixels (1.4mr), 10cm optical aperture and a bar shaped laser beam to rapidly search of the hemispherical area. The threat trajectory is handed off to the tracking LADAR. This LADAR uses SPECs EDFA transceiver with DWDM pixel processing, allowing extremely small pixels, 50 micro radian, and perfect transmitter / receiver alignment. This LADAR will use a small hexagonal close pack pixel array, quick search to establish track, and then use the array to maintain a FOR (Field of Regard) track. The track LADAR is configured for a high power beam to be directed by the same optics toward the target as a kill mechanism.

STI Optronics
2755 Northup Way
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 827-0460
Wayne Kimura
DARPA 08-003      Awarded: 3/31/2009
Title:Ultrashort-Pulse CO2 Laser for Remote Sensing
Abstract:A CO2 laser with subnanosecond pulse duration and high pulse energy will be developed for double-resonance remote sensing lidar applications. An innovative technique for generating the ultrashort laser pulses will be utilized. A detailed conceptual design will be made during Phase I and a prototype laser will be fabricated and tested during Phase II.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Guoqing Shen
DARPA 08-004      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:A Compact Femtosecond Pulse Expander with Tunable Expanding Ratio and Wavelength
Abstract:A major problem of existing pulse expanders is that each of them was designed for a certain expanding ratio at a certain wavelength. When the laser wavelength or pulse duration is changed the optical components of the systems require precise readjustment, which are extremely inconvenient and time consuming. Luna proposes a novel approach, which is designed specifically for easy alignment and insensitivity to misalignment to achieve the desired pulse duration and wavelength changes, and the approach avoids the use of complex and expansive optical components to reduce complexity and cost. This proposed pulse expander can expand an ultrashort pulse to a longer duration pulse in a time range from several hundred femtoseconds to nanoseconds with adjustable wavelength and reshaping capability. In Phase I, a complete theoretical model of the pulse expander will be developed and will be used to guide future implementation of a prototype during Phase II. The performance of the prototype will be characterized and optimized during Phase III. A complete system is expected to be produced and delivered by the end of Phase III.

Mesa Photonics, LLC
174 Galisteo Lane
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 401-5271
Daniel Kane
DARPA 08-004      Awarded: 3/10/2009
Title:Femtosecond UV Laser Pulse Expander
Abstract:The UV portion of the spectrum is gaining interest for military applications both for its unique spectral window for remote sensing and for the identification of targets such as trace amounts of explosives, chem/bio agents, and toxic chemicals. Powerful, fieldable laser sources are required for most sensing applications. Ultrafast lasers represent a unique capability because pulse widths are short, and can be varied from less than 100 fs to over 1 ns by simply dispersing the pulse in time using commonly used stretcher/compressor technology used in ultrafast amplifiers. However, because ultrafast amplifiers are mostly used at IR wavelengths, stretcher/compressor technology has been optimized for these wavelength regions. Ideally, and because different chemical and biological processes occur on various sub-nanosecond time scales, the pulse width should be variable in order to optimize the detection of the material of interest. The variability in pulse width also allows the incident energy on target to be easily and predictably varied. Consequently, the pulse width adjustment must be agile over a range of pulse widths. This Phase I effort is designed to demonstrate feasibility of agile stretcher technology that can change UV ultrafast laser characteristics rapidly for UV remote sensing needs.

RadiaBeam Technologies, LLC
13428 Beach Ave
Marina Del Rey, CA 90292
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 822-5845
Rodion Tikhoplav
DARPA 08-004      Awarded: 4/2/2009
Title:Femtosecond UV Laser Pulse Expander
Abstract:This project will develop a highly flexible, robust, fieldable UV pulse stretcher: the Digital UltraViolet Stretcher (DUVS). The proposed device will accept laser pulses such as those generated from a frequency doubled or tripled Ti:S laser, and produce user-selectable pulse lengths and profiles. The DUVS will be a turn-key, fieldable, optical sub-system featuring high reliability, high optical efficiency, and rapid computer control. The DUVS system will include a suite of optical diagnostics to monitor the functioning of the system as well as the optical output.

Mustang Technology Group, L.P.
400 W. Bethany Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 396-4421
Ronald Persson
DARPA 08-005      Awarded: 4/14/2009
Title:Low Cost Radar Receivers
Abstract:Mustang proposes to use its low-cost radar philsophy to develop a low-cost active seeker for low cost weapons. Based upon an existing Mustang seeker design, this system will meet the cost goals of this program while still providing excellent performance to a wide range of weapons.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Matthew Erdtmann
DARPA 08-006      Awarded: 4/28/2009
Title:Lilliputian Thermal Camera
Abstract:The Agiltron lilliputian thermal camera implements a revolutionary approach to thermal imaging. Based on our company’s proven photomechanical IR imaging technology, we separate the IR focal plane array (FPA) from the readout integrated circuitry (ROIC), which allows ubiquitous yet highly-functional CMOS imagers to serve as the ROIC. The disruptive, modular design of the Agiltron lilliputian thermal camera can uniquely meet the DARPA requirements for ultra-low size, weight, and power (SWAP) and wide field of view (FOV). The successful completion of this program will result in the smallest, lightest, and most efficient thermal camera ever demonstrated.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Richard Claus
DARPA 08-006      Awarded: 4/29/2009
Title:Self-Assembled Materials for Lightweight IR Cameras
Abstract:This program would investigate new lightweight imaging and detection materials for use in IR imaging systems for UAVs. During Phase I, infrared wavelength metamaterials and quantum nanocluster detector arrays would be designed, and experimental prototypes fabricated and analyzed. Material and device synthesis would be performed using modified electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processing. ESA has been used through prior work to manufacture vertically multilayered and two-dimensionally patterned materials and devices having controlled multiple constitutive properties. Of importance here, these materials include highly conductive and optically transparent free-standing sheet materials, and visible wavelength photodetector elements and arrays. To form IR metamaterials, sub-wavelength dimensioned resonant electrically conducting segments would be formed from sparse arrays of discrete metal nanoclusters. Electron transport in such segments occurs by quantum mechanical electron hopping rather than conventional drift field mechanisms such as in bulk metal conductors; NanoSonic’s Metal Rubber™ is an example of a material that exhibits such behavior. IR detector arrays would be fabricated using semiconductor quantum dot elements effectively biased at the conductivity percolation threshold through control of materials processing. Measurements of IR material and device properties, and analysis of their combination in IR imaging systems, would be used to downselect the optimal process for further development.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alexander Naumov
DARPA 08-006      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:Liquid Crystal Infrared (LC-IR) Microcamera
Abstract:To address the DARPA interest in extremely lightweight, low-power thermal microcameras for use on microvehicles, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new liquid crystal infrared (LC-IR) microcamera, highly sensitive in the thermal waveband, requiring no cooling, and with high resolution and uniformity. The proposed system is based on three POC innovations: (1) new implementation of liquid crystal (LC) resonance absorption at 3.5-9.9 microns; (2) novel use of exponential sensitivity of LC rotational viscosity to temperature, monitored by capacitance variation of LC FPA pixels; and (3) novel use of active thermostabilization through leakage current, expanding the low temperature operating range. LC FPA fabrication is based on mature display technology compatible with standard integrated circuit processes, and has the advantages of reliability, low power consumption, small-size, low weight and cost, and compatibility with commercially available integrated readout circuits supporting low- voltage differential signaling standards. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with a LC-IR microcamera prototype operating with 1 x 32 pixel focal plane array over a wide temperature range. In Phase II POC will develop a LC-IR microcamera prototype suitable for the Wasp microair vehicle.

Advanced Brain Monitoring
2237 Faraday Ave. Suite 100
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 720-0099
Chris Berka
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 3/5/2009
Title:Streamlined Neurotechnology for Operational Applications
Abstract:Advanced Brain Monitoring (ABM) developed patented low cost, easy-to-use, portable systems to monitor and interpret physiological signals, including the brain''s electrical activity (EEG) and cardiac activity. These technologies can be applied in real-time or off- line and have proven useful in quantifying the changes in alertness, learning and memory associated with sleep deprivation in healthy subjects and as a biobehavioral assay for identifying vulnerability to the effects of sleep deprivation. The wireless EEG system proved valid, robust and reliable in over 1000 human subject studies conducted to date, however, there are features of the current design that continue to limit the widespread adoption of the technologies. The goal of this project is to create the next generation system, incorporating innovative state-of-the-art materials and design concepts to address the needs of current and future customers. A custom designed flexible circuit will allow multiple options to be evaluated for EEG scalp-sensor interface that can provide a continuous secure contact over hair without causing discomfort to the user. The electronic components of the wireless headset will be further miniaturized and housed in an enclosure that is suitable for location on different regions of the head.

Advanced Brain Monitoring
2237 Faraday Ave. Suite 100
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 720-0099
Chris Berka
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/20/2009
Title:Novel Neurotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Abstract:The recent military buildup in Iraq and Afghanistan with its associated stressors of warfare have resulted in a significant increase in new cases of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sleep disturbances comprise prominent features of PTSD and have been suggested to have a pathogenic role in the disease. PTSD is characterized by disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep including decreased REM latency and increased REM density. The proposed system will be designed to characterize sleep abnormalities, optimize interventions, and apply novel neurotherapy. The goal for treating PTSD is to restructure the sleep staging to achieve more normal sleep. The rationale derives from research demonstrating that therapeutic sleep deprivation leads to an immediate amelioration of depression. The clinical utility of this procedure is limited due to the fact that the improvement usually subsides after a night of sleep and the difficulty of implementation of the protocols in the sleep laboratory. The team will design and evaluate a system that automatically scores and stages sleep in real-time with the goal of awakening the patient whenever abnormal sleep is identified. The investigators hypothesize that the system will achieve clinical outcome results comparable to that of TSD with a therapy that is practical and achievable.

Advanced Powder Solutions, Inc
14102 Halprin Creek Drive
Cypress, TX 77429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 373-1729
Dean Baker
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 7/25/2009
Title:Novel Materials For Mulitple Platforms
Abstract:Novel materials will be needed to help all programs within the DoD. The objective of this Phase I is to demonstrate multi-functional composites that are low cost and lightweight for multiple applications. Phase I will be about fabrication and characterization of the lightweight materials. APS has many Phase I supporters to aid transition the mew materials to Phase II. Phase II will continue the testing and characterization of these materials.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CORP.
6650 Eli Whitney Drive Suite 400
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 766-7888
Jack Goeller
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Establishing Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Blast
Abstract:The leading risk facing our soldiers in Iraq is an improvised explosive device (IED). IED attacks on vehicles create an extreme shock environment that has been linked to Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). While the damage mechanisms that cause TBI remain elusive, several researchers have speculated that the damage mechanisms of stress and strain associated with non-war-related TBI may not sufficiently address IED induced TBI. It may, in fact, involve a third damage mechanism: cavitation. The objective of this research is to develop the mathematical tools to predict these damage mechanisms. Advanced Technology and Research Corporation will collaborate with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in developing a finite-element model of the head/brain. The dynamic response of the head/brain model to IED events will be computed using the DYSMAS hydrocode. Stress and strain contours predicted over the duration of the response will be examined for potential damage mechanisms including cavitation. Positively identifying the damage mechanism for TBI will directly impact the health care needs of current and future military personnel. By understanding the cause(s) of TBI, engineers and medical researchers can continue their collaboration to develop mitigation devices and cut medical costs by reducing the number and severity of TBI casualties.

Applied Nanomaterials
1951 Latham Street, Apartment 1
Mountain View, CA 94040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 520-5105
Yanfeng Zhang
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:Precise location control and patterned growth of sub-22 nano meter nano materials have long been central challenges in semiconductor nano material growth, highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (2007). We propose to combine a modified optical trapping technology with the metal catalyzed nano material chemical vapor deposition growth system to resolve these challenges. We modify the conventional optical trapping technology to heat the nano metal catalyst particles into liquid droplets and to trap and move these melted droplets towards the center of the trapping laser beam. Then nano materials growth can be catalyzed and initialized in the pre-determined locations precisely. To grow sub-22nm nano materials, we introduce a pre-growth evaporation process to shrink the size of nano metal droplets. We also use time sharing and other parallel trapping techniques for nano material patterned growth with applications to the silicon-germanium material system.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2437
Webb Stacy
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 5/5/2009
Title:Cognitive Patterns: An Architecture for Distributed Control of ChemBots
Abstract:A key challenge to the future deployment of DARPA’s Chemical Robots (ChemBots) ChemBots is a system for controlling them that operates in a distributed fashion. There are three primary requirements: 1) its distributed nature must be transparent to the user; 2) it must exploit local acting and sensing capabilities while maintaining a global common operational picture; and 3) it must be robust to attrition. We propose to use this insight to create an agent architecture called Cognitive Patterns that integrates top-down and bottom-up approaches in a way that is very natural for humans yet very useful for ChemBots. Cognitive Patterns take a formal approach to describing the top-down information that humans use to understand and act in the world, and to combining that information with information in the sensed world in such a way that all participants, automated or human, share context. The use of single Cognitive Patterns for distributed control, as well as the use of libraries of Cognitive Patterns and the real-time, interactive or automated creation of new Cognitive Patterns, will be explored.

Edward Pope DR (DBA MATECH Advanced Mate
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Kenneth Kratsch
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/9/2009
Title:Revolutionary 5000F Zero-Erosion Super-Insulating TPS Materials for DOD Weapon Systems
Abstract:In this DARPA Phase I SBIR program, MATECH/GSM proposes to demonstrate its revolutionary low cost, high temperature ceramic fiber and fiber processing technologies for non ablative structural TPS systems. These TPS systems will be required for the next generation of high supersonic vehicles, such as RATTLRS and hypersonic vehicles such as Black Swift. For long duration sustained flight, thermal management becomes a critical design issue in addition to bending stiffness and thermal shock. Traditional organic composites are not suitable for sustained temperatures at high supersonic speeds. Non ablative high temperature materials must be developed to enable the next generation of sustained ultra high speed vehicles. MATECH/GSM (MG) has developed novel, low cost preceramic polymers and processing technologies for producing ceramic fibers and formed ceramic fiber components. These ceramic fibers, depending on preceramic polymer chemistry, offer service temperatures ranging from 2400°F to 5000°F and can be formed both before and after pyrolysis into structural insulative shapes suitable for nose cones, fin leading edges, and fuselage body structural insulation systems.

Enigmatics, Inc.
9215 51st Avenue Unit No. 7
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 486-1725
Ben Gauthier
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 5/20/2009
Title:A metallurgical bond-forming coating process for thermally sensitive components
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project focuses on the development of a novel process for applying metallurgically-bonded coatings to thin or otherwise thermally sensitive components. The technique, suitable for both OEM and field-repair applications, is a low-thermal-impact technique for deposition of fully fused coatings for applications such as component wear and corrosion protection. This project is aimed at development of the process for coating of metallic and cermet materials to high-strength steel and to nickel and titanium alloy components for military and civilian aerospace applications. Coating-process development will include numerical simulations, experimental deposition, and diagnostics. Fully sintered metallurgically bonded coatings will improve wear and corrosion resistance of the thin components without degrading their mechanical properties.

Epitaxial Technologies, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5830
Ayub Fathimulla
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:Innovative photon counting receivers for bio-photonic & QKD applications
Abstract:Epitaxial Technologies' overall objective is to develop high gain and low noise APD photoreceiver suitable for high detection probability single photon counting at room temperature over the 450 to 1550-nm spectral band. Specifically, we will develop compact and low cost single photon receiver in single-pixel and array formats with photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark count rate (DCR) and timing jitter of 80%, 1000 counts/sec and 50 psec respectively. The proposed technology will be based on material structure and detector innovations that enable high gain and ultra-low excess noise APDs, with the capability for GHz bandwidth. In Phase I, we will refine detector designs, and investigate new material structures, processing techniques and fabricate detectors and photoreceivers, and demonstrate the required PDE, DCR, jitter and bandwidth for the APDs. In addition, we will assemble and test hybrid-integrated receivers and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed single photon receivers. In Phase II, we will design the single photon receiver to meet or exceed the PDE, DCR, bandwidth and quantum efficiency specifications. We will integrate the TIAs with APD devices and demonstrate monolithic single-chip receivers meeting the specifications to detect single photon emissions from biological specimens, quantum encryption networks and ladar transmitters.

GVD Corporation
45 Spinelli Place
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0060
Erik Handy
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:Scalable, Lightweight Nanocomposite Armor
Abstract:GVD Corporation (GVD) proposes to develop conformal coatings for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), facilitating scalable manufacturing of lightweight vehicle armor. GVD’s solvent- free coatings afford improved CNT dispersion in various matrices, resulting in better CNT distribution throughout the armor nanocomposite. Combat vehicles carry more than 10 tons of armor, increasing vehicle wear and tear (and associated maintenance costs) and reducing vehicle mobility. GVD’s proposed nanocomposite approach offers significant armor weight reduction while maintaining armor performance. In Phase I, GVD will develop and screen a range of conformal coatings for carbon nanotubes. The most promising candidates will then be selected for nanocomposite fabrication and testing. GVD’s nanotube coating approach will then be optimized and scaled up in Phase II for prototyping and more rigorous testing.

Hard Sciences Corporation
748 Greenwood Avenue
Glencoe, IL 60022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 337-9305
James Myrick
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:Inexpensive IR Imagers for MWIR – LWIR Color Separation
Abstract:This SBIR proposal is directed toward developing inexpensive, lightweight MWIR and LWIR imagers and cameras which have high performance, excellent pixel unifirmity, and low power consumption. The proposed technology could operate at ambient temperatures and provide simultaneous co-registered MWIR and LWIR images.

Hard Sciences Corporation
748 Greenwood Avenue
Glencoe, IL 60022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 337-9305
James Myrick
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/18/2009
Title:Strong, Dense, Low-Cost, Robust Nanoscale Energetic Materials
Abstract:This SBIR project is directed to the preparation of very strong, dense (> 7g/cc reactive structural energetic materials which have long term storage stability and high energy/combustion output.

Harmonic Technology, Inc.
2325 chimney hill drive
arlington, TX 76012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 223-1187
guojun liao
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 9/1/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology: Beyond Optical Flow
Abstract:This proposal responds to DARPA’s STTR solicitation, topic 7 (ST082-007). Advanced computational technology based on solid mathematical ground will be developed and applied to elimination of blurs and super-resolution of video of faces. These applications are important in aerial surveillance systems and homeland security tasks. Success of the project will overcome limitations of current methods in terms of their accuracy and efficiency. The method is significantly more advanced than the existing techniques mainly because it is based on a new motion estimate approach, which determines pixel correspondence between two video frames by optimizing a similarity measure subject to constraints expressed in terms of differential operators. The imposed constraints guarantee that the admissible space consists of all smooth and invertible transformations. Thus, the approach is capable of detecting nonlinear, complicated motions that are typical in a video sequence.

Highland Instruments
395 Broadway #R4D
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 504-6031
Timothy Wagner
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 8/6/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:During combat situations, a soldier can become overloaded with visual and auditory stimuli. Of paramount importance is the capacity to filter out irrelevant (or distractor) stimuli, and attend to relevant stimuli. Effective modulation of activity in a soldier’s fronto- parietal brain regions has the potential to optimize attentional deployment and processing of relevant and irrelevant stimuli while increasing their overall attentional capacity and perceptual abilities. Current modulation techniques based on invasive and noninvasive neural stimulation technologies suffer from many limitations that make such neural modulation impractical or inefficient for warfighter use. This proposed project will explore the feasibility of using Electromechanical Stimulation (EMS), a potentially superior noninvasive brain stimulation technique, to modulate the brain activity for the enhanced processing of visual stimuli. Ultimately, an individualized helmet for each soldier could be developed with an integrated EMS stimulator to enhance a soldier’s cognitive performance.

Infinite Corridor Technology
41 Calumet Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 721-1025
Duncan Boyce
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 8/6/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:Future generations of electronics will need to be both stretchable and flexible due to the increasing demand for portable electronics. As electronics devices become more integral to our lives, it is increasingly important for them to be shapeable and conformable, which opens the design space of the devices and enables maneuverability of the user. Infinite Corridor Technologies (ICT) has established a new material design approach that enables a breakthrough that facilitates stretchable and flexible electronics. The basis of the design lies in a fundamental change to the printed wiring board material. Current developments in conducting polymers and other new electronic materials have not achieved sufficient maturity for widespread application. ICT’s solution to this problem is a Structured Elastomeric Material Substrate (SEMS). The SEMS possesses material properties and structural features that allow it to stretch, compress and flex in different directions by straining the substrate only in select areas. This approach leaves a large fraction of the substrate at strains dramatically lower than the macroscopic strain. The strain-free areas provide locations for the electronic components and circuitry, enabling stretchable and flexible electronics. ICT has already demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of this material design and seeks to further its development.

Johnson Research & Development Co., Inc.
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Davorin Babic
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 5/13/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:Johnson Research and Development Co., Inc. (JRD) proposes development of a key component for an innovative, highly efficient heat engine that can operate as a versatile power generator and heat pump for either cooling or heating. The Johnson thermo- electrochemical converter (JTEC) is an innovative all solid state heat engine that operates on the Ericsson cycle (Carnot equivalent) and directly converts heat into electrical energy offering the maximum theoretical efficiency available from a heat engine operating between two temperatures. The high JTEC efficiency is achieved by electrochemical reactions facilitated by isothermal transport of hydrogen, the JTEC working fluid. JTEC efficiency is anticipated to be significant fraction of the ideal Carnot efficiency while still maintaining practical power densities. Successful development of a JTEC critical component would provide revolutionary thermal management and energy conversion capabilities to DoD platforms and weapon systems.

Light Weight Technologies (formerly Jona
JAMCORP C/O JOn Priluck 2988 Oak St, Unit 215
Eugene, OR 97405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 687-4646
Jonathan Priluck
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 7/29/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:Lattice Block Materials, or LBM for short, are a class of materials comprised of an open structure of ligaments arranged in a regular truss like structure that is three dimensional. A basic unit cell is comprised of a square based pyramid skeleton (just the corners, called nodes, and the edges, called ligaments). These cells are connected in all directions to form a larger lattice like structure that is a block of material. The “parent material” is the name for the material that the LBM is actually made of. Parent materials for LBM can be almost any injection molding plastic, most metals, and some ceramics. We have devised a method for casting LBM that requires no pattern whatsoever. What we propose to develop is essentially a complex form of sand-casting. We make the mold by filling space with triangular prisms that have matching half channels on their surfaces that form the LBM lattice. This could also be done smaller with investment casting cores. This would eliminate the need for patterns in both sand casting and investment casting and yield something between the two.

Materials & Electrochemical Research (ME
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Roger Storm
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:A Metallic Nanocomposite with the Highest Strength and Modulus Ratio of Any Metallic Material for Applications Weapons Systems
Abstract:New and innovative materials are required to provide revolutionary capabilities to DoD platforms and weapon systems. Magnesium is the lightest metal that can be applied to defense, structural and commercial applications. Magnesium’s utilization is often restricted since it suffers from inherent poor corrosion resistance and mechanical deficiencies. Nanoreinforcements in magnesium have demonstrated significant improvement in corrosion resistance similar to that of aluminum and some nanoreinforcements in a metal have similarly shown increases of 1.5 to 3.5 times in mechanical property improvements. Nanoreinforced nano-grained magnesium offers the potential to exhibit a strength and modulus to density ratio greater than any metallic material. Some nanoreinforcements in magnesium offer significant potential to produce a ballistic material with the lowest areal density of any material. This program will optimize nanoreinforced magnesium to provide exemplary corrosion resistance and the highest specific properties and ballistic performance of any metallic material for applications to revolutionize capabilities in DoD platforms and weapon systems.

Medical Decision Logic, Inc.
1216 E. Baltimore St.
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 224-8429
Allen Tien
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 6/17/2009
Title:Advanced Mathematics for Network Analysis
Abstract:The goal of this project is use Answer Set Programming (ASP) methods to create a commercially viable software application (“SocioLogix™”) for social network analysis (SNA). Recent developments in Answer Set Programming and propositional satisfiability checking (SAT-checking) have potential to extend the power of software to use techniques of rule-based or “qualitative” optimization to find optimal answers to NP- complete problems (i.e., problems for which solutions have a certain level of difficulty to compute) that arise in SNA, and to allow these problems to be defined on a study-specific basis. The SocioLogix software will extend the existing SocioMetrica system, which currently consists of the EgoNet, LinkAlyzer, and VisuaLyzer applications. These integrated applications provide functions for distributed and secure social network (SN) data collection, management, analysis, and visualization functions. Data may be visualized as node and edge graphs and analyzed using a number of standard SNA techniques that are directly provided by SocioMetrica, or are provided via common data formats by other software packages. SocioLogix will add ASP functionality to the SocioMetrica suite, thereby providing a radically new approach for flexible analysis of important problems in SNA. The initial area to be addressed in Phase I is Graph Decomposition. In Phase II, Stable Attribute Assignment and Egonet Aggregation will be addressed, guided by DoD functional priorities and web-based deployment and interface design.

Menlo Systems Inc.
69 Stickles Pond Road
Newton, NJ 07860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(857) 998-1320
Jonathan Birge
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:The ability to precisely control dispersion with thin-film dielectric filters is an enabling technology in short pulse lasers, allowing for durations below five femtoseconds. Such laser systems have revolutionized areas central to many DOD missions and capabilities, such as directed laser energy systems, precision optical metrology to enhance inertial navigation systems, and optical arbitrary waveform generation for high resolution optical sensing, to name a few. Going forward, as the attosecond regime is developed, dispersion compensating mirror systems are needed to enable enhancement cavities for high harmonic generation which provides researchers with access to coherent XUV and soft X-ray radiation from cost effective oscillators rather than complex amplifier systems. Similar dispersion-controlled cavities can be used for repetition-rate multiplication, an important capability for sources to be used in e.g. waveform generation. These new applications require precision, bandwidth and damage tolerance at the limits of what is possible with current mirror technology. We propose to extend these limits through improved design optimization and material selection. We will leverage newly available commercial grid computing systems to develop global search algorithms for finding optimal mirror configurations and to optimize manufacturing tolerances, addressing a major practical limitation to the production of highly precise dispersion compensating mirrors.

MilSys Technologies, LLC
408 E. Fourth Street Suite 204
Bridgeport, PA 19405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 272-5050
Glenn Baker
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:The material science and fabrication aspects of photo-sensitive materials has undergone a revolution in sensitivity and capability. These improvements have taken place in lock step with technology developments in the IC industry. The basic technology of cooling of focal plane arrays (FPA) has been around for the past forty years. It breaks down into two methodologies; mechanical (Stirling) and electrical (thermoelectric). Both have been the recipients of a significant amount of DoD research to improve their performance, SWAP (size, weight and power) and cost efficiency. However, both are macro devices, which are reaching their fundamental limits in reducing SWAP and cost. What is proposed is a MEMs structure that combines active thermoelectric cooling integrated at a material/device level with the photosensitive element. The Phase I proposal has two(2) parts: 1) conduct a feasibility study which would define the concept by creating a model of the device to determine both theoretical as well as existing operating capabilities and 2) investigate an existing compound, using recently developed deposition process, as one potential thermoelectric material system.

NuCrypt LLC
1801 Maple Avenue, Rm 6322
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 733-8750
Gregory Kanter
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 1/12/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology: Measurement Tools for Quantum Information Processing
Abstract:Quantitative and visually intuitive information is critical to understanding, designing, and verifying the operation of any system. For instance, a vector signal analyzer allows a designer to gain an immediate understanding of a radio communications link by visualizing the transmission signal constellation. Additional analysis such as a calculation of the error vector magnitude can be performed in real time. Such tools are now an indispensable part of modern engineering methods. Quantum state tomography is a measurement tool which allows for complete characterization of quantum states. Truly quantum systems like networks of entangled states will need measurement tools that measure quantum signals (states) just as classical systems need measurement tools to measure classical signals. Although great progress has been made in tomography techniques, no commercial equipment currently exists. Advances in the field of quantum information are severely hampered because every development group must build their own tools including even basic measurement devices. It is the goal of this Phase-I SBIR to develop the component and systems technology to design a practical polarization-mode quantum state tomography system. We will pursue methods of making the signal acquisition and analysis as fast as possible to give the user a real-time feel. A prototype system will be built and characterized in Phase-II.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITE
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2752
J. Sauer
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 4/29/2009
Title:Functionally Graded Metallic Lattice Components (FGMLC) for Advanced Propulsion Component
Abstract:ORBITEC and the Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE) propose to develop functionally graded metallic lattice components for use in advanced rocket propulsion systems. The FGMLC material will utilize an internal intertwined lattice structure to join different constituents of the composite material. This lattice structure will allow a designed gradation from one material to another while maintaining each materials properties. The FGMLC will utilize a high-heat flux metallic material for the hot-side surface. This material will be graded to a high-strength, light weight metallic materials on the outer surface of the component. The FGMLC offers several advantages over conventional graded materials. The mature FGMLC is expected to offer a low-cost, lightweight, long life, elegant design for high heat flux applications. The Phase I effort will involve selection of candidate materials and manufacturing processes, fabrication of FGMLC test samples, development of a laboratory test fixture to evaluate the performance of FGMLC prototype components under simulated operating conditions, mechanical testing of FGMLC samples, evaluation of component behavior and performance under test conditions, and development of Phase II fabrication and test plans. This proposal responds to Topic DARPA 08-007, which requests new materials and processes that provide revolutionary capability to DoD platforms and weapon systems.

Powdermet Inc.
24112 Rockwell drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Brian Doud
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 3/23/2009
Title:Advance High Strength Low Weight Aluminum NanoFoam Alloys
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate SiC nano-balloon-reinforced aluminum alloy composites which have strength-density ratios 20-50% greater than Al-Li alloys. The core innovation is the production of high strength SiC nanoballoons using electrospinning of Si modified polymer nanoballoons and pyrolysis, and then using these lightweight, high strength spheres as reinforcements in aluminum alloys to both reduce weight and thermal conductivity, while simultaneously increasing strength and stiffness. A second key innovation is to add up to 5% lithium solid solution to reduce the density of aluminum, which, when combined with the 0.3-0.5g/cc Sic microballoons, will create an alloy with a density less then 1.5g/cc and strengths approaching 100ksi. The production of lightweight nanosphere analogs to carbon nanotubes represents a breakthrough to the production of low density, low thermal conductivity metal products which can be economically fabricated using powder extrusion or powder forging techniques. A nano- SiC balloon will have lower density than Li with 3X the stiffness and strength, and can be added at loadings of 20-40V%. Lithium can be added at levels up to 5 wt% (15V%), meaning that through the combined addition of lithium and SiC microballoons, 50V% of the alloy can be replaced with low density (<0.5g/cc) materials.

