---------- DTRA ----------

12 Phase I Selections from the 08.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Alex Fedoseyev
DTRA 08-001      Awarded: 3/4/2009
Title:Characterization and Mitigation of Radiation Effects in Quantum Dot Based Nanotechnologies
Abstract:The objectives of this task include: 1. Characterization of both ionizing and displacement damage radiation effects in nano- technology microelectronics to include, but not be limited to, Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) ultra-deep submicron (< 90nm) silicon based circuits, silicon-germanium quantum functional circuits, compound semiconductor technologies, carbon nanotube, nanocrystal and quantum dot based technologies. 2. Development and demonstration of minimally invasive methods to mitigate radiation effects for these technologies, to include both digital and analog/mixed-signal applications. 3. Development and validation of system design science approaches to mitigate radiation induced faults. The successful outcome of this task will support the use of ultra-deep submicron integrated circuits in DoD satellite systems that will result in very significant savings in weight, power and reliability for systems that include Space Radar, Space Tracking and Surveillance Systems, Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) and others. Each new generation of microelectronics results in performance benefits that include > 2X in integration density, > 4X in power savings and > 2X in operating speed making possible very significant improvements in system capabilities. In addition, this task will also support the use of compound semiconductor technologies (e.g. Antimony Based Compound Semiconductors, Indium Phosphide, and others) in these systems and their introduction into advanced spacecraft and missile systems with similar savings in both power and weight and coupled with increased performance. DESCRIPTION: Current satellite systems are fabricated using a mix of commercial and radiation hardened circuits. However, the use of advanced commercial integrated circuits devices results in added complexity to mitigate radiation effects that can result in the mis- operation and/or destruction of devices. In many cases, the penalties in increased power, area, weight and added circuit complexity out-weigh any potential benefits and preclude the use of the advanced commercial technology. Moreover, these technologies have demonstrated a sensitivity to radiation effects. The present methods to mitigate radiation effects, while proven to be effective at circuit geometries > 150nm silicon based technology, have been shown to be less effective when applied to integrated circuit feature sizes below 100nm silicon based and compound semiconductor technologies. In addition, the introduction of new technologies, e.g. quantum function circuits, will require the development of new mitigation approaches.

Robust Chip Inc.
5820 Stoneridge Mall Rd. Suite 100
Pleasanton, CA 94588
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 847-2073
Klas Lilja
DTRA 08-001      Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title:The Characterization and Mitigation of Radiation Effects on Nano-technology Microelectronics
Abstract:The objectives of this task include: 1. Characterization of both ionizing and displacement damage radiation effects in nano- technology microelectronics to include, but not be limited to, Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) ultra-deep submicron (< 90nm) silicon based circuits, silicon-germanium quantum functional circuits, compound semiconductor technologies, carbon nanotube, nanocrystal and quantum dot based technologies. 2. Development and demonstration of minimally invasive methods to mitigate radiation effects for these technologies, to include both digital and analog/mixed-signal applications. 3. Development and validation of system design science approaches to mitigate radiation induced faults. The successful outcome of this task will support the use of ultra-deep submicron integrated circuits in DoD satellite systems that will result in very significant savings in weight, power and reliability for systems that include Space Radar, Space Tracking and Surveillance Systems, Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) and others. Each new generation of microelectronics results in performance benefits that include > 2X in integration density, > 4X in power savings and > 2X in operating speed making possible very significant improvements in system capabilities. In addition, this task will also support the use of compound semiconductor technologies (e.g. Antimony Based Compound Semiconductors, Indium Phosphide, and others) in these systems and their introduction into advanced spacecraft and missile systems with similar savings in both power and weight and coupled with increased performance. DESCRIPTION: Current satellite systems are fabricated using a mix of commercial and radiation hardened circuits. However, the use of advanced commercial integrated circuits devices results in added complexity to mitigate radiation effects that can result in the mis- operation and/or destruction of devices. In many cases, the penalties in increased power, area, weight and added circuit complexity out-weigh any potential benefits and preclude the use of the advanced commercial technology. Moreover, these technologies have demonstrated a sensitivity to radiation effects. The present methods to mitigate radiation effects, while proven to be effective at circuit geometries > 150nm silicon based technology, have been shown to be less effective when applied to integrated circuit feature sizes below 100nm silicon based and compound semiconductor technologies. In addition, the introduction of new technologies, e.g. quantum function circuits, will require the development of new mitigation approaches.

