DoD SBIR FY08.3 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Air Force - Army - Navy - OSD - MDA - DLA

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594 Phase I Selections from the 08.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 651-6756
James T. Murray
AF 08-001      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Modeling of High-Average-Power Solid State Lasers
Abstract:Directed energy (DE) is widely viewed as a transformational game changer technology in military operations. Applications in space control, force protection, counter rockets, artillery and mortars (CRAM), and defense against man portable air defense systems (MANPADS) are of particular interest due to the unique capabilities and promise of DE based solutions. Electrically based solid-state and fiber lasers are attractive for tactical applications on aircraft, ground vehicles, and ships where size weight and power (SWAP) is a primary consideration. For this reason, diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) have been the major focus of the High Energy Laser (HEL) technology community. DPSSLs are complex multidimensional systems whose designs span disciplines in geometric optics (ray-tracing), physical optics (beam propagation), laser spectroscopy (energy transfer), resonator design, thermal management (finite element analysis), aberration control and beam combining (intra- and extra-cavity adaptive optics). Designers often reply on a combination of in-house developed models and third-party software to develop modeling and simulation solutions of DPSSL based HEL systems. This process is cumbersome, inefficiency and often times leads to erroneous results. Moreover, because these models are not always adequately linked, important effects, such as beam dependent heating or cooling, for example, are not always captured. This proposal addresses an integrated laser design and modeling solution that captures and links all of the major laser disciplines in one software package. BENEFIT: The laser modeling package and components developed under this program will yield a practical and powerful tool derived from first-principles for design, modeling and simulation of high power diode-pumped solid-state lasers and laser systems. The resulting tool will significantly improve the state-of-the-art in laser modeling and simulation. Potential commercial opportunities exist in direct sales and marketing of a commercial software package and/or professional services in laser design, modeling and simulation.

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 263-6308
Igor Peshko
AF 08-001      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:High-Power Solid-State Laser Simulator
Abstract:Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a high-power solid-state laser simulator (SoliSim) that will model the chain of processes running in an operating laser. The simulator operational algorithms will reflect multiple possible laser design variants, parameters, and modes of operation, including: pumping optical field distribution, gain ions distribution, energy absorption, migration, diffusion (including non-linear), re-absorption, lasing beam power, boundary conditions and cooling rate, orientation of the gain crystal optical axis, stresses, and strain distributions. As a result, the polarization sensitive refractive index 3D distribution, which has specific circularly inhomogeneous shape for each set of laser cavity initial parameters will be found. The algorithm will also estimate the near and far fields of the laser beam distributions. When the first iteration is done, and the cavity optical field structure is calculated, the heat field will be corrected, and the next iteration will be calculated. Because of specific thermal lens behavior, the beam angular brightness and transverse structure non-monotonically depends on the pumping power and cavity length. A resonance set of laser parameters can be predicted by the simulator. A high power laser cavity with several parallel and/or consequent gain elements can be modeled and estimated. BENEFIT: The simulation of expensive and complicated high power lasers significantly decreases the final cost of laser development. The proposed simulator will make it possible to predict the optimal cooling intensity, with minimal power consumption, and thereby provide minimal thermal gradients in the gain medium. The simulator will help researchers design fast, reliable, and cost effective low and middle power lasers. The simulator can be easily upgraded with parameters of new optical and laser materials, new regimes of operation, and new pumping and lasing architectures.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard Blvd. SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Justin Mansell
AF 08-001      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Modeling of High-Average-Power Solid State Lasers
Abstract:The proposed effort builds upon the significant progress of on-going efforts which employ MZA''''s WaveTrain wave-optics modeling tool to develop high-fidelity models of laser devices. MZA has developed considerable expertise in applying WaveTrain to laser device modeling under non-SBIR contracts to AFRL, the HEL-JTO, the ABL SPO, and Textron. Historically, WaveTrain has been used for beam control and atmospheric propagation modeling. The advent of the use of complex beam control systems inside SSL resonator devices to provide alignment and amelioration of higher-order wave front errors has made WaveTrain a natural venue for the modeling of the laser devices themselves. BENEFIT: The government has sponsored the development of a number of diode-pumped slab-based high-power solid state laser (SSL) systems for application in directed energy weapons systems. Within the DoD directed energy community, two major programs seek to develop such systems, the Joint High Power Solid State Laser (JHPSSL) sponsored by the High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office (HEL-JTO) and the High-Energy, Liquid-Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS) sponsored by DARPA. Because the development of high power SSL systems is a complex emerging technology, the maturation process involves considerable risk and uncertainties. For this reason, it is desirable for the industry to have access to high-fidelity modeling techniques for the purpose of refining system designs and predicting their performance. By providing such techiniques this effort will reduce both the cost and risk of the development of high power solid state laser systems.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Donald Washburn
AF 08-002      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Improved Analysis Techniques for Characterizing Jitter in Beam Control Systems
Abstract:This SBIR will define test and analysis approaches to unambiguously identify cause/effect relationships for jitter in HEL beam control systems. In particular, from existing test data, we will seek to determine if jitter on target is due to sensor noise (If so, what sensor?), or acoustic inputs to the bench (if so, what are its characteristics?), or induced by structural vibrations (If so, what is their origin?). If additional test procedures are required, they will be recommended. To achieve the objective we will use a variety of conventional and advanced data analysis techniques. Conventional techniques include coherence analysis and modern estimation theory. Advanced techniques include sophisticated spectral analysis and blind source separation methods. BENEFIT: Successfully demonstrated techniques for jitter analysis in HEL beam control systems will garner wide scale acceptance and use in the laser community, since this effort addresses a serious perennial problem in the beam control community. In particular, current beam control systems, e.g. ABL, HELLADS, OTHEELA, ATL, and ELLA, would all benefit in that better jitter analysis methods would lead to better jitter identification and mitigation which would directly contribute to better performance for HEL weapons.

Sound Answers Inc
4856 Alton Drive Suite 100
Troy, MI 48085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 275-5567
Gabriella Cerrato
AF 08-002      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Improved Analysis Techniques for Characterizing Jitter in Beam Control Systems
Abstract:The decomposition of the residual laser beam jitter into its contributions will be achieved with a hybrid approach which will make use of both parametric and model-based approaches. The best method to separate the component of the residual laser beam jitter due to external disturbances from the effect due to internal noise caused, directly or indirectly, by the control elements themselves will be identified from validation testing of the most popular and innovative techniques used in the field of acoustics and vibration. Sound Answers proposes to investigate both statistical (black/gray box) and physical signal decomposition techniques. The statistical techniques that will be investigated will include, but will not be limited to: Indipendent Component Analysis (Blind Source Separation), Principal Component Analysis, Partial Singular Value Decomposition, Conditioned Input Analysis (Partial Coherence). Pattern recognition techniques such as Wavelets and Empirical Mode Decomposition will also be evaluated. Finally, Sound Answers proposes to combine these techniques with physical characterization of the system in terms of sources (or loads, such as the input jitter) and paths (or system sensitivities, such as the transfer functions of the individual sensors, or sensor mounting systems or control actuator modules). BENEFIT: The set of signal processing algorithms utilized for the decomposition of the contributions to the residual jitter will be integrated in a Residual Jitter Decomposition toolbox which can be sold to HEL manufacturers and/or Beam Stabilization and Control System providers.

G A Tyler Assoc. Inc. dba the Optical Sciences Co.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Terry Brennan
AF 08-003      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Atmospheric Characterization for Laser Propagation
Abstract:The design of high performance adaptive optics systems requires a knowledge of the characteristics of optical turbulence that directly impact system performance. Laser weapons designers require an understanding of worst case turbulence effects in order to develop optimal designs. Compensation systems for lasercom applications can only be evaluated with a characterization of optical fading statistics out to very small probabilities. A study of key parameters related to system performance, for a range of applications, from weak turbulence out to the strong turbulence regime will be performed. The results of this study will feed into a hardware design effort where a suite of measuring devices to determine key turbulence parameters as well as estimates of the Cn2 profile will be developed. BENEFIT: The most cost effective method of evaluating the performance of complex imaging and laser systems operating in atmospheric turbulence is with wave optics simulation. This requires an accurate characterization of the disturbance environment, in this case the optical turbulence effects. Advances in measuring and characterizing optical turbulence will provide several direct benefits to the field of adaptive optics compensation. Accurate turbulence characterization allows for adaptive optics design optimization and higher performance at lower cost. Turbulence monitors are also critical in site surveys. Finding sites with favorable turbulence characteristics is also important when seeking the highest performance at the lowest cost. This technology will be beneficial to both commercial and military interests.

Nutronics, Inc.
3357 Chasen Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 524-7933
Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF 08-003      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Image-based Turbulence Monitor
Abstract:A growing number of applications involving laser propagation through turbulence are gaining momentum and acceptance in a broader community. The performance of these systems is typically governed by the statistics of turbulence. It is often the case that a system that is effective in median conditions, is completely ineffective in more severe conditions. While adaptive optics can extend this region of effectiveness, there are ultimately limitations to the performance of adaptive optical systems. Developing an understanding of the fundamental key parameters defining these performance thresholds and methods for measurement of these key parameters is of growing importance. Nutronics proposes a Phase I effort to utilize analysis and simulation to investigate the impact of variations of such parameters as inner and outer scale and anisotropy of turbulence on the performance of laser systems for optical communication and directed energy applications utilizing Nutronics established performance prediction codes. In addition, Nutronics proposed to investigate an innovative sensor suite concept to turbulence parameter estimation: the Image-based Turbulence Monitor (ITM). The proposed ITM utilizes a combination of image and focal plane measurements leveraging established techniques for turbulence profiling and measurement. BENEFIT: The proposed effort has numerous potential benefits and commercial applications, including (but not limited to): laser communication, space situational awareness, astronomical ground based imaging, laser radar, laser rangefinding, air-base defense, ship self-defense, and tactical precision strike.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Richard A Hutchin
AF 08-003      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:Three Dimensional Turbulence Measurement System based on Green`s Function Inversion
Abstract:Optical Physics Company (OPC) has developed a technique called Green`s Function Inversion (GFI) to compensate for moderate to severe deep turbulence effects encountered by tactical laser weapons. This technique can also be used to accurately measure the 3D turbulence profile in air-to-air and air-to-ground engagements. The GFI approach provides comprehensive turbulence data that goes beyond the current parameters of the Fried parameter, isoplanatic angle, and scintillation by determining the 3D turbulence phase profile versus time. The measured data can then be used to construct a physics-based model of turbulence distributions, anisotropies, inner and outer scale and inhomogeneities. The end result is a well anchored turbulence model which can accurately predict the effect of turbulence on a laser wavefront. During Phase I, we will set up a lab demonstration that sends a laser beam through phase plates that have been well characterized and measure the Green`s function. We will use the sensor data to calculate the phase screen positions and 2D profiles. The estimated phase screen positions and profiles will be compared to the measured screen data for scoring the accuracy. During Phase II, we intend to build and test outdoors a prototype to characterize turbulence along extended paths. BENEFIT: The GFI Turbulence Sensor has been developed to provide a major leap in our understanding of turbulence phenomena and how to model them analytically. If successful, the proposed system would be critically important to the success of current and future lasercom and tactical HEL systems by enabling them to predict and optimize performance to a much higher accuracy. The project is being formulated to serve immediate needs, with the assistance of our commercialization partner Boeing, which is a key high energy laser provider to the defense industry.

Libration Systems Management, Inc.
2301 Yale Blvd. SE Suite C3
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 243-6767
Charley Rhodes
AF 08-004      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Fiber Laser Beam Combining
Abstract:We propose a modular, extensible software package for modeling fiber laser arrays. This module will be developed using Mathwork''''s MATLAB and SIMULINK tools. This will ensure compatibility with a wide variety of computer systems. The software will be developed around a graphical user interface that will provide the user with a wide variety of options for modeling any type of fiber laser system. The primary emphasis of Phase I will be the development of a model of a single fiber laser, with the capability to evaluate that laser''''s performance under harsh environmental conditions. BENEFIT: Modular model with a graphical user interface that will allow for the modeling of a single fiber laser- amplifier Modular design allows easy extensibility of model Modules that will allow simulation of fiber laser under extreme conditions Predictive capabilities Validation against existing fiber laser systems in the AFRL DE test bed.

OptiGrate Corporation
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 381-4115
Vadim Smirnov
AF 08-004      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:Coherent beam combining of fiber lasers by volume Bragg gratings
Abstract:Theoretical and experimental study of coherent combining of the beams of fiber lasers is proposed. The key element of the proposed scheme is the use of new corner geometry of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBG) for mixing of the field amplitudes of individual lasers and for the coherent feedback. The development of the technology of recording such corner VBGs is proposed. Software package for computational study of coherent combining via corner VBGs is to be developed. Demonstration of coherent combining of CW fiber lasers with YB doping is proposed. BENEFIT: The successful implementation of the proposed work will pave the road to creation of high power continuous-wave composite multi-fiber lasers with the diffraction quality beams.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Marc Jacoby
AF 08-005      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Innovative, Lightweight Methods For Thermal Management of HEL Mirror Subsystems
Abstract:The Air Force (AF) is interested in innovative, unique approaches for thermal management of HEL mirror subsystems which include active and passive methods for both web- based and foam-core lightweighted mirrors. Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to investigate three (3) active methods for cooling foam-core lightweighted mirrors in which flows of He or another gas, water and water with phase changing wax through the foam-core mirror will very rapidly remove the energy deposited (180 KJ to 6 MJ over 100 seconds) such that the temperature of the optical surface will rise very minimally. In fact, all of these cooling approaches can provide a steady state solution for a matching laser irradiance on a lightweight silicon carbide or silicon foam-core HEL optic. . During Phase I, OPC will use a model of a flat 5 diameter, 0.6 thick lightweight silicon carbide optic with a 100 pore per inch foam-core for CFD and thermal analyses of the 3 active cooling methods. A test optic will be manufactured and used to demonstrate the thermal management technology with open-loop water cooling. If Phase I is successful this optical thermal management technology would achieve TRL 4-5. BENEFIT: A complete prototype closed-loop thermal management system would be demonstrated in Phase II. This system would include a compact, lightweight refrigeration/metal foam-core heat exchanger subsystem and would achieve TRL 6. In Phase III and beyond, OPCs compact, lightweight thermal management system would be upgraded to be field deployable and modified as required for application to other AFRL HEL programs and other commercial functions where heating occurs. The military applications include cooled mirrors for Relay Mirror systems, Advanced Tactical Laser and mobile THEL.

Physical Optics Corporation/Photonic Systems Div.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Michael Reznikov
AF 08-005      Awarded: 2/11/2009
Title:Thermostabilization of Adaptive Optics
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a lightweight thermal mitigation approach for high- energy laser mirror applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Thermostabilization of Adaptive Optics (TAO) approach. This proposed technology is based on enhanced phase-change thermal management. This innovation of a unique integration of the technologies of evaporative cooling with electrohydrodynamics plus a new thermal management design will enable the system to achieve a high and locally regulated heat removal rate while dramatically reducing hardware weight. As a result, TAO offers temperature stabilization of the adaptive optics mirror while removing up to 6 MJ of heat in 100 s, and storing it for further release, which directly addresses the ABL program requirements for thermal management of the adaptive focusing mirror. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of TAO technology by experimental analysis, testing, and evaluation that will determine the size, volume, weight, and power requirements for the TAO hardware design. In Phase II, POC plans to develop and fabricate the TAO prototype hardware, integrate it with a prototype HEL mirror system, and determine TAOs performance in a variety of realistic HEL and environmental conditions with the required instrumentation. BENEFIT: The TAO cooling concept for high-energy mirrors can be incorporated into practically every high power commercial application, such as the use of lasers for cutting, drilling, machining, welding, communications, and fusion. Military applications of the TAO technology will include HEL programs including ABL, ATL, and other airborne or relay mirror platforms. The TAO system can be incorporated by the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Army into a broad range of high power electronics and laser systems, which will benefit from this thermal management technique.

Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mark Patterson
AF 08-006      Awarded: 2/20/2009
Title:Low Cost Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Abstract:An approach to make a long endurance UAV with an 18 hour endurance and large payload will be developed based on an existing, fielded capability present operationally deployed. The system will be built from COTS equipment minimizing cost and allowing for rapid maintenance and upgrading of the system as technology develops. The system will be fully autonomous through launch, mission flight and recovery, and will carry a primary payload capable of EO/IR video and a laser designator/tracker. The payload will be modular in construction and interchangeable with a range of other payloads. In the Phase I the 18 hour duration will be demonstrated and in the Phase II the payload will be increased in weight, while maintaining the duration BENEFIT: The system being addressed under this SBIR is presently on track for deployment. The increased duration and payload capability will significantly benefit our troops operating in theatre and will provide essential technology in the fight against terrorism. The first operators would use the system under prototype configuration. The long duration system would provide on station surveillance for an extended period and would expand the area covered by routine reconnaissance missions. Target designation and tracking capability would mesh well with capabilities presently available from larger manned aircraft.

Brock Technologies, Inc.
14097 E. Placita Rocosa
Vail, AZ 85641
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 271-7566
Keith Brock
AF 08-006      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Unmanned Aerial System with Modular Payload Bays and Payload Interfaces
Abstract:The Unmanned Systems market is exploding with applications, products and services. For example, an increasing number of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are serving the military, commercial and research markets today. However, these systems are generally limited to supporting a single particular sensor, payload, or concept of operation assigned at the design stage of development. Expansion of their capabilities or the integration of a newly developed subsystem often requires a redesign. The Unmanned Systems community could benefit from the development and commercialization of an Unmanned System that is truly adaptable to many payloads and missions. We propose the development of an Unmanned Aerial System capable of supporting a variety of sensors, weapons, and concepts of operations through a modular payload bays and payload interface design. Our modular payload bays and payload interface will allow the UAS to support missions with varying endurance and payload needs via interchangeable subsections capable of supporting extra fuel, batteries, sensors, or ordinance. By utilizing a systems engineering approach, drawing on years of UAS design experience, and focusing on providing an adaptable system, our design will be able to provide a cost- effective solution for a large variety of payloads, customers, and missions. BENEFIT: Military, border surveillance groups, search and rescue teams, and researchers could all benefit from an affordable UAS with long endurance and modular payload capabilities. For instance, the low cost UAS could be equipped with a laser illuminator and be flown into high risk areas to aid soldiers during night operations or be configured to carry large amounts of fuel and a small sensor to provide persistent surveillance over a specific area or along convoy routes. With the United States Homeland Security already capitalizing on larger Unmanned Systems, this system can fly non lethal directed energy payloads to deter illegal immigrants as they cross the border. Moreover, a gimbal with geo-location software could be flown onboard an asset loaded with fuel to search for hikers lost in the mountains. Researchers and scientists could also benefit from the development of a system specifically designed to ease their payload integration and logistics needs, allowing them to remain focused on the science and not the platform. Furthermore, a long endurance platform would allow researchers to capture more data in a single flight without the increased risks associated with multiple launch and recoveries. In summary, a highly versatile, low cost, small UAS is needed to interact with multiple payloads, for a variety of missions, with the capability to operate over an extended period of time. Our proposed system will be able to fill this capability gap, effectively meeting the needs of the Unmanned Systems market, on cost and on time.

Malaney Aircraft Corporation
3352 Tamarisk
Palmdale, CA 93551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 233-8399
John J Malaney
AF 08-006      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Low Cost Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Abstract:Technical Abstract The Department of Defense has expressed the need for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) that can perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) and laser target identification & designation missions. This system should integrate into existing communication and data-link networks. Malaney Aircraft Corporation is developing a tactical-class UAS capable of carrying a 15 lb ISR/directed energy (DE) payload for up to 24 hours to bridge the capability cap of existing UASs. A light-weight, high-aspect ratio, highly-optimized aircraft constructed of carbon fiber and fiberglass can meet the mission requirements. The DE payload will include laser target identification and designation. The vehicle will be launched using a pneumatic launcher and recovered via a parachute. This system will employ advanced autopilot and navigation systems to be simple enough for a non-pilot operator to control. It will be capable of having vehicle and payload control transferred to a forward operating team. It will use commercial-off-the- shelf electronic components to minimize the systems cost and ensure seamless integration into existing networks. The systems production cost will be $50,000 or less. The system is designed to be as logistically simple as small-class UASs; however, it will have capabilities that current tactical-class UASs do not have. BENEFIT: The purpose of this engineering development is to produce a tactical-class UAS available at a cost of $50,000 or less. This vehicle will have an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission with a 24 hour maximum endurance. This system will have a directed energy (DE) payload capable of laser target identification and designation. In addition to being inexpensive, non-pilot operators will be capable of using this system with minimal training. This system will then be used to operate existing and flight test future military and civilian payloads due to its flexible plug and play design. On the battlefield, this system will offer combat commanders (COCOMs) significant mission capability including persistent ISR, precision target location and designation, base protection, battle damage assessment, and battle management. This system is capable of being launched from safe zones and flying behind enemy lines to allow forward operating troops to control the vehicle to have real-time intelligence and precision targeting capabilities. This system will provide the military additional capabilities allowing the military to become more efficient and effective while reducing the risk of casualties. The US Border Patrol, US Coast Guard, and US Forest Service could use this system for day and night operations to reduce the cost and risk of flying manned platforms. This system can perform border and coastal surveillance, aid in search and rescue missions, and fly over dangerous wildfires without endangering people or risking expensive assets. The system design and technology integration will offer the DoD and commercial organizations the capability of theater-class UASs with the simple logistics and cost of small-class UASs.

Navmar Applied Sciences Corporation
65 West Street Road Building C
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 675-4900
Carl Calianno
AF 08-006      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Low Cost Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Abstract:The success of military operations often times depends on the ability to obtain timely and accurate intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information and then to use this information for target location and designation. Unmanned aircraft have proven to be a real asset in conducting these missions. The objective of this project is to develop UAV concepts for a lightweight, low cost UAV with an endurance of at least 18 hours with a payload sufficient to meet mission requirements. There are three main elements of this project the vehicle, the payload and the ground control/launch capability. The project will investigate various high aspect ratio wing configurations including constant chord (straight wings), swept, blended, and joined wing configurations. Winglets will also be examined since they offer a real opportunity to increase the lift to drag coefficient. Multi- surface aerodynamic modeling programs will be used to examine these variations analytically and will also use simulations to determine which offers the best opportunity to achieve the required endurance. A COTS based payload will provide both surveillance sensors and laser based target designators. Finally, a portable launching system will be designed to launch the aircraft. A recovery system will also be designed to safely recover the vehicle. BENEFIT: The low cost UAV, with its integrated sensor package, will have applications in areas other than the military. For example, the Office of Homeland Security has needs for infrastructure protection, port surveillance, and border surveillance and interdiction. This vehicle would serve as an ideal platform for conducting these missions. In addition, other commercial applications include law enforcement, search and rescue, and coastal surveillance, where this vehicle could be used to carry out these activities.

Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc.
200 Innovation Blvd. Suite 237
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7400
Shihai Zhang
AF 08-007      Awarded: 2/23/2009
Title:Compact, Submicrosecond Discharge Pulsed Power Capacitors
Abstract:We propose to develop advanced high energy density and low dielectric loss film capacitors for the pulsed power electronics for high power microwave system. The film capacitors will be designed and fabricated utilizing the innovative SPS high energy density polymer blend capacitor films, state-of-the-art film metallization technology to promote self healing, and robust capacitor design and packaging. The novel capacitor dielectric combines the high energy density of a high dielectric constant polymer and the low dielectric loss of a second high temperature polymer. The capacitors can be operated at high voltage above 15 kilovolt, with submicrosecond discharge rate, a lifetime > 100,000 shots with self-healing feature, and energy density above 3 J/cc. BENEFIT: There are numerous applications that will benefit from improved energy storage capacitors with high voltage endurance, long lifetime, fast discharge, low loss, and high energy density. These capacitors can be used in pulse-forming networks (PFNs) for the conversion of prime electrical energy into the necessary short pulses of energy needed to energize loads such as high power microwave, directed energy, kinetic energy weapons, and high power microwave. The Army is developing future vehicles which require compact electrical power systems. The Navy is developing the all-electric ship in which the power requirements of future Naval vessels will not be as dominated by propulsion as current ships and it may be desirable to be able to transfer energy between uses. This will require storage and conditioning of vast amounts of power. In addition, weapons, catapult systems and other military technologies that demand pulses of power would require very large banks of dielectric capacitors. In parallel, the Air Force is developing more-electric- aircrafts and the Army is trying to develop all electric tanks. Compact, high-energy- density, pulse-power capacitors will be the enabling technology for all future weapon systems that the DoD plans to pursue. In addition, these advanced capacitor film can also be used for implantable cardiac defibrillators, external defibrillators, and capacitor bank for hybrid electric vehicles.

TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque , NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4437
Kirk Slenes
AF 08-007      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:Compact, High Power Capacitors Based on Moldable Nanocomposite Dielectrics
Abstract:Future HPM systems will require compact power to facilitate integration on mobile platforms. Capacitors, used to construct these sources, will need to deliver high current and high voltage under repetition. In response this need, TPL has established unique capabilities in the area of dielectrics. Revolutionary materials, processes and designs have been identified for power sources with significant size reductions. The technology is based on novel nanocomposite formulations that can be reliably formed into capacitors of complex shape and efficiently scaled for system development. The objective this program is to demonstrate nanocomposite capacitors capable of >3.0 J/cc for Air Force applications. TPLs approach will address two critical performance aspects relative to energy density: dielectric constant and pulse life. Material and process refinements will be introduced with expectations for a capacitor dielectric possessing a constant of 100 and dielectric strength of >300 V/µm. Concurrently, detailed characterization and theoretical modeling will be used to define the capacitor failure mode under pulse conditions. Penn State University will facilitate investigation into space charge related failure modes and TPL will identify electo-mechanical related failure modes. Alternative designs and materials will be considered to address the relative impact of these failure modes on capacitor voltage ratings under life conditions. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the proposed program will benefit development in several defense related power conditioning, control electronics and directed energy systems. High energy electrical storage systems with reduced size and weight are required for applications including: high energy laser, high power microwave, electric armor, electric guns, electric launch, particle accelerators and ballistic missile applications.

TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Seongtae Kwon
AF 08-007      Awarded: 2/18/2009
Title:Compact, Submicrosecond Discharge Pulsed Power Capacitors
Abstract:TRS Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop ceramic capacitors as discharge pulse power capacitors for high-power microwave (HPM) systems. The proposed ceramic capacitor will combine some of the best features of high energy density, low dielectric loss, fast discharge time and high temperature stability. The capacitors developed on this program will have energy density >3J/cc, working voltage >15,000V, low power dissipation (Ô<0.005), and a wide working temperature range up to 200¢XC. In Phase I, ceramic pulse power capacitors will be fabricated and evaluated. This will include selection of the optimum material from antiferroelectric, paraelectric ceramics with high energy density and low dissipation, design and fabrication of capacitors to withstand 15000V and evaluation of capacitors such as breakdown strength, energy density and discharge characteristics. These materials have shown 5~13 J/cc of energy density in the form of multilayer capacitors. BENEFIT: The primary markets for high energy density capacitors are high power microwave systems being developed for military applications such directed energy weapons and advanced radar and for high energy physics applications. Improved application voltage and energy density in general are needed to improve the performance of pulsed power for high power microwave systems. TRS¡¦s primary emphases for this work will be high power military microwave systems. The development and fabrication of such materials in TRS¡¦s core competency.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
King Wang
AF 08-008      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Tunable Dielectrics for Gigahertz, Pulsed Power Applications
Abstract:In this program, Agiltron proposes a novel nano-engineering approach to develop a new category of nonlinear nano-dielectrics for Gigahertz pulsed power applications. The new approach combines the cutting-edge nanomaterials development and manufacture at Agiltron and a recently developed atomic layer deposition technology. The nano- composite structure will be simulated and optimized using finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed nanodielectrics possess defined dielectric content, uniform nano-grain structure, clean grain boundaries/interfaces, and high density. Our novel materials feature high dielectric permittivity (1000s), low loss (<0.0005), and high tenability and high breakdown strength at frequency of 800 MHz to 20 GHz. These features are unattainable from the existing materials. This Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In Phase II, Agiltron will be able to mass produce the proposed tunable nanodielectrics at low cost. BENEFIT: Tunable dielectric materials can be used for GHz transmission applications, such as rapid switching, GHz filters, and phased-array technology. Military applications include directed energy weapons, ultra wide band radar, voltage controlled oscillators, phased array antennas, tunable filters and phase shifters. Commercial applications comprise voltage controlled oscillators, tunable filters, phase shifters, compact, tunable (narrowband and wide band) microwave devices, communications and cellular telephones.

nGimat Co.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2477
Yongdong Jiang
AF 08-008      Awarded: 2/19/2009
Title:NanoEngineered Tunable Dielectric Materials for High Frequency Applications
Abstract:The development of electronic devices that are robust, highly efficient, compact, and powerful with wide operational frequency range is critical for enabling precision effects and full battlespace awareness for the U.S. Air Force. High performance tunable dielectric materials are needed with high dielectric permittivity, low dielectric loss, high dielectric strength, and large nonlinear response to electric field. However, existing dielectric materials cannot meet these requirements completely. nGimat Co. proposes to develop novel nanostructured multilayered dielectric materials for high frequency microwave applications. nGimats proprietary Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) technique will be utilized to produce the proposed dielectric materials with controlled layer thickness and stacking periods and with improved electrical properties over existing dielectric materials. Therefore, the proposed material systems will enable a significant overall improvement in future electronic components and systems enabling new military and commercial capabilities. BENEFIT: In recent years, stimulated by the explosive growth in the electronics and telecommunications industries, there is an increasing need for high performance dielectric materials that operate at higher frequencies while reducing size and cost, and increasing performance by integrating multiple separate components into a single device. The proposed dielectric materials systems have wide applications in both the military and industrial areas, including phased array antennas, tunable filters, and phase shifters. The military will benefit from this dual use technology, which will enable low costs for the proposed high performance dielectric materials. The success in this work will enable the U.S. to maintain leadership in the global competition for this technology. Capturing even a tiny percentage of the predicted market represents a significant opportunity for nGimat.

BerrieHill Research Corporation
240 W. Elmwood Dr. , Ste. 1001
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-1016
Peter Munk
AF 08-009      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:High Power Microwave Frequency Selective Surfaces
Abstract:High Power Microwave (HPM) systems penetrate electronic equipment front ends and cause substantial damage to critical components by generating extremely high energy via a very short electromagnetic pulse. Enclosing an HPM radiating aperture with a frequency selective surface (FSS) radome presents a unique problem. The power density seen by HPM radomes is on the order of 10,000 times more than is typically seen in ordinary radome applications. Using an FSS radome for HPM applications complicates the design for two fundamental reasons. First, the FSS radome is susceptible to electromagnetic breakdown and/or arcing. Second, the FSS may distort the short-pulse HPM waveform. The main objective of Phase I is to identify novel designs for high power L-band FSS’s by carrying out detailed analysis of design concepts to assess their advantages and disadvantages in terms of bandwidth, resonance, scan volume/angle performance, power handling, thickness, weight, fabrication processes, and production cost. A prototype FSS coupon suitable for proof-of-principle experimentation shall then be fabricated and limited proof-of-principle experiments shall be performed on the coupon. A Phase II Development Plan shall then be devised based on the Phase I results. BENEFIT: The main benefit of this Phase I effort is an L-band HPM FSS radome design that achieves a desired balance between pulse shape preservation and frequency response while also maximizing the radome breakdown voltage. The design will be used to build an FSS test coupon and perform limited proof-of-principle tests that demonstrate the electromagnetic characteristics of the design at low power. It is anticipated that the HPM FSS radome developed under this effort can be scaled to frequencies above or below the L-band frequency spectrum, and can therefore be modified to accommodate HPM systems having different operating frequencies, polarizations, bandwidths, and scan volume/angle dependence requirements. Finally, although the intended use of the HPM FSS radome being designed here is as a band-pass radome, the methods used for this program could likewise be leveraged to design band-stop radomes. The purpose of an HPM band-stop radome would be one of protection against HPM weapons. BRC anticipates that the HPM FSS technology derived from this effort will have immediate potential and application for high-power pulsed radar, counter-mine and counter improvised explosive device systems, counter-electronic systems, electromagnetic interference testing, and wireless power transmission technologies.

Prime Research, LC
1750 Kraft Dr Ste 1000-B
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
Raymond Rumpf
AF 08-009      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Non-Resonant Frequency Selective Surfaces for High Power Applications
Abstract:Prime Research LC and the University of Central Florida propose the development of a novel class of non-resonant frequency selective surfaces (NREFSSs) for high power operation. The devices use little or no metals and prevent localized high field intensities by avoiding resonance. The structures themselves will be much smaller than the free space wavelength and thickness of the substrates will be at least one order of magnitude smaller than can be achieved using conventional approaches. Two topologies will be investigated: (1) metallo-dielectric structures, and (2) all-dielectric structures. The technology is easily extended to lower frequency bands due their extremely small size relative to the free space wavelength. The design methodologies developed in this effort will provide the ability to synthesize any desired frequency response. The FSS itself will provide a highly stable frequency response that is essentially insensitive to angle of incidence and polarization of the applied wave allowing the structures to possess a field- of-view of +/- 70 degrees. Phase I will design and test NREFSSs at low power. Phase II will include Lockheed Martin as a partner and perform high power testing at their facilities. BENEFIT: The frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) developed in this effort will have an extraordinary capability for handling high power due to their non-resonant behavior and be able to withstand 100 ns electromagnetic pulses at least 1 MW/cm^2 in field strength. This will enable systems to be developed that protect military and commercial aerospace vehicles from electromagnetic pulse attacks. Further, the technology can be applied to engineer the radar cross section of high power radomes and to protect antenna systems from strong electromagnetic interference. The proposed technology is highly versatile and can be applied across an enormous span of wavelength bands.

Scientific Applications & Research Assoc., Inc.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(903) 566-7687
Robert Koslover
AF 08-009      Awarded: 2/4/2009
Title:RCS-Reduction and EMI-Suppression Technology for HPM Antennas
Abstract:Successful platform-integration of high power microwave (HPM) directed energy weapons (DEW) poses very demanding challenges. Unwanted radiation (near-field and far-field) and surface currents locally induced around HPM aperture boundaries raise serious risks of suicide (effects upon the host platform) and fratricide (effects upon nearby friendly or non-targeted systems). These risks must be addressed, and substantially reduced, before such systems can be operated and fielded with confidence. In addition, the nature of anticipated HPM-based missions is such that avoidance of radar detection (or at least, identification) of the platform is highly desirable. Unfortunately, high-gain HPM antennas can exhibit large radar cross sections (RCS) that enhance both detection and identification. Established antenna RCS-suppression techniques, which operate primarily as frequency filters (i.e., frequency selective surfaces, or FSS) tend to concentrate electric fields at dense arrays of locations across apertures. For an HPM- transmitting aperture, this encourages breakdown and severely limits realizable output power per area. We propose to develop practical, realizable, innovative engineering solutions to both types of problems via a methodical program of analyses, modeling, design, and experimentation that will: (1) extend usable FSS RCS-reduction technology into the HPM-capable domain; and (2) establish novel and effective platform- and HPM- compatible EMI-suppression methods. BENEFIT: HPM-compatible RCS-reduction and EMI- suppression are essential enabling technologies for successful military applications of HPM-based directed energy weapons (DEW). Technology resulting from this project will speed advancement/transition of HPM-based directed energy weaponry from the laboratory to the warfighter. Commercial technology spinoffs and applications in EMI suppression are also possible.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 747-6881
Donald Link
AF 08-010      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Innovative UAV-to-satellite communication link concepts using adaptive optics
Abstract:Covertness of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be enhanced by replacing the radio frequency communications link with a laser communication (lasercomm) link. But, in order to have a large enough field of regard, the lasercomm system requires a heavy mechanical gimbal mounted in a dome. This produces a turbulent aero-optics boundary layer that induces mechanical jitter and distorts the lasercomm beam with high spatial and temporal frequency aberrations. A conventional adaptive optics (AO) system designed to correct the aberrations would have a deformable mirror (DM) with hundreds of moving actuators, greatly impacting size, weight, and power (SWAP) requirements. This effort will investigate replacing the gimbal and dome with a wide angle steering system (WASS) based on a volume Bragg grating and liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LCSLM). Without the dome, the aero-optics boundary layer will be inviscid, greatly reducing the amplitude and spatio-temporal frequencies of the aberrations. The mechanical DM could then be replaced by another LCSLM, further decreasing SWAP. This effort will include a preliminary design of the WASS and LCSLM AO systems, a prediction of the aero-optics flow-fields, and a wave-optics prediction of the cumulative distribution function of the lasercomm received power. BENEFIT: For any airborne optical system, replacing the gimbal and dome with a Wide Angle Steering System (WASS) could greatly reduce the size, weight, and power (SWAP) requirements and produce a much more benign aero- optical boundary layer. This would mitigate the aero-mechanical jitter problem and reduce the amplitude and spatio-temporal frequency requirements of the adaptive optics (AO) system enough so that the mechanical deformable mirror (DM) could be replaced by a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM), further decreasing SWAP and also increasing reliability. The LCSLM AO system investigated in this effort could also be beneficial in other applications that do not require a very high temporal frequency. A satellite based optical system might also benefit from the lower SWAP of a WASS relative to a mechanical gimbal. In addition to the optical system design, significant capabilities will be added to one of the governments standard wave optics codes and it will be used to predict performance of both conventional systems and the new designs.

Nutronics, Inc.
3357 Chasen Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 524-7933
Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF 08-010      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Micro Adaptive-optics Unit
Abstract:As the number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the U. S. inventory increases, and the number and capability of sensors installed on UAVs increases there is a growing need for high bandwidth communication to provide real time data streams to in theatre and CONUS command centers. Optical communication provides a potential route to provide high bandwidth communication links from UAVs to satellites. Topic Area AF 08-010 establishes top level requirements for such an optical communication system. Nutronics has performed a system engineering based flowdown of the requirements in the Topic Area description and determine an optimal path for a Micro Adaptive-optics Unit (MAU). Nutronics converged to an innovative solution leveraging sound technologies with a high probability of program success based on use of analysis of fade probability distributions to assess subsystem requirements. Nutronics system engineering evaluation eliminated such attractive approaches as phased arrays and gradient descent methods and converged to the MAU approach. Nutronics proposed approach leverages innovative component technologies and innovative configurations to minimize system footprint and to meet or exceed the requirements set forth in Topic Area AF 08-010. BENEFIT: The proposed effort has numerous potential benefits and commercial applications, including (but not limited to): laser communication, space situational awareness, astronomical ground based imaging, laser radar, laser rangefinding, air-base defense, ship self- defense, and tactical precision strike.

AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Milan Buncick
AF 08-013      Awarded: 3/30/2009
Title:New Laser Eye Protection (LEP) Technology for Visors
Abstract:Laser eye protection has become increasingly important due to the availability of laser sources (continuous and pulsed) over a broad range of wavelengths. This is particularly the case where table top femtosecond laser pulses (~50femtoseconds) with peak powers reaching the Terawatt scale are commercially available in the visible and near infrared. The military uses many laser systems (e.g., training devices, range finders, target designators, communications devices) that emit potentially eye damaging radiation. Because personnel risk exposure to these devices, a growing need exists for eye protection at a variety of wavelengths for both CW and pulsed sources. The objective of this proposal is to develop transparent metallo-dielectric multilayer stacks that functions as a laser eye protection coating. We will design and construct multilayer stacks that provide a high transparency window in the visible spectrum but block both UV and IR light. The coating will have sufficient optical density to protect the eye from damage by laser radiation in these two spectral regions. As part of the Phase I effort we will build and test these stacks on both rigid and flexible substrates in order to provide a wide variety of protection applications. The Phase I work will also produce a technology development and demonstrate plan for the proposed solution that will be executed in Phase II. BENEFIT: The LEP technology solution will create a passive barrier that protects against both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed laser emissions, will be compatible with incorporation into a polycarbonate visor during molding, and not be angularly dependent. Because of dramatically increased use of military laser systems The U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy all have requirements for increased requirements for LEP for personnel. Potentially any commercial field that uses lasers or laser eye protection (e.g., medical/dental laser surgery, lab technicians, welding, manufacturing, and laser research) can benefit from develop of LEP technology

General Opto Solutions, LLC
1366 Ridge Master Drive
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-5982
Claire (Fang) Luo
AF 08-013      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title: Wide angle laser eye protector using 3D anisotropic metal-dielectric nanostructures
Abstract:The primary objective of this proposed research effort is to develop a novel laser eye protector (LEP) for visors, which can not only offer a high transmittance (over 85%) in the visible spectral range and a high blocking rate (OD 4) in the near IR spectral range but also be angular insensitive so that it can be applied to the highly curved or complex- shaped visors. The key innovation of the proposed system is harnessing an unconventional, anisotropic metal and dielectric integrated nanostructured coating. The major advantages of the proposed LEP technology include following aspects: (1) it is highly transparent in the visible spectral range, (2) it can totally block the IR spectrum, (3) it has an ultra sharp transition from the transmissive visible spectrum to the blocking IR spectrum, (4) it is angular insensitive, (5) it works for both the CW and the pulsed laser beam, (6) it is fully compatible with the avionics display on the inside surface of a visor, and (7) it will not generate any negative factors such as haze and distortion. BENEFIT: The successful completion of the proposed research effort represents a major technology breakthrough in LEP because it can be applied to the highly curved and complex shaped surface without deteriorating its performance in terms of transmittance in the visible range and blocking rate in the near IR. It will have a great impact on both the military applications (such as LEP for visors) and the civilian usages (such as medical/dental laser surgery, solar window, and improving the light bulb illumination efficiency).

Kent Optronics, Inc
40 Corporate Park Drive
Hopewell Junction, NY 12533
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 897-0138
Ben Tang
AF 08-013      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Lightweight Low Cost Universal Laser Eye Protection (LEP) Device for Visors
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I proposal, we intend to develop a lightweight low cost and universal Laser Eye Protection (LEP) device for military visors. The technology base is the special liquid crystal photonic crystal. This passive LEP, different from narrow band dielectric coatings and holograms, exhibits a broadband reflection with sharp spectral edges. It avoids almost all the common problems associated with the dielectric coatings and holograms. The LEP is made on flexible and self-adhesive plastic sheet such that it can be easily applied to production visors with irregular shape and curvature without being affected by the PC molding procedure. It is also compatible with the neutral tint (dye) to minimize the internal reflection. The LEP is also superior to dye based LEPs in terms of visible transmittance, visible color appearance, laser damage threshold, and material stability during the visor molding process. The LEP possesses high optical density (>4) to against laser beam having different incidence of angle till 70o. It allows luminous transmittance of >85%, and neutral color. In Phase I, demo LEP will be produced to show the capability. In Phase II working prototype(s) will be developed followed by extensive field-test till all the specifications are met. BENEFIT: The major application of these technologies is for eyewear protection goggle with wide spectral range for the Army warfighters. Specifically, they will be integrated into a head- or helmet-mounted display to prevent operator¡¯s eyes from laser injury. It could be adapted for pilots and soldiers of other military such as Army, NAVY, and Marine. Due to its superior optical performance, the new technology will penetrate into a vast amount of market currently occupied by protection goggle technologies. The technology(s) can be easily adapted to civil law enforcement personnel with similar applications that desire wide transmission range and fast transmission level change rates. Or it can be used in many other sports and recreational activities where the performance of current products suffer to satisfy.

Luminit, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Kevin Yu
AF 08-013      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Laser Eye Protective Technology Polycarbonate Visor with Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
Abstract:To protect the vision of Air Force aircrew and personnel from near-infrared (NIR) light (700 nm to 1350 nm), Luminit, LLC proposes to design and fabricate a new Laser Eye Protection polycarbonate visor incorporating high NIR absorbing nanocomposites (LEP- POLY_NANO). Surface-modified metal oxide nanoparticles can be incorporated into highly curved and complex-shaped visors during molding to create a passive barrier that protects against continuous wave and pulsed laser emissions without angular dependence. These nanocomposites are responsible for strong NIR absorption band from 700 nm to 1350 nm, yet they retain a high transmittance of the 380 nm to 700 nm visible band. Due to the nanocomposite size, this new technology will not introduce haze, distortion, aberration, prism or artifacts that would impair visual performance or create distractions in the visual field, and it will not degrade the ballistic protection properties of the polycarbonate. In Phase I, Luminit will assess the technology feasibility and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology by designing, fabricating, and validating an LEP-POLY_NANO that meets Air Force specifications for LEP. Phase II will focus on technology optimization and on carrying out the technology development plan to deliver visors incorporating LEP-POLY_NANO technology with supporting performance data. BENEFIT: The LEP-POLY_NANO developed in this project can be manufactured as highly curved and complex-shaped visors for laser eye protection for both the military and civilian commercial markets. This unique process, incorporating the nanocomposites with high NIR absorption and high visible light transmittance, make it welcome for occupational and industrial safety in any field that employs lasers. Commercial and military pilots, tank drivers, gunners, missile control personnel, laser researchers and laser surgery personnel are a few examples of markets that would readily embrace the proposed LEP- POLY_NANO technology.

Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc.
8285 El Rio Street, Ste 150
Houston, TX 77054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 748-3903
Glenn Goodrich
AF 08-013      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Laser Eye Protection for Visors Using Plasmon Resonant Particles
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal involves the design and development of a military-use visor that provides laser eye protection using plasmon resonant particles (PRPs). The near- infrared protection is provided by embedding optically tunable nanoparticles within the polycarbonate matrix of the visor. These PRPs may be selected to provide extinction of high-intensity near-infrared radiation while allowing the maximum transmission in the visible spectrum. This proposal will draw from a broader range of PRPs to provide LEP from NIR radiation. As demonstrated in prior work, PRPs may be uniformly distributed in a variety of materials which are similar to polycarbonate, the preferred visor material. BENEFIT: The principal applications of the proposed product will be military, but there are also significant potential commercial uses. We also believe this proposal is forward- thinking the principal needs and size of the commercial market are based on the development of military technology by potential enemies of the United States as well as future events. In the short range, this work has a potential use in aviation and by combat troops. Commercial uses include laser operators and industrial applications that generate near-infrared illumination (e.g., glass workers).