Precision Photonics Corporation
3180 Sterling Circle
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 444-9948
Kurt Vogel
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title:Broadband Infrared Molecular Fingerprinting for Non-invasive Biosensors
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, PPC will pursue a ‘translational’ research and development program for a recently demonstrated technology into the chemical and biological sensing arena. Spectroscopic identification of chem/bio agents requires broadband detection in order to characterize unique spectral fingerprints – preferably simultaneously – in the presence of potential confounding molecular species. Along with simultaneous multi-species detection, this technique provides near real-time readout speeds that are dramatically faster than available approaches. This project will (1) develop critical optical assemblies necessary to perform ultra-broadband spectroscopy in the mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectrum where molecular fingerprinting is orders of magnitude more sensitive, (2) demonstrate broadband spectroscopy in the mid-wave infrared with emphasis on critically analyzing the detection specificity, and (3) develop sources suitable for broadband spectroscopy in the long-wave infrared.

Prime Research, LC
1750 Kraft Dr Ste 1000-B
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
Raymond Rumpf
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Meta-Optic Fluorescence Probe for IED Detection
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of a revolutionary Meta-Optic Fluorescence Probe (MOFP) for the rapid detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). This effort will focus on detection of triacetone-triperoxide (TATP) in its native solid form without the need for physical contact, sample collection, or intermediate we- chemical processing. TATP is an explosive of choice for terrorists and is notoriously difficult to detect using field deployable instruments or even dogs.

Prime Research, LC
1750 Kraft Dr Ste 1000-B
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
Raymond Rumpf
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Power Harvesting Wireless Flow Sensor
Abstract:PRLC proposes the development of a miniature wireless flow sensor that harvests all the electrical power required to operate from its environment. The device will use a fluidic oscillator to actuate piezoelectric cantilever beams to generate power and measure flow velocity through its frequency of oscillation. A highly efficient single chip ultra wide band (UWB) radio will be incorporated to transmit flow velocity with minimal required energy. The technology promises to be low cost, highly compact, and able to multiplex hundreds of sensors.

Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 495-2551
Mark Itzler
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:InP-based Single Photon Detectors with Active Negative Feedback
Abstract:From the perspective of performance, reliability, and cost, the most practical photodetector available today with single photon sensitivity between 1.0 and 1.6 ìm is the InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diode (SPAD). However, even the best InP-based SPADs have photon counting rate limitations of ~1 – 10 MHz. For applications ranging from quantum information science to covert short-wave infrared imaging, single photon detectors with much faster counting rates in the range of 100 MHz – 1 GHz will be essential. A primary shortcoming of conventional SPADs is the positive feedback inherent in their avalanche dynamics and performance degradation associated with it. We propose to radically improve upon these structures by monolithically integrating negative feedback elements to create negative feedback avalanche diodes (NFADs) with self- limiting avalanches exhibiting highly deterministic gain values. Self-limited avalanches will greatly reduce latency problems caused by afterpulsing, offering the potential for repetition rates exceeding 100 MHz, and highly deterministic gains will provide much lower excess noise. NFAD device operation will also be greatly simplified relative to SPADs since NFADs can be operated with just a single dc bias. We will investigate several approaches towards incorporating negative feedback using active elements and compare these approaches with on-going work that entails the use of passive negative feedback. Long-term prospects include the increase of repetition rates beyond 1 GHz and the achieving of photon number resolution using multiplexed NFAD formats.

Quantum Applied Science and Research Inc
5764 Pacific Center Blvd Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 228-1093
Konstantine Ermolaev
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 5/4/2009
Title:Human Hydration Status Monitor
Abstract:The incidence of heat related injuries in warfighters has increased 8-fold in the past 20 years. In 2006, Army warfighters sustained 220 heat related injuries; of those 57 were hospitalized, 163 were outpatients and two died. A significant number of these injuries could have been prevent or at least minimized if the subjects were wearing a hydration monitor to help regulate their liquid intake. In this program, Quantum Applied Science and Research (QUASAR) Inc., a leading innovator in wearable electrophysiological measurement systems will develop the first truly non invasive accurate wearable hydration monitoring system, one that needs no action or maintenance by the user, other than to put it on. This new sensor system will unitize compact non contact resonant electromagnetic oscillators to infer the subjects total body water as well as ionic conductivity. The system will provide a direct readout to the user advising him when to drink and if they should consume water or electrolyte. In addition, significant opportunities exist in long term medical monitoring and sports equipment markets, and will be addressed in part via QUASAR's partnerships with Advanced Neurometrics.

QuesTek Innovations LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 425-8225
James Wright
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 6/15/2009
Title:Computational Design of MoCr Superalloys for High Temperature Service
Abstract:This Phase I project applies QuesTek’s unique computational materials design technology to the development of ductile, oxidation-resistant, and creep-resistant MoCr superalloys for use at 1300°C and above. Mo-Si-B or Nb-based systems developed for such demanding structural applications have encountered significant difficulties related to ductility and/or oxidation-resistance. QuesTek will pursue a radical new microstructural concept with the potential of achieving critical performance requirements simultaneously: novel multiphase Mo-Cr alloys composed of a ductile BCC matrix (for toughness) and aluminide phases for oxidation resistance and creep strength. Utilizing CALPHAD-based thermodynamics, and building on prior research at Northwestern University on refractory metal systems, the ductility and oxidation resistance of the Mo-Cr alloys will employ the following design strategies: a) Increasing the ductility of the BCC matrix phase by suitable alloying additions based on quantum-mechanical calculations of the generalized stacking fault energy, minimizing the matrix DBTT and b) Improving intrinsic oxidation resistance of the BCC matrix, using design methods for external protective oxide-scale formation. Phase I will design and validate proof-of-concept Mo-Cr alloys at sub-scale, and Phase II will develop, prototype, and characterize for subsequent implementation into DoD weapons platforms.

Shakti Technologies Inc.
728 Garland Drive
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 248-6990
Subhash Narang
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:Shock Attenuating Helmet
Abstract:Explosions from conventional munitions and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) generate substantial blast overpressures that constitute a pervasive hazard to US military personnel in the Iraq and Afghanistan theaters of operations. Researchers currently believe that these explosive events can cause “traumatic brain injury” (TBI), a physical damaging of the brain, which stands in contrast to the psychological effects of “post- traumatic stress disorder” (PTSD). There is also the possibility of damage from the accompanying electromagnetic pulse. This proposal outlines an approach for developing a generalized material for attenuating explosive air blast. This material concept would provide a new helmet, yielding improved TBI protection by reducing the impact of the pressure pulse on the brain.

SIMmersion LLC
9861 Broken Land Parkway Suite 200
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 283-2504
Dale Olsen
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 6/23/2009
Title:DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE ANGER SIMULATION FOR USE WITH FMRI SCANNING
Abstract:Significant adjustment issues can occur as warfighters transition from combat to home. One area of adjustment involves the appropriate control of anger. We propose to develop and test a prototype conversation simulation that allows for the collection of reliable data on brain activity associated with anger. This prototype will involve a simulated conversation which is designed to provoke anger in a user through the use of multiple anger-provoking statements made toward a user by a simulated character. This prototype will allow for the design of two new kinds of simulations, one that focuses on a more sophisticated study of neural pathways involved in anger and one that is an empirically-based training and intervention simulation. These simulations will provide a critical resource for warfighters returning home.

Smart Polymers Research Corporation
108 4th Street
Belleair Beach, FL 33786
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 424-3595
Matt Aldissi
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Uncooled Infrared Detectors based on Bioinspired Materials
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop lightweight, low- cost biomaterials or biologically inspired infrared (IR) detection technology for space- based military and commercial applications. To meet IR detection requirements, we plan to develop and show with a materials perspective, how these materials can sense thermal/IR radiation to be used and produced in uncooled imaging systems. Smart Polymers Research Corporation proposes to investigate the usefulness of a biologically derived protein, which exists in nature, to use in uncooled IR detectors through their dehydration and rehydration processes. Thin films of the material will be fabricated using the low cost self-assembly technique. The biomaterial films will be fully characterized to demonstrate their effectiveness as IR sensing materials. Upon successful conclusion of the Phase I feasibility program, we plan to take this effort further in Phase II with incorporation of the material into IR microbolometers which will be developed in collaboration with several partners.

Solulink, Incorporated
9853 Pacific Heights Blvd., Suite H
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 625-0670
David Schwartz
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Rapid Fieldable Biodosimetry Assay
Abstract:In the event of a nuclear detonation event it will be imperative to readily detect the level of radiation exposure to soldiers or civilians. For warfighters it will be important to determine whether they can be sent back into harm’s way and for civilians it will be important to triage victims into treatable and untreatable groups. Whole body exposure to even 0.5 Gy, >100 times the yearly background radiation, carries low risk. However, 1 Gy can markedly increase cancer risk and induce subclinical or mild radiation sickness, meriting mitigation, observation and follow-up. 2 Gy will deplete bone marrow progenitors, leading to high risk of infection and sepsis over days to weeks. Solulink proposes to develop Rapid Fieldable Biodosimeter test based on detection of a biomarker that correlates directly with the level of radiation exposure.

Superior NanoBioSystems
385 N St., Southwest
Washington, DC 20024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 919-7976
Yitzhak Rosen
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:The objective of our proposed effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an extremely rapid analysis of whole blood samples in non-laboratory environments using MEMS-based fabrication techniques combined with new developments in highly specific antibodies. We believe this technology will enable the realization of a small handheld portable blood analysis system with a quick response time, which will have direct and enormous impact for military field hospitals and mass casualty situations. Our development strategy is to first demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and, after successfully demonstrating our technology, to conduct a full-scale multiple year development effort that will be completed with the delivery of a fully-functional and self-contained blood typing and recipient/donor crossmatching analysis device requiring less than one-drop of blood and having an analysis time of 1 minute or less. During the SBIR effort, we will address those issues we believe have the highest risks associated with our technology, namely whether the basic concept functions to an acceptable level in a microscale fabricated device and whether the analysis time can be reduced to 1 minute or less, which is far below that which is possible with current approaches and technologies.

Systems Analytics
55 Moody Street, Suite 21
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 398-2233
John Zhang
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Social Networks
Abstract:This SBIR proposal addresses DARPA’s second mathematical challenge, the Dynamics of Networks, with the purpose to develop the high-dimensional mathematics needed to accurately model and predict behavior in large-scale distributed networks that evolve over time occurring in communication, biology, and the social sciences. We propose to develop a mathematical software package for the quantitative analysis of idea and counter-idea spread based on our recent progress in dynamic epidemic system modeling and biological regulatory network simulation. The software allows the user to study the spatial and temporal spread of contagious ideas, its transmittal speed and behavior within a population. In particular, the software includes the effects of super spreaders, connectivity of the transmittal media, transmittal capacity of spreaders, and the effectiveness of counter-idea spreaders. The software can be used to predict pattern and behavior, identify super-spreaders and optimize social networking processes across many applications with the transmission of ideas between individuals, communities, or regions. The Phase I effort will be focused on developing a prototype that is based on an eight-state model for the simulation of idea spreader and counter-idea spreader. The eventual software tool is efficient and user-friendly and can be run on PC.

Tanagram Partners
125 North Halsted Suite 400
Chicago, IL 60661
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) 876-3668
Joseph Juhnke
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 8/6/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:The research objectives of Aiding Complex Decision-Making Through Augmented Reality (SBIR Phase 1) address real world issues found in complex, high-stress, mobile environments that require rich information in order to reduce error and make informed decisions. Such systems are made up of several interacting components requiring collaborative situational awareness in a dynamic environment. Complexity arises when boundaries shift forcing operational tasks and goals to reorient, replanning. Critical real- time decision-making is required and failure often arises due to lack of information, resulting in inadequate decisions or increased reaction times. We plan to leverage current technology and research providing a new insight into decision-making in complex, high- stress environments, bringing a new approach to cognitive aids. We propose the concept of iARM (Intelligent Augmented Reality Model)- a combined reality of system and human perception that uses real world artifacts and cues as stimulation in order to provide an information overlay that provides a richer digitally enabled experience. Through the creation of a MOBILE iARM, we intend to improve dynamic situational awareness amongst collaborative groups through a shared knowledge base that can be accessed in real- time. Additional applications could include interactive modeling, information visualization (such as color identifying motion), and other visualization augmentations.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
George Hansen
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:To meet DoD combat requirements emerging in the next 10 to 15 years, “new multifunctional fiber materials and associated composite systems and processing techniques must be developed, and this development must start now.” In making their projections for this technology, DoD expects that “one must separate incremental gains made using current technology from major leaps arising from new non-PAN precursors and/or completely new fiber technologies.” To address this need, TRI/Austin has recently conceived of a novel material, which it believes is a strong candidate to produce the revolutionary engineering fiber breakthrough needed to replace Kevlar, Twaron, M5 and graphite fibers. We believe that our fiber will have higher modulus, strength, toughness and environmental resistance at a significantly reduced cost compared to these legacy materials. TRI proposes to investigate the chemical and physical properties of our novel material with the aim to determine the engineering parameters necessary to manufacture validation quantities of fiber in Phase II.

Versatilis LLC
488 Ridgefield Rd
Shelburne, VT 05482
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 380-4763
Ajay Jain
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 5/1/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will show a novel architecture for silicon Thin Film (TFT) Field Effect Transistors (FETs), with a novel technology for manufacturing such FETs on wires. Arranged or “woven” into structured, flexible active matrix (AM TFT) arrays, they can enable a wide variety of applications; e.g. large area backplanes for next generation, low power flexible displays, or embedded into structural elements for prognostic monitoring. A simple 128 x 128 AM TFT demonstrator array will be built, with TFTs fully characterized to show polysilicon mobilities >30 cm2/Vs, and array flexibility to 0.5 in. bend radius in 2D, surpassing the general state-of-the-art in electron mobility for flexible AM TFT backplanes. Display backplanes, for example, are presently low mobility (<1cm2/Vs) amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) AM TFT arrays on rigid substrates (silicon or glass) made in huge, capital intensive fabs (in the Far East). While adequate for LCDs, they are barely adequate for small, low performance flexible displays (e.g. e-readers using electrophoretic frontplanes) and present significant challenges if integrated drivers, full video, high information content or color imagery and flexibility are needed, especially with increasing screen size. AM OLEDs, for example, are current driven, emissive arrays requiring high mobility polysilicon TFTs and very good pixel-to-pixel uniformity, but the industry has yet to develop commercially viable large area AM TFT backplanes on flexible substrates.

VorCat, Inc.
14 Freas Court
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 762-5553
Jacob Krispin
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 6/23/2009
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:There is growing interest in using unmanned air vehicles (UAV's) instrumented with particle sensors to detect the presence of hazardous airborne chemical/biological (CB) agents. The effectiveness of this point source approach depends on providing the airborne sensors with the largest possible and most varied volume of the atmosphere. We seek to investigate whether or not the local flow upstream of a sensor intake manifold on an UAV can be manipulated to increase the effective sampling volume. The project reflects the common occurrence of substantial turbulent and vortical fields associated with UAV's that may potentially be used to effectively redirect airborne particulates toward sensor intake locations. A revolutionary, gridfree computational approach pioneered by VorCat, Inc. will be used to effect an accurate numerical simulation of the unsteady, turbulent field associated with a UAV traversing a particle-laden atmosphere. A number of possible options for augmenting the range of particles brought to a sensor during UAV flight will be considered. If a means of enhancing sampling volume can be found in the Phase I project, then, in partnership with Boeing, Inc., the Phase II study will consider the optimization and implementation of the approach on a particular UAV.

Woodbine Labs, Inc.
10624 Kenridge Dr.
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 891-5422
Richard Ravenhall
DARPA 08-007      Awarded: 3/10/2009
Title:Development of Very Lightweight, High Stiffness, TMC Shaft Technology
Abstract:This proposal is to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable implementation of aircraft-engine titanium matrix composite (TMC) shafts that are significantly lighter weight and potentially permit engine sub-critical vibratory operation. Current and under- development advanced engines employ long length, nickel-alloy shafts that satisfy rigorous dynamic, torsion, maneuver, temperature and life requirements. A lighter weight TMC shafts will be very beneficial. Ability to operate sub-critical rather than super-critical would be extremely advantageous. Also, gaining experience with such shafts on current engines will provide confidence to proceed with new centerline engine designs that take full advantage of dramatic improvements possible from TMC shafts in applications where nickel-alloy shafts cannot satisfy requirements. This SBIR builds on baseline TMC shaft developments/demonstrations conducted by Woodbine Labs and GE Aviation and extends this technology for payoff on current applications. The use of advanced higher strength, high stiffness, TMC architectures and advanced titanium to nickel-alloy joining offers the potential for lighter weight, sub-critical operating shafts. The proposed program will accomplish system designs, trade studies, conduct critical subelement fabrication/technical experiments and establish feasibility of such shafts. Phase II will build and demonstrate a corrosion resistant significantly lighter weight, high stiffness, nickel-alloy spline ended TMC shaft.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
30 Forbes Road Building B
Northborough, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 466-3119
Je Lee
DARPA 08-008      Awarded: 1/28/2009
Title:Thermally Insulated Structural Aerogel Composites for Satellite
Abstract:Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) is the most commonly used thermal insulation material for spacecraft applications due to its low thermal conductivity in vacuum. However, MLI has several problems including thermal shorts, is labor intensive to fabricate and install and its performance is negatively affected when insulating complex shapes; therefore significant improvements are needed in satellite insulation materials. Aerogel thermal blanket technology has been shown to meet the demanding requirements for space missions with significantly reduced installation time, reduced weight, reduced installed costs, and equivalent thermal performance to state of the art MLI. Aspen now proposes to develop integrated aerogel-based, structural satellite panels, thus eliminating the need for “add-on” insulation, such as MLI. To accomplish this Aspen proposes a dual approach solution that involves aerogel material development in parallel with structural system-level design development to meet the thermal performance requirements of structural satellite panels. Materials development will focus on an aerogel material that is lightweight, with a low thermal conductivity value, is highly durable and reliable over the satellite lifetime. System- level design development will evaluate and trade-off three aerogel-based concepts in order to optimize the panel system design for minimum thermal transfer while maintaining the adequate structural integrity required for satellite applications.

Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Robert Hoyt
DARPA 08-008      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Fabrication of Structural MLI Using 3D Printing Technologies
Abstract:We propose to utilize a combination of 3D printing technology and high-strength, temperature-resistant composites to create structural components for spacecraft that incorporate an integral thermal barrier. The use of 3D printing technology will enable rapid fabrication of complex structural components to enable responsive configuration and production of satellites to meet time-critical tactical and strategic needs, and it will enable a multi-layer radiative barrier to be integrated conformally within a structure that has both a durable outer shell and a rigid internal structure. By bonding temperature-resistant composites such as carbon fiber to the exterior and interior of the structure, a very high strength, durable, and temperature-tolerant structure can be created. In the proposed effort, we will develop concept designs for 3D-printable structures that incorporate radiative thermal barriers. We will then utilize 1-D and 2-D modeling of thermal transfer, thermal expansion and strain, and structural characteristics to select the best balance between weight, complexity, strength, and radiative performance. Additionally, we will evaluate current and upcoming 3D printable materials and processes, and select the process/material combination with the best strength, weight, offgassing, temperature tolerance, and fatigue performance. We will then fabricate a sample and test its performance within a vacuum chamber.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
William Hafer
DARPA 08-009      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Thermally Reconfigurable Sandwich Structure (TRSS)
Abstract:The military is investigating flexible thermal architectures that enable a tactical satellite bus to support a range of operational needs. In response, the team of Infoscitex Corp., the University of Pennsylvania’s microfluidics/nanofluidics lab, and Lockheed-Martin Space Systems Company propose to develop an innovative satellite sandwich panel with embedded thermal control. The panel contains an embedded fluid loop for highly controllable convective heat transfer. The fluid loop runs both across the surface and through the thickness of the panel, enabling heat spreading, heat transfer between two components, and/or modulation of the path to the radiator. Infoscitex’s unique method of manufacturing the panel makes such a network possible, and U. Penn’s expertise in microfluidics allows actuation and control of the network to be precise, efficient, and to use no mechanical moving parts. Lockheed-Martin will support the transition of this technology to their small satellite and advanced technology programs, and will provide input along the way regarding embedded circuitry, materials compatibility, and system requirements.

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8772
Ying Hsu
DARPA 08-009      Awarded: 8/6/2009
Title:Thermal Power Distribution System (TPDS)
Abstract:The DARPA seeks new concepts on reconfigurable thermal networks (RTN) for applications in thermal control of space satellites. The RTN concept described by DARPA could be achieved by employing a thermal switching system with common interfaces, whereby reconfiguring the system for each new satellite is made by connecting heat sources to the interface ports and modifying the control parameters. The plug-and-play approach works much like connecting different electrical components to a power supply, and adjusting each output channel to the desired voltage level. ISC proposes development of the Thermal Power Distribution System (TPDS). The TPDS takes advantage of the fact that while all satellites have many heat sources; each satellite only has one heat sink. The TPDS works by inserting a Variable Conductance (VC) thermal switch between each heat source and the system thermal sink. The VC thermal switch consists of an array of micro-switches that are electrically actuated by piezo-electric drivers. An initial thermal analysis of the VC thermal switch concept shows a low thermal resistance of .15 °C/W, and a conductance ratio of 91 between the switch full-on and full-off states. The smallest increment of change in thermal resistance is .015 °C/W.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
J.H. Lalli
DARPA 08-009      Awarded: 12/15/2008
Title:Super-Lightweight Active Ceramic Rubber™ for Reconfigurable Thermal Networks
Abstract:NanoSonic has developed a proprietary nanostructured spray self-assembly (SSA) manufacturing technique for the production of super lightweight (0.98g/cc) conformal coatings and space tolerant structures with multiple controlled static or variable electromagnetic (EM) properties. Resultant highly thermally conductive Ceramic Rubber™ inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposites offer homogenous thermal dissipation over large areas due to the excellent dispersion quality of the conformal networks. On-the-fly thermal control will be achieved by exploiting cryogenic shape memory polymer (SMP) based nanoporous Ceramic Rubber™ networks for high altitude reconfiguration. Additional control can be achieved via efficient utilization of the network’s coefficient of thermal expansion and Poisson’s ration. The revolutionary RTNs are expected to transmit heat, exhibit increased thermal conductivity () at lower elevations or with increased solar absorbance, and become insulating (lower ) at higher altitudes or upon reduced solar absorbance. Our nanostructured materials and high performance polymers are capable of withstanding extreme thermomechanical (-140°C, 132K to 450°C) and harsh environments (UVA, UVB, ozone). Testing shall be carried out with assistance from our defense prime partner to verify thermal control on subscale systems during Phase I and II to increase the TRL from 4-8 and on a full scale demo during Phase III to reach TRL 9.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 971-2027
Mark Carlson
DARPA 08-009      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Reconfigurable Thermal Networks (RTN)
Abstract:Due to the high cost and long lead time of space based thermal management systems, there is an increased need for a space qualified thermal network system which can maintain critical components within an acceptable range during operation and be flexible in design to adapt to a wide range of component sizes as well as varying thermal loading conditions. SA Photonics proposes their ThermoWeb System, which is modular, has the ability to monitor and control component temperatures and utilizes both standard and high thermal conductivity materials minimizing thermal resistance from source to sink. Because our ThermoWeb design is modular, it is highly configurable for various electronic systems. Within our ThermoWeb design is the thermal control valve which incorporates the advantages of Nanoparticles for thermal control. Our Nanoparticle Thermal Valve (NTV) is configured to maintain temperatures between components, or between components and heat sinks by increasing or decreasing the thermal conductivity within the NTV. This innovative thermal control design coupled with more traditional temperature monitoring and control electronics, provides a unique and stable system that allows accurate and autonomous thermal control of space based electronics.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4830
Jeremy Hollman
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:High Output Turboelectric Diesel (HOTeD)
Abstract:There is a current need for small heavy fuel engines that are light and reliable enough to be used in a variety of applications, such as UAV propulsion. The challenges for such an engine are in meeting the often stringent and competing requirements of high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. Microturbines lack in thermal efficiency and small diesel engines lack in power to weight. An innovative solution to maximizing the flexibility and advantages of both of these platforms is an innovative hybrid engine combining several technologies. Preliminary analysis already shows potential advantages of this system including high power density, high thermal efficiency, and the flexibility to be scaled across a broad range of power requirements. This proposal outlines an effort to model this new hybrid engine, conduct an optimization and trade study, develop a preliminary design for a specific application, and outline a development plan that would take the engine design through the prototype stage.

Belle Aerospace Corporation
2237 Warrenville Ave.
Wheaton, IL 60187
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 430-1926
John Belle
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:Small Engines Designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations
Abstract:The benefits provided by Belle Aerospace Corporation’s (BAC’s) proposed technology will reduce engine size, weight, acoustic signature, increase reliability and power output, while providing substantial fuel efficiency increases using load following engine control technology and other BAC proprietary innovations. These optimized improvements will provide great reductions in both; the initial logistics foot print required to place small power sources into theaters of operation, and the reoccurring supply logistics (fuel), realizing large cost savings to DoD operations. Commercial applications of such a versatile small heavy fuel engine are endless, since the need for small modular engines that run on military heavy fuel (JP-8) is increasing in all areas of the military requiring improvements to fuel efficiency, and BAC’s heavy fuel engine satisfies current and future power density, thermal efficiency, and acoustic signature goals. Other Commercial applications require the use of heavy fuels (and multi-fuel capability) in a compact lightweight fuel efficient design package, making power generation appealing in a variety of arenas. BAC is designing this unit with the cooperation of several established companies who are anticipating the production of these power units.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Jeffrey Breedlove
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 6/1/2009
Title:Lightweight Turbo-Rankine Power System
Abstract:Military operations require small engines to convert heavy fuels into mechanical power and electricity. Current engines/generators in the 7.5 kW (10 HP) range are too heavy, inefficient, and noisy for extremely mobile and/or clandestine operations. Fundamental scaling penalties and manufacturing constraints limit the performance of existing technology at this relatively low power level, making incremental advances an unlikely solution. Order-of-magnitude improvements in power density can only be achieved by developing dramatically new technology. Therefore, we propose to develop a miniature turbo-Rankine generator for these applications. The resulting generator will have extremely high power density and efficiency with nearly inaudible acoustic emissions. The system will leverage decades of advances at Creare in the performance and miniaturization of turbomachines and heat exchangers for low power thermodynamic systems such as turbo-Brayton cryocoolers and generators. We will perform design analyses, conduct trade studies, and develop preliminary designs for the components and system during Phase I, followed by fabrication and testing of a breadboard turbo-Rankine power system during Phase II.

D-STAR ENGINEERING CORP.
4 Armstrong Road
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 925-7630
S. Dev
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 12/16/2008
Title:Light-Weight, Efficient and Quiet 10 hp Class Modular Heavy Fuel Engine
Abstract:The project aims to develop a strategy for a small, modular heavy fuel engine in the 10 hp class, using scaled versions of a heavy fuel atomization system and combustion management systems previously developed by D-STAR, and by optimizing the engine design parameters to yield a successful engine that offers light weight, high efficiency and quiet operations. For the Phase 1, the project tasks include : definition of an approach for the modular engine; modeling of engine processes and performance; variational performance analysis and optimization, prediction of engine performance; preliminary design and layout of the engine; experimental validation of critical technologies, iteration of the design, and reporting & planning. The above process will lead to a modular heavy-fuel / multi-fuel engine in the 10 hp class.

Engine Research Associates, Inc.
12108 Burning Tree Rd.
Fort Wayne, IN 46845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(260) 338-1010
Jeffery Erickson
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:Small Engines Designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations
Abstract:This program will establish a very quiet, fuel efficient and high power density engine and generator that can operate on JP-8 and diesel. It will be significantly lighter than existing engines and generators. The proposed approach will use an internally supercharged variant of the Migrating Combustion Chamber (MCC) engine. This engine’s mechanism and cycle of operation allow it to operator on low octane fuels like JP-8 and diesel without auto-ignition, detonation or wet stacking. Small MCC engines have been operated on zero octane fuel, JP-8 and diesel without auto-ignition or detonation. The MCC engine provides full expansion of the combustion gases inside the engine which increases efficiency, reduces emissions and produces a very quiet, cool exhaust. This engine will be fully integrated with a proprietary, very high power-to-weight alternator using rare earth permanent magnets. Microprocessor controls will provide for load following, stabilized power under varying loads. This system is capable of partial load operation without wet- stacking. This system is scalable from 3 kW to 15 kW and larger and includes both AC and DC outputs in one unit.

Iron Bay Model Company
3301 Chapline Street
Wheeling, WV 26003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 554-8879
John Craig
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 7/6/2009
Title:Small Engines Designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations
Abstract:A new approach is needed to bypass the problems which have thus far limited the development of small heavy-fuel engines. Typically these compromised engine designs are hard to start, they do not burn the fuel cleanly or completely, their ignition timing is inconsistent, their high peak pressures result in short component lifecycles, they produce excessive emissions, their fuel consumption is high, and power output low. Iron Bay Model Company proposes to investigate a recently patented Compression Ignition engine that is capable of maintaining precise control over the timing of the auto-ignition process.

KINETIC BEI, LLC
2197 Brookwood Dr.
South Elgin, IL 60177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 837-8975
Jack Jerovsek
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 12/15/2008
Title:Small Engines Designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations
Abstract:The Nutating Disk Engine is a new technology with significant advantages, and multiple potential military and commercial applications. Development work has focused on a dual- disk version of the engine, including a demonstrator prototype. Second-generation prototype is currently in development. This DARPA program provides an opportunity design a single-disk version. Development work to date has lead to the conclusion that a single-disk version is not only feasible, but desirable. The single-disk Nutating Engine offers several advantages including improved power density, reduced component count, direct routing between compressor outlets and prechamber, and the elimination of coupling hardware. The proposed Meyer Nutating Disk Engine will be a single disk engine designed to produce an output of 8-10 Hp at 4,500 rpm, and run on heavy fuel. The compact size packages this engine within a 5.75” diameter and 5.95” overall length. The engine weighs 5.6 lbs. with a projected power density of 1.46 Hp/lb. Heavy fuel operation allows it to operate efficiently at reduced rpm and light loads. Quiet operation is also expected. The single-disk engine will be designed and analysis performed during Phase I, ultimately leading to the production of a demonstration engine, paired with a generator, during the Phase II effort.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
David Sykes
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:Development of a Simulation based Design for an Opposed Piston Linear Free Piston Generator
Abstract:Electrical power generation has been typically done with large gas turbines or reciprocating engines (otto or diesel cycle). However, these mature technologies cannot deliver both modularity as well as a high power density. Mainstream proposes a different type of engine that has the promise of delivering greater than 1 hp/lb, greater than 25% thermal efficiency, low noise output, and a modular design. In the phase 1 effort, a control system will first be designed and modeled using first principles. The results from this simulation will drive the design parameters to achieve the performance criteria specified. Mainstream will also use parallel programs with other agencies to develop the other components to yield a fully integrated light weight engine design.