Applied Nanotech, Inc.
3006 Longhorn Blvd. Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Richard Fink
DTRA 08-004      Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title:Standoff Detection of Nuclear Materials Using CNT-Based D2 Plasma Ion Source
Abstract:Develop alternative means for stand-off detection of radiological, and specifically fissile materials through their effects on, or interactions with, the environment. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to: electrostatic, thermodynamic, fluorescent, spectroscopic, magnetic or radiological. DESCRIPTION: In DTRA’s efforts to counter nuclear and radiological threats, sources must be located, classified and identified. Traditional approaches based on the detection of primary radiation from fissile or radiological material are approaching full exploitation and theoretical gains in standoff range and sensitivity are inherently limited. Alternative technologies are sought which will have significant advantage in standoff range and sensitivity or provide significant advantages in available deployment environments or time frames. Proposals are sought to provide a capability rather than any specific technique. Some technological approaches which are potentially attractive include, but are not limited to, scintillation or fluorescence in surrounding materials, chemical analysis of surrounding materials or products of radioactivity, passive microwave, infrared or radar detection of SNM or the products of radioactivity through absorption or reflectance, laser induced fluorescence of products of radioactivity, thermal radiation signatures, or optically stimulated luminescence or thermoluminescence. Advantages of proposed work over current technologies, which can include increase in range, sensitivity, imaging, environment of use, or other clear advantage, should be outlined in proposal. PHASE I: Determination of feasibility to perform as a stand-off sensor for nuclear materials. PHASE II: Construction of a demonstration prototype. PHASE III: Dual use applications. Potential application of this technology include their use in the well-logging industry, medical imaging, and environmental monitoring. REFERENCES: 1. Knoll, G.F. “Radiation Detection and Measurement” 2nd edition (1988). 2. Tsoulfanidis, N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation” 2nd edition (1995).

Dymas Research Incorporated
22 Pond View Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-4464
Wei Hu
DTRA 08-004      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Alternative Detection Approaches for Nuclear Materials
Abstract:Develop alternative means for stand-off detection of radiological, and specifically fissile materials through their effects on, or interactions with, the environment. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to: electrostatic, thermodynamic, fluorescent, spectroscopic, magnetic or radiological. DESCRIPTION: In DTRA’s efforts to counter nuclear and radiological threats, sources must be located, classified and identified. Traditional approaches based on the detection of primary radiation from fissile or radiological material are approaching full exploitation and theoretical gains in standoff range and sensitivity are inherently limited. Alternative technologies are sought which will have significant advantage in standoff range and sensitivity or provide significant advantages in available deployment environments or time frames. Proposals are sought to provide a capability rather than any specific technique. Some technological approaches which are potentially attractive include, but are not limited to, scintillation or fluorescence in surrounding materials, chemical analysis of surrounding materials or products of radioactivity, passive microwave, infrared or radar detection of SNM or the products of radioactivity through absorption or reflectance, laser induced fluorescence of products of radioactivity, thermal radiation signatures, or optically stimulated luminescence or thermoluminescence. Advantages of proposed work over current technologies, which can include increase in range, sensitivity, imaging, environment of use, or other clear advantage, should be outlined in proposal. PHASE I: Determination of feasibility to perform as a stand-off sensor for nuclear materials. PHASE II: Construction of a demonstration prototype. PHASE III: Dual use applications. Potential application of this technology include their use in the well-logging industry, medical imaging, and environmental monitoring. REFERENCES: 1. Knoll, G.F. “Radiation Detection and Measurement” 2nd edition (1988). 2. Tsoulfanidis, N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation” 2nd edition (1995).