Neva Ridge Technologies, Inc.
6685 Gunpark Drive Suite 230
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-9966
Richard Carande
AF 08-014      Awarded: 3/26/2009
Title:Multimodal Synthetic Aperture Radar (MM-SAR) Exploitation
Abstract:Coherent and non-coherent change detection algorithms produced from SAR imagery have enormous intelligence value due to their sensitivity to change. But they are also difficult to interpret because of high false alarm rates and because of the basic statistical nature of SAR imagery which makes automatic filtering algorithms very difficult to robustly implement. This necessitates man-in-the-loop analysis in order to obtain favorable false alarm and detection probability rates. The challenge gets both better and worse as SAR data becomes more prevalent; more information provides an opportunity to improve false alarm rate, but without more sophisticated processing data overload results. Neva Ridge Technologies proposes to improve the interpretability of change detection products. This includes identification and masking of pixels with an elevated false alarm rate due to well understood phenomenological processes. It also includes adaptive processing to perform spatial averaging in a way that avoids edges, thus preserving resolution. We also propose to study the correlation of change signatures in multiple change detection products. This has two important benefits: improving performance in persistent surveillance operations, and combining and reducing the amount of imagery which would need to be interpreted by an IA. We also propose concepts for improved display products. BENEFIT: This work effort would contribute target detection and recognition algorithms for which there is significant interest in the DoD and intelligence community. This capability could also be used in civilian applications such as land use classification and monitoring, watershed and aquifer health, and hazard management.

Radiance Technologies Inc.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-3831
Mike Smith
AF 08-014      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:Multimodal Synthetic Aperture Radar (MM-SAR) Exploitation
Abstract:This topic will address the need to increase the image analyst''''s ability to compare SAR images of a common scene taken at different times, also known as change detection. Within this study pixel level (coherent) and aggregate level (non-coherent) change detection methods will define two dimensions of a trade space to quantify the means and methods needed to enhance AF change detection abilities. In addition to the change detection methods a third dimension of the trade space will be the use of sub-aperture processing for the purpose of reveling otherwise obstructed targets which will complement one or both change detection methods. BENEFIT: The successful fielding of this technology will reduce Intel production timelines through semi-automated image cueing processes. Attention focusing filters will motivate Image analyst to concentrate on areas of suspected interest, thus allowing greater amounts of image data to be exploited. This program will also reduce false positive by cross cueing different exploitation methods thus allowing independent correlation from different methods.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Carl Frost
AF 08-014      Awarded: 3/26/2009
Title:Innovative MM-SAR Exploitation Tools Using CCD, NCCD, and DI
Abstract:1.1 There is significant interest in the application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD), non-coherent change detection (NCCD), and dynamic imaging (DI) modes to support image analysts in their exploitation of SAR imagery. Military and nonmilitary applications of these technologies include the persistent surveillance of urban areas, terrain characterization, 3-D imaging of building complexes and other numerous forensic applications. But the non-literal nature of SAR imagery has kept it from being utilized to its fullest capabilities, and there is a need to develop innovative methods to effectively utilize these SAR imaging modes in the overall exploitation process. SSCI proposes to perform research necessary to the development of new, significantly enhanced exploitation tools that most effectively use these SAR modes in synergistic fashion, combining the modes in a way that takes advantage of the strengths of each mode while minimizing the effects of their respective weaknesses. BENEFIT: In this SBIR project, SSCI will develop a toolkit for image exploitation using multi-modal SAR. A robust and feature-rich toolkit will accelerate the adoption and fielding of these SAR systems. The commercialization applications of this research range from ground-based radar to airborne and unmanned aircraft systems.

Harsh Environment Applied Technologies Inc.
6390 Crain Hwy Suite 102
La Plata, MD 20646
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 934-7000
David Siviter
AF 08-015      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Binocular Multispectral Adaptive Imaging System (BMAIS)
Abstract:Currently, pilots in the Air Force do not have a visualization system that enables day/night/adverse weather operations. Instead, fielded day and night vision technologies are not integrated and do not meet the requirements of the pilots under many illumination conditions. The primary goal of HEAT Inc. is to design and then develop a revolutionary pilot HMD visualization system that enables day/night/adverse weather operations by leveraging prior experience and technologies from HEAT Inc.s development of SWIR Monocular and ADM NVG systems for USSOCOM as well as HEAT Inc.s work within the DARPA MISI program. BENEFIT: The proposed design for a HMD visualization system that enables day/night/adverse weather operations can be applied to multiple commercial applications. HEAT Inc. believes there is a significantly sized military and commercial market requiring such a visualization system. Two major commercial applications are: 1. Homeland Security Operations Homeland Security operations such as coastal and border patrol require such a system to enable a pilot to operate during the day, night and during adverse weather conditions. For coastal and border patrols, Homeland Security pilots have a significant need to increase their situational awareness in all possible conditions. 2. Commercial Aircraft Operations Just as an Air Force pilot needs to have increased perception and situational awareness in all day/night conditions, a commercial aircraft pilot needs the same. Such a system could be used by commercial pilots to increase their field of view, perception and situational awareness.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Jason Holmstedt
AF 08-015      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Sensor-Fused Multispectral Adaptive Imaging Low-Power Low-Weight Helmet-Mounted Display
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a binocular multispectral adaptive imaging system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new clip-on Sensor-Fused Multispectral Adaptive Imaging Low-Power Low-Weight Helmet-Mounted Display (SMALL- HMD) system. This proposed system is based on advanced low-power multispectral sensors and adaptive fusion algorithm that overlay multispectral digital imagery with computer-generated symbology and presenting the resulting image in real time to the user on a low-profile see-through holographic HMD. The innovations in SMALL-HMD include optical tiling of visible/NIR and SWIR images using a small on-helmet common optics and adaptively fusing these images with tactical symbology (including imagery from other aircraft-mounted sensors, such as LWIR) in a 40-degree FOV with 100% binocular overlap and 1:1 magnification. The compact and low-power SMALL-HMD can be integrated with a clip-on ANVIS-compatible helmet mount. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SMALL-HMD by providing a laboratory demonstration of a single-color see-through minimum resolution (640 x 512 pixels) fused image containing at least SWIR, NIR, and symbology. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a high resolution (1280 x 1024 pixels) SMALL-HMD clip-on prototype that meets the space weight ergonomic and power (SWEP) requirements for current helmets. BENEFIT: Military applications of the SMALL-HMD system will include multispectral fused imagery for use in both fixed-wing and rotorcraft fleets, as well as special forces operations. The SMALL-HMD system can be incorporated by the U.S. Air Force into the current F-22 and future F-35 fighters, the HH-60 Pave Hawk search-and-rescue helicopter, and ground vehicles using SWIR headlamps that only the driver/passengers can see. We anticipate widespread appeal of the SMALL-HMD technology to such nonmilitary applications as Homeland Security search-and-rescue operations, firefighting, gaming HMD, flight simulators, and other immersive display systems, including medical and CAD/CAE 3D image displays, and virtual reality displays for endoscopy/laparoscopy.

Sage Technologies, Ltd.
One Ivybrook Boulevard Suite 190
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 658-0500
Wesley Sheridan
AF 08-015      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Binocular Multispectral Adaptive Imaging System (BMAIS)
Abstract:The proposed system is a helmet mounted system that will incorporate a visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared (Vis/NIR/SWIR) camera technology with dual imaging lenses placed just above the operators eyes. The BMAIS is expected to provide high resolution multi-spectral imagery to pilots and to operational personnel with similar requirements. The intention is to provide the combination of binocular field of view and light weight/low moment arm that will allow for a possible replacement for PNVG systems that rely on image intensifier (I2) technology. The Sage Team will use recent developments in SWIR digital FPA technology combined with advanced image displays, and a small powerful image processor chip. The result will be a small binocular device that is expected to provide about 40° by 40° FOV with resolution comparable to the GEN IV NVGs. while providing sensitivity for 24/7 vision enhancement capability. The system is fully digital allowing image enhancement algorithms and fusion of other sensor suites such as FLWIR, other symbology, and lower weight. BENEFIT: Sage foresees that the BMAIS has potential in four distinct markets: Military, Government Agencies, Municipal, and Commercial. The Military market has the need for enhanced night vision sensor capabilities, advanced reconnaissance sensors and combat infantry augmented night vision. Government Agencies in both Law Enforcement and Covert Operations have needs for enhanced night vision capabilities as used by the military. Border monitoring and perimeter protection for Government facilities throughout the world will make good use of the BMAIS. Police and SWAT surveillance and intrusion tasks will be enhanced by the use of the BMAIS. First responders can use this technology to quickly provide SWIR functions in cases of natural or terrorist disasters. The Commercial market for the BMAIS will be primarily for perimeter defense of strategic facilities, such as nuclear plants and volatile material manufacturing plants.

21st Century Systems, Incorporated
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 954-6049
Amber Fischer
AF 08-016      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Video20/20
Abstract:The monitoring of multiple UAV video sources is challenging, in part, due to the poor quality of the video received. Significant video degrading is caused by clouds, haze, and dust in the atmosphere; jitter and blurring from the UAV platform motion; and low video resolution due to sensor characteristics and high altitude flying. Higher quality video would alleviate much of the challenge for the operator, increasing the likelihood that they will detect and identify targets and increase their confidence in the presence and type of targets. In addition, improving the quality of video would increase the autonomous detection and tracking capabilities that support the operators ability to interpret the images and make timely decisions. 21st Century Systems, Incorporated is excited to apply our extensive video analytics expertise to develop Video20/20, an innovative real-time EO/IR video-enhancement toolset. Video20/20 is a set of software tools that provide in real- time haze-free, stabilized video with higher resolution and contrast enhancement making it easier to detect and distinguish enemy activities in EO/IR video collected from UAV platforms. The software tools will be designed for improving the image quality of UAV EO/IR video for both human interpretation and to improve autonomous detection and tracking capabilities. BENEFIT: There is an immediate need for this video enhancement capability in all branches of the DoD. Unmanned Systems technology has been revolutionized during the current OIF and OEF conflicts, and we can expect to see even more of them in future conflicts. UAVs have performed thousands of ISR missions (Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) in support of ongoing operations. They have greatly expanded the level of real-time intelligence available to the warfighter. Despite the many recent advances in Unmanned Systems technology, there are many technical challenges yet to overcome. The limitation of the value of any ISR platform is the ability of a human operator to interpret actionable intelligence from the video stream. Soldiers, Airmen, and Image Analysts are currently hampered by video that is often low- quality and difficult to interpret. By developing a tool that can improve image quality, we can greatly improve the tactical value of every Micro and Small UAV in service. Our system will enable a next-generation capability for UAV operation. It will allow an operator to interpret data from a single UAV much more easily, with less fatigue and eyestrain, and provide greater situational awareness than existing systems. It will also allow the same operator to more easily monitor multiple UAV video streams and be able to interpret and act on them with minimal effort. By cleaning up the imagery, the operator will be able to maintain a much greater understanding of the ground situation with less effort on their part.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Jonah McBride
AF 08-016      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Video and Image Enhancement Workbench for Aerial Surveillance and Tracking (VIEW-FAST)
Abstract:Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a critical part of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and Close Air Support-Troops in Contact (CAS-TIC) missions. Aerial imagery can provide ground forces with critical information about enemy capabilities and locations. However, monitoring video imagery from an aerial platform is often challenging due to poor image quality and other issues which reduce image interpretability, such as platform/sensor instability, target size, and environmental artifacts. These issues can make it difficult or impossible to discover and monitor important targets and events. To address this problem, we propose a suite of algorithms called Video and Image Enhancement Workbench for Aerial Surveillance and Tracking (VIEW-FAST). VIEW-FAST consists of four modules: (1) image correction to correct blur and boost contrast, (2) image stabilization to compensate for camera shake, (3) super- resolution to reveal fine scene details, and (4) target tracking to reduce the burden on the operators attention and allow multi-tasking. This system will increase sensor operator effectiveness in ISR and CAS-TIC missions, making them more successful and reducing personnel requirements. BENEFIT: The clearest commercial application of this technology is the thousands of UAV imaging platforms currently deployed by various branches of the DoD for ISR and close air support. Other applications include border patrol, search and rescue, news media and law enforcement pursuit.

Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Elizabeth P Zinsser
AF 08-017      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Smart, Rapid-Response Jettison System for Helmet Mounted Displays
Abstract:Modern combat aircraft use advanced human interface technology, such as Helmet Mounted Display Systems (HMDS), which give crewmembers increased situational awareness. However, such systems also add weight to a helmet, which increases the risk of injury in the event of a crash or ejection due to the change in inertia and aerodynamics of the crewmember. To counter this problem, mechanical release systems that disengage under high acceleration were developed. However, accelerations during air combat maneuvers (ACM) can approach or exceed those felt during an ejection or crash (EC) event. Simple mechanical releases cannot differentiate between these situations, and therefore may disengage the HMDS during ACM or normal operation. CRG proposes a unique sensor and algorithm system to distinguish between the two scenarios and create a jettison system that only releases during ejection/crash. This involves innovative sensor positioning allowing a faster reaction time than current helmet mounted sensors alone. Combined stimuli sensing, which takes advantage of the change in environment during EC, can be used to differentiate between the two scenarios, leading to minimization of false positive release. Incorporating rapid-response, micro sensors and actuators will enable this technology in a compact, self-contained package, requiring no aircraft modification. BENEFIT: Operational Benefits: (1) Reduction of injury during ejection or crash when using a HMDS, (2) Reduction of unwanted release during combat maneuvers, and (3) requires no aircraft modification. Commercial Applications: (1) Miniature automobile crash recognition sense and respond, (2) High-adventure recreation safety, and (3) commercial and general aviation.

Diversified Technical Systems, Inc.
909 Electric Ave Suite 206
Seal Beach, CA 90740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 493-0158
Michael Beckage
AF 08-017      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Smart Automatic Jettisoning Device for Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS)
Abstract:Various helmet mounted display systems (HMDS) are currently used on aircrew helmets to enhance night vision and provide targeting and aircraft systems information. Safety concerns regarding HMDS typically center on the additional weight to the helmet and the change to the helmet center of gravity that can increase the probability of injury under eject conditions or crash landings. The objectives of this solicitation are to perform analysis of helmet motions during standard air combat maneuvers, ejections, and crashes and develop an algorithm to differentiate between these conditions. A prototype electronic system will then be developed, exposed to these environments and tested to see if the conditions can be differentiated. To meet these objectives, this Phase I proposal is for a Real Time Sensing System (RTSS) that contains a triaxial accelerometer, a microprocessor and associated electronic circuits and is designed to monitor acceleration in real time to reliably detect whether an eject or crash event has occurred. The RTSS will be an ultra small, lightweight, low power electronic device that can be integrated into the HMDS mount and contains a sophisticated algorithm that can release the HMDS if an eject or crash event is detected. BENEFIT: In addition to the application in military aircrew helmets, there is also potential for broader commercial application for a smart sensor event detection system. Applications include sports equipment (football, hockey, etc.) and personal safety equipment. The prediction of potential mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) would be tremendously valuable as TBI is not well understood, but it affects millions of children and adults in the U.S. each year.

Mide Technology Corporation
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Attila Lengyel
AF 08-017      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Smart Automatic Jettisoning Device for HMDS
Abstract:Current Helmet Mounted Display Systems (HMDS) are mounted to aircrew members helmets to improve performance by providing night vision enhancement, by enabling look- and-shoot weapons cueing systems, and by providing continuous aircraft information to the crewmember. The added weight and resulting center of gravity shift of these systems can increase the probability of injury to the crewmember in the event of ejection or crash landing. The additional surface area of the HMDS can also increase aerodynamic loading during ejection which also results in an increase to the probability of injury. Creation of simple force/acceleration HMDS release systems have been developed and tested, but these systems have been unacceptable since helmet accelerations encountered during air combat maneuvers (ACM) can be near or can exceed the peak accelerations encountered during ejections. A need for a better solution exists. Midé proposes to develop a SMA based system to reliably release the HMDS only during crash and ejection scenarios. The challenge is to discern between normal aircraft maneuvers and a crash or ejection event. In order to accomplish this, Midé plans to utilize its piezoelectric based sensors calibrated in a manner where this differentiation can take place. BENEFIT: Potential military applications of this technology could benefit users of night vision goggles (including ANVIS-9, PNVG, and the developmental NVCD) and other modern display systems (i.e., JHMCS, JSF). In the commercial sector, this technology could be used for items like auto binder releases on skis/snowboards and possibly as a real-time warning system if an athlete is likely to suffer from concussions/injuries due to impact in contact sports.

Holochip Corporation
4940 W. 147th Street
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 906-1064
Robert Batchko
AF 08-019      Awarded: 4/20/2009
Title:A Full-Parallax High-brightness Large-Format Floating-Image Solid-State 3D Display
Abstract:There is an acute need for high-brightness, full-parallax, large-image, wide-FOV 3-D display systems. In order for a display system to meet the requirements of these applications, it must be: solid-state; rugged; viewable with full parallax anywhere in a 30º or greater FOV by any number of users without the need for goggles or eye tracking; high brightness, resolution and color (viewable in room- and day light; scalable in image size from handheld devices to table-tops; compact in size; and enabled with input device for easy interactivity. The aim of this program is to prove the feasibility of a 3-D display capable of meeting these requirements. The optical processor is based on Holochips patented solid-state combinatorial optical architecture and APL adaptive polymer lenses. The fast response of the adaptive lenses and low-f/# and wide aperture allows rapid z- axis scanning and a large FOV of the projected volumetric image. These and other advantages, including greatly reducing the SWaP compared to existing approaches, enable a 3-D display that is uniquely suitable for a number of applications. BENEFIT: The introduction of the first high-performance 3D display system to achieve ALL of the industrys price/performance requirements will create a multibillion dollar opportunity for growth and capture in this market. By producing the first high-performance volumetric display to meet all of the 3D industrys requirements, Holochip will have an opportunity to leverage a revolutionarily differentiated product into the 3D market, ignite new market growth and dominate the 3D display arena. The economy will stand to benefit greatly from this new market and market-segment growth with increased demand for computer peripherals, entertainment and other 3D technologies that provide a premium over flat 2D displays. Further, the growth of the 3D industry will be a benefit to all parts of the supply chain from components manufacturers to parts vendors to systems integrators to manufacturers. And, the new 3D market will be large enough to support multiple competitors at each level of the supply chain. Other industries, such as medicine, education and chemical engineering, will also stand to benefit from this growth, as the new technologies and ways of thinking will likely be spawned from a renaissance in 3D display. Potential markets for a high-performance volumetric display include: Consumer: video games, education, information display, 3D Television; Medical: data visualization, preoperative planning, radiotherapy, computer-assisted surgery, reconstructive surgery, cosmetic surgery, telepresence surgery, surgical training; Industrial: petro/geo chemical, pharmaceutical, telepresence robotics, industrial control, network visualization; CAD/CAE: virtual prototyping, computational fluid dynamics, finite element analysis, design review, architecture, micro/nano design, tactile testing; Military/Government: simulation, command and control, mission planning, cockpit/cabin information, intelligence, air traffic control, UAV tasking; Computer Graphics: character design, animation, artistic, digital clay, tactile animation; and Scientific: data visualization, atmospheric, oceanography, material design & development, astronomy, energy research. Users of the technology will include parties

MNB Technologies, Inc.
1194 E Winners Cir.
Bloomington, IN 47401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 824-8226
Nicola V. Granny
AF 08-019      Awarded: 3/27/2009
Title:Full Multiplex Holographic Display (FMHD)
Abstract:Our novel, holistic approach to real time synthetic holography will result in an end-to-end solution for synthesis and presentation of large format high definition polychromatic holograms at video frame rates. Since a holographic display without an associated system for interference pattern synthesis from non-holographic source media is of limited value, we propose parallel development of the large format display, real time synthesis engine, and software to provide input. Included in the hardware accelerated synthesis engine are computational modules to extrude a three dimensional image from live (or recorded) stereoscopic video feeds and to create synthetic coherent light illumination of the scene. Further, to keep the total development costs reasonable we will use a modified 60-inch COTS laser-based high definition projection television as the basis for the projector. We will also use COTS high performance reconfigurable computing modules and techniques to provide the requisite computational power for the three parallel video processing pipelines. The Phase I effort will result in a functional monochrome proof-of-concept vehicle that clearly demonstrates feasibility. The follow-on Phase II effort will produce a full performance polychromatic prototype system. BENEFIT: Commercialization of a practical RTSH system will prove beneficial to the DOD by: 1) dramatically improving both physical and cyber space visualization, 2) improving the ability of commanders to synthesize battlespace information into actionable knowledge, 3) improve warfighter effectiveness and safety through more realistic training, 4) improve the timeliness and accuracy of mission planning and after action analysis, 5) improve the ability of controllers to de-conflict the airspace in the theater of operations, 6) shorten the kill chain through improved asset coordination, 7) fusion of disparate sensor data into a intuitive format. Outside the DOD our RTSH system will introduce revolutionary improvement in the areas of: 1) medical imaging, 2) telemedicine, 3) surgical training, 4) scientific visualization, 5) fluid dynamics, 6) finite element analysis, 7) architecture and structural engineering, 8) disaster planning and management, 9) air traffic control, 10) cockpit safety, 11) process control, 12) drug discovery, 13) robotics, and 14) gaming and entertainment.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics and Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Tin M. Aye
AF 08-019      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Synthetic Holographic Integral Voxel Addressing 3D Display
Abstract:To address Air Force need for a full-parallax digital video rate holographic three- dimensional (3D) display with gesture glove interface, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Synthetic Holographic Integral Voxel Addressing (SHIVA) 3D display that effectively projects true 3D images. The SHIVA technology is based on the principle of the holographic virtual window, which consists of thousands to millions of holopixels each producing samples of 2D holograms through intensity-modulated laser beamlet scanning in 2D. This unconventional design can be implemented with currently available solid-state laser diodes, high-resolution, high-speed spatial light modulators, uniquely integrated with beam-scanning monolithic liquid crystal scanner arrays, which capitalizes on recent advances in nanoscale electro-optic material and fabrication technologies. Unlike usual stereoscopic or multiview systems, the SHIVA system avoids the accommodation-convergence depth cue conflict and stereo-depth distortion, allowing multiple viewers to see 3D images from different directions with correct perspectives. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept through design and fabrication, and demonstration prototype to show pathways to full-color large-FOV and high-resolution multiviewer scalable system. In Phase II, POC will develop a video rate single- or full-color prototype SHIVA display system with a wearable data glove interface. BENEFIT: Military applications of the SHIVA 3D display system will span complex system visualization, battlespace management and planning, war theatre hazard analysis and simulation, flight deck displays, medical research, and personnel training in 3D simulators. Civilian commercial applications include homeland security, air traffic control, 3D design, scientific and engineering modeling, medical imaging, and entertainment.

Zebra Imaging, Inc.
9801 Metric Blvd Suite 200
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 583-1371
Mark Lucente
AF 08-019      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Full Multiplex Holographic Display (FMHD)
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of the scalable 3D display technology proposed by Zebra Imaging to produce realistic auto-viewable 3D images for Air Force applications related to air, space and cyberspace. A display producing such holographic images can provide intuitive visualization of three-dimensional (3D) data and scene information from a wide range of applications. Zebras technology will allow for rapid, interactive viewing of all types of 3D data, converting 3D scene data into a spatial image that occupies a 3D image volume, much like the holographic images produced by traditional (recorded) optical holograms. Animations and interactive content are displayed as bright true-3D images, viewed automatically (i.e., no special viewing apparatus), with full parallax for proper 3D perspective from every viewer position. The core technology combines custom (and off-the-shelf) components to control the amount and direction of emitted light-field. As will be shown in the Phase 1 effort, it provides accurate, unencumbered, scalable and updatable presentation of critical data for multiple users. It will provide the scalable, auto-viewable display that is necessary to depict multi sensor-acquired GIS and associated data, allowing real-time multi-user interactivity. BENEFIT: By producing spatial images with holographic realism, Zebra 3D displays become a valuable visualization tool. The display can be integrated with existing applications to facilitate communication of intelligence for team-based training, battle space management, mission planning and rehearsal, and interpretation of real-time data. This technology is therefore suitable for a wide spectrum of Department of Defense (DoD) applications, ideally those that include graphically-intense applications. The 3D display will accurately and intuitively present complex real-world data to facilitate rapid discernment and clear communication of intelligence to support decision making. It will satisfy an immediate and long-term growing need in a broad swath of sectors in the military, for operation mission planning and reconnaissance. As the number and sophistication level of sensors in the military theater increase, potentially critical data can lose utility without a means for rapid discernment and contextualization. Most of this data is co-located, visual, and occupies a three-dimensional volume, particularly urban data. Most display technologies that claim to provide 3D images fall short when visualizing this kind of data: they lack depth cues and therefore accuracy; many are not practical for multiple users; most are not scalable.

Bevilacqua Research Corporation
4901 Corporate Drive Suite B
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 882-6229
Andy Bevilacqua
AF 08-020      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:Geospatial Intelligence Analyst Knowledge Preservation Tools
Abstract:This proposal describes a specific problem within the Intelligence community. Because of a lack of GEOINT tools for capturing storing and delivering expert knowledge from experienced analysts, new analysts have difficulty in quickly gaining the level of skill that those expert analysts possess. Recent work in cognitive science has shown that engineers presented with knowledge from domain experts in certain areas of expertise were able to perform tasks better after studying concept maps. This proposal suggests that an even more robust method would be to use conceptual graphs as a means to capture store and deliver domain expert knowledge for rapid training of new analysts. We show a design approach based upon the CORE toolset, an award winning set of Government owned cognitive tools for manipulating conceptual graphs. We also present a preliminary design as a baseline for the work to be accomplished in Phase I and describe our success over the years in the SBIR program. BENEFIT: If successful, the Phase I program will lay the groundwork for full-scale development of an expert domain knowledge capture storage and delivery system for the Intelligence community. The Phase I program should be able to identify those major knowledge-handling functions necessary to perform these tasks and to demonstrate some of their functionality. The Phase II program will fully develop and test the individual components and resolve key technical issues before going on to Phase III in which institutional funding will be sought to build a formal software architecture for corporate training.

Carbon Project, Inc.
25 Mall Road, Suite 300
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 491-9543
Jeff Harrison
AF 08-020      Awarded: 4/16/2009
Title:Decision Support for Geospatial Intelligence Analysis
Abstract:With improved precision of MTI sensors it is now possible to extract and analyze valuable information through smart algorithms. In particular, identifying Lines of Communication (LOC) is possible using current technologies, providing new GEOINT processes and products. In this SBIR we will identify characterized route topology and geography, linking flows and classifying routes by type. To do this we will apply techniques we have used effectively in geospatial data conflation, including deriving functional hypotheses based on geometric and inferred topological characteristics of dynamic data and associated geographic features. Our approach will develop algorithms to provide LOC characterization and fusion from MTI reports. For example, a series of adjacent MTI reports in a chain likely form a route. Combined with MTI velocity and direction vectors, and inference, these reports may provide characterization of the LOC. Our proposal links together two key technologies: an underlying algorithm set accessing geographic features, terrain and route topology that would be modified to extract LOC from MTI streams and a semantic framework which provides the basis for configuring and tuning rules to derive conclusions from geometric, topological and topographic assertions about LOC function. Our vision for the "end-state" of the Phase 1 research is a credible proof of concept demonstration. BENEFITS: The proposed approach can be integrated as an off-the-shelf toolkit product that wraps the core algorithms and is able to digest common MTI formats while producing common geospatial formats, such as Shapefiles and GML, for full geospatial interoperability. Furthermore we will advance new analysis and awareness front-end tools based on the product, as well as extend the algorithms to multiple sensor types. There is great potential to transition this solution to military application. Initial focus is on the defense, intelligence, command and control markets, where there is a great need for these types of solutions. In addition, with the growing complexity of border security challenges we see a strong potential for this solution in the homeland security and border surveillance market.

Radiance Technologies Inc.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(228) 688-2569
Tom Strange
AF 08-020      Awarded: 3/26/2009
Title:GEOINT Open Source Tool
Abstract:The principle goals of this proposed activity, GEOINT Open Source Tool (GOST), are to research and demonstrate innovative exploitation and analysis processes and tools associated with the efficient integration of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) into Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) products. Increasingly, GEOINT imagery analysts (IA) professionals need to quickly assimilate social, economic, and cultural information about a country or imageinformation often detailed in open sources. The goal of this Phase I proposed activity is to design a GEOINT IA user-friendly system for the utilization of open source intelligence within a geospatial context. The system includes intuitive methods for discovering relevant OSINT, innovative interface for browsing, geospatially enabling existing open source intelligence data stores and geospatially enabling any future data acquisitions. The purpose behind creating a geospatially enabled data source is to make the data more relevant for a given operation and to decrease the information overload on the user of the open source intelligence. The GEOINT analyst, properly equipped with the proposed system, will be able to provide the rapid, responsive, accurate, and actionable intelligence required by Air Force decision makers today and tomorrow. BENEFIT: The research and development associated with the GEOint Open Source Tool (GOST) technology would result in significant enhancements to the geospatial intelligence production and dissemination methods. GEOint analysts need to quickly assimilate social, economic, and cultural information about a country or imageinformation often detailed in open sources, in sizes that can quickly overwhelm the analyst. The GOST will provide geographic access via Google or ESRI while providing techniques and methods to prioritize, geospatially enable and catalog the open source information. It will dramatically improve productivity for the GEOint analysts by improving information accession, interpretation, analysis and product development. The commercialization potential is high, ranging from defense industry companies to commercial geospatial production systems.

Ruth Wyatt
UAV Communications, Inc. 720 Thimble Shoals Blvd., Ste 116
Newport News, VA 23606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 329-1808
Stephen Swift
AF 08-020      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:Decision Support for Geospatial Intelligence Analysis
Abstract:Geospatial data is growing exponentially. There are more sensors on more platforms, better sensors are collecting greater quantities of data, and new algorithms are deriving new geospatial information from existing data. This data growth and concomitant proliferation of GEOINT products have resulted in intelligence production volumes becoming the de facto proxy for intelligence value. Collection and production tallies are commonly and historically used by intelligence centers to demonstrate their contribution to the warfighter. But even in those nodes where production volumes are genuinely relevant metrics, they still tend to lack enough sophistication and detail to communicate their effectiveness and efficiency to decision makers. Even rarer are metric systems for determining the value of intelligence products to their users. Did it answer the Request for Information (RFI) completely and on time? Did it communicate the key points effectively? Did it contribute to decision superiority? BENEFIT: There is a realistic expectation that a successful implementation of Service Oriented Metrics Capture and Presentation (SOMCAP) will lead to a broadened base of metrics and metrics applications beyond GEOINT. Accordingly, this suggests opportunity for human effectiveness research into optimal models and algorithms for metrics calculation and presentation. It is expected that given an increase in metrics available to the ISR community, there will be a corollary need to research how metrics influence behavior. A sample list of questions which could be examined include: What kinds of metrics exert the greatest motivational influence on behavior? What periodicity of metric reporting results in the greatest positive influence while simultaneously minimizing data collection and reporting costs? What are effective strategies for encouraging customer feedback? To what extent are customer behaviors in the armed services similar to customers in the commercial economy? How should customer satisfaction thus be pursued? While we fully anticipate that research for this SBIR will point to answers to these questions, our current scope will be limited to the central challenge of overcoming data access gaps to focus squarely on GEOINT decision making. Once solved, research to further refine metrics strategies can flourish.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Ryan Kilgore, PhD
AF 08-021      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:VIsual Representation Techniques for Integrated, Goal-Oriented Awareness (VIRTIGO)
Abstract:Advanced network visualization techniques are required to improve cross-domain situation awareness and support goal-oriented decision-making within the AOC. To address this need, we propose to design and demonstrate novel VIsual Representation Techniques for Integrated, Goal-Oriented awareness (VIRTIGO). These VIRTIGO visualization techniques will support the flexible presentation of display interfaces that seamlessly integrate network health and status information and meta-information with other traditional AOC information resources and activities across air, space, and cyber domains. Three key components characterize our approach. First, to enhance situation awareness, we will use Ecological Interface Design methods to develop a set of display mechanisms that perceptually and cognitively integrate critical blue and red network health and status information with traditional AOC information resources. Second, to support the dynamic integration and rendering of heterogeneous information resources within these structures, we will develop a network visualization ontology that maps amorphous data sets onto information models suitable for flexible representation across a variety of visual display mechanisms. Third, to truly explore the complexities of developing visualization technologies for supporting effects-based planning in the AOC, will rapidly build upon in-house, ontology-based rendering methods and network visualization capabilities to develop and demonstrate a prototype of our VIRTIGO approaches. BENEFIT: We expect fully developed VIRTIGO visualization techniques to have immediate and tangible benefits across both government and commercial applications. Government applications include the development of battlespace visualization technologies that will improve warfighters decision-making response time and provide enhanced flexibility for mission planning by revealing affordances for leveraging, disrupting, or enhancing network connectivity. Commercial applications include improved network visualization capabilities through enhancements to Charles River Analytics CONNECT software tool for the rapid development, editing, analysis, and representation of social, organizational, and communications networks.

Smart Information Flow Technologies, d/b/a SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 669-6224
Peggy Wu
AF 08-021      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Concepts for the Integrated Visualization of Effects (CONCEIVE)
Abstract:As Air Operations Centers (AOCs) expand their capabilities by integrating space and cyberspace information into the air domain, the influx of relevant data must be presented to avoid information overload while enabling shorter planning cycles as well as an increasing variety of effects on an assortment of targets. Novel visualization techniques will be critical to ensure rapid comprehension of the current status and depict both kinetic and non-kinetic activities and their relationships to desired effects. These visualizations must seamlessly integrate network effects, health, and status with traditional operational data, even though these data sources may not be correlated in space and time. Beyond the ad-hoc creation of visualization devices, what is needed is a sound methodology with which system capabilities can be systematically matched with user needs and novel visualization designs can emerge. SIFT proposes to combine a novel adaptable automation design approach with Ecological Interface Design (EID) methods (with low cognitive processing requirements) from Human-Computer Interaction to create visualizations which provide the right the information to the right people all of the time to enhance situation awareness, improve decisions and speed task execution with little or no additional human effort. BENEFIT: The proposed work will develop advanced methodologies for designing visualizations. These methodologies are relevant to a variety of application domains where distributed data sources and teams with different views of the same goals must be coordinated, and where frequent changes that affect various components differently are part of the nature of the work environment. Such circumstances are common in process control, supply chains, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and of course, military applications. There are many immediate commercialization opportunities within the military domain for the results of this project. One is the direct application to the user interface needs of joint air, space, and cyberspace command and control centers. Upon completion of this program, we will be in an excellent position to ensure compatibility of our UI designs with technologies to realize Joint Vision 2020.

OR Concepts Applied
7032 Comstock Avenue Suite 100
Whittier, CA 90602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-6700
Rubin Johnson
AF 08-022      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Argos - Visualization Tool for Cyberspace Command and Control
Abstract:Russias physical invasion of Georgia in August 2008 was preceded by attacks against Georgias Internet infrastructure. Cyberwar is here. The information landscape is becoming as important as the physical world for commercial, social, and military applications. Understanding what is happening in cyberspace is critically important. Being able to monitor a cyberattack is necessary to defend our assets. OR Concepts Applied (ORCA) proposes to develop Argos, innovative software that supports command and control (C2) of cyberspace operations for both defensive and offensive applications. We envision a suite of visualization tools to provide commanders and operators with situational awareness and mechanisms to manage cyberspace assets. BENEFIT: Technology, commerce, military operations, and even social interactions depend more and more on cyberspace, the world''s Internet infrastructure. Argos software for cyberspace monitoring will benefit governments, businesses, and individuals. Defensive tools can foil cyberattacks and prevent adverse impacts. Thus there are significant opportunities for commercialization. If the U.S. decides that it needs to have offensive cyberspace capabilities, the tools envisioned in this proposal will be invaluable.

Stanfield Systems, Inc
718 Sutter Street Suite 108
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 358-7120
Timothy M. Jacobs
AF 08-022      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Visualization for Command and Control of Cyberspace Operations
Abstract:The ultimate goal for this project is to design and implement an integrated suite of visualization tools to assist commanders, analysts, and operators in planning, executing, and assessing the effects of offensive and defensive operations in cyberspace. To achieve this goal, we must first identify cyberspace characteristics and processes and we must better understand how operators interact with cyberspace systems to effectively carry out command and control. We organize cyberspace characteristics into a model with four interacting layers that comprise a cyber operations stack Mission Capability, Applications and Processes, Network Domain, and Logical Network. Interwoven with these operations layers are four cross-domain attribute layers Time, Geospatial, Organizational, and Course of Action Effects. Based on this model, we design correlation and visualization techniques to assist cyber operators in perceiving elements that influence cyberspace operations, comprehending the impact of these elements on network operations, and projecting the effect of these elements on future mission capability. These visualizations distinguish between known vulnerabilities and strengths of friendly, enemy, neutral, and non-combatant cyber systems and networks. BENEFIT: To effectively defend and protect friendly cyber systems, and to effectively exploit enemy systems, commanders must understand the impact of cyber operations on mission capabilities. This task is complicated by the very characteristics that make cyber systems valuable rapid processing of large quantities of information, highly- interconnected information flow between systems, adaptability to a changing environment, and redundant distributed processing. These characteristics lead to highly complex systems that can be very difficult to understand. Relating the status of such cyber systems to specific mission capabilities is not easily achieved. Although the challenges of achieving situational awareness for cyberspace command and control are great, the opportunities for achieving meaningful solutions are within reach. We consider two elements of cyberspace which contribute to the challenge complexity which is created through the interaction of relationships, patterns, and anomalies found in large quantities of heterogeneous information and abstractness which results from the lack of a well understood physical model to which the information conforms. By using automated correlation algorithms and interactive computer visualization tools we can abstract away unnecessary complexity and organize relationships and aggregates to assist human perception and cognition. While no single tool is likely to solve these challenges, an effective set of visualization tools, coupled with automated techniques for correlating and organizing cyberspace information, can significantly improve the state-of-the-art for achieving cyberspace situational awareness.

VisiTrend
80 Hope Ave Suite 402
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(857) 919-2372
John T. Langton
AF 08-022      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Visualization for Command and Control of Cyberspace Operations
Abstract:We propose to research, design, and evaluate the feasibility of a Visualization for Integrated Cyber Command and Control (VIC3) system that fuses and displays vast amounts of multidimensional cyber security data from multiple sources to provide a unified view of the cyber battlespace. VIC3 will allow commanders to monitor cyber activity, correlate events, understand information dependencies, evaluate alternative COAs, project potential effects, and view relationships between cyber and kinetic operations. Cyberspace superiority is a prerequisite for effective operations in all other warfighting domains. A key challenge to cyber C2 is the complexity of relevant data: it is immense and multidimensional, includes streaming and log data, and comes from a diverse set of applications and devices. Cyber security visualization is still nascent and focused on the application of traditional and limited methods to static application logs. New visualization methods must be applied to support cyber situation awareness and provide decision makers information on a) the current state of the cyber battlespace, b) enemy and friendly capabilities and vulnerabilities, c) correlations between cyber events and how they affect or are affected by kinetic events, and c) potential effects of alternative courses of action within cyberspace. BENEFIT: The results of the proposed research will support cyber C2 and can be transitioned for use at the AFNOC or within the AOC for integrated ATO production that factors in cyber security implications and enablers. The proposed effort will advance VisiTrends commercial offerings for visualization and cyber security including interfaces and APIs licensed to commercial partner NitroSecurity.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Anna Galea
AF 08-023      Awarded: 3/27/2009
Title:Measuring Simulator Fidelity
Abstract:Quantifying the fidelity of flight simulators and other motion environments is a difficult and confounding task. The main confounding factor is that it is difficult to obtain an objective measure from human users, since their performance is subject to their individual reactions and current state of mind. Robotic solutions would eliminate the human element but are severely limited in that how humans integrate the large amounts of inputs they are subjected to in flight is not fully understood. Infoscitex proposes to leave the human in the equation but eliminate the subjectivity associated with cognition. Our system will record the underlying response of the body to the dynamics of flight. Then, our system can be used in a flight simulator, and the correlation between the results in real flight and in the simulator subject to the flight dynamics of the aircraft will provide a measure of the fidelity of the simulator in question. The system can be applied to any flight or motion simulator, including ones with force feedback, a motion base, or vision alone. BENEFIT: The problem of validating the equivalence of flight simulators is one that has been noted by diverse personnel involved with flight simulation, including military and civilian flight instructors. Indeed, we already have obtained Boeings written interest in our system for their commercial flight trainers. While the initial application of our system is to validate the equivalence of flight simulators to flight, development of the system will provide a comprehensive sensor suite that can record the bodys reaction to a number of complex inputs. Several non-flight markets are therefore available, including medical evaluation, rehabilitation, exercise and entertainment. The initial application will benefit flight training, in that by being able to ascertain the fidelity of existing simulators, and using the tool to develop even higher fidelity simulators, total in-flight training time can be decreased, and ground-based training time can be used more effectively. This will result in safer and far more economical training of pilots, both civilian and military.

Lumir Research Institute, Inc.
301 East Fairmont Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 231-4569
Brian Schreiber
AF 08-023      Awarded: 3/30/2009
Title:Assessment Tools for Evaluating Dynamic Flight Simulation and Force Cueing Fidelity to Improve Simulation Environment Effectiveness
Abstract:Lumir Research Institute proposes to build the Cueing Automated Assessment Tool (CAAT), a software tool to facilitate evaluations of the effects of force cueing on training effectiveness. The CAAT design will be based on an extensive review and analysis of training environments, force-cueing devices, force-cue sensitive tasks, and existing performance measurement tools (objective, subjective and physiological). The measures employed by CAAT will address gaps in current measurement systems, will be sensitive enough to capture differences in reactions to force-cueing stimuli, and will be compatible with multiple training environments and force-cueing devices. Results of studies enabled by CAAT can ultimately be used to define dynamic fidelity requirements, thus optimizing the cost and outcomes of training. BENEFIT: The research Lumir is proposing will directly address this critical need (understanding the effects of force cueing and varying levels of simulator fidelity) and provide tools to continue advancing the knowledge of the training community. At the end of Phase II, the CAAT will exist both as a stand-alone tool and also as a complementary tool to be used in conjunction with PETS. The Air Force would be free to use the CAAT with PETS at any of their facilities, which would provide free advertising and establish new support contacts (perhaps at other AF Labs). This development strategy opens the door for numerous commercialization possibilities. The CAAT could be integrated with devices like ETCs ATFS-400 and be marketed as an add- on to that system. Other services may be interested in the CAAT as they are certainly facing some of the same fidelity questions in their own use of simulators for training, e.g., Army ground vehicle training, or NAVAIRs deployable cockpits. Finally, the CAAT could also be marketed to the commercial flight training community, which currently has dynamic fidelity requirements for its simulators.

Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
R. Wade Allen
AF 08-023      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:A Flight Centered Approach to Assess Dynamic Flight Simulation and Simulator Force Cueing Fidelity
Abstract:With an aging aircraft fleet and an ongoing period of combat, the USAF must look more to ground based simulation to supplement flight training. Objective measures are needed, however, to insure that a training environment with limitations in force cueing adequately transfers back to flight. Systems Technology, Inc. proposes to leverage the significant past research with a flight-centered approach to produce effective qualitative and quantitative measures of simulator force cueing fidelity as it relates to tactical aircraft flight training. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach, a preliminary test version of the Real-Flight software will be created and assessed via a limited piloted simulation evaluation. A set of candidate quantitative metrics derived from available flight test data will be incorporated into the initial version of the software. Pilot control stick inceptors of varying fidelity will be used as exemplar force cueing devices. If practical, a motion-based simulator will also be introduced into the demonstration plan. A successful demonstration of Real-Flight will expose differences between the force cueing devices and identify the mechanization that best represents the flight training experience. This work will set the stage for the comparative flight test/simulator evaluation to be conducted in Phase II. BENEFIT: This proposed program will lead to a Real-Flight software tool box that will provide a means to assess simulator force cueing fidelity as it relates to tactical flight training. STI expects that Real-Flight and related derivatives will find application throughout the DoD as a means to assess the effectiveness of dynamic flight simulation and force cueing in fixed-wing, rotorcraft, and ground vehicle training simulators. The assessment methods and metrics may also be used in the training simulator procurement process to ensure maximum return on investment in terms of training effectiveness versus procurement cost.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Scott Potter, PhD
AF 08-024      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Advanced Visualization and Support Environment (ADVISE)
Abstract:An operator within the JSpOC faces a continuous and rapid flow of intelligence from disparate and distributed sensors, theatre participants, and other operators, all of which may or may not accurately reflect the current operational situation. Despite having technology that fuses these heterogeneous data sources, this abundance of information does not guarantee mission success or even improved SSA; rather it can overload JSpOC operators, resulting in confusion, poor analysis, and ineffective decision-making. To improve the accuracy, efficiency, and usefulness of these fusion algorithms employed within the JSpOC, we present our proposed effort to design and demonstrate a Framework Leveraging Operator Reasoning in Data Association and Filtering Algorithms (FLORIDA) to support improved SSA. First, we will perform a systematic evaluation of the JSpOC work domain to understand operator reasoning and decision-making requirements. Second, we will establish a meta-information ontology facilitating the augmentation of existing and future fusion algorithms with qualitative metrics. Third, we will select and augment several computation techniques currently employed within fusion algorithms. Fourth, we will design preliminary controls and visualizations that facilitate operator interaction with the FLORIDA-enhanced multi-source data fusion algorithms. Finally, we will develop and evaluate a demonstration prototype incorporating the above elements. BENEFIT: We see considerable promise in the commercial application of rapidly prototyped information and meta-information display and control techniques, specifically in the financial industry, where investment decision-making is fraught with uncertainty, and risk management is critical to investment strategy. We also see applications in commercial space asset management environments, where data quality and data recency are critical to asset protection. We also plan to transition the information and meta-information interface techniques developed with FLORIDA into the next version of our BNet® Bayesian belief network application.