Materials & Electrochemical Research (ME
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Vladimir Shapovalov
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 4/24/2009
Title:High Power Density Rotary Vs Engine for Various Applications
Abstract:MER proposes to demonstrate breakthrough engine design concepts and technology for a wide range of power source applications such as unmanned air and ground vehicles and power generators. Our design, based on an innovative rotary vane concept termed VS-engine, offers significant advancement over current state of the art engine technologies (Otto cycle, Wankel cycle, etc.) in the areas of power-weight, power- volume, cost, operational simplicity, and the ability to efficiently burn heavy fuels (diesel or JP8) in a small engine (about 10 HP). These improvements are projected to produce a power-weight ratio of 1.25-1.82 HP per pound, power-volume ratio of approximately 2.5 HP/inch3. The VS-MER engine will eliminate vibration at low shaft speeds, reduce noise, and simplify maintenance and repair.

Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Hooshang Heshmat
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 8/6/2009
Title:Small Engines Designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations
Abstract:The overall objective of the Phase I and Phase II proposed effort is to develop the crucial oil-free, high-speed power generation system technologies that will make a suite of small modular engines for power and propulsion having thermal efficiency greater than 25% and power density greater than 1 HP/lb. possible. The overall goal is an integrated, compact, and oil-free prototype 8-12 kW turbogenerator system. MiTiź’s key contributions to this development effort are our oil-free high-speed system development expertise, foil bearing technology, and demonstrated ability to integrate foil bearing and high speed motor/generator spindles. Under Phase I, MiTi will establish the preliminary system design that integrates our existing 12 kW/120,000 rpm motor/generator with a state of the art turbojet engine modified to operate on foil bearings. MiTiź will also conduct a proof test of the coupled turbo-generator to demonstrate system feasibility. This preliminary design and test data will provide the impetus and justification for the Phase II detailed system integration design, fabrication and test of a prototype oil-free turbogenerator.

Tyche Ursidaen, LLC
1112 Oddstad Blvd.
Pacifica, CA 94044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 282-5785
Frank Washko
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:High Efficiency, High Power Density Small Hybrid System
Abstract:The engine system concept disclosed in this proposal meets or exceeds each of the goals stated in Solicitation DARPA 08-010. Our hydraulic hybrid concept will provide extremely high efficiency while reducing weight and increasing power density. The core of this new concept is a standard four-cycle internal combustion engine power cylinder. However, the power cylinder interfaces with a hydraulic system that sends power to a hydraulic hybrid power unit. The goals of high efficiency and low weight are met in three ways: through variable geometry; through elimination of heavy components; and through hybrid operation.

VAPORCOR LLC
1044 SE Paiute Way, #101
Bend, OR 97702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 678-5215
Preston Carter
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 1/6/2009
Title:Small Engines Designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations
Abstract:Vaporcor LLC is currently developing a unique engine, (for High Altitude Long Endurance “HALE” aircraft), that has thermodynamic efficiency greater then 40%, is able to burn multiple-fuels, and is quiet, and lightweight. We call this engine our “Caloric” engine. This engine is being developed for military and commercial applications with power requirements in the 100 Kw to 250 Kw range. For this SBIR solicitation, Vaporcor has investigated designs of Caloric Engine for power levels from 3 Kw to 10 Kw. We are proposing a Small Caloric Engine design with special innovations that will allow it to maintain performance at smaller scale, and achieve the target power density. The Small Caloric Engine (SCE) will have all the features inherent to the generic Caloric Engine’s approach; that is, adaptable to many fuels and heat sources, quiet and smooth operation with low capital cost and operating cost.

XRD Inc
103 Industrial Village Rd
Beaufort, SC 29906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 522-9686
Charles Allen
DARPA 08-010      Awarded: 6/23/2009
Title:Small Engines Designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations
Abstract:XRD Inc. will deliver a feasibility study and work plan to produce engines operating on heavy fuel that meets the objectives of Program Solicitation entitled “Small Engines designed for High Efficiency, High Power Density and Quiet Operations”. The goal is to have power density greater than 1 hp per pound and greater than 25% thermal efficiency while operating on available heavy fuels. This new design will be based on current existing operating XRDi engines which already use military fuels. These designs, using our patented technology, have already met heavy fuel engine requirements including: • Operation on a variety of fuels with no recalibration (JP5, JP8, Jet-A, diesel, gasoline) • Cold start demonstrated @ -30 °C (with no aids) • BSFC of < .49 lb/hp-hr @ cruise • Operation demonstrated @ 26,000 ft density altitude The 35 hp and 12 hp engine can be seen running with heavy fuel on a video at www.xrdi.com as well as a presentation of the technology. XRDi’s approach is to utilize our existing proven heavy fuel technology and apply advanced materials, perform component optimization using computer based simulation and modeling tools and apply system engineering techniques to meet the goals and objectives as outlined.

D-Star Engineering Corporation
4 Armstrong Road
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 925-7630
S. Dev
DARPA 08-011      Awarded: 3/2/2009
Title:High Power Density TAG Motors for Hybrid Electric Air Platforms
Abstract:The project aims to develop a strategy for a dramatically lighter and more efficient electric motor, with initial emphasis on a 7 hp class, 12” diameter fan for VTOL UAVs. For this, D- STAR is proposing a new motor architecture that combines and enhances the best features of contemporary motor architectures. For the Phase 1, the project tasks include : preliminary design and layout of the TAG Motor, electro-magnetic design and optimization of the copper armatures, electronic design of the motor drive circuits, design iteration and optimization, and reporting & planning.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
James Goldie
DARPA 08-011      Awarded: 1/11/2010
Title:High Power Density Electric Motors for Hybrid Electric Air Platforms
Abstract:An electric motor is proposed that will achieve a power density of 5 hp/lbm and an efficiency greater than 95%, when delivering 7 hp of mechanical power at a speed of 8400 rpm. This capability, not available from current electric motors, is achieved by arranging high energy-product permanent magnets in a novel configuration expressly designed to deliver highly-concentrated flux densities to the stator windings at minimum weight. The proposed motor will be tailored to the geometry of a ducted fan suitable for rotorcraft, with the aim of providing the key enabling element in a ‘hybrid electric’ rotorcraft drive train, in which an alternator, electric power distribution, and high power density motor(s) deliver power from the gas turbine to the ducted fan(s) (rather than a mechanical transmission and multiple rotating shafts). The potential benefits are reduced maintenance, increased redundancy, reduced vulnerability to ground fire, and rotor speed control. The Phase I design study will undertake (1) motor integration with a specific ducted fan, (2) motor cooling analysis, (3) rotor structural analysis, (4) motor drive analysis, and (5) optimization of the motor design parameters. In Phase II a prototype fan and motor will be tested against the desired power and efficiency goals.

LAUNCHPOINT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5735 Hollister Ave Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-9659
Geoff Long
DARPA 08-011      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:A Dual Halbach Array, High Power Density Electric Motor for Electric Air Platforms
Abstract:An axial flux, coreless, brushless DC motor is proposed as a solution to the need for an extremely high power density motor for the electric vertical take off and landing UAV application. The proposed dual Halbach array field assembly is the enabling innovation which increases the magnetic field in the coil while eliminating the need for any iron. Eliminating iron maximizes the benefits of using carbon fiber housings which can be significantly lighter than the equivalent iron housings. The dual Halbach array field assembly also reduces AC losses and enables a much higher pole count resulting in a much lighter motor. LaunchPoint Technologies has a wealth of experience making Halbach arrays, complex electro-magnetic systems and custom motors and can realize the goal of developing a feasible 7 HP motor with power density of greater than 5 HP/lb and efficiency greater than 95% at 8400 RPM.

SatCon Applied Technology, Inc.
27 Drydock Avenue
Boston, MA 02210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 897-2439
Gerald Foshage
DARPA 08-011      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:High Power Density Electric Motors for Hybrid Electric Air Platforms
Abstract:Fuel Cell and hybrid electric propulsion offers increased architectural flexibility to air vehicles. The power plant of choice for helicopters is a gas turbine engine due to its high power density. However, the large transmission can weigh more than the engine. A motor-generator pair can eliminate high maintenance components in the drive train yielding reduced operation and support costs comparable to fixed wing aircraft. A hybrid electric drive would also allow the use of a larger number of smaller redundant rotors or electric driven ducted fans, reducing vulnerability and enabling NOTR configurations. High power density electric motors for an all electric vertical takeoff and landing uninhabited air vehicles is also desirable Electric motors with power densities > 5 HP/lb enable vertical takeoff and landing aero vehicles with a multitude of commercial, surveillance and military applications. SatCon will show that our innovative approach in the design of the motor exceeds program goals (7 HP at 8,400 RPM, >5HP/lb, and >95%efficiency) leading to prototype fabrication and test in follow a phase.

LUMINEX CORP.
12212 Technology Blvd
Austin, TX 78727
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 381-4365
Charles Collins
DARPA 08-012      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Universal Sample Preparation Device for Biological Detection
Abstract:Reliable sample preparation from a variety of complex matrices remains one of the most challenging problems facing biological detection in the field. This is especially true for isolation of nucleic acids from an environmental or clinical sample. A clean nucleic acid sample, free from contaminating materials such as cell debris, dirt and inhibitory chemicals, is required to ensure the robust performance of any given molecular-based detection system. There exists a technology gap for a simple, one-step sample preparation device that will result in a clean nucleic acid sample ready for further biological analysis. Luminex Corporation proposes to develop a completely automated nucleic acid sample preparation module that is rugged, rapid and easy to use. This device will accept a liquid or swab sample (clinical or environmental), process the sample, and result in an extracted purified nucleic acid sample ready for further analysis. This device will be based on a combination of electrolytic and electrophoretic methods. The instrument will have a small form factor with the capability to be battery operated.

Microchip Biotechnologies
6693 Sierra Lane Suite F
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 558-2040
Joanne Horn
DARPA 08-012      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:Expansion of a Universal Biological Sample Preparation Module
Abstract:Microchip Biotechnologies, Inc. has addressed critical military needs for biological sample preparation by undertaking the development of disposable plastic cartridges that interface with compact, automated hardware intended to directly interface with a variety of downstream analytical platforms. For nucleic acid purification, the systems will capture cells and viral targets using specific antibodies bound to paramagnetic beads, which concentrate and purify targets in a single step. Cells and viruses are then disrupted, and nucleic acids are isolated using a second set of magnetic beads. Currently, MBI is awaiting funding ($625K) awarded by the Army Commercialization Pilot Program (CPP) to improve the current system to achieve a pre-production prototype that will include the above-stated workflow. Here, we propose to assess the feasibility of further improving this developing system to address a wider array of sample types, namely human tissue swabs and sputum, to monitor human infection of biothreat agents. Expanding the current and developing systems will not only leverage Army funding for the USPM, but also allow eventual surveillance of personnel, in addition to having potential for intelligence gathering.

MICROSTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
600 SE Assembly Ave. Bldg. 55 Suite 100
Vancouver, WA 98661
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 694-3704
Joseph Birmingham
DARPA 08-012      Awarded: 12/15/2008
Title:Universal Sample Preparation using Microstructured Arrays with Plasma Lysis
Abstract:DARPA is seeking an universal sample preparation methods for extraction of nucleic acid capable of being used in many different assay systems for subsequent detection. The method needs to produce nucleic acids from spores, viruses, bacteria (or vegetative cells) that are ready for a wide variety of diagnostic equipment. MicroStructure Technologies (MicroST) in conjunction with Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) has demonstrated a two-step nucleic acid production method. The first step is the efficient retention and selective concentration of biomaterials from liquid or bioaerosol directly onto coated microstructured arrays. After capture of the biomaterials onto the micropillars, the next step is an ionized gas (or plasma) treatment for about a minute to extract nucleic acids. The easy-to-use approach can be automated. The plasma lysates produced have been demonstrated to be ready for PCR without any additional processing. The rapid nucleic acid preparation method consumes few watts for biomaterial collection (from air or liquid) onto the microstructured arrays and plasma lysing. The relevance of this effort is to rapidly provide nucleic acids for biodetector applications in a miniature package with minimal logistics burden. A critical need exists for a universal sample preparation method that relies on little power to produce the nucleic acids for any biodetector.

LC Tech
280 Parkside Dr
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 283-3387
Bin Chen
DARPA 08-013      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Solution Processed High-Z Composite Materials for Wearable Radiation Protections
Abstract:Combating WMD entails appropriate personnel protective wear and radiation shielding of combating vehicles, aircrafts and structures. Current personnel protections use materials that are too heavy and uncomfortable to be worn, ineffective to high energy gamma radiation and high manufacture cost for broad deployment. Recent advances in nanomaterials science provide a new perspective for the next-generation radiation attenuation materials designed to balance weight, flexibility and structural integrity. Therefore, we propose a new radiation shielding composite that is capable of absorbing and/or dissipating a broad range of radiation particles. The composite is composed of (1) high-Z compounds for high attenuation coefficient for gamma radiations, (2) carbon nanotubes (CNT) to enhance mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and electron dissipation, and (3) hydrogen-rich polymers that, in addition to providing structural support to form strong textiles, can absorb neutrons and secondary ions. The research will involve composite synthesis, film casting, fiber spinning, and characterization of attenuation coefficient for gamma radiations. The composites can have a number of desired features which include: (1) high attenuation coefficient for gammas rays and other radiation particles and harmful secondary ions; (2) wear comfort by rapidly removing heat; (3) high mechanical strength and flexibility; (4) lightweight; and (5) low production cost.

Luminit, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Kevin Yu
DARPA 08-013      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Flexible Lightweight Radiation Protection Garment
Abstract:To address DARPA need for new radiation shielding fabrics or materials that are equivalent to or better than currently available radiation shielding technologies in the areas of comfort for wearer, flexibility, and durability, and radiation attenuation in the Cs-137 emission range, Luminit proposes to develop the new Flexible Lightweight Radiation Protection Garment (FLEXPROG) system based on our hybrid sol-gel technology. This flexible hybrid inorganic/organic polymer material system incorporates bridging the gap between inorganic and polymer into hybrid polymer matrices at the micro- and nano-level for radiation protection in a coating with high tensile strength, low areal density, and chemical and environmental resistance to ionizing radiation, and UV; it can be easily coated and interwoven with high-ductility fiber materials as protective garments. FLEXPROG will maximize the radiation path length for effective attenuation of the incident radiation flux while minimizing the thickness and the weight of the garment. The high malleability and ductility of the materials and the minimized weight of the design will enable effective use without impeding flexibility or causing physical stress during operation. In Phase I Luminit will develop FLEXPROG and demonstrate its feasibility. Relevant radiation shielding properties will be determined and compared to current used materials.

Materials Modification Inc
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
R. Radhakrishnan
DARPA 08-013      Awarded: 6/23/2009
Title:Novel Nuclear Radiation Protection Blanket
Abstract:A “dirty bomb” is a “radiological dispersal device” (RDD) that combines a conventional explosive with radioactive material. Protection from radiation emitted by a RDD will require shielding for first-responders and military personnel who must walk into an environment recently exposed to such explosions for decontamination. The garments currently available in the market are not suitable for such situations. A new breathable and flexible resistant fabric that can shield radiation emitted from radioactive materials such as Cs-137 and Co-60 is therefore required. In the proposed Phase I effort, Materials Modification, Inc. will fabricate a novel breathable blanket made from radiation resistant material and evaluate its radiation shielding property against Cs-137 gamma radiation. In the Phase II, radiation resistant fabrics developed in Phase I will be stitched into radiation blocking garments suitable for extended wear.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
J.H. Lalli
DARPA 08-013      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Shape Memory Antimicrobial Radioprotective Textiles™ (SMART™) Garments
Abstract:NanoSonic specializes in the production of low cost, ultra-lightweight (0.98vg/cc), highly EMI shielding (-70 dB SE) Au-nanoparticle based Metal Rubber™ Skins and Textiles. We have recently demonstrated Metal Rubber™ with shape memory polymers (SMP) and Ag nanoparticles, resulting in active, breathable, microbe growth inhibiting, shielding garments. Shape Memory Antimicrobial Radioprotective Textiles™ (SMART™) garments are not a filled composite, conducting polymer or a sputter coated polymer film; rather a free standing “unfilled” nanocomposite formed in-situ by the conformal and covalent self- assembly of nanostructured particles and high performance copolymers onto high performance textile substrates. Recently, we have demonstrated these revolutionary materials with proprietary modifiers resulting in radiation resistance to a proton dose of approximately 1 Mrad (Si) (fluence of 7.42x1012 p/cm2). Unlike air and water impermeable crosslinked butyl rubber, Shape Memory-Metal Rubber™ would breathe at elevated temperatures, by actively allowing perspiration to permeate, while POSS/quantum dot modified nanoporous channels would provide radiation attenuation in the Cs-137 range. NanoSonic’s SMART™ garments are impermeable to harsh solvents, can be repeatedly stretched to greater than 1000% strain, and laundered without delamination or loss of performance. Durable and comfortable SMART™ garments shall serve our U.S. warfighters and responders to environments contaminated with radiation dispersal devices.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
King Wang
DARPA 08-014      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Printed Integrated Circuits
Abstract:Leveraging on our extensive experience in carbon nanotube material processes and printing technology, AGILTRON together with a research group from UIUC, propose to realize a new class of integrated circuits printed from single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This new printed integrated circuit (PIC) is based on recently developed medium SWCNT ICs on flexible plastic substrates. The result will be an all plastic printed integrated circuit. Our design offer advantageous combination of low-cost fabrication and high performance circuit for various applications. The feasibility of the proposed approach will be tested by demonstrating several simple logic circuits by the end of Phase I.

ANEEVE
22207 Linda Drive
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 674-3706
Chongwu Zhou
DARPA 08-014      Awarded: 1/5/2009
Title:Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Printed Integrated Circuits
Abstract:We aim to prepare a Phase I feasibility study of printed integrated circuits based on transistors using single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fabrics. We propose to explore the feasibility of fabricating CNT circuits using ink-jet printing technology. A detailed literature and trade analysis review of CNT based ink-jet printing technology will be undertaken to provide solutions to (a) CNT separation methods (semiconducting / metallic), (b) CNT doping methods (n-type) and dielectric materials, (c) Ink-engineering, jetting and deposition, (d) Device and circuit processes, geometries, models and performance expectations and (e) Systems concerns such as nozzle actuation, variability, printing algorithms and scalability. The key strength of this proposal is our holistic approach in developing a roadmap and plan driven by clearly identified “figure-of-merits”. To assist in this down-selection process, will be guided by modeling and simulation of carbon nanotube based device/circuits. This will additionally allow for (a) process development guidance (b) accurate development of device/circuit specifications (c) allow for scenario analysis to predict tolerances, yield, power consumption and numerous performance metrics. Our approach is to make use of “off-the-shelf” printer and cartridge/nozzle technology to provide a “cost-effective” solution and facilitate rapid commercialization.

BREWER SCIENCE, INC.
2401 Brewer Drive
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 364-0300
Wu-Sheng Shih
DARPA 08-014      Awarded: 12/29/2008
Title:Materials and Processing System for the Economic Production of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program, Brewer Science, Inc. (BSI), a leader in innovative microelectronic materials, and our pioneering additive manufacturing partner will develop and demonstrate a cost-effective materials production process for fabricating high- performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manufacturing-scalable direct printing technology. In recent years, high-performance SWCNT-based transistors have been successfully produced on a laboratory/research scale. The techniques used in those efforts, however, are not readily adaptable to low- cost commercial-scale manufacturing. For SWCNT devices to become commercially viable, manufacturing techniques must be developed that are low cost, efficient, reliable, and readily adaptable to a wide range of devices. BSI’s proposed effort is based on technologies and processes that have been conceived and partially developed within BSI laboratories with a succinct focus on commercial manufacturability. Our proposed technology is expected to lead to surfactant-free, type-enriched SWCNT solutions that can be directly printed onto flexible or rigid substrates using high-speed and commercially demonstrated aerosol-jet printing technologies to produce high-performance miniaturized electronic devices.

NanoTechLabs Inc.
409 W. Maple St.
Yadkinville, NC 27055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 849-7474
Jay Gaillard
DARPA 08-014      Awarded: 3/31/2009
Title:Ink Jet Printing of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Integrated Circuits
Abstract:The goal of the proposed work is to evaluate the viability of printing integrated circuits using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) as the base material. Commercially, the impact of advanced printing electronics technology is significant. These technologies have the potential to reduce manufacturing costs and ultimately lead to an industry- wide improvement in manufacturing time efficiency. In this work, we plan to isolate semiconducting SWNTs using the density gradient method, and then functionalize them to be used as p- and n- type channels for ink-jet printed TFTs. In collaboration with Foster Miller and BAE systems, we will ink-jet print the SWNT solutions made at NanoTechLabs including metallic interconnects using both metallic SWNTs and small diameter metallic MWNTs. The end goal of this work is to create viable semiconducting and metallic nanotube inks along with a compatible polymeric solution which can be used to print the needed components for a nanotube-based logic circuit.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Robert Kline-Schoder
DARPA 08-015      Awarded: 8/6/2009
Title:Noise-Tolerant Medical Record Voice Recorder
Abstract:Creare proposes to design, develop, and deliver a Noise-Tolerant Medical Record Voice Recorder. Currently, medical personnel attending to injured soldiers at the point of injury do not have a consistent and accurate method to transfer vital medical information to final point of care medical personnel. To bridge this capability gap, what is needed is a digital voice recorder that is approximately the size of a modern dog tag (1" x 2" x 0.5"”) and is capable of surviving the challenges of the operating environment which includes both high noise and the real potential for physical and environmental abuse. Creare’s innovative design makes use of multiple noise reduction technologies to help mitigate the effects of high background noise levels on the recorded voice signal. During the Phase I project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our design by fabricating a benchtop prototype and testing the prototype in high noise fields (up to 130 dB) using our acoustic test facility. During Phase II, we plan to finalize the design of our recorder, fabricate prototype devices, and perform field tests of the recorders.

Creative Electron, INC
2710 Glasgow Dr.
Carlsbad, CA 92010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 456-0055
Bill Cardoso
DARPA 08-015      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:MVR - Medical Voice Recorder
Abstract:It is well known in the medical community that information is paramount to save lives. In the battlefield scenario, information can be the difference between life and death. The correct and timely collection of data in the event of a casualty imposes serious challenges to medical person-nel in the battlefield. Among these challenges is the fact that the events and the care given to the warfighter right after the incident are not well documented. This lack of documentation often stems from the unfriendly environment caregivers face at the point of injury. Creative Electron, Inc. (CEI) plans to solve this problem with its Medical Voice Recorder (MVR). The MVR will be capable to transfer accurate information regarding the conditions in which soldiers were injured, thus providing continuity of medical records. By pro-viding a small form factor solution, analogous to the current dog tag, capable of withstanding physical and environmental insult as well as actively reducing ambient noise, pertinent medical information could be carried forward in a secure and continuous fashion. It is important to note that there are no commercially available systems that meet all these criteria.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5273
Wendy Nicholas
DARPA 08-015      Awarded: 5/6/2009
Title:Portable Medical Recorder
Abstract:Intelligent Automation Inc (IAI) is teaming with Data Design Corporation of Gaithersburg, Maryland, and Dr. Robert Nickel of Bucknell University to propose an innovative portable medical recorder to be used on the battlefield. This team represents strengths and years of experience in both hardware development and speech signal processing. A combination of hardware and software design elements will provide superior noise cancellation functionality for this device. Noise cancellation features will be included in the hardware front end, in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) logic, as well as in algorithms that run on a Digital Signal processor. From our analysis of noise reduction techniques, we are confident that a combination of a beamforming microphone array, adaptive noise cancellation algorithms, and voice enhancement algorithms will achieve the requirement of audibility for this medical recorder. The use of the latest FPGA technology provides a high speed platform for signal processing algorithms while keeping development costs low.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
30 A Vreeland Road Suite 130
Florham Park, NJ 07932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 822-0048
Qi Li
DARPA 08-015      Awarded: 12/15/2008
Title:Portable Medical Recorder
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to present a novel and promising solution for a portable medical recorder. The system consists of the following modules: a microphone array, adaptive beam forming, noise reduction, audio compression, loudspeaker, and audio/data interfaces. The proposed implement includes three major chips. This company has developed two very similar products for military and CE applications respectively. The proposed recorder is based on our experiences in similar product design and utilizes our successful algorithms and previous research results. At the end of Phase I, all algorithms will be implemented and tested. Audio demos will be available for evaluation. Also, a preliminary design will be finished and all major chips for the device will be selected. The Phase II deliverable will be a high-quality, medical recorder that will meet all the military requirements and is ready to be manufactured.

MAGIQ TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11 Ward Street
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-8300
Michael LaGasse
DARPA 08-015      Awarded: 1/5/2009
Title:Portable Medical Recorder
Abstract:In order to actively reduce the ambient noise and retain vocal recording clarity of medical personnel in a military operations environment, MagiQ Technologies proposes a breakthrough multi-stage noise cancellation scheme for the DARPA 08-105 Portable Medical Recorder. The scheme combines a Quadrupole Microphone Array, a pre-processing Active Noise Cancellation Circuit and post-processing DSP algorithms (including adaptive look-direction filters and log-spectral amplitude estimation post-filtering techniques). This advanced scheme is based on our findings in developing our proprietary acoustic sensors. The design integrates state-of-the-art hardware/firmware and Commercial Off- The-Shelf (COTS) components. Our approach has the following features: 1.Retention of vocal recording clarity by using advanced noise reduction techniques 2.Compact physical size, 1 inch x 2 inch x 0.5 inch 3.More than 4 hours recording and playback duration; can be longer if external speakers or headphones are used 4.Resistance to harsh environments (0C to 50C temperature, 80 psi pressure) 5.No moving mechanical parts to minimize device failures 6.Low cost (all COTS parts)

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alireza Shapoury
DARPA 08-015      Awarded: 6/30/2009
Title:Medical Audio Logger
Abstract:To address the DARPA requirements for a miniature portable voice recorder for medical information logging, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new MEDical Audio LOGger (MEDALOG). This proposed MEDALOG is based on a novel acoustic noise cancellation technique implemented on low-power digital signal processing (DSP) chips. The innovation in MEDALOG will enable the device to cancel high power acoustic noise floors on the order of 100 dB and high-power audio impulses (blasts) on the order of 140 dB, which are present in combat environment. MEDALOG is designed to have an off-shelf life of 1 year with dormant war-zone operation of 1 year. The active operational battery life of MEDALOG within the whole dormant period exceeds 10 hr of continuous record and play operation. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MEDALOG by building a bench-scale prototype, focusing more on the design issues such as device operation, the noise cancellation algorithm, battery life, ergonomics, and mechanical structure. In Phase II POC plans to develop a full-scale prototype, optimize MEDALOG, and demonstrate the efficacy of the system while delineating a manufacturing path for Phase III.

Radiance Technologies Inc.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 238-2565
Chad Williams
DARPA 08-015      Awarded: 4/14/2009
Title:Portable Medical Recorder
Abstract:This proposal describes a plan for developing a very small, light-weight, solid-state voice recorder suitable for helping provide improved medical support to injured persons upon playback by subsequent support personnel by providing clear records in the presence of loud background noises. The proposed device will be able to be worn like a dog tag and will be designed to accommodate environmentally challenging conditions. The device will consist of multiple microphones, appropriate signal conditioning electronics, embedded signal processing electronics, voice playback electronics, battery and power supply electronics. The use of multiple microphones will provide for enhanced capabilities of reducing background noise over the use of a single microphone through the use of array signal processing techniques. In particular, a modified version of a highly effective algorithm developed at Radiance technologies for identifying sounds in particular directions while rejecting other noise sources will be used. Other techniques such as band-pass filtering to reduce the effect of spectral content not usually seen in human speech will also be employed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and selecting appropriate microphone sensitivities will be performed.

CU Aerospace
2100 South Oak St. Suite 206
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 333-8274
David Carroll
DARPA 08-017      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:High-Power, Narrow Linewidth Laser Diodes for Alkali Atoms
Abstract:The primary objective of CU Aerospace’s Phase I work will be to assess the feasibility of producing very narrow linewidth (< 1 MHz), single-mode, diode lasers for pumping alkali atoms. This effort will involve novel laser-amplifier diode architecture to enable such high performance devices. These advances will have a major impact on alkali laser based sensor systems as well as rapidly evolving diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) systems. The results of the Phase I research will lay the foundation for developing high power, narrow linewidth arrays for enhanced performance in Phase II. Our team partner the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will perform fundamental research to assist CU Aerospace with these design and feasibility studies, and to produce a proof-of-principle prototype diode laser. This research will lead directly to designs that will be fabricated and tested extensively with detailed diagnostics to evaluate each design’s performance attributes in Phase II. Employment of the state-of-the-art and economical Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory at the University of Illinois will allow these innovative laser diode technologies to be fabricated, implemented, and examined in detail.

Photodigm, Inc.
1155 E. Collins Blvd. #200
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 235-7584
Martin Achtenhagen
DARPA 08-017      Awarded: 1/14/2009
Title:High-Power, Narrow Linewidth Laser Diodes for Alkali Atoms
Abstract:Semiconductor lasers are fabricated in large volumes and are available at low prices at a wide variety of wavelengths for many commercial applications. These applications have modest requirements for power, beam quality, and reliability. The recent growth in metrology applications has necessitated class of lasers that operate stably within a single spatial and longitudinal mode, with wavelength that corresponds to a specific atomic transition. Photodigm produces high power distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers based on its proprietary single epi growth, ridge waveguide architecture. The company is currently shipping single frequency lasers to several DoD programs for precision metrology at wavelengths of 1083 and 780 nm. In this proposed Phase I effort, Photodigm will design an epitaxial structure targeting the cesium transition at 852 nm. To minimize execution risk, this structure will be based on our proven 780 nm design. Two fabrication cycles will be needed to calibrate the grating period to meet the tight wavelength specification for atomic spectroscopy. The performance and the lifetime of these laser diodes will be directly compared to existing DBR laser diodes emitting at 780 nm. First articles will be delivered to DARPA. The Phase II effort will focus on higher powers and additional wavelengths.