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Pl, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Marvin Niimura
DTRA 08-004      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Range-Improving, Mid-IR Time Domain Spectroscopic Transceiver for SNM
Abstract:Develop alternative means for stand-off detection of radiological, and specifically fissile materials through their effects on, or interactions with, the environment. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to: electrostatic, thermodynamic, fluorescent, spectroscopic, magnetic or radiological. DESCRIPTION: In DTRA’s efforts to counter nuclear and radiological threats, sources must be located, classified and identified. Traditional approaches based on the detection of primary radiation from fissile or radiological material are approaching full exploitation and theoretical gains in standoff range and sensitivity are inherently limited. Alternative technologies are sought which will have significant advantage in standoff range and sensitivity or provide significant advantages in available deployment environments or time frames. Proposals are sought to provide a capability rather than any specific technique. Some technological approaches which are potentially attractive include, but are not limited to, scintillation or fluorescence in surrounding materials, chemical analysis of surrounding materials or products of radioactivity, passive microwave, infrared or radar detection of SNM or the products of radioactivity through absorption or reflectance, laser induced fluorescence of products of radioactivity, thermal radiation signatures, or optically stimulated luminescence or thermoluminescence. Advantages of proposed work over current technologies, which can include increase in range, sensitivity, imaging, environment of use, or other clear advantage, should be outlined in proposal. PHASE I: Determination of feasibility to perform as a stand-off sensor for nuclear materials. PHASE II: Construction of a demonstration prototype. PHASE III: Dual use applications. Potential application of this technology include their use in the well-logging industry, medical imaging, and environmental monitoring. REFERENCES: 1. Knoll, G.F. “Radiation Detection and Measurement” 2nd edition (1988). 2. Tsoulfanidis, N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation” 2nd edition (1995).

Applied Science International, LLC
3221 Wellington Court
Raleigh, NC 27615
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 723-9115
Hatem Tagel-Din
DTRA 08-005      Awarded: 2/18/2009
Title:High Fidelity Modeling of Building Collapse with Realistic Visualization of Resulting Damage and Debris
Abstract:Develop a validated high fidelity physics based computational method to evaluate building performance and collapse under blast loading with the capability to show the resulting damage and debris fly-out in a realistic fashion. Key requirements for the developed method are: 1) sufficient fidelity to capture critical phenomena in building collapse and 2) an intelligent user friendly interface to allow practicing engineers to obtain accurate results faster than the current traditional high fidelity computational methods. DESCRIPTION: The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) seeks proposals for development of a high fidelity model for analysis of building collapse under blast loading. Realistic visualization of the damage and debris is an important aspect of the requirements in order to assess damage to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) containers in a targeted building or to assess vulnerability of personnel and mission critical equipment in a protected facility. Structural collapse under blast conditions involves an initially stable structure acted upon by gravity loads, followed by the imposition of blast loads (a relatively short duration event) which induce material and structural damage. The latter in turn, may lead to global structural instabilities which can result to the collapse of the original structure. Computational modeling of collapse entails three dimensional (3D) geometry, non-linear material and geometry, and highly dynamic events such as material breakup and ejection. In the past several decades the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used successfully to model complex dynamic events including building collapse. FEM formulations have incorporated implicit, explicit or hybrid integration techniques to accurately model various phenomena in building collapse. To capture the results for visual presentations the FEM models typically run over the entire collapse event which may take several weeks to months of computer run time. Sophisticated mathematical formulations have been developed for more efficient computations and for fracture and breakup of materials. However, their proper implementation requires a highly educated and experienced scientist or engineer. Often times the results generated by the FEM model differ depending on the experience of the user with the FEM model of interest. The extensive computation time and high level of expertise required to use existing FEM models for building collapse are barriers to wide use of the technology. To overcome these barriers an innovative computational method is sought that a practicing engineer can install on a single or dual processor personal computer and use it to model a collapse event within a couple of days of computer run-time. The ideal methodology should combine robust and time proven FEM formulations with more efficient integration methods and algorithms to keep track of material break up, flight and contact. To reduce the level

Weidlinger Associates, Inc.