Sonalysts, Inc.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3621
Margaret Bailey
AF 08-024      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Advanced Visualization Methods for Mission Planning, Course of Action (COA) Evaluation and After Action Review (AAR).
Abstract:Sonalysts will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a Course of Action Rehearsal, Visualization, and Evaluation Tool (COARVET), which will allow users to analyze possible outcomes of pending operations, conduct mission rehearsals, and perform After-Action Reviews (AARs) of past missions. This research will produce a design and prototype interfaces for a system that enables operators from squadron level to the Air Operations Center to increase unit effectiveness through superior planning, mission rehearsal, and lessons learned from AAR. The design for COARVET will draw on Sonalysts successful gaming engine and wXstation® family of weather products to integrate planning and simulation with the best data sources in a coherent way to improve war-fighting capability as well as forest firefighting. BENEFIT: The product we develop will improve unit effectiveness through improved mission planning, course of action analysis, execution, and AAR. It will also have outstanding potential in the commercial sector, with applications in Homeland Security. A quick transition to forest firefighting is anticipated. Our teaming partner Boeing believes the resultant technology could have direct application to several Boeing programs, including Future Combat Systems, SBINet, and the air space control systems being implemented in Iraq.

Modern Conflict Studies Group
1262 Prospect Dr.
Pomona, CA 91766
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 620-2713
Joseph Miranda
AF 08-025      Awarded: 3/27/2009
Title:Gaming for Training and Rehearsal for Fifth Generation Fighter Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs)
Abstract:This project is intended to create a top down, effects based simulation set at the air unit level (from individual aircraft to larger mission packages) in which Fifth Generation Fighter Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) can be evaluated. The model will simulate air operations at the level of air mission packages, with individual aircraft modeled within this context. The intent is to create scenarios which will generate unique TTPs that can then be tested and applied as doctrine. Friendly, enemy and civilian forces will be represented by artificial intelligence (AI) agents. Information will be represented from the point of view of individual pilots, mission commanders, and the big picture of an entire operation. Each agent will be motivated by quantitative and qualitative factors. For aircraft this would include flight handling characteristics, pilot training, and networking systems. The simulation will be able to both train individual pilots in operating via TTPs, and to provide doctrinal personnel with a model through which new TTPs could be developed. There will also be a networking capability to allow for larger scenarios in which numerous utilizers could be trained, and higher echelon TTPs be evaluated and developed. BENEFIT: A successfully completed project will provide the end user with a fully extensible and scalable training application that will provide an immersive training experience in which Fifth Generation Fighter tactics can be rehearsed and developed. Players will interact with a customized environment that will mimic the real world fighter tactical environment. This can be applied to military, law enforcement, emergency service and air traffic control situations.

Sonalysts, Inc.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3770
Daniel Bowdler
AF 08-025      Awarded: 3/26/2009
Title:Gaming for Training and Rehearsal for Fifth Generation Fighter Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs)
Abstract:The Phase I effort will develop specifications for applying a gaming environment to the training, rehearsing, and exercising of fifth-generation fighter tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). Our Team, consisting of Sonalysts (prime) and Aptima, Inc. (subcontractor), will innovatively apply our state-of-the-art commercial gaming engine, coupled with advanced human engineering, human performance, and training system development expertise to craft a set of specifications that effectively meet the requirements of the fifth-generation tactical fighter mission areas, while being economical to fully develop. Using the F-22 as a representative fifth-generation tactical fighter, the specifications will support a range of training, rehearsing, and exercise requirements, from individual to team-level support. We will pursue three key supporting technical objectives: gaining an understanding of the mission areas; determining the appropriate technologies that will support our envisioned approach; and developing the specifications. The final specifications will support our aggressive prototype development plan. With the Teams intellectual skills and ongoing related technologies, we intend to produce a game-based, proof-of-concept application that will demonstrate the value and technical validity of our approach. BENEFIT: The anticipated results of our Phase I effort will be an innovative and effective training, rehearsing, and exercising capability for fifth-generation fighter TTPs. A key benefit and potential commercial feature of the effort will be the integration of the commercial game environment with advanced tools including scenario authoring, skills tracking, and performance measures for individual and multi-player sets. The gaming environment is inherently flexible to a broad range of commercial and military applications. Potential commercial applications include application of key features into our current commercial gaming products; disaster relief training and operations; community first responder training and rehearsal; and any other training domain where an economical, high-fidelity alternative to a more expensive, full-blown simulator is desired.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner''''s Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Robert Richards
AF 08-025      Awarded: 3/26/2009
Title:Game-based Partial Task Trainer for Fifth Generation Fighters (GBT-5).
Abstract:Fifth generation aircraft, including the F-22 and the F-35, have been designed with a set of unprecedented capabilities. The challenge that lies ahead is to better train pilots to take advantage of these capabilities. The need for a flexible training environment designed specifically for the F22 and F35 fighters presents a unique opportunity for Stottler Henke. We are prepared to develop a research program that will result in the construction of an intelligent training system powerful enough to fill the current training gaps and flexible enough to meet conflicting requirements. We propose to develop an intelligent, game- based, trainer aimed at addressing a specific subset of the pilots tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). The core of the GBT-5 trainer is a realistic free-play simulation of the relevant cockpit controls and displays combined with a flexible plug-in infrastructure that extends the range of supported learning objectives through a set of optional components: (1) out-the-window view provided by game-based flight simulator technology, (2) integration with hardware versions of the primary flight controls through USB, (3) DIS / HLA integration to support networked exercises, (4) simulated entities to support single- user training, and (5) an intelligent tutoring system to provide customized instruction. BENEFIT: The specific training system developed for this effort will initially focus on the F- 22 and therefore is primarily valuable only to the US Air Force. With this in mind, the primary commercialization path is to pursue Phase III funding with the US Air Force to transform the system at the end of Phase II into a fully deployed training system. This closely follows the commercialization paths of two of our other successful training systems: GRTS and OMIA. With the introduction of the F-35 and the construction of a new plug-in to support its interface, the training market for the proposed system could expand to include a number of other countries that will be purchasing F-35s, assuming the training environment was approved for export. Additionally, the research described in this proposal provides additional commercialization opportunities by incrementally refining and extending our suite of tools for developing training simulations, intelligent tutoring systems, and behavior models for simulated entities.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2453
Nathan Schurr
AF 08-026      Awarded: 3/12/2009
Title:Space Collaboration via an Agent Network (SCAN)
Abstract:With the increased deployment and use of space assets, a number of interesting and challenging problems have come to the fore. The persistent nature of space surveillance, the mass of data, the varied sources, and the heterogeneous needs of consumers and producers, all point to a pressing need for an enhanced Space Situation Awareness picture, that can only be achieved by a coordinated, collaborative approach to the collection, dissemination and sharing of information. This provides Aptima the opportunity to demonstrate an innovative, agent-based approach to enhance the collaboration among the various agency producers and consumers of space information. Our proposed approach is titled Space Collaboration via an Agent Network (SCAN) and it enables proxy agents to represent each of the stakeholder agencies for space. Consequently SCAN agent network will facilitate collaboration by identifying opportunities and methods of collaboration as well. The SCAN agents will be equipped with: 1. Knowledge and Mental Models of Human Operators, 2. Collaboration Methods and Barriers to Collaboration, and 3. Integrating Solutions that Conform to Preferred Workflows. Aptima will leverage its experience in designing sociotechnical systems, space and collaboration in order to ensure that SCAN is both a feasible and useful tool for space collaboration. BENEFIT: Engage the Operational Community. Aptima holds the input of the operational community in great regard and is determined to engage users and experts early in the process. Survey of the data landscape. We will survey the data currently available to monitor and predict space weather and its effect on satellite tasking. This will include fundamental physical phenomena detected by sensors as well as integrated information sources such as Space situation awareness Environmental Effects Fusion system (SEEFS). The extent to which adversary action can be characterized will also be amassed. Identify barriers to collaboration. Aptima is keenly aware that the current dearth of collaboration is not simply a function of limited tools. There are significant social and organizational obstacles that must be overcome as well. Develop model for agent facilitated collaboration. These collaborative SCAN proxy agents will serve not only to identify collaboration opportunities, but also provide methods to overcoming these aforementioned barriers. The aim is to eventually have these collaborative agents integrated with existing workflow structures.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariners Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Kshanti Greene
AF 08-026      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Opening Communication and Collaboration for Space Situation Awareness with the OpenSpace Toolkit
Abstract:Counterspace efforts will become increasingly important as advances in technology intensify our reliance on space-based assets and as adversaries develop improved methods to threaten these assets. Maintaining holistic situation awareness will be particularly important in counterspace pursuits due to the number and diversity of organizations supplying and utilizing these assets. Since human operators and experts will provide the foundation for situation awareness, communication and collaboration within and across organizational boundaries will be particularly important. A significant barrier to collaboration is seeking out and initiating communication with individuals who have the knowledge and experience needed to increase awareness. We propose an approach to initiating and improving collaboration for space situation awareness that is unique in its focus on discovering expertise that is embedded in organizational resources and its use of state-of-the-art semantic and social networking technologies. We will focus our research on developing tools and algorithms used to (1) extract awareness of domain knowledge, organizational structure and individuals expertise from available resources; (2) build a semantic and social network that describes this knowledge, along with intelligent algorithms to search it for appropriate individuals; and (3) assist users in seeking out and initiating communication with other individuals, even across organizational boundaries. BENEFIT: Our significant long-term goal is to enable improved threat and impact awareness for immediate, short- and long-term situation understanding. Many aspects of this problem need to be addressed for its success. One aspect that is often overlooked is discovering and initiating communication with the human individuals who have knowledge and expertise that would improve situational awareness. This problem is significant across all domains where knowledge sharing is important. The number of relevant domains that would benefit from our approach is limitless, but includes crisis management, counterterrorism, cyber space protection, energy systems management, and research, healthcare and business intelligence.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
James R. McCracken
AF 08-026      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:BUCKI - Bridge for Usable Collaborative Knowledge Integration
Abstract:Our expertise will support BUCK-Is central concept of locating knowledge, supporting collaboration, and providing for workflow management. The vision is for a seamless, user-centered environment supporting real time access to space community knowledge. BENEFIT: TDKC has vigorously pursued commercialization as the ultimate goal of all of its SBIR projects, recognizing the need to leverage the initial Government and corporate investments with commercial and other Government funds to realize the full benefit of the project. These activities have included intensive study and development of commercialization strategies that work for projects such as those encompassed by GIANT. TDKC has evaluated the Technology Adoption Cycle presented by Moore, and adapted this model to fit the SBIR paradigm. Our commercialization plan provides a realistic and executable approach to commercialization that provides more than lip-service to the notion that SBIR-funded technologies should find commercial applicability; indeed our non- SBIR revenue exceeded SBIR revenue in 2007 a remarkable achievement in 4 years of business.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Scott Potter, PhD
AF 08-027      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:A System to Capture Automated Metrics of Performance (SCAMP) for JAOC C2 Operations
Abstract:Effective Joint Air Operations Center (JAOC) command and control (C2) activities require coordination and communication among a wide variety of services and agencies. However, many of the metrics in current assessment tools are not tailored specifically to JAOC processes. Furthermore, the rapid pace of JAOC operations demands a system that can assess measures in near real-time, which is impossible with current assessment tools. To address the need for a real-time C2 assessment tool for JAOC operations, (including cyber operations), we propose to design and demonstrate a System to Capture Automated Metrics of Performance (SCAMP) for JAOC C2 operations. Four core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a Work Domain Analysis on a specific scenario to develop a structured categorization of JAOC tasks and related performance metrics. Second, we will design and demonstrate automated and semi- automated performance analysis techniques to capture performance metrics from individual and group behaviors and observable communications. Third, we will design and demonstrate user interfaces that visualize those metrics and enable their review by the Commander. Fourth, we will develop an evaluation methodology to determine the effectiveness of the system for the purposes of real-time review and intervention. We will also provide a training interface. BENEFIT: We see considerable promise in the commercial application of several components of the proposed SCAMP system. We envision the commercial application of human activity monitoring and performance metric visualization technologies in disciplines requiring collective training in groups and rapid assessment of operations, including emergency response teams, local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies, FEMA, and DHS. We also intend to incorporate analysis and visualization techniques developed under the proposed SCAMP system into our commercial Connect® network visualization toolkit.

DMM Ventures Inc
107 Elise Place
Yorktown, VA 23693
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 897-0394
Maris McCrabb
AF 08-027      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:Integrated C4ISR Assessment Tool (ICAT)
Abstract:ICAT integrates the JAOC C4ISR system of people, processes, and technical; the set of air, space, information, and cyberspace missions conducted by a JAOC; and the analysis, monitoring, assessment, planning, execution, and support functions done in the JAOC and provides commanders and their staffs an integrated assessment of how well the JAOC is operating in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility based on the cognitive tasks and decision-quality information requirements of the JAOC. BENEFIT: Commanders use C4ISR as the means of employing air, space, information, and cyberspace operations in order to accomplish assigned objectives and achieved desired effects. They need to know how well their C4ISR is operating and where are the bottlenecks. ICAT provides this capability. This need exist in many commercial firms who need to share information and know how weel their information sharing systems are operating.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Drive Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
James McCracken
AF 08-027      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:ASET- AOC System Engineering Toolkit
Abstract:Our teamss expertise will support ASETs central concept of creating a multi-dimensional assessment of behavior in a JOAC that can be accomplished in near real-time during exercises and real-world operations as well as training. The vision is for an instrumented environment supporting real-time access to a coherent data picture that represents the operational efficiency of the JAOC and to correlate the behavioral data to after-action assessments. BENEFIT: TDKC has vigorously pursued commercialization as the ultimate goal of all of its SBIR projects, recognizing the need to leverage the initial Government and corporate investments with commercial and other Government funds to realize the full benefit of the project. These activities have included intensive study and development of commercialization strategies that work for projects such as those encompassed by ASET. Our commercialization plan provides a realistic and executable approach to commercialization that provides more than lip-service to the notion that SBIR-funded technologies should find commercial applicability; indeed our non-SBIR revenue exceeded SBIR revenue in 2007 a remarkable achievement in 4 years of business.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Steven Brueckner
AF 08-028      Awarded: 3/23/2009
Title:Alcuin
Abstract:Digital forensics is the science of investigating digital devices, transmissions, and storage media to acquire legal evidence related to a crime. The discipline is essential in addressing rising cyber crime rates, and acting as a deterrent to insider threats by providing attribution. There is need for advanced training capabilities to help students rapidly acquire the specialized skills needed to perform digital forensics investigations. Didactic instruction, abstract visualization, and simulation exercises are three powerful pedagogic techniques for knowledge transfer. ATC-NY will combine these three technologies to create Alcuin, an automated, online training system for digital forensics. Alcuin will deliver remote learning content by seamlessly integrating both declarative and procedural teaching methods. ATC-NY has assembled a team of leading forensics, visualization, simulation, and learning experts to develop Alcuin. Alcuins unique capabilities will greatly advance the state of the art in e-learning solutions. BENEFIT: Alcuins incorporation of multiple learning strategies will improve skill acquisition and retention. Its automated feedback and evaluation capabilities will allow for an anytime, anywhere capability, greatly reducing instructor workload. Currently there is no comparable solution available at any price.

Kestrel Corporation
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Boyd Hunter
AF 08-029      Awarded: 3/23/2009
Title:Hyperspectral Retinal Imaging for Assessment of Retinal Laser Damage
Abstract:Development of an optimized fundus imager to field use requires detailed knowledge of the spectral response of the eye damage lesion in order to design the optimal imager. That first step is satisfied by the development of a 1D hyperspectral fundus imager to enable the researcher to identify the features of interest and collect the spectra. In this Phase I effort, the design study will be conducted for the 1D imager to determine the performance perform the basic design of the instrument for review with the Air Force to ensure all requirements are satisfied, the device is physically reasonable and perform preliminary costing. Based on prior Kestrel experience, the key issues are identified and expected outcomes and issues will guide this process. BENEFIT: The benefits of this research are (a) a family of hyperspectral fundus imagers able to operate over a greately extended wavelength range, (b) the ability to indentify (mild) laser eye damage by spectral signature, thus making better damage threshold information possible and enabling more quantiative research into approapriate treatments, and (c) the instruments will be used as standardized platforms for other opthalmic instruments with similar requirements.

Lickenbrock Technologies LLC
4041 Forest Park Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 615-6921
Timothy J. Holmes
AF 08-029      Awarded: 3/27/2009
Title:Hyperspectral and Multi-Modal Retinal Imaging for Assessment of Retinal Laser Damage
Abstract:The Phase I objective is a conceptual design of a hyperspectral/multimodal fundus camera for assessing laser damage. The premise to be ultimately proven in this project is that damage to the fundus, from laser irradiation, may be characterized and detected by reflectance spectra, and by measuring function such as flow and perfusion. The system will incorporate an existing fundus camera model (e.g., Topcon), custom optical components for hyperspectral/multimodal imaging and a computer interface for controlling the custom components. Software will include specialized acquisition for hyperspectral imaging, automated alignment to compensate eye motion, compensation for illumination flicker, correction of nonuniform component spectra, and compensation of other imperfections, algorithms that highlight lesions, deconvolution for improving spatial and spectral resolving power, and algorithms for detecting flow and perfusion changes. In Phase II, the prototype instrument will be built and tested with NHPs and/or humans in collaboration with Brooks AFB. Tests with NHPs in detecting and characterizing laser- induced damage will be carried out. In Phase III the commercial-ready models will be produced, first, for military applications, and secondly for private sector clinical applications. Private sector applications include AMD, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and related conditions. BENEFIT: The most immediate military benefit will be the capability of diagnosing or comfirming laser damage to retinas/fundi. Commercial applications are in clinical diagnosis and treatment of AMD, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma, among others.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Gary Mikaelian
AF 08-029      Awarded: 3/30/2009
Title:Hyperspectral Funduscopic Imaging Device with Wavelength Selective Illumination
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a hyperspectral funduscopic imager to study changes in the spectral reflectance of the retina due to lesion formation associated with laser exposure, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Hyperspectral Funduscopic Imaging Device with Wavelength Selective Illumination (FIDSI). The proposed FIDSI is based on a standard ophthalomoscope with wavelength selective illumination achieved by the use of a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF). The innovation in combining an LCTF with a standard ophthalmoscope and applying spectral-matching filters to enhance lesion contrast and detectability will enable FIDSI to detect and characterize various types of laser-induced lesions better than techniques currently employed. As a result, FIDSI is a novel analytical instrument that directly addresses the mission of the Optical Radiation Branch at the Human Effectiveness Directorate to predict and mitigate the harmful effects of directed energy on personnel and mission performance, and to exploit these effects for non-lethal weapon applications. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of FIDSI by developing a proof-of-concept prototype. In Phase II, we plan to develop a pre- production prototype, and demonstrate it can be utilized as a research and in-field diagnostics tool. BENEFIT: Potential commercial applications of FIDSI will include diagnostics of retinal diseases that affect the spectral reflectance of the retina, and biometric identification systems. It can be incorporated into the standard equipment list of ophthalmic photography laboratories.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
R. Daniel Ferguson
AF 08-029      Awarded: 3/30/2009
Title:High-resolution Hyperspectral LSLO
Abstract:The detectability of laser eye damage near threshold depends sensitively on ocular pigment distribution within layers of the retina at the targeted site and their wavelength- dependent absorption, the scattering characteristics of the affected region, and the biological response of injured structures. Other retinal pathologies also change the appearance of the retina in characteristic spatial patterns and colors. Spatio-spectral signatures of retinal changes contain important quantitative diagnostic information about the nature of the injury or the etiology and status of disease. The current need for dense hyperspectral and high resolution 2-D spatial retinal imaging over a band of 450 to >800nm at eye-safe light levels, concurrent with the delivery of laser exposure in non-human primates (NHPs), presents a significant challenge for the state-of-the-art in hyperspectral imaging of laser injury and for diagnostic testing eventually applied to humans for eye research and future clinical applications. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop an innovative compact, high-resolution high-contrast hyperspectral retinal imaging system based on PSIs proprietary line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) and emerging broadband light source technologies. BENEFIT: The utility of the proposed hyperspectral imaging methods, apart from laser damage detection applications for DoD, stems from the great flexibility afforded by ultra-broadband sources with the LSLO imaging architecture; this optical system can also serve as a confocal, true color fundus imager, an autofluorescence/angiography system, a Doppler blood flow mapper, a perimetry system, and for a number of other applications, mainly through reconfiguration of control software. The clinical and commercial potential of such a relatively simple, yet powerful multifunction diagnostics platform is significant.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Camille Monnier
AF 08-030      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Anthropometric Modeling and Automatic Pose Reconstruction (Anthro-MAPR)
Abstract:While significant advances have been made in technologies for automatically acquiring and trackingand even identifyingdismounts in video, automatic characterization of human behavior remains an open problem that hinders our intelligence dominance against asymmetric threats. To enable the development of viewpoint- and anthropometric- invariant behavioral modeling algorithms, a technique is required for directly recovering an individuals anthropometric parameters from video data. This task is comprised of two important research problems: parametric modeling of the human body, and recovery of these parameters from a video of a human subject. We propose a system for video- based Anthropometric Modeling and Automatic Pose Reconstruction (Anthro-MAPR). Anthro-MAPR reconstructs a high-fidelity, parameterized anthropometric model of an individual from video imagery; the system achieves this using novel detectors capable of simultaneously detecting human subjects and estimating their anthropometric parameters in complex environments. By building on mature multi-camera registration and person- tracking software, Anthro-MAPR will work both for single and multi-camera scenarios, and it assumes no restrictions on complexity of background, presence of other moving objects in the field of view, or the type of lighting conditions. BENEFIT: The technologies developed under this effort would enable direct computation of biometrics (e.g., weight, height, limb dimensions, gait analysis) as well as measures of stress (i.e., is the individual performing an unusual or difficult motion?) that could not be easily derived from a 2D analysis alone. Just as importantly, this technology would significantly boost the development of robust camera-based behavioral analysis techniques critical to the prediction and interruption of hostile actions by asymmetric forces both at home and in theatre.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-1599
Zhiqing Cheng
AF 08-030      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Dynamic 3D Human Shape Modeling for Intention Prediction from Video Imagery
Abstract:Infoscitex proposes an innovative and feasible solution to Dynamic 3D Human Shape Modeling for Intention Prediction from Video Imagery. We will develop a tool to quickly and automatically detect, track, and extract a subject of interest from video imagery. Using our knowledge and experience of anthropometry and biomechanics, we will develop a data-driven dynamic 3D human modeling technology, HM4D (Human Modeling in 4- Dimension). The HM4D will provide a detailed representation of human shape and a realistic description of joint motion. It implements morphing to represent human shape variations and mapping from one pose to another to describe human shape changes due to pose changes and motion. Using HM4D, dynamic 3D models will be constructed from the silhouette sequences that in turn, are derived from markerless video imagery. Combined with model-based motion analysis and supported by normative human shape and motion databases, our technology will be able to identify and predict human behavior and intention. Infoscitex, in collaboration with Dr. James Davis and Dr. Mariofanna Milanova, two experts in computer vision and human modeling, will prove our concept and demonstrate the feasibility of our approaches in Phase I and develop a fully functional dynamic 3D human modeling technology in Phase II. BENEFIT: Our technology will provide a creative solution to the topic and will offer the following benefits: As the core part of technology, the HM4D provides a detailed description of human shape with high anthropometric fidelity and can be readily morphed to represent a wide anthropometric spectrum; The HM4D can be mapped from pose to pose to describe human shape changes, both rigid and non-rigid, resulting from pose change and motion; The HM4D has sound bio-fidelity by incorporating realistic joint constraints. It can be used to analyze human motion and gait; By converting 2D imagery into a 3D dynamic visualization, our technology provides a wealth of information about human shape, pose, gestures, motion, and gait that are unique attributes of behavior and intent. This technology will have very broad applications in both military and commercial sectors. As a key technology for human-borne threat detection; As a screening tool for the security surveillance of public facilities; For war fighters to efficiently identify enemies from a crowd; For human search and rescue; For the entertainment industry to create vivid human figures and animation; For workstation design to improve human-machine interfacing; For the apparel industry to perform virtual design and fitting.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5242
Roger Xu
AF 08-030      Awarded: 3/30/2009
Title:Markerless 3D Human Body Modeling for Human Behavior Understanding from Video Imagery
Abstract:IAI and its collaborator, Dr. Aloimonos at the University of Maryland Computer Vision Lab, propose to develop a markerless 3D human body shape estimation and behavior detection system. This system will estimate human body pose and anthropometry from video data and infer human behavior using a model-based approach. This approach fuses two recent advances in computer vision research. First, our advanced tracking algorithms will present a series of hypotheses of human poses recognized within a video sequence; these detection and tracking algorithm will use modern segmentation techniques to extract labeled silhouettes, feeding a 3D reconstruction algorithm that relied on local optimal search of the pose space. Second, algorithms that operate on our statistical model of human motion and behavior, the Human Activity Language, combine these pose estimates into unified, robust estimate of pose and activity. We hypothesize that combining action and pose estimation under a single framework will more robustly identify both. Our algorithms will be useful in both recognition and in reproduction of human action. We will transition our research into the fields of persistent surveillance, health care, and modeling and simulation. BENEFIT: Reconstructing 3D human body model and motion from video sequences will allow for rapid location of concealed human-borne threats in a crowd from surveillance systems, significantly increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of current surveillance systems, while reducing total cost of ownership. Applications would include military reconnaissance and surveillance, border and coast patrol, law enforcement and homeland security. The Phase I effort will result in a suite of algorithms and a software prototype for surveillance that demonstrate an advancement in the state of the art in human tracking, pose estimation, activity modeling, and pattern recognition techniques. This research will have tremendous potential in many commercial applications such as intelligent video analysis, video browsing and indexing, search and rescue missions, human figure creation/animation for entertainment, and virtual design and fitting for the apparel industry.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Atul Kanaujia
AF 08-030      Awarded: 4/1/2009
Title:Dynamic 3D Human Shape Modeling for Intention Prediction from Video Imagery
Abstract:3D human pose and shape analysis from video imagery is an enabling technology for human activity recognition and threat monitoring in military and law enforcement applications. The problem is challenging due to (i) the high dimensionality in human pose space; (ii) lack of depth information in images; and (iii) and the large variability in human body shape, clothing, imaging condition and scene background. We propose an integrated framework that combines discriminative and generative approaches for inferring the 3D motion and anthropometric characteristics of a person. From input images, we first extract feature descriptors that encode the shape and appearance of the subject. From these descriptors, multiple plausible 3D poses are predicted using mixture-of-experts regression. For computational efficiency, we restrict visual inference to low-dimensional embedded space obtained from latent variable models. The 3D pose is then tracked probabilistically across multiple frames using a conditional graphical model. The 3D shape of the various body components are estimated by fitting a generative human model. Finally, the estimated pose and shape are analyzed to detect shape and behavioral abnormalities. We will investigate the feasibility of this approach using publicly available motion capture datasets as well as synthetic videos. BENEFIT: The proposed work addresses the technical challenges of human pose and shape estimation in video imagery. It will enable us to detect human activities and to identify suspicious and hostile human behaviors for military and law enforcement applications. The technology has wide ranging application beyond intelligent surveillance system: a) Improved human computer interaction The framework will facilitate development of more accurate vision based systems to recognize different gesture and motion in 3D. This has vast potential use in role-playing games where the movements of the user in the physical domain are appropriately reflected as an action in the virtual environment. b) Movement analysis For identifying the underlying causes for walking abnormalities in clinical patients. The results of gait analysis have been shown to be useful in determining the best course of treatment in these patients. c) Intelligent training systems for sporting activities The analysis of sports-related movements often entails analyzing a variety of highly dynamic movements. Motion analysis provides the tools for the sports medicine and performance professionals to perform accurate functional evaluations/analyses for clinical and research oriented purposes. d) Realistic animation Cost effective solution to importing realistic body movements in animated characters in videos. e) Robotic locomotion Design of robot appendages and control mechanisms to allow robots to move fluidly and efficiently.

Imaginative Technologies, LLC
1158 Norumbega Drive
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 241-6041
James R. Weiss
AF 08-031      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:An Advanced NEMS Based Micro Gas Analyzer for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCA)
Abstract:Our objective is to design and build a breadboard NEMS based gas analyzer which is hand held, field portable, highly efficient, rugged, with an integrated detection and identification system for stand-off detection and analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). This proposed device, VOCA, will detect VOCs of interest at ppm to sub-ppb levels within 5 seconds. Detection levels are better than those of mass spectrometry over a large range of chemicals without the need for a complicated, bulky vacuum system. This novel micro gas analyzer, VOCA will be based on a Nano Electro- Mechanical Systems (NEMS) implementation consisting of a chip-based ultra-fast Gas Chromatograph and a highly sensitive array of micro-cantilevers for mass analysis The application of NEMS technology for the development of this gas analyzer provides a nano scale device with extremely small active masses, excellent retention of energy coupled with the ability to carry out high speed operations. This NEMS based micro cantilever system has shown the ability to detect chemical and biological agents with great precision (10-21 gm) allowing for the detection of a broad range of molecular species. This ability to detect trace masses make micro resonators ideal for use in detection applications including those relating to national security and defense. public health and safety, medical research and diagnostics as well as other applications depending on quick portable analysis capability. The emergence of such NEMS mass-sensing devices, like the one proposed here, will blur the conventional distinction between inertial mass sensing and mass spectrometry, and offer revolutionary prospects for cheap, ultra-compact, low- power instrumentation and sensors. BENEFIT: The ability to detect trace masses make micro resonators ideal for use in detection applications including those relating to national security and defense. public health and safety, medical research and diagnostics as well as other applications depending on quick portable analysis capability. Once developed the VOCS sensor system will be proposed to all of the preceeding areas of application.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Anuncia Gonzalez-Martin
AF 08-031      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Novel Sensor for Human VOC Signature Identification
Abstract:The need to identify threats from individuals and groups is ever increasing for both identification of known individuals and persons of interest within the Department of Defense. Advancement in differential sensing techniques could allow the development of sensing platforms that include the ability to respond specifically to individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) and complex volatile organic compound profiles. Lynntech proposes the development of a low-power, hand-held array-based sensor that incorporates structural nanofeatures and tailored surface chemistries, capable of responding to specific and complex VOC inputs and identifying VOC signatures. During the Phase I project, Lynntech will develop and test an array-based sensor capable of detecting the ratio of at least five delivered VOCs. During the Phase II project, a prototype will be fabricated, tested, and delivered to DOD. BENEFIT: The proposed sensor will be of particular interest to the federal government (e.g., DOD, DOE, NASA, and NIH) and private industries that require monitoring individual VOCs and complex VOC profiles. Other business opportunities are in the Gas and Chemical Industries and Regulatory Agencies (chemical and explosive detectors), environmental remediation (detection of regulated chemicals in waste effluents, drinking water, etc.), food, beverage, and perfume industries (to determine odors and aromas), agronomic industries (to monitor pesticides), medical industry (point-of-care diagnostic instrument to determine level of human performance), and homeland security (for detection of chemical vapors associated with weapons of mass destruction).

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Steve Savoy
AF 08-031      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:Highly Novel Detection Approaches to Human Volatile Organic Compound Signature Identification
Abstract:Commercial gas sensors employ a number of different transduction mechanisms depending on the nature and reactivity of the gas and include systems based on optical, electrical and mass detection. Recent advances in gas sensor technology have provided even more sensitivity and are poised to increase the sensor specificity in analysis of complex VOC profiles in compact, low-cost formats. These systems rely on the emerging field of nanostructured chemiresistive sensor arrays composed of conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and semiconductor oxides as the active material phase which interacts with gas species. Generally, these systems rely on differential changes in the electrical current resulting from grain boundary surface-mediated field perturbations upon exposure to polarizing gases. To this end, Nanohmics proposes a novel detection device, NucleoVolt VOCel sensor array, that meets the requirements for high sensitivity and high selectivity analysis of complex VOC profiles. BENEFIT: The ability to perform rapid, highly sensitive and selective detection of a complex Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiles is paramount for applications ranging from acute situational health and safety assessment to suspect/target identification. The ability to multiplex high sensitivity and selectivity in a robust, rechargeable, harsh environment will provide the Air Force with a tool to meet the goal of complex VOC profiling for positive or negative identification of suspects/persons of interest.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Scott Potter, PhD
AF 08-032      Awarded: 3/9/2009
Title:Evolvable Microgame for Information Assurance Training (EMIAT)
Abstract:With the central role that computers and networks play in the DoDs network-centric environment, all warfighters must have the knowledge and awareness of how information assurance (IA) threats and exploits can significantly degrade operational readiness. While IA threats have been recognized for years by the information technology community, most warfighters do not fully understand how reckless computer/network use can result in vulnerabilities to national security. An effective and engaging training approach is needed to educate warfighters about potential exploits and tools that can be used to protect against these insidious threats. Developing an effective training approach is challenging due to the evolving nature of cyber threats, as determined adversaries constantly update old approaches or develop new and different exploitation techniques. To address this training need, we propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an Evolvable Microgame for Information Assurance Training (EMIAT) using a framework for the development, testing, and deployment of extensible game-based training. This effort will consist of three elements: 1) a domain analysis targeted at identifying both static and dynamic IA training needs; 2) design and prototyping of an initial EMIAT microgame for proof-of-concept; and 3) design of a framework for developing, deploying, and adapting EMIAT microgames. BENEFIT: Individual EMIAT games will provide an immediate and tangible benefit to warfighters throughout the DoD by educating them about IA threats and tools. This benefit can also be provided to a wide range of large interconnected enterprises with staff using networked computers in their daily business activities. Additionally, the EMIAT framework provides a web-enabled training platform for authoring and delivering engaging and effective evolvable microgames. Commercial applications of this framework can include corporate training, education, and other applications of serious games.

Wombat Security Technologies
1000 Heberton St
Pittsburgh, PA 15206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 266-6253
Jason Hong
AF 08-032      Awarded: 3/27/2009
Title:Micro Games for Cyber Threat Awareness
Abstract:Our goal is to develop a web-based platform that can (1) host a collection of micro games for security training, (2) simplify the task of developing games by providing useful features, (3) help administrators manage and deploy micro games, and (4) help analysts visualize and drill down on data. For phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our ideas. We will use a human-centered approach in developing a first iteration of this platform, conducting user studies to ensure that users find our system useful, usable, and desirable. We will also develop core functions and integrate two of our micro-games for security, one of which we have already developed and deployed, the other we are in the early design phases. Our team is comprised of three computer science faculty from Carnegie Mellon University who have founded a startup (Wombat Security Technologies, Inc) to commercialize our research in anti-phishing. Part of this research was in developing fun and effective training to protect people from online phishing scams, the most successful of which has been a game played by over 80,000 people with results showing that the game significantly boosts the ability of users to detect phishing attacks. BENEFIT: Success in this line of work will lead to five tangible benefits. First, it will make it easier for end-users to educate themselves through a variety of games for security training and assess how they are doing overall. Second, it will make it simpler for developers to deploy security training games, in that it makes games easy to find and eliminates the need for having to develop custom features that are common to many games, such as statistics and analytics. Third, our platform will provide a single centralized location for administrators to do common functions, rather than having to manage and configure each game individually. Fourth, our platform will make it easier for an analyst to assess how an organization is doing overall with regards to security training and retention. Fifth, our platform, coupled with a large set of games for security training, will lead to better and more effective security training for individuals, thus leading to better security and overall preparedness for an organization. Our anti-phishing game has been shown to appeal to users across a broad segment of organizations, including the US AirForce, financial organizations (e.g. Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation, TD Ameritrade), government (e.g. Florida Department of Transportation), schools, health care providers (e.g. Children Hospital Los Angeles), ISPs, government contractors (e.g. Booz Allen & Hamilton) and others, thereby demonstrating the dual-use potential of our approach to cyber security awareness training. Yet the cost of developing a single game remains high. Through the new platform we propose to develop and validate under the proposed SBIR grant, we expect to significantly reduce the development costs and time associated with the introduction of new games. With cyber security threats continuing to evolve quite rapidly, this is critical if one is to ensure that training material remains current.

Enkia Corporation
817 West Peachtree St. Suite 208
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 365-4287
Badri Lokanathan
AF 08-034      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Data access and security in a need-to-share environment
Abstract:The adoption of Web 2.0 tools and technologies has enabled new information sharing workflows that are mandated by a need-to-share in government and commercial environments. These workflows introduce new sources of potential information leaks, while the need for securing sensitive information remains critical as ever. Emerging net- centric tools, together with advanced automated cognitive techniques for content analysis and review, can provide users with multi-level security access (read/write) to content strictly in accordance with their level of authorization as governed by organizational policies. An emerging concern with usage of such tools is the security risk of leakage through information aggregation. Allowing lower-level users to discover information in higher-level security domains may provide both existential knowledge and inadvertent leakage through aggregation with other available content that by itself is safe for release. Enkia, a developer of advanced cognitive technologies and tools for monitoring and filtering unstructured text has prototyped SecureBlog as a multi-level content access platform with automated security guards, that supports browse-down and browse-up capabilities. In the proposed Phase I investigation Enkia will develop extensions to SecureBlog that demonstrate the capability of guarding against inadvertent leaks due to aggregation. Subsequently Enkia will extend the developed techniques to browsing multiple web sources. BENEFIT: Information aggregation analysis has two anticipated commercial thrusts. The primary thrust is towards content monitoring and filtering solutions geared towards information security. The secondary commercial thrust is in applications of knowledge discovery. Examples: correlating separate criminal incidents in law enforcement, chatter monitoring and pattern detection for anti-terrorism applications, locating related case histories in medical or legal fields.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariners Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Eugene R. Creswick
AF 08-034      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Evidence-Base Automation for Document Dissemination
Abstract:Recent innovations in information collection have vastly increased the amount of digital content available. Providing collaborators with access to this information during day to day activities is vital. However, search services that tie together information across multiple security domains cannot be deployed because of the potential for unsafe information dissemination. Search results and the requested documents must be cleared for the requesting user before they can be presented; however, involving human reviewers in this information retrieval process is not a sustainable solution. Thus, automated tools need to be incorporated with search services and with the human review process to improve security without adding costs for the users or unduly burdening the information providers. We present an evidence-based approach to information management and dissemination that leverages the state-of-the-art in natural language processing and automated classification technologies. Our approach takes a gradual path to increasing automation by developing techniques based on active learning that can be incorporated into existing workflows. As the proposed system learns from the user''''''''''''''''s activities, it will increasingly provide support to the user''''''''''''''''s tasks. This approach will build trust, allowing the system to gradually provide increasingly automated secure information dissemination. BENEFIT: Many areas of the commercial sector have a pressing need for tools designed to improve information dissemination efficiency and security. The recent development of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 and Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 have made these requirements more pressing than ever. Our proposed approach incorporates state-of-the- art text analysis and information management technologies with existing search tools to manage information retrieval, both of individual documents and aggregates, in an efficient and secure manner.

Fetch Technologies
841 Apollo Street Suite 400
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-9849
Steven Minton
AF 08-036      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Automated Data Transformations for Net-Centric Operations
Abstract:In this project Fetch Technologies will design, prototype and evaluate a new approach to transforming and normalizing data from multiple heterogeneous sources. In previous work, we developed and successfully commercialized a system for creating transformation pipelines. In a transformation pipeline, a new source (with its own unique schema) can be dropped into the pipeline, and as long as the sources data schema satisfies some very general constraints on the type of data present, then the pipeline will successfully normalize data from that source. Our objective is to design the next generation of this system, which we call AutoTrans, that will minimize the human effort necessary build a robust transformation pipeline. In particular, through the use of machine learning techniques, the AutoTrans system will make it easier and more automatic to configure and modify a series of transformations. It will also provide actionable results even when the existing set of recognizers and mappings is incomplete. Finally, the system will be able to represent and reason about the correctness/fidelity of the transformed data. BENEFIT: The aim of this project is to create a transformation system that minimizes the human effort necessary to aggregate data from multiple heterogeneous systems. Currently, integrating information from multiple domains and applications is technically challenging. Using existing transformation design systems is difficult because the transformations generally have to be designed by knowledgeable programmers. They are often one-to-one mappings, which must be modified or redesigned when a new data source needs to be integrated. Our approach represents an advance for data aggregation problems, because it allows one to implement a data pipeline that can normalize data from a wide variety of sources without reprogramming. The new AutoTrans technology represents the next generation of this approach. It will markedly decrease the human time and the skill-level required to develop and maintain these powerful pipelines. This in turn will produce a qualitative difference in how broadly this technology can be applied in commercial and military systems.

Securboration Inc
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 154
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-7371
Bruce McQueary
AF 08-036      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Automated Data Transformations for Net-Centric Operations
Abstract:The ever increasing number of web data sources and the additional complexity of sharing data among databases creates a growing need for less labor intensive schema matching and translation techniques. Securboration, teaming with Dr. Jens Pohl, Professor of Architecture and Executive Director of the Collaborative Agent Design Research at California Polytechnic State University, and Chairmen of the Board of CDM Technologies, is pleased to propose the Semantic Ontology-Assisted Matching System, or SOAMS, directed at data transformation solutions. As a part of our approach, the Securboration Team offers the following: (1) Highly-qualified Team with extensive experience in semantic interoperability, ontological reasoning, agent frameworks, schema matching, data transformation, and data cleansing technologies. (2) Direct alignment to Government application applied to USTRANSCOMs Joint Deployment and Distribution Enterprise (JDDE), as indicated by the Support letters from USTRANSCOM in Section 5 of this proposal (3) Viable commercialization opportunity by integrating SOAMS technology directly into CDMs MARVEL AES commercial release. Our approach uses a domain model that facilitates a top-down approach to the matching and translation problem by allowing schema alignment based on meaning to semantically match schema and then use syntactical methods for further matching and transformation. BENEFIT: Our partnership with Dr. Pohl and CDM will enable SOAMS to be developed with an eye towards integration possibilities with CDMs MARVEL AES commercial product. The synergies are excellent between the two, which is a basis for the long term teaming arrangements. Additionally, SOAMS has broad capability to support SOA component vendors, particularly as a product that facilitates SOA implementations. This is important as many SOA contracts are now service-level contracts (vs. one shot commercial products) that include deployment and installation and a product such as SOAMS will enable more rapid implementation of an SOA by mitigating the labor intensive process of matching and translation.

3 Sigma Research, Inc.
503 S. River Oaks Dr.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 674-9267
James DIke
AF 08-037      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Automate Ontological Representation of security classification guides
Abstract:3 Sigma Research proposes an innovative concept for interfaces to ontology-based software that will facilitate development of multi-level security aiding tools and data to ensure information assurance. A primary example of applying this technology would be a tool to assist with the automated creation of security classification guides. The Ontology- based Security Classification Guide Investigation (OSCG-I ) will focus on development of an approach for specifying a formal ontological open standard for the information contained in a security classification guide (SCG), including security classification rules, and validating the consistency whether a single, or multiple, ontology-based SCGs apply to a given situation; a tool to facilitate and automate creation of SCG and the inherent security classification rules. The innovative concepts would combine the power of ontology-based reasoning components to address the complex and dynamic needs for automated information security needs in todays ever-changing coalition environment. The approach will include investigating the potential issues in migrating from current implementation to our new approach. The product of our research can be the ground work for a rare opportunity to truly achieve automated SCG creation and maintenance, and provide more rapid and agile responses to dynamic environments. BENEFIT: The potential of this approach positively affects every user in the enterprise. The greatest benefit is increased information assurance in data delivery. In addition, with an open standard interface, dynamic applications could now be developed to explore the effects of completely new ways of updating the information assurance policies throughout the enterprise; allowing information assurance (IA) managers to more effectively manage the security classification characteristics of the entire enterprise. The product of our research can be the ground work for a rare opportunity to truly achieve automated SCG creation and maintenance, and provide more rapid and agile responses to dynamic environments. We can envision this approach as a strong complement to cross-domain solutions. Above any other benefit is the fact that, wherever warfighters are, secure information at the right level of detail and appropriately accessed or disseminated can greatly increase the efficiency of their activities.

Articulate Software
420 College Ave
Angwin, CA 94508
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 965-2562
Adam Pease
AF 08-037      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Automate Ontological Representation of security classification guides
Abstract:The volume of information available is making it impractical to rely completely on humans to touch, assess and classify every bit of information, especially when there may be multiple overlapping security classification guidelines that are applicable. Automation is needed on two fronts: (1) to design security classification guides that are clear, formal, explicit and mutually consistent and non-redundant (2) to apply security classification guides with the smallest amount of feasible human intervention. We will use an existing language to logic translation system (called the Controlled English to Logic Translation system) to convert security classification guides into formal logic, utilizing new and existing definitions from the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO). We will ensure that the translated rules are clear and consistent with automated theorem proving conducted in our Sigma Knowledge Engineering Environment. BENEFIT: The resulting system will enable security classification guides to be turned into computer-executable specifications. Security guides will be able to be tested automatically for internal consistency and consistency with other guides.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Joe Gorman
AF 08-038      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Multi-Intel for Space Situation Awareness (MInt4SSA)
Abstract:The prominent role that space-based assets play in ISR, navigation, communications, and targeting exposes a critical vulnerability for US military operations. To maintain our military dominance, the US Air Force is actively pursuing Space Situation Awareness (SSA) and Defensive Counterspace (DCS) techniques that identify and characterize space infrastructure attacks and the associated estimation and prediction of adversary intent and capabilities. For example, AFRLs Space Vehicles Directorate is studying the application of data fusion theory to automated threat detection and characterization. As a member of this research team, Charles River Analytics is currently working on a situation assessment data fusion component that addresses the identification of relationships and situation state across space abnormality event tracks. Here, we propose to extend this data fusion work to include the use of additional types of intelligence information by developing a Multi-Int System for Space Situation Awareness (MInt4SSA). The objective of MInt4SSA is to demonstrate methods to extract relevant information from new intelligence data sources and to extend our existing level 2 fusion components to use this information to improve SSA. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing current and planned Air Force and DoD SSA and DCS approaches and technologies. BENEFIT: We see direct application of the proposed effort to the development of decision aiding systems for enhancing space situation awareness and supporting counterspace operations. In addition, the proposed effort will impact the development and enhancement of our REASON via the incorporation of the situation-theoretic modeling and inferencing components of the proposed system.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5001
Bruce Swett
AF 08-038      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Information Fusion and Prediction for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:Under this SBIR, the Decisive Analytics Corporation (DAC) team proposes a novel solution to creating a clear and timely space asset threat picture from available intelligence data by recognizing and anticipating hostile space activities. The DAC solution is a supervised learning approach that mines the temporal structure of complex space events from historical data and uses these temporal relations as features in the characterization and anticipation of future space events. The solution involves two processing loops: 1. A training loop in which important discriminating relationships fingerprints comprising different hostile and unintentional space activities are learned from historical data; and 2. An on-line event recognition loop that discovers patterns and composite relationships in the available data and uses these mined relations to characterize the hostility of events in the evolving space scene and to anticipate events that are likely to occur in the future. The proposed approach builds on DACs experience in designing, implementing and delivering advanced data mining and association algorithms to the DoD community. These technologies, combined with the DAC teams experience in planning, coordinating, managing and executing worldwide Space Situational Awareness operations to detect, track, identify, catalog and protect international space systems will result in algorithms suitable for prototyping in Phase I and Phase II and deployment to the US Air Force in Phase III of this SBIR. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefit of the proposed solution is an improvement in the ability to utilize all relevant threat intelligence information to detect intentional space threats, unambiguously classify anomalous behavior as environmental, man-made unintentional or hostile, and anticipate hostile space actions. This will include a logical and easily interpretable graph of the information that led to a particular classification determination i.e. the chain of evidence needed to infer the hostility of a space action. The approach is also applicable to the characterization of threats in the areas of missile defense and to the classification of complex events (activities) in video.