Vescent Photonics
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver, CO 80216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 296-6766
Mike Anderson
DARPA 08-017      Awarded: 4/29/2009
Title:High-Power, Narrow Linewidth Laser Sources for Alkali Atoms
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to produce high-power, narrow-linewidth (~1 MHz or less), robust, turn-key laser sources that will meet the requirements of emerging cold- atom engineering applications. The focus of this effort will be on developing “path-to- power” techniques for wavelength-flexible laser architectures. The goal is to both both i) increase the power of wavelength flexible laser architectures and ii) maintain a single spatial mode during high-power operation to ensure long-term fiber-coupling stability. In this phase I we will explore and assess the feasibility of two complimentary techniques. First, in close collaboration with Photodigm, a Dallas Texas based diode foundry, we will explore single-spatial mode tapered laser (TL) and master oscillator power amplifer (MOPA) structures to realize output powers of 400 mW or more. Notably, this approach will be directly applicable to all future DBR wavelengths. Second, we will explore several different phase-locking techniques to coherently combine lower power chip-external- cavity-lasers (CECLs) to “sum-up” to higher powers. Both of these approaches may be combined with frequency doubling (FD) to realize greater wavelength flexibility.

Algorithmax
3308 Hearthfire Drive
Fort Collins, CO 80524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(999) 206-0626
Chris Peterson
DARPA 08-018      Awarded: 5/18/2009
Title:Novel Software Tools for Analyzing Massive Datasets
Abstract:The overall objective of this proposal is a feasibility analysis of developing a software package for using topologically based ideas to process and extract information from large data sets. The project will consist of four main components: (1) a comprehensive review of the literature concerning topological methods related to the analysis of large data sets (2) identification of additional promising topological and geometric theory that may result in practical algorithms (3) evaluation of algorithms and prospects for numerical implementation including parallel versus sequential programming considerations (4) a detailed design of the software package that includes an evaluation of the suitability of various platforms including Matlab, R and C++.

gchs inc.
998 Cottrell Way
Stanford, CA 94305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 424-8616
Gunnar Carlsson
DARPA 08-018      Awarded: 1/28/2009
Title:Tools for Geometric Analysis of Massive High Dimensional Data Sets
Abstract:We propose to evaluate strategies for extracting geometric information from very large and high dimensional data sets. One aspect of the proposal will be the development of a strategy for the implementation of parallelism within the methodology already developed within the DARPA Topological Data Analysis project. This will include parallel and distributed methods for persistent homology computations, clustering, and density estimation. The second aspect will be the incorporation of the "zig-zag" methodology for assessing the consistency of clustering and consistency across sets of landmark points in witness complex constructions.

Black River Systems Company, Inc.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
James Graham
DARPA 08-019      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) Radar Discrimination of Combatants versus Animals in Severe Clutter
Abstract:Advanced GMTI radars provide the capability to detect and track both ground vehicles and dismounted troops both in the open and under foliage. Sources of false alarms for these systems include the detection of animals because of their similar speed of movement and radar cross-section to individual and groups of dismounts. We plan to develop, test and demonstrate the feasibility to provide reliable discrimination of GMTI returns between combatant dismounts (individuals and groups) and animals in severe clutter environments using movement kinematics, terrain interaction, returns from high range and Doppler spectra resolution waveforms, and data derived characterizations. Specifically, we will demonstrate an increased level of situational awareness (reduced false alarms) by fusing multiple target discriminates using a robust data-derived Maximum Likelihood classifier. Our approach provides the following: 1) Development and evaluation of discriminates designed to enhance the classification and confidence levels of dismounts vs. animals declarations 2) A tested, reliable, extensible, adaptable framework to accumulate target discriminates to aid in the discrimination of dismounts vs. animals. 3) A low computational-cost algorithm design amenable to small lightweight platforms (Unmanned Aerial Systems)

Mustang Technology Group, L.P.
400 W. Bethany Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 396-4432
Rusty Allred
DARPA 08-019      Awarded: 5/19/2009
Title:Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) Radar Discrimination of Combatants versus Animals in Severe Clutter
Abstract:Mustang proposes to acquire real radar returns from animals during Phase I and use that data, along with a large existing database of returns from humans to develop initial human and animal discrimination algorithms. During Phase II this actual data will be augmented as needed by sophisticated modeling techniques to refine the algorithms, which will then be ported to real time and field tested.

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2210
Donald Woods
DARPA 08-019      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) Radar Discrimination of Combatants versus Animals in Severe Clutter
Abstract:The California Operation of Technology Service Corporation (TSC/CA) proposes a comprehensive program to develop GMTI persistent surveillance algorithms that discriminate human combatants from moving animals under foliage. TSC/CA will use measured and simulated radar data of human and animal targets at various resolutions to develop innovative discrimination algorithms and radar modes. The investigations will include human and animal data on both the micro-level (target-internal Doppler) and macro-level (persistent tracker-noted movement patterns).

C & P Technologies, Inc.
317 Harrington Avenue Suites 9 & 10
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
KeYong Li
DARPA 08-020      Awarded: 8/19/2009
Title:Robust Wideband Waveforms for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) Applications
Abstract:High resolution SAR imaging and Ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar are of critical value to modern intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance missions. High resolution SAR can be realized at the expense of wide bandwidth waveform. However, to achieve long dwells over a wideband width, often the operating frequency band can overlap with other co-band radars, and it becomes necessary to notch out those interference bands both in the transmit mode and the receive mode. Thus it becomes necessary to design wideband transmit waveforms with spectral notches to null out the co-channel interference while maintaining excellent pulse compression with good sidelobe properties. A solution to this problem is presented in this proposal. The new solution leads to poor range resolution and to compensate that, two new receiver design strategies to suppress the sidelobes are also presented here. For azimuth compression, the carrier frequency plays a crucial role in narrowband SAR. However, the use of wide bandwidth leads to a less well defined role for the carrier frequency resulting in poorer azimuth resolution. This fundamental problem is addressed here using a new approach that draws on recent results on non-linear sparsity based image processing methods.

Information Systems Laboratories, Inc.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 269-3620
James Bergin
DARPA 08-020      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:Robust Wideband Waveforms for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) Applications
Abstract:The DoD is developing a number of radars to detect and track surface targets including vehicles and dismounts as well image targets using synthetic aperture radar modes. These system achieves wide-area surveillance for dismounts by operating on stationary platforms (helicopter) which eliminates mainbeam clutter spread and allows slow-moving targets to be effectively separated from strong ground clutter based on Doppler shift. Also, the GMTI modes currently employ relatively narrowband waveforms to minimize the impact of target range walk during a coherent processing interval. The SAR mode, on the other hand, employs a much wider bandwidth and requires a moving platform in order to form the synthetic aperture required for image formation. Thus the GMTI and SAR modes represent seemingly conflicting requirements. Namely, traditional GMTI modes work best with stationary platforms and narrow bandwidths, whereas SAR requires a moving platform and wide bandwidth. The proposal describes an approach to develop innovative wideband waveform concepts for simultaneous high resolution SAR and GMTI operation.

Neva Ridge Technologies, Inc.
4750 Walnut Street Suite 205
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-9966
Steven Kadlec
DARPA 08-020      Awarded: 1/12/2009
Title:Robust Wideband Waveforms for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) Applications
Abstract:Neva Ridge Technologies proposes the development of a dual SAR-GMTI processor capable of producing SAR images of the ground scene and GMTI range-Doppler images of ground movers from the same return signal. This processor is capable of (though not limited to) operating on a single antenna. The radar will employ a pulsed noise waveform that is novel for this application. The sharply peaked autocorrelation properties of this waveform permit the use of an adaptive noise filter (ANF) for range compression purposes. This filter eliminates multiplicative noise. The output will be passed to a multi- rate algorithm which is successively down-sampled and band pass filtered in preparation for Doppler-compression to form a GMTI image. After the rate-reduction step, a high resolution SAR image will be formed. The goal is to achieve resolutions much finer than 1 meter on UHF systems and finer than 0.15 meters in the microwave region. Specific attention will be made to quantify the effect of the algorithm for FOPEN operation. A main advantage of the multi-rate dual SAR-GMTI processor proposed here is that it can be employed on inexpensive radar platforms such as lightweight UAV’s.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2467
Georgiy Levchuk
DARPA 08-021      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:VISION: Video Identification of Structures, Intentions, Objects, and Networks
Abstract:Decision support tools for target identification and alert generation depend upon the classification of static and moving objects. Existing methods for object classification rely primarily on static information available in single-frame images. The data from long-range video surveillance assets are usually not sufficient to distinguish the objects from one another, and even if high-resolution data were available, the visual features alone would not allow determination of the intent or purpose of the objects that are of high interest to military intelligence analysis. Persistent video surveillance is a source of motion and temporal activity data that promises to enable automated object intent classification. Aptima proposes to develop the VISION decision support system to automatically recognize the intents and functions of potentially interdependent static and moving objects. The data currently acquired by video exploitation technologies (object detection, tracking and motion analysis, for example) will be inputs to VISION. VISION technology is based on high-performance empirically validated probabilistic vision-based activity recognition and temporal-relational pattern matching algorithms developed by the Aptima Team.

DCM Research Resources, LLC
14163 Furlong Way
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 528-4632
Genshe Chen
DARPA 08-021      Awarded: 6/3/2009
Title:A Semantic Analysis Based Automatic Object Classification and Activity Perception System for Large-view Urban Environments
Abstract:Currently available methods for object recognition and classification primarily rely on static information in single-frame images. However, for the combat aerial video (usually low resolution video), all the static indexes used for object classification and recognition are almost impossible to obtain. To address this challenge, researchers are particularly interested in developing new techniques to determine the type, functionality, purpose or intent of static and moving objects through analysis of dynamic information in persistent surveillance video. The objects of interest include buildings, functional areas, vehicles, and human beings. In this proposal, DCM Research Resources LLC and its collaborator propose to develop an automatic innovative 3D and dynamic semantic scene analysis based approach that exploits surveillance video data mainly captured from UAV platforms to classify buildings, vehicles, and people automatically. In our proposed automatic object detection and classification system, in addition to 3D static object’s visual features (e.g. building’s shape, line orientation, color, and texture) and the 3D static structures of the urban environment, we will also explore dynamic video features which include vehicle/human motion patterns over time. All these static and dynamic features will be used to construct spatial-temporal feature vectors, and the new generated vectors will then be sent to a probabilistic Dynamic Influence Diagram (DID) reasoning model for real- time and automatic building/vehicle classification. Besides the novel algorithms on building and vehicle classification, we also propose a Decentralized Dynamic Markov Game Model (DDMGM) for human activity and intent inference. In addition, we propose to develop novel 3D algorithms on automatic building detection, 3D terrain modeling, and visualization to support accurate object category and classification.

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Anthony Hoogs
DARPA 08-021      Awarded: 2/25/2009
Title:Vision with a Purpose: Inferring the Function of Objects in Video
Abstract:Video provides the opportunity to classify vehicles, people, buildings and other structures by their behavior and the activity surrounding them. Object classes that are visually indistinguishable can be differentiated using activity, even in low-resolution video where traditional recognition from static imagery is not viable. Conversely, objects within the same class that have the same behavior but different appearance can be recognized. Our approach is based on learning probabilistic models of object function using a canonical set of low-level relations and actions computed from object tracks and scene context. We will combine traditional generative model learning, which learns models in isolation from each other, with discriminative learning that identifies how the classes are different from each other. Our recognition method will handle situations where objects are tracked for intervals shorter than their characteristic behavior duration, and longer too. In Phase 1, we will develop initial functional recognition methods for moving objects such as people and vehicles. A set of promising functional types will be identified, and we will use them to study the effects of tracking accuracy and levels of scene context on functional recognition accuracy.

Blue Shift LLC
1490 Evans Farm Drive
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 409-3619
George DeVaux
DARPA 08-022      Awarded: 5/22/2009
Title:Summarization, Visualization and Browsing of Massive Video Archives
Abstract:Blue Shift, LLC proposes research to determine the feasibility of using a novel software approach to automatically extract, summarize and visualize geo-spatial and temporal data of massive video archives. Results displayed at 60 times normal speed enable the video analyst to detect: • Subtle patterns; • Anomalies; • Trends over short and long time periods; and • Variations between patterns at different times of day. The video analyst uses point-and-click access to interactively examine and investigate the target video clip in more detail –spatially (pan and zoom), temporally (fly) or both. In addition, the analyst uses point-and-click access to retrieve from the video archive additional video clips related to the target video clip. The analyst searches for relevant video clips by specifying data on location, time, object classification, object behavior or other derived information. The video analyst controls all parameters relating to classification, time compression, summarization and presentation. For a specific video clip, the software automatically: • Calibrates the ground plane; • Segregates objects and background; • Calculates size and velocities of the objects; • Creates an object data base that includes properties of the object; • Classifies objects according to rules established by the video analyst; and • Renders a presentation based on settings established by the analyst.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 965-9961
Gavin Rosenbush
DARPA 08-022      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:Summarization, Visualization and Browsing of Massive Video Archives
Abstract:Combat aerial videos are invaluable for tactical military operations, but analyzing and retrieving videos can become a burden as the size of the archive increases. Automated techniques to represent, analyze, and query pertinent video content from vast archives are necessary. We break the problem down into three steps: video pre-processing, summarization at the coarse and finer levels, and visualization and browsing of the query results. In this SBIR Phase I effort, we propose to develop algorithms for visualization, summarization and browsing to allow video analysts to quickly examine and filter large amounts of combat aerial video. Our system will use in-house pre-processing algorithms for video stabilization, detection, and tracking. We will use flow field analysis for sequence segmentation and coarse summarization, and 3D non-rigid factorization analysis for finer summarization of combat videos. The system will provide automated summarization and interactive visualization and browsing of the videos. The outcome of this process will be rapid analysis and browsing of video sequences, enabling analysts to exploit combat videos at will.

Signal Processing, Inc.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 505-2641
Chiman Kwan
DARPA 08-022      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:An Event-driven Approach to Efficient Summarization, Visualization, and Browsing of Massive Combat Video Database
Abstract:We propose a systematic solution to the problem of efficient summarization, visualization, and browsing of large combat video archives. Our approach is event-driven: spatio- temporal saliency is used to define significant visual events, which is in turn used in an event-based video model to partition the video into interleaved salient and less significant segments. Each of the two types of segments will then be summarized properly, with the salient segments been kept at higher spatio-temporal resolution while less significant segments being highly condensed. Such an approach naturally leads to a visualization and browsing scheme that can facilitate the consumption of the large amount of video data based on the relative importance of the raw video feeds, thus helping human analysts achieve efficient examination of the video without the drawbacks of conventional techniques that would discard some of the input data by thresholding or filtering. The innovation of the proposed approach include: 1) a unique method to define the significant segments (“events”) of a video based on saliency detection that can deal with low resolution videos; 2) high performance summarization schemes for different portions of the video based on their relative importance; 3) a novel visualization scheme to support event-driven non-linear browsing of the video feeds.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Daniel Gutchess
DARPA 08-023      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Efficient Video Event Retrieval using Ensemble Subspace Techniques (EVEREST)
Abstract:As the use of persistent aerial video surveillance has grown, the means to produce imagery has far outstripped the means to exploit imagery. Due to this discrepancy, video is often archived for off-line review, resulting in massive video databases that are drastically under-utilized today. To help analysts locate valuable intelligence residing in these databases, we propose a system for Efficient Video Event Retrieval using Ensemble Subspace Techniques, or EVEREST. The system automatically extracts from video a hierarchical set of descriptors encoding several distinct levels of semantic concepts. EVEREST constructs an ensemble of randomized indexes over descriptor subspaces, called a random decision forest (RDF). In contrast to the difficulties encountered by most other indexing techniques in high-dimensionality spaces, our RDF- based indexing method effectively exploits the large number of dimensions by executing database searches and updates in parallel across the ensemble of decision trees. To ensure scalability, we will leverage modern commodity multi-processor architectures. EVEREST’s interface allows analysts to query the database for video that exhibits similarity to a given exemplar video, where similarity is interactively defined by selecting attributes of interest about the video. Search results may be iteratively refined by flagging positive and negative matches and re-executing the query.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5098
Bruce Swett
DARPA 08-023      Awarded: 5/14/2009
Title:Video Analysis and Dynamic Event Recognition (VADER) Engine
Abstract:The proliferation of the battlefield with UAVs and stationary cameras has created a virtual mountain of video data. Some of that data gets analyzed thoroughly, but most does not. It is simply archived away. Buried within this mountain of video data is a virtual treasure trove of valuable intelligence that currently cannot be easily retrieved. New, advanced wide area sensors and the increasing deployment of UAVs and ground-based cameras are accelerating the growth of our archives, causing more and more of this valuable intelligence to go unutilized. The key to providing a robust video search capability is in the ability to accurately represent the content of the video in a compact, meaningful form that can be understood both by analysts and the software algorithms that will be used for rapid search and comparison. This requires both the ability to massively reduce the dimensionality of the content and the ability to represent it in a format that supports rapid search. To meet this challenge, DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation will leverage our on- going research in video exploitation algorithms and probabilistic relationship modeling to augment a cutting edge video pattern recognition technique to address the challenges associated with a content-based video query paradigm.

Mayachitra, Inc.
5266 Hollister Avenue, Suite 299
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-9828
Kaushal Solanki
DARPA 08-023      Awarded: 1/14/2009
Title:ViSearch: An Interactive Search and Retrieval Tool for Large Video Databases
Abstract:we present ViSearch, an interactive video search and retrieval tool that will enable seamless articulation of complex queries and fast retrieval of relevant video clips from large video repositories. The approach, leveraging on our extensive experience with large aerial image and video databases, involves building a multi-layered indexing structure, that can seamlessly support interactive query articulation and refinement.

Advanced Numerical Design, LLC
91 Peter Coutts Circle
Stanford, CA 94305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 906-1766
Patrick LeGresley
DARPA 08-024      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Unsteady Aeroelastic Analysis and Store Separation Using Hardware Accelerators
Abstract:This work addresses the task of dramatically accelerating the computation of 3-D unsteady aeroelastic and store separation flows via the use of commodity Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Particular emphasis is given to the end-to-end GPU acceleration of a complete application, viz. ANDSolver, which solves the unsteady compressible Euler equations (Phase I) and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (Phase II) on dynamic overset unstructured meshes. Novel data structures, graph coloring, and thread memory sharing are employed so that the high performance memory hierarchy on GPUs is efficiently utilized even for computations arising from unstructured meshes. Preliminary single GPU acceleration experiments for the numerical flux computation in ANDSolver show a 20x performance speedup over a single high-end COTS CPU. From projected improvements in GPU hardware, single GPU performance speedups of 30x to 50x are expected during Phase I & II.

EM Photonics, Incorporated
51 East Main Street Suite 203
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Michael Bodnar
DARPA 08-024      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:GPU-Based CFD Analysis for Modeling Complex UAV Flight Scenarios
Abstract:Recent advances in computing have produced special-purpose hardware comprised of vector processors streamlined for high-performance computations. Development of these devices, such as graphics processing units (GPUs) and the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell Processor), has been advanced by the videogame industry. In an effort to increase flexibility and enter new markets, vendors have increased platform usability and opened up underlying hardware constructs to general computing uses. In this project, we focus on leveraging the computational power of commodity graphics hardware to develop a high-performance computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool capable of rapidly and accurately modeling aircraft interaction with naval vessels, or the dynamic interface (DI). This project is divided into two areas: implementation of a CFD formulation able to simulate complex DI scenarios on programmable graphics technology, and the development of an integration framework that will tune the system specifically for DI problems. Phase I consists of building a prototype flow solver in hardware, and also developing the plan for integration to be carried out during Phase II. This plan will describe an overset grid scheme to enable moving body simulation, coupled flight dynamics with control feedback for real-time flight simulations, and system scalability to increase problem size and computational throughput.

Exogi LLC
3680 Boulder Hwy.
Las Vegas, NV 89121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 845-4582
Craig Steele
DARPA 08-024      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Graph-Matching Accelerator (GMA)
Abstract:We propose to explore the applicability of COTS general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPU) to approximate graph matching problems, in order to dramatically improve the speed and utility of DoD-relevant processing areas such as machine vision, target recognition and social network analysis.

Space Computer Corporation
12121 Wilshire Boulevard Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
William Schaff
DARPA 08-024      Awarded: 2/23/2009
Title:Novel Accelerator Architectures for HSI Detection and Identification
Abstract:Utilization of specialized COTS processors for high-throughput functions of hyperspectral detection processing will enable the next generation of small, lightweight UAVs to provide target detection and identification currently only available on larger and more expensive aircraft. Next generation UAV platforms will require sensor systems with smaller footprints and lighter weight than the current generation of Hyperspectral sensor systems. Space Computer Corporation (SCC) proposes to enhance the computational performance of key HSI algorithms by utilizing the capabilities of Graphics Processor Units (GPUs). This proposal describes an approach that couples the power of GPUs with simple PC-based processing architectures to significantly reduce the size of airborne, real-time processors. This use of GPUs, coupled with the recent development of small HSI instruments, will enable cost-effective use of small, inexpensive platforms to support target detection and identification applications previously reserved for large UAV or airborne platforms.

Weidlinger Associates, Inc.
375 Hudson St FL 12
New York, NY 10014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 367-3000
Najib Abboud
DARPA 08-024      Awarded: 7/27/2009
Title:Novel Accelerator Architectures for Critical DoD Application
Abstract:Large scale shock physics simulations comprise a critical element of the analysis of the survivability of ships and submarines in response to underwater explosions, subsurface bunker vulnerability to ground shock, and response of buildings and vehicles to airborne explosions. Explicit time-domain finite element methods have proven to be a necessity for the successful simulation of such problems, with the proviso that the software itself be subject to rigorous verification and validation. Capturing multiscale shock physics phenomena in all its detail requires ever increasing resolutions in space and time and therefore, software and hardware methods for these critical DoD applications must be continually pushed to the limits of available technology. Much of the critical validation data is classified, limiting the number of software tools which can reasonably be considered valid for this class of problem. WAI proposes the acceleration of its validated, explicit, time-domain Lagrangian shock physics code FUSE using GPUs. Using a validated, in- house computer code will result in reduced development time and costs. This project will endeavor to deliver shock physics computer codes faster by an order of magnitude, cutting down the time involved in solving practical shock physics from weeks to days.

Ablaze Systems LLC
2488 Carpenter Hill Rd
Bennington, VT 05201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 447-1090
Silvio Eberhardt
DARPA 08-025      Awarded: 4/20/2009
Title:Tactical Telehaptic Communication (HAPTAC)
Abstract:The goal for our research is to devise effective haptic information delivery with minimal training. To do this requires engaging pre-existing haptic perceptual capabilities. It is unrealistic to expect that large numbers of Soldiers will train for hundreds of hours to master a complex haptic information display, particularly, if its use would capture most of their attention in battlefield situations. From this perspective, the challenge of the proposed work is to identify a set of haptic patterns that are of the greatest value to the soldier, and which can be readily perceived without time-consuming training and without cognitive loading. Certainly the soldier must not perceive the haptic information to interfere with concentration on critical tasks: Rather, it should assist in the effective performance of tasks.

COLLABORATIVE WORK SYSTEMS (CWS), INC.
1414 Walden Oaks Place
Plant City, FL 33563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 528-9498
Roger Chapman
DARPA 08-025      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Tactical Telehaptic Communication (HAPTAC)
Abstract:The use of tactile displays for intra-squad communications offers a number of advantages: they are non-illuminating and can be acoustically covert, the stimuli cannot be overlooked, and they can alleviate sensory bottlenecks. Implementing an effective tactile display for receiving standard intra-squad communications is therefore useful, but we additionally propose supporting flexible and natural multimodal transmission of intra-squad communications, and utilization of wireless, GPS, and electronic compass technologies to facilitate improving team geospatial situation awareness via the tactile display. Our solution is grounded by realistic and high-value scenarios and both lab and field experiments will be used to evaluate and improve our design.

Design Interactive, Inc.
1221 E. Broadway, Suite 110
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 706-0977
Kelly Hale
DARPA 08-025      Awarded: 6/1/2009
Title:Tactical Telehaptic Communication (HAPTAC)
Abstract:The current effort proposes the conceptualization of a portable, low power, lightweight, unobtrusive, real time, tactile communication display system which provides real-time information to squad members during operations where the use of audio or vision is limited. Under this effort, investigators will build upon previous success in developing a tactile display device that displays 56 distinct tactor symbols representing special operations forces hand signal communications. During Phase I, investigators will expand the communication language based on symbol construction rules and context-free grammar production rules for presenting complex information associated with mission level, squad level and individual squad member information requirements critical to maintaining situation awareness during mission performance. This will include consideration of both verbal and hand signal communications during approach to and objective completion. The goal of the HAPTAC system will be to expand the vocabulary of the previously developed tactile display system while at the same time reducing size, weight and power requirements. The HAPTAC system will be fully developed in Phase II based on the system conceptualized during Phase I. The resultant haptic communication display system will enhance information throughput, situation awareness, and performance of squad leaders and team members by utilizing human multimodal information processing capabilities.

Engineering Acoustics, Inc.
406 Live Oaks Blvd
Casselberry, FL 32707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 645-5444
Bruce Mortimer
DARPA 08-025      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Tactical Telehaptic Communication (HAPTAC)
Abstract:Combat environments can subject personnel to extreme conditions, testing the limits of both their physical and cognitive abilities. The sense of touch offers a relatively untapped channel for communications on the battlefield, and tactile displays can be an effective communication modality even under situations of high user stress and where conventional communication channels are compromised. This proposal leverages off EAI’s prior work in tactile display technology, and addresses the development of a HAPTAC system comprising a tactile display (an array of body-referenced vibratory transducers), communications link (secure radio) and an innovative human interface. We propose to extend tactile message display capabilities, increase the communication bandwidth and address methods for increasing the message recognition and error handling. Our overall goal is to provide an intelligent tactile communications and display system for communication of tactical information between soldiers at the squad level.

Mide Technology Corporation
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Marthinus Schoor
DARPA 08-025      Awarded: 4/23/2009
Title:Expendable Wireless Graphical Flex Terminal and Body-Worn Computer
Abstract:Currently, communication between soldiers at the squad level is mainly limited to voice and hand signals. However, the realities of combat, including loud noise such as explosions, and line-of-sight obstructions, often degrade these communications. DARPA is interested in exploring the use of tactile human interfaces as an alternative communications channel between soldiers. The initial goal is to quantify the amount of information that can be received by a wearer relative to conventional hand signals, subject to real-world attention and perception limitations. Typical vibrotactile array approaches (e.g. vibrating motors) do not provide the actuator speed or control needed to adequately quantify this figure. Mide proposes a high-speed, conformable, direct-touch tactile array based on the piezoelectric principle, leveraging Mide’s existing QuickPack/PowerAct manufacturing process. This array will provide direct, continuous control of the position, velocity, and phase of each actuator (tactor), ensuring that the human body, not the test apparatus, is the limiting factor in continuing research. Since each piezotactor is also a sensor, the array doubles as an intuitive tactile input device.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 682-1738
Ken Smith
DARPA 08-026      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Massively Scalable Themes, Entities and Relationships (MASTER)
Abstract:Discovering the important evidence in the form of activities, actors and relationships in a sea of open source data requires the ability to extract and correlate seemingly unrelated pieces of data, distinguish that data from the noise of harmless civilian activity and find the hidden attributes and relationships that characterize the true threat. To meet these requirements, the DAC BOBCAT Team proposes a new suite of algorithms that enable current NLP applications to be immediately available across all levels of military intelligence. We call this approach the Massively Scalable Themes, Entities, and Relationships (MASTER). In the MASTER approach, we overcome the scalability limitations of current NLP approaches while also enabling the tactical warfighter to focus queries based on discovered context and relations. The development of the MASTER approach for the tactical warfighter will result in a suite of algorithms that will support all levels of the fight. The current suite of BOBCAT algorithms, which already advance the state of the art in statistical theme discovery, executes on enterprise platforms at the strategic and operational levels. The MASTER algorithms will specifically focus on the tactical levels with limited computing footprints and large amounts of open-source data.

I.D.E.A.L. Technology Corporation
12633 Challenger Parkway Suite 270
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 999-9870
Anthony Awtrey
DARPA 08-026      Awarded: 4/16/2009
Title:Open Source Information Tactical Exploitation (ONSITE)
Abstract:The discovery of textual information on digital media—emails, documents, messages, and the like—during tactical operations can provide evidence to the warfighter about possible future enemy operations, movements, or attacks. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of such information that may be discovered during tactical operations precludes extensive, on-site computational analysis. High throughput, but efficient, methods must be employed to analyze large volumes of text to reveal any usable information, which can then be stored and later analyzed using desktop computer workstations. To address this significant problem, I.D.E.A.L. Technology Corporation and Knexient, Inc. propose STREAM, a fast text analysis module designed to provide additional natural language processing capabilities for the System for TRIaging Key Evidence (STRIKE™) platform. Specifically, STREAM finds named entities and a set of binary relations between entities in free text, which are extracted and made available in the STRIKE application interface to help warfighters quickly find mission-critical information in text sources discovered during exploitation operations. Additionally, STREAM will use the Hierarchical Document Classification system (HDC) from Knexient’s Text Processing Engine (TPE) to initially classify text according to topic and primary event (the main event expressed in the discourse).

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dan Corlette
DARPA 08-026      Awarded: 6/2/2009
Title:Open Source Information Tactical Exploitation (ONSITE)
Abstract:We propose to design and demonstrate the ONSITE Natural Language Processing technology. ONSITE uses innovative approach to NLP focused on achieving state of the art processing throughput in the presence of noisy input data which achieving semantically rich extractions from unstructured open source text to support tactical applications requiring accelerated operational timelines. ONSITE seeks to strike the correct balance in the design of NLP algorithms for fast execution on a single laptop computer while still providing useful semantically rich extractions. Floating-point and math related operations are limited in favor of optimized heuristics leading to higher rates of CPU throughput and at the same time supporting the structuring of calculations to allow increased CPU cache utilization. ONSITE incorporates the use of specially constructed ontologies to increase processing throughput and increased semantic resolution of extractions. The initial ONSITE application proposed by KBSI is influence operations targeted at enemy networks both physical (existing in the real world) and virtual (existing online). However, the set of supported tactical applications provided by ONSITE may be extended to different tactical application areas including patrol mission planning, insurgent extraction, hostage rescue, and targeting.