375 Hudson St FL 12
New York, NY 10014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 230-0331
David Vaughan
DTRA 08-005      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:High Fidelity Modeling of Building Collapse with Realistic Visualization of Resulting Damage and Debris
Abstract:Develop a validated high fidelity physics based computational method to evaluate building performance and collapse under blast loading with the capability to show the resulting damage and debris fly-out in a realistic fashion. Key requirements for the developed method are: 1) sufficient fidelity to capture critical phenomena in building collapse and 2) an intelligent user friendly interface to allow practicing engineers to obtain accurate results faster than the current traditional high fidelity computational methods. DESCRIPTION: The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) seeks proposals for development of a high fidelity model for analysis of building collapse under blast loading. Realistic visualization of the damage and debris is an important aspect of the requirements in order to assess damage to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) containers in a targeted building or to assess vulnerability of personnel and mission critical equipment in a protected facility. Structural collapse under blast conditions involves an initially stable structure acted upon by gravity loads, followed by the imposition of blast loads (a relatively short duration event) which induce material and structural damage. The latter in turn, may lead to global structural instabilities which can result to the collapse of the original structure. Computational modeling of collapse entails three dimensional (3D) geometry, non-linear material and geometry, and highly dynamic events such as material breakup and ejection. In the past several decades the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used successfully to model complex dynamic events including building collapse. FEM formulations have incorporated implicit, explicit or hybrid integration techniques to accurately model various phenomena in building collapse. To capture the results for visual presentations the FEM models typically run over the entire collapse event which may take several weeks to months of computer run time. Sophisticated mathematical formulations have been developed for more efficient computations and for fracture and breakup of materials. However, their proper implementation requires a highly educated and experienced scientist or engineer. Often times the results generated by the FEM model differ depending on the experience of the user with the FEM model of interest. The extensive computation time and high level of expertise required to use existing FEM models for building collapse are barriers to wide use of the technology. To overcome these barriers an innovative computational method is sought that a practicing engineer can install on a single or dual processor personal computer and use it to model a collapse event within a couple of days of computer run-time. The ideal methodology should combine robust and time proven FEM formulations with more efficient integration methods and algorithms to keep track of material break up, flight and contact. To reduce the level

LightSpin Technologies, Inc.
4407 Elm Street, Suite 300
Chevy Chase, MD 20824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 809-9052
Eric S. Harmon
DTRA 08-007      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Very Low Cost Photomultiplier Chip for Disposable Gamma Spectrometer
Abstract:We seek proposals to develop, design and build inexpensive radiation detectors capable of crude gamma spectroscopy. Ideally these detectors will be simple and inexpensive enough to be deployed in large numbers and essentially disposable. DESCRIPTION: In DTRA’s efforts to prevent the spread of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), gamma spectroscopy plays a key role in locating, identifying and imaging potential threats. Current research efforts are predominately aimed at materials having better energy resolution (e.g. CZT, LaBr3) or greater efficiency (e.g. BiI3) than currently deployed detectors as these parameters are generally perceived as having better capability. These new materials are very expensive to grow and are available in limited quantities. In our mission to interdict SNM, a potential strategy under consideration is to deploy many (sometimes up to thousands) small, unobtrusive detectors in remote areas such as smuggling routes where persistent surveillance would be difficult for personnel. Clearly, the deployment of expensive detectors would prove prohibitively costly in great quantities so DTRA is looking for proposals to make small, robust, inexpensive gamma spectrometers that would fit this need. In order to function to as a gamma spectrometer, photopeak efficiency would need to be moderately high in the energy range up to 1 MeV (for reference NaI(Tl) intrinsic efficiency is ~20% for a 1 cm thick sample). Cost and robustness are also key parameters as these detectors are expected to be essentially disposable and deployed in quantity by air, sea and ground vehicles. While not unimportant we would consider energy resolution secondary. Proposals are sought to provide a capability rather than any specific technique. Among the possible solutions are new materials, as are novel methods of growing existing materials and inexpensive electronic solutions that can increase the capability of existing materials. PHASE I: Determination of feasibility to perform as a radiation detector and perform gamma spectroscopy. PHASE II: Construction of a demonstration prototype. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Nanoptics, Inc.