21st Century Systems, Incorporated
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 329-8526
Robert Woodley
AF 08-039      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Space-ACE
Abstract:There is a need for a next-generation integrative decision support system for Space Control operations. This next-generation system should provide high-level capabilities for managing case files containing evidence, expert opinions, and data relationships. The system should enhance operator awareness by highlighting salient aspects of the case file, critical relationships, and confidence assessments. Pedigree management is important for confidence assessment, but the system must also provide mechanisms to help see beyond the pedigree horizon. The system must be able to combine human and machine- generated information in an intuitive, collaborative, and operator-tunable manner. 21st Century Systems Incorporated proposes to apply its expertise in developing Intelligence- based Decision Support Systems to the challenge of creating the next generation Space Control decision support system. Many of the core challenges have been addressed in our Webster-ACE (Agent Case Expert) project, but there is significant work required to adapt it for the needs of Space Control operations. In this proposal, we provide an introduction to salient aspects of the Webster-ACE technology and present a work plan for undertaking the innovative work required to adapt these aspects for Space Control operations. The name of our concept is the Agent Case Expert for Space Control Decision Support or Space-ACE. BENEFIT: In support of the JFCC, the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) requires advanced operator-tunable data association and filtering techniques to identify pertinent, high-valued, actionable information in support of Space Situation Awareness extracted from incoming data streams and cyber chat. With Space- ACE, the potential exists to identify serious threats to spacecraft in order to prevent adverse actions before they happen. Assessments generated by Space-ACE will provide JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, and Combatant Commanders the necessary information for Space Control operations for the Space Command & Control (C2) Weapons System and through NECC networks via web-services access to the algorithms. 21CSI fully intends to build and transition key technological elements  the collaborative agent concept, information inferencing products using the collaborative environment derived from 21CSIs Evidential Reasoning Network (ERN) technology to suitable USAF and DoD development centers for concurrent data mining. The commercial transition is similar to the military transition. The target customer list is somewhat narrow, but very important in terms of overall capabilities and revenue generation. Commercial satellite services revenue grew at an impressive rate from $86.9 billion in 2005 to $111.1 billion in 2006, while commercial space infrastructure revenue was up from $28.7 billion in 2005 to $33.1 billion in 2006. Commercial satellite services represent the dominant space sector accounting for 50 percent of space economic activities. Direct-to-home television services were up 20 percent to $55 billion in 2006. The commercial space industry is enormous and is totally dependent on a relatively small number of on orbit vehicles essentially low density, high demand assets. The $55 billion direct-to-home television service in the U. S. currently has

Pragati Synergetic Research, Inc.
914 Liberty Ct.
Cupertino, CA 95014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 625-0274
Mala Mehrotra
AF 08-039      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Expozé-Aware: A Clustering Environment for Situational Awareness Data Understanding & Fusion
Abstract:Whereas machine processing algorithms for low-level data fusion has made significant progress in recent years, Human-in-Loop aids to help the human in the OODA (Observe, Orient, Decide & Act) Loop for situational awareness fusion process, has not made as much progress. In this project we propose a human-machine collaboration mode solution, Expozé-Aware which uses clustering technology to condense huge amounts of data to understandable pieces of information chunks which can lead to identification of actionable intelligence for space situation awareness. Clustering the data can help maintain user focus at all times for achieving situational awareness even with massive amounts of data while allowing actionable information to emerge from low-level tuning/filtering of data when necessary. The vision of this project is to utilize the output from the clustering infrastructure to feed as input for various NECC-aware planning tools, whose visualizers are currently inundated with data that has not been sufficiently differentiated with respect to their relevance and salience for the mission focus. BENEFIT: Enterprise Information Integration (EII) systems are beginning to adopt an abstract semantic mediation layer to access heterogeneous data such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer relationships management (CRM) applications.

21st Century Technologies Inc.
4515 Seton Center Parkway Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Laura Hitt
AF 08-040      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:CLAD: Classification Labeling of Aggregated Data
Abstract:CLAD is a web service to ensure that all data entering a network is properly labeled, and that the aggregate data available to users is within their clearance. CLAD verifies all incoming data as properly labeled, adds the metadata of each document to the metadata of the collection, conducts a shallow analysis to determine if a reclassification of documents as a collection is needed, compares document visibility requirements and users credentials to determine authorization, and routes the collection to a local auto- classification system if reclassification is needed. CLAD then passes it on to the user, based on the users clearance and need-to-know. CLAD can be configured to accept information on credentials from a wide range of sources. Additionally, CLAD is agnostic to the format of security markings on the data it processes. CLAD processes the labels whether they come in the form of inline paragraph markings, XML metadata, or a number of other formats. CLAD stands to provide the Air Force and a wide range of military and commercial customers with a tremendous advantage in security. Most importantly, CLAD allows users to search for and browse the information they need to accomplish their missions without compromising individual and national security. BENEFIT: CLAD will be deployed as a web service to minimize the effort required to install the system in an operational environment. CLADs existence on the network will ensure that all data passing through it is clad with appropriate labels (individually and collectively) or routed to another service to gather appropriate labeling, in an assured manner, so that the most accurate classification is maintained. CLAD will give users the ability to search for and browse the information they need to accomplish their missions without compromising individual and national security, as there is an assurance that the aggregate data classification is within their security clearance Because CLAD is so adaptable, it stands to provide the Air Force and potentially a wide range of military and commercial customers with a tremendous advantage in security. CLAD will protect classified information that enters the network from any source (searches, e-mail, browsing, etc.), and it will do so while leveraging the classification guidelines, marking styles, C&A, access control systems, and classification authorities already in place. The most important benefit provided by CLAD, however, is the ability of users to search for and browse the information they need to accomplish their missions without compromising individual and national security.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner''s Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Eugene Creswick
AF 08-040      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:DAIS: Maintaining Dynamic Aggregated Information Security
Abstract:Federated search tools are of great value to users with timely information needs, but little attention has been directed towards solving the security issues that arise with these tools in the context of multiple security domains. Search results and the requested documents must be cleared for the requesting user before they can be presented; however, it is extremely costly to involve human reviewers in this information retrieval process. Thus, new automated techniques are needed to accurately identify the classification level of search results. Such techniques must do more than identify the classification of individual phrases, since high-security knowledge may be exposed by combining multiple portions of low-security content that, when combined, reveal classified information. These information aggregates must be detected and tracked automatically before a dangerous amount of the aggregate is released. We present a solution that integrates text analysis techniques with search technologies to enable automatic dissemination of information at multiple security levels based on user and system access rights as well as security markings. We then extend this solution to incorporate aggregate tracking and we propose methods to learn about and reason with external sharing to further reduce the chances of security leaks through content aggregation. BENEFIT: Many areas of the commercial sector have a pressing need for tools designed to improve information dissemination efficiency and security. The recent development of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 and Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 have made these requirements more pressing than ever. Our proposed approach, DAIS, incorporates state-of-the-art text analysis and information management technologies with federated search tools to manage information retrieval, both of individual documents and aggregates, in an efficient and secure manner.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5218
Peng Xie
AF 08-041      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:AEAAVT: an Adaptive and Extendible Assurance Assessment and Validation Tool for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
Abstract:IPv6 transition mechanisms may damage the security of the network if not deployed appropriately. In this proposal, we present an adaptive and extendible assurance assessment and validation tool (AEAAVT) to address this challenging problem. AEAAVT is an automatic assurance assessment and validation tool for IP v6 transition mechanisms. AEAAVT combines probe-based measurement and penetration-based measurements to accurately and completely detect the dual-stack nodes and tunnels in the network. Moreover, AEAAVT enables the network administrator to efficiently assess the risk and locate the damage caused by the IPv6 transition mechanisms. Additionally, AEAAVT adopts close to real-scenario penetration to accurately assess the security of the network. BENEFIT: The proposed adaptive and extendible assurance assessment and validation tool provides a feasible solution to the security problems caused by the IPv6 transition mechanisms. The architecture and implementation approaches can be applied to a broad range of military networks including war-time command and control, real-time surveillance network, homeland security, etc. Other potential commercial applications include border and coast patrol, law enforcement agency, emergency control center and various civil applications. In essence, the ideas, methods and models resulting from this effort will be applicable to virtually all networks where IPv6 co-exists with IPv4. The market is quite large and still developing due to the IPv6 transition. The aggregated commercial market size can be much larger than that of military applications. IAI is more than a think tank, and we have actively pursued with our partners the application of our technologies into actual products in the past. For this proposed effort, in particular, we strongly believe that our work provides the solution needed in practice. It is also reasonable to expect a source of revenue from service contracts related with the actual development of such product of admission control. In addition, IAI will closely work with our partners and collaborator companies such as Lockheed, Boeing, BAE systems, Raytheon, and Telcordia to transfer this technology into the military and commercial world.

mZeal Communications
166 Boulder Drive, Suite 108
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 665-0281
Rajini Anachi
AF 08-041      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Expert Validation of IPV4-6 Security in Transitional Areas (EVISTA)
Abstract:A compelling case can be made for the implementation of IPv6, a replacement for the hugely successful but limited IPv4 protocol. Furthermore, in an important sense IPV6 is already here. Most network equipment and operating systems created in the last several years are IPV6 capable. This de-facto transition poses important security risks. Dual- stack nodes have mechanisms for accessing both IPV4 and IPV6 networks. As transition mechanisms have been developed, the security considerations have been reasonably well documented, but information assurance policies and enforcement mechanisms need to take into account the security implications of this new technology. There is clearly a need for a tool which aids administrators in dealing with the security threats posed by a transitional environment. mZeal Communications proposes a product which is intended to fill this need, Expert Validation of IPV4/6 in Transitional Areas (EVISTA). EVISTA is envisioned to be self-configuring, expert system which specializes in identifying and neutralizing security gaps and active threats in a wide variety of transitional environments. It will contain software agents that collect information about the network, both from a static and dynamic standpoint, and a rule-based inference engine, used to intelligently identify how to defeat threats in its host environment. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of EIVSTA could be quite significant, due to its widespread potential applicability. Near-term commercial opportunities exist in areas relating to the DOD. This is due in part to fact that mZeal has several years of experience in working with the military on a variety of projects, and therefore have a high degree of familiarity with defense- related organizations. Additionally, per DOD mandate, all DOD agencies must have become technically IPv6 compliant as June 2008. This implies that most of them are at some level of transition, which is exactly the type of environment to which the EVISTA system is targeted. There is also the scenario for deployment of EVISTA in tactical networks. The promise of IPv6 is power at the edge, which implies its usefulness in tactical environments. The ability to detect and automatically disable an intrusive, potentially crippling attack on the network actively involved in a battle scenario represents a powerful capability in a tactical system. For the longer term, in a vein similar the DOD, the OMB has also mandated that all Federal agencies have become IPv6 capable by now. Given the sheer size and scope of the Federal government, this represents a significant potential market for EVISTA. Ultimately, the largest potential market is the totality of the users of the worldwide internet. As mentioned previously, government organizations in multiple countries are actively advocating for a transition to IPv6. Since the US has a relatively large portion of the IPv4 address space, rapidly developing countries such as China and India have additional incentive to move to IPv6. Other countries have similar concerns and are likely to follow suit including, eventually, the U.S. Since the conversion to IPV6 is predicted to take place gradually, rather than overnight, the need for a transitional threat detection and elimination product such as EVISTA projects to be

Pikewerks Corporation
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Jackie Smith-Cashion
AF 08-041      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Assurance Validation of Commercial Products Containing IPv6 Transition and Tunneling Mechanisms on the Air Force Network
Abstract:The co-existence of IPv6 communication on established IPv4 networks introduces new security risks. Pikewerks has identified a number of research areas that would significantly improve the network analysis toolset available to network and system administrators and provide transition-phase tunnel authentication. BENEFIT: The software being developed will provide visibility into IPv6 network configurations and enhance IPv6 through IPv4 tunnel security.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5269
Babak Azimi-Sadjadi
AF 08-043      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Multi Objective Superposition Coding for Reliable Networks
Abstract:We propose a multi objective rate adaptive superposition coding where the rates for super imposed coded modulation are chosen based on the metrics that are drawn from end to end performance and routing scores. This novel approach allows the system designers to tune the physical layer modulation and coding to maximize the network performance rather than the individual links in the network. Single objective optimization in physical layer design (maximizing rate or maximizing reliability) can potentially reduce overall network throughput as explained. The major challenge here is to find a way to achieve a stable and reliable link without sacrificing the available channel capacity. The solution we propose to solve this problem is to use Superposition Coding. BENEFIT: In this project we will develop a superposition coding for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks which improves network performance significantly by allowing nodes to communicate to each other with different rates simultaneously. This technology is especially important for networks with high mobility such as Airborne Networks. Our immediate customer for this technology is Air Force where nodes are highly mobile. We expect that at the end of Phase II we will have a prototype of our technology in Hardware and ready for networking. This will give us an edge in an emerging market where robust and reliable networks are the primary requirements from the missions and applications. We expect that Air Forcefs network requirements and networks used on other branches of DOD will require highly reliable links. During Phase II we will talk with the prime contractors such as Boeing, General Dynamics, and Raytheon in order to transition our technology into the program of records.

Leaf Networks, LLC
14356 E. Geronimo Rd
Scottsdale, AZ 85259
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 332-4224
Jeffrey Capone
AF 08-043      Awarded: 2/11/2009
Title:Rate-Adaptive High-Availability RF Links
Abstract:In an airborne network there may only be a limited window of opportunity for a fighter jet or even a soldier on the ground to participate in a communication network. Any loss of connection during this limited transmission window due channel fluxuations is therefore extremely costly. In this project we propose a multi-resolution system base on superposition coding that will avoid these communication outages without having to sacrifice link capacity. The idea is to set different levels of priorities for different frames of data, and exploit multi-resolution coding/modulation techniques to protect these different pieces at different levels. When the channel conditions deteriorate only the highest priority data is transmitted successfully, while if the channel conditions improve other lower priority information is also received. We consider the important case of no feedback on the channel conditions to the transmitter, hence we do not adopt solutions based on adaptive coding/modulation schemes. This proposed multi-resolution coding scheme creates new challenges for higher layer networking protocols. Since the physical layer itself will offer multiple levels of service. An additional goal of this research is to develop and modify higher layer networking protocols to best utilize an underlying physical layer with multiple levels of service. BENEFIT: Leaf Networks has been delivering commercial award-winning software products for the last two years. Our software has received recognition from PC Magazine, Network World and PC World and sold several networking and multimedia products, including its patent pending virtual network software and its high-definition video conferencing product. The company and its founders have a history commercializing university research into products. Prior to Leaf Networks, in 1999 the founders launch Aligo, raised $24 M from Silicon Valley venture capitalists to commercialize their wireless research. The technology was transitioned into enterprise products and generated over $4 M annually and was licensed by Sun Micro Systems and Motorola. Currently, the founders of Leaf Networks have taken more recent patent pending ideas and converted it into consumer products which have been licensed by NETGEAR. Leaf Networks is run by Dr. Jeffrey Capone who was a former professor of Electrical Engineering as Arizona State University. Dr. Capone has a history of commercializing university research though understanding commercial potential, forming companies and raising capital. Leaf Networks sees many military and commercial application of the proposed technology. Some examples include airborne networks where a fighter jet may fly past the network and want to quickly upload or download large amounts of tactical data. Commercial applications include emergency response applications where high definition imagery can be requested over low bandwidth wide area wireless networks and downloaded or uploaded when connected to a pocket of high bandwidth. These pockets of high bandwidth may be available in a traffic intersection or on locations on highways. In either case, there is only a window of opportunity to download time critical data and any loss of connectivity due to varying

TrellisWare Technologies, Inc.
16516 Via Esprillo Suite 300
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 753-1620
Sungill Kim
AF 08-043      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Topologically Extreme Waveform Designs for Rate-Adaptive High-Availability RF Links
Abstract:A modern military communications waveform suitable for use in airborne networks must meet four stringent requirements: (i) robustness to harsh RF environments, (ii) adaptability to time-varying RF conditions, (ii) tolerance of long feedback delays, and (iv) backward compatibility with existing military waveforms. The goal of this Phase I SBIR effort is the development of a waveform that provides reliable, robust high-data-rate connectivity in the face of these design challenges. TrellisWare Technologies, Inc. (TrellisWare) proposes to bring its significant expertise in waveform design for harsh RF environments to the important challenge of rate-adaptive, high-availability RF link design. TrellisWares existing Topologically eXtreme (TopX) waveform design tools including its Flexible Low- Density Parity-Check code family provide the necessary foundation for a scalable design that operates effectively across a large SNR dynamic range, tolerates high-frequency SNR fluctuations, and provides stability under potentially long feedback delays. BENEFIT: The most immediate commercial application of modern military waveform technology is in homeland security, first responder, and border patrol communications. Airborne network waveform technology in particular has potential applications in commercial unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks. For example, UAVs can provide cost-effective solutions for border surveillance while the use of airborne assets can be critical to fighting wildfires. TrellisWare therefore anticipates that the waveform technologies developed for the Air Force in this effort will therefore benefit commercial airborne network deployments as well.

Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Matheos Kazantzidis
AF 08-044      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Distributed Overlapping Cross Key Cross Domain Mobile Authentication Embedded System
Abstract:Airborne operations require the timely sharing of data across U.S. security domains. The U.S. Air Force seeks to develop a Cross Domain Solution (CDS) with a corresponding set of rules for sharing data across these domains within a manpower-limited, SWAP- constrained airborne environment. To address these needs, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI), based on the integration and expansion of our innovations in localized, distributed network security with split keys, proposes to develop a novel Distributed Overlapping Cross Key (DOCK) System. BCI¡¦s DOCK system extends the well-known split key sharing scheme to produce keys that have the allowed information flow and data separation process results embedded in them. BCI¡¦s DOCK system does not require a centralized or ground authority because the transmitted keys are partial. Network participants can collectively and locally provide network authentication, which can be continued and carried to different domains without compromising the original domain keys. In our novel DOCK system, each domain adds new equations, which require key parts, and cancels some equations. Therefore, a mobile aircraft may be continually authenticated across different domains. The benefits of BCI¡¦s innovative DOCK system will greatly improve Air Force data sharing. BENEFIT: Potential military applications of the DOCK system are vast in Trusted Computing and Information Assurance, especially in the tactical environment where node populations may change or move. The following immediate applications can also benefit the DoD: Command and Control (C2) Information System (C2IS), Access Control for the Automated Information Systems (AIS), e.g., the Defense Message System (DMS), Corporate Executive Information Systems (CEIS), Defense Joint Accounting System (DJAS), Electronic Document Management Program (EDM). In addition to military applications, BCI has identified several potential commercial applications in which our proposed technology will have direct and dramatic impacts. Any distributed system that requires a deployable, instant detection and reaction, high security system can use BCIs DOCK system. In addition to many military uses, BCIs DOCK system can be applied to widespread commercial technologies, such as private networks, data acquisition systems, file-sharing and peer-to-peer networks, public records access for law enforcement agencies, and data management activities.

Solute, Inc.
4250 Pacific Highway Suite 211
San Diego, CA 92110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 758-9900
Matthew Levy
AF 08-044      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Cross-domain solutions for airborne operations
Abstract:In the tactical environment, imagery, video, and other bandwidth-intensive communications are typically handled through satellite communications (SATCOM) when line-of-sight options do not exist. As communications capabilities improve in the warfighter community, SATCOM services are becoming increasing over-taxed. To provide additional bandwidth, airborne nodes on resident battlespace aircraft and aerial vehicles can be deployed, but to handle multiple level classified data and data downgrading to the tactical user, an airborne Cross Domain Solution (CDS) is required. Current CDS products are often too cumbersome for airborne use and require a human-in-the-loop. SOLUTE and OIS will conduct research under this SBIR to develop a modular hardware architecture for implementation of an automated airborne CDS in a chip, card, and blade environment. SOLUTE will determine space, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints of candidate aircraft and aerial vehicles, define applications and their security requirements, and determine Real Time Operating System (RTOS) requirements for implementing a Multiple Independent Layers of Security/Safety (MILS)-based CDS solution. The company will then define the Information Flow and Releasability components of the CDS, conduct a trade-off analysis, and define at least three candidate hardware architecture footprints, along with testing and accreditation strategies for future Phase II development. BENEFIT: Globally, the SATCOM market has increased by more than 40% in the past five years, and the U.S. Government currently makes up 75% of the worlds demand for services. The impact of this technology will be immediate once implemented, saving potentially hundreds of millions of dollars in DoD SATCOM spending by making greater use of existing airborne assets for tactical communications. Known multiple level and multilevel tactical applications that can utilize this airborne CDS capability include Web Services, browsing, publish/subscribe, and e-mail, in addition to chat, Voice-over-IP (VOIP), and C4I operational/track data use. A MILS-based CDS solution will also enhance communications capabilities among all DoD aircraft programs currently slated to use MILS technology, which include the B-1, B-2, F-35, F-22, and C-130 Avionics Modernization Program. A MILS-based CDS is also directly applicable to the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) program and other Software Defined Radio (SDR) markets, the Land Warrior Program, Global Positioning Systems, Army Future Combat Systems, and several mission critical systems aboard the new DDG-1000 Zumult class Destroyer. Additional commercial application areas include any industry using MILS that requires data compartmentalization and high uptime, including utility infrastructure management, financial services, and data centers.

L&S Computer Technology, Inc.
#110 PO Box 9802
Austin, TX 78766
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 988-3811
Connie U. Smith
AF 08-047      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:A Framework for Robust Engineering of Large-Scale Distributed Real-Time Systems
Abstract:We propose to define a software framework that will support semi to fully automatic integration of heterogeneous software design and performance analysis tools based on our accepted model interoperability approach. This framework will enable the automated translation of software designs from common design notations (such as UML) into performance models for evaluation of properties such as: hardware sizing, timing analysis, responsiveness, scalability, and others. It will support the addition of performance analysis tools in a plug and play style, thus making the environment expandable as new design methods and analysis techniques are desired. Phase I will focus on defining an architecture for this framework and demonstrating its feasibility. A prototype framework, including a sample set of design and analysis tools will be developed in Phase II and its utility will be demonstrated using a DoD case study. This prototype will be the foundation for a Phase III commercial product that would be marketed to both the DoD and commercial clients. BENEFIT: By automating the translation of software designs to performance models, this framework will eliminate the need for laborious and error-prone manual translation. This means that performance defects can be detected and corrected early in the development process where they are easier and less costly to repair. Automated translation of designs to performance models will also make it possible to keep the performance models and design synchronized as the software evolves. There are several potential markets for this framework: • The framework would provide performance analysts with the ability to quickly evaluate the performance impact of software design decisions. • Software architects could use automated performance analysis to provide decision support during the design phase of a project. • Those who oversee contract or outsourced software development (both DoD and commercial) could use the automated analysis to obtain real time feedback on the status of the products performance There is additional commercial potential in developing and marketing tools to populate the framework. Our customer base of performance specialists using the SPE-ED tool is already interested in interfacing additional tools to streamline their tasks. New, special-purpose tools could be developed to meet those needs. In addition, translators to integrate new tools into the framework could be marketed.

Tri-Pacific Software Inc.
909 Marina Village Parkway #283
Alameda, CA 94501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 814-1775
Peter Kortmann
AF 08-047      Awarded: 2/11/2009
Title:Robust Engineering via Integrated Design and Analysis
Abstract:The goal of the Phase I SBIR effort is to characterize and specify the application of the relevant parts of the MARTE profile into a class and component library including resources, networks, busses and other constrained-use artifacts (e.g. Devices, data tables, system locks, etc) so that a complete set of required performance objectives can be characterized for the aggregate set of components as well as for each individual constituent component. This data can then be accessed and acted on by the appropriate RMA, Queuing Theory and discrete event simulation tools to assess worst-case completion performance, average and statistical throughput information, and appropriate degraded mode operations context as needed. The characterization of performance objectives and implementation constraints as integral properties of each architectural design element makes the extraction of the appropriate collection of properties and their analysis easy to automate and facilitates insertion of analysis results into the architecture characterization as well. This foundation of architecture characterization is inherently extensible, since new properties and classes can easily be added as additional analyses and characterizations are required. Also the addition of this richer definition of real-time components will facilitate the ability to better analyze more complex distributed real-time architectures. BENEFIT: The commercial marketplace would see add-on component profiles available to UML design tools to use the new capabilities, along with drop in analysis tools to automate the analysis and assessment of architecture performance for systems designed using the new and augmented capabilities. Additional exposure to the new UML profiles and classes would be all that is necessary. Such future use applies not only to DoD embedded systems, but equally well to enterprise systems, automotive systems, financial management systems, aircraft, Telecom, manufacturing and control industries and FDA approved software products. As the software and the technology developed within this SBIR infuses into those marketplaces and cultures, performance assessment will become a co-equal part of the design effort and architecture process through the automation and computer capture of architecture performance information made available through the products of this SBIR.

WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Chris J. Walter
AF 08-047      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Robust Engineering via Integrated Design and Analysis
Abstract:The robust engineering of large-scale distributed real-time systems is no easy task. Software-based systems, both distributed and embedded, have reached the point where overall complexities radically increase the chance of defects and jeopardize run-time goals of dependability and performance. Concurrent with these challenges is the pervasive effort to drive mission costs lower while maintaining acceptable levels of quality and reliability in deployed mission software. Model Based Engineering (MBE) is seeing increasing use as a technique for representing and managing the designs of large, complex systems. In this project, WWTG would provide new and valuable solutions for automating activities involving the analysis of design information captured in a standards based language such as UML with the following capabilities: (1) Tool-assisted evaluation and interpretation of meta-model information for identifying required analysis information, (2) an approach for import and translation of standards-based model information into a common environment that allows for tool-facilitated management and viewpoint-based manipulation, and (3) performance analysis algorithms integrated with the common tool platform that provide value-added evaluation of the design information from the standpoints of schedulability, performance, and resource utilization/needs. BENEFIT: The WW Technology Group (WWTG) is developing a collection of engineering tool capabilities that bridge the gap between model based designs and analysis capabilities. WWTG has developed a tool platform called EDICT, which has shown remarkable promise as an MBE tool platform. Under this SBIR program, WWTG would position the Air Force to continue to leverage and build upon our successful tool development efforts to provide new and valuable solutions for automating activities involving the analysis of design information captured in a standards based language such as UML. Furthermore, WWTGs EDICT tool offers the Air Force an ideal platform for hosting performance and schedulability analysis algorithms, techniques and visualizations. Our approach contains many benefits when employed on complex systems that address system performance, dependability, safety and life cycle cost. The key benefit that our technology provides is reduced engineering development and system certification costs while maintaining high levels of system performance, reliability and safety. Through improved integration of design and analysis of system architectural models, drivers in the system design process are exposed and can be actively considered along with other traditional design trade- offs. This leads to more cost effective initial designs and upgrades of existing systems. The integration of attributes for performance, dependability and safety provide additional benefits; enabling early detection of reliability issues or potential safety violations, which in turn leads to deployed systems that are more robust and have lower cost due to elimination of expensive rework late in the development cycle.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
houman Ghajari
AF 08-050      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Communications-On-The-Move (COTM) Antenna Pointing and Stabilization System
Abstract:The US Air Force is requesting the development and demonstration of a low-profile, robust antenna system capable of maintaining a Satellite Communications-On-The-Move (COTM) link for a moving vehicle as it traverses off-road terrain. This proposal presents an innovative solution codenamed XCA2T. XCA2T provides a robust solution by using multiple wider beam antennas and offsetting the reduction in gain by using a sophisticated spread spectrum waveform with state-of-the-art channel coding. BENEFIT: XCA2T provides the DoD with a true OTM SATCOM system cable of operating in several deployment scenarios: land, sea, and air. With the recent deployment of the first Wideband Gapfiller Satellite (WGS), the demand for Ka and X-band SATCOM service On- The-Move will significantly increase. XCA2T is cable of delivering to the DoD a well documented blueprint for how a true OTM SATCOM system, based on proven commercial technology, can be deployed for military applications where high mobility is required. In terms of the commercial market, we foresee XCA2T providing high-speed Internet connectivity to several types of consumers. XCA2T system provides RV travelers with OTM Internet connectivity for web browsing, accessing directions, and making VoIP calls. The system also provides a means to get roadside help for flat tires and engine trouble. Additionally XCA2T provides truck fleet managers with the ability to monitor the status and location of any truck on the road. Additionally, the system provides the driver with Internet connectivity to quickly report breakdowns and find up to the minute traffic data and alternate route suggestions. XCA2T also lends itself to the commuter train market: the system could be used to provide commuters with Internet connectivity to make their rides more productive. XCA2T can also be deployed in maritime applications: the COTM link can be used to provide web-browsing as well as up to the minute navigational data.

Ross-Hime Designs, Inc.
1313 5th Street South East
Minneapolis, MN 55414
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 699-5610
Mark Rosheim
AF 08-050      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Communications-On-The-Move (COTM) Antenna Pointing and Stabilization System
Abstract:A key requirement of the Air-Forces future communication effort is wideband communication-on-the-move (COTM) while transversing rough, off-road terrain at moderate speed. BAE, Systems CNIR, Wayne, New Jersey the subcontractor on this effort, demonstrated this capability recently during COTM exercises involving the C4ISR Ku transmission subsystem operating on a HMMWV and communicating with an airborne vehicle. Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. Minneapolis Minnesota and BAE, Systems, is offering a complete system with a new and improved horizon-to-horizon gimbal tracking system with revolutionary dexterity and ruggedness. BENEFIT: Commercial applications of this research and development include any mechanical pointing of sensors on any mobile platform including land, sea, and space. Robotic applications include flexible joints for welding, water-jet cutting and laser.

Syntonics LLC
9160 Red Branch Road
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-0500
Steven E. Gemeny
AF 08-050      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Communications-On-The-Move (COTM) Antenna Pointing and Stabilization System
Abstract:Syntonics proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a simple COTM multi-band antenna system based on the our pixel-addressable reconfigurable conformal antenna (PARCA) Software-Defined Antenna technology. PARCA is a phased array technology that operates under software control to be pointing-agile, frequency-agile, polarization-agile, low profile, and affordable. One concept uses a PARCA panel that is mechanically pointed for slow gross pointing and electronically pointed via software for fast fine pointing. Another concept uses multiple PARCA panels to provide all-sky coverage. BENEFIT: The initial market for a PARCA system that can be used for satcom on the move is substantial, as the market for military satcom systems is large both in the U.S. and with allied militaries. However, the PARCA technology will also be compelling in other military applications than need a thin, flat-plate array that provides agility in frequency, gain, steering, and polarization.

Azure Summit Technology, Inc.
12587 Fair Lakes Circle #342
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 272-1320
Scott Bierly
AF 08-053      Awarded: 2/20/2009
Title:Small UAV Accurate Geolocation and Discrimination
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, Azure Summit will develop a modular and scalable systems concept for SUAV payloads to perform RF Geolocation of broad classes of radar and communications emitters from 100-18000 MHz, across payload SWAP ranges, number of sensors, and signal environments, maximizing hardware and software reuse. We will select a set of geolocation algorithms and CONOPS which apply and scale across the range of SUAV sizes, signal types, and number of sensors. We will also develop a system-level analysis and trade study relating SUAV payload SWAP constraints to emitter detection, characterization, discrimination, and geolocation performance metrics. A set of hardware payload designs which address the full range of SUAV sizes and CONOPS, and share a common geolocation software architecture will be developed, along with a preliminary payload design for the smallest SUAV class (e.g., Raven B) geolocation payload, emphasizing communications emitter targets and single-platform organic operation, to be prototyped and tested in Phase II. Finally, we will develop a Phase II prototype implementation and demonstration plan and a set of technical performance goals that will be met in the demonstration. BENEFIT: Azure will work with the Air Force to ensure that the technologies to be developed in this SBIR are targeting appropriate commercialization applications, such as snap-on standard payload pods which bring new mission possibilities to existing SUAV deployments.

Scientific Applications & Research Assoc., Inc.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 597-0688
Michael Marino
AF 08-053      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Small UAV Accurate Geolocation and Discrimination
Abstract:The system-level design of a geolocation system for detecting and locating RF emitters on a small, unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) will be competed. The design will include system-level design, sensor subsystem design, RF receiver subsystem design, DSP subsystem design, and geolocation algorithms. The COTS components necessary to fabricate the system under the Phase II program will be identified. A mission-level simulation will be developed so that the systems accuracy can be evaluated. The simulation will allow for characterizing the systems geolocation performance with multiple emitters and various emitter locations. System fabrication and integration onto an Air Force platform will be done during Phase II. Field testing will be conducted during Phase II to demonstrate and quantify the systems geolocation performance. BENEFIT: Miltary uses of this system include locating enemy communication radios, cell phones, data links, jammers, remote detonation transmitters, and radars. Specific applications include Blue Force tracking or Combat Search and Rescue. The technology is platform independent and could be used on manned airplanes, helicopters, tanks, APCs, and as a hand-held unit for troops. For civialian applications, DHS has tasked the FAA to address the risk of US airports being disrupted by RF emitters such as GPS jammers in the midcourse and approach airspaces. A hand-held variant of this system could readily assist DHS enforcement teams in locating such devices. Smaller low cost units could be used at each airport for monitoring FAA communication channels to ensure flight safety. Additional civilian applications include distress situations to locate boaters for USCG Rescue 21 type applications, hikers using their cell phone, and enhanced 911 applications.

Trident Systems Inc.
10201 Fairfax Boulevard Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7780
Dan Bindbeutel
AF 08-053      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Small UAV Accurate Geolocation and Discrimination
Abstract:Recent advances in electronics miniaturization, unmanned vehicles, and battlefield communications & networking hold the potential to expand the capabilities RF threat geolocation, as well as make it more powerful, mobile, and collaborative. Advances in extremely low-power signal processing architectures, coupled with the increasing viability of small unmanned aircraft for tactical missions, can further leverage these capabilities by providing an in situ collection platform for gathering this signal information in the tactical environment, with the capability of maneuvering into direct RF line-of-sight to the potential threat emitter. In this effort, Trident will leverage its current capabilities in miniature direction-finding and distributed TDOA geolocation solutions to develop a small- footprint RF detection/discrimination/geolocation payload architecture that scales performance and capabilities across a range of small UAV platforms, from sub-meter to 4+ meter wingspans. Trident will identify the scope of functionality required to address threat geolocation in a real-world environment, developing a requirements specification covering all aspects of the problem space. An architecture will then be developed that addresses this functionality across a range of small UAV sizes and signal types, followed by a detailed modeling and simulation effort to demonstrate the validity of the architectural approach. BENEFIT: The successful development of this small UAV-based RF geolocation system will provide a significant new real-time capability in geolocation of adversaries in a tactical environment, enhancing tactical situational awareness and warfighter effectiveness, and providing a new tool for use in detection of wireless IED triggers. In the civilian realm, this capability offers utility in search and rescue operations, as well as providing RF detection capabilities for border surveillance in homeland defense.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4813
Olivier Toupet
AF 08-054      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Coordinated Sensor Fusion and Management for Multiple UAVs
Abstract:Two disparate technologies associated with net-centric warfare have reached a fairly high level of maturity: tactical control of UAVs and sensor fusion within and across high- value platforms. However, incorporation of local UAV data into the intelligence datastream is still limited, and more importantly, coordination of data gathering platforms is not automated or optimized. As the number of UAVs in the battlespace increases, the potential for fast and accurate localization, identification, designation, and prosecution of time-sensitive targets will only be realized if mechanisms for coordinating assets are developed. Aurora is proposing to develop an approach that covers all the aspects of the solicited technology for multi-platform multi-sensor (MPMS) tracking of multiple targets from sensor modeling to data association and fusion, to optimal sensor, platform and information management. Innovative resource allocation algorithms based on the Robust Decentralized Task Assignment (RDTA) technique jointly developed by Aurora and MIT and successfully demonstrated in recent STTR and SBIR efforts will be developed and implemented to allow multiple UAVs to optimally coordinate, efficiently directing the available sensors to collect the information required to effectively perform their missions. Auroras work to date on multi-vehicle coordination puts it in a unique position to meet the MPMS coordination challenge. BENEFIT: Whether integrated into a large battlespace or used locally by a team of UAVs supporting special forces, there is significant warfighter value available from methodologies for multi-platform multiple-sensor (MPMS) coordination for the purpose of optimizing information extraction from ISR data fusion. Simply having many sensors in the sky, especially limited capability sensors (due to UAV cost/size limits), is not sufficient to meet the Air Forces vision for dominance through information superiority. It is critical to get the right combination of sensors at the right location(s) at the right time, and to do so in a complex environment of targets, friendly forces, and air vehicles. Thus we see the MPMS problem as an opportunity to provide the final link in the net-centric warfare chain a chain which includes UAV platform technologies, sensor and sensor fusion technologies, communication, human interfaces and control, and multi- vehicle coordination. While the focus of this development effort will be on meeting the needs of the Air Force, Aurora will also seek other commercial applications of the technology. In addition to its wide military application including ISR missions, it is envisioned that the developed technology for coordinated sensor fusion and management can be used for numerous civil operations such as traffic flow and delay assessment, forest fire monitoring, border security, civilian search and rescue, weather and climate studies, and even space/Mars exploration.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Craig S. Agate
AF 08-054      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Control Algorithms for Network Centric Fusion
Abstract:The coordination and management of sensor data collection has a strong influence on the accuracy and completeness of the fused situational awareness picture. To provide the best possible picture, Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop algorithms which generate controls for a collection of UAVs in order to maximize the probability of identifying and maintaining track on suspected enemy vehicles or dismounts. Algorithm inputs will include environmental data (terrain, roads, buildings), sensor, platform, and target motion models, and the current network centric fused estimate of the world (e.g., target kinematic state, uncertainty, and Bayesian classification estimate). The algorithms developed will generate UAV routes which are synchronized and optimized with high demand platforms. In Phase I we will simulate the performance of our approach in a realistic Ramadi-Falluja scenario in which enemy vehicles move between rural and urban safe-houses. Our sensor systems will include one standoff platform with radar and several UAVs with video sensors. Information processing will include multi-sensor fusion (MTI and video) and target signature extraction and fingerprinting. We will use track life as our primary performance metric. Phase II will advance the algorithms and demonstrate the overall approach in closed-loop exercise. BENEFIT: Automatic route and task generation for sensor assets has immediate application to network centric warfare. In addition, the algorithm technology can seamlessly transition into our Geospatial Analysis and Planning Support (GAPS) Toolbox application, which is sponsored by JFCOM Joint Urban Operation Office, and to the Decision Aid currently being developed for the U.S. Army under a Phase II SBIR contract. In addition to military systems, the technology developed during this project will serve as a foundation for planning tools for manned and unmanned systems, providing, for example, emergency response plans for natural disasters or biological, chemical, or nuclear attacks.

Intuidex, Inc.
1892 Mill Run Court
Hellertown, PA 18055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(484) 851-3423
William M Pottenger
AF 08-055      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Exploiting Essential Elements of Information from Significant Activity Reports (SIGACTS) for Forensic Analysis
Abstract:There has been a great deal of development effort within the academic, governmental, and commercial arenas over the past few years in the field of information extraction. Based on our investigation, however, it appears that there is no ground truth for SIGACTS reports, which prevents GMTI users, program managers and researchers from performing apples-to-apples comparisons of information extraction technologies. Given our close working relationship with GMTI analysts and experience with GMTI data in an ongoing project, we propose to address this deficiency as part of this SBIR project. Another critical issue is the need to link information extracted from SIGACTS with other types of information used by analysts working with GMTI data. We have been working closely with GMTI analysts at AF ESC CEIF to apply data analytics technologies to pattern discovery in GMTI data, and are well positioned to link information extracted from SIGACTS reports to GMTI data. This is another goal of this SBIR project. We also have recently developed a semi-supervised active learning method for information extraction that can be leveraged in existing systems for information extraction such as Intuidexâs IxEEE⢠or Janyaâs Semantexâ¢. A third goal of this SBIR project is thus to apply this rule learning technique to SIGACTS reports. Finally,it is also known that information extraction techniques can be supplemented with text classification techniques. In our work we have developed an approach to text classification that leverages recent advances in statistical relational learning. The final thrust of this SBIR will be to apply our text classification algorithms to the problem of automatically categorizing events extracted from SIGACTS reports. BENEFIT: The primary customers for SIGACT extraction products are forensic GMTI analysts at JIEDDO/COIC, NASIC, and NGA that will benefit from overlaying SIGACT information over GMTI data. There are also near-real-time analysts in the Army, Marines and on board JSTARS and LSRS platforms. Even though NRT analysts do not perform in- depth analysis of forensic data, their ability to interpret NRT data will be enhanced by SIGACT data. According to our discussions, analysts have a strong preference for new capabilities to be integrated into the products they currently use instead of developing new tools. Currently, analysts use the MOVINT Client (MC) (developed by Northrop Grumman under funding from AFRL/Rome fusion lab), ISR Forensics (MITRE) display and Google Earth-based products. Army analysts are also using Common Ground Station (CGS). Most analysts are scheduled to transition to the new DCGS (Army or AF versions) that will include MC. In addition, ground station for Army VADER UAV (developed by BAE Advanced Information Technologies) will also be based on MC. We are currently in discussions with the AFRL Fusion lab to develop an open API necessary to integrate external products such as the extraction products proposed herein into MC.

Janya Inc.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
Thomas L. Cornell
AF 08-055      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Exploiting Essential Elements of Information from Significant Activity Reports (SIGACTS) for Forensic Analysis
Abstract:The goal of this research is to provide automated information extraction services, in particular relationship extraction, for forensic analysis. Specifically, we propose to develop and pursue an ontology-driven approach to information extraction, in which a formal ontology capturing concepts of interest is used not only to facilitate the exploitation of extraction results in a larger forensic analysis system but also to drive the development of the primitive language resources and pattern recognizers that provide those extractions services at the lowest level. A formal standards compliant ontology facilitates communication between developers and other stakeholders, can serve as a specification for new language resources required by the SIGACT domain, makes it easier for users to understand and evaluate the system, makes the results more useful to downstream applications, and facilitates the integration of the IE engine into a service oriented application environment. The focus will be on the characterization and extraction of relationships of interest, as these allow new visualization tools (network visualization) to be used for forensic analysis and also serve as a potential bridge to new items of related data for the analyst''s review. BENEFIT: This research will make it easier to extend our information extraction capabilities to new domains and should improve our ability to specify and engineer individual linguistic knowledge resources. It should also allow our information extraction products to be more easily integrated into application environments emphasizing collaborating services.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2467
Georgiy Levchuk
AF 08-058      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:HARP: Hybrid Architecture for Reaction Predictions
Abstract:In todays conflicts and wars against asymmetric adversaries the battlefield has grown beyond clear frontlines to reach into otherwise peaceful societies, across multiple countries, and even into cyberspace. Intelligence collection planners and analysts are overwhelmed by the information flow, racing to understand two fundamental problems, estimating the current and potential future states of the adversary, and making optimal use of ISR assets. To meet these challenges, Aptima proposes HARP, a Hybrid Architecture for Reaction Predictions. HARP will be an automated decision support service for intelligence analysts and ISR collection planners that will process information across multiple layers. The layers will exist at different levels of granularity, and will communicate in both directions. Layering will provide for efficient use of the detailed data detected bottom-up from the sensors and effective use and investigation of high-level top-down hypotheses. HARPs approach will also provide an effective bridge between the automated system and the human analyst. HARP will naturally enable analysts to make prediction assessments that can then help intelligence collection planners identify the most critical areas requiring additional observation. In Phase I, a HARP prototype will be constructed and demonstrated by customizing and integrating existing Aptima models. BENEFIT: As envisioned, HARP will provide a viable method for analysts to make sense of available data by estimating the current and potential future states of the adversary. With HARP analysts will identify the best ways to deploy existing ISR assets minimizing the uncertainty about future adversarial states while also minimizing the cost of deploying their ISR assets. In doing so, HARP will provide analysts with rich, timely, and intuitive assessments.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Jonathan Pfautz, PhD
AF 08-058      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Hybrid Architecture supporting Multiple Models of Enemy Reactions (HAMMER)
Abstract:Commanders engaged in modern counterinsurgency warfare achieve success by accounting for adversary behaviors and responses to courses of action during the planning process. A single type of modeling formalism is unable to capture all of the dynamics of modern asymmetric warfarethere are too many levels and types of analysis for a single modeling paradigm to be sufficiently valid and accurate across all possible operational environments and planning activities. To effectively explore the potential reactions of an adversary, we need to incorporate relevant models of the enemys strategies and tactics across the resource allocation, planning and scheduling, and mission execution spaces. Planners also need to know what information is necessary to confirm, refute, or refine forecasts. Our plan is to develop HAMMER, a hybrid architecture that incorporates meta-models to represent each models technical and data requirements (including inputs and outputs), theoretical underpinnings, and operational uses. The meta-models will enable the planner to decompose forecasting tasks into subtasks solvable by other models; they will facilitate the input of data from multiple repositories or data mining tools; and they will allow the planner to know when additional data collection could confirm, refute, or refine forecasts. BENEFIT: We expect the full- scope HAMMER system to have immediate and tangible benefit for political decision makers, Commanders in all branches of the U.S. military, and the intelligence community. Adding support for more thorough validation of models and to better provide for the end- users decision-making needs provides additional beneficial to potential customers of our commercial AgentWorks product, such as those using complex, agent-based models to support financial and health-management decisions.