Modus Operandi, Inc.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Richard Hull
DARPA 08-026      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:ONSITE: Open Source Information Tactical Exploitation
Abstract:Modus Operandi proposes the development of ONSITE, a set of scalable and accurate algorithms for extracting semantic relations from open source information. This algorithm and process supports warfighter tactical operations by providing near real-time situational awareness. Warfighters performing missions involving the hostage rescue, insurgent extraction and targeting may only have minutes to assess a tactical situation and then to act. Today, a large amount of intelligence is unavailable because it resides in the form of natural language texts (news stories, blogs, press releases and other unstructured data). Current approaches, coupled with appropriate extraction algorithms and applied to textual data, can greatly increase the warfighter’s understanding of his operating environment if those approaches can be made faster and more accurate. We propose to adapt state of the art algorithms in rote extraction to work within a robust, distributed computing framework. We also plan to extend a pattern discovery methodology to identify more specific relation contexts. These innovative capabilities will significantly improve the warfighter’s access to timely and accurate information necessary for tactical operations.

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Amitha Perera
DARPA 08-027      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Tracking the Little Things in Big Urban Scenes
Abstract:Detecting and tracking dismounts in wide-area aerial video is a challenging task because of low resolution, parallax, occlusions from buildings and other structures, nuisance motion, and low frame rate on some sensors. We propose a multi-target tracking system that will robustly track dismounts and vehicles too in these scenes. Our approach addresses the challenges by using multi-frame analysis to accurately detect the small, low-contrast movers, and using a track linking framework to preserve identity across occlusions. The multi-target tracking system is designed to track individuals in and through groups, using a discriminative formulation which allows the accurate localization of a target while actively avoiding other targets and the background. Our approach easily incorporates domain knowledge and context such as road networks, scene categorizations (road, building, etc), and 3-d reconstructions. Moreover, our approach can model, learn, and utilize the dynamic patterns of the targets. For example, we can learn the expected paths taken by objects, and learn relationships between when and where objects are occluded, and when and where they reappear. This enables our approach, over time, to adapt itself to the scene. The result of Phase I will be an assessment of the difficulties of detecting and tracking dismounts in wide-area urban aerial video.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Khurram Hassan-Shafique
DARPA 08-027      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Dismount Tracking in Urban Scenes
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of novel statistical models and deferred inference based techniques for robust detection and tracking of small targets in low spatial-resolution and frame-rate aerial videos. The key innovations in this effort include i) Bernoulli variable based statistical target detection framework that detects small targets by jointly modeling spatio-temporal properties of scene background and sensor geometry, ii) efficient multi-frame multi-target tracking algorithm that explicitly models common dismount tracking scenarios such as, track initiations and terminations, occlusions, target interactions, grouping behaviors, and noisy detections in a single optimization framework, and iii) forensic analysis system that enables the analysts to nominate a target of interest and efficiently determine its trajectory, the targets and objects that it interacts with, the trajectories of interacting targets, and the locations and times of interactions. The project will also benefit from ObjectVideo’s ongoing research activities on context based reasoning for false alarm reduction, context extraction, parallax modeling, and target detection in compressed aerial videos. The Phase I effort will include: development of proposed detection and tracking algorithms to enable the proposed forensic analysis system, demonstration of proof of concept, and quantitative evaluation of the proposed technologies.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 965-9967
Yang Ran
DARPA 08-027      Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title:Real Time Detection and Tracking of Dismounts from Aerial Surveillance Imagery
Abstract:Video surveillance for large-format imagery from airborne sensors represents a rapidly expanding source of information for counter-insurgent and counter-terrorist operations. Automated techniques to locate, represent, and recognize pertinent dismounts from vast video archives are becoming critical. Dismounts are non-rigid objects undergoing unpredictable/non linear motion and move slowly compared to vehicles. In this SBIR Phase I effort, we propose to build a video tracking module which consists of tools to reliably detect and track large number of dismounts from aerial video sensors. Our effort integrates in house algorithms for characterization of sensor motion and slow-moving targets detection, an adaptive non-linear appearance-based non-rigid tracking algorithm, an efficient multiple hypothesis target management module, and an on-line tracking evaluation component which can work in the absence of ground truth data. Our approach allows a threaded implementation with the capability of scaling to multi-core computers.

21st Century Technologies Inc.
4515 Seton Center Parkway Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Thayne Coffman
DARPA 08-028      Awarded: 5/19/2009
Title:3DWAR: 3D Wide Area Reconstruction
Abstract:The 3D Wide Area Reconstruction (3DWAR) effort brings the operational benefits of superior 3D reconstructions to the warfighter. Superior performance is achieved by combining super-resolution (SR) and computational stereo processing to reconstruct 3D models of the combat environment with voxel size of one half the imagery ground sample distance. If input data has sufficient 3D visual effects to support stereo reconstruction, then those effects are also sufficient to derail any SR processing that does not explicitly account for them. We extend our multi-view Accumulation-Based Modeling (ABM) computational stereo approach to tailor it to the operational problem. ABM is naturally compatible with wide field of view and rolling shutter cameras due to its unique approaches to evidence fusion and interpretation. Phase 1 establishes the feasibility of the proposed technical approach with three spirals of theoretic and empirical analysis. Together, these spirals lay a solid foundation for Phase 2 by providing proof of concept implementations and quantitative performance analyses of the approach. Phase 2 will augment and fully develop the most promising variations, and demonstrate an integrated engineering prototype on operationally relevant imagery. The proposed work leverages our past experience in computational stereo and super-resolution, as well as our existing stereo capabilities.

Applied Science Innovations, Inc.
185 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 833-6897
Mikhail Gutin
DARPA 08-028      Awarded: 2/18/2009
Title:High Resolution 3D Reconstruction from Wide-Area Video
Abstract:Applied Science Innovations, Inc. in collaboration with Lockheed Martin Corporation proposes development of the Super-resolved Volumetric Imagery from Video Aerial Surveillance (SVIVAS) – a novel set of image processing algorithms to produce, with modern wide area video sensors, highly accurate 3D models of the area under surveillance, with voxel sizes one-half of the sensor fundamental ground sample distance or better. Emerging wide-area video sensors such as Autonomous Real-time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance - Imaging System (ARGUS-IS) cover large areas at high resolution. New techniques of superresolution and 3D model reconstruction with observations from multiple perspectives will advance capabilities of such systems even further. The proposed SVIVAS will provide 3D reconstruction with resolution better than half the ground sample distance from aerial imagers similar to ARGUS-IS, while addressing computational efficiency, effect of rolling shutter, superresolution beyond limitations by pixel sampling and by the optics, distortion and perspective correction due to wide field of view (>60 degrees), and other critical issues specific to imagers similar to ARGUS-IS. Limited to feasibility studies, Phase I will identify computationally efficient methods for 3D reconstructions across wide field of view electro-optic sensors on fixed- wing flying platforms. In Phase II, computationally efficient 3D reconstruction algorithms will be implemented for wide-field-of-view system similar to ARGUS-IS.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Jonah McBride
DARPA 08-028      Awarded: 6/30/2009
Title:Terrain Reconstruction Using Super-resolution Techniques (TRUST)
Abstract:Persistent Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) is playing an increasingly important role in modern warfare and has spurred the development of large-format imaging sensors that will continuously image an entire city or town at a ground sample distance (GSD) as small as 10cm. Deployed on a moving aerial platform, the opportunity naturally arises to use these sensors to create 3D stereo reconstructions of the terrain for use in mission planning and situational awareness. However, achieving acceptable depth resolution and accuracy is difficult from high altitudes. This problem is made worse by rolling shutter artifacts in the images resulting from the use of low-cost CMOS sensors. To address these challenges, we propose a system for Terrain Reconstruction Using Super-resolution Techniques (TRUST). We address the resolution problem first by combining short sequences of similar images into a single high-resolution image using super-resolution techniques. These images are then used as input into a novel multi-view stereo matching algorithm that fuses together multiple depth maps for maximum accuracy. A scheduling module ensures that images are captured far enough apart to achieve the desired voxel resolution of less than half the original GSD. An image preprocessing component removes rolling shutter distortion and other artifacts.

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Amitha Perera
DARPA 08-028      Awarded: 1/28/2009
Title:Super 3D from Video
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel approach to extracting 3D structure from wide-area video with sub-pixel accuracy. Multiple redundant video frames from very similar viewpoints enable super-resolution, while multiple frames from separated viewpoints enable 3D structure estimation. In our approach we will combine elements of the two processes through a variant of space carving, while avoiding the challenge of sub-pixel registration required for super-resolution. Our approach is based on voxel removal, where 3D volumetric elements are removed or “carved” out of an initial cube when their appearance is not consistent with multiple images. We will enhance space carving with edge-based analysis. Edges provide sub-pixel localization in each image, and by combining highly localized edges on occluding contours from different viewpoints we can achieve sub- pixel localization in 3D. In Phase 1, we will develop an initial end-to-end algorithm by enhancing our current techniques for space carving to include edge information. We will develop a method for regularization of the surfaces between edges, which are otherwise unconstrained and can drift away from the true geometry. The algorithm will be compared to reconstruction using super-resolved images, and we will examine the performance impact of various sensor effects such as rolling shutters and motion blur.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Jonah McBride
DARPA 08-029      Awarded: 5/7/2009
Title:Moving Object Tracking Onboard a Moving Platform (MOTO-MP)
Abstract:Mobile robots are a valuable asset to warfighters, keeping them out of harms way while remotely conducting dangerous bomb-disposal and reconnaissance missions. Autonomous and semi-autonomous operation of these robots would provide additional benefit by freeing up the attention of the operator for other tasks such as personal safety. It also increases usability and reduces training time. Thus far, efforts to develop automation have been limited to static environments. There is considerable resistance to autonomous operation in dynamic environments (which feature multiple humans, robots or vehicles) due to the risk of collision and other safety issues. We propose an approach for “Moving Object Tracking Onboard a Moving Platform”, or MOTO-MP. It enables a robot to detect and track multiple moving objects in a scene while in motion. Unlike traditional approaches which struggle to identify moving objects when the entire scene is in motion, MOTO-MP employs a simple but robust approach involving tracking in image space, an epipolar Hough space, and the 3D world space. A particle filter tracks clusters of moving features, rejecting false tracks, and a Kalman filter predicts the trajectory of objects in world space so that a robot’s navigation and path planning system can avoid collisions.

Dragonfly Pictures, Inc.
PO Box 202 West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(917) 324-4654
Bob Rellim
DARPA 08-029      Awarded: 5/18/2009
Title:Detecting and Tracking Multiple Moving Objects from a Moving Platform
Abstract:Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of a novel tracking algorithm that uses spatial context to reason about long term intentions. While it is hard to fully anticipate a person's behavior, we can generate a set of reasonable hypotheses about it by selecting a number of high-level goals for known persons (e.g., a civilian goes to a store or home, a soldier searches for cover, a biker stops at a red light). This innovative technique will fit into a larger effort to detect and track heterogeneous moving obstacles (e.g., cars, humans, and aircraft) in crowded and cluttered environments where multiple occlusions occur. In general, Phase I research will seek to enable: 1) Extraction and tracking of moving objects from moving stereo images in an environment full of moving objects; 2) Tracking of moving objects using short-range prediction techniques; 3) Deduction of a spatial context from moving stereo images; and 4) Tracking of frequently occluded moving objects using long-term behavior reasoning — the essential innovation. Phase I testing will evaluate the performance of the algorithm both on the ground and in the air.

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Anthony Hoogs
DARPA 08-029      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Tracking Everything Around Me
Abstract:We propose to develop and conduct initial evaluations of real time computer vision algorithms for detecting and tracking people and other movers from robot mounted video cameras. The rapid sensor motion and depth of field motivates the use of direct shape and appearance-based methods for detection and tracking, instead of detecting pixel changes against a background model. The detection and tracking algorithms need to manage frequent and sometimes severe occlusions arising from crowded conditions. Our approach has three processing levels. First, objects are detected using shape-based methods tuned to humans or other objects. Then multiple objects are tracked simultaneously using a novel multi-target particle filter that dynamically handles grouping behaviors. Finally, scene content is extracted and used to link tracks across long occlusions using a global optimization. In Phase 1, we will develop an initial end-to-end algorithm by enhancing our current techniques for each processing step. The feasibility of tracking under difficult conditions will be investigated by measuring tracking performance under various levels of inter-object occlusions, object size and camera motion.

Robotic Research LLC
814 W. Diamond Ave. Suite 301
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-0008
Alberto Lacaze
DARPA 08-029      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:Multi-sensor Detection and Tracking using Traversability Based Prediction
Abstract:In order for fully autonomous robots to be integrated effectively into small combat teams, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) must maneuver safely and intelligently among military ground forces and non-combatants. To achieve such robust obstacle detection capability in unstructured environments, it is necessary to fuse information from various sensor modalities. Under various programs in the past, our team has developed obstacle detection/tracking capabilities using Ladar, LWIR and a visible light camera. The team created by Robotic Research, LLC (RR) and General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) provides a unique set of expertise and on the field experience that cannot be matched in the industry. Kalman filters are the most common approach for tracking and prediction of obstacles but are extremely limited in complex environments. The TACTIC prediction system will drastically increase the efficacy of tracking behind occlusions and in highly cluttered terrain. Our team has the exclusive capability to leverage detection algorithms, planning algorithms, simulation environments, and actual robotic vehicles that are required to make this project a success.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 356-2386
Yanlin Guo
DARPA 08-029      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:Detecting and Tracking Multiple Moving Objects from a Moving Platform
Abstract:Successful detection and tracking of multiple moving objects from a ground robot will greatly facilitate important military tactical missions such as path planning, while operating safely amongst humans. Despite extensive research over past decades, robust and efficient visual detection and tracking from a moving platform in unconstrained real-world environments remains challenging. Most existing algorithms make specific assumptions. SET Corporation proposes to develop a persistent multiple moving object detection and tracking system for an autonomous vehicle equipped with stereo cameras with optional LIDAR input. Our system integrates motion & stereo computation, object recognition, tracking, and trajectory analysis to efficiently and reliably detect multiple discrete moving or static objects for a long period of time. The computation is based on a unique competition and collaboration framework. At local level, 3D spatial objects occupying the same pixels in 2D image planes compete with each other to best explain both spatial and temporal evidence. At global long term trajectory level, object trajectories that are easy to track and maintain high confidence are used to guide the association of trajectories with less confidence. The collaboration is formulated using motion and appearance context. The resulting approach can initialize automatically and track a large and varying number of human and vehicular objects over long periods and through complex scenes with clutter, occlusions, and large-scale background changes. Moreover, an in-situ tracking evaluation scheme is utilized to systematically assess the tracking performance.

DRAGONFLY PICTURES, INC.
PO Box 202 West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(917) 324-4654
Bob Rellim
DARPA 08-030      Awarded: 1/5/2009
Title:Path Planner for Dynamic Environments
Abstract:Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of a path planning module that makes use of time-bounded lattices to avoid potential collisions in dynamic environments. The challenge of planning in a dynamic environment is two-fold. First, tracking and predicting the trajectories of dynamic obstacles (e.g., cars, humans, and aircraft) is very noisy. Second, planning with dynamic obstacles requires adding time as a dimension to the planning problem. Paths need to be re-computed frequently because dynamic obstacles are constantly in motion. To deal with the uncertainty inherent in predictions, our research will investigate a novel representation of dynamic obstacles that enables the planner to generate safe paths efficiently yet is general enough for use with wide variety of perception modules and sensor suites. Second, to provide real-time guarantees on the performance of the planner, we propose to utilize a novel data structure for planning – a time-bounded lattice. The innovative time-bounded lattice will be well-suited for use with previously developed re-planning algorithms that have already been successfully employed on a variety of unmanned ground vehicles.

RE2, Inc.
32 Thirty-Ninth St.
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-6382
Patrick Rowe
DARPA 08-030      Awarded: 5/1/2009
Title:An Advanced Path-Planner for Militarily Relevant Environments
Abstract:A path planner is an integral part of any unmanned vehicle that is intended to autonomously navigate to a desired goal location. Although a great deal of research has been done in the field of path planning, there are still unsolved issues that require additional work. This project proposes several innovations to existing path planning technology that can deal with a number of issues that arise in militarily relevant environments. These issues include planning paths in the presence of numerous moving and dynamic obstacles, such as dismounted soldiers, planning paths that take into account areas of poor or no GPS signals, and planning paths using information about the uncertainties in sensor data, obstacle locations, and the vehicle’s own location. The goal of this research and development effort is to produce path planning software and analysis tools for unmanned ground vehicles that can successfully operate in such militarily relevant environments.

Robotic Research LLC
814 W. Diamond Ave. Suite 301
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-0008
Alberto Lacaze
DARPA 08-030      Awarded: 6/10/2009
Title:Three Dimensional Dynamic Environments Path Planner (3DDEPP)
Abstract:Planning with dynamic entities is at the core of the "safe ops" risk identified by FCS' Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) and other robotic programs. Autonomous robotic systems will not be extensively deployed unless they can safely operate in environments sharing spaces with other dynamic entities. One of the biggest challenges is that most planning systems do not understand the idea of a dynamic entity. Robotic Research, LLC and General Dynamics Robotic Systems will create a planner for dynamic environments utilizing a 3D planning space (x,y,t) for ground vehicles and a 4D space for aerial vehicles (x,y,z,t). This will include integration of terrain registration into the (x,y,t) planner to provide a mapping between the relative navigation solution and the map navigation solution, development of an ego-graph based extension to the current (x,y,t) planner, developing a complex simulation environment for testing using RIVET and preliminary demonstration of a synchronized prediction planning system.

TORC Technologies, LLC
2200 Kraft Dr, Ste 1325
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 443-9262
David Conner
DARPA 08-030      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Path Planner for Dynamic Environments
Abstract:Many modern approaches to autonomy use a layered planning technique where a conventional path planner plans a nominal desired path, and a reactive planner plans trajectories over a local region. In relatively structured environments with good localization, this layered approach has been proven to work well, as shown by TORC’s successful 3rd place entry in the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. The overall goal of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop new planning algorithms that allow operation in environments with dynamic obstacles, and do not depend on idealized sensors or accurate global localization. TORC proposes to evaluate two distinct approaches during this Phase I feasibility study. The first approach will use new Rapidly Exploring Dense Tree (RDT/RRT)-based techniques to plan among possible actions. The second approach extends our previous success in the Urban Challenge by creating time indexed costs based on forward simulations of object behavior. This augmented cost map will leverage the ease of representation and searching trajectories, and provide a method of including object motion.

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Anthony Hoogs
DARPA 08-031      Awarded: 3/10/2009
Title:Human-Robot Instruction for Perceptual Teamwork
Abstract:The utility of mobile robots would be greatly enhanced if they could be taught how to be competent, helpful members of military teams in the field. We propose a method for human instruction of robots, where the instructor teaches the robot how to recognize common situations and activities surrounding it, and how it should behave as part of those activities. Our approach is based on combining probabilistic models of group activities, prior domain and general knowledge, and human instruction. The instructor can guide the robot learning process by providing initial activity specifications, and corrections of the robot’s interpretation of its environment through noisy observations (tracks of nearby objects). In Phase 1, we will develop initial methods for activity model specification and learning with human instruction. We will use the system to investigate the tradeoff between prior knowledge, video training examples and human instruction. Greater levels of instruction can compensate for less training data, but would require more effort from the instructor.

21st Century Systems, Incorporated
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 505-7908
Lucja Iwanska
DARPA 08-032      Awarded: 8/5/2009
Title:FolksART
Abstract:Historically speaking, subjectivity was mostly considered as problematic and undesirable. Recently, the availability of the inherently subjective folksonomies has made it readily apparent that inherent subjectivity is highly desirable and that it can be accounted for and utilized by superimposing multiple structures onto data without requiring changes to the underlying data, thus addressing users’ desires to organize data according to their own preferences. 21st Century systems, Incorporated is pleased to propose to research and develop our FolksART concept. This concept automates selected aspects of folksonomy- based, domain-independent contextual reasoning designed to reflect users’ subjective preferences. It involves a rigorous formal notion of context and application and further development of two types of emerging Artificial Intelligence technologies: (1) Hybrid natural language processing, and (2) Natural language-based knowledge representation and reasoning. The project accounts for many types of high-level contextual reasoning, including contextual taxonomic inference and contextual classification. The approach is tested on rich user-tagged image and textual data in many different domains.

Fetch Technologies
841 Apollo St., Ste. 400
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-9849
Steven Minton
DARPA 08-032      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning
Abstract:In this project, we propose to develop an approach for identifying and exposing the latent semantics within a folksonomy, which will in turn enable a new class of data integration applications. In previous work, we developed software enabling non-programmers to create web feeds, and a portal system for displaying that data in an integrated view. The new application we are proposing to develop in this project will enable domain-experts to automatically integrate webfeeds into the portal without any programming being required. To achieve this, we will be investigating the use of statistical relational learning to learn classification rules based on folksonomy metadata. The domain expert can then train the system to perform the integration task autonomously.

Global InfoTek, Inc
1920 Association Drive Suite 200
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 652-1600
Lance Forbes
DARPA 08-032      Awarded: 4/24/2009
Title:Exposing, Formalizing, and Reasoning over the Latent Semantics in Multimodal Domains
Abstract:We aim to expose latent semantic information in folksonomies by mapping their tags through lexicons to ontologies and by applying other strategies, tools, and techniques to achieve high relevance and fidelity. We will analyze the problem space, select an appropriate domain and tools, and provide a detailed design for a system to provide the ability to reason over this latent semantic information. Our work will include the use of linguistic and other tools to permit rapid, accurate, and reliable mappings from “folksonomic” structures with weak or nonexistent semantics to formal ontologies, where high-level and sound reasoning will then be applicable to information previously opaque to such processing. We believe that an accurate and reliable methodology for mapping implicit semantics into explicit semantics is a critical factor in fulfilling the promise of the Semantic Web, , and that successful completion of our work plan will result in novel and powerful tools with significant value and relevance across a broad spectrum of applications, covering both military/intel and civilian/commercial domains and applications.

Image Matters
201 Loudoun Street SW
Leesburg, VA 20175
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 669-5510
Yaser Bishr
DARPA 08-032      Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title:Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning
Abstract:A new family of what is known as Web 2.0 applications is currently emerging on the Web as means to create and share web resources. These applications include user-centric publishing and knowledge management platforms like Wikis and Blogs. Social resource sharing systems have acquired several million users in just few years. As the use of folksonomy proliferate users feel the need for more structure for better organizing their resources and enhance resource discovery and retrieval. We believe that exposing such latent structure will enhance user experience in a wide range of applications including situation awareness. We conjecture that a complete solution that is able to deduce latent structures in user vocabulary must account for controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies as well as the three elements of the social tagging triangle: people, tags, and resources. Controlled vocabularies could be as limited as domain ontology but it could also be as wide as Wordnet, Propbank or Framenet. In our view, a successful system design an implementation should not restrict to a specific vocabularies. Instead we propose to develop general solutions that extract latent structures in folksonomies through mapping to semantically richer controlled vocabularies.

Lymba Corporation
1701 N. Collins Blvd. Suite 3000
Richardson, TX 75080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 680-0800
Munirathnam Srikanth
DARPA 08-032      Awarded: 4/28/2009
Title:Inducing Ontologies from Folksonomies using Natural Language Understanding
Abstract:Social bookmarking systems enable users to tag and organize documents according to their own subjective preferences. The collection of tags or folksonomy describes common resources of interest to the user community. The implicit meaning associated with the terms in a tag enables the discovery of other relevant documents and users with shared interests. Folksonomy lacks the hierarchy structure of taxonomy that facilitates better information access or the semantics of an ontology that yields to machine reasoning. The project proposes to make explicit the latent information structure in folksonomies by using natural language processing and automatic ontology generation from text. Phase I effort focuses on (1) the linguistic tools required to capture tag semantics from the tag text, social annotation and the textual content of tagged documents, (2) knowledge classification tools to organize the extracted semantics in an ontology, and (2) the candidate applications that can demonstrate the use of tag semantics. Different information access and discovery applications can use the underlying ontology structure to enable users browse the tag space, and mine new information and associations in social bookmarked data.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariners Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Terrance Goan
DARPA 08-032      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Using Bridging Knowledge to Expose Meaning and Structure in Folksonomic Tags
Abstract:The burden of manually developing and maintaining ontologies to support the changing requirements of real-world applications represents a substantial barrier to the successful deployment of advanced information exploitation and knowledge management technologies. One promising approach to overcoming these challenges is to exploit the knowledge that is arising within Web 2.0 applications. These tools gather huge volumes of human insight by allowing users to organize multimedia information in a nearly effortless manner according to their own subjective preferences. However, researchers have only demonstrated a limited ability to automatically extract semantic knowledge from these resources. We propose to significantly improve the accuracy of tag enrichment processes through the automated extraction of relational information from news and Web text. The relational triples (x y) produced by this Open Information Extraction process will act as a bridge between incomplete and static ontologies and unstructured, dynamic folksonomies. This integrated approach will allow us to achieve much higher levels of recall than state of the art approaches, and will ultimately allow for the largely automated adaptation of ontologies. Our Phase I prototype will provide a solid foundation for the complete implementation of this semantic enrichment tool in Phase II and its eventual commercialization.

VIStology, Inc
5 Mountainview Drive
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 788-5088
Brian Ulicny
DARPA 08-032      Awarded: 4/14/2009
Title:Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning
Abstract:User tagging by means of authority-free folksonomies has become standard for making online videos, photos, bookmarks and blog posts discoverable. We propose to develop a system that identifies and exposes the ontological structure that is latent in the folksonomic tags used in open, publicly available sites such as Flickr (photos), YouTube (video) and Blogger (blogs) and demonstrates the ability to perform higher order processing using the induced structure. Specifically, the technology developed will allow the system to identify photos, videos or blog posts about the same event by means of the tags applied in one medium (e.g. photos) in order to identify tagged items in another medium (videos or blog posts). We plan to use (i) the surrounding text, (ii) the user’s other tagging practices, and, most importantly, (iii) large-scale topic hierarchies used in DMOZ, Wikipedia (dbPedia) and lexical resources such as Beth Levin’s taxonomy of verb classes in order to tokenize and disambiguate the tags into unambiguous topics. These will then be mapped onto who, what, when, and where slots, and used to identify depictions of the same event in other media using a formal reasoner, VIStology’s BaseVISor, a forward-chaining OWL/RDF reasoner using r-entailment.

AID NETWORKS
7822 Whistling Pines Ct
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 799-2355
Tia Gao
DARPA 08-033      Awarded: 1/6/2009
Title:Hardware Independent Networked Active Sensor Middleware
Abstract:The pioneering efforts within the DARPA SENSIT and NEST programs, proved the potential of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology for compelling DoD applications, including surveillance and target localization. These projects'' legacies include hardware platforms, used extensively in academic research today and the TinyOS software suite. At the same time, these programs revealed the limitations of passive sensors and the challenges of developing WSN applications. Not only application development is hard and error-prone, but the resulting code is tightly coupled with the underlying hardware and sensor suite. This tight integration prevents code reuse as the hardware and sending platforms evolve. In this project we will address both limitations through a hardware-independent middleware for multi-static WSNs. Doing so requires designing novel distributed target detection and localization algorithms for active WSNs. These algorithms maximize coverage while minimizing energy use. Furthermore, the middleware abstracts application logic from hardware intricacies. To do so, we introduce the programming abstractions and system services that evolve TinyOS to a system that provides a clear but flexible delineation between applications and an evolving kernel. The key innovation is the ability to provide this interface and the system services that define it at no expense of system efficiency.

The Samraksh Company
5860 Venture Drive, Suite A
Dublin, OH 43017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 443-1033
Kenneth Parker
DARPA 08-033      Awarded: 3/2/2009
Title:Standardized Hardware Independent Framework for Active Sensing
Abstract:Networks of short-range wireless sensors can yield cost-effective solutions in diverse military and commercial settings, especially where occlusions render long-range sensors operationally ineffective. The current state-of-the-art in application design, however, falls short of realizing cost-effectiveness. We propose to address this problem via an open framework of sensing, high efficiency communication, and coordination services. Specifically, we advocate the development of this framework on top of the .NET Micro Framework. Our framework will focus on prototypical patterns from the domain of wireless sensor network applications for detection, classification, tracking, and localization. Software developers may thus rapidly build applications in this domain in a manner that is familiar and that adequately hides hardware platform considerations. We also propose to develop an integrated testing environment for efficient debugging, testing, and validation of new applications, sensors, and nodes. Phase I will also include analysis of the various options for obtaining MF platforms, include the option of supporting an open-source initiative. This framework will facilitate sales of our existing active sensor products as well as create new markets for software applications that we are in the process of creating, with additional external investment.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5236
Chujen Lin
DARPA 08-034      Awarded: 1/29/2009
Title:Reconfigurable Covert Wireless Video Streaming
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative reconfigurable covert wireless video streaming device that can stream real-time video or control signals from various military gears, such as video/IR cameras, and sighting systems to remote locations or robotic platforms clandestinely. The superiority of the proposed approach is due to the use of four key elements: (1) Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio providing a covert wireless link with high throughput; (2) JPEG2000 codec for robust and low-latency video compression and decompression; (3) FPGA to enable reconfigurability, tight integration, and miniaturization; (4) Mobile Agent Routine (MAR) protocol for resilient multi-hop ad hoc networking. In summary, the proposed wireless video streaming device has the following features (a) Man portable and Self-powered (b) Low-latency and robust to bit error and packet loss (c) LPI/LPD/AJ/anti-DF (d) compact size and is easy to be camouflaged (e) Minimum data rate of 2 Mbps at 50 meters LOS. Through the use of IAI’s proven ad hoc mobile network, the proposed system can transmit to virtually unlimited distance.

TrellisWare Technologies, Inc.
16516 Via Esprillo Suite 300
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 753-1621
Adam Blair
DARPA 08-034      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Networking for High-Quality, Low-Latency Streaming Video
Abstract:TrellisWare recently developed a software defined radio (SDR) evaluation platform for tactical mobile ad hoc networking (MANET). The success of our development program is exemplified by recent sole source announcements by the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) and Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratories (MCWL) for ten-radio evaluation kits of our tactical MANET platform. While our existing technology meets many of the key requirements of a tactical wireless video streaming device, there are a number of key challenges that must be addressed (e.g., GHz band operation and LPI/LPD enhancement) so that TrellisWare''s existing technology - which was designed with a markedly different application in mind - can be extended for use as a tactical video streaming device. The goal of this Phase I SBIR is therefore to design and prototype the necessary components required to enable tactical video streaming with TrellisWare’s tactical MANET technology. During Phase II, TrellisWare will deliver a ten-radio evaluation kit of the proposed technology to our potential DARPA sponsors. It is only with such a large prototype run that the full capabilities - particularly multi-hopped transmission - of the proposed system can be effectively demonstrated.