3014 NE 21st Way
Gainesville, FL 32609
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 378-6620
James K. Walker
DTRA 08-007      Awarded: 5/4/2009
Title:Inexpensive, disposable radiation detectors
Abstract:We seek proposals to develop, design and build inexpensive radiation detectors capable of crude gamma spectroscopy. Ideally these detectors will be simple and inexpensive enough to be deployed in large numbers and essentially disposable. DESCRIPTION: In DTRA’s efforts to prevent the spread of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), gamma spectroscopy plays a key role in locating, identifying and imaging potential threats. Current research efforts are predominately aimed at materials having better energy resolution (e.g. CZT, LaBr3) or greater efficiency (e.g. BiI3) than currently deployed detectors as these parameters are generally perceived as having better capability. These new materials are very expensive to grow and are available in limited quantities. In our mission to interdict SNM, a potential strategy under consideration is to deploy many (sometimes up to thousands) small, unobtrusive detectors in remote areas such as smuggling routes where persistent surveillance would be difficult for personnel. Clearly, the deployment of expensive detectors would prove prohibitively costly in great quantities so DTRA is looking for proposals to make small, robust, inexpensive gamma spectrometers that would fit this need. In order to function to as a gamma spectrometer, photopeak efficiency would need to be moderately high in the energy range up to 1 MeV (for reference NaI(Tl) intrinsic efficiency is ~20% for a 1 cm thick sample). Cost and robustness are also key parameters as these detectors are expected to be essentially disposable and deployed in quantity by air, sea and ground vehicles. While not unimportant we would consider energy resolution secondary. Proposals are sought to provide a capability rather than any specific technique. Among the possible solutions are new materials, as are novel methods of growing existing materials and inexpensive electronic solutions that can increase the capability of existing materials. PHASE I: Determination of feasibility to perform as a radiation detector and perform gamma spectroscopy. PHASE II: Construction of a demonstration prototype. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

NovaWave Technologies
900 Island Drive
Redwood City, CA 94065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 610-0956
Stephen Fuerstenau
DTRA 08-007      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Low cost fieldable gamma-ray spectrometer
Abstract:We seek proposals to develop, design and build inexpensive radiation detectors capable of crude gamma spectroscopy. Ideally these detectors will be simple and inexpensive enough to be deployed in large numbers and essentially disposable. DESCRIPTION: In DTRA’s efforts to prevent the spread of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), gamma spectroscopy plays a key role in locating, identifying and imaging potential threats. Current research efforts are predominately aimed at materials having better energy resolution (e.g. CZT, LaBr3) or greater efficiency (e.g. BiI3) than currently deployed detectors as these parameters are generally perceived as having better capability. These new materials are very expensive to grow and are available in limited quantities. In our mission to interdict SNM, a potential strategy under consideration is to deploy many (sometimes up to thousands) small, unobtrusive detectors in remote areas such as smuggling routes where persistent surveillance would be difficult for personnel. Clearly, the deployment of expensive detectors would prove prohibitively costly in great quantities so DTRA is looking for proposals to make small, robust, inexpensive gamma spectrometers that would fit this need. In order to function to as a gamma spectrometer, photopeak efficiency would need to be moderately high in the energy range up to 1 MeV (for reference NaI(Tl) intrinsic efficiency is ~20% for a 1 cm thick sample). Cost and robustness are also key parameters as these detectors are expected to be essentially disposable and deployed in quantity by air, sea and ground vehicles. While not unimportant we would consider energy resolution secondary. Proposals are sought to provide a capability rather than any specific technique. Among the possible solutions are new materials, as are novel methods of growing existing materials and inexpensive electronic solutions that can increase the capability of existing materials. PHASE I: Determination of feasibility to perform as a radiation detector and perform gamma spectroscopy. PHASE II: Construction of a demonstration prototype. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6800