Securboration Inc
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 154
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Lee Krause
AF 08-058      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:A Hybrid Architecture Approach to Forecasting Adversary Reactions
Abstract:Course of action (COA) analysis, especially adversary reaction prediction, that occurs during the Joint Operation Planning Process/Joint Air Estimate Process (JOPP/JAEP) has benefited by applying advanced computing algorithms. Typically though, algorithms have been narrowly applied to solve niche issues within broader JOPP/JAEP tasks. The concept of hybrid architectures seeks to provide a more holistic approach. With hybrid architectures, tasks are decomposed into subtasks that are assigned an algorithm suitable to performing that subtask. Hybrid architectures may be constructed from a variety of algorithms, and typically multiple algorithms can be applied to a general classification of problem. However, although the classification may be similar, the problem constraints imposed by the current situation in which decisions must be made vary greatly. To address these challenges, Securboration is teaming with artificial intelligence expert Dr. Eugene Santos from Dartmouth College to develop the Virtual Hybrid Architecture Computing System or VHACS. In Phase I of this effort, the Securboration Team will develop the VHACS prototype that determines appropriate algorithms to satisfy given subtasks within the current operational environment and then composes them into a specification that it invokes for a distributed execution. VHACS combines the benefits of traditional hybrid architectures with the reach, flexibility, and reusability of netcentric concepts. BENEFIT: VHACS presents a series of interesting initial commercialization opportunities that will be explored, and subsequently refined, over the course of this research. The approaches taken in VHACS to automate hybrid execution through distributed discovery and composition and applying the results to solve complex problems have utility to a variety of commercial applications. The four most prominent include: 1) Logistics algorithms that focus on optimization can be combined with other algorithms to understand the propagating cascading effects that logistics contributes to, 2) Gaming algorithms and techniques developed for VHACS can be embedded into gaming engines (including military) to incorporate a more dynamic/realistic behavior based on composite algorithms. Especially with distributed gaming approaches, VHACS can dynamically alter the algorithms that comprise the executable hybrid architecture package to modify the behavior of virtual entities etc., 3) World Banking VHACS can invoke hybrid algorithms to understand how regional behaviors rapidly change based on perceptions of U.S. actions taken, VHACS could be used to understand regional stability issues that are of great concern to the world banking community, 4) Strategic Business Analysis there is a very close analogy between understanding an enemy, his likely courses of action and developing a plan to defeat him to that of understanding a business competitor, his likely aggressive business actions and developing a strategic business plan to dominate in a discrete business domain. It is clear that this research could significantly improve, or perhaps even supplant, current business analysis and planning techniques such as SWOT analysis.

Altex Technologies Corporation
244 Sobrante Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8302
John T. Kelly
AF 08-062      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Aircraft Avionics Temperature Management Using NISHEX
Abstract:Aircraft avionics equipment must be cooled to maintain component reliability and longevity, particularly in high ambient temperature environments. Conventional cooling approaches fall short of performance, weight, compactness and cost requirements. Altex has identified an advanced air cooling approach that can meet avionics bay cooling needs. Preliminary tests have shown the heat transfer and pressure drop potential of the concept that supports successful application to a range of military aircraft and, in particular, the T-6A aircraft. Under the proposed Phase I project, the concept will be adapted to the T-6A avionics cooling application of interest; and the performance and cost benefits of the concept will be determined, versus alternative techniques. In support of this assessment effort, a subscale test article will be built and tested. These efforts will show the feasibility of the concept for avionics cooling applications of interest. BENEFIT: By implementing the special NISHEX heat exchanger concept, heat exchanger weight, volume, power and cost would be reduced by approximately 60%, 80%, 67% and 60% respectively, relative to conventional heat exchanger approaches. This will lead to improved reliability and longevity of avionics and associated missions, as a result of better electronics cooling. Furthermore, the concept can also be adapted to large civilian electronics cooling and even room air conditioner markets. These applications would result in cost savings to the public of $120 million per year.

Aspen Systems, Inc.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 281-5322
Glenn Deming
AF 08-062      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Aircraft Avionics Temperature Management
Abstract:Aspen Systems proposes to develop a vapor cycle environmental control system (ECS) to manage the heat produced by the digital electronic boxes in the T-6A trainer. The significant enabling technology for this ECS is Aspens miniature compressor (now in production) and significant capability in designing high performance vapor cycle cooling systems for a wide variety of military and commercial applications. The proposed technology and elements of the specific solution will be transferable to other aircraft, and other avionics systems currently deployed and planned for deployment with the Air Force. The basic innovation is to use a refrigeration cycle cooling loop to enhance heat transfer from the hot electronics enclosure to the ultimate heat sink in the thermal system. The proposed solution will be modular and easily reconfigurable, highly efficient Environmental Control System (ECS) for avionics systems and in its broader use can be integrated into any aircrafts existing environmental control system. The system will consume a minimum of power, will fit into the existing electronics bay of the T-6A and will integrate seamlessly to the aircraft. During the Phase I program the system will be designed, fabricated and thermally tested. BENEFIT: The proposed program is anticipated to benefit the Air Force through the design, development, testing and in Phase II full flight qualification of a vapor cycle cooling system for the T-6A trainer. This development is anticipated to have multiple transitions to other military systems both within and external to the Air Force. Commercial applications include automotive cooling systems, commercial aviotion, and general aviation.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
R. Paul Roth
AF 08-062      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Low Power, Compact Aircraft Thermal Management System
Abstract:Avionics electronics operating in high temperature ambient conditions have significantly decreased reliability and lifetime. The standard rule-of-thumb is to halve the life of an electronic device for every 10 ¢XC (18 ¢XF) increase in temperature. As aircraft electronics becomes increasingly complex and power dense, the greater the temperature in the electronics storage compartments. These high temperatures are resulting in component overheating and mission aborts. After considering all potential cooling techniques and performing preliminary Fluent modeling, Mainstream has determined the ideal system to provide cooling inside the electronics compartment. Mainstream¡¦s Avionics Temperature Management System (ATMS) is about 0.5 ft3 (the size of a large shoebox), can be located on the shelving near the electronics, does not require any modification to the plane, is very reliable, can operate in any orientation, can withstand 7g loading, weighs less than 30 pounds, can provide 225 W of cooling for more than 3 hours, and has a maximum 5 W power draw. Depending on mission objectives, base location, type of plane, and on-board electronics, an additional ATMS may be stowed on- board to provide twice the cooling. There are no batteries or maintenance procedures that must be performed to the ATMS. BENEFIT: The overall goal of the Phase I contract is to design, build, and test a full-scale ATMS prototype. More specifically, at the conclusion of the Phase II contract, an approved, fully-tested, commercial product will be available for sale to the Air Force that will eliminate millions of dollars of electronics maintenance and replacement costs and significantly reduce the number of mission aborts due to electronics overheating or failure prior to takeoff. All of this is achievable in a reliable, simple, modular, and maintenance-free system that will be computationally and experimentally verified during the Phase I contract.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Byron Zollars
AF 08-063      Awarded: 2/27/2009
Title:Hyperspectral Infrared (IR) Windows
Abstract:Multispectral zinc sulfide (ZnS) because of its good visible and near infrared transmission as well as the 3-5 micron and, more importantly, the 8-12 micron range along with its good thermal shock resistance is one of a number of materials used as infrared windows. The window serves to protect the sensitive infrared sensors during flight. As such, it is critical that the infrared window withstand heating and resist long term erosion from raindrops and dust encountered during flight. Multispectral ZnS windows have good thermal shock resistance but poor erosion resistance so they require a protective coating. The requirements for protective coatings for infrared domes include high rigidity (modulus), good transmission in the near IR, the 3-5 and 8-14 micron range, strong adhesion to the infrared dome material as well as, matched thermal conductivity, antireflection capability, and minimal infrared emission when heated among other things. In this program Nanohmics, proposes to examine a protective coating for ZnS windows which has been patterned using a novel method. BENEFIT: Protective coatings will have many applications both inside and outside the military. The market size can rapidly grow from millions of dollars for specialized coating of infrared windows into the 10s to 100s of millions of dollars for coating of commercial windshields and other optical components.

TELAZTEC LLC
15 A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9905
Douglas S. Hobbs
AF 08-063      Awarded: 2/27/2009
Title:Enhanced Durability, Wide-Bandwidth Transmission, ZnSe Windows Incorporating AR Microstructures
Abstract:The infrared transmitting material Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) is used for windows and lenses in many military systems because of its high transmission and low absorption of infrared light. ZnSe has a particularly low absorption level throughout the infrared spectral region where it is used extensively for imaging lenses in multi-spectral and hyper-spectral sensor systems. One long-standing issue with ZnSe is its low environmental durability that necessitates the use of some form of hardening to protect the window or lens from damage due to rain and sand impacts. Typical hardening methods involve the application of thin-film material coatings that must also serve as an anti-reflection (AR) treatment. Such coatings however limit the transmission bandwidth forcing a tradeoff between the level of transmission required and the expected lifetime. As mission profiles become more demanding the further utility of ZnSe will depend upon the continued evolution and development of hardening strategies to improve durability under increasingly adverse environmental conditions. In a recent experimental study, an innovative AR treatment based on surface relief microstructures was shown to have great potential for increasing the survivability of zinc sulfide (ZnS) windows operating in abrasive environments. This Phase I project proposes to investigate the durability of AR microstructures built in ZnSe windows that meet the wide bandwidth, high transmission performance requirements of multiple airborne sensor programs. Several design variants that combine AR microstructure technology with hard oxide coatings will be fabricated in ZnSe coupons and subjected to a set of rain and sand exposure conditions that are typical of aircraft ground and flight operations. Six coupons of the most promising designs will be delivered to the Government for further erosion testing. A statistically meaningful number of coupons will be fabricated with the most durable AR microstructures found during the initial screening work, and further rain and sand erosion testing will be conducted. A further demonstration of AR microstructure fabrication in a small-scale ZnSe lens surface will be made to demonstrate the ability to apply AR microstructures to the curved surfaces needed for imaging lenses. A close collaboration with Raytheon Missile Systems and the prominent ZnSe manufacturer Rohm & Haas, will be maintained throughout the multi-phase program to ensure the rapid transition of the technology into Air Force sensor platforms. BENEFIT: The rain erosion resistance of microstructure- based AR treatments combined with the proven sand erosion resistance of hard oxide coatings will provide a dramatic increase in the transparency and lifetime of ZnSe windows and lenses used in a growing number of Air Force sensor systems. The Joint Strike Fighter and many other Air Force programs that currently use sapphire windows to protect sensor packages such as Enhanced Vision Systems and ladar, would benefit from lower cost ZnSe windows that exhibit wider bandwidth transmission with the enhanced durability provided by AR microstructures. ZnSe windows with enhanced durability could also allow for dual-band functionality transmitting both mid and long wave

Engineered Coatings, Inc.
P.O. Box 4702
Parker, CO 80134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 593-0588
Frank Kustas
AF 08-064      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Nano-Multilayered Dry-Machining Coating for High-Temperature Solid-Lubrication of Aircraft Engine-Control Components
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force seeks a solution to wide-temperature-range lubrication that offers reliable performance and offers long-life durability. High-mach gas turbine engines will require bearings to operate up to 650C at loads up to 12.46 kN. Fluid lubricants are limited under these extreme conditions. Engineered Coatings, Inc. and Southwest Research Institute propose to enhance a nanostructured / nanolayered solid-lubricant coating, which has shown exceptionally low-friction (<0.1), low-wear, and non-reaction tendency from 25 to 1000C under dry-machining trials. As part of our enhancement effort, we propose to add silicon (Si) by introduction of a gas precursor during enhanced-plasma deposition from metal targets in a nitrogen/argon working gas. Silicon additions have also been shown to be beneficial from formation of hydroxide compounds. Screening high- temperature wear tests will be conducted along with surface analysis of wear tracks to establish the compounds responsible for the low-friction behavior as a function of test temperature. BENEFIT: For military applications, the coating technology will be applied to anti-wear and low friction coatings for bearings in high-mach gas turbine engines. Weapon systems with mechanical assemblies that operate under elevated temperatures can also benefit from this coating development. Commercial systems that will benefit from the development of a wide-temperature range solid lubricant for bearings include gas- turbine engines used commercial aircraft, power generators, and metallurgical processes, such as hot profile rolling and hot forming operations.

Tribologix Inc.
80 Compark Road
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 654-7776
Andras Korenyi-Both
AF 08-064      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:High Temperature Solid Lubricants for Bearings
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR program is to further develop the technology of i-KOTE® solid film lubricant coatings via well controlled experiments to explore the high temperature capabilities of doped nanostructured films of i-KOTE® using boron compounds as chameleon additives. The i-KOTE® family of solid film lubricants are a complex combination of synergistic nanomaterials capable of changing the tribological properties of the surfaces on which it is deposited in response to the current operating conditions in order to minimize friction and wear. Our experiments will allow a rapid down-selection of additives to achieve maximum benefit from the chameleon properties. BENEFIT: Reduction of wear in an extremely harsh environment. Prevent premature wear and increase engine performance.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Amarendra K. Rai
AF 08-064      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:High Temperature Solid Lubricants for Bearings
Abstract:High mach gas turbine engines will require bearings to operate at high temperatures (900- 1200ºF). At such temperatures fluid lubricants will not work. UES Inc. proposes to develop robust high temperature solid lubricant coating systems utilizing commercially viable process. The coating systems will be characterized in terms of adhesion, microstructure, mechanical properties and tribological characteristics in relevant temperature regime. Based on their performance ranking, coating systems will be identified for further development in Phase II. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the project will enable the operation of bearings at higher temperatures for military (high mach gas turbine engines) and commercial (hot profile rolling, power generation etc.) applications.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dan Mitchell
AF 08-065      Awarded: 12/23/2008
Title:Light Emitting Diode Technology Deployment Involving an Aerospace Light Application Manufacture
Abstract:Nanohmics, Inc will develop a drop-in LED replacement for the M6363/3-2 reflector SC bayonet mount bulb used in these wingtip lighting assemblies. The Nanohmics LED replacement will have the same physical dimensions as well as comparable light output and angular intensity while using less electrical power. BENEFIT: The short life of incandescent bulbs is a major maintenance issue and cost in civil, commercial, and military aviation. Therefore, a light emitting diode replacement bulb for these applications will translate into large cost savings for both labor and material.

PICO Technologies
821 Lake Port Boulevard Suite G 512
Leesburg, FL 34648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 360-0696
Hank Johannson
AF 08-065      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Light Emitting Diodes for Aviation Lighting
Abstract:This proposes research and development of solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) for combat aircraft light sources such as navigation and high-visibility running lights. The proposed project is to investigate how best to employ LEDs as light sources that would economically replace current technology light sources employed, for example, as wing tip navigation and position lights. More generally, it is desired to seamlessly replace all aircraft lights with long-lasting and more cost effective LEDs, so as to effectively reduce maintenance costs of replacing burned-out light bulbs and reducing energy employed to operate present-day light sources. The application of the technology to military aircraft is intended to be practical, and comply with existing incandescent bulb form, fit, function, and integration requirements. Integrated deployment viability is to be demonstrated to assure approach technical merit and risk assessment. This project provides an opportunity to update existing aircraft technology and apply newer and more current technology that satisfies such things as lighting brightness as a function of viewing angle in strobe modes of operation. More specifically, the overall, long term goal is to develop a drop-in replacement for aircraft lamp M6363/2-2 (28 volt DC, 26 watt lamp) configurations, as well as many other lighting opportunities. BENEFIT: The anticipated military benefits of the proposed research and development of LEDs and their application to military aircraft are significantly lower costs of maintenance (frequent periodic incandescent bulb replacement is now required) and significantly lower costs of operation (less power and wasteful heat) for many such things as navigation and position lights. Strobe lights impose a significant ongoing operational strain on current lighting components that sharply limits their life and effectiveness. The expected benefits in maintenance and operating costs apply to all non-military commercial aircraft as well. Strobe lights are also widely used in law enforcement and other emergency vehicles. Strobe lighting has also been used to see the movements of the vocal cords in slow motion during speech, an important medical application. A strobe light flashing at the proper period can appear to freeze cyclical motion. Calibrated strobe lights, capable of flashing up to hundreds of times per second, are used in industry to stop the motion of rotating and other repetitively-operating machinery so as to measure their rotation speeds or cycle times. The practical use of LEDs in place of other modes of lighting is currently limited largely by institutionalized production facilities that are barriers to change.

Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Nathan Thomas
AF 08-065      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:Light Emitting Diode Technology Deployment Involving an Aerospace Light Application Manufacture
Abstract:The Techshot LED Navigational Light Bulb (LED NAV LB) is the "next generation" light bulb incorporating state-of-the-art, robust solid state circuitry. A properly sized LED light grid will guarantee a long, maintenance free life at least 10 times longer than the current incandescent lamp. The Techshot LED system takes advantage of the currently approved for use bayonet lamp base as used on the M6363/3-2 incandescent light bulb. Dissipation of diode junction heat will be through a unique thermal management system while providing excellent light output across a wide thermal operating range. The Techshot LED NAV LB will be a cost effective replacement light bulb savings thousands of dollars annually across the DOD. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of the Techshot next generation LED Navigational Light Bulb (LED NAV LB) are significant. Techshot''''''''s solution consists of a new navigational light tailored to be a drop-in replacement bulb for the old incandescent bulb requiring no fixture modification or retrofit required. The Techshot LED NAV LB will enjoy a ten-fold increase in average life per unit saving the USAF thousands of dollars in maintenance cost and aircraft downtime. The Techshot LED NAV LB will produce a light output to specification while producing a better quality light having uniform clarity and surety of color. The LED NAV LB system is designed to survive a high temperature, high vibration environment with an estimated life expectancy of 50,000 hours or more.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Anton Greenwald
AF 08-066      Awarded: 1/7/2009
Title:High Performance Carbon Nanotube Heat Sink
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes possess superior thermal conductivity along their axial direction, which is greater than that of diamond. Their nanoscale geometry offers incredibly high surface area for heat exchange with air and their one-dimensional nanostructures provide the possibility of forming extremely intimate contact between nanotube tips and die surface. Thus, carbon nanotube heat sinks have the potential to provide unprecedented thermal performance with low weight, which would satisfy the Air Force requirement to reduce the weight of solid-state radio frequency power amplifiers. In this program, Agiltron, teamed with Rice University, proposes to integrate a state-of-the-art patterned carbon nanotube growth, a nano-engineered die-CNT interface, and novel heat sink design to realize a light-weight carbon nanotube heat sink with unprecedented performance. The feasibility of the proposed integrated approach will be demonstrated in Phase I. In phase II the heat sink would be optimized and tested with a full sized high power transistor. BENEFIT: The proposed carbon nanotube based heat sinks are expected to have unprecedented thermal performance with light weight, which will meet the needs of many DoD missions. The immediate application is to significantly reduce the weight of the Eglin radar (AN/FPS-85) transmit amplifiers for one-man lift. Other applications will be found in higher-frequency military and commercial ground based, airborne and space borne subsystems. A wide range of commercial applications will be found for cooling electronic devices ( e.g., CPUs and GPUs in desktops and laptops, LED light sources), lasers and capacitors in order to improve/keep their performance or extend their lifetime.

KaZaK Composites Incorporated
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Woody Holley
AF 08-066      Awarded: 1/16/2009
Title:Use of Carbon Nanofibers to Improve Thermal Pathways and Reduce Weight in Radar Transmitters
Abstract:The high thermal stress created by advanced electronic systems limits their performance potential. More efficient methods of heat removal are required to cope with this problem. Recent developments in carbon nano technology offer promise of providing possible solutions. A primary bottleneck in the thermal pathway is the attachment layer between components. The attachment layer between the electronic components is the weak link in the thermal chain. The current technology utilizes adherent organic polymers filled with thermally conductive particulates such as carbon or aluminum. Unfortunately organic polymers have inherently poor thermal conductivity and are impossible to apply without gas bubble entrapment, which further increases the heat resistance of the attachment layer. The best performing attachment materials currently available have heat conductivities under 10 W/m-K. A three fold improvement would dramatically enhance overall heat removal and hence chip performance. Substitution of carbon nano tubes for the filler is not likely to greatly improve performance. The use of carbon nanofiber to construct a micro in situ heat pipe as a means of achieving direct heat conduction away from the semiconductor packages and between other heat management devices is proposed. Success with this approach will produce opportunities to enhance performance and reduce weight. BENEFIT: Sophistication of electronic products used by both military and commercial markets continues to increase. However, maintaining the current rapid rate of performance improvement and associated size/weight reduction faces several significant engineering challenges. One major issue with continued advancement of electronics performance is heat removal from the individual electronic chips on a circuit board. KaZaK proposes the development and demonstration of a novel method for introducing a revolutionary increase in the conductivity in the interface between the bottom of an electronic chip and its underlying heat spreader. The thermal barrier associated with current attachments is one of the major impediments restricting removal of heat from increasingly densely packed electronics. If the proposed micro heat pipe approach suggested by KaZaK proves successful, our system should be rapidly and widely accepted by manufacturers of high performance electronics systems. We would expect that the first implementations will be by military primes, but once some period of positive test results in developed, applications should expand quickly to all electronics manufacturers.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Scott Morrison
AF 08-066      Awarded: 1/7/2009
Title:Improved CNT-Based Thermal Materials for High-Power Solid-State Devices(1001-321)
Abstract:Triton addresses the Air Force need to develop high performance heat sink materials for high-power, solid state electronics. Triton Systems and its team members will create a Thermal Interface Material (TIM) using aligned carbon nanotube arrays combined with unique surface processing. Due to Triton’s use of inexpensive processing techniques, this technology is readily scaleable to industrial scale manufacturing. BENEFIT: High- performance electronics are limited in performance by present thermal management technologies. The Triton TIM can be applied to a wide variety of commercial electronics applications, including computing and telecommunications.

QuesTek Innovations LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 328-5800
Abhijeet Misra
AF 08-067      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Computational Design of High-Strength Thermally-Stable Aluminum Alloy for Aircraft Wheel and Brake Applications
Abstract:Aircraft wheels and brakes are subject to high energy braking events and harsh operating conditions. Constant improvements are being sought in key material properties for this demanding application in order to enable component weight reductions and reduce life-cycle costs. Under this proposed SBIR program, QuesTek Innovations LLC, a leader in the field of computational materials design, will develop a new high-strength thermally- stable 2xxx aluminum alloy with improved performance over incumbent 2014 and 2040 alloys, at lower or equivalent cost. The alloy will utilize a microstructural concept combining thermally-stable phases with traditional strengthening phases optimized for coarsening resistance and stability. The computational alloy design and development will implement a stage-gate process using QuesTeks state-of-the-art computational design tools for aluminum alloys, including custom thermodynamic and kinetic databases, well- calibrated microstructural evolution models utilizing PrecipiCalc software, physics-based strength models (validated with experiments), solidification process simulations, and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) models. In the program QuesTek will partner with OEMs providing the role of voice of the customer to define the material requirement matrix, the processing requirements, and ultimately lead the alloy implementation. Concept feasibility will be demonstrated on prototype alloys fabricated in the Phase I program. BENEFIT: The inability of aluminum wheel alloys 2014 and 2040 to sustain mechanical strength after prolonged exposure to high temperatures during service is a critical issue. An alloy with better mechanical performance and strength retention results in component weight reduction, and improved durability. The anticipated outcome of the SBIR program is a new 2xxx-type aluminum alloy for aircraft wheel and brake applications, with improved ambient strength and high-temperature strength retention over incumbent 2014 and 2040 alloys. In addition the alloy will have improved fatigue resistance that will enable reduced life-cycle costs. These project goals will include maintaining low alloy cost, achieved through a reduction in processing cost, and by licensing the alloy to multiple suppliers. In addition to military aerospace applications, the commercial aviation sector, as well as the automotive sector will greatly benefit from a high-strength, thermally-stable aluminum alloy.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Oleg Senkov
AF 08-067      Awarded: 3/6/2009
Title:Advanced Aluminum Alloy for Aircraft Wheel and Brake Applications
Abstract:The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase I program is to identify and develop an advanced high strength aluminum alloy for applications in aircraft wheel and brake systems. These applications require material with enhanced property combinations, such as high specific strength, high fracture toughness, high corrosion resistance, high strength retention after cyclic heating during braking events to a temperature as high as 350ºF, high thermal conductivity, and high heat capacity. The major goal is to replace the currently used 2014-T6 Al alloy with a higher strength, better corrosion resistance aluminum alloy and by this way to achieve minimum 5-10% weight savings and/or substantially reduce total life cycle costs of these aircraft components. To achieve this goal, we will explore refinements in the composition of an ultrahigh strength Al alloy (UES patented) to develop a higher temperature equivalent alloy. For this 3 to 4 candidate alloy chemistries will be identified and a laboratory-scale batch of material (about 100 lb of each alloy) will be produced by direct chill casting and hot extrusion. The improved room temperature and elevated temperature strengths of these alloys will be achieved through precipitation strengthening and dispersoid strengthening. Improved toughness and fatigue resistance will be attained through impurity control, improved microstructural integrity of the cast-and-wrought material and grain refinement by microalloying and special thermomechanical processing. Tensile properties of selected alloys will be determined before and after elevated temperature exposure and corrosion resistance of these alloys will be determined via coupon-level tests. During Phase II, the alloy chemistry of a best performing alloy from Phase I and its processing methods/conditions will be further refined for improved combination of design required properties. Feasibility to scale-up the alloy / processing methods to a component size will be shown by producing a full-scale preform and demonstrating goal properties in critical regions of this full-scale preform. The development of the advanced aluminum alloy with superior ambient and elevated temperature properties can help designers to improve the aircraft wheel and brake performance by decreasing weight and reducing complexity and total life cycle cost. This alloy will also find widespread use in commercial aerospace and transportation industries. BENEFIT: Development of a high-strength, heat resistant Al-based alloy with improved strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance, as well as improved strength stability against the elevated temperature exposure, will offer designers a real potential to improve the wheel and brake performance by decreasing the weight, increasing performance, and significantly reducing complexity and cost. Current wheel assemblies consist of two halves which are made from two different alloys. The new material will also find widespread use in other applications, including the commercial aerospace and transportation sectors. Because higher specific strengths translate directly into reduced component mass, a high-strength Al-based alloy will be attractive in any application where component mass and/or volume are constrained, e.g. orbital applications including,

Sciaky Inc
4915 W. 67th Street
Chicago, IL 60638
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(708) 594-3800
Scott Stecker
AF 08-069      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Direct Manufacturing
Abstract:The electron beam free form fabrication process (EBFFF) holds great promise for industry as a disruptive technology based on additive manufacturing of near net shape, high value engineered materials. The development efforts are structured to review and compare multiple process feedback systems for identifying molten pool characteristics and perform a series of open loop process parameter tests to identify critical process control variables. The use of backscattered electrons and secondary emissions which are a byproduct of the EBFFF process will be investigated for suitability as a way to detect and measure critical features of the molten pool and compare with traditional optical based techniques commonly used in non-vacuum applications. A summary report including a detailed outline for the manufacture and implementation of a closed loop process control system, based on controlling critical EBFFF process variables as a result from input variables derived from the molten pool will be presented. BENEFIT: Implementation of a closed loop process control system is anticipated to speed up industry and regulatory approval of the EBFFF process. Additionally it is expected that a closed loop control system will allow for increased repeatiblity and consistency in resulting material properties as well as improving the processes ability to provide even better near net shape performance.

Technology Management Company, Inc.
2500 Louisiana NE, Suite 300
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 660-3052
Mark J. Cola
AF 08-069      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Direct Manufacturing
Abstract:This project proposes the use of non-imaging optical measurement to discern the weld pool oscillations occurring during electron beam deposition, and thereby to infer the weld pool size. By knowing this weld pool size, it is possible to control the e-beam deposition process by suitably regulating heat input, wire feed rate, etc to ensure a consistent depth of penetration. This approach has the advantage of being simple, based on only one sensor, and capable of rapid real-time response. Phase I will investigate the ability of the proposed sensing approach to see weld pool oscillations during e-beam deposition and to distinguish between the signatures of nominal and off-nominal conditions. Phase II will then develop a control scheme based on these in-process measurements. The project team has considerable experience monitoring and controlling arc welding processes using similar approaches and will work with both end udders as well as e-beam machine experts to successfully implement the approach proposed herein. BENEFIT: successful execution of this work will result in a commercially viable system for monitoring and control of electron beam depositon processes, which will benefot a wide range of commercial and defense aerospace applicatoins initially, as well as other discrete parts manufacture.

CompuTherm LLC
437 S. Yellowstone Dr Suite 217
Madison, WI 53719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 274-1414
Fan Zhang
AF 08-070      Awarded: 1/7/2009
Title:A Modeling Tool for Predicting the Durability of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBC) for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)
Abstract:CompuTherm, LLC proposes a pilot project to develop a modeling tool that can be used to assess the durability of environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) for ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) under combustion environment. The modeling tool includes a thermodynamic database for the gas phase, a thermodynamic database for the silicate system (EBCs), and a computer software package that deals with thermodynamic equilibrium, gas-solid reaction, and volatile kinetics of silica. In particular, this tool would predict, given an EBC system and an environmental combustion condition, the partial pressure of each gaseous species in the system, the activity of silica in the EBC, the flux of volatile silicon species, such as SiO(g), and Si(OH)4(g), and the recession and glass formation of the EBC. This modeling tool would provide valuable guidance to the US Air Force and private sectors in the development of advanced EBCs for CMCs. CompuTherm, LLC has significant capabilities for developing modeling tools from its past experience with software and thermodynamic database development. In Phase I, we will examine the feasibility of developing such a tool using a simplified system, whilst a powerful tool, which can be applied to practical complicated systems, will be developed in Phase II. BENEFIT: A major breakthrough in gas turbine engine performance requires a new generation of hot-section structural materials having a temperature capability considerably higher than the current metallic hot-section structural materials. Si-based ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), exhibit superior high-temperature strength and durability, which indicates their potential to revolutionize gas turbine engine technology. However, their usage as turbine engine hot-section components is limited due to their lack of environmental durability in the high velocity combustion environment. Development of advanced EBCs for CMCs is therefore an essential, yet challenging task for materials scientists/engineers due to the complexity of the system. Traditional trial-and-error approach is costly and time-consuming. Computational approach, on the other hand, becomes more and more important in materials development/enhancement and durability assessment. Successful completion of the proposed work will provide DoD, other federal agencies, aerospace, and related industries with a valuable tool to accelerate the development of advanced environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) for ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) to be used in high temperature combustion environment. In addition, research centers such as government laboratories and universities will find this tool useful for basic materials research. This will result in significant cost saving for the US government and aerospace industry in the development of next generation hot-section structural materials.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Robert Woodman
AF 08-070      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Prediction of Glass Formation in High-Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating Systems
Abstract:Further improvement in gas-turbine engine performance requires development of hot- section structural materials capable of functioning at unprecedentedly high temperatures. SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) have high melting points, but are thermodynamically unstable in combustion environments. Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been developed to protect the substrate from the combustion gases. It is unknown whether current EBCs are capable of protecting CMCs over their intended design life of approximately 2000 h. Physical models that make it possible to predict the effects of the service environment on the materials would enable design decisions without resorting to full-scale testing. In the proposed Phase I SBIR program, Infoscitex will develop a thermodynamic model for a simplified system that will lay the foundation for modelling full-scale parts in realistic combustion environments. Infoscitex will develop a database of thermodynamic data. A range of temperatures and coating systems will be investigated during the Phase I program. This model will be tailored to facilitate incorporation of additional EBC components in later phases. BENEFIT: The proposed modelling technology will allow optimization of high-temperature engine parts while minimizing costly experimentation. This technology will be applicable across the aerospace propulsion industry. The successful model will enable next-generation performance turbine engines. The model may also have applications beyond the aerospace propulsion industry, such as in glass manufacturing.

IBC Materials & Technologies
902 Hendricks Drive
Lebanon, IN 46052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 482-9802
Solomon Berman
AF 08-072      Awarded: 1/20/2009
Title:Fretting Wear Elimination for Titanium Components
Abstract:The development of the F-35 Lift Fan has revealed the possibility of fretting between the fan input shaft bearing OD surface and the titanium bearing supports in the Lift Fan gearbox housing. A steel insert is currently used to provide protection against fretting of the gearbox housing. In order to provide an effective solution and reduce the overall weight of the F-35, IBC Materials and Technologies has developed an advanced tribological coating that will dramatically reduce fretting, wear and corrosion of the Lift Fan gearbox housing, allowing elimination of the steel insert. The proposed solution is based on the Micro Plasma Oxidation (MPO) process that has been developed by IBC Materials and Technologies. The MPO-based Titanium Oxide ceramic coatings will provide superior performance, extended life and lower manufacturing costs compared with alternate methods, providing an opportunity for fuel savings and life cycle cost reduction for the F-35 weapon system. BENEFIT: The MPO-based Titanium Oxide ceramic coatings will allow elimination of the steel inserts currently used to protection against fretting of the titanium bearing supports in the gearbox housing. This will not only reduce manufacturing part count and costs, it will reduce the overall weight of the F-35 Lift Fan system for the Short Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant. This will lead to reduced fuel and sustainment costs for the F-35 weapon system.

Plasma Technology Inc.
1754 Crenshaw blvd.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3373
Satish Dixit
AF 08-072      Awarded: 1/20/2009
Title:Fretting Wear Resistant Thermal Spray Coatings for Titanium Alloy Components
Abstract:Bearing housings and flanges in propulsion systems experience excessive fretting wear on the titanium alloy surface due to adverse vibrations, loads, and temperature cycling. Traditionally, fretting wear problems are solved using steel inserts or bushings that are press-fit into the titanium alloy casing and interface with the bearings. In order to reduce the weight and avoid unnecessary steel-titanium couplings, it is proposed to replace the inserts with surface coating technologies that will provide fretting resistance and will not affect the bulk mechanical characteristics of the components. Thus, in this Phase I SBIR program, PTI will demonstrate the feasibility of a fretting wear resistant thermal spray transition coating followed by subsequent surface finishing to eliminate fretting wear at the surface of titanium alloys for the application to components and flanges of the LiftFan system. BENEFIT: Successful development of the fretting wear resistant coating system will benefit the aerospace industry by extending the life of many components currently affected by fretting wear. Subsequent to implementation onto components of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, PTI will market the technology to the multi-billion dollar turbine engine industry as well as other industries requiring fretting wear resistance technology.

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
91 Westpark Road
Centerville, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-3713
Jason E. Lincoln
AF 08-073      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Quality Testing of Coated Fibers
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovative Research Program will develop, demonstrate, and validate a destructive test methodology that can be used to assess the quality of coated ceramic fibers employed in the manufacture of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). CMCs represent a high performance materials technology critical to the performance of future Air Force and other Department of Defense weapons systems, as well as commercial aerospace, nuclear power, and advanced turbines. In continuous fiber reinforced CMCs, properly engineered fiber coatings, which often consist of multiple layers, and coating quality, are critical to controlling the mechanical properties and oxidative stability of these high temperature composite materials. BENEFIT: A quick, straightforward testing system and method that will provide coating quality for coated ceramic fibers will have a direct and immediate impact on the F-35 program and other systems where ceramic matrix composites are being considered for implementation. Industry has already expressed a need for this technology, so this solicitation is important and timely. We intend to develop a testing system, associated software package, and sample preparations stages under the Phase I and Phase II programs that we can market to CMC fabricators and prime defense contractors who fabricate and use ceramic matrix composites. Testing and analysis facilities as well as nationwide universities are also potential customers of the ceramic composite fiber coating analysis system. An ASTM Standard will be proposed to analyze single and multi-layer fiber coatings using the techniques developed under this effort.

Synterials, Inc
318 Victory Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-9310
Richard Engdahl
AF 08-073      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Development of Tensile Testing Methods for Quality Control Testing of Coated Ceramic Fibers
Abstract:In order to make ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) into a useful class of materials for fabricating aerospace structures, there are several key issues that need to be resolved. One of these issues concerns the interaction between the interface coating and the fiber. The interface coating is key in controlling the crack deflection properties of the end composites. Current techniques used to analyze coatings provide have not proved useful in assessing whether the coated materials will yield good composites. At present, the only way to determine this is to actually make a composite and test it. The goal of this program is to develop a tensile testing method to quantitatively assess the interfacial shear strength between the fiber and the coating. This data should be useful in assessing whether a batch of coated material will yield a good composite material and will be a valuable quality control tool, significantly improving the manufacturability of CMCs. There are a number of issues associated with performing such measurements on coated fibers. This proposal identifies some of those shortcomings and addresses how they will be overcome. BENEFIT: Affordable, lightweight high-strength ceramic matrix composite materials could find use in a whole myriad of high-temperature applications, both military and commercial. The aerospace sector in particular would be well served in a number of applications by CMCs. Currently something of a niche market due to high cost, it is one whose growth is currently hindered by issues related to their manufacturability. The demand for these advanced materials will continue to grow as the cost is reduced.

Synterials, Inc
318 Victory Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-9310
Alan Grieve
AF 08-073      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Development of Scratch Test Techniques for Quality Control Testing of Coated Ceramic Fibers
Abstract:In order to make ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) into a useful class of materials for fabricating aerospace structures, there are several key issues that need to be resolved. One of these issues concerns the interaction between the interface coating and the fiber. The interface coating is key in controlling the crack deflection properties of the end composites. Current techniques used to analyze coatings provide no information regarding the strength of adhesion between the interface coating and the fiber. As such, they have not proved useful in assessing whether the coated materials will yield good composites. At present, the only way to determine this is to actually make a composite and test it. The goal of this program is to develop a Nanoscratch method with the intent of providing quantitative adhesion data for the interface coating. This data can be used to predict the adhesion strength of composites produced from the coated fiber and will be a valuable quality control tool, significantly improving the manufacturability of CMCs. There are a number of issues associated with performing such measurements on coated fibers. This proposal identifies some of those shortcomings and addresses how they will be overcome. BENEFIT: Affordable, lightweight high-strength ceramic matrix composite materials could find use in a whole myriad of high-temperature applications, both military and commercial. Current something of a niche market, it is one whose growth is currently hindered by issues regarding manufacturability. The demand for these advanced materials will only continue to grow as the cost is reduced.

Materials Sciences Corporation
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Anthony A. Caiazzo
AF 08-074      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:ADVANCED DESIGN AND LIFE PREDICTION METHODOLGY FOR POLYMERIC MATRIX COMPOSITE COMPONENTS (MSC P8045)
Abstract:Advanced polymer matrix composite materials offer the potential to reduce the weight of 21st century aircraft. However, a general methodology to assess the initial and lifetime response of complex material architectures with growing damage has not been demonstrated. The goal of this research plan proposed by Materials Sciences Corporation is to develop engineering analysis software that can predict the structural integrity of composite structures during a general thermo-mechanical load event. The theoretical basis for this research is a physically-based homogenization theory which combines micromechanics and thermodynamics to determine the overall response functions of multi- phase materials of arbitrary complexity. A thermodynamically-based constitutive relation is formulated using two scalar functions: a thermodynamic potential which specifies the state of the material point; and a dissipation potential which governs the evolution. The approach for deriving the constitutive and evolution equations is computationally efficient and can be easily integrated with commercial finite element codes such as ABAQUS. Tests, which include time and temperature dependence and load-unload cycles, will be conducted on carbon fiber polymide materials manufactured by Renegade Materials Corporation to provide initial model validation data. BENEFIT: Results of the proposed research will include: 1) demonstration of a physically-based modeling approach for deriving the constitutive equations for inelastic composite materials with evolving damage; and, 2) software necessary to implement the material models in commercial structural analysis packages.

Multiscale Design Systems, LLC
7 Burton Ln
Loudonville, NY 12211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 496-0173
Zheng Yuan
AF 08-074      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:ADVANCED DESIGN AND LIFE PREDICTION METHODOLGY FOR POLYMERIC MATRIX COMPOSITE COMPONENTS
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR is to enhance the multiscale design system (MDS-C product line) with various PMC degradation models and to validate it against selected demonstration problems. MDS-C has been successfully used by our customers, including Rolls-Royce Aerospace (CMC airfoil in JSF), GM, Ford and Chrysler (polymer composites), General Electric (polymer composites), Simulia (ABAQUS), Navy (sandwich structures), and AFRL (concrete).We will utilize both phemenological models of polymer degradation developed by Prof. Ruggles-Wrenn where possible and will simultaneously pursue a mechanistic based approach of Prof. Rajagopal whenever necessary – thereby helping to make the “learning curve” less steep and minimizing the barriers to use. In addition to the formulation and implementation of the degradation mechanisms, Phase I will include additional three tasks: (i) calibration of the MDS-C against test data (in Phase I we will fully rely on the existing experiments conducted by Prof. Ruggles-Wrenn), (ii) development of the initial intuitive, workable, user-friendly GUI, (iii) initial Phase I demonstrations comparing the MDS-C predictions with the experimental data of inelastic deformation behavior of the PMR-15 neat resin subjected to prior aging at 288 °C for 2000 h. Profs. Ruggles-Wrenn and Rajagopal will serve as consultants. BENEFIT: Candidate PMCs that could retain their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, such as PMR-15, could be utilized in turbine engines, exhaust wash structures and high-speed aircraft skins, where structural components are exposed to harsh service conditions, but their insertion is hindered by their lack of predictability. This lack of predictability has often resulted in overdesign and thus limited their use since the overdesigned component may not yield any design advantages. To address the predictability challenge, an experimentally validated multiscale design system that accounts for phenomena at multiple scales to predict the behavior of PMC components will be developed. Such a design system would be indispensable in systematic exploration of alternative designs at the material and structural scales and it would advance the state-of-the-art in the field far beyond what an equivalent investment in its comprising building blocks, such as materials, mechanics, testing and computations.

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
91 Westpark Road
Centerville, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-3713
David B. Curliss
AF 08-074      Awarded: 1/7/2009
Title:ADVANCED DESIGN AND LIFE PREDICTION METHODOLGY FOR POLYMERIC MATRIX COMPOSITE COMPONENTS
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will directly address the critical need for a high fidelity physics- based methodology for design and service life prediction of polymer matrix composite structures in regimes (stress, strain, and environment) that lead to highly nonlinear behavior. Composite materials for elevated temperature service in particular are subject to chemical aging, physical aging, and moisture absorption, all of which degrade their performance and are highly coupled in their effect on the composite’s mechanical response. This is the motivation for a modeling and analysis approach that can correctly and comprehensively represent these coupled effects. Testing for actual environmental and mechanical stresses over actual airframe and propulsion lifetimes is impractical in the best of cases and impossible in most cases. Lifetimes for commercial and military aircraft are on the order of 50 years and tens of thousands of flight hours in a wide variety of climates and mechanical loading environments. Thus, there is tremendous motivation to model the effects of composite material degradation in service to optimize composite structures and for reliable life prediction. This SBIR will develop and validate a design and service life prediction methodology for polyimide matrix composite structures in aggressive service environments. BENEFIT: The design tools will be developed for composite materials design applications where customers are motivated by a need for reduced design cycle time, certification through design tools, and material qualification tools. There is a critical need to dramatically reduce the cost and time associated with composite materials design, certification, and materials qualifications through “tools not testing” for domestic manufacturers to remain globally competitive. We have partnered with a commercial and defense aerospace prime contractor to validate our nonlinear viscoelastic thermodynamically based constitutive model through their structural design and analysis tools. This validation will provide tremendous confidence in our approach at the structure level. The approach has the potential to revolutionize design and life prediction for composite materials. The state-of-the-art relies heavily on extensive mechanical property characterize, which is both expensive and time-consuming. Our approach, validated by an aerospace prime contractor, will be available as a material module add-on to standard FEA solvers, it will not be imbedded within any proprietary code or design software tools. This approach ensures the widest commercial distribution of the technology through the transportation, manufacturing, and industrial markets.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Shi-Hau Own
AF 08-075      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Anti-coking additive for ester-based aerospace gas turbine engine oils
Abstract:Luna Innovations proposes a novel anti-coking additive system for ester-based gas turbine engine oil. The additive package is synthesized and formulated to achieve the objective of a 50% reduction in both liquid and gas phase coking compared to the current MIL-PRF-23699 oils as measured by standard coking test. The additives will increase the high temperature stability of the turbine oil. The hydrolytic stability of the formulated turbine oil is also improved. FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, GPC, DSC, TGA and coking tests are used to evaluate the efficacy of this anti-coking additive system. BENEFIT: This proposed research is part of an overall advanced fuel and energy system development program at Luna. This anti-coking additive system will support the future military engines which must operate at higher temperature in oxidative environments. It can also resolve the coking issues in commercial aircraft engines and stationary turbine power generation.

METSS Corporation
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Richard S. Sapienza
AF 08-075      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Anti-coking additive for ester-based aerospace gas turbine engine oils
Abstract:Current and future aerospace gas turbine engine oils must be capable of operating at the elevated temperatures experienced in aircraft turbine engines. One of the more important properties for these oils is their resistance to forming liquid phase and gas phase solid decomposition products and deposits, typically referred to as coke because it is black and carbonaceous. These deposits can build up on the hot engine components and lead to significant engine operational failure. In this SBIR program, the US Air Force is seeking to develop and demonstrate anti-coking additives for use in these fluids. These additives must be compatible with existing GTO fluids and cannot adversely affect the other critical properties of the engine lubricant. METSS proposes to develop a new class of lubricant additives designed to address the coking issue of existing GTO fluids, using a proven approach to cost-effective materials development. METSS will draw on existing materials, working directly with industry participants to select the best materials for product formulation. This effort will include testing and evaluation of the new fluids, as well as optimizing these fluids to meet and exceed the performance requirements of the currently used fluids as called for in MIL-PRF-7808 and MIL-PRF-23699. BENEFIT: The new anti- coking additives will benefit both military as well as commercial applications, as coking is a significant problem with commercial aircraft engines as well as stationary turbine power generation. Engine advancements in these applications usually follow military advancements by about 5 years, so anti-coking additives should find widespread use for these applications.

Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Kewen Kevin Li
AF 08-076      Awarded: 2/27/2009
Title:New Ceramic Laser Hosts for High Power Lasers
Abstract:Polycrystalline ceramics as laser gain hosts have several remarkable advantages over single crystal ones. They can host a higher doping concentration, are much easier to be fabricated into larger and more complex shapes, which are extremely difficult in the single crystal case. The costs of the ceramic laser materials could be much lower than those of single crystals because of the shortened fabrication process and large size, mass production. Boston Applied Technologies Incorporated (BATi) proposes to develop highly desired high-power ceramic laser hosts via a co-precipitation nano-powder preparation and a fast sintering route for highly efficient formation of transparent ceramic laser hosts. Our extensive experience in nano-phosphors, transparent ceramics, and combinatorial materials composition search will leverage a successful program for realizing the development of next-generation transparent ceramic laser host. BENEFIT: Highly efficient laser host formation method developed from this project would be enabling high power and low cost laser systems, which have tremendous strategic and commercial values for both military and civilian applications. These include remote-sensing applications, target recognition and detection, missile guidance illumination, measurements from airborne and space borne platforms, multiple wavelengths next-generation measurement systems, and industrial laser machining. The ceramic high power laser technology in this program, once developed, will not only serve DOD�s missions, but also be in the nation�s best interest.

Nanocerox, Inc.
712 State Circle
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 741-9522
Todd Stefanik
AF 08-076      Awarded: 2/27/2009
Title:New Ceramic Laser Hosts for High Power Lasers
Abstract:This program seeks to develop ytterbium doped rare earth sesquioxides including yttria, scandia, lutetia, and gadolinia-based oxides as laser gain media for use in high power thin disk lasers. The increased thermal conductivity, increased absorption cross section at pump wavelengths, small quantum defect in Yb lasing systems, and high performance demonstrated in such media are attractive. Processing via liquid precursor flame spray pyrolysis will be used to produce highly sinterable nanopowders for subsequent consolidation, sintering, and HIPping to form transparent materials for optical transmission, thermal conductivity, and lasing test measurements. BENEFIT: The materials developed in this program will have direct application to high power laser systems utilizing thin disk architectures. The high power output and high beam quality of such lasers has already been demonstrated by companies including Boeing and Trumpf. The new materials will allow lower heat losses, more efficient heat removal, and more efficient pump power absorption than that currently possible using YAG based gain media. In addition to high power laser defense systems, lasers based on these materials will find application in industrial cutting and welding applications as well.

nGimat Co.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2400
Zhihao Bao
AF 08-076      Awarded: 2/27/2009
Title:New Ceramic Laser Hosts for High Power Lasers
Abstract:Given its specific thermal-mechanic feature, the sesquioxide Lu2O3 is a particularly promising laser host material. nGimat Co. proposes to utilize a novel vacuum sintering and nanocrystallite technology without pressing process (VSN) to fabricate high performance Yb:Lu2O3 thin ceramic disks for high power lasers. The entire process includes a chemical vapor combustion condensation (CCVC) process for the production of Yb:Lu2O3 nanopowder, special processing for the formation of green bodies, and vacuum sintering process for densification of the green bodies into the highly transparent ceramic disks. Compared to traditional fabrication process, VSN process involves less contamination, needs less time to form nanopowders into the thin ceramic disk and develops more homogeneous microstructure in the disks. Thus, high performance transparent thin ceramic disk can be produced efficiently. Once the desired performance has been achieved (Phase I), the inherent sustainability (scalability, low-cost) of the VSN process will be demonstrated through the production of low cost, high performance larger ceramic disk for military laser systems. BENEFIT: In addition to the significant military market opportunities, the demand for high power lasers continues to increase for civilian applications. Specifically, high power laser are utilized for micromachining in the semiconductor industry; for drilling, welding tools in steel, heavy machinery and automobile industries; as a light source in nuclear fusion. These applications and markets are growing rapidly. It is estimated that solid-state laser market will increase to ~$1,500 million in 2008. The demand of the ceramic laser hosts, a key component of the solid laser systems, also is increasing. A successful DoD project will enable the U.S. to maintain leadership in the global competition on laser technology and generate a significant market opportunity for nGimat.

QuesTek Innovations LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 425-8221
Herng-Jeng Jou
AF 08-077      Awarded: 2/11/2009
Title:3D Tomography-Assisted Mechanistic Fatigue Modeling and Life Prediction for Dual Microstructure Heat Treated Aeroturbine Disks
Abstract:To meet the increasing performance requirements of modern aeroturbine engines, a significant opportunity exists with the Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment (DMHT) technology for nickel-based aeroturbine disks. However, use of DMHT results in gradient microstructures and a major hurdle in perfecting this technology is a lack of mechanistic mechanical property modeling in the gradient region. QuesTek proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel 3D tomography-assisted fatigue life property model on a RR1000 disk alloy, by combining capabilities developed in DARPA AIM and ONR/DARPA D3D initiatives, and a NASA DMHT precipitation microstructure modeling program. QuesTek will work with Rolls-Royce to identify the service conditions of a gas turbine engine disk component; incorporate 3D tomographic technology to identify the inclusion microstructure that represents the lowest fatigue life distribution; leverage available transient gamma- prime microstructure and mechanical property models and data from the ongoing Rolls- Royce and NASA programs, and collaborate with Professor David McDowell of GIT to demonstrate a mechanistic fatigue lifing model within the gradient region. This approach will be further extended to include a diffusional microtwinning-based creep-fatigue model during the service conditions in the Phase II to allow for a full range probabilistic lifing model for DMHT disk components. BENEFIT: The proposed program will develop a key ability needed for complete fatigue and life prediction of gradient microstructure aeroturbine disks. The key feature of the proposed approach is the explicit treatment of location-specific multiscale microstructure including gamma-prime precipitates, grain boundary structure and inclusions into a physics-based fatigue simulation tool. Because of the mechanistic nature of this approach, Rolls-Royce anticipates utilizing the calibrated and validated simulation tool for virtual rapid component design and for manufacturing process optimization. This significantly accelerates the development and qualification of aeroturbine disk component at lower cost than conventional statistical data driven methods. In addition to aeroturbine disk applications, the proposed simulation model and tool can be further extended to other areas such as land-based turbines and high- performance gears and bearings. Finally, materials design engineers can also use the proposed tool to develop innovative and robust materials specifically tailored to optimize the benefits of graded microstructures.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Yoon-Suk Choi
AF 08-077      Awarded: 1/20/2009
Title:Physics-Based Probabilistic Life-Prediction Model for Advanced Hot-Section Turbine Disk Materials With Gradient Microstructures
Abstract:In the proposed Phase I program we intend to develop a physics-based, microstructure- sensitive 3D constitutive model for the prediction of fatigue, creep and resulting damage behaviors of advanced hot-section gradient-microstructure turbine disk materials. We will interface the proposed fatigue and creep model with an analytical yield-strength prediction model to effectively incorporate microstructural effects. We also intend to develop a doable experimental protocol for the validation of our modeling approaches. The proposed research program will address key issues regarding the microstructural and thermomechanical transition zone of a turbine disk, and provide a computational basis for the reliable life prediction of an advanced turbine disk having a gradient microstructure. We will actively collaborate with our OEM partner, Rolls Royce, in order to intensively work on their third-generation gradient-microstructure turbine disk material RR1000 for the proposed Phase I program. UES scientists have over 15 years of experience in modeling and simulations of structure-property predictions in advanced metals, and over 5 years of experience in modeling the yield strength and creep of Ni- based superalloys. We will use this expertise and our collaborators expertise in disk materials, to develop computational tools to simulate the behavior of the transition zone in a turbine disk RR1000. BENEFIT: Third-generation turbine disk materials were designed for the advanced turbine disk performance at the higher temperature. Due to the microstructural complexity and dynamic thermomechanical operating conditions of hot- section turbine disks lifing requires rigorous numerical approaches to account for the influence of microstructural heterogeneities under imposed thermomechanical conditions. Building reliable life prediction computational tools for advanced hot-section turbine disks is also a hot issue in turbine engine industries. The proposed Phase I effort will bring a microstructure-sensitive computational basis and a validation protocol for reliable lifing of advanced hot-section turbine disk materials. We have already entered in to a partnership with an OEM, Rolls Royce, under an NDA. We have chosen a Rolls Royce third- generation turbine disk material RR1000 as a target material. We will work closely with Rolls Royce to transition the prediction tool and apply it to a component. At the end of the Phases I and II programs, we anticipate licensing the modeling tool to our partner and continue to refine the product in the years following.

VEXTEC Corporation
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Richard Holmes
AF 08-077      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Physics-Based Probabilistic Life-Prediction Model for Advanced Hot-Section Turbine Disk Materials With Gradient Microstructures
Abstract:The proposed approach will build on existing probabilistic micromechanics model for failure analysis to include gradient microstructures. This effort will develop physics based damage models for the gradient microstructures focusing on complete damage evolution of the transition zone between the bore (fine grain) and the rim (coarse grain). The mechanisms considered will include 1) fatigue, 2) crack growth 3) tensile elongation and 4) creep. These four failure modes represent the primary damage mechanisms active in high temperature turbine rotors. The operating environment of todays jet engine requires high reliability with respect to these damage modes. Improved fatigue and crack growth at the bore and creep in the rim are the primary reasons behind the development of dual microstructure alloys. Particular focus under the proposed effort is to develop microstructural damage models for the transition zone where the stress gradient, temperature gradient along with the microstructure gradient will strongly influence the damage initiation and growth in a multiaxial stress field. The Phase I goal is prove concept feasibility for extending and applying probabilistic microstructure based modeling approaches to life turbine engine components with gradient microstructure. The models will be inherently mechanistic, suitable for application to a broad range of materials. BENEFIT: The New Generation Bomber or Long-Range Strike (LRS) program will revitalize the AF bomber to adapt to the changing operating environment, which includes tougher air defenses, longer flight distances, and time-critical missions. To meet these stringent new requirements of future war fighting scenarios, weapon system must be extremely fuel efficient. To attain high fuel efficiency the engine thrust-to-weight must be maximized and unnecessary weight must be eliminated while maintaining engine reliability and durability. The technology to be developed from this SBIR will allow for rotor design optimization to reduce unnecessary weight. The turbine rotors will be designed to operate at extreme temperatures to maximize performance and mission flexibility, obtain the lightest weight possible to maximize thrust- to-weight, and do so with enhanced turbine durability. This proposal effort will evaluate the durability of a design configuration which could produce a cost savings from up to 1% increase in fuel efficiency or $500M for a fleet of 1000 engines over 15 years of service.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Aaron Small
AF 08-078      Awarded: 12/15/2008
Title:Quick Release Appliqué Films
Abstract:Appliqué films are much more attractive than conventional conformal coatings for current and future aerospace applications. Not only can the appliqué function as a zero VOC top coat, but additional functionality can be built into the appliqué, such as embedded sensors and electronics. A major drawback to appliqués is that their high film adhesion makes removal difficult. Either substantial residue is left behind, or worse, the underlying substrate is damaged. Luna Innovations will build on previous experience in self healing adhesives, multifunctional appliqués, and thermally reversible structural adhesives to create a stimuli reversible adhesive for appliqués. Current materials at Luna exhibit tunable temperature release ranges with very little external heat stimuli. These reversible adhesive formulas, although designed originally for thermal reversibility, will be modified to include removal by electrical current or radio frequency. BENEFIT: Thermally (and other stimuli) reversible adhesive concepts would be directly applicable to thermally repairable composite applications for airframe and space applications, as well as reversible structural adhesives for the transportation, construction, and packaging market. Reversible bonding would also be useful in composite structures where a rapid part interchange is required. These materials would serve as “bolts” and “fasteners” in a sense, but eliminate the point stresses caused by using them in a composite or metal structure. Additionally, eliminating metal bolts in any carbon fiber composite or metal structure will eliminate potential for galvanic corrosion.

Research Support Instruments
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 329-3700
John F. Kline
AF 08-078      Awarded: 12/12/2008
Title:Micro-Universal Fit Fasteners (MUFF)
Abstract:Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop Micro Universal Fit Fasteners (MUFF’s), a solution to the Air Force need for an adhesive for appliqué-based replacements for paint on surfaces such as aircraft exteriors. Fluoropolymer film appliqués have been developed for various paint replacement applications ranging from rougher industrial surfaces to demanding ones such as aerodynamic surfaces on F-16''s. Appliqué films reduce environmental impact while potentially providing additional functionality, but the adhesives required to attach them to surfaces are difficult to remove. MUFF layers will behave like extremely strong, micro-engineered hook-and-loop fasteners between appliqué films and the surfaces to be covered. The biologically- inspired, photolithographically-structured MUFF fasteners will provide high adhesion force when engaged, but disengage for easy removal. MUFF-coated appliqués will be easily applied, removed, and replaced as needed. The goal in Phase I of MUFF development will be to design fasteners with the most promising different attachment schemes, develop a microfabrication technique and use it to fabricate prototype units, demonstrate feasibility by measuring their performance in a laboratory setting, and select the most promising design for Phase II development. BENEFIT: There are commercialized appliqué replacements for top-coat paints available; 3M has various films ranging from the no- adhesive 3951 film to the 5004 aircraft exterior film. These fluoropolymer films provide solvent-free surfaces, simple application, and chemical resistance, but all rely on pressure-sensitive adhesives for attachment. Easily-removable Velcro-like films are an attractive alternative for pressure-sensitive adhesives, but have insufficient strength and survivability for top-coat appliqué use. The durability and strength provided by MUFF films will be a great advantage – being able to reuse MUFF-equipped appliqués and continue to use them in the long term will mean that MUFF film will displace adhesives for such applications. In addition to use in appliqués, the strength of MUFF tape will be so different from existing hook-and-loop films that the operational envelope will be pushed quite far. As a result, other applications range from clothing fasteners to connections in industrial settings.

Acree Technologies Incorporated
1980 Olivera Ave Suite D
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Mike McFarland
AF 08-079      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:High Temperature Sensor Materials Optimization and Fabrication Methods
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using an innovative, nanoparticle inkjet process for directly writing high temperature health monitoring sensors on turbine engine and thermal protection system components without the need for expensive sputtering, CVD, clean room or photolithography equipment. The inkjet process allows sophisticated sensor geometries and material combinations to be produced on the component in a matter of minutes as opposed to the hours needed to produce the sensors using the conventional clean room/sputtering approach. The nanoparticle inkjet process is capable of applying a wide variety of ceramic and refractory metal materials. In this project a number of ceramic materials will be investigated for high temperature strain and TC sensor use. These materials are conductive ceramics that are stable at high temperatures in air and oxidizing environments up to or exceeding 1600° C. BENEFIT: The development of low cost, robust, high temperature sensors will allow: 1) the monitoring of critical structures for degradation during space vehicle reentry, 2) measuring the operating parameters in extremely hot environments such as the compressor and turbine sections to validate computer modeling codes, 3) allow active control of pressure surges in turbine engines, 4) allow the ability to diagnose turbine engine and thermal protection system health and estimate component capability for future missions, 5) and help reduce the significant costs of testing and qualifying turbine engines.

MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
25 Health Sciences Drive Suite 125
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6455
Jeffrey Brogan
AF 08-079      Awarded: 2/10/2009
Title:Ceramic Materials Optimization and Thermocouple Fabrication
Abstract:MesoScribe Technologies will develop and validate ceramic thermocouples capable of measuring 1600°C for applications in gas turbine engines. A number of semi-conducting ceramic oxides have been identified as temperature sensors. Ceramic compositions will be tailored to yield stable and reproducible thermoelectric outputs. Sensors will be fabricated using Direct Write Thermal Spray technology enabling sensors to be integrated onto components and embedded within thermal barrier coatings. Sensor performance and durability will be validated on coupons and scaled to components in later project stages in cooperation with the Teams OEM partners. BENEFIT: The capability to monitor the health of aircraft engine components and prognosticate system performance in real- time is required for a number of military aircraft and weapons platforms. Operating temperatures are being pushed higher requiring the use of highly engineered materials and protective thermal barrier coatings. Ceramic thermocouple sensors will be developed for use in extreme environments. Specific applications of interest include gas turbine engine components for aero turbofans and power generation, thermal protection systems, hypersonic engine instrumentation, and aerospace components.

Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Yiping Liu
AF 08-079      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:SiCN Based High Temperature Sensor Materials Optimization and the Development of Thin Film Sensor Fabrication Methods
Abstract:Recent studies sponsored by the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) have confirmed that tremendous benefits can be achieved through a maturation and integration of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) sensor technologies into future Air Force systems. Recently developed silicon carbide nitride (SiCN) based, polymer derived ceramics (PDCs) are a group of amorphous, high temperature materials, which possess excellent mechanical and electric properties at high temperatures up to1600 ºC. Sporian Microsystems, Inc. has established a solid track record of successful research and development of SiCN high temperature sensors and packaging architectures. Our approach is to extend the PDC technology into an advanced conformal coated thin film sensing and data acquisition system. The goal of this effort is twofold: further refine/modify SiCN based ceramic materials for conformal temperature and strain sensing applications and assess the feasibility to produce thin film sensors on substrates quickly in an industrial environment. The end objective of this proposed work is to develop the groundwork for fabrication of high temperature (1600 ºC) SiCN-based thin film temperature and strain sensors suitable for a wide range of conformal applications in gas turbine engines. Feasibility of selected conformal patterning/coating technologies will be assessed for the thin film sensors. BENEFIT: Aero propulsion turbine engines, communally used in commercial and military jets, would benefit significantly by having a non invasive, small mass, on engine component sensor allowing for visibility of the conditions of the turbine engine. The technology and sensor product described in this proposal would allow exactly that, while existing sensors fall well short of the applications demand. The conditions in this application are harsh, and sensors must be able to withstand high temperatures, high pressures, jet fuel and exhaust. In order for existing and future aero propulsion turbine engines to improve safety reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete information is necessary. The technology described in this proposal would allow the next boundary in sensing technology to be achieved, direct measurement from the point of interest within the turbine. Commercial applications abound for the successful results of this proposal in commercial and military turbine engine industries, which are made up of companies such as Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce. Additional potential market areas include: aerospace, marine propulsion, land based power generation turbines, automotive, oil and gas, and government and academic laboratories.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
De Yu Zang
AF 08-080      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Biotronic Sensors for Cost, Size, Weight and Power, and Enhanced Bandwidth (C-SWaP-B)
Abstract:Highly powered electromagnetic interference (EMI) could disable electronic equipment, electronic communications and data storage systems, on which the C4I system is established, and disable (or threaten) soldiers activity (or lives). Effective shielding from EMI is of critical importance in the battlefield. IPITEK proposes to develop effective DNA- based EMI-shielding clothing for this critical application. DNA has unique physical, electric and dielectric properties, which make it an excellent EMI-shielding clothing material. In addition, DNA (a bio-waste) is very cheap and easy-processing material, thus, the cost could be significantly low compared with other materials. In Phase I we will design and demonstrate the materials that provide shielding at relevant bandwidth and attenuation levels. In Phase II we will implement these designs into deliverable samples for Air Force test and evaluation, and will continue to evolve advanced materials for eventual commercialization. BENEFIT: Many Dual-Use benefits derive from this proposed development. . Effectively shielding EMI is of critical importance for both military and civilian applications. For military, it can protect the C4I system and soldier activity (and lives) ensuring winning the war. For civilian applications, it could protect civil electrical, electronic and communications equipment and personnel health of the operators.

Operational Technologies Corporation
4100 N. W. Loop 410 Suite 230
San Antonio, TX 78229
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 731-0000
John G. Bruno
AF 08-080      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Combinatorial DNA Array Microsensor for Chem-Bio and Explosives
Abstract:Operational Technologies Corporation proposes to further develop a novel Combinatorial DNA Array Recognition Surface (CARS) published by OpTechs senior scientist in IEEE Sensors Journal (7:1609-1616, 2007) for eventual universal sensing of any analyte including chem-bio and explosives in a handheld format. In Phase I, OpTech will investigate electrical conduction through the CARS DNA array as a mode for rapid, compact, yet sensitive detection and discrimination of germane chem-bio and explosives analytes or simulants. Electrical detection will be compared with the existing fluorescence detection mode and one mode selected for Phase II development with OpTechs engineering partner. In Phase II, OpTech will miniaturize and integrate the CARS biosensor with a compact aerosol collector, develop recognition software and a signature library for chem-bio and explosives analytes of interest, and deliver the sensor prototype for further government testing and validation. In Phase III, OpTech will aggressively push the CARS sensor into various markets, because it is a truly universal sensor capable of detecting virtually any analyte from small molecules to whole cells based on the analytes characteristic binding pattern to the large combinatorial DNA array. CARS has tremendous commercial potential in point-of-care medical diagnostics, portable environmental detection, food safety, and drug discovery screening. BENEFIT: There is a worldwide need for a simple, rapid, universal and cost-effective sensor technology to detect and identify known and unknown explosives, toxic chemicals, drugs, metabolites, bacteria, viruses, parasites, cancer cells and other analytes. CARS represents a combinatorial chemistry sensor technology that meets this need. When coupled to simple one-step electrical conduction or fluorescence imaging readout and matched to a library of known signatures via pattern recognition software, CARS has tremendous potential in point-of- care medical diagnostics, portable environmental detection, food safety, and drug discovery screening.

TIPD, L.L.C.
9030 S. Rita Road, Ste 120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 621-4649
Li Li
AF 08-080      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Ultrahigh dielectric strength biotronic capacitors based on sol-gel/DNA-CTMA blends
Abstract:As the power demands of airborne sensor platforms increase there is a growing need for improved capacitor technologies for compact energy storage. While progress has been made on electrolytic supercapacitors as well as nanocomposite composites, an ultrahigh dielectric strength capacitor with high dielectric constant and compatibility with a broad range of associated materials technologies is still lacking. We propose to develop organically modified sol-gel/DNA-CTMA blends for use in thin film biotronic capacitors based upon our initial observation of a dielectric breakdown strength of over 1200 volts per micron for a 95/5 blend, nearly an order of magnitude higher than observed for common dielectric polymers. DNA-CTMA is known to have a dielectric constant of approximately 8 at low frequencies, while the sol-gel dielectric constant is tunable with sol-gel composition and can range from approximately 5 to as high as 30. At the same time, we have developed the ability to dope sol-gels with high dielectric constant nanoparticles that provide for even higher dielectric constants, as well as fine-tuning of other materials properties. The proposed composites can be deposited from solution and only low temperature processing is used, further enhancing the capability for integration with other Air Force electronics and photonics technologies. BENEFIT: The growing energy demands of modern society and the desire to reduce dependence on fossil fuels have created an intense interest in new technologies that can impact the energy equation. Energy storage is a key function of any energy system and capacitors are the workhorses of energy storage in electrical systems, thus improvements in capacitor technology will impact the efficiency, size and cost of those systems. Furthermore, emerging flexible optoelectronics technologies such as organic electronics demand the development of subcomponent approaches, such as thin film capacitors, with high performance, low cost, and excellent compatibility with other materials. The proposed biotronic capacitors have the ability to fulfill all of these requirements.

IFyber, LLC
950 Danby Road Suite 300
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 227-7522
Aaron D. Strickland
AF 08-081      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Transparent Polymeric-Zinc Oxide Coatings for Highly Conductive Cotton
Abstract:This proof-of-concept research effort will lay the foundation for integrating conductive natural fibers into garments for point-of-failure sensing. A current military need for the proposed technology is in the arena of chemical and biological (CB) agent protective garments where a sensor that can indicate whether these garments have been compromised could not only increase the service life of the garment, but could also guard the warfighter from the current empirical calculations used to determine CB garment service life. iFyber LLC, the lead company for this project, proposes to work toward extending the lifetime of CB protective garments by embedding conductive cotton fiber sensors. We will work to expand on our ability to conformally deposit various metal onto cellulose fibers with very high surface coverage using a layer-by-layer (LBL) self- assembly process. This proposed effort aims to develop a nanostructured coating that will exploit this LBL-based processes to control the conductivity of fabric textiles used by the US Department of Defense. BENEFIT: The proposed research has significant commercial impact given the potential applications of conductive textiles within both the military and public markets. In addition to standard issue CB protective garments, conductive fabric-based textiles could be implemented into packaging materials as integrated anti-tampering devices or as selective tags for anti-counterfeit applications. In the public sector, fabric-based point-of-failure sensors would also be important for workers requiring protective clothing that are in contact with hazardous materials in the chemical and agricultural industries, emergency personnel, and medical personnel.

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg.100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Yunping Yang
AF 08-081      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Intelligent Textiles
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force (USAF) need for a fiber-integrated sensing system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Intelligent Textile (iTex) system. This technology is based on the amalgamation of distributed optical and evanescence sensing to detect physical and chemical stresses of chemical and biological (CB) protective suits. The innovation in its system architecture offers a self-sensing feature to determine the condition or state of the damage in a CB protective suit. The iTex system enables the soldier to monitor the use and damage to a CB suit and decide whether it can be used for longer than 45 days. On the field, it enables use of these suits to an extended 150–180 days with more than 3 launderings, resulting in annual logistical cost savings of several million dollars. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of iTex by assembling a proof-of-concept demonstration of wear recording and logging in CB protective textile materials. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fiber-integrated iTex that will reach TRL 4–5 and be ready for initial testing for potential transition to the field. BENEFIT: The iTex technology can be easily applied to the healthcare and occupational safety field in monitoring the life of the healthcare jackets or safety jackets. Various fabric-based products are available, such as the Lifeshirt by Vivometrics, Cardioshirt by NuMetrex, and Smartshirt by Sensatex. iTex technology can be used to determine the wear of such products so as to increase the accuracy of these products. Similarly, it can be used to detect chemical spills for alarming personnel working with hazardous chemicals. Military applications of the iTex will include reliable display of the physical state and effectiveness of the CB protective suit to Soldiers. This will help them in making an evidence-based decision as to when to replace the suit, rather than just relying on the manufacturer-quoted service life. The iTex can be incorporated, not only by the USAF, but also by the other military departments such as the Army and Navy into their soldier equipment which, will benefit from this proposed technology.

Metal Matrix Cast Composites, LLC (dba MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
James A. Cornie
AF 08-082      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:Ultra-High Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Expansion Matched, Low Density Materials for Dimensionally Stable Space Structures
Abstract:Ultra high thermal conductivity low-cost materials with thermal expansion matched to electronic devices, actuators and thermal electric cooling systems are proposed. These passive materials enable other technologies but provide for the thermal leveling required for advanced optics and sensing systems. Aluminum alloys reinforced with natural graphite platelets have demonstrated engineered thermal expansion over the range of 9 ppm/K to 4 ppm/k while exhibiting thermal conductivity values of 600 to 800 W/mK respectively. Thus, the CTE can be precisely matched to any known TEC device or semiconductor/laser diode array, LED array. Further, using local hot spot remediation, the CTE at mounting pads can be exactly matched to the device where multiple device types are proposed or required. This permits maximum heat spreading while providing for local CTE matched heat sinking. Other features of the AlGrp materials includes the flexibility during processing which permits the thermal plane to be contorted into complex geometries, around corners, and to be incorporated into hybridized structural shapes. The proposed research will characterize the component materials, demonstrate hot spot remediation and provide thermal/mechanical models that will enable the design of Phase II demonstration components. A subcomponent will be developed, thermally modeled and mapped. BENEFIT: Passive methods for thermal management and thermal leveling will result from the research. These passive methods will enable and enhance the effectiveness of active methods such as TEC and vapor chambers. Low cost CTE matched materials with ultra-high thermal conductivity will become available for the aerospace and defense electronics thermal management industry. This technology will also enable the replacement of high density/heavy, high cost Mo/Cu heat sinks used for hybrid electric automobiles as well as other commercial applications.

NP Photonics, Inc.
UA Science and Technology Park 9030 S. Rita Road, Suite #120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7413
Wei Shi
AF 08-083      Awarded: 1/5/2009
Title:Single mode THz crystal fiber as efficient THz parametric converter
Abstract:We propose to develop a single mode THz crystal fiber as THz parametric converter that can generate high power, narrow linewidth, and tunable THz source in order to implement a novel standoff THz spectroscopy system by leveraging our proprietary fiber processing techniques, fiber lasers at ~ 1.55 microns and patented THz techniques. The proposed single mode THz crystal fiber converter will be fabricated based on NP Photonics’s unique high precision ultrasonic drilling and grinding techniques by using the quasi-phase-matched (QPM) structure GaAs materials including diffusion-bond (DB) GaAs and orientation-patterned GaAs. NP Photonics will demonstrate the highest conversion efficiency for THz parametric generation by using the proposed THz fiber parametric converter owing to its features of THz confinement, quasi-phase-matching, high NLO coefficient (100 pm/V) based on an external cavity and THz OPO cavity in THz generation. In phase I period of this project, we will mainly demonstrate this feasibility that the proposed single mode THz crystal fiber converter will revolutionize the THz parametric conversion efficiency and the THz parametric output power. BENEFIT: Currently, the THz spectral region has been underutilized because of the inadequacy of THz sources. The proposed THz crystal fiber converter and THz source are expected to break this limit, which has the advantages of compact, high efficiency/power, high spectral resolution, extremely wide tunability, and room temperature operation. So this proposed THz crystal fiber converter, THz source and the THz spectroscopy will have large potential market in THz applications, such as remote characterizing damage in aerospace materials, as well as standoff trace detection of hazardous materials and explosives in field due to the fast response, room-temperature operation, low noise, and high sensitivity.

Picometrix LLC
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 864-5639
David Zimdars
AF 08-083      Awarded: 1/12/2009
Title:Advanced THz Materials for Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)
Abstract:In this Phase I project, we will demonstrate the improvement of the time-domain-terahertz (TD-THz) transmitter output power of low temperature grown indium gallium arsenide (LT- InGaAs) based epitaxial layer structures excited by the 1060 nm lasers, such as that employed in the T-RayTM 4000 TD-THz instrumentation system. Prior to this SBIR proposal, Picometrix has developed and commercialized 1060 nm driven LT-InGaAs photoconductive material with performance equivalent to traditional 800 nm driven low temperature grown gallium arsenide (LT-GaAs). The goal of this Phase I SBIR project will be to increase the electric field within the THz transmitting antenna at least 10 times over Picometrix’s current LT-InGaAs (or LT-GaAs) antenna by developing an enhanced LT- InGaAs photoconductive material. This emphasis on epitaxial growth and microfabrication during the first phase will provide the basis for a high-sensitivity THz transceiver that will make stand-off non-destructive evaluation (NDE) imaging possible during Phase II. BENEFIT: In phase II we will package the enhanced “high performance” LT-InGaAs transmitter materials into the Picometrix’s standard telecommunications style miniature fiber pigtailed modules. These modules will provide greater than 10 times the electric field (and thereby a 10x increase in signal to noise) over the current generation of LT-InGaAs modules (or LT-GaAs modules). A Phase II prototype NDE stand-off imaging monostatic reflection TD-THz transceiver with 3-5 meter stand-off will be constructed, utilizing the new high performance modules. This will allow inspection of aircraft from the ground, without having to bring the instrument up near to the aircraft skin.

Traycer Diagnostic Systems, Inc.
1275 Kinnear Road Suite 251
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 506-5084
Phillip Smith
AF 08-083      Awarded: 1/12/2009
Title:Advanced THz Materials for Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)
Abstract:Stand-off inspection using THz sources is a promising technology for non-destructive evaluation by means of direct imaging as well as by identifying spectroscopic signatures of the material being inspected. This proposal addresses critical developments for realizing this promise. In particular we address the issue of developing THz sources to the point where stand-off detection at ranges of 3-5 m will be practical. Our approach provides a narrow bandwidth and tunable source based on difference frequency generation capable of operating at any frequencies where water absorption is minimized. Furthermore, we specifically design the THz source to significantly increase the average power to the point where standoff detection will be practical. In addition to these source improvements we will perform fundamental measurements of the THz properties of materials using THz sources in our laboratory. These measurements will help address basic scientific questions related to the signature science associated with corrosion, a key to developing the most robust imaging system for non-destructive aircraft inspection applications. BENEFIT: A considerable commercial opportunity exists for the development of THz component technology and a corresponding imaging system. The past decade has seen steady progress in the generation and detection of THz radiation (conventionally 0.3-10 THz). Time-domain systems based on femtosecond (fsec) laser sources are capable of broadband THz generation and detection; indeed, these systems are now commercially available from companies such as Teraview and Picometrix, a testament to the maturing nature of the technology. Measurements performed with these imaging systems have demonstrated the utility of THz systems for a variety of applications including homeland security, spectroscopy, and biomedical imaging and diagnostics. Tunable narrow bandwidth and high average power sources such as that proposed here will facilitate novel imaging modalities, atmospheric trace species detection, and other spectroscopic measurements. Of particular importance to the Air Force is THz imaging beneath paint and other barriers for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Currently, the inspection of aircraft structures and critical components requires that any coating be removed before a visual inspection or other technological methods can be applied to detect cracks, corrosion, and other defects. A cost-saving approach is to develop a technology to look through the coatings. The technology and methodology developed through this proposal will aid in determining the feasibility of appropriate sources and measurement modalities for these important applications.

Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Elizabeth P Zinsser
AF 08-084      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Switchable Electromagnetic Windows
Abstract:There is a current need for the passive protection of antenna apertures from electronic warfare (EW) and high power microwave (HPM) threats. Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop switchable electromagnetic windows that will passively respond to high power microwave threats. Switchable electromagnetic windows will have the ability to respond directly to the threat without an intermediate sensor system to activate the desired response. The windows will transmit electromagnetic energy in the normal state. If the incoming power density rises above a critical threshold, the material will automatically switch to reflect the incoming high power electromagnetic energy. When the threat has disappeared, the material will passively return to its normal operating state. These windows will allow for increased operational effectiveness, without subjecting sensitive equipment to damage from electronic warfare and high power threats. The extremely fast passive response time and lightweight nature of these windows will ensure maximum functionality and easy integration onto warfighter platforms. Development of this technology will enhance the state-of-the-art and contribute greatly to maintaining situational awareness both on and off the battlefield. BENEFIT: Operational Benefits: (1) Passive Protection from High Power Microwave Threats, (2) Blocks Only Threat Frequencies, (3) Extremely Fast Response Time, and (4) Lightweight. Commercial Applications: (1) Communications Systems and (2) Commercial Aircraft Electronics.

Imaging Systems Technology
4750 W. Bancroft
Toledo, OH 43615
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 536-5741
Devendra Kumar
AF 08-084      Awarded: 12/12/2008
Title:Stimulus Responsive Passive Electromagnetic Shielding for Microwave/RF Limiters
Abstract:Under this SBIR, Imaging Systems Technology proposes to evaluate its novel propriety Plasma-sphereTM technology for use as a passive electromagnetic shielding material for protection against High Power Microwave (HPM) threats. HPM threats are a significant problem. DOD notes significant operational and strategic concerns over Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) specifically regarding High Power Microwave (HPM) weapons and High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) threats. Plasma can be used as an electromagnetic shield against HPM threats. A plasma based shield system offers distinct advantages and significant opportunities over traditional metallic shields. A plasma shields can dynamically change its shielding effectiveness in response to incident RF/microwave energy levels. It is lightweight and it offers broadband protection. The envisioned Plasma- sphere shield will be particularly useful as it allows easy containment of the plasma in a rugged shell. Plasma-sphere shield allows for easy retrofit to existing systems. The Plasma-spheres may be incorporated into a substrate and placed over an antenna aperture without modification to legacy systems. BENEFIT: If successful this work will lead to a low cost lightweight shield against RF and HPM threats. This is of use to the military but is also useful in certain industries in which microwaves are generated and used including the communication industry.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
King Wang
AF 08-085      Awarded: 2/27/2009
Title: Nanodielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract:Agiltron, in collaboration with the Nanodielectric Group headed by Prof. Lei Zhu and Steven Boggs at the University of Connecticut (UConn), proposes a novel nano- engineering approach to develop a new category of nano-dielectrics for high energy density capacitor applications. The new approach combines the cutting-edge nanomaterials development and manufacture at Agiltron and extensive experience in materials design and simulation within the UConn team. The proposed nanodielectrics integrate high dielectric constant ceramic nanoparticles, an interphase nano-layer, and a polymer matrix with high breakdown strength. Our nanocomposites are expected to have a dielectric constant of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the matrix polymer, breakdown strength of ~300 V/ìm, dielectric loss less than 0.01, and calculated energy storage density of over 30 J/cc. These nanodielectric films will be flexible due to the low filler loading, and they can be folded and rolled to build compact capacitors. These features are unattainable from the existing materials. This Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. BENEFIT: The use of this technology would find application in most electronic devices. DoD, DHS, and other government organizations would benefit greatly from the reduction of size and weight, and the enhanced performance of capacitors. Civilian applications include capacitors and other passive devices in all electronic devices, and electronic packaging.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-2503
Christy Vestal
AF 08-085      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Dielectric Nanocomposite Films with Increased Energy Storage for Pulsed Power Capacitors
Abstract:With the increasing requirements for compact, lightweight, high power storage systems, the development of new high energy density dielectric materials is important. Dielectric nanocomposites are hybrid systems that offer the potential to meet the next energy storage requirements by combining the high k performance of ceramics with the high breakdown strength and low loss of polymers. Currently dielectric nanocomposites are prepared by combining high k nanoparticles into polymer matrices. To achieve a high dielectric constant, high filler volumes (>50%) are needed. As the loading increases, the film quality, mechanical properties, thermal stress reliability, and dielectric breakdown strength have all been shown to degrade. To overcome these problems, Luna proposes to develop a dielectric polymer nanocomposite system based on unique functionalized nanomaterials that are well dispersed in a polymer matrix. The goal of the program is to prepare a dielectric nanocomposite containing a low percentage of nanofillers that demonstrates good electrical performance. In the Phase I program, Luna will evaluate several nanofiller materials and their dispersion with appropriate polymer systems. Once suitable polymer/nanofiller combinations are identified, nanocomposite fabrication methods will be developed. Finally, the electrical properties will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: The materials developed in this Phase I program would find use as capacitor components for pulsed power applications. Pulsed power capacitors with improved electrical performance would have use in power systems for directed energy weapons. In addition, the proposed technology would find application in military markets that demand large pulsed power capacitor banks, such as integrated power units on unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), military shelter power applications, and electromagnetic rail launchers. In both military and commercial markets these materials could find application in small portable power platforms for laptops, hybrid vehicles or other back-up power generation needs.

Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc.
200 Innovation Blvd. Suite 237
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7400
Shihai Zhang
AF 08-085      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Nanodielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel multilayer capacitor film technology for energy storage capacitor applications. The innovative dielectric materials combine the high dielectric constant, high temperature stability, high dielectric breakdown strength, low dielectric loss, fast discharge speed, and long lifetime of two different components. In addition, the capacitor film can be manufactured with inexpensive film processing machine in a short time. The film capacitors will be designed and fabricated utilizing the unconventional nanodielectric capacitor film, state-of-the-art film metallization technology to promote self healing, and robust capacitor design and packaging. The advanced capacitors will have energy density above 10 J/cc, dielectric loss lower than 0.01, dielectric breakdown strength above 600 V/Ým, and self healing feature. The high energy density, high performance film capacitors can be used to enable the miniaturization of the electrical power system on the air and space platform to support more electric aircraft and high voltage loads for direct-energy weapons. BENEFIT: There are numerous applications that will benefit from the improved energy storage capacitors with high voltage endurance, long lifetime, fast discharge, low loss, and high energy density. These capacitors can be used in pulse-forming networks (PFNs) for the conversion of prime electrical energy into the necessary short pulses of energy needed to energize loads such as high power microwave, directed energy, kinetic energy weapons, and high power microwave. The Army is developing future vehicles which require compact electrical power systems. The Navy is developing the all-electric ship in which the power requirements of future Naval vessels will not be as dominated by propulsion as current ships and it may be desirable to be able to transfer energy between uses. This will require storage and conditioning of vast amounts of power. In addition, weapons, catapult systems and other military technologies that demand pulses of power would require very large banks of dielectric capacitors. In parallel, the Air Force is developing more-electric-aircrafts and the Army is trying to develop all electric tanks. Compact, high-energy-density, pulse-power capacitors will be the enabling technology for all future weapon systems that the DoD plans to pursue. In addition, these advanced capacitor film can also be used for implantable cardiac defibrillators, external defibrillators, and capacitor bank for hybrid electric vehicles.

ACTA Incorporated
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Timothy Hasselman
AF 08-088      Awarded: 3/12/2009
Title:Weapons Effects FRMs for Reinforced Concrete Walls & Floor/Ceiling Slabs
Abstract:A nine-month Phase I project is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of developing high- fidelity physics-based (HFPB) weapons effects FRMs for reinforced concrete walls and floor/ceiling slabs to meet current AFRL requirements. Modeling issues for both hardened bunkers and non-hardened conventional structures will be investigated, including constitutive models for high strength concrete and expansion of the load space and for hardened structures, and techniques for modeling connections in non-monolithic conventional structures. Techniques for more efficient FRMs will be investigated and demonstrated for both types of structures. FRMs will model failure due to weapons effects, residual capacity of non-failed components, as well as breach, spall and secondary debris for assessing collateral damage. BENEFIT: These FRMs are being developed to replace the simplistic models in AFRLs MEVA and EF codes that are used to support weapon design and effectiveness assessment. In addition to improving the physics modeling fidelity of the codes, the accuracy of the FRMs is rigorously quantified by comparison with HFPB analyses and test data, adding confidence to the assessments. These FRMs will complete the suite of new HFPB FRMs in MEVA, allowing greater precision in the assessment of vulnerability to current and future air-delivered weapons. These models and variants of them will be commercialized for use within other branches of military service, as well as non-military government and civil structures applications.

Weidlinger Associates, Inc.
375 Hudson St FL 12
New York, NY 10014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 230-0331
David Vaughan
AF 08-088      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Weapons Effects FRMs for Reinforced Concrete Walls & Floor/Ceiling Slabs
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory developed the MEVA software for weaponeering applications. MEVA allows a weaponeer to quickly study alternative targeting scenarios to maximize the effectiveness of a mission while minimizing the risk to the warfighter and the potential for collateral damage. MEVA needs to be upgraded to support targeting needs for structures with RC slabs and walls that fall outside the current specifications of its blast response modules. The main areas of enhancement required are: Support for higher strength concrete materials Support for the full range of hardened and civil construction that is (or will be) supported by STMG Support for the expanded range of loading produced by new weapon systems available to the weaponeer such as the MOP Support for more complex representations of blast pressure waveforms resulting from internal propagation through complex structural geometries Addition of new response measures such as breach and fragment/debris data that increase MEVAs effectiveness to support mission planning. WAI proposes to demonstrate proof of concept methods to address each of these areas in Phase I and develop the new software tools and integrate them within the MEVA software in a follow-on Phase II effort. BENEFIT: WAI has successfully commercialized products produced by previous SBIR efforts including the PZFlex software for piezoelectric modeling applications which will generate $1,000,000 revenue in the year 2008. The primary market for the blast modules developed under this SBIR would primarily be other DoD organizations in the U.S. For example, DTRA develops and maintains the IMEA software for offensive targeting needs. The new modules have direct application to IMEA and other similar software environments. Additionally, HFPB modeling of HSC and UHSC structures is an increasingly important area for a number of DoD agencies. WAI anticipates that the increased experience and validation that will result from this effort will directly result in increasing WAIs consulting business in this area. WAI also anticipates an increase in sales of the NLFlex software to government groups interested in HFPB modeling of HSC and UHSC materials.

Omnitek Partners, LLC
111 West Main Street
Bay Shore, NY 11706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 665-4008
Richard Murray
AF 08-089      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Common Gravity Dropped Small Weapon Electronic Safe Arm Fuze (ESAF)
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop innovative means to effectively enable Safe/Arm (S/A) functionally within gravity dropped small weapons. A systematic method is proposed for the development of various means of using external stimuli, environmental sensing and certain event detection techniques to provide for safe and arm (S/A) functionalities. Fully electronic concepts are proposed that operate without the need of batteries or external power sources by generating their required electrical energy. The proposed electronics circuitry and logics would then provide the desired S/A functionalities as well as some other fuzing functionalities. The concepts are particularly safe since their electronics circuitry and logics have no available power prior to their release. The project involves extensive dynamics and structural modeling and simulation and proof-of-concept prototype development and testing to validate the developed models. The validated models are then to be used to develop optimal designs to match the requirements of the project. The proposed concepts are particularly suitable for miniaturization and low-cost production since they can be manufactured using well established mass fabrication techniques and equipment. BENEFIT: The development of the proposed concepts for safe and arm (S/A) functionalities is essential for the development of low-cost, safe, small fuzing for gravity dropped small weapons with significantly reduced collateral damage and UXO. Such no-battery, self-powered electronic safe and arm (S/A) devices will have a wide range of dual use commercial and other military applications. On the military side, they could be used on a wide range of weapons to reduce cost and increase safety, reduce collateral damage and UXO. On the commercial side, they could be used to initiate remote wireless sensors used for diagnostics, emergency detection, and for other similar purposes.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Jonas Gunter
AF 08-090      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Dielectric Reflector Particles for Laser Protection Coatings
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force faces an emerging threat from high energy laser systems designed to intercept air munitions prior to impact on the intended targets. A cost effective approach would require that all existing weapons systems be upgraded with a coating that provides some degree of laser protection. Luna Innovations Incorporated is proposing to develop a novel additive that will allow such a coating to be developed. This technology will enable coatings which possess reflectivity across the infrared band (1 micron to 20 micron) while minimizing heating due to absorbance. Luna will be utilizing a self-assembly process to construct particles from agglomerations of nano-sized dielectric ceramics. The final particles are expected to possess high temperature and environmental stability with excellent reflectivity toward threat wavelengths. After a highly focused effort to achieve materials with desired properties, Luna will leverage their aerospace coatings expertise to evaluate the requirements for a coating utilizing the new properties. Luna is then prepared to continue the work to develop an optimized coating from the new materials. BENEFIT: Lunas dielectric reflector particles will be a first-of-a kind demonstration of dielectric mirror technology in an easily processable form. The implication for thermal management and laser-based technologies is greatly reduced costs. Dielectric mirror technology is now only produced on small flat parts using vapor phase technology. Dielectric reflector particles will allow selective filtering of infrared radiation using easily applied paints and clear coats. New products used to provide energy efficient buildings will be realized with window coatings and roof treatments. Optical components in fiber optics communications can be reduced in cost by avoiding a costly vapor deposition step and allowing large substrates to be coated for greater production rates.