TRX Systems, Inc.
387 Technology Drive, Suite 2104
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-5836
Carole Teolis
DARPA 08-035      Awarded: 3/9/2009
Title:High Accuracy, Non-GPS Pose Estimation and Real-Time Depth Sensing
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to develop technology that facilitates mixed reality training in the real world thus affording soldiers the capability to train anywhere at any time using his/her equipment combined with operational combat systems. The focus of the proposed effort will be addressing key technology gaps to achieving the capability. We will address 1) the ability to accurately compute location of the trainee and orientation of their head and weapon, and 2) the ability to accurately and quickly sense the depth of real, potentially moving objects in the scene. The proposed effort leverages the TRX Sentinel Personnel Tracking and Monitoring System, which will be combined with additional soldier worn sensors for depth sensing. The system will be able to wirelessly track the location and orientation of multiple individuals in an indoor (GPS denied) or outdoor environment, simultaneously generating a local map of the soldier’s position relative to the environment. Our solution does not require the training environment to be equipped with any sensors, communications devices, or other infrastructure. The same technology used for tracking people can be used to track position and orientation of targets as well as the individual soldier’s weapons.

Anacapa Sciences, Inc.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Jack Stuster
DARPA 08-036      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Capturing Insights from Firefights to Improve Training
Abstract:This proposal offers a detailed work plan to conduct the research necesŹsary to determine whether a correlation exists between soldiers and Marines surviving their first few firefights and long-term survival in a combat environment. If sufficient evidence is found to establish a correlation, the research will identify the factors and/or behaviors responsible for individual survival while under fire and also assess the feasibility of developing pre-combat training to convey the lessons derived from study results. AnaŹcapa Sciences, Inc., has assemŹbled a uniquely qualified team of behavioral scientists, programŹmers, and subject matter experts to perform this important research project.

HF Designworks, Inc.
PO Box 19911
Boulder, CO 80308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9518
Scott Scheff
DARPA 08-036      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Capturing Insights from Firefights to Improve Training
Abstract:The military of the future will be conducting missions that are fundamentally different from those of the past. Missions will be more varied due to changes in world political alignment, shifts in how wars are waged and technological advancements. Despite improvements in technology and tactics, casualties will still remain a part of war; with some research concluding that a soldier has the greatest likelihood of becoming a casualty within the first few firefights. To reduce the number of casualties while continuing to ensure superiority of U.S. armed forces, training has been the backbone which supports soldier survivability. Even with current training methods however, the belief remains that lives are lost most frequently during a soldier’s first few firefights. This same body of research also states that if a soldier does survive these crucial first fights, they will typically go on to survive their tour. This proposal discusses research methodologies seeking to statistically verify if soldiers who survive their initial firefights will survive their tour. Additionally, once verified, the factors that allow survivability will be identified and researched. Training will then be developed that includes the identified factors. The result of this work will help to increase soldier survivability during conflict.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Todd Summers
DARPA 08-037      Awarded: 12/31/2008
Title:Platform Independent Omni-directional Antennas
Abstract:Increasingly, enemy forces employ technologies that either depend on RF communications or produce detectable RF signatures. Thus, there are many types of RF signals and signatures that can be detected over a variety of different frequency bands and environments by RF sensors. When received, this information can be exploited to confront or avoid potential threats. These sensors operate on different platforms, and typically are tuned to detect specific threats, over unique frequency bands and with unique fidelity requirements on the received signals. As diverse as these applications are, so are the various antennas fabricated for use with these sensors. When a new sensing requirement arises, a new, application-specific antenna must be designed and developed. DARPA seeks to obviate the need to repeatedly develop application-specific antenna technology by developing a receive-only, omni-directional antenna that can be used for a range of RF sensor applications over a wide 6-18 GHz band. Barron Associates, Inc., in conjunction with L-3 Communications, Communication Systems-West, propose to develop a Platform-Independent Omni-Directional Antenna (PIODA), which will provide DARPA with a versatile, omni-directional antenna. With the additional requirements that the antenna be small and reconfigurable across the band, this challenging problem demands significant innovations in the antenna design.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8389
Rob Bortolin
DARPA 08-037      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Platform Independent Omni-Directional Antennas (IODA “YODA”)
Abstract:NextGen Aeronautics Inc. has teamed with San Diego State University to develop omni- directional antennas that perform independent of their mounting location. The planned work builds upon the team’s extensive prior experience in conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS), reconfigurable antennas, and antenna design. The proposed antenna concepts are all variations of designs that have been designed and tested at SDSU, and have proven their capacity to operate under the determined conditions while meeting solicitation requirements. At the end of Phase I we will have simulations validating the choice of antenna, as well as tradeoffs between materials, size and performance of the antenna. Further efforts in Phase I will include anechoic fabrication of a mockup antenna for demonstration of how the antenna can potentially be integrated into existing platforms with minimal modification.

Pharad LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive, Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 590-3333
Rod Waterhouse
DARPA 08-037      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Platform Independent Omni-directional Antennas
Abstract:In this Phase I project Pharad proposes to investigate several novel antenna concepts for a wideband direction finding (DF) surveillance system. Our objective is to create new low profile wideband antennas that can operate over 6 – 18 GHz and feature large fields of view and stable phase responses in order to greatly extend the performance and capabilities of DF systems. We will also investigate electromagnetic procedures that will enable the antenna to operate with the aforementioned characteristics, independent of the platform on which it is mounted. We propose to incorporate an isolation zone between our wideband radiation and the platform on which the antenna is to be mounted and will explore a variety of approaches for creating this isolation region including electromagnetic bandgap structures and ferrite-loaded materials. During this Phase I project we will undertake a thorough theoretical investigation of the proposed antenna configurations, including modeling and optimization of the electromagnetic performance using our comprehensive suite of design tools, and the establishment of generic design trends for the structures. We will also fabricate proof-of-concept versions of the antenna and isolation structures and undertake measurements of the proposed prototype structures to verify their performance.

Archcom Technology, Inc.
1335 W. Foothill Blvd.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 969-0681
David Scott
DARPA 08-038      Awarded: 1/14/2009
Title:Electro-Optic Frequency-Agile Modulators
Abstract:One of the next microwave photonic system applications is high-speed, high-resolution, electro-optic processing of microwave/mm-wave signals. Many new functions can be conceived of using electro-optic devices such as analog to digital converters, photonic RF phase shifters, photonic RF converters, and digital optical switches. Phased array antennas using photonics based radio-frequency (RF) phase shifters hold great promise for advanced wireless communications and radar applications due to their many advantages such as simple implementation and optical distribution capability. What is common for all of these applications is the need for an extremely high speed, low drive voltage, and compact electro-optic device platform that can integrate a large number of devices with extremely low loss such that these advanced functions can be realized. Archcom’s proposal is to monolithically integrate its state of the art InP-based DFB laser technology with its InP-based multiple quantum well p-i-n 65GHz modulator technology to create a single sideband (SSB) optical transmitter. The monolithically integrated chip will achieve bandwidths in excess of 65GHz, modulator drive voltages less than 2V for extinction ratios of 10dB, and output optical powers in excess of 30mW.

EOSPACE Inc
8711 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 869-6975
Suwat Thaniyavarn
DARPA 08-038      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:High Performance Millimeter-Wave Frequency-Agile Optical Modulators
Abstract:Electro-Optic Frequency-Agile ModulatorsThe objective is to develop an ultra-high performance optical frequency-domain modulation device that is truly frequency agile and capable of operation from DC to mm-wave frequencies for the next generation optical signal generation and signal transmission system for dual-use in defense/RF-analog and commercial/digital “Ultra-high-bit-rate” fiber-optic communication systems.

EOSPACE Inc
8711 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 869-6975
Suwat Thaniyavarn
DARPA 08-039      Awarded: 1/6/2009
Title:RF Fiber-optic links using LiNbO3 Device with Improved Efficiency and Filtering
Abstract:The objective is to develop an ultra-high performance RF fiber-optic links using LiNbO3 device with improved efficiency and optical filtering techniques. To goal is to achieve an RF fiber-optic link with optimized SFDR, Link Gain and low Noise Figure simultaneously. The effort includes the development of higher efficiency lithium niobate modulator and analyzing optical filtering techniques for applcations into optical signal processing of RF signals.

Srico, Inc.
2724 Sawbury Blvd.
Columbus, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
S. Sriram
DARPA 08-039      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:Lithium Niobate Optical Modulator for Microwave Filtering Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project develops novel materials processing and device design that extract the maximum possible performance out of the lithium niobate electro-optic material. For microwave analog fiber optic links, such as for antenna remoting and RF filtering applications, the optical link performance requirements place stringent demands on the optical modulator component. An optical modulator is desired that is capable of handling several watts of optical power that has a low optical loss and a switching voltage less than 1 Volt and that operate efficiently with low RF electrode loss over a wide bandwidth of 2 to 20 GHz. In addition, an optical modulator that could offer the added capability to shape the frequency response would greatly benefit microwave filtering applications. SRICO proposes significant efficiency improvements to lithium niobate electro-optic modulators that are crucial to achieve practical applications of fiber optic links for microwave transmission and signal processing functions. We propose an architecture and novel optical modulator design for the realization of high gain fiber optic that concurrently provides programmable photonic RF filtering over the 2 to 20 GHz regime. Multiple optical modulators simultaneously fed by a single RF input are proposed to create advanced RF filtering functions.

NuCrypt LLC
1801 Maple Avenue, Rm 6322
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 733-8750
Gregory Kanter
DARPA 08-040      Awarded: 1/14/2009
Title:Self-Seeded Programmable Parametric Fiber Comb Source
Abstract:Coherent light consisting of multiple-frequency combs is commonly used in metrology. Various methods of generating combs exist which are suited for different applications. Mode-locked lasers naturally output a train of phase-locked spectral lines and are a very simple way of generating a comb. These lasers do not operate in the continuous wave regime and the generated comb has very limited flexibility. Such features make mode- locked lasers ill suited for certain applications like differential absorption LIDAR or ranging. One interesting method for comb generation uses a frequency-shifting element to repeatedly shift re-circulating optical fields. The method has a rich set of operating modes, including the possibility for the comb frequencies to shift in time creating an effective chirp. However, the bandwidth and noise characteristics of the signal are limited by the Erbium-doped-fiber amplifiers used in the loop. Parametric nonlinearities can lead to a wide range of interesting effects such as phase-sensitive amplification which, unlike typical phase-insensitive amplifiers, can amplify a signal without adding noise. Other properties of parametric amplification can include the generation of additional frequency components, a huge gain bandwidth (>200nm) with engineerable spectral shape, and an ultrafast (sub-ps) response allowing nearly instantaneous control of the process. We propose to investigate the use of parametric amplification for generating agile optical frequency combs. We will combine techniques used in communications, sensing and standard optical comb generation to suggest possible designs and evaluate their use in real-world applications.

Redwood Photonics LLC
172 Component Drive
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 910-4762
Andrew Ryan
DARPA 08-040      Awarded: 1/14/2009
Title:Self-Seeded Programmable Parametric Fiber Comb Source
Abstract:An all-fiber, fast reconfigurable comb generator capable of arbitrary frequency grid synthesis, while providing true continuous wave (CW) response and sufficient power to support multiple feeds for general reference and clock provisioning is proposed.The proposed comb will be constructed entirely of off-the-shelf telecom components, which will form the backbone of athermal, compact signal generation. None of the packaging issues associated with conventional comb sources (thermal stability, susceptibility to shock and vibration) are seen as an issue with our proposed technology. The comb source noise accumulation, carrier-to-noise levels and maximal output power will be modeled and design rules derived. A integrated model describing the operation of arbitrarily-spaced frequency comb that can be adapted faster than the microsecond scale will be used to propose a design for a prototype source. A feasiblity evaluation of the critical SSB modulator component will be performed as risk reduction.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Balakishore Yellampalle
DARPA 08-041      Awarded: 1/12/2009
Title:An Extended Duration Arbitrary Waveform Generation with Large Time Bandwidth Product
Abstract:Arbitrary waveforms are important for advanced coherent communication systems envisioned for several potential military uses. Such systems require waveforms from high frequency bandwidth sources, where the amplitude and phase of each of the frequency components are independently controllable. Example systems include advanced radar, advanced LIDAR, frequency agile optical fiber communication, and quantum communications. Although many uses with arbitrary waveform generators are envisioned, they have not been realized due to practical issues in implementation. For coherent communications, the key parameters of interest are 1) large bandwidth, 2) long time durations and 3) large waveform complexity or time bandwidth product (TBP). Current techniques with THz bandwidths have only demonstrated a TBP of few hundred, while over 10,000 is necessary for practical use. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a novel pulse shaping scheme and pulse extender that allow highly efficient arbitrary waveform generation with a microsecond long pulse width and waveform complexities in excess of several tens of thousands. The novel waveform generator will be designed to address >10,000 spectral features in a compact and efficient implementation.

OptoNet
828 Davis Street, Suite 206
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 425-7585
Jing Ma
DARPA 08-041      Awarded: 4/17/2009
Title:Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generator On a Monolithic InP Chip with Continuously Extendable Duration based on Novel Ultra-High- Resolution Diffraction G
Abstract:The proposed project will undertake the research, design, and development of key concepts and technologies for extended duration optical arbitrary waveform generator (OAWG) over large bandwidth, based on a monolithically integrated high-speed optoelectronic chip with a unique integrated ultra-high-resolution super-compact grating (SCG), referred to as SCG based high-speed optical arbitrary waveform generator (SCG- HS-OAWG) chip. The proposed SCG-HS-OAWG is capable of large bandwidth (100GHz- 1THz or 10-1 picosecond pulses) and continuously extendable duration without time aperture limit for the arbitrary waveform. Phase I will focus on systematic design and feasibility studies of the proposed SCG based OAWG to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the proposed technology. The feasibility will lay the ground work for Phase II. The proposed SCG-HS-OAWG chip has the following advantages: (1) It provides a monolithically integrated chip with spectral channel decomposition, channel’s amplitude and phase modulations, and spectral re-composition functionalities all integrated on a mm- size or cm-size Indium Phosphide (InP) chip; (2) It provides an OAWG with high modulation speed of 2.5G initially with possible extension to 10GHz or 40GHz later; (3) It will be fully packaged in a low-profile ruggedized module with fiber input/output pigtails enabling it to operate in harsh environment over a wide temperature range.

S2 Corporation
2310 University Way Building 4-1
Bozeman, MT 59715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 922-0334
Peter Sellin
DARPA 08-041      Awarded: 2/23/2009
Title:High-Resolution Wide-Bandwidth Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation Over Extended Time Apertures
Abstract:We propose to design a prototype device based on coherent accumulation and interference of spectrally shaped waveforms to achieve wideband optical arbitrary waveform generation with time apertures of 50 us, complete control of phase and amplitude, bandwidths of 100 GHz up to 1 THz, and a spectral resolution of 50 kHz. This technology enables wideband agile waveform generation for communications, sensor, and surveillance applications.

Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Shantanu Gupta
DARPA 08-042      Awarded: 1/29/2009
Title:High Power Parametric Fiber Blue-Green Source
Abstract:A rugged and efficient high power blue laser source in the 455 – 500 nm spectral region is proposed. The source will be capable of either cw or pulsed operation (at multi-kHz repetition rate) and offers tunable, wavelength output in the blue spectral region. The concept is based on frequency conversion of a novel fiber amplifier (MOPA) configuration. Such blue laser sources are ideally suited for antisubmarine warfare (ASW), underwater imaging and communication applications, medical applications, and display technologies.

Q Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Kevin Wall
DARPA 08-042      Awarded: 4/16/2009
Title:High Power Blue-Green Laser Sources
Abstract:In this proposed Phase I program, we will study methods of generating blue-green laser radiation. Such sources are of great interest to the Navy for both anti-submarine warfare and communications at depth and speed, as blue-green light matches the minimum of seawater transmission for a variety of conditions. In addition, there are military applications in pumping Ti:Sapphire lasers for stable clocks as well as applications for bioinstrumentation, displays, and fundamental research. We propose to study methods of generating blue-green radiation by either fiber-laser or crystalline solid-state laser sources. In both cases, several frequency conversion steps may be required. For fiber- laser-based sources, we propose to investigate Raman oscillators to shift the fiber sources to the red and nonlinear frequency conversion (second, third, and fourth harmonic generation) to convert wavelengths into the blue-green range. For solid-state lasers, optical parametric oscillators will be investigated to generate tunable blue-green wavelengths. An optimal combination of frequency conversion will be sought that maximizes both efficiency and power scalability, among other properties. Maturity and availability of the technology will be considered in choosing amongst the candidate technologies. The result of the Phase I program will be to identify the best path to an efficient multi-Watt blue-green source.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
James Coward
DARPA 08-042      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:High Power Parametric Fiber Blue-Green Source
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose the development of the Topaz modulated optical source for underwater sensing and communication. The unit will emit mulitple watts of blue light in the 450-460 nm for deep water transmission and on key Fraunhofer lines for solar noise reduction. The unit supports modulation of up to 10 GHz and can emit energies in excess of 1 mJ. High wall plug efficiency is attained with SA Photonics innovative pumping archtecture.

Lithographic Technology Corp. dba Amphib
125 Tech Park Dr.
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 750-1300
Bruce Smith
DARPA 08-043      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Template-based Lithography for Advanced Low-Volume Electronics
Abstract:The goal of the proposed project is to develop regular interferometric based template lithography and demonstrate its feasibility for cost effective, high resolution nanofabrication of low volume electronics. The challenges of the project are based on the requirement to meet the needs of sub-32nm CMOS device fabrication using technologies that are not currently addressed by the ITRS. Design strategies will be developed for the interferometric lithography (IL) imaging system, the integration of the system to a projection lithography (PL) or electron beam lithography (EBL) trim operation, and the identification of suitable processes for template based lithography for 32nm and sub-32nm application. This will be carried out using current design fundamentals of the ASI XIS interference lithography system scaled up to meet CMOS device fabrication needs.

NANONEX CORPORATION
1 Deer Park Drive Suite O
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 355-1600
Linshu Kong
DARPA 08-043      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Low Cost, Sub-32nm Hybrid Imprint & E-beam Template for Low-Volume Manufacturing
Abstract:In order to diminish the second corollary of Moores Law (the cost of the manufacturing technology increases geometrically with time), Nanonex proposes the use of templates with gratings that can be manufactured at a low-cost by nanoimprint lithography (NIL). These templates are base wafers prefabricated and awaiting customization and can formed into the desired circuits by trimming or stitching these repetitive structures using EBL. The use of such templates will significantly reduce both costs and design cycles, and provide the basis for cost effective nano-scale electronics for niche applications. NIL is uniquely well suited for producing such templates.

Transfer Devices, Inc.
500 Laurelwood Road, Suite 11
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 980-9684
Charles Schaper
DARPA 08-043      Awarded: 4/20/2009
Title:Integrating Molecular Transfer Lithography with Electron Beam Lithography for Low-Volume Sub-32 nm CMOS Processing
Abstract:With a novel patterning process called Molecular Transfer Lithography, enabled by a water-dissolvable template, providing better control of surface engineering objectives in lithography, an integrated strategy is proposed for coordination of that nanopatterning technique with Electron Beam Lithography, targeting low-volume applications in CMOS sub-32 nm processing, as well as other relevant applications in nanoscale manufacturing. Through a decomposition of the circuit design layout into regular pattern set, which is handled by the water-dissolvable template process thereby improving throughput while lowering costs, and the remaining portions by Electron Beam Lithography to achieve alignment requirements while reducing mastering costs. As the template process p has already demonstrated the requisite resolution of 25 nm and smaller, performed on wafers to 300 mm diameters, with production yielding commercial optoelectronic devices, the first phase of this program, in addition to integration of the two lithographic technologies, involves the development of the materials processing methods to achieve a template replication and transfer processes that are configurable for automated volume manufacturing, as well as algorithmic methods of throughput optimization and layout decomposition.

Advanced Tech Engineering, Inc
15700 Logarto Lane
Burnsville, MN 55306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 465-6009
Frank Lucchesi
DARPA 08-044      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Highly Integrated Silicon (Si)-based RF electronics
Abstract:ATE’s unique partnership with the University of Minnesota plans to exploits applied and fundamental research, respectively, to achieve unprecedented levels of integration for highly complex RF microwave, mm-wave and analog/digital/mixed-signal modules using Silicon Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology to support emerging DoD-critical applications such as wafer-scale phase array mono-static radars, bi-static radars, MIMO radars, direction finding (DF) signals intelligence (SIGINT), highly- integrated electronic warfare systems, or compact sensing systems.. In Phase I, ATE and the University of Minnesota will focus on application research to establish key performance parameters such as phase noise, phase shifter resolution/accuracy, linear dynamic range, channel isolation, etc. and analyze the feasibility of the proposed integration scheme and RF/mixed signal circuits that will result in revolutionary capabilities or superior performance which cannot be achieved by current III-V technologies. Simulation and/or basic experiments, expected RF performance, integration level (RF and digital transistor counts), and required integration technologies (3D integration, etc.) of the proposed circuits will be presented and discussed including proposed realistic fabrication technologies or necessary technology developments to realize the target RF/mixed signal circuits for the next phases.

Camgian Microsystems Corporation
2500 Maitland Center Parkway Suite 203
Maitland, FL 32751
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 660-9900
Michael Hagedorn
DARPA 08-044      Awarded: 1/29/2009
Title:Highly Integrated Silicon (Si)-based RF electronics
Abstract:Today’s warfighter is reliant upon more and more technological support to achieve strategic and tactical superiority over their enemies. Technological advantages include such items as night-vision equipment, unattended ground sensors (UGS), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), target tracking beacons, etc. To be effective, these need to be as small and as lightweight as possible. This leads to the drive for the integration of disparate technologies, such as high performance RF circuitry and large scale digital signal processing, into more and more dense circuits to achieve the maximum Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) reductions possible. The ability to increasingly integrate complex digital logic with analog/RF circuits on the same device, makes revolutionary new products feasible. As a case in point, Camgian Microsystems, is developing a revolutionary new UGS that combines radar, camera, digital signal processing and a communications system. The device must achieve lower power and area than are possible with discrete integration. This SBIR program will use this applications to push the limits of state-of-the-art, seeking to demonstrate the ability to provide revolutionary integration levels, combining high performance RF circuits with large quantities of complex digital logic, all on a low cost, small geometry silicon CMOS process.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Todd Grimes
DARPA 08-044      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Highly Integrated Silicon (Si)-based RF electronics
Abstract:The solicitation indicates that the objective is to develop methods to achieve unparalleled levels of integration for silicon-based RF electronics in support of emerging DoD-critical applications. Example DoD applications include wafer-scale phase array radars, highly integrated warfare systems, or compact sensing systems. In the commercial sector, applications may include wireless voice/data communications, industrial control and automation, automotive radar, etc. Recent advancements in silicon-based technologies have allowed transistor performance to approach cutoff frequencies normally reserved for III-V semiconductor materials, thus making them suitable for integration into various DoD-critical RF applications. We are planning to utilize the latest multi-gate MOSFET technology to develop RF building blocks to achieve highly integrated, low-power RF designs. Multi-gate MOSFETs differ from typical transistor implementations, as they contain additional gates that maybe utilized to “tune” circuit performance and characteristics while reducing the overall size of the design. These devices also offer excellent mixed-signal alternatives, as they possess architectural features conductive to the integration of analog and digital building blocks on the same substrate with minimal overhead to the fabrication sequence; reduced cross-talk and better isolation on SOI platform, multi-finger gates, minimal parasitics, scalability and simplicity.

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 652-0008
Joseph Ahadian
DARPA 08-044      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Advanced Wafer Technology for Highly Integrated Silicon RF Electronics
Abstract:We will develope a capability to significantly improve the RF performance and integration density of silicon based circuitry. This plan will optimize the substrate of the silicon circuitry to provide the isolation and an efficient thermal path, thereby eliminating the substrate issues of bulk silicon and SOI processes.

Adesto Technologies
1225 Innsbruck Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 271-5525
Shane Hollmer
DARPA 08-045      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Innovative Approaches to Low Power, Sub-Threshold Electronic Circuits
Abstract:An emerging class of ultra-low-power applications could have great benefit to the DoD (e.g. wireless sensor nodes, RFIDs, hybrid insects, etc.). Proposed designs of these ULP systems use low voltage sub-threshold operation to reduce energy per operation, but their lifetimes are limited by standby leakage power that is unavoidable when storing data in CMOS memories like SRAM. Integrating a low energy, low voltage, low overhead nonvolatile memory with sub-threshold circuits would greatly improve the flexibility and lifetimes of DoD specific ULP applications. Current nonvolatile memory (NVM) solutions require voltages well in excess of 5V and energy in excess of 5nJ, making them unsuitable for ULP applications. Adesto Technologies has demonstrated a memory cell technology that will be the foundation of an ultra low power nonvolatile memory solution capable of sub 1V with energy per access less than 5pJ, resulting in a 1000x reduction in operational energy. Since the core NVM cell technology is in place, key requirements to realize such ultra low power NVM solutions are appropriate low power circuits and architectures. Phase I funding from SBIR (DARPA 08-045) will allow us to develop ultra low power circuits and architectures for applying our memory technology to ULP sub- threshold applications.

Camgian Microsystems Corporation
2500 Maitland Center Parkway Suite 203
Maitland, FL 32751
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 660-9900
John Filion
DARPA 08-045      Awarded: 3/9/2009
Title:Innovative Approaches to Low Power, Sub-Threshold Electronic Circuits
Abstract:This program will develop a revolutionary, ultra low power System-on-a-Chip (SoC) technology that will enable >10x improvements in size and endurance over current generation microsystems such as unattended ground sensing (UGS) systems, micro- UAVs, micro satellites, body worn electronics, etc. This will be achieved through the integration of advanced energy efficient circuit designs that enable the power consumption of the chip to be dynamically matched to the performance needs of the systems. While the technical approaches to intelligent, adaptive, ultra-low power architectures will be generic and broadly applicable to DoD systems specific hardware implementations will be delivered as proof-of-principle prototypes. These will be based on the digital processing “brain” of a microbolometer IR camera system, which is used in all of the above microsystem applications. The focus of this program is on the digital processing of the architecture. The goal is to synergistically integrate into an SoC the low power enabling capabilities of: • Subthreshold transistor operation. • Clockless self timed logic circuits. • Dynamically controlled power supply voltages determined by the data rate. Codetronix will support Camgian in this effort with their Mobius design specification and implementation tool.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Todd Grimes
DARPA 08-045      Awarded: 4/9/2009
Title:Innovative Approaches to Low Power, Sub-Threshold Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Recently, the DoD has become interested in technologies that can maximize processing energy efficiency and power savings, while maintaining reasonable performance. It particular, sub-threshold digital circuit operation is of the up-most interest for ultra-low power (ULP) military processing systems. In Phase I, a generic ULP field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture capable of both sub-threshold and super-threshold operation will be developed. In sub-threshold mode, VDD is set less than VT, resulting in circuit which operates at a lower frequency with dramatic power savings. Super- threshold mode refers to the normal operating mode which provides higher performance during burst modes. As an innovative approach to meet the requirements of this solicitation, we are planning to design, simulate, fabricate, and characterize a general ULP FPGA device by the end of Phase II. This device will have the ability to dynamically switch between sub-threshold and super-threshold modes of operation depending the required device functionality, performance, and power. This technology will provide “added value” for various military and commercial applications.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
16115 SW 117th Ave. A-15
Miami, FL 33177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 235-6928
Jame Yang
DARPA 08-046      Awarded: 1/5/2009
Title:Compact Instant Multi-Spectral Imager
Abstract:Multispectral/hyperspectral imaging is a technique that acquires and analyzes both spectral and spatial information. It provides the potential for more accurate and detailed information extraction than possible with those conventional imaging techniques. Spectral imaging sensors have applications in various military and commercial fields including spectral discrimination target identification, camouflage detection, environmental monitoring, etc. Thus far, some prototype spectral imaging systems have been produced, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Especially, the volume and weight of these systems are too large to be portable. There is a demand to develop the optical train for a multispectral imager based on micro-optical elements that is ultra-compact compared to similar current optical systems. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein an innovative optical architecture that can realize a compact multispectral imager. It can present spectral images of all desired bands instantly. Task dependent spectral bands selection will achieve optimal target discrimination. There is a potential to realize a dynamically reconfigurable spectral imager based on the proposed scheme. Phase I will conduct technical analysis and design, and construct a preliminary bench top experimental setup to demonstrate critical components technologies and the feasibility of the proposed concept. Phase II will fabricate a working sensor prototype.

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Shean McMahon
DARPA 08-046      Awarded: 4/6/2009
Title:Compound Eye Spectral Imager
Abstract:To address DARPA's need for a handheld compact optical camera for multispectral imaging, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Compound Eye Spectral Imager (CESI) based on compound eye optics innovatively implemented using holographic filters to provide a high spectral resolution multi-spectral micro-optic imager. This system is based on the integration of a micro-lens array, holographic multi-band filters and conventional CMOS sensors into one 3 cubic millimeter ultra-thin, wide-angle field-of-view (>45 degrees) multispectral camera. This innovative design results in a significantly lighter (<0.5 lbs), durable optical system, suitable for use in Army UGVs. Advanced processing software provides enhanced capabilities for ground Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of CESI by assembling and testing a TRL 4 prototype ultra-thin imaging module, which will operate in the visible and near-infrared wavelength window range of 400- 1000 nm. In Phase II, POC plans to refine the CESI technology and to develop a TRL 5-6 system with increased FOV, suitable for U.S. Army field testing.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
James Murguia
DARPA 08-046      Awarded: 1/6/2009
Title:Compact Multi-Spectral Real Time Imager
Abstract:Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) is pleased to propose a Phase I SBIR program to develop a unique multi-spectral imaging sensor prototype The proposed spectral sensor will be lightweight, portable, low-power and rugged with simultaneous imaging of all the spatially registered spectral bands. The optical system which is less than 1 cubic centimeter in volume will provide a sensor field of view of approximately 30° and cover a spectral range between 400-1000nm. The system will operate at video rates, weigh approximately one pound and dissipate approximately 10 watts.