Vivek Nagarkar
DTRA 08-007      Awarded: 1/29/2009
Title:A Novel Cost Effective Method for Growing High Performance Radiation Sensors
Abstract:We seek proposals to develop, design and build inexpensive radiation detectors capable of crude gamma spectroscopy. Ideally these detectors will be simple and inexpensive enough to be deployed in large numbers and essentially disposable. DESCRIPTION: In DTRA’s efforts to prevent the spread of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), gamma spectroscopy plays a key role in locating, identifying and imaging potential threats. Current research efforts are predominately aimed at materials having better energy resolution (e.g. CZT, LaBr3) or greater efficiency (e.g. BiI3) than currently deployed detectors as these parameters are generally perceived as having better capability. These new materials are very expensive to grow and are available in limited quantities. In our mission to interdict SNM, a potential strategy under consideration is to deploy many (sometimes up to thousands) small, unobtrusive detectors in remote areas such as smuggling routes where persistent surveillance would be difficult for personnel. Clearly, the deployment of expensive detectors would prove prohibitively costly in great quantities so DTRA is looking for proposals to make small, robust, inexpensive gamma spectrometers that would fit this need. In order to function to as a gamma spectrometer, photopeak efficiency would need to be moderately high in the energy range up to 1 MeV (for reference NaI(Tl) intrinsic efficiency is ~20% for a 1 cm thick sample). Cost and robustness are also key parameters as these detectors are expected to be essentially disposable and deployed in quantity by air, sea and ground vehicles. While not unimportant we would consider energy resolution secondary. Proposals are sought to provide a capability rather than any specific technique. Among the possible solutions are new materials, as are novel methods of growing existing materials and inexpensive electronic solutions that can increase the capability of existing materials. PHASE I: Determination of feasibility to perform as a radiation detector and perform gamma spectroscopy. PHASE II: Construction of a demonstration prototype. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Melanie Tomczak
DTRA 08-011      Awarded: 4/1/2009
Title:Autonomous Airborne Chemical/Biological Cloud Detection Sensor
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Develop a small, low power and accurate sensor for in-situ detection of chemical and biological clouds by measuring one or more constituents of the cloud, such as the size and concentration of the particulates or other identifiable constituents as the UAV passes through the cloud. DESCRIPTION: Autonomous vehicles such as UAV and unmanned helicopters are being developed for in-situ detection and analysis of clouds generated from explosion of suspicious targets with possible chemical or biological agents present. There is a need for a small, light and low power sensor that would detect the cloud boundaries at the UAV enters and leaves the dust cloud and to measure the concentration of one or more identifiable constituents as the UAV passes through the cloud. The data generated by the proposed sensor should be available to the UAV in less than 1 ms with the data update rated of 100 Hz. The sensor is required to be rugged, reliable and have a concentration dynamic range in excess of 105. PHASE I: Fabricate a proof-of-concept prototype and perform laboratory and field tests to demonstrate the performance characteristics such as dynamic range, accuracy and frequency response of the sensor. PHASE II: Fabricate six sensor systems for integration into UAV and perform field tests. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The proposed sensors may be used as remote and autonomous sensors for environmental studies and for the monitoring of pollution clouds downwind from chimneys.