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INC
15 WARD STREET
SOMERVILLE, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-1122
Allen Flusberg
AF 08-090      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Retrofittable Laser Protection for Weapons
Abstract:High-energy laser (HEL) weapons systems are still in their infancy, but with the acute need for a reliable, inexpensive missile defense, and the rapid pace at which laser technology is developing, it is anticipated that they will be widespread within ten or twenty years and perhaps sooner. Nowwell before such HEL systems have become ubiquitousis the time to begin developing countermeasures against them. In this program we propose to develop and optimize techniques to reflect the laser light away (photon blocking) and to limit thermal transport to temperature-sensitive areas (phonon blocking), with an emphasis on technology that is retrofittable to legacy weapons typical of US Air Force inventory. In Phase I we will develop and optimize these techniques using a combination of modeling and experiments, and in Phase II we will conduct demonstrations of the technology. BENEFIT: Military benefits include enhanced survivability for missiles and other projectiles under attack by an HEL. Commercial applications include (1) sale of this technology to the commercial sector, to protect commercial aircraft against laser- based terrorist attacks; and (2) use of similar technology to improve lifetime and thrust of turbine blades by limiting thermal transport to the blades. Decreasing the conductive and radiative transport from the surface to the blades will allow higher inlet temperature without stressing blade-material temperature limitations. It will thus permit the design of engines having greatly increased specific power, lifetime and efficiency, with applications to the power-generation market, as well as the aerospace and defense market. These are multi-billion-dollar markets.

Full Spectrum Technologies, Inc.
503 Golfview Dr. Suite 200
San Jose, CA 95127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 223-2041
Murl Culp
AF 08-091      Awarded: 3/11/2009
Title:Boosted Penetrator Technology
Abstract:The study is formulated around use of system level trade studies for the Booster Penetrator subsystem requirements. The Mission Analysis is defined by the weapon requirements and weapon use scenario. Performance requirements are identified so that the explosive, penetrator, target vulnerability, and guidance candidates can establish a viable set of subsystems that can be consolidated for use in the SBIR. To identify the requirements and subsystems, FSTI has several tools that have been successfully used on penetrator programs involving the BLU-109, Small Diameter Bomb and others. These programs will be used to aid in the requirements and subsystem definitions. FSTI developed the Weapon Analysis Model, Rocket Motor Basic Sizing programs and the Mission Analysis Diagram. These programs enable us to efficiently reduce the times of conducting the work. The weapon optimization can also be included in the weapon design requirements. Additionally, the experience FSTI has in developing unique designs for meeting insensitive munitions requirements will be an asset in developing a sound approach for this weapon.The goal is to be ready to demonstrate the design for confidence in the Boosted Penetrator Technologies. BENEFIT: The Boosted Penetrator Insensitive Munition study could be applied to the use of a rocket motors in space studies where rocket motors are used to launch space hardware. The release mechanisms that are temperature sensitive have application to safety systems in buildings where fire may be a potential concern. These release rings work in the opposite direction to the conventional release rings. Snap rings normally release by expanding where the ones used in the rocket motors and warheads contract and release the device for protection. Buildings that are built on very hard surfaces depend on oil well drilling techniques to make holes in the hard surface. It is a process which takes time. The boosted penetrator would allow for a penetration into the hard surface to be done in a fraction of the time for drilling. Anchors into these same surfaces are difficult and the penetration techniques may offer a faster way to anchor a building to the hard surface.

TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4431
Randal Johnson
AF 08-091      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Reinforced Boosted Penetrator Formulations
Abstract:A variety of types of warheads have been envisioned for boosted penetrator warheads for the JDAM upgrade program to defeat a variety of targets. Insensitive compositions are indicated in this type of system since the warhead will be boosted to speeds of 2000 2500 feet per second prior to impact with hardened structures or rock. A persistent problem experienced in PBXs in these weapons has been explosive rebounding in the weapon cavity wherein the explosive responds elastically creating internal wave fronts rebounding from impact stresses. This creates waves, eddies, cracks, and can cause premature or unreliable detonation. TPL proposes to enhance the survival and resistance of the explosive composition in these warheads through the use of reinforcing media in the formulation of the composition. This will decrease the elasticity of the formulation and reinforce the integrity of the billet through the high velocity penetration. TPL will formulate and perform testing and hydrocode calculations on inert simulants of a chosen warhead composition and compare results to those of the original formulation. A preferred formulation modification will be manufactured along with the original formulation in a small scale and both will be tested for energetic output. BENEFIT: Reinforcement of polymeric structures with various media including fibers and spherical or granular materials has been a commercially available concept for many years. This is not a novel concept with any real potential for commercialization outside of military applications. Unlike commercial formulations, few PBX formulations that include reinforcing media have been developed or tested. The use of reinforcing media in energetic formulations in these applications will have the benefit of increasing reliability and, possibly, the performance of the munition. Since TPL does not have an energetics manufacturing facility, future endeavors would involve coordination of efforts with an established manufacturing facility and licensing of the concept to that entity.

Dynamic Systems and Research
8219 Pickard Ave NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 270-3088
Danny J. Frew
AF 08-092      Awarded: 3/31/2009
Title:High Speed Survivable Small Penetration Fuze
Abstract:This program seeks to develop advanced, high-voltage components for the next generation of military fuzes. Specifically, we propose to develop and test three different high-voltage switch modules that can be implemented into future in-line, high-voltage fuzing and firing set systems. During the Phase I effort, DSR will research three different high-voltage switches for fuzing applications. MOS Controlled Thyristor (MCT), Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), and Gas Discharge Tube (GDT) technologies will be used to develop reliable, inexpensive, high-voltage switches. A limited amount of penetration shock testing is planned at the end of Phase I followed by further development and testing in Phase II. Ultimately, this program will deliver high-voltage fuzing module(s) capable of surviving and functioning in severe, high-shock environments. Inherent within the final module design(s) will be the capability for the end-user to perform necessary live, non- destructive acceptance and recertification testing of fuzes. This capability will enhance significantly the ability for the war fighter to validate the functionality of a fuzing system and also improve reliability of overall warheads. BENEFITS: Currently, the high-voltage parts used in high-shock fuzing applications are, in general, the most problematic components of the system. As military and fuze manufacturers push the development of smaller fuzes, high-voltage fuzing systems will begin replacing the traditional out-of-line, low-voltage systems. Improvements to the high-voltage portion of in-line fuzing systems are needed. The successful implementation of the products developed in this program will lead to much more reliable fuzing systems and ultimately improve the efficiency of our weapons on the battlefield. From a commercialization standpoint, the technologies developed under this program could be transitioned to the aircraft, space, and energy explorations industries. Miniature commercial aircraft Black Box flight data recorders, temperature-insensitive space electronic instruments, and improved oil exploration high- voltage, linear-shape-charge systems are examples of possible uses for the technologies developed in this program.

KaZaK Composites Incorporated
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Robert Karnes
AF 08-092      Awarded: 5/29/2009
Title:Shock Hardened, High Resolution Inductive Sensing Accelerometer
Abstract:KaZaK Composites and Kaman Fuzing offer a novel accelerometer concept using inductive sensing. The concept promises shock resistance, high sensitivity and resolution, flat frequency response, DC capability, high resonance, and to eliminate the brittleness problems with piezoresistive instruments. It is intended for initial application in penetrating weapons, and will be suitably hardened for the shock environment. It will be an enabling technology for distributed fuzing, which was highlighted in the topic description. Outputs of direct local sensing by instruments disposed about the weapon body could be integrated to give both rigid-body dynamics and body strains, to alleviate the need for shock isolation of a centrally mounted processor. The accelerometer is proposed to be built of extremely high specific stiffness composite materials for reduced physical distortion and improved linearity under high G loadings. One objective will be to show that the specific stiffness of a practical composite at instrument scale can exceed that of beryllium, the benchmark for conventional inertial sensors. In Phase I the team will work toward a benchtop-level test article for laboratory demonstration of the concept. The team will also pursue preliminary design of a prototype instrument, mounting method and interconnection hardware to survive the weapon production process. BENEFITS: The immediate prospects for a new capability in high shock accelerometers include improvement to the reliability of penetrator fuzing, and enabling technology for distributed fuzing. Ultimately, these factors will result in an important tactical advantage. Aside from the military applications, the commercial potential should be at least equal to that of existing accelerometers. The high resolution of the inductive sensing instrument is promises for many applications, and the new type should find a niche in high-precision vibration monitoring in fields such as transport vehicle dynamics, aerospace, machine tools, and research. The sensitivity of the inductive type may also prove of use for relatively low accelerations, such as seismic measurements.

MARK Resources, Inc.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Richard L. Mitchell
AF 08-093      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Smart Submunition Radar
Abstract:MARK Resources, teamed with Boeing, proposes to define a radar for a fire-and-forget submunition that will enable a Cluster Bomb Unit (CBU) munition or an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) to engage and neutralize multiple targets spread over a large region. This effort brings together three unique sets of capabilities: MARK Resources radar processing and design expertise, Boeings new lightweight aperture technology, and Boeings system level experience. Together, we will define submunition and radar concepts of operation, including the radar hardware and operating parameters. The submunition radar will be capable of detecting, tracking, and classifying a desired target, and selecting and hitting an aimpoint, all within the constraints of the limited submunition size, weight, power, cost, and flight envelope. We will demonstrate the system performance using simulated data. BENEFIT: The principal application of the proposed technology is a seeker for a submunition. However, other small, lightweight platforms such as UAVs are also excellent candidates for the same seeker technology.

Mustang Technology Group, L.P.
400 W. Bethany Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 396-4432
Rustin W Allred
AF 08-093      Awarded: 4/23/2009
Title:Guided Smart Submunitions
Abstract:Mustang Technology Group proposes to leverage its extensive experience with low-cost, compact radar technology, and its current seeker designs, to design a submunition seeker that meets all of the Air Force requirements for a cost that is compatible with deployment on submunitions. BENEFIT: The proposed seeker will have extensive applications throughout the Department of Defense for submunition applications, and the underlying technologies will also have applications in Homeland Security and commercial surveillance applications as well.

Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC)
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Bradley Sallee
AF 08-093      Awarded: 4/17/2009
Title:LADAR Guided Smart Submunitions
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a LADAR seeker for guided smart submunitions. The LADAR is an extension of the SPEC LADAR family, operating at 1550nm, making use of communications fiber optic components, minimizing cost, development time and size. The receiver utilizes SPECs LADAR ROIC, allowing detection of the first three objects in range per pixel, with range accuracy to 3mm. The LADAR allows all weather operation with 5km range in all but heavy thunderstorm (4km) and fog (twice the visual range). The LADAR architecture features a fiber optic transceiver using DWDM channel multiplexing, coupled with dual Fresnel style prism director which allows large area search, small area scan or FOR tracking modes. Initial sizing indicates 3 inch aperture is sufficient, well within the 6 inch round diameter. Power will be under 100 watts, dominated by laser pump power. LADAR image processing will be handled by HyperX matrix processor, a fabric of 100 processors on a chip, clock by clock reconfigurable, and having power per flop 1/10 competitive units. The LADAR will be capable of classifying, guiding the round to the target, and discrimination of targets. Last pixel processing allows locating targets under heavy foliage and camouflage nets. BENEFIT: The use of an imaging LADAR for guided smart munitions allows good weather performance, excellent discrimination and tracking accuracy and the ability to defeat objects hidden under heavy foliage or camouflage nets.

Vescent Photonics
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver, CO 80216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 296-6766
Scott Davis
AF 08-093      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Low Cost, Low SWAP Micro-LADAR for Guided Smart Submunitions
Abstract:Vescent Photonics, in collaboration with Aerius Photonics, proposes to develop a new generation of ultra-compact, ultra low power micro-ladar systems that will be suitable for a wide variety of military needs including: guided sub-munitions, missle interceptor seeker systems, active collision avoidance in space by multiple kill vehicle interceptors, UAV collision avoidance and range finding, and many more. These new devices are enabled by the combined development of revolutionary non-mechanical beamsteerers by Vescent, and VCSEL/VCSOA LADAR transceivers by Aerius Photonics. By combining these two new technologies we are replacing the two foremost impediments to ladar SWAP and cost reduction: the mechanical scanners and the high power lasers. The proposed micro-ladar seekers will be entirely electro-optic, the size of a matchbox, and able to scan an entire 80º Field Of View (FOV) in less than a millisecond with analog resolution. The purpose of this phase I is to prove the feasibility of this combination. BENEFIT: The ultra- compact steerable LADAR concept and hardware developed in this program has a wide range of relatively near-term and potentially low-cost military (tactical, theater and strategic) and other (surveillance/homeland security) applications. Tactical and surveillance adaptations would be the largest potential near-term markets. We believe that the ultra-compact steerable laser rangefinder approach could be readily and cost effectively adapted to fielding of compact laser radars, coded covert (free-space-optics) line-of-sight communications capabilities and serve as high-accuracy optical trackers for engaging tactical (rockets, mortars and artillery-RAM) targets; RAMs are currently major threats to the US and its allies in the context of theater and urban warfare. Outside of the military deployment, our ultra-compact SAA LADAR system can be instrumental in future Autonomous (Adaptive) Cruise Control systems for the automobile industry. Robotic, autonomous disaster zone LADAR mapping and navigation could also directly benefit from this development research effort. Ad-hoc free-space optical communication networks are also envisioned as another potential application.

ACTA Incorporated
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Wije Wathugala
AF 08-094      Awarded: 3/6/2009
Title:Weapons Effects FRMs for Small Munitions on Fixed Targets
Abstract:Predicting the damage to structures commonly found in Urban Environments to the effects of intentional or accidental small explosions is a difficult problem, often resulting in hazards to nearby personnel and equipment. Numerous commercial and military organization desire models that can predict the structural damage and characteristics of the debris generated by the various forces. In this SBIR Phase I, several HFPB (High Fidelity Physics Based) methods will be compared by simulating the breach of urban walls by small munitions causing (a) inert penetration, and (b) explosive penetration. Fast Running Models that mimic the results of the HFPB simulations will also be demonstrated. BENEFIT: In recent years, the US military finds itself more involved in urban warfare. In urban warfare or MOUT (Military Operations in Urban Terrain), armed forces have to exhibit caution so that their actions will not harm civilians and friendly forces in the area. These precautions exclude the use of large weapons and therefore the military is extremely interested in the use of more precise small weapons. These small weapons are often used to breach urban walls and can be inert projectiles or explosive projectiles (cased weapons) that a) detonate upon impact or b) set for a delayed detonation during partial penetration in order to maximize damage. The physics of the inert or explosive impacts and the resulting breakup and debris generation of these munitions is very complex and validated numerical methods do not yet exist. Therefore, there is a need to develop validated small munitions models capable of determining the consequences of their use in order to assist military planners and soldiers in the field. In this project, we proposed to develop FRMs (Fast Running Models) to predict (a) hole size, (b) amount of material removed, (c) probabilistic debris mass and velocity distributions due to inert and explosive penetration of urban walls by small weapons.

AetherMachines Inc.
41 Bruce Drive
Alplaus, NY 12008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 423-8671
Michael D. Moore
AF 08-096      Awarded: 6/26/2009
Title:Perching Micro Air Weapon
Abstract:A highly unique, perching MAV topology providing excellent maneuverability, high explosive payload capacity, color video transmission back to the operator, good range, and energy harvesting from power lines, wind, and solar sources is detailed. These advantages greatly extend the mission duration and capabilities of the micro air weapon. Additionally, the topology of the MAV gives the ability to aim and discharge the payload, allowing the MAV to return for reuse unless expendability is required by the mission. The MAV is also capable of very effective terrestrial travel, including crawling under vehicles and into tight spaces. The design uses high performance plastic, rapid prototyped parts, COTS components such as flight motors, RC servos, receiver, video transmitter, GPS receiver, and lithium polymer batteries, and is remotely controlled via common single or two joystick techniques. BENEFITS: The feasibility R&D and work in this proposal will fabricate, test and optimize a MAV topology that immediately can become commercial product that enables positioning and repositioning of a video link via flight to virtually any location. This ability is well suited for news gathering, viewing of scheduled indoor and outdoor events, and especially far rapidly deployable video feeds to the internet via TCP/IP and websites.

Design Intelligence Incorporated, LLC
350 David L Boren Blvd Suite 1780
Norman, OK 73072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 307-0397
James L Grimsley
AF 08-096      Awarded: 3/11/2009
Title:Perching Micro Air Weapon
Abstract:Design Intelligence Incorporated, LLC (DII) proposes an integrated design approach for an innovative perching micro air vehicle (MAV) using energy harvesting. The proposed design concepts will build upon DIIs proprietary energy harvesting technology and hardware and will include innovative biomimitic MAV design concepts. In particular, DII proposes MAV design concepts that focus on energy harvesting (EH) modality pairs so that the tightly-constrained design requirements for a perch and stare MAV can be achieved with optimal performance by the EH systems. Overall vehicle performance and agility as well as camouflage and concealment will be accomplished through the use of biomimitic modeling and conceptualization. This will allow the MAV to remain hidden in plain sight. DIIs proprietary EH power management system can accommodate both DC and AC energy sources over a wide range of power levels. The MAV design concepts will integrate EH transducers, such as solar cells, into the overall MAV air frame and structure to maximize design efficiency and to ensure that maximum EH efficiency is achieved for the given MAV size and class. Onboard energy storage will be accomplished with a combination of supercapacitors and advanced battery chemistries to sustain MAV operation during extended mission operations. BENEFIT: A "perch and stare"-capable micro air vehicle (MAV) has immediate application to support current military demands for improved intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance challenges. The proposed technology will increase the effectiveness of military missions and will improve the safety of military personnel while disrupting adversarial activity. The proposed technology also has broad commercial application since it will further develop energy harvesting (EH) technology and integration concepts for unattended unmanned systems. The proposed Phase I research will contribute to the engineering knowledge and understanding of the MAV trade space and, specifically, the effects of EH on UAV and MAV design.

TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4484
Tim Trainor
AF 08-096      Awarded: 3/31/2009
Title:Energy Scavenging Micro Air Weapon
Abstract:This project demonstrates an efficient power scavenging design for a Perching Micro Air Weapon, enabling the weapon to perch on high voltage transmission lines, such as along the electric transmission grid prior to final voltage step-down. The innovation of the perching air weapon design allows the system to recharge from a single, high-voltage transmission line. When perching on a high voltage line, the system senses the voltage gradient with the surrounding environment, selects the appropriate impedance, and monitors the recharging of the on-board energy storage. Energy scavenging from a single high voltage line is made possible by the innovation of a Corona Discharge Terminal, which lets current flow through use of the corona, or partial discharge effect. For the corona effect to work, the system will deploy a partial discharge terminal a distance of a few inches away from the transmission line so as to give the terminals electron exit points access to air existing in an area of less electric field strength. The current will be in the milliamp range, using corona/partial discharge from the transmission line. The generation system will be designed for high-voltage transmission lines from 5KV to 345KV. BENEFIT: This research and development has the commercial benefit of providing a ready source of power for remote, wireless sensors for applications in every facet of a public power grid. These sensors can monitor gas and skin temperature, gas pressure in high voltage circuit breakers, grid voltage levels, and equipment failure. The ability to remotely monitor these many properties guarantees the health of the power system, forestalling very expensive equipment failures and power outages.

AVID LLC
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1400
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-0067
John Ohanian
AF 08-097      Awarded: 6/8/2009
Title:Aerodynamic Control of Micro Air Weapons
Abstract:AVID proposes to develop solid-state morphing control surface actuation technology. By solid-state, we imply that there are no servos, linkages, or moving parts other than the conformal shape change of the aerodynamic surfaces. Instead, piezoelectric Macro Fiber Composites (MFC) will be used to implement the morphing flight control capability. The morphing wing and control surfaces will be designed to attain sufficient lift coefficient and control moments to perform the required maneuver of a 90-degree turn from one 50 ft wide street to another. AVIDs proposed concept has several advantages over existing technology. The solid-state nature of this flight control actuation scheme allows for scalability to miniature sizes, as well as increases in overall reliability. The elimination of servos and linkages will reduce the overall volume necessary for flight control actuation, while an effort to optimize the electronic drive circuitry for the piezoelectric actuators could result in a net weight reduction. Wind tunnel tests from a current Phase II Air Force SBIR have shown MFC-based morphing control surfaces that have sufficient stroke to produce good variation in lift coefficient, sufficient force to hold the morphing deflection under high dynamic pressure loading, and the high bandwidth that is needed for flight control. BENEFITS: The anticipated outcome of this SBIR includes innovative research for developing solid-state morphing flight control actuation technologies demonstration of a prototype system a technology that can be applied to various airframes over a large range of scales Phase II plans for further development and commercialization Following a successful Phase II effort the solid-state morphing flight control actuation system will be made commercially available. AVID is well-positioned to market a final product which we feel has significant value to the military, homeland security applications, as well as positioned for commercial use. The new technology will offer the following benefits: More reliability elimination of servos and linkages will increase reliability of the overall system Space savings the conformal actuators will reduce overall storage volume, and aid in airframe integration Enabling technology the unique capabilities of the technology will enable an air platform that can meet the strict packaging constraints and maneuverability goals of this specific application This technology will be well positioned for micro munitions military use and lend themselves useful for commercial need such as security and search and rescue. All post-Phase II customers will significantly lower their overall costs and increase return on investment, allowing them to quickly adopt this technology and to fully benefit from the underlying innovation.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Daniel Bock
AF 08-097      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Miniature Flight Actuator
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for innovative actuators that will enable efficient flight control of microair vehicles (MAVs), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Miniature Flight Actuator (MIFA). This proposed actuator is based on uniquely structured smart material stacks that function on their resonant modes. The MIFA will provide high driving power and large displacement (>40 mm) with a high torque (>20 Nm) in a miniature form factor (<2 cm^3 and 20 g) with low power consumption (down to 1 mW). The MIFA also has superior characteristics in terms of long operating life (>10 yr), low-cost implementation and maintenance (<$20/unit), the absence of parasitic magnetic fields, high resolution in position control, and compatibility with current systems. The innovation in novel use of the high-density actuator stacks and design of the actuator mechanism coupling to the shaft will enable the MIFA to reconfigure airframes of MAVs efficiently. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MIFA by developing a working actuator that can change the flight surface characteristics of a model wing. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a full working prototype to show how MIFA controls MAV flight. BENEFIT: The commercialized MIFA will be useful in a broad range of civilian and commercial applications, including in-flight airframe reconfiguration of commercial MAVs for tracking suspects and vehicles, and search and rescue. It will also be used on military MAVs or UAVs in flight airframe reconfiguration.

System Dynamics
9116 SW 51st Road Suite 102
Gainesville, FL 32608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-8035
Kevin Shortelle
AF 08-097      Awarded: 3/12/2009
Title:Aerodynamic Control of Micro Air Weapons
Abstract:The U. S. Air Force has identified a need to develop innovative technologies which will enable overall miniaturization of micro air weapons (MAW) to allow such weapons to be sufficiently compact to accommodate diverse deployment scenarios. Miniaturization of the weapon airframe necessarily requires that airframe components be miniaturized to provide adequate volume for mission payloads. In particular, the Air Force has earmarked flight control actuation devices as critical components requiring miniaturization. The conventional approach for control surface actuation in small air vehicles has been the use of analog or digital servos mounted in the airframe fuselage. Control rods connect the servo horns to the air vehicles control surfaces to provide deflection forces in response to autopilot commands. Servos work effectively. However, they do occupy critical volume within the fuselage and can significantly contribute to air vehicle weight. If servos can be replaced with miniature-actuation devices within the fuselage, or more attractively, replaced with miniature actuators that can be embedded directly onto the control surface, both increased payload volume and reduced weight can be realized. Accordingly, the focus of this research is to identify and assess the applicability of innovative actuation technologies that afford MAW payload and weight benefits, yet still provide effective control surface deflection forces to reliably maneuver the air vehicle. Specifically, the research will address three alternative technologies. In each case, the force and bandwidth provided by an actuator representing each of these technologies shall be experimentally evaluated and quantified. BENEFIT: Several technological benefits will be derived from the successful completion of this Phase I research. Miniaturizing airframe size will be a paramount requirement due to the inevitable emergence of swarming MAVs for ISR missions or multiple MAWs for strike applications. To that end, exploiting technologies that afford embedding actuators directly onto the control surface or wing represents a key development milestone. By thoroughly evaluating three diverse technologies, the results of this Phase I program shall indentify the most viable embedded- actuator technology for near-term implementation on both military and commerical UAV platforms.

Techno-Sciences, Inc.
11750 Beltsville Drive 3rd Floor
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 790-0600
Curt Kothera
AF 08-097      Awarded: 3/31/2009
Title:Aerodynamic Control of Micro Air Weapons
Abstract:Due to packaging and maneuverability concerns, micro air weapons development is leading towards smaller and more capable platforms. This miniaturization ultimately results in constraints of volume and energy for all systems onboard. Actuator technologies have thus been investigated to meet the needs of the changing system requirements. Significant research has gone into active material systems, such as piezoelectrics, and synthetic jets, but these advanced technologies have limited applicability. Conventional servo technology has also encountered concerns over miniaturization. As such, Techno-Sciences, Inc., in collaboration with the University of Maryland, proposes to develop a technology centered on pneumatic artificial muscle actuation. Building upon our extensive experience and related patent portfolio, we will perform analyses and detailed design work in Phase I of the project that will end with a prototype actuator demonstration. Phase II will be focused on further refinements and integration into functional hardware capable of wind tunnel demonstrations. BENEFIT: Throughout the Phase I effort and in preparation for Phase II, Techno-Sciences, Inc. will work in concert with Air Force sponsors to ensure that the proposed micro-actuator technology will have the potential for integration into existing and future micro air weapon systems. This technology can reach several markets including unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) for search and rescue operations, package delivery, humanitarian aid, meteorological and atmospheric measurements, and diagnoses of biological or chemical spill environments. Additionally, the robotics industry and even the toy industry stand to benefit from this development. The final product of this technology will be an integrated hardware/software device that can be licensed for manufacture.

Energetic Materials & Products, Inc.
1413 Brandi Lane
Round Rock, TX 78681
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 380-1992
Dennis Wilson
AF 08-098      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Focused Miniature Ordnance Technologies
Abstract:This proposal describes two technical objectives and a detailed work plan to demonstrate the fundamental mechanisms and capability that will enable a new technology base for focused miniature ordnance. The first technical objective is to develop and test a new multiphase blast explosive composition. This addresses the program goal for compact, high-energy-density munitions with a precisely controlled lethality radius. The second technical objective is to demonstrate a scalable, multifunctional kill concept. This addresses the program goal of a warhead capable of producing a predominately forward, focused, fragment field with the additional option for selectable enhanced blast or fragment effects for functional defeat of different target sets. This proposal leverages recent advances in developing a novel class of high-energy-density, modified explosives that are candidates for selectable effects munitions. The baseline composition consists of equal parts of nanometer and micrometer aluminum in a stoichimetric mixture with perfluoropolyether. It has a mass density of 2.1 g/cc and a total energy release of 34 kJ/cc. We will extend this baseline composition to mass densities of 5 g/cc and energy densities of 42 kJ/cc, while exploring innovative initiation schemes to achieve the overall program goals. BENEFIT: Examples of dual-use military and commercial applications, the proposed concept could be used for: (1) low collateral damage explosive defeat of IEDs and VBIEDs for domestic bomb squads or law enforcement operations; (2) novel energetic materials and initiation mechanisms for down-hole perforation operations in the oil production industry; and (3) controlled collateral effects for explosive demolition operations.

KOR Electronics
10855 Business Center Dr. Bldg. A
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 898-8200
Bob Adams
AF 08-098      Awarded: 6/9/2009
Title:Focused Miniature Ordnance Technologies
Abstract:This proposal objective is to design a software based radar scene generator system capable of producing synthetic radar stimulus data. This system is termed the Synthetic Radar Scene Generator (SRSG) system. The SRSG will generate synthetic aperture radar target and clutter data for use by real time radar environment simulator (RES) systems. The synthetic scenes when executed on RES systems, will provide non-destructive functional testing of fuzing components. The SRSG generated data represents suitable terrain environments with user defined characteristics containing specific targets of interest while incorporating ballistic munitions trajectories for the simulated sensor platform motion. The Air Force needs an SRSG to create various scenes to evaluate next generation fuzing sensors against a diversity of targets. No generation system for this data in these formats exists. This SRSG will allow an operator to compose various scenes utilizing information from terrain data and target signature files. Various combinations of point targets or complex targets within typical backgrounds are required for synthetic scene environments. Military and civilian vehicles of all types are constantly being added to the list of potential targets that may be required to be included in a sensor evaluation. BENEFITS: The successful results of the current SBIR Phase I, and future Phase II, and Phase III efforts will have immediate applications with multiple simulation programs and test facilities within the US Military. The ability to generate large quantities of coherent radar signals on a PRI basis will allow radar, seeker, and full Integrated System Test Facilities (ISTFs) to verify and validate signal processing capabilities in the laboratory, years before they are fielded in weapons systems. Based on the amount of simultaneous signals, different applications of this technology will be achieved so as to reduce or eliminate expensive flight testing. The savings to the U.S. Government will be rapidly realized by the tremendously reduced need for costly flight tests. This research will be applicable across the spectrum of land, sea, and air applications. This work is also applicable and beneficial to the testing and validation of advanced weather radar.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Alan H. Brothers
AF 08-098      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Novel Thermite Composites for Precision Reactive Munitions
Abstract:Mainstream will produce and test coupons of a novel reactive composite material designed to reduce the size and weight of modern munitions, and thereby improve mobility and precision, without sacrificing offensive power. This composite, based on unique component materials, will offer lower density, lower processing temperature, and higher strength than existing reactive composites. Like those, it will also provide a large amount of offensive power in the form of a shear/impact- or detonation-ignited thermite reaction. BENEFIT: It is expected that successful development of the proposed reactive materials will yield significant benefits to the U.S. armed services by enabling munitions with higher lethality, or conversely, with equivalent lethality but smaller size and weight, and hence better precision. Between the armed services and civilian sectors such as private military contract and security personnel, law enforcement, and even oil and mineral exploration and high-temperature thermochemistry, the market for a successful technology is expected to be very large. In addition to meeting the needs of these markets, the technology will help address concerns of the public regarding casualties to both U.S. and foreign noncombatants.

Mustang Technology Group, L.P.
400 W. Bethany Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 359-2325
Dennis Jones
AF 08-098      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Focused Miniature Ordnance Technologies
Abstract:To develop conformal antennas for fuze sensors when the weapon nose is not available, Mustang Technology Group has identified several flush-mounted and low-profile antenna concepts to investigate and demonstrate during a Phase I program. BENEFIT: Conformal antenna technologies greatly extend the application of RF fuze sensors to weapons where the nose is not available for an antenna. The application would be in weapons across the Department of Defense.

REYNOLDS SYSTEMS, INC.
PO BOX 1229 18649 HWY 175
MIDDLETOWN, CA 95461
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 928-5244
Chris Nance
AF 08-098      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Focused Miniature Ordnance Technologies
Abstract:In order to develop miniaturized weapon systems capable of defeating fleeing targets in urban environments safely, a new class of miniaturized initiator, ULEEFI (Ultra Low Energy Exploding Foil Initiator) is needed. The new initiator will need to be smaller, lighter and incorporate multi-functionality in the design. Legacy systems currently incorporate large, out-of-line safe and arm systems with many components (ie. initiators, PICS, leads and boosters). The interface between the safe and arm system and the warhead needs to be redefined based on todays technology. The next generation of firing system miniaturization will happen as sub-component technologies in the initiator are integrated or eliminated and EFI firing energy reduction is achieved. LEEFI initiators and their firing systems are shrinking in size and weight and offer superior safety and performance over traditional out-of-line systems. The LEEFI is capable of delivering timing accuracies, which allow multi-function output capabilities in the warhead design. Reynolds Systems LEEFI initiators employ the use of RSI-007 explosive, a CL-20 based explosive that was developed under a SBIR with the Navy. The RSI-007 has unique energy characteristics including short run up to full detonation and extreme energy density, making the explosive an excellent choice for compact weapon systems. BENEFIT: Although many versions of the LEEFI devices are now in production and many more are in development at RSI, the emphasis for this Phase 1 study shall be placed on designing a whole new class of initiator, which is smaller in size and weight and lower in energy requirements. This initiator would have its own high voltage switching technology. This initiator would also have sufficient output to either act as the warhead or directly initiate the main fill warhead without the need of intermediate energetics. It is anticipated that RSI will be able to demonstrate the initiator in Phase 1 by showing a decrease in firing energy of 20% from a current LEEFI (with a goal of 35%) and include a working on-chip switch capable of triggering the initiator.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Jonah McBride
AF 08-099      Awarded: 3/24/2009
Title:Collaborative Autonomy for Robots Using Signals of Opportunity (CARUSO)
Abstract:Urban combat presents the warfighter with significant and complex challenges, especially when dealing with targets that are located deep within buildings and other structures. Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) have proven useful in providing remote reconnaissance for indoor environments and there has been recent interest in using these platforms to emplace micro-munitions for precision attacks on strategic targets. Indoor navigation and search is a challenging problem for tele-operated robots due to lack of situational awareness, especially since GPS signals are generally not available. Signals of opportunity such as TV, radio, cellular and 802.11 (WiFi) can penetrate structures and can potentially be leveraged for navigation. On this basis, we propose a system called Collaborative Autonomy for Robots Using Signals of Opportunity (CARUSO). This approach is based on the classic Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) approach to navigation but uses several enhancements to improve performance. We also use signals of opportunity like WiFi to perform indoor geolocation comparable to GPS. Finally, CARUSO is designed to operate collaboratively between multiple platforms enabling data sharing and cooperative localization which enhances the overall navigational capabilities of the system. Our approach leverages the same methods that allow devices like the iPhone to self-localize without using GPS. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will have immediate applications for DoD customers who use mobile robots in both reconnaissance and munitions placement programs. In the private sector, cooperative navigation for mobile agents will be useful for fire departments (for search and rescue), bomb squads, and SWAT teams. SLAM capabilities will be applicable in almost every scenario where mobile robots can be of service including hospitals and warehouses.

Echo Ridge, LLC
11127 Elmview Place
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 470-7885
John Carlson
AF 08-099      Awarded: 3/26/2009
Title:Indoor Mapping and Geolocation Using Signals of Opportunity and Cooperative SLAM
Abstract:Echo Ridge and partner Argon ST, propose to simulate and characterize the performance of a navigation solution that combines state-of-the-art advances in Signals of Opportunity (SoOP) based navigation with SLAM techniques. The team will apply a novel approach of utilizing heterogeneous SoOPs that are typically unsynchronized, to jointly compute location, mapping, and SoOP timing. The algorithms described herein are what the team refers to as SMARTS (Simultaneous Mapping And Relative Timing using SoOPs). Furthermore, no restrictions are placed on the types of SoOPs used for navigation, which may range from analog FM waveforms to wideband digital signals such as cellular base station or digital TV transmissions. The performance of the algorithms will be characterized through MATLAB simulations as a function of incrementally sophisticated instrumentation and measurement capability. The simulation testbed will be developed as an add-on to Echo Ridges MATLAB GUI-based DIGSim geolocation performance prediction software tool, developed under a previous AF SBIR. A prototype SLAM agent design will be developed, along with lab and field test plans which are to be carried out during Phase II to validate the performance predicted during Phase I. BENEFIT: This SBIR topic brings together two very different, yet complementary engineering fields that often do not intersect, and offers exciting new advances in commercial applications that have received little, if any research attention. The abundance of widely available SoOP RF signals, when used for navigation in the context of SLAM, offer a rich source of navigation beacons that could be used to guide robotic and mobile devices. This reduces the dependency on high-cost optical systems as a primary guidance mechanism, and may serve to propel new applications for cost-effective robotics in areas such as remote and/or hazardous mobile applications such as bomb disposal, search and rescue operations, and border security. Echo Ridge plans to seek out partners during the Phase II and III periods that offer a mature product line in robotics on which this technology could be commercialized. Furthermore, research dedicated to the emerging field of SoOP navigation has many obvious commercial applications for providing high accuracy geolocation of mobile devices in GPS-denied areas, which is an acute problem for commercial wireless service providers and public sector emergency responders. Performance of GPS in wireless handsets is very poor indoors and in dense urban areas. The need spans a number of different services areas including emergency response E911, enterprise services (VZNavigator/GPS, others) and consumer services (Chaperone Family Locator, others). Through our partnership with Andrew Corporation, Echo Ridge has first-hand knowledge of the nature of the needs, and potential market opportunity for a viable solution. Echo Ridge plans to use the results of the SBIR to address this commercial market need. The results of the work proposed by Echo Ridge under this effort will produce a reference design and a substantiation of achievable field results (through the Phase II activities).

Q-Track Corporation
515 Sparkman Drive
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-0075
Hans Schantz
AF 08-099      Awarded: 6/12/2009
Title:AM Broadcast Signal-of-Opportunity Location Device
Abstract:Q-Track has identified the AM broadcast band as the most promising choice for a signal- of-opportunity to improve navigation in GPS denied areas. We propose an asynchronous time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) architecture using classical direction finding (DF) to resolve the integer ambiguity in phase comparison between AM band broadcast signals. This architecture will also be able to support a high accuracy location system using cooperative low-power beacons using Near-Field Electromagnetic Ranging (NFER). We will develop a preliminary RF and system architecture as well as DF and TDOA algorithms. In Phase I, Q-Track will assess the feasibility of the architecture and the accuracy of the algorithms in the context of real-world measurements of noise and propagation of AM broadcast signals in urban environments. Finally, Q-Track will figure out how our existing AM-band Locator-Receivers might be modified to implement an asynchronous TDOA and DF signal-of-opportunity handheld location device for Phase II. Q-Tracks extensive experience in developing high precision AM-broadcast band Locator-Receivers and in developing compact, high-efficiency antenna systems for handheld and body-mounted applications, helps reduce technical risk and ensure that the project is well-positioned for a successful Phase II prototype system. BENEFITS: The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses 24-32 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites to provide location and navigation information to benefit not only our military but also the private sector. GPS signals, however, are not available indoors, in urban canyons, and in dense foliage. This proposal envisions an ancillary navigation and system to provide location capability in GPS-denied areas. Beyond the military benefit (including redundancy), the civilian sector can also benefit from such technology. Examples include firefighters, SWAT teams, sewer workers, and urban vehicles.

Sigtem Technology, Inc.
1343 Parrott Drive
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 312-1132
Chun Yang
AF 08-099      Awarded: 6/3/2009
Title:Indoor Mapping and Geolocation Enabler: Network Exploration of SOOP and Cooperative SLAM Technology
Abstract:We propose to develop an enabling technology for indoor mapping and geolocation based on innovative integration of cooperative simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) and network exploitation of signals of opportunity (SOOP) technology (NEST). The SLAM is an emerging technology that enables a mobile robot (a SLAM agent) placed at an unknown location in an unknown environment to incrementally build a consistent map of this environment while simultaneously determine its location within this map. However, by itself, the SLAM only produces a local map in the mobile agents coordinate frame. Besides, it is a lengthy process for a single SLAM agent to survey a large complex. The use of cooperative SLAM agents not only speeds up the map building process but also enables network exploitation of signals of opportunity for geolocation in GPS-denied environment. In this project, we will consider long-range signals of opportunity such as the field and/or segment sync codes in digital TV transmissions and short-range signals of opportunity such as the beacon frames from IEEE 802.11 WLAN access points. In addition of the design of SOOP receivers, we will focus on the data link transceivers, which will not only allow for coordination of actions and data exchange to local maps fusion but also enable the generation of differential ranges between cooperative agents to a common SOOP source and the estimation of clock offset and relative ranges between the cooperative agents. In Phase I, the proposed concepts will be formulated, analyzed, and simulated in computer for performance prediction and engineering tradeoff. The Phase I approach will be translated into hardware/software prototyping in Phase II for testing and demonstration. BENEFITS: When successful, the proposed research will produce an indoor mapping and geolocation capability in areas where GPS is not available. This will have great potentials in many military, homeland security, search and rescue, and commercial applications alike for positioning and navigation in urban and indoor environments, robotics, and mapping.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Kenan O. Ezal
AF 08-099      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Indoor Cooperative MAV Navigation using Signals of Opportunity
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to determine the feasibility of developing a cooperative indoor navigation framework using signals of opportunity (SoOP). SoOP- aided navigation (SAN) will rely on signals such as those being emitted by WiFi and WiMAX access points and routers. A SoOP sensor design with direction-finding (DF) capability will be developed and its angle of arrival accuracy evaluated. The cooperative navigation system will be compatible with Toyons plug-and-play Software-Defined Navigation(TM) architecture that enables on-the-fly changes to the sensor mixture. The SoOP/DF sensor will be incrementally augmented with alternative sensors such an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera. The performance of each sensor configuration will be evaluated. Communication bandwidth and network topology requirements will be determined. A roadmap for developing the system hardware and software will be identified in preparation for a Phase II demonstration. BENEFIT: The cooperative SoOP- aided navigation (SAN) system will permit accurate navigation under GPS-denied conditions and is applicable to both indoor and outdoor missions. All civilian and military navigation platforms with severe size, weight and power (SWAP) constraints are potential hosts for the proposed cooperative navigation system. These include ground- based and aerial unmanned vehicles, robots, and farming systems.

Calmar Optcom, Inc.
755 N. Pastoria Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 733-7800
Beom Soo Soh
AF 08-101      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Ultrafast Laser System for Drilling and Inspecting Cooling Holes
Abstract:Need to work BENEFIT: Need to work

Kapteyn-Murnane Laboratories Inc.
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-9068
Sterling Backus
AF 08-101      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Ultrafast Laser System for Drilling and Inspecting Straight and Shaped Cooling Holes
Abstract:Machining cooling holes in turbine fan blades is non-trivial. Blades and vanes are made from superalloys and coated with thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to survive extreme temperatures after the combustion section of a jet engine. Classical methods such as EDM or nanosecond laser micromachining have serious drawbacks in the size of hole and the amount of collateral damage to the surrounding material, such as spatter, cracking and delamination of the TBC. Femtosecond lasers on the other hand have been shown to greatly reduce this collateral damage and can make very small holes and/or shaped holes. With this in mind it is important be able to monitor the hole formation during the machining process. In this work we propose to investigate coupling a 100kHz, 40fs (20- 400uJ) laser system with a real time OCT measurement to produce clean shaped holes in superalloys and TBCs. We will also experiment with pulses ranging from 150fs to 30fs, as we believe shorter pulses lead to cleaner machining. BENEFIT: If successful, this project will open up a new method for micromachining cooling holes in jet engine fan blades, with the ability to reliably monitor the machining process. This Phase I is important for laying the foundation of experiment and theory in order to demonstrate the full capability of the micromachining apparatus as well as the laser system, and OCT detection scheme that is necessary for a commercial tool, which would not only benefit the DOD, but the research community .

PolarOnyx, Inc
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 245-9588
Jian Liu
AF 08-101      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Ultrafast Fiber Laser System for Drilling and Inspecting Straight and Shaped Cooling Holes
Abstract:Based on our success in developing the world first commercial 100 micro Joule fs fiber laser system and our leading technology development in ultrafast pulsed fiber laser, PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, a fs-high power (100 W), high energy (>1mJ) and tunable repetition rate (100kHz 2 MHz) fiber laser hole drilling and inspecting system to meet with the requirement of the solicitation AF 08-101. It is incorporating our proprietary technology of pulse shaping, beam shaping, spectral shaping and polarization shaping. These will make the fiber laser hole drilling and inspecting system superior in terms of throughput, size, and cost. A table top demonstration of the proposed laser system will be given in Phase I. Experiment on hole drilling and inspecting will be carried out as well. BENEFIT: The proposed high energy fs-100W mJ fiber laser micromachining system can be used in many military applications, such as micromachining, space, aircraft, and satellite applications, laser weapons, and target designation and illumination. PolarOnyx will develop a series of products to meet various requirements for military deployments. With successful development of the laser, the technology proposed by PolarOnyx will provide a vital tool to solve the existing and potential issues and merge with the huge markets including Material processing. This includes (1) all types of metal processing such as welding, cutting, annealing, and drilling; (2)semiconductor and microelectronics manufacturing such as lithography, inspection, control, defect analysis and repair, and via drilling; (3) marking of all materials including plastic, metals, and silicon; (4) other materials processing such as rapid prototyping, desk top manufacturing, micromachining, photofinishing, embossed holograms, and grating manufacturing. Medical equipment and biomedical instrumentation. The high power amplifier/laser can be applied to ophthalmology, refractive surgery, photocoagulation, general surgery, therapeutic, imaging, and cosmetic applications. Biomedical instruments include those involved in cells or proteins, cytometry, and DNA sequencing; laser Raman spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, and ablation; and laser based microscopes.

Spectral Energies, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF 08-101      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Femtosecond Temporal Pulse Shaping and Spectroscopy for Drilling and Inspecting Straight and Shaped Cooling Holes
Abstract:Laser micromachining is being widely used in every industry, including aerospace, automobile, microelectronics and bio-technology. The recent advent of commercial turn- key, high power femtosecond lasers has prompted a great amount of interest in using femtosecond lasers for machining. It has been demonstrated that the femtosecond laser has potential for achieving high precision owing to its extremely confined heat-affected zone. The objective of the proposed research is to develop a novel femtosecond laser micromachining technology based on temporally-shaped femtosecond pulses for DoD and other applications, including drilling shaped film-cooling holes in turbine blades. In these femtosecond pulses, the temporal shape and energy of each pulse, and the pulse-to- pulse separation time are all designed and adjusted at a time scale from femtosecond to nanosecond to overcome common problems associated with laser machining and maximize the machining speed. We will also implement diagnostic techniques to provide a feedback for process monitoring and laser parameter control. This will be based on laser- plasma emission for identifying materials and machining rates. In this project, we will focus on optimizing the pulse shapes for machining of film-cooling holes in turbine blades. However, the technique to be developed is generally applicable for machining a wide variety of other materials. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will have large impact on DoD applications such as drilling shaped film-cooling holes in turbine blades and other areas require high precision micro-machining. The proposed technology will also have commercial applications where laser diagnostics and associated hardware and software are extensivey used (e.g. academic and research institutions).