Wavefront Research, Inc.
616 West Broad Street
Bethlehem, PA 18018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 974-8977
Thomas Mitchell
DARPA 08-046      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:Ultra-Compact Snapshot Multi-Spectral Sensor For Real-Time Target Discrimination
Abstract:Technical Abstract The primary goals of this Phase I effort are to investigate, develop, and characterize a class of ultra-compact snapshot hyper/multi-spectral imaging sensors enabled by an optically fast innovative design form and a specialized filter technology that are suitable for use in real-time target detection, tracking and identification. The optical properties of these systems, including light gathering capability, spectral and spatial resolutions, optical distortion, and other system parameters will be modeled and characterized, and a feasibility demonstration system will be fabricated to prove the capability of this technology to meet the technical requirements. It is a further goal to identify a set of desired performance specifications for the Phase II prototype sensor and to investigate appropriate detector/electronics packages, algorithm and data processing hardware, and user interface and display technologies to provide the required high speed data acquisition.

Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Khoa Le
DARPA 08-047      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Ultra-low noise, wide bandwidth constant current sources for driving laser diode arrays
Abstract:Our proposed design offers innovative concepts for the design and development of the low noise switching power supply and constant current source driver with protection circuitries that are more efficient and several times more powerful than the current generation deployed in recent systems

Daylight Solutions
13029 Danielson Street Suite 130
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 391-1010
Timothy Day
DARPA 08-048      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Multi-Watt Mid-IR Laser Module with Near-Diffraction Limited Output
Abstract:High power IR lasers are highly useful for DOD applications such as remote chemical sensing, infrared countermeasures, and LADAR. Daylight Solutions proposes to build a prototype system for quantum cascade laser (QCL) beam combining having an output power > 1W and a beam divergence less than twice the diffraction limit. The Phase I prototype will consist of three external cavity QCLs, integrated with a novel high- efficiency beam combiner. This technique, called wavelength beam combining, has found great success in the visible and near-infrared range, and should naturally extend to the mid-infrared regime. This approach eliminates thermal crosstalk while maintaining high power and excellent beam quality. It also allows for optimum propagation through the atmosphere. Since each laser wavelength is controlled by its own external grating, several atmospheric absorption peaks may be avoided by careful selection of individual wavelengths. Phase I will tackle the combination of three lasers. Phase II will handle scaling this up to approximately 10 lasers to achieve > 5W output powers.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Shilpa Pradhan
DARPA 08-048      Awarded: 4/15/2009
Title:High Power Quantum Cascade Laser Array (HPQCLA)
Abstract:To address the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) need for power scaling of quantum cascade laser, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new high power quantum cascade laser array (HPQCLA), based on coherently combining the laser beams of all individual quantum cascade laser (QCL) via mutual injection locking (MIL). The innovative use of multiplexed Bragg grating for locking wavelength of laser array and the novel use of MIL to produce coherently combined high power laser beams will enable the power scaling of QCL without degrading beam quality. In Phase I, POC will conduct feasibility study to demonstrate a baseline electrically pumped QCL with a wavelength range of 3-5 micron or 8 12 micron that emits an average power of 200 mW at a TE- cooler temperature and wall plug efficiency of at least 4%. POC will develop a comprehensive plan along with modeling for combining the output power of multiple emitters scalable to >1 W while maintaining a beam divergence <2 times the diffraction limit. In Phase II, POC plans to demonstrate experimental phase combination of multiple emitters to generate a total power level >5 W with the same divergence.

Pranalytica, Inc.
1101 Colorado Avenue
Santa Monica, CA 90401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 458-0080
C. Patel
DARPA 08-048      Awarded: 1/22/2009
Title:Beam Combining For High Power Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays
Abstract:High-power quantum cascade laser (QCL) arrays emitting in the mid and long-wave infrared atmospheric windows (3 to 5 μm and 8 to 12 μm, respectively) with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality will be of immediate use to several military applications, including infrared countermeasures (IRCMs) and laser radar (LADAR), and to several civilian applications such as free space optical communications. The performances of today’s state-of-the-art QCL already allow the realization of multiwatt arrays. We propose to develop application-ready high power QCL arrays to fulfill this market need. In phase I, we will evaluate three different techniques for beam combining of QCL arrays: external cavity spectral beam combining (SBC), monolithic phased-locked ‘tree’ arrays, and monolithic phased-locked antiguide arrays. SBC has been applied very successfully to diode laser arrays and our preliminary analysis shows that it is also compatible with QCLs. Its only drawback is the use of external optical elements. For this reason we will also investigate monolithic phased-locked arrays. Previous work on diode laser arrays has shown that robust phase-locking requires parallel coupling of the array elements. We will evaluate two schemes that provide such coupling: Y-junctions coupled tree arrays and leaky-wave coupled antiguide arrays.

Kyma Technologies, Inc.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Tanya Paskova
DARPA 08-049      Awarded: 4/29/2009
Title:Electrically-Pumped III-Nitride Intersubband lasers
Abstract:Kyma Technologies together with the two subcontractors at Princeton University and Lehigh University aim to develop III-Nitride QCL at near 1.55 ”m based on native GaN substrates and strain-compensation heterostructures engineering. We intent to employ new approaches, aiming to overcome the challenges in realization intersubband emission in III-Nitride structures. High quality native GaN substrates with low dislocation density with both polar and nonpolar surface orientations will be considered. Optimization of surface polishing and surface off-cut orientation are expected to enhance the structural quality and interface smoothness of the device structures. In Phase I proposal we will design (Al,Ga)N/GaN device structures accounting for or excluding the polarization fields in the devices grown along polar or nonpolar directions, respectively. Also, design of strain-free AlInGaN/GaN device structure will be elaborated and analysis of limiting theoretical factors will be performed. Epitaxial growth of (Al,Ga)N/GaN MQW structures grown by MOCVD on bulk GaN substrates is intended with a demonstration of intersubband absorption at near 1.55 ”m. We will characterize the structures and will analyze the limiting experimental factors involved in producing intersubband transitions. It will allow us to estimate the best approach towards realization of intersubband laser at 1.55 ”m intended for Phase II program.

MP Technologies, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7208
Ryan McClintock
DARPA 08-049      Awarded: 3/30/2009
Title:Electrically-Pumped III-Nitride Intersubband lasers
Abstract:The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential for the realization of III-Nitride based intersubband quantum cascade lasers operating at near room temperature. III-Nitrides have a large band gap and band offset that make then well suited to the realization of short wavelength (1.55 mm) telecommunications lasers. However, in addition to the large band offset that makes short wavelengths possible, III- Nitrides are also characterized by a very large phonon energy (90-meV). This makes them ideally suited to the realization of near room temperature operating THz lasers. The goal is to target this THz wavelength, with device design pursuing emission in the 30 - 300 ”m range (approximately 10 to 1 THz). This group has already demonstrated itself in the areas of III-Nitride inter-band devices and InP-based intersubband based quantum cascade lasers. The plan is to leverage these two areas of expertise to demonstrate the potential to realize effective THz lasers operating at near room temperature. This will lay the ground work for the realization of a room temperature electrical injection THz quantum cascade laser in Phase II of the project.

EMAG Technologies, Inc.
775 Technology Dr. Suite 300
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 996-3624
Jack Thiesen
DARPA 08-050      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Coherently Synchronized Distributed Signal Generation
Abstract:EMAG Technologies is proposing to develop a hierarchical, heterodyne, salphasic clock distribution network for the purposes of synchronizing spatially distributed independent oscillators. A low-cost, precise, clock distribution architecture such as the one we are proposing can be used to synchronize hundreds to thousands of distributed processors, radios, or data samplers with sub-picosecond accuracy. This network utilizes a highly resonant design to minimize loss and reduce jitter. The proposed network is targeted to have less than 400 femtoseconds of synchronization jitter over 1m. This clock distribution network is fabricated using standard PCB processes and commercial-off-the-shelf components and therefore can be extremely affordable and easy to integrate.

Nu-Trek
17150 Via Del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-0620
Rob Gregoire
DARPA 08-050      Awarded: 2/18/2009
Title:Coherently Synchronized Distributed Signal Generation
Abstract:Nu-Trek and Raytheon will develop a Clock Delay Adjust ASIC with a revolutionary digital phase adjust architecture. ASIC will include clock generation at frequencies > 20 GHz; sub-ps synchronization over distances up to 1 m; better than -90 dBc/Hz phase noise at a 100 kHz offset; correction of up to 50 ps of skew; for systems with up to thousands of channels. Key innovation includes: (1) Revolutionary digital phase-adjust architecture based on Linder cells. (2) Self-corrects for aging, temperature, and mechanical stress. Feedback circuitry provides the phase drift information to the Linder cell, which re- synchronizes the channels. (3) Large number of distributed, low phase noise, clock paths are implemented on the same integrated circuit as the digital delay adjustment electronics. (4) Each channel is calibrated individually, including per/channel propagation delay compensation. In Phase I we will simulate the Linder cell, phase detector, charge pump, and loop filter and demonstrate the feasibility of digitally adjusting the phase delay of very high speed (20 GHz), very low phase noise clocks. ASIC will revolutionize the size, weight, and cost of the antenna array electronics and is directly applicable to a number of DARPA programs including ISAT and ISIS.

Agile RF, Inc.
93 Castilian Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-5159
Albert Cardona
DARPA 08-051      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Efficient Small Antennas
Abstract:As antennas decrease in size their efficiency and bandwidth decrease. In order to improve the efficiency and frequency coverage of small antennas one must find a way to improve upon the Chu limit. Agile's proven approach is to use tunability to improve the Chu limit thereby allowing a small antenna to be tuned over broad frequency ranges by using tunable and reactive elements in the matching circuits. This technique has been demonstrated to greatly enhance the size and performance of handset antennas.

Eureka Aerospace
3452 East Foothill Blvd, Suite 340
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 844-6664
John McVay
DARPA 08-051      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Efficient Small Antennas
Abstract:An efficient and electrically small antenna element is proposed. The proposed space-filling curve (SFC) top-loaded antenna provides a relatively large bandwidth, comparable to a standard Œ wavelength monopole within just a fraction of the total height. This class of electrically small antenna systems can be reconfigured to operate within different modes including separate and distinct frequency bands, single and stable broad bands as well as with different polarizations, depending upon the configuration. The relatively high gain is maintained in a stable pattern throughout the bandwidth and unlike many top-loaded monopoles, the SFC antenna requires no external matching network. With high efficiency and very compact size, these antennas are ideal for applications where a low-visible antenna signature is required without the sacrifice of antenna performance. The SFC antenna designs have several scalable factors which allow for specific antenna designs to be custom tailored as needed. When utilized with PIN diode switches, it may be possible to reconfigure the antenna element “on-the-fly” through the use of DC-biasing.

First RF Corporation
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Farzin Lalezari
DARPA 08-051      Awarded: 4/7/2009
Title:Efficient Small Antennas
Abstract:Existing antennas are deficient in several areas. Lightweight passive antennas often suffer low efficiency performance if the size is reduced below a substantial fraction of the operating wavelength. Antennas loaded with material are heavier, higher cost, and also suffer efficiency losses. Finally, active tuning for broad bandwidth raises the cost and can limit the capability of the communications in waveform and frequency hopping. The goal of this effort is to improve functionality of 30MHz-2GHz antennas by combining more functionality into a single reduced-size aperture, while maintaining the performance of the existing larger apertures. This is accomplished by a novel and critical enabling technology developed at FIRST RF based on the volumetric reuse of orthogonal antenna elements and taking advantage of new metamaterials such as magnetodielectric that have improved loss tangents at VHF and UHF frequencies over the past several years. FIRST RF will employ this key enabling technology, combined with novel radiator shapes and designs to achieve DARPA’s stated goals. FIRST RF will demonstrate a 10:1 reduction in height of typical cavity backed electrically small VHF and UHF antennas while still maintain acceptable gains and broadband performance for communications and EW applications.

HyPerComp, Inc.
2629 Townsgate Road Suite 105
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 371-7556
Vijaya Shankar
DARPA 08-051      Awarded: 4/23/2009
Title:Efficient Small Antennas
Abstract:We propose here a systematic approach to designing efficient small antennas by applying innovative non-Foster matching techniques to candidate low-profile, conformal, wideband concepts in current vogue. The Phase-I project will be based exclusively on numerical analysis, spanning as wide a design space as possible, to provide a shortlist of the most promising design concepts which can be made small and unobtrusive. The performance of these designs will be judged based upon their radiation efficiency, gain- bandwidth and volume in both transmit and receive modes of operation. Comparisons with conventional small antenna concepts will be made, and potential gains will be assessed. Upon selecting the most promising baseline design for the radiating element as well as the non-Foster circuit, we seek to optimize the design and demonstrate its viability in a potential second phase of this project. This project will be a collaborative effort between HyPerComp Inc., and HRL Laboratories, LLC (Malibu, CA). HyPerComp has an extensive track record and pioneering contributions in the area of computational electromagnetics with applications to many key areas in the aerospace industry. HRL has an active interest in non-Foster matching circuits and is one of the industry leaders in antenna research and development worldwide.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4241
Chieh-Ping Lai
DARPA 08-051      Awarded: 4/3/2009
Title:Ultra-Compact Highly Efficient Wideband Antenna Using Time-Varying Matching Network
Abstract:The proposed efficient small loop antenna takes advantage of a novel antenna design concept of time-varying matching network that can be used to develop compact antennas with extremely wide bandwidths. The newly developed antenna has advantages of 1) At its lowest frequency of operation, a coupled sectorial loop antenna can be designed to have maximum dimensions of 0.1ë or smaller in range of 20-60 MHz; 2) Exhibit a 10X improvement in bandwidth of the transmitted or received signals compared to existing loop antennas of the same size; 3) Exhibit a 5-10X improvement of radiation efficiency compared to conventional existing loop antennas of the same size. The overall bandwidth–radiation efficiency product for the envisioned loop antennas will be improved by over 50-100X. An adaptive time-domain feeding scheme is utilized to improve the impedance matching of the antenna, which has the ability to store the incoming energy and release it back to the load in a way that ensures that a very high percent of the incoming energy is delivered to the load effectively, and hence improve the antenna efficiency without increasing its occupied area. The final result will be an ultra-compact low-profile antenna with ultra-broadband impedance bandwidth, highly efficiency, omni- directional radiation patterns across the frequency of operation, and moderate power handling capability.

Pharad LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive, Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 590-3333
Rod Waterhouse
DARPA 08-051      Awarded: 3/6/2009
Title:Efficient Small Antennas
Abstract:In this Phase I project Pharad proposes to investigate innovative new concepts for the creation of highly efficient electrically small antennas. We will investigate two key approaches: electrically small radiators that incorporate Slow Wave Engineering (SWE) concepts and efficient antenna matching configurations that utilize active components. Using these approaches will enable us to achieve the goals of this program and also establish potential limitations of the techniques. The techniques that will be investigated and demonstrated include new SWE-based printed antennas with significant size reduction; non-Foster based matching circuits for the small antenna; and switchable matching circuits for the small antenna. As part of our Phase I effort, the overall efficiency of using these active matching procedures will also be investigated. During this Phase I project we will undertake a thorough theoretical investigation of the proposed antenna and matching configurations, including modeling and optimization of the electromagnetic and circuit performance using our comprehensive suite of design tools, and the establishment of generic design trends for the structures. We will also fabricate proof-of-concept versions of the structures where appropriate. We will undertake measurements of the proposed prototype structures in order to verify their performance.

SI2 Technologies
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5300
Patanjali Parimi
DARPA 08-051      Awarded: 5/7/2009
Title:Miniature Efficient Metamaterial Antenna (1000-102)
Abstract:SI2 proposes to apply its metamaterial and antenna systems expertise to design and build an efficient miniature antenna system that performs close to the theoretically limits of gain and efficiency for a small antenna. The low-profile antenna system can be mounted on a number of platforms as the loading effects of mounting are mitigated due to the proposed novel approach. Our approach also includes an intelligent impedance matching network which provides efficient broadband performance for the antenna. In Phase I, SI2 will design the miniature antenna system and simulate its performance using state of the art FEM and FDTD simulation tools. SI2 will work closely with several prime contractors to ensure that the antenna system developed can be employed on DoD platforms. In the follow-on Phase II program, SI2 will refine the design and manufacture a full scale miniature wideband conformal antenna system prototype. The prototype will be tested and its performance evaluated when mounted on several different types of structures.

Cermet, Inc.
1019 Collier Road Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Jeff Nause
DARPA 08-052      Awarded: 1/29/2009
Title:Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) Solar Cell
Abstract:This phase I development will provide a low defect InGaN p-n junction tuned to 2.6 eV. The characteristics of the junction will be high electron and hole concentrations, low defect density and no phase separation in the InGaN. This will be accomplished using a revolutionary epitaxial technique, combined with lattice-matched substrates and state of the art device fabrication.

Illinois Applied Research Associates LLC
21W625 Huntington Rd
Glen Ellyn, IL 60137
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 379-6175
Ryan Ahern
DARPA 08-052      Awarded: 4/9/2009
Title:Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) Solar Cell
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project, under topic DARPA 08-052, is directed toward design, epitaxial growth , fabrication and characterization of InGaN solar cells. InGaN thin films grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) will be used to fabricate photonic crystal based high efficiency solar cells. Much more efficient solar cells are possible as a result of photonic crystals that more efficiently capture and use light. InGaN, with varying In composition,can cover more than 60% of the solar spectrum. With such extensive absorption in the infrared, visible and near UV, InGaN is a perfect candidate for fabricating high performance solar cells for commercial applications. The innovation in this project is derived from the fact that the proposed combination of high quality MBE grown InGaN and photonic crystals are expected to provide higher efficiency solar cells. The Phase I will have three primary objectives – (i) MBE growth of high quality InGaN with lower cut off around 2eV; (ii) Design & fabrication of 2D photonic crystals with InGaN thin films; and (iii) design a preliminary InGaN photonic crystal based solar cell. The groups, Illinois Applied Research Associates (IARA) Inc. and University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, have complimentary expertise on device design ( IARA Inc. ) , materials growth (Notre Dame), Fabrication & Characterization (IARA Inc.). University of Notre Dame will grow InGaN thin films by MBE and IARA will focus on device/photonic crystal design and fabrication. Characterization will also be done by IARA. University of Notre Dame will also participate in basic materials and optical characterization of InGaN thin films

Integrated Micro Sensors, Inc.
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 748-7926
Chris Boney
DARPA 08-052      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:High Bandgap InGaN Solar Cell
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate InGaN materials of high quality appropriate for single junction solar cells for DOD terrestrial power generation. A single junction InGaN cell with a bandgap between 2.4 and 2.8 eV combined with silicon or other solar cell technology in a multi-junction device could provide power conversion efficiency exceeding 40%. In order to do so, the InGaN material must have suitable doping levels and good transparency to sub-bandgap light. In this project, we investigate the feasibility of high bandgap InGaN solar cell by demonstrating the materials growth, documenting the material properties, and modeling the design for a prototype solar cell.

Magnolia Optical Technologies,Inc.
52-B Cummings Park Suite 314
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 503-1200
Ashok Sood
DARPA 08-052      Awarded: 4/9/2009
Title:High Efficiency InN-Based Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Abstract:The goal of the Proposed Phase I Program is to employ Nanostructured nitride based materials in an advanced device design to enhance the tolerance of solar cells to extreme environments while maintaining high solar electric power conversion efficiency. By using InN-based quantum dots embedded within a higher band gap GaN barrier material, a larger fraction of the solar spectrum can be harnessed while minimizing the effects of high temperatures with this promising photovoltaic device. The wide range of energies accessible to InN-based materials provides unique flexibility in designing quantum dot solar cell structures. Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of synthesizing device quality InN-based quantum dots. InN quantum dot assemblies will be grown on GaN templates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). More importantly, strong room temperature photoluminescence has been observed, with peak emission energies ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet. These promising optical properties suggest it will be possible to build structures incorporating InN quantum dots within a GaN p-n junction to use the basic concepts of quantum dot solar cells during the Phase I effort. Ultimately our approach provides a pathway for realizing solar cells with over 2,000 W/kg of specific power and power conversion efficiency approaching 60%.

4Wave, Inc.
22660 Execute Drive Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-9283
David Baldwin
DARPA 08-053      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Low-cost device relevant Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) or Alternatives
Abstract:The project aims to grow device-quality InxGa1-xN, an important semiconductor because the band gap can be shifted widely by varying x, using a new form of plasma sputtering, Biased-Target Deposition (BTD). The major objectives are to grow x > 0.05 material on sapphire at 600-800°C (standard) and 300-500°C (beneficially reduced) temperatures, and to characterize material quality via X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence seeking defined criteria. BTD uses a separate plasma source to provide ions for sputtering, so low bias voltages on the targets produce unprecedented (for sputtering) low and controllable kinetic energies of arriving In, Ga and N atoms at the growing InGaN surface. The hypothesis will be tested that slightly elevated particle energies might replace the atom mobility effects of heating and allow growth at lower temperature, which would solve a well-known phase segregation problem in InxGa1-xN as x is increased. Techniques within BTD give an aggressive nitriding environment, starting from inert N2, so InGaN is grown by co-sputtering from separate In and Ga metal sputter targets, the Ga target being a molten pool.

Kyma Technologies, Inc.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Drew Hanser
DARPA 08-053      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:HVPE-grown InGaN Materials for Aggressive Cost Reduction of Solid State Lighting Technologies
Abstract:Kyma Technologies will develop InGaN growth technologies using the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) process, and will combine this with a proven GaN epitaxial growth technology to enable aggressive cost reduction for InGaN-based devices. This approach will enable a reduction in the required MOCVD growth steps in the fabrication of LEDs for solid state lighting, leading to a significant reduction in the costs of epitaxy of the LED device structure. In Phase I, Kyma will demonstrate high quality InGaN-based epitaxial layers via HVPE using a novel HVPE growth platform.

Structured Materials Industries
201 Circle Drive North Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Nick Sbrockey
DARPA 08-053      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Low Cost InGaN Device Production and HOVPE Tool
Abstract:In this SBIR effort, Structured Materials Industries, Inc. www.structuredmaterials.com (SMI) will develop a low-cost production technology, and the commercial tool set, for low cost InGaN devices production. InGaN and the related group III-Nitride semiconductors are important for a range of electronic device applications, spanning LED's, photovoltaics, detectors, and high speed / high power devices. Present production technologies such as MOCVD and MBE are too slow and too expensive for commercial production of all but the most high-end products. This project will develop a scalable production HVPE/OMVPE hybrid tool for InGaN and related materials, capable of low cost and high volume device production. In Phase I, we will demonstrate technical feasibility of the HVPE/OMVPE hybrid concept. In Phase II, we will reduce the concept to practice and build a prototype HVPE/OMVPE hybrid reactor. We will also demonstrate the capabilities in Phase II, by producing InGaN based devices – nominally a photovoltaic and a quantum well LED.

Energy Focus, Inc
32000 Aurora Road
Solon, OH 44139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 715-1251
Roger Buelow
DARPA 08-054      Awarded: 3/5/2009
Title:Explosion-Proof Solid State Lighting Fixture for Extreme Environments
Abstract:The project will develop a solid-state alternative to the inefficient, excessively hot and maintenance-intensive incandescent explosion-proof lighting fixtures used by the Navy. Solid-State Lighting using Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) is now technically feasible but several difficult challenges remain to be overcome in order to deploy them in certain Navy applications. To achieve the long lifetimes promised by LED lighting (around 5-10 years of continuous lighting operation) special electronic control and protection systems must be developed. These control systems must be able to protect the LEDs from thermal damage while still meeting the stringent requirements for shipboard interface electronics. The LED lighting must also be able to operate reliably with dimming power systems. Most LED lighting systems today are not compatible with shipboard dimming power controls which constitutes an important energy saving technique. The cost proposal associated with this work is included as the last page of the technical proposal.

InnoSys, Inc.
3622 West 1820 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 975-7399
Larry Sadwick
DARPA 08-054      Awarded: 4/9/2009
Title:Explosion-Proof Solid State Lighting Fixture for Extreme Environments
Abstract:Efficient shipboard naval lighting is important for numerous reasons. There is also a need for efficient explosion-proof lighting coupled with reliable dimmable driver electronics for shipboard naval environments. Important considerations for such an efficient and dimmable light include ensuring long service life and the ability to withstand high- temperature operation under consistently high levels of continuous mechanical shock and vibration. Certain types of lighting aboard Naval vessels, an example being the Symbol 48.2 incandescent lamp fixture, are required to operate continuously in high temperature, high vibration environments in the presence of inflammable vapors. The extreme operating environment causes the lamps in these fixtures to fail frequently resulting in high maintenance costs. To address the issues with conventional incandescent lights, we propose to develop ultrahigh reliability, truly dimmable, ultra-compact, long life solid state lighting (SSL) light emitting diode (LED) driver electronics that shall be capable of long-lived operation under such high temperature, high vibration, inflammable vapors and harsh condition environment. We will also employ and further develop current advances in SSL components and systems including heat transfer and thermal management together with the use of advanced coupling and luminaire optics to offer a robust, reliable and dimmable product replacement to current fixtures.

L. C. Doane
110 Pond Meadow Rd
Ivoryton, CT 06442
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 767-8295
Ira Baskin
DARPA 08-054      Awarded: 8/6/2009
Title:Explosion-Proof Solid State Lighting Fixture for Extreme Environments
Abstract:the l. c. doane company will leverage it's 10 years of design and manufacturing experience with LEDs to provide a design which will meet or exceed the requirements of the legacy mil-spec light fixture.

Space Hardware Optimization Technology,
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Nathan Thomas
DARPA 08-054      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:Explosion-Proof Solid State Lighting Fixture for Extreme Environments
Abstract:The SHOT Explosion Proof Solid State Lighting Fixture (EPSSLF) is the "next generation" explosion proof fixture incorporating state-of-the-art, high output LED's. A properly sized LED light grid and associated power controller card will guarantee a long, maintenance free life at least 50 times longer than the current incandescent lamp. The SHOT system takes advantage of the currently approved for use Symbol 48.2 fixture housing. This cast aluminum housing is an excellent heat sink capable of wicking away a significant amount of LED junction heat through convection and conduction. What's significant is the modifications to the housing can be performed with little impact to the current explosion proof configuration the Symbol 48.2 is widely know for and with the inclusion of the SHOT LED system, an unbeatable combination capable of surviving the harshest of environments will be formed. The SHOT EPSSLF will be a cost effective replacement savings thousands of dollars annually across the DOD.

TeKnowLogica
1001 Bridgeway #729
Sausalito, CA 94965
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 310-8866
Robert McCullough
DARPA 08-054      Awarded: 5/20/2009
Title:Explosion-Proof Solid State Lighting Fixture for Extreme Environments
Abstract:We propose to develop a replacement lamp for the Symbol 48.2 fixture in wide use in the Navy. This lamp will have full explosion proof capabilities and be able to withstand the harsh environmental conditions of heat, shock, vibration and electrical interference. It will operate with existing controls including all dimmer circuits.

Biz Research Inc.
9117 Molly Ln Suite 111
Anacortes, WA 98221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 299-2915
Roy Martin
DARPA 08-055      Awarded: 6/2/2009
Title:A Spectrally Dynamic Berth Light for Active Circadian Cycle Management
Abstract:Navy and other armed service personnel frequently encounter environmental conditions that upset the natural circadian rhythm and would profit from a light that offers corrective management. The feasibility of a new berth light will be studied. It will meet the standard requirements but also have spectral, timed, controlled and intense enough light to affect the human circadian system. The advantages of solid state light emitting diodes will be utilized. Built in controls will provide ease in implementing fixed time exposures of bright light and/or “dawn simulation” (i.e. a gradual increase in light prior to waking). These exposures have shown efficacy in circadian modification. Special attention will be paid to the potential use of blue light because of its dominant circadian affect. However, if excessive - it could pose a potential eye hazard, so it will be carefully considered. We will also analyze the alternate use of green light. Tests will be conducted on assembled light configurations to identify their illumination patterns and intensities. The exposures to subjects will be predicted. Thermal management effectiveness will be determined. Results will clarify feasibility and provide information for building prototypes in Phase II.

Concentris Systems LLC
2800 Woodlawn Drive Suite 238
Honolulu, HI 96822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 781-2003
Tareq Hoque
DARPA 08-055      Awarded: 5/12/2009
Title:A Spectrally Dynamic Berth Light for Active Circadian Cycle Management
Abstract:This three-phase SBIR project will develop an actively managed circadian rhythm berth- light fixture that meets the stringent requirements of the Navy for shipboard replacement of conventional fluorescent fixtures. The fixture will combine high-efficiency solid-state lighting (SSL) and an intuitive user interface that guides the user in the timed application of blue light to self-manage sleep cycles. The electronic design will leverage commercially available components to achieve cost-efficiencies, and will be flexible and upgradeable to support additional features such as central control. SSL-based lighting will also benefit the Navy with improved reliability and endurance and by reducing the total life-cycle cost of berth lighting.

Energy Focus, Inc
32000 Aurora Road
Solon, OH 44139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 715-1251
Roger Buelow
DARPA 08-055      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:A Spectrally Dynamic Berth Light for Active Circadian Cycle Management
Abstract:Energy Focus has envisioned a Generation 2 berth light LED system that incorporates an illumination spectrum consistent with the latest research in spectrally tuned adjustment and resetting of circadian rhythms. Research shows that the human eye contains specialized receptors for 420nm-560nm light which signal the body to suppress melatonin production. In the absence of this light, the body is signaled to produce melatonin, promoting sleep. The Generation 1 SSL berth light design will be exploited to provide a device with enhanced illumination options. During this project, spectra will be identified for general illumination and circadian modification along with the identification of the proper timing required for circadian modification. The target illumination patterns will be developed based on current Mil Specifications and the optical system. The updated berth light will be further refined using computer modeling. A prominent feature of this next generation system will be simple controls accessible to the user. The controls will allow the user to set the system to correspond with their individual sleep-wake requirements. Effort will also be directed to developing SSL driver specifications. The cost proposal associated with this work is included as the last page of the technical proposal.

Intelligent Payload Solutions
1915 Jamboree Drive, Suite 125
Colorado Springs, CO 80920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 260-7838
Christopher Franz
DARPA 08-055      Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title:Spectrally-Tunable Light Engine for Enhanced Performance (SLEEP)
Abstract:The IPS Team has substantial expertise in all the required technical disciplines, plus the vital systems engineering and production experience to deliver a usable programmable spectrum lighting system and plan several demonstration models in Phase I. We have designated this program the Spectrally-Tunable Light Engine for Enhanced Performance (SLEEP), both for the memorable acronym and to remind us of the true intent of the device – to enable shift-type workers to improve their sleep and wakeful performance. Designing this device relies upon our Team’s real-world knowledge of and experience with sensors, optics, image processing, displays, human factors, and manufacturing. The IPS Team possesses these capabilities. Today, the IPS Team develops, builds, and maintains numerous imaging and illumination devices for military and commercial operators. To design these products, one must conduct comprehensive concept development, research, and trade studies to make certain the system meets customer requirements prior to fabrication. Our Team will repeat these proven processes for the SLEEP program.

Kent Optronics, Inc
40 Corporate Park Drive
Hopewell Junction, NY 12533
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 897-0138
Hong Wei
DARPA 08-055      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Multifunctional and Spectrally Dynamic Berth Light for Navy Shipboard Use
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal introduces a medical/clinical research and product development program toward a spectrally dynamic berth light system that will provide, in addition to general lighting, effective resetting of the human body clock for a wide range of naval environments, where the circadian rhythm is frequently disrupted and high levels of vigilance are required. The berth light system rests on the existing berth light fixture currently in Navy shipboard, in which the original fluorescent tube is replaced with the specially designed LED tube that consists of an array of blue and KOI modified white LED elements together with the control electronics. The clinically proved light treatment protocols will also be pre-loaded into the system. The best general lighting from the white LED is achieved by material engineering on the white LED elements. In Phase I, a demo berth lighting fixture will be developed with proved functions of general lighting and circadian rhythm management based on the clinical research input. Phase II program and beyond develops and tests the prototype berth light system followed by the product commercialization.

Trout Green Technologies, Incorporated
13581 Pond Springs Rd #305
Austin, TX 78729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 331-9600
Douglas Michalsky
DARPA 08-055      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:A Spectrally Dynamic Berth Light for Active Circadian Cycle Management
Abstract:We propose to develop an LED-based berth light for circadian regulation specifically designed to support transition from laboratory research through shipboard deployment with minimal alterations. The device will be form factor compatible with MIL-F-16377/17 and electrically compatible with MIL-STD-1399.

Applied Physical Sciences Corp.
475 Bridge Street Suite 100
Groton, CT 06340
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 448-3253
Benjamin Connell
DARPA 08-056      Awarded: 2/20/2009
Title:Mobile Offshore Platform for Wind Turbine Power Generation
Abstract:There is a Department of Defense need for a persistent, mobile power generating capability to service offshore bases and other temporary or mobile installations. In order to facilitate both persistence and mobility, the present concept is of a free floating wind turbine platform, convertible from generating mode to transit mode. Challenges to design of this concept include stability, seakeeping, convertibility, and dynamic positioning. The most significant challenge is to overcome the large aerodynamic drag which is necessarily associated with power extraction from the wind. With conventional thrusters, the power required to overcome the aerodynamic drag is larger than the power generated by the turbine up through moderate wind speeds. Lacking a mooring system to maintain position, alternative concepts to counter the drag must be considered to realize surplus power through a significant range of conditions. The proposed concept seeks to counter aerodynamic turbine drag with passive propulsion, utilizing the motion of the platform response in waves to generate hydrodynamic thrust. Dynamic positioning, required for the platform to maintain station within 25 feet, can include elements of passive propulsion in thrust vectoring to further reduce power consumption.

Exquadrum, Inc
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Kevin Mahaffy
DARPA 08-056      Awarded: 3/9/2009
Title:Platform for Offshore Wind Energy Resources (POWER)
Abstract:The objective of this proposed research effort is to determine the feasibility of an offshore platform that can support a wind turbine and maintain station, without the use of mooring lines. This will be accomplished by conducting a study based on first principles and computational modeling under the umbrella of a disciplined systems engineering process. The project team will conclude by publishing a formal evaluation of the concept, in order to determine if large mobile offshore wind turbines can be used to support future DoD power generation needs.

Nelson Engineering Co.
5335 North Courtenay Parkway
Merritt Island, FL 32953
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 449-1128
Carolyn Seringer
DARPA 08-056      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Mobile Offshore Platform for Wind Turbine Power Generation
Abstract:This project will design a mobile offshore platform (MOP) to support wind powered generators. The platform will maximize platform stability through use of passive means consisting of drift panels and use a multi section platform using rotating and hinged connections between the wind generator platform and floats. The MOP will also include an active positioning system to maintain platform station within a 25’ radius. This systems will include GPS sensors and the control system for platform movement and orientation. The MOP will be scalable.

Adventium Enterprises, LLC
111 Third Ave. S., Suite 100
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 438-2574
Tom Haigh
DARPA 08-058      Awarded: 6/30/2009
Title:AIMFIRST (Automated Intelligent Management For Integrated Strategy and Tactics)
Abstract:Weighted mission-centric correlation of network resources identified by automated mission course-of-action generation, supported by automated identification and mapping of underlying dynamic networks, can map administrative, business, and war fighting needs to key information assets and their underlying infrastructure. We propose to develop the necessary resource correlation engine to demonstrate the feasibility of using existing Adventium network discovery, analysis, and mission course-of-action generation to provide automated end-to-end network-centric mission mapping.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Curt Wu
DARPA 08-058      Awarded: 6/15/2009
Title:Continuously Optimized Markets for Mission Assured Networking with Dynamic Environments and Resources (COMMANDER)
Abstract:The goal of Net-Centric Warfare (NCW) is to provide the warfighter with the right information at the right time. As command and control (C2) doctrine and tactics evolve with NCW at their core, mission critical tasks become increasingly reliant on the integrity and responsiveness of network resources. Adding support for Mission Assured Networking (MAN), the capability to map mission critical tasks to the network’s underlying information systems, would allow the warfighter to quickly understand the impact of a network-related event on the success of a mission or task. To address this challenge, we will adopt a distributed Market-Based Optimization (MBO) approach to support rapid generation of resource-data-task mapping. An optimal equilibrium emerges from the bottom-up decentralized interaction of intelligent agents that represent all of the elements of the operational network. Because of our modular, agent-based approach to domain modeling, our approach easily adapts to evolving and emerging network resources, data types, and task definitions. The market also relies on techniques borrowed from “futures markets” that allow agents to act on predictive information. To support scalability and network optimization, we will distribute optimization across a number of markets deployed at specific “robust” nodes that are stable, accessible, and resource-rich.

Daniel H. Wagner, Associates, Incorporat
40 Lloyd Avenue Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Richard Samms
DARPA 08-058      Awarded: 1/29/2009
Title:Mission Assured Networking (MAN)
Abstract:Daniel H. Wagner proposes to explore and develop the method and the mathematics by which information and networks can be dynamically evaluated to minimize the transmission or display of redundant, low-value data while assuring that high-value information and subsystems are available. To do this, we propose to develop a non- probabilistic measure of value that encompasses all possible aggregates of the data and the semantics of the information in the network. We also propose to develop measures of entropy and channel capacity based on this measure similar to those developed by Claude Shannon. What is unique to our approach are the developments of: 1) the axiomatic properties of such a value function that results in intervals for the data valuation rather than a single value, 2) an approach to assigning/determining the value function for a set of data that is easily modified, augmented and auditable and capable of including consensus, and 3) an update and capacity maximization scheme that is based upon a recognized measure of information.

Vcrsoft LLC
2310 Bamboo Drive STE J303
Arlington, TX 76006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 652-3190
VC Ramesh
DARPA 08-058      Awarded: 1/22/2009
Title:Dynamic Decentralized Resource Allocation for Autonomic MAN
Abstract:Mission assured networking (MAN) is a capability for mapping mission tasks to information technology (IT) resources in a highly dynamic environment where both tasks and resources change rapidly. Autonomic MAN would permit such task-resource allocations to be performed in a bottom-up decentralized manner with limited need for human intervention. Highly granular task priorities should be accommodated. Everything is dynamic and a decentralized collaborative peer-to-peer model is the only way forward in a net-centric warfare environment. We propose a dynamic decentralized resource allocation methodology for creating MAN-enabled systems.

GHKN Engineering, LLC
P.O. Box 2585 16307 NE 83rd Street
Redmond, WA 98073
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 881-3635
Richard Smith
DARPA 08-059      Awarded: 4/29/2009
Title:Continuous Detonation Rocket and Air Breathing Engines
Abstract:This proposal describes an approach to evaluate the continuous detonation phenomenon using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for analyzing the critical factors needed to create a model of the detonation physics in a simulated engine. The work perfomed to define the operating parameters will be conducted using a program called MaxS as the primary tool. This program has been shown to provide the necessary computational capability for time rate calculations with extensive nodes and grid display. An attempt will be made to use the program for finite rate chemistry and it is anticipated that a successful model summary will be possible to obtain during the Phase I program. Comparisons and evaluations of options offered by the results of the work accomplished will be made. Concepts will be reviewed for the design of a working subscale model that could be built and tested during a Phase II program. Subsequent to developing a model method a recommendation will be made for a test article design based on the theoretical results.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
2629 Townsgate Road Suite 105
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 371-7500
Ramakanth Munipalli
DARPA 08-059      Awarded: 1/5/2009
Title:Continuous Detonation Rocket and Air Breathing Engines
Abstract:We propose here a systematic sequence of advancements which can lead to the efficient and reliable operation of continuous detonation engines. The advancements sought will pertain to fuel injection, initiation and sustenance of detonation waves and the geometrical design of detonation channels and nozzles. A scalability study will be performed to assess the feasibility of the detonation engine at larger thrust levels and design alternatives needed at higher thrust levels will be explored. Phase-I research will rely upon analytical and computational models, and a test program is planned at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) for a potential second phase of this project. Ample prior experience on all these fronts is available with the proposing team of HyPerComp and UTA.

Systima Technologies, Inc.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Jerry Berg
DARPA 08-059      Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title:Continuous Detonation Rocket and Air Breathing Engines
Abstract:Proposal will develop and study feasibility of Continuous Detonation Rocket Engine (CDRE) systems for rocket and combined cycle engines. Systima Technologies, Inc., Geminus Technology Development, LLC and the University of Washington, Fluids and Propulsion Labs have detonation engine expertise and propose to develop a working CDRE computational model, design demonstration CDRE, and feasibility analysis of CDRE. This effort has full support of Pratt & Whitney’s active continuous detonation experience. Detonation engines should exhibit higher levels of performance with more efficient thermodynamic properties over conventional constant-pressure combustion systems. Study of unsteady combustion systems is key to addressing continued interest in advanced engines such as Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC), Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) and Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO). This proposal is instrumental to advance this technology and assess potential advantages. Under similar conditions, detonation is more efficient combustion process over deflagration. This is evidenced by lower increases in entropy during detonation and its thermodynamic advantage. The challenge is applying detonation into propulsion. CDRE’s advantages over conventional detonation engines are simplicity and performance. The Systima-Geminus-University of Washington-Pratt & Whitney team proposes computational modeling, feasibility analysis, and an experimentation in parallel to advance CDRE technology and evaluate its potential.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5273
Wendy Nicholas
DARPA 08-060      Awarded: 4/2/2009
Title:Space Plug-and-Play Compatible Wireless Avionics
Abstract:The Space Plug-and-play Avionics (SPA) approach initiated by the Air Force Research Laboratory supports an à la carte method of constructing arbitrarily complex arrangements of virtually any sensor or actuator type. However, SPA still relies on many physical wire harnesses to interconnect modules and panels. We propose to pursue the ultimate interconnection flexibility by removing all physical data wires. In the proposed design, all of the data streams on an ASIM that are currently going a SPA-S connector will be connected to a built-in ultra wideband (UWB) transceiver. The baseband signal generated by this transceiver will go through a built-in front end to a dual antenna port. All ASIMs can use their wireless links to communicate with each other directly. UWL can achieve 480 Mbps --- sufficient for transmitting SPA-S’s 400-Mbps data. We propose to add a backup communication link by coupling the same baseband signal into the existing power line. A fail-over mechanism will automatically transmit the data through the Power Line Link when the wireless link fails. The proposed hybrid SPA scheme (SPA-H) can reduce launch systems’ weight, development cost, operational cost, development risk, and operational risk.

Masten Space Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box N
Mojave, CA 93502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 244-9171
David Masten
DARPA 08-060      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Wireless Avionics Testbed for Payload Delivery Launch Systems
Abstract:The objective of the proposed activity is to evaluate several wireless protocol and hardware combinations in flight using a test network on an appropriate flight testbed, and select a combination of one or more technologies to develop for both government and commercial use in space, and other applications. The test network will be configurable to mimic a variety of different potential types of network traffic. The output of Phase I will be a collection of potential customer requirements, test system design, test plan, candidate hardware/protocol list, and an initial validation bench test of at least one commercial wireless protocol/hardware combination. The test will determine throughput, error rates, and interference and hardware-performance data. This test series will move the first selected protocol/hardware combination to TRL 5. Phase 2 will test each of the candidate hardware and protocol combinations in flight, and produce a database of test results. Based on this, a preferred combination of hardware and software components will be designated. Phase 3 will select the preferred hardware/protocol combination, and implement a complete operational wireless system bus, packageable into a commercial service to NASA, DOD and the commercial space industry.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
Houman Ghajari
DARPA 08-060      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Wireless Avionics Architecture for Payload Delivery Launch Systems
Abstract:V-band wireless communications can replace cables that connect payload launch delivery systems with the added advantages of small size, low weight, and noise mitigation. Current implementations of V-band wireless links are severely impaired by challenges such as shadowing. MaXentric’s 60 GHz VIAS system is an effective method that overcomes such challenges and offers to a drop-in solution for launch vehicles that is transparent to clients that rely on a wire-based communication system. The VIAS system is not limited by existing launch vehicle communication architectures, since the transceiver is a stand-alone RF front-end, and can be used to implement new communication protocols.

Dragonfly Pictures, Inc.
PO Box 202 West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 521-6115
Richard Billingslea
DARPA 08-061      Awarded: 2/23/2009
Title:Transformational Close Air Support
Abstract:Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of developing an HMMWV based Vertical Unmanned Aircraft System (VUAS) with laser designator and target geo- referencing capability to provide Close Air Support (CAS). Shoulder fired missiles have pushed US aircraft so far away from the CAS customer that he needs to find a replacement for the aircraft. As CAS aircraft stand off farther from the small unit commander they drive up complexity, training, response time, equipment weight, and costs involved in CAS. To transform CAS, DPI proposes to develop a multi-functional VUAS that operates in the near earth environment with on-board weapons. Innovations in flight controls, path planning, weapons management, and autonomous weight management are required to deliver this capability to the small unit commander.

Energid Technologies
124 Mount Auburn Street Suite 200 North
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 547-4100
Brian O
DARPA 08-061      Awarded: 6/4/2009
Title:RF Enhancement Kit - REK for Friendly Fire Prevention
Abstract:In this proposal we will address two areas where CAS can be greatly improved: friendly fire incidents and improved accuracy of Global Positioning System (GPS) guided munitions. Our system (RF Enhancement Kit - REK) will enable access to never before attainable data: real-time, positional and trajectory data of an inbound bomb. REK will use this data for two purposes 1) to establish a safety zone around a given ground position, 2) to automatically correct bomb trajectory in bombs that have movable fins. Energid’s proposed system will revolutionize the effectiveness and efficiency of CAS by virtually ensuring Friendly Fire incidents are eliminated and GPS guided munitions hit closer to their intended target - elevating them from “near-precision” to “precision” status weapons.

Two Lights Technologies, LLC
2208 S. Culpeper St.
Arlington, VA 22206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 822-7363
Kevin Blenkhorn
DARPA 08-061      Awarded: 1/20/2009
Title:C-Strike
Abstract:Close Air Support (CAS) is playing an increasing role in military operations. The emphasis on Special Operations in recent years has increased the combat range of small units, often sending squad-sized units hundreds of miles behind enemy lines. Small units rely on stealth and airpower. They remain covert, but when they are discovered, they call in airpower to keep from being outgunned. All too often, unfortunately, air support is not available quickly enough. What is needed is an unmanned weapons platform that can be airborne 24/7 to provide CAS for small units. The overall goal of this multi-phase SBIR project is to develop a transformational CAS system that will allow small-unit operators to control unmanned CAS assets from a handheld controller. The soldiers will be able to request unmanned air support, target enemy positions, and fire the weapons. The soldiers will use a visual control system to guide weapons. A successful Phase I will lead to a Phase II prototype-development program. We will develop a working model of the C- Strike CAS system to validate our approach. Phase III will involve partnering with manufacturers to finalize engineering of the weapons system and to integrate it onto a UAV for flight testing.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8652
Dana Howard
DARPA 08-062      Awarded: 3/30/2009
Title:Leap-Ahead Control Theoretic Applications
Abstract:Significant resources are required for the design, development, implementation, and testing of modern flight control systems. Large amounts of time and money must be spent in the acquisition and analysis of wind tunnel and analytical data to ensure the precision tuning of flight control laws over the large flight envelope of a modern aircraft. Additionally, when the vehicle condition changes due to common deviations such as payload changes, system upgrades, and degradation or failure of actuation systems over the life of the aircraft, further testing and analysis must be conducted to maintain the high fidelity of the model and retuning of the control system. The practical application of robust adaptive control strategies to these flight control systems can significantly reduce the costs and risks associated with their development and maintenance. With the utilization of adaptive, robust, and fault tolerant control algorithms, required fidelity of original modeling data, re-study of the algorithm due to configuration change, and risk to the aircraft under tolerable system failures can all be significantly reduced. This should lead to dramatic reduction in the cost and risk associated with the development and validation of future flight control systems. With this in mind, the NextGen team plans to develop a high-level adaptive control framework, allowing seamless implementation of existing Flight Control Systems (FCS) capable of meeting these goals and, in Phase I, verify its expected benefits through a series of simulations and hardware tests.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Jovan Boskovic
DARPA 08-062      Awarded: 5/11/2009
Title:Guaranteed Performance Adaptive Control (GPAC) for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:The major objectives of this project are: (i) To develop relevant performance metrics for adaptive systems, and (ii) To design guaranteed performance adaptive controllers using an adaptive Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) approach. This is a highly complex problem that has not been solved so far even for linear systems. The key capability that the proposed work will provide is to assure consistent performance in adaptive control of time-varying and nonlinear systems under large uncertainties. Our objective is to build upon SSCI's extensive work in this field and derive theoretical conditions under which performance of the overall adaptive system can be guaranteed in the case of linear time-invariant and time-varying systems, and some classes of nonlinear systems. Successful theoretical developments will facilitate Verification and Validation (V&V) procedures and flight certification of adaptive flight control software. In order to achieve the project objectives, in Phase I we propose to carry out the following tasks: (i) Problem Formulation; (ii) Development of a Simulation Testbed based on Autonomous Aerial Refueling (AAR); (iii) Development of Guaranteed Performance Adaptive Control (GPAC) Algorithms; (iv) Initial Study of the Finite-time Stability of the Switching Strategies; and (v) Implementation & Performance Evaluation of the GPAC Algorithms on the Simulation Testbed. Professor K. S. Narendra of Yale University, who is world-renown for his fundamental contributions to adaptive control, will provide theoretical support under the project. Phase II will involve high-fidelity and piloted simulations in collaboration with Boeing, who will also provide commercialization support in Phase III.

Senseta, Inc
717 Maplewood Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 861-6000
Khalid Al-Ali
DARPA 08-062      Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title:Leap-Ahead Control Theoretic Applications
Abstract:When system parameters change abruptly due to, for example, actuator damage in aircraft, or an unknown slung load disturbance in rotorcraft hover control, the use of neural network reconfigurable control has proven to be effective in mitigating the resulting disturbances and returning the controller performance to the desired baseline. Despite its continued success in both the theoretical and practical domains, there still exists a crucial missing link that thwarts not only acceptance in both government and industrial applications, but also the robustness guarantees that indicate how far the system is from instability, and how much time-delay can the feedback loops tolerate. Currently, there is no equivalent notion of phase and gain margin for neural network adaptive control. We therefore see a critical need to address this division with both sound theoretical analysis and experimental validation. This proposal seeks to (1) develop the analytical techniques necessary to overcome this division, (2) develop a software toolbox built on top of MATLAB to assist the engineer in applying these techniques to a wide range of control problems and (3) perform rigorous simulation based testing on an aircraft with three failure modes, and also on a rotorcraft with unknown sling load attached.

Signal Processing, Inc.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 505-2641
Chiman Kwan
DARPA 08-062      Awarded: 6/23/2009
Title:High Performance Intelligent Controller for Systems with Unknown Dynamics
Abstract:The first generation of intelligent control applications was for systems with unknown dynamics, with on-line learning of the neural network weights. The second generation of intelligent control applications has generally provided off-line design methods that first solve the optimal design equations, and then apply the resulting control to the system with no on-line learning. The system dynamics must generally be known. We propose a novel, high performance, and third generation intelligent control framework, which is applicable to systems with unknown dynamics, including air vehicles, Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs), robots, motors, and power systems. The framework consists of two cooperative on-line learning modules. First, an adaptive critic network is used to approximate the cost function (performance index) of the system. Second, another action network uses the critic information to adjust certain control parameters in the action network. Major advantages include: 1) system dynamics can be unknown; 2) controller achieves optimal performance in the steady-state; 3) the overall system performance is robust to disturbances and unknown changes in the system dynamics.

Stochasttech Corp.(DBA Tempest Technolog
8939 South Sepulveda Blvd Suite 506
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-1677
Yun Wang
DARPA 08-062      Awarded: 1/16/2009
Title:Leap-Ahead Control Theoretic Applications
Abstract:The real-time implementation of controls in nonlinear systems remains one of the great challenges in applying advanced control technology. Often, linearization around a set point is the only practical approach, and many controllers implemented in hardware systems are simple PID feedback mechanisms. To apply Pontryagin’s principle or Bellman’s equation for high dimensional nonlinear systems requires more computing power than is realistic. The success of linear control theory, especially certainty equivalence and LQG approaches, leads us to hope for additional gains from fully nonlinear controls. We propose an innovation in computational nonlinear control that offers ground breaking potential for real-time control applications, making fully nonlinear problems solvable with the computational efficiency of linear problems.

Wise Enterprises
4121 Eastleigh Dr
Plano, TX 75024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 387-9270
P. Lawrence
DARPA 08-062      Awarded: 6/9/2009
Title:Leap-Ahead Control Theoretic Applications
Abstract:In many cases, humans still out-perform today's best control systems. We could presumably approach human performance in these cases by building systems that more closely mimic human information processing, but unfortunately, that is still poorly understood. “Intelligent systems” try hard to mimic such processing, but all are deficient in various ways. Moreover, many control system engineers are reluctant to utilize intelligent systems for control applications, because such systems are unfamiliar, hard to use, and tend to lead out of the formal mathematics normally associated with system control. In Phase I of this project, we will investigate the feasibility of new technology that we expect will overcome these issues. We plan to build tools, methodology, and intellectual properties around this technology in Phase II, then push these assets aggressively to the huge markets and growing number of situations where control systems are employed, especially those where humans have previously surpassed machines.

Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Christopher Hemmelgarn
DARPA 08-063      Awarded: 4/13/2009
Title:Microvascular Networks for Thermal Management
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop polymer matrix composite systems with imbedded microvasular networks that act as conduits for the transport of thermally conductive nanofluids. Optimized to withstand the grueling environmental conditions experienced in the stratosphere including atomic oxygen (AO), ozone (O3), and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure; material development will result in a new skin system that has the capability of transporting heat throughout the entire surface area of HALE aircraft, which can exceed 500 m2. The ability to transfer heat across such a large surface area will compensate for low convection coefficients.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Jay Rozzi,
DARPA 08-063      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:A Lightweight, High Efficiency, Heat Rejection System for HALE Aircraft
Abstract:The ability to obtain reconnaissance anywhere in the world within a short time after launch is critical to the information gathering capability of the United States. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) vehicles were designed for this purpose. Creare’s innovation is a novel High Altitude Heat Rejection System (HAHRS) that utilizes high conductivity, lightweight coated panels that are bonded to low-profile, ultra-light aluminum heat pipes for effective, lightweight heat rejection at low and high altitudes. Based on our initial calculations, our novel HAHRS will meet or exceed DARPA’s goals by enabling the rejection of 50 kW of heat with a mass of approximately 80 kg (~1.6 kg/kW) and an area of approximately 90 square meters. Our innovation can operate at low and high temperatures and represents a significant advancement in the state-of-the-art in heat rejection systems.

Enig Associates, Inc.
12501 Prosperity Drive Suite 340
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 680-8600
Robert Terry
DARPA 08-063      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Heat Rejection at Low Air Density for Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:High altitudes both make heat rejection difficult and impose power plant constraints that add significant waste heat to be rejected. The result is a challenging transport problem we can most effectively attack by making use of the longer mean free paths at stratospheric altitudes and the short length scales of particular multiphase ceramic materials to enhance electrically the natural heat convection processes. The initial survey will identify and attempt (i) to optimize the physical dimensions of these devices relative to typical boundary layers and accommodation lengths, and (ii) to establish the electrical operating points, duty cycle, and dynamic ranges.

International Mezzo Technologies, Inc
7167 Florda Blvd
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 706-0191
Jeffrey McLean
DARPA 08-063      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Energy Rejection System for Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:High efficiency engines that reject waste heat to the atmosphere are needed for high altitude (85,000-100,000 ft), low speed aircraft that are envisioned for DoD applications. Often, a heat exchanger is required to reject the waste heat. The challenges of heat rejection are associated with the fact that because the density of the high altitude air is low and the velocity of the aircraft is low (to reduce drag), the mass flux of the air through the heat exchanger is quite low. It is a significant design challenge to build a heat exchanger that can simultaneously handle the large volume flow rates typical of high altitude scenarios, the low available pressure drop, and the need to be compact and lightweight. Mezzo builds micro tube heat exchangers that provide excellent heat transfer/volume and heat transfer/weight ratios, low pressure drop and ease of manufacture. Mezzo will design, build, and test a heat exchanger in an environment closely simulating flight at 85,000 ft. The program will provide quantified performance metrics (heat transfer and pressure drop) that will be needed to design full scale Mezzo heat exchangers for use in full scale, complete systems.

Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 519-3137
Alfred Phillips
DARPA 08-063      Awarded: 3/23/2009
Title:Energy Rejection Systems for Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:LHPs in composite skin,the "Wing as Radiator" concept has demonstrated 25-50 kW to 65k ft. Inflatable radiator has been analyzed for 500 kWt in GEO. Self deploying heat pipe radiators, heat pipes as structure, and LHPs for regenerative fuel cell thermal control have also been demonstrated by bidder. Phase I would integrate these technologies, map the solution space, and optimize their application...

Thoughtventions Unlimited LLC
P.O. Box 1310 (40 Nutmeg Lane)
Glastonbury, CT 06033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 657-9014
Stephen Bates
DARPA 08-063      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:Energy Rejection Systems for Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:High altitude aircraft are now being used for atmospheric sampling and other purposes, but significant advances in performance must be achieved for sustained flight at altitudes up to 30 km. It is proposed to replace the standard metal finned circulating glycol/water heat exchanger with a droplet heat exchanger developed in this program. A circulating liquid sprayed into a ducted airstream creates a dense droplet field that directly transfers heat from the liquid to the gas and is then captured at the end of the duct by inertial separation from a sharply turning flow. A droplet heat exchanger efficiently rejects engine heat under widely varying conditions while greatly reducing heat exchanger weight and lowering aircraft drag. Heat transfer can be increased for high altitude flight, lower weight increases altitude capability and together with decreased drag increases range. Heat transfer and droplet collection can be maintained during speed and attitude changes, and the system tolerates rain, snow, and dust. DHXs have already been demonstrated experimentally; a Phase 1 experimental program is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of a droplet heat exchanger for a UAV.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
James Szabo
DARPA 08-064      Awarded: 4/22/2009
Title:Metal Hydride Energy Source for HALE Aircraft Propulsion
Abstract:Busek Co. Inc. and the Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) of Pennsylvania State University propose to develop a metal hydride based propulsion system for High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft. In Phase I, we will select the most promising propellant combination and design a system around it. We will demonstrate through analysis that the system can meet relevant HALE aircraft goals for power, lifetime, and specific fuel consumption. The complete system must store, deliver, ignite and combust the reactants, and effectively produce mechanical energy that can be used to drive a propeller. The most promising propellant candidate may be LiH. However other substances such as AlH3, LiAlH4, Al, and Li will also be considered during the analysis and feasibility study. In addition to air, storable oxidizers will be considered. In Phase II, a sub-scale version of the system will be built and tested. This program will leverage Busek’s existing efforts to develop a HALE aircraft engine, and ARL’s efforts to build a LiH based propulsion system for underwater applications.

Eltron Research & Development, Inc.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
James White
DARPA 08-064      Awarded: 3/2/2009
Title:A Metal Hydride Power Source for HALE Aircraft Propulsion
Abstract:High altitude long endurance (HALE) aircraft encounter thin atmosphere, low temperatures, long missions, and long periods of storage, all within strict weight limitations. Power sources are correspondingly unconventional. DARPA has identified metal hydrides as preferred energy storage materials for this application. The proposed SBIR Phase I program addresses development of metal hydride materials for energy storage in HALE power sources. The approach will use the materials to supply an electrochemical cell that possesses both storage and conversion features. The hybrid technology would use a packaged metal hydride acting concomitantly as a fuel supply and as the anode of a battery. With this configuration, it will be possible to obtain requisite power and energy while minimizing system size, polarization losses, and overall weight. The metal hydrides will be incorporated into a nanostructured support, which will help decompose the metal hydride and provide a conductive matrix to act as the battery anode. Phase I will consist of preparing and characterizing metal hydrides, testing the fuels under conditions of the power source to be designed, and overall concept design. Phase II will result in optimization of the process chosen and the design, fabrication, and operation of a prototype power source for HALE applications.

Johnson Research & Development Co., Inc.
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
William Rauch
DARPA 08-064      Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title:Metal Hydride Energy Sources for Very High Altitude Aircraft Propulsion
Abstract:Lithium metal possess a high specific capacity of 3860 Ah/kg, and can provide high voltages in electrochemical cells, thus creating the basis for high specific energy batteries. However, batteries based on lithium metal suffer several drawbacks, due to the poor morphology of redeposited lithium and possibility of dendrite growth, which can short circuit the battery and pose safety hazards. We propose to employ a lithium battery technique that captures significantly greater energy than currently accessed via conventional battery technologies.