Spectral Energies, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF 08-102      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:3D Tomographic Reconstruction of Flow Fields for Spatio-Temporal Resolved Measurements in Augmentors
Abstract:We propose an innovative sensor technology that combines a high-bandwidth Time- Division Multiplexing laser system along with a 3D tomographic reconstruction model to provide spatially and temporally resolved 3D temperature and H2O concentration image of the flow field at data rate of 50 kHz. The primary objective of this Phase-I research effort is to perform the feasibility study of 3D tomographic reconstruction of temperature and H2O concentration in chemically reacting flows using a state-of-the art high bandwidth time-domain multiplexed (TDM) sensor. A unique 3D tomographic reconstruction model will be developed and used in conjunction with multiple beams to obtain coarse temperature images. The 3D tomographic model we propose to develop is very unique due to its ability to deal with large number of grid points or unknowns without apriori knowledge of the flow field. A key attribute of the proposed solution is the use of advanced hyperspectral sources (rather than diode lasers) to monitor H2O absorption features. Despite using absorption spectroscopy for determining the temperature and H2O concentration from hyperspectral TDM sensors, this technology is fundamentally different from typical diode laser-based absorption sensors and has many advantages, specifically, allowing the acquisition of many spectral windows (instead of specific spectral lines) covering wide spectral range at very high speeds (>10 kHz, typically 50 kHz) and thereby providing better temperature accuracy and power spectral density (PSD) functions. This feasibility study will pave the way for designing the optimum source for the implementation in an augmentor test stand dictated by AFRL scientists during the Phase-II research effort along with user-friendly software for tomographic reconstruction of the flow field. BENEFIT: Development of a compact, hyperspectral imaging sensor system along with a 3D tomographic reconstruction model that provides high temporal and moderate spatial resolution will enable engine manufacturers to monitor the combustion processes and relevant dynamical phenomena at realistic operating conditions for the first time. This capability is particularly critical for the design and modeling of advanced, ultra-compact, low-emission, gas turbine engines and for development of real-time combustion-control strategies. This technology will yield significant payoffs in military and commercial aviation as well as land- and sea-based power generation. The hyperspectral source that will be used in this research effort will also have broad impacts in biological imaging, remote sensing, microscopy, and other applications that require high-speed such as pulsed magnetic fields research. In particular, the sensor is likely to become important for next-generation swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of biological samples, opening the door to new medical applications.

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Richard Joklik
AF 08-103      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Improved Two-Phase Model for JP-8 and Alternative Fuels
Abstract:Augmentor stability is a major issue for the design of reliable engines over a broad range of operating conditions. The stability of the combustion process in augmentors is a result of the interaction between the unsteady fluid mechanics around the flameholder, finite- rate chemistry, and the physics of fuel spray formation, transport, and evaporation. In order to accurately model spray combustion of liquid fuels in combustion devices such as aircraft gas turbine combustors and augmentors, improved sub-models for spray formation and multicomponent evaporation are needed. Recently developed evaporation models use continuous thermodynamics (CT) to accurately describe the behavior of multicomponent fuels through the use of distribution functions that require only a few additional variables to describe real multicomponent fuels rather than the n variables (n is the number of fuel components) needed using a discrete approach, and thus have the potential for inclusion in commercial CFD at reasonable computational expense. Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc. (CSE) proposes to develop and demonstrate a methodology to unite a state-of-the-art CT sub-model for multicomponent evaporation with an accurate chemical kinetic model for real fuel combustion, and to implement this methodology in a commercial CFD code for use in solving practical combustor design issues. BENEFIT: An important product from this project will be a sub-model package for CFD codes that couples a multicomponent evaporation model with reduced kinetics for the simulation of reacting sprays. This product will make simulation of multicomponent liquid fueled combustion practical, and as such will be an important design tool for most propulsion systems, including gas turbine applications, for predicting flame location, ignition and flameholding phenomena, and emissions. This product will give the design engineer much more freedom to test new combustor designs operating at wider range of pressures, temperature and fuel / air mixtures, and fuels. CSE will market and commercialize this technology as a sub-model package that will offered as an add-on to existing CFD codes. CSE anticipates making a strategic alliance with one or more CFD code developer, where this technology will add value to the existing code and aid in opening new markets and uses of the CFD package. Furthermore, licensing the technology to a CFD code developer will remove the need to develop a sales force or customer service capability. However, a number of gas turbine OEMs use CFD codes that were developed in-house. CSE will work with these customers directly to incorporate and license the package into their own CFD codes. Hence, CSE will use a two-prong commercialization approach, through incorporation into general-purpose CFD codes (e.g. STAR*CD, CFX, Fluent) and into gas turbine manufacturers in-house codes (e.g. Allstar (Pratt & Whitney), Concert (GE)).

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Darin A. Knaus, Ph.D.
AF 08-103      Awarded: 3/9/2009
Title:Improved Fuel Spray Models for Augmentors
Abstract:Augmentor stability is critical to the operational performance of military systems that rely on gas turbine propulsion. For modern close-coupled designs, the distance between the point of fuel injection and the reaction zone is short, resulting in imperfect mixing and vaporization of the fuel droplets. The ability to predict and/or understand stability in close- coupled augmentors depends on the ability to predict fuel distribution. Highly resolved simulation of fuel sprays is too computationally expensive for realistic augmentor geometries. Existing spray models, which significantly reduce computational cost, tend to be inaccurate unless the operator has significant previous experimentally validated experience with the spray condition. In this project, we will create a tool to develop accurate spray models for augmentors using highly resolved simulations of specific injector and operating condition combinations. Models derived using this tool can then be applied to accurately predict fuel distributions for realistic geometries with acceptable computational cost. Our simulation tool utilizes a hybrid approach in which the Volume of Fluids (VOF) method is used to simulate primary atomization and the Discrete Phase Model (DPM) is used to simulate fuel particles in the far field. We are collaborating with a leading CFD software provider for rapid commercialization. BENEFIT: Technology derived from this project will be in the form of an efficient modeling methodology for spray atomization. This will decrease development time and cost for future augmentor designs while improving performance. In addition to improved augmentor modeling, this technology will be relevant to a broad range of engine applications including military and commercial aircraft combustors, internal combustion engines, and power generation engines.

Energy Research Consultants
23342 South Pointe Drive Suite E
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 583-1197
Vincent G. McDonell
AF 08-103      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Improved Two-Phase Model for JP-8 and Alternative Fuels
Abstract:The Air Force has identified a number of key issues for combustion systems as attention turns towards logistic fuel replacements (e.g., JP-8 in the near term; fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch derived fuels from coal, bio-oils or other feedstocks in the mid term blended with JP-8; and/or bio-derived fuels such as fatty acid methyl esterFAME; or hydroprocessed vegetable oils-HVO in the longer term). DARPAs biojet program can be looked to for guidance on specific direction in future fuels for the near and long term. The proposed project will conduct experiments directed at determining the role of fuel type on atomization, evaporation, and ignition of such fuels. In parallel, models associated with these phenomenon will be assembled and used to predict the measured behavior. The assembled package of models will be standalone or integratable into CFD environments. The data obtained can be used to validate existing modeling approaches as well. BENEFIT: The proposed experiments will provide important fundamental data on atomization and evaporation of sprays for various alternative fuels. This information will be of interest to commercial engine and injector manufacturers as they improve fuel flexibility of their products. The models developed will be of interest to these same endusers as a means to help them improve existing products and develop new ones.

Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Carl A Palmer
AF 08-104      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Distributed Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) Workload Reduction Through Standardization of Intelligent Fault Tolerant Sensing
Abstract:A significant barrier to the realization of a fully distributed control system is the availability of reliable smart transducers that can both communicate data to the FADEC through a network and be capable of fault tolerance and self-validation. In this Phase I project, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with GE Global Research, will develop a generic Fault-Tolerant Intelligent Sensor (FTIS) node and apply the device to an emergent Silicon Carbide-based combustion Flame Temperature Sensor developed by GE. The FTIS will include integral health management and state-awareness functions that will provide robustness to sensor hardware degradation or faults. The FTIS will include: i) signal validation, ii) self-calibration to adjust for sensor drifts, iii) fault-detection, isolation, and accommodation, and iv) a sensor fusion process that will communicate a group of validated soft sensor data to the FADEC. The developed firmware will be deployed on scalable hardware that will require minimal reconfiguration when transferred to different sensor types. The FTIS technology will enable the realization of a fully distributed control system, thereby alleviating the severe system limitations of centralized architectures such as: large weight imposition, limited design flexibility, and life cycle cost burdens associated with obsolescence management. BENEFIT: The weight and acquisition cost of modern-day FADEC systems can be as high as 20% of the system totals, which have negative impacts on aircraft performance and total life cycle cost. Moreover, incorporation of novel sensor elements, such as combustor Flame Temperature Sensors, into existing engine systems requires a complete recertification of the centralized FADEC and a substantially increased cost and development time. As a standardized node in a fully-distributed engine control paradigm, the FTIS technology will ameliorate these significant barriers to their application. As an outcome of Phase III commercial transition, the smart node technology will be implemented in sensors that reside in the most hostile locations within the engine. The potential military and dual-use applications for this FTIS node technology are numerous. The F-35 JSF, the VAATE program, and legacy fighter aircraft all stand to benefit from fully distributed, standardized smart nodes, as will civilian aircraft engines. This technology will also benefit the automotive, power generation and manufacturing industries.

LURACO Technologies, Inc.
1132 107th Street
Arlington, TX 76011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 633-1080
Jeffrey Tooley
AF 08-104      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Distributed Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) Workload Reduction Through Standardization of Intelligent Fault Tolerant Sensing
Abstract:Currently, Air Force aircraft engines rely heavily on Centralized engine Control System (CCS) architectures. These architectures consist of a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) module that is hard-wired to sensors and actuators. As a result, new control and sensing technology is slowly adopted within aircraft engines, and when these adoptions are made the overhaul cost is high. Additionally, the FADEC is often unable to pinpoint sensor, actuator, and engine component faults, and does not provide the ability for sensors to calibrate themselves in response to environmental (in particular temperature) conditions. DIMSens provides the Air Force with a device that is able to withstand aircraft engine environments, network with various sensors, actuators, and controllers, and interface with various sensor modalities and technologies. To accomplish this DIMSens will utilize a standardized data bus, open communication protocols, incorporate sensor electronic data sheets, and provide the required environmental barrier between the sensor and DIMSens electronics. DIMSens will be capable of interfacing with any device that utilizes the same data bus as it uses, and either pre-processed or processed sensor data is accessible from it via a set of open commands. IEEE 1451 sensors will be supported by DIMSens. BENEFIT: DIMSens is expected to reduce aircraft costs in several different ways. First, DIMSens will enable new control and sensor technology, which usually reduces aircraft weight, increases engine efficiency, and/or has some other tangible aircraft cost benefit, to be readily adopted into aircraft engine designs, thereby hastening the realization of operating cost reductions and obviating the need for expensive aircraft FADEC overhauls. Second, since DIMSens digitizes and processes raw sensor data before relaying it via the data bus to other devices, the amount of wiring amongst devices is significantly reduced. This translates to weight reduction (which results in fuel savings) and decreased integration labor costs. Third, since DIMSens, which includes embedded prognostic and diagnostic tools, will be able to be located closer to monitored components than is currently possible with CCS architectures, DIMSens will be capable of diagnosing system faults (including self-faults) more accurately than the CCS architecture. As a result maintenance time and cost should be reduced. DIMSens has the potential for wide commercial reach. Any system that requires distributed health monitoring and/or control, especially in extreme environmental conditions, can effectively use DIMSens. DIMSens will initially be targeted at aircraft engine control applications. In the future DIMSens may be integrated into the control systems of ground vehicle engines, industrial processing equipment, energy generation equipment, and construction equipment.

Orbital Research Inc
4415 Euclid Avenue Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Mike Willett
AF 08-104      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Standardized Fault Tolerant Smart Sensing Nodes
Abstract:Present full authority digital engine control (FADEC) systems interface with numerous sensing elements throughout the turbine engine to provide engine control and health management functions. Even though the sensing elements are distributed throughout the turbine engine, the electronic interfaces and the related software are located at the FADEC which increases its computational load. To offload and distribute the signal conditioning, diagnostics, prognostics, and health management functions included in the FADEC, smart high temperature electronics are required that are capable of withstanding the harsh environments at the remote sensor locations. To accomplish this goal, Orbital Research proposes to augment its existing high temperature electronic circuits to include Fault Tolerance, Built-In-Testing, and efficient protocol and prognostic capabilities. These proposed high temperature smart sensor nodes will consist of the following: One or more ASIC chips and high temperature capacitors, resistors and pcb substrates. The Phase I effort will identify design changes to its high temperature electronic circuits in order to validate the feasibility of producing a standardized smart interface for a distributed control architecture capable of communicating to the propulsion system controller. In Phase II, Orbital will design, fabricate and perform qualification testing on engine test stands of the silicon-on-insulator based smart sensor nodes for a distributed control architecture. BENEFIT: Orbital Researchs role in commercialization will be the identification, design, and development of the enabling high temperature processor and packaging. Orbital will continue to develop and revise the technology for upgrades as demanded for alternative military and civilian applications. Applications include advanced engine and flight controls, unmanned aerial vehicles, and directed energy systems, military control units, actuators, and more-electric systems. Projected civilian applications for the developed control technology include commercial aircraft, ground-based power generation, oil industry, and harsh industrial processing applications. This technology has a wide range of applications in commercial gas turbine engines for aircraft.

Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Carl S. Byington
AF 08-105      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Very High Frequency (VHF) Monitoring System for Engine Accessories Health Management
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Rolls-Royce, proposes to develop and demonstrate an integrated approach to predicting remaining life of gas turbine engine accessories. The approach features novel very high frequency (VHF) vibration diagnostics, specifically customized for detection of common engine accessory (including fuel pumps, hydraulic pumps, starters, generators, etc.) faults, combined with accurate, adaptive component-specific prognostics. Key innovations include adaptive signal processing approaches that accentuate high frequency vibrations, novel prognostic updating techniques, and prognostic and diagnostic fusion. In Phase I, Impact will determine the optimal techniques for use in VHF component diagnostics. Metrics for technique selection will be based on incipient fault detection capability, diagnostic accuracy, and computational requirements. Multiple techniques may be selected since certain techniques may be better suited for certain component failure modes. The diagnostic and prognostic development will be driven by the understanding of specific component failure modes and Impacts existing domain expertise in PHM technologies. Impact is well positioned to leverage their experience and knowledge of vibration, fatigue analysis, and predictive technology in order to develop a commercializable product for application on a variety of systems. A complete hardware/software solution will also be considered to enable Distributed PHM and maximize commercialization potential. BENEFIT: The proposed program features numerous innovations that will benefit the military and commercial market. These innovations can be used in combination or independently to fulfill current gaps in engine accessory diagnostic technology. For example, the integrated package can be used to provide a comprehensive PHM system that can be used to diagnose all aircraft accessories. Alternatively, component-specific modules can be embedded into the component to create a distributed, smart component product. This system could be packaged for test cell, pass off, or on-board implementation (as computational technology continues to improve). In addition, the proposed embedded system can be sold as a stand alone industrial monitor, because of the widespread use of pumps, motors, and generators in almost every industry. Furthermore, portions of the proposed approach (i.e., algorithms) can be implemented in legacy systems to provide improved detection and fault isolation capability. Ultimately, this program will close the gap between gas turbine engine PHM and accessory PHM technologies. Regardless of the implementation, there are enormous economic (maintenance & logistics), safety, and operational readiness benefits to advancing the state of accessory component health management systems. For example, early fault detection and effective prognostics would reduce unplanned failures, which would in-turn reduce life cycle cost and increase readiness and mission assurance. In addition to military gas turbine engine applications, the proposed work will contain generic elements that can be transitioned to a broad range of other applications without additional sensors. VAHMP could also be implemented in a

Sheet Dynamics, Limited
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Stuart J. Shelley
AF 08-105      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Very High Frequency (VHF) Monitoring System for Engine Accessories Health Management
Abstract:SDL proposes a new concept for very high frequency vibration based engine accessory prognostics. A new sensing technology being developed in a parallel programm enables a new signal processing approach that deterministically measures flaw size. For instance, the actual length of a bearing race spall can be determined, rather than relying on assumed correlations between vibration feature amplitudes and defect size that are obtained in simple laboratory tests in pristine and stable operating conditions. BENEFIT: The proposed work will greatly improve the robustness of engine accessory prognostics to real world effects. This will speed the transition of prognostics technology from the laboratory to fielded programs.

Techno-Sciences, Inc.
11750 Beltsville Drive 3rd Floor
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 790-0600
Ashish Purekar
AF 08-105      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Very High Frequency (VHF) Monitoring System for Engine Accessories Health Management
Abstract:Health monitoring and management of engine and engine components will provide savings of life cycle costs as parts are replaced on an as-needed basis. TSI proposes and innovative hardware and software system which utilizes advanced signal processing algorithms coupled with high frequency vibration signatures captured from engine and engine accessories. The hardware sensor systems uses small profile, in-situ transducers for high frequency vibration capture with a TSI high sampling frequency data acquisition unit. The TSI data acquisition unit is a small form factor device capable of wireless data transmission. Laboratory evaluations will validate the integrated hardware/software system for health monitoring. BENEFIT: Integrated hardware/software system for engine and engine acccessory health management systems for commercial OEM manufacturers

Phyre Technologies, Inc.
1950 Cordell Court Suite 104
El Cajon, CA 92020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 448-0904
Stephen Walker
AF 08-106      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Oil Deoxygenation for Higher Temperature Stability
Abstract:In order to increase efficiency, modern propulsion systems are required to operate at significantly higher temperatures than in the past. An increased heat load is therefore placed on the fuel that is used as a coolant and on the engine lubrication system. Lubricating oils are typically limited to working temperatures below about 400F. Oil deoxygenation presents an attractive option for significantly increasing this temperature limit. We propose to develop a novel system that will be capable of deoxygenating inline the complete lubricating oil flow for a typical modern military aircraft. The proposed system will use a fixed volume of recycled, essentially oxygen free nitrogen gas to remove the dissolved oxygen from the oil within a contacting device. The oxygen will then be eliminated chemically from the nitrogen in a catalytic converter so that the gas may be returned to the contactor for repeated oxygen stripping. We will perform tests on various contacting devices and a catalytic converter to demonstrate and characterize the deoxygenation characteristics of MIL spec lubricating oil. We will use these data to make projections of the size, weight and durability for a full-scale deoxygenation system and the dependence of this projection upon the output dissolved oxygen level. BENEFIT: Lubricating oil may begin to loose its effectiveness as its temperature is raised to around 400F and oxidation begins to occur. Oil must therefore be maintained below this critical temperature. This imposes a limit on engine operating windows and may require large, heavy heat exchangers to cool the oil. By removing the dissolved oxygen from the lubricating oil it is anticipated that its maximum operating temperature may be substantially increased. This will be beneficial to both the engine designer and operator as follows: 1) The designer may save weight, as the lubricating oil will require a smaller, lighter heat exchanger to transfer heat away to the air or fuel cooling fluid. 2) The designer may increase engine peak cycle temperatures since the oil within the lubrication system can sustain a greater temperature before breakdown occurs. 3) The end user may reduce maintenance cycle frequency as the oil will tend to deteriorate at a decreased rate Both military and civilian designers and end users of both gas turbine and reciprocating power plants may realize these benefits. For the civilian and military aircraft markets, the reduced weight and increased engine temperatures will make oil deoxygenation a very appealing option for increasing aircraft cycle efficiency and power-weight ratios. For larger, ground based and ocean going power systems, size and weight may not be such a concern. However, deoxygenation will inevitably present significant potential savings of maintenance costs arising from reduced system down time, labor costs and oil usage. BENEFITS OVER OTHER TECHNOLOGIES We are not aware of other commercial or experimental technologies being developed for deoxygenation of lubricating oil. Efforts have been made to perform online deoxygenation of jet fuel using membrane technology. However, membranes are typically large, heavy, fragile and prone to fouling. They also require a continuous high flow rate of oxygen free gas that must be supplied from engine

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Roger W. Hill
AF 08-107      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Mixing Enhancers for Compact Combustors
Abstract:Compact combustors are being considered as a means to improve gas turbine performance for military and commercial applications. An application of particular interest for the compact combustor is to provide heat addition between the two turbine stages. Achievement of small combustor size requires advances in the fuel distribution and mixing process to minimize the overall length of the combustion zone and thereby minimize engine size and weight. In the proposed project, we will develop designs for a fuel delivery and enhanced mixing device and evaluate the performance through analysis and subcomponent testing. During Phase I, we will develop and analyze the advanced mixer design concepts and compare performance predictions of the new design to a baseline configuration. A candidate design will be chosen for further consideration during Phase II where we will refine the performance predictions and mixer system design, fabricate a test article, and conduct performance tests of the prototype system under prototypical engine operating conditions. BENEFIT: Compact combustors can significantly improve the operational versatility and efficiency of gas turbines for military systems such as manned aircraft, UAVs, and missiles. They can provide improved fuel efficiency as well as reduction in engine weight, size, and complexity. Effective mixing of fuel and air and short combustion lengths are key needs for developing efficient and light weight compact combustors for implementation in advanced gas turbine engines as a reheat stage or as the main combustor.

Engineering Research and Analysis Company
340 SENTINEL OAK DRIVE
DAYTON, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 291-3800
Mohammed A. Mawid
AF 08-107      Awarded: 3/24/2009
Title:Passive Mixing Enhancers for Improved Flame Spreading and Propagation
Abstract:A new inovative passive mxing enhancer design concept is proposed for development and implementation in either turbine engine augmentor and/or main combustor. The design concept utilzes certain geometrical features to create and induce significant amounts of axial vorticity that leads to enhanced mixing and flame stabilization mainly for turbine engines augmentors and combustors. BENEFIT: The proposed novel ppassive mixing concept will improve either fuel-air mixing, combustion products-air-fuel mixing, and flame stabilization for both augmentors and combustors with very little total pressure drop. Such a design concept would provide the needed mixing enhancements in advanced military augmentors and combustors, hence improve augmentor and combustor ignition, LBO, and flame stabilization at a fraction of a total pressure drop that will be required for other design concepts.

Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Shahrokh Etemad
AF 08-107      Awarded: 3/24/2009
Title:Compact Stable Low Residence Time Inter-Turbine Combustor
Abstract:PCI proposes a novel reformer/injector system for aviation fuel combustion that offers the ability to produce compact/low residence time combustion at high efficiency. This technology offers a simple, light-weight, compact and cost-effective design providing stable combustion with low emissions in two stages for gas turbine engines. In the first stage, the Liquid to Gaseous Fuel Reformer will gasify and partially reform the liquid aviation fuel. The resulting enhanced reactivity gas will, in the second stage, be combusted in a novel, compact, low emissions combustor. The combustor residence time will be shorter than in a traditional combustor through vaporization in the reformer and the reduction in flame length/residence time due to combustion of a highly reactive gas. Reduced in-engine residence time, allows application in tight engine train space requirements (small aircraft, UAV, interturbine burner) with increased efficiency and reduced emissions. During Phase I, PCI will show feasibility of the reformer/injector system by analyzing reactivity enhancement through fuel reforming and predicting ability of the injector to stabilize short residence time combustion. Phase II would extend the analysis by performing subscale and full scale testing of the system with eventual demonstration in a high pressure test rig. BENEFIT: This technology would have applications in military and commercial subsonic/supersonic engines by allowing reduction of combustor size and lowering gaseous emissions such as NOx, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. This technology will be of benefit in the field of interturbine combustors for system efficiency improvements. Other applications include improvements to liquids reforming technology for fuel cell power generation systems and to low residence time combustion systems for power generation combustion systems (such as microturbines used in distributed generation) among others.

Diversitech Incorporated
110 Boggs Lane Suite 230
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 772-4447
GARY HOLLOWAY
AF 08-108      Awarded: 4/5/2009
Title:Coated Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) Blade Development
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop an integrated approach for the development of methods for the prediction and manufacture of special features such as holes, cooling channels, dovetails, leading and trailing edges in ceramic composite turbine blades. BENEFIT: The development of cooled ceramic composite turbine components will extend the engine operating efficiencies to a new level. This will aid the reduction in fuel consumption and reduced engine weights for future engine applications

Hyper-Therm High-Temperature Composites, Inc.
18411 Gothard Street Unit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Tony Magaldi
AF 08-108      Awarded: 3/24/2009
Title:Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) Blade Development
Abstract:Although the turbine engine has revolutionized both military and commercial aircraft, future requirements for more capable, durable, and cost-effective aircraft systems can only be achieved through even greater advancement in propulsion capability. Necessary performance improvements for turbine engines include increased thrust, lower fuel consumption, and reduced emissions by means of higher operating temperatures; reduced weight; improved durability; and lower development and procurement costs. Innovative design and manufacturing concepts in combination with the use of the advanced high temperature materials are needed to achieve the higher operating temperatures necessary for greater engine efficiencies. The development effort for a Ceramic Matrix Composite [CMC] Low Pressure Turbine [LPT] Blade is presented as a multi-phase program where a series of Critical Subelement Test Articles of increasing complexity are designed, fabricated, tested. Culminating with a prototype CMC LPT Blade with integral platform, each phase is an integrated engineering effort where analytic modeling approaches capable of predicting the effects of design features and manufacturing processes on component performance and durability are developed and validated by thermal/mechanical testing. The approach breaks down the complexity of the LPT Blade geometry into a series of independent material, manufacturing, and structural problems to facilitate an understanding of their effects while providing cost and technical risk mitigation for the development effort. The first Critical Subelement will be designed, built, tested, and correlated with analytic models during the proposed Phase I effort. The multi-phase effort complements current OEM contracts work at Hyper-Therm HTC for the development of CMC turbine blades and vanes for the VAATE program. BENEFIT: The development of a CMC LPT Blade will enable performance improvements of increased thrust, lower fuel consumption, and reduced emissions for turbine engines by means of higher operating temperatures. The advancement will inherently benefit both military and commercial turbine engine applications. The greater understanding of CMC materials, behavior, and test methods will enable more efficient concurrent designs and facilitate additional applications of these high temperature materials.

Research Applications, Inc.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road Suite 260
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Jalees Ahmad
AF 08-108      Awarded: 4/5/2009
Title:Coated Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) Blade Development
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to assess feasibility of developing, validating and marketing a methodology and software for timely and cost effective implementation of advanced Ceramic Matrix Composite CMC technology in the design and life prediction of hot section flow path CMC components, such as vanes, with and without environmental barrier coatings. Besides providing an immediately needed tool for JSF, VAATE and IHPTET, the product will be readily marketable to military and industrial gas turbine engine manufacturers. The R&D effort will directly build upon the research already performed by RAI and other organizations under various DoD and NASA funded programs. Specifically, the effort will focus on developing and validating a mechanism based (mechanistic) modeling method to describe deformation and damage behavior of CMCs and EBCs under general multiaxial stress states, severe thermal gradients, and engine environment conditions. The models will be validated against benchmark and sub-element test data involving three dimensional stress states. Predictions will be compared with experimental measurements to assess the modeling approach and feasibility for a comprehensive methodology development in Phase II. The main focus of the development will be on a SiC/SiC CMC selected by Pratt & Whitney (PW). However, the models will be applicable to a broader variety of CMCs. BENEFIT: Due to the proliferation in potential applications of ceramic matrix composites in military and commercial aerospace engines and in industrial gas turbine industries, the proposed dual-use high technology product has an immediate and expanding market. RAI will market the methodology, the software and technical expertise (services) to these and other industries.

AlphaSense, Inc.
28 Hillstream Road
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 294-0116
Pengcheng Lv
AF 08-109      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:A Novel Microwave Sensor for Non- Destructive Evaluation of Silicon Nitride Bearing Balls
Abstract:In this proposal, Alphasense, Inc. details the development of a novel microwave NDE sensor for defect inspections in silicon nitride bearing balls. The key innovations of this proposal include the following: a) the use of the spherical bearing ball as a dielectric resonator, thus enabling us to correlate the resonance characteristics of the bearing ball with various defects; b) the measurements in the microwave region lead to very large penetration depth (several inches) in the bearing balls, allowing us to inspect defects at a large depth below the surface, not just the surface/subsurface defects, and c) the applications of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) facilitate automatic classification of the defect types. With such innovations, the merits of the proposed sensor and its advantages over other techniques include: a) Rugged, compact and low cost, b) Sensitive for defect inspections, c) Capable of detecting below surface defects, d) Suitable for a variety of defects, e) Real- time detection capability, and f) Easy and safe to the operators. BENEFIT: The outcome of this research is coupled to a very clear commercialization path. The most straightforward application for the proposed sensor is to detect defects in silicon nitride bearing balls used in hybrid bearings for aerospace and defense industries. Our sensor can also be used to detect defects in bearing balls made of other ceramic and plastic materials, such as zirconia, alumina, and acrylic. Bearings made of such materials have been widely used in automobile, medical, chemical and petroleum industry. A simple search on the Globalspec returns with around 500 U.S. manufacturers producing ball bearings, more than 100 companies producing ceramic bearing balls, and more than 2000 companies producing plastic bearing balls. Assume each of these companies need two sensor units for the quality check, the total demand in the U.S. alone will be 5200 units. This corresponds to a market size of ~$15.6 million if we can sell our sensor at a price of $3000/unit. Additionally, spherical and cylindrical dielectrics can be used as microwave filters and ultrahigh efficiency modulators. Our sensor may also find applications in the quality assurance of such critical microwave components.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4760
Dan Xiang
AF 08-109      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Surface Wave Acoustic Microscopy for Rapid NDE of Silicon Nitride Balls
Abstract:Ceramic hybrid bearings have many excellent performance characteristics such as heat resistance, extended life, light weight, lower thermal expansion, electrical non- conductance, and thus become the top choice of rolling bearings for the F135 and F136 engines for the new generation Joint Striker Fighter F-35. The main concern in using ceramic materials for bearing applications is their reliability, because small defects in the ceramic (silicon nitride) ball can cause catastrophic failure of the bearing and are particularly prejudicial when they are located close to the surface. The existing techniques, however, can not simultaneously satisfy the requirements regarding the inspection cost, speed, resolution, and defect location (surface and subsurface). In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) along with its consultant, Dr. Nelson N. Hsu, proposes to develop an innovative Surface Wave Acoustic Microscopy (SWAM) technique for the rapid inspection of small defects on ceramic ball bearingfs surface and subsurface. BENEFIT: We envision that the proposed SWAM technique will provide a powerful tool and have a significant impact in real-time inspection of ceramic balls for hybrid bearing manufacturers and users. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a rapid, low-cost, and fully automated ball bearing inspection system to improve the speed, reliability and accuracy of online inspection. Should the proposed effort succeed, we will team up with our commercial partners such as Pratt& Whitney, Boeing, Goodrich, Honeywell, etc, to promote the use of the proposed technique and developed system

Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Kristen A. Peterson
AF 08-109      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Silicon Nitride Rolling Elements for Bearings
Abstract:Hybrid silicon nitride ceramic rolling element/metal ring bearing technology is a valid candidate to meet the high performance requirements of gas turbine aircraft engines and hybrid bearings are beginning to be introduced into engines aboard aircraft. However, success in these demanding applications requires the development of a reliable, high throughput non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method that can offer 100% inspection of each ceramic rolling element at manufacturing and maintenance facilities. Southwest Sciences proposes an innovative optical NDE method that will provide automated, real time and reliable detection of surface and subsurface defects that can compromise bearing performance and operational safety. The method will meet the detection and throughput criteria specified by the Air Force. BENEFIT: The proposed optical NDE method will improve the cost effectiveness of hybrid bearing technology by reducing the inspection time and cost. Operational perfomance and safety of engines and turbines incorporating these bearings will be improved. Military and commercial aircraft engine manufacturers, ceramic bearing manufacturers, and the industrial gas turbine industry will benefit from the technology developed under this SBIR project.

Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Roberto Schupbach
AF 08-110      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Photonically-Controlled SiC based Device Technology for Power Electronic Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks the development of an optically-triggered silicon carbide based power device technology that will enable the next-generation of EMI/EMP-resistant power electronics systems and ultimately the implementation of advanced concepts such as Fly-by-light (FBL). To develop the proposed technology Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc. (APEI, Inc.) has formed an alliance with the Laboratory for Energy and Switching-Electronics Systems (LESES) at The University of Illinois, Chicago (UIC). APEI, Inc. is a world leader in the development of SiC-based power electronics systems and advanced SiC power packaging while the LESES at UIC is the leading research and development group in the area of high-frequency, high-responsivity photonic device structure. The team will demonstrate the proposed technology by fabrication, packaging and characterization of an optically-triggered SiC-based power device prototype at the end of Phase I. BENEFIT: Aircraft power electronic systems are shielded from EMI/EMP sources to prevent the malfunction of those systems under normal (or abnormal) EMI/EMP events. This shielding generality translate into heavier and bulkier power electronic systems that are expensive and take more footprint space. As power electronic systems increase its role in many aircraft functions, the weight and complexity added by the shielding requirement becomes a limiting factor in the design of new aircraft concepts. FBL control technologies seek, among other things, to minimize the EMI/EMP shielding requirements of the power electronics system by utilizing the inherent immunity of photonic technology to electromagnetic emissions. The U.S. Air Force has estimated that FBL technology could reduce weight of flight control system by as much as 25%, volume by as much as 30%, cooling by nearly 40%, and cost by over 25%.

SemiSouth Laboratories
201 Research Blvd.
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-7607
Andrew Ritenour
AF 08-110      Awarded: 3/23/2009
Title:Optically Gated, Silicon Carbide (SiC) Semiconductors for Aircraft Electrical Actuator Motor Drives
Abstract:SemiSouth Laboratories, Inc., a leading developer and manufacturer of silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductor devices, and OptiSwitch Technology Corporation, a leading developer and manufacturer of light activated semiconductor products, propose the development of a hybrid switch using intermediate optoelectronic conversion. An optical T/R module will be used to trigger a SiC vertical junction field effect transistor (VJFET). Reliable operation of both the optical receiver and SiC VJFET has already been demonstrated at temperatures exceeding 200 °C. Risk is further minimized by the exclusive use of inventory and COTS components. Complete prototype testing will be performed to assess the feasibility of this approach and accurately predict the performance of a possible Phase II device. BENEFIT: A revolution in renewable energy, and a demand for greater energy efficiency in general, have created a technological need for smaller, more efficient, and lower cost power converters. It is apparent that silicon power semiconductor devices are fundamentally unable to simultaneously achieve high- voltage, high-current, and low-loss performance. This proposal, while focused on meeting specific Air Force requirements, involves expanding the use of high-voltage, very low-loss silicon carbide components in commercial, industrial, and military motor drives and power supplies.

United Silicon Carbide, Inc
New Brunswick Technology Center 100 Jersey Ave.Building A
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 565-9500
Petre Alexandrov
AF 08-110      Awarded: 3/24/2009
Title:Optically Gated, Silicon Carbide Semiconductors for Aircraft Electrical Actuator Motor Drives
Abstract:We propose an optically controlled power switch based on 4H-SiC TI-VJFETs for applications in EHA and EMA actuator motor drives for air platforms. It comprises a UV LED light source driver, an integrated gate buffer driver and a high power 4H-SiC TI- VJFETs as power switch. The UV LED light source driver includes a driver circuit and UV LED light source with a wavelength of 375nm or less. The integrated gate buffer driver includes a unipolar Darlington structure formed by two or more stages of 4H-SiC TI- VJFETs. The integrated gate buffer driver and the power switch are designed to be able to operate at temperatures up to 200C and are suitable for 600-1200V, 10-100A applications. In phase I, we propose to experimentally demonstrate a prototype of the proposed optically controlled power switch using the integrated gate buffer driver. In phase II, we propose to perform the major R&D work, fabricate and characterize multiple batches of the proposed optically controlled power switch, improve the design and push up the voltage and current of the optically-controlled switch to 1.2kV-100A, build SiC- based UV LED driver so that the entire switch can be operated at temperatures up 200C. Phase III will focus on commercialization development. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits include a new power switch with inherent immunity to dynamic electromagnetic events, having high-reliability and harsh-environment operability, capable of high temperature operation, having improved component efficiency with reduced on-state and switching losses, and having higher frequency switching capability. A successfully developed optically controlled EHA or EMA flight surface control subsystem based on the optically- controlled switch could dramatically increase the survivability of air and other DoD platforms. An additional benefit is the possibility of reducing the volume and weight associated with conventional filters used to protect low-voltage control devices from the inherent radiated EMI associated with switching large voltages and currents. Commercial applications would include HV DC transmission, over-voltage protection systems and circuit breakers.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Lynn Olson
AF 08-111      Awarded: 6/26/2009
Title:Two-Phase Ammonia Pump for Mono-Propellant Warm Gas Pressurization
Abstract:An integrated warm gas pressurization of the main and ACS propulsion system offers simpler, more efficient propellant management than existing designs. The most operationally versatile system is based on a unique pump that forces liquid through a gasifier thus creating both the pressurant gas and warm gas for ACS thrusters. All components of such a system are COTS with the exception of the pump which will be the Phase 1 focus. The proposed pump uses no motors or mechanisms and has only one slowly moving part. In addition to mass and volume reduction, the system offers benefits such as launching the entire propulsion system unpressurized and a constant tank pressure operation which improves thruster performance. Furthermore the warm gas can be used in place of cold gas for attitude control thrusters, providing increased specific impulse. In Phase I we will build and demonstrate the pump and model the dynamics of the entire propellant storage and management system. In Phase II we will produce and characterize the entire system, including the gas generator and investigate its dynamics. The goals will be more than a factor of two in pressurization system mass and a greater than 10% increase in thruster performance. BENEFITS: Successful demonstration of the proposed technique will enable use of warm gas pressurization on any spacecraft using mono-propellants, significantly improving propulsion system performance while reducing the system mass and volume. Warm gas pressurization could also possibly be used for bi-propellant systems. A majority of spacecraft have one or the other, so that significant impact is expected.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2752
J. Arthur Sauer
AF 08-111      Awarded: 6/25/2009
Title:Self Pressurizing Gas Generator (SPGG)
Abstract:Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a monopropellant Self- Pressurizing Gas Generator (SPGG) warm gas pressurization system for satellite propulsion system applications. The SPGG system will utilize a novel method to pressurize the propellant. The proposed system offers significant advantages over the traditional helium gas pressurization system. The SPGG will provide a constant pressure to the satellite thrusters and, therefore, a constant flow rate to extend mission flexibility while maintaining maximum thruster performance. The system will also significantly decrease inert mass and volume through efficient propellant use, low-pressure tankage and minimization or elimination of residual propellant. All of these attributes are made available to the satellite designer at a reduced cost due to the decreased launch mass and volume. The Phase I effort will involve system design for quantitative comparison to the state of the art as well as proof of concept experimentation. BENEFITS: ORBITEC anticipates that the immediate results of the Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility and merit of the SPGG system. Phase I has been structured to provide the necessary experimental groundwork towards the successful development of the SPGG warm gas pressurization system. Specific output of the Phase I program will include design trade and cost studies, the fabrication and testing of key elements of the SPGG system, and the preparation of preliminary designs and plans for the demonstration of an integrated flight- like system in Phase II. This technology aims to reduce the cost and improve the flexibility of spacecraft pressurization systems by providing a constant pressure to the satellite thrusters, and therefore a constant propellant flow rate, to extend mission flexibility while maintaining maximum propulsion system performance. The system will also significantly decrease inert mass and volume through efficient propellant use, low pressure tankage and minimization or elimination of residual propellant. All of these attributes are made available to the satellite designer at a reduced cost due to the decreased launch mass and volume. Near-term military applications include the design of propulsion systems for all types of USAF spacecraft systems. A wide range of NASA and commercial propulsion system development efforts can also benefit from the low-cost injector stability screening techniques developed in this program.

Systima Technologies, Inc.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Aaron Freiheit
AF 08-111      Awarded: 6/28/2009
Title:Mono-Propellant Warm Gas Pressurization with Dual Use for Attitude Control System
Abstract:Systima Technologies, Inc. is proposing an innovative self-pressurizing monopropellant supply system that eliminates the need for high-pressure propellant tanks and is capable of providing a constant pressure supply of propellant to conventional or multi-mode, monopropellant-based, propulsion systems. Because the concept does not require high- pressure propellant tanks, the propellant tank weight can be minimized, resulting in significant weight savings. In addition, since the propellant is not stored under high pressure, the propellant tanks can be shaped to the available space, not unlike the fuel tank in an automobile, dramatically increasing the packaging efficiency of the propellant tanks and reducing the overall size of the propulsion system. BENEFITS: The primary benefit expected from the Phase I and II programs is the design and development of a monopropellant supply system that is capable of providing a constant pressure supply of propellant to conventional and multi-mode propulsion systems and that is more compact and lower weight than conventional pressurization systems. These attributes will make the technology attractive to manufacturers of satellites and satellite propulsion systems.

Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories LLC
2212 Harton Blvd
Tullahoma, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 393-5108
Paul Gloyer
AF 08-112      Awarded: 6/15/2009
Title:Rocket Stability Design Tool Enhancement
Abstract:Building upon the successful use of the Universal Combustion Device Stability (UCDS) process to resolve NASAs Ares I thrust oscillation issue, the proposed effort will optimize UCDS for application to the oxygen-rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle under development by the Air Force. This will be accomplished by refining the way UCDS models the propellant injection into the chamber. By providing a more precise representation of the actual conditions expected in ORSC engines, the fidelity of the UCDS predictions will be increased. The UCDS Process is the culmination of over 40 years of research into combustion instability phenomena and provides unprecedented insight into the dynamic environment in a combustion chamber. With UCDS, it is now possible to accurately determine the oscillatory characteristics of propulsion devices, including pressure oscillation amplitudes and waveforms, unsteady surface heat transfer rates, and mean property excursions. UCDS achieves this predictive capability by including all verifiable energy gain and loss mechanisms, and using only measurable or known parameters in the modeling. BENEFITS: The Air Force faces a steep and expensive learning curve if it follows the traditional develop path for the next generation hydrocarbon boost engines due to a lack of heritage and effective scaling rules. However, UCDS offers the means to understand the complex dynamic processes at work in liquid rocket engine, and thereby eliminate the need for trial-and-error during engine development. With the proposed refinements, it will be possible to achieve a more precise representation of a liquid rocket engine, thereby allowing UCDS to generate higher fidelity results. This increased fidelity will aid in the development of the hydrocarbon boost engines. In addition to the Air Force hydrocarbon boost program, UCDS can be applied to practically any propulsion development program to eliminate the risks from combustion instability that all such programs share. Since UCDS is built from a general formulation, it can be used on practically any combustion device, including rockets (liquid, solid, hybrid), turbojets (combustors, augmentors), ramjets, scramjets, combined cycle engines and so on. As such, potential customers for UCDS services include government agencies, such as NASA, Air Force, Army, Navy, MDA, and DARPA, and propulsion system developers, such as ATK, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce, and many others.

IN Space, L.L.C.
3495 Kent Ave. Suite G100
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-2107
B.J. Austin
AF 08-112      Awarded: 6/9/2009
Title:Design Tools for Combustion Stability
Abstract:The combination of complex physics and extremely severe combustor environments presents a formidable challenge to engineers who must ensure that high-pressure, high- performance rocket engines are stable from combustion instabilities. We propose here an improved methodology for predicting the combustion stability of oxidizer-rich staged- combustion engines. The methodology integrates high-fidelity CFD, state-of-the-art engineering analysis, and subscale experiment and test. Our emphasis in this proposal is on velocity-coupling, specifically on the unsteady mixing of asymmetric injector elements due to an oscillating velocity field. The desired outcomes of the Phase I are feasibility demonstrations of modeling the physics unsteady mixing due to an oscillating velocity field, derivation of a combustion response function that captures the modeled physics, and a test chamber that can be used to obtain validation data and insight into the problem. A set of detailed requirements for a potential Phase II effort will also be defined. BENEFITS: The anticipated benefits of the proposed research include gaining significant physical insight into the dynamic interactions between acoustic waves and the injector flow field, methods for reducing high fidelity simulations into simpler combustion response functions, a mechanistic basis for the velocity-coupling correlation for predicting stability, and methods for generating transverse waves in high pressure environments so that the flow field response can be measured. These benefits will be of considerable use to the development of a hydrocarbon boost engine. As such, the potential commercial applications include enhancing the IN Space-Purdue Generalized Instability Model (GIM) engineering design tool to include additional physics-based modeling and broaden the design space the GIM tool can support.

Metacomp Technologies, Inc.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-4880
Sukumar Chakravarthy
AF 08-112      Awarded: 6/15/2009
Title:Design Tools for Combustion Stability
Abstract:When using the current state-of-the-art in spatial discretization, numerical flux functions and temporal integration techniques, the amount of effort required for simulations in general geometries is prohibitively large for most unsteady flow simulations in multi- element rocket engines. In addition, current numerical techniques, while effective for stationary flows, have a potential for spurious reflections at interfaces, where grid sizes change abruptly. These limitations render present day approaches less than successful for unsteady flows. Following an exhaustive search for an efficient method to push rocket engine flow simulations to the next level, both in terms of fidelity and turnaround time, Metacomp Technologies proposes to employ an innovative application of high resolution methodologies in the CFD++ framework. BENEFITS: The proposed technology will result in a dramatic reduction in computational effort to achieve a desirable level of fidelity in the simulation of unsteady flow in rocket engines. The proposed development will lead to a modern, high fidelity rocket engine flow simulation capability that can predict the onset of instability as well as transient response of the flow in the combustion chamber to disturbances. The proposed research will complement other developments at Metacomp and CFD++, Metacomps flow solver, and will become a useful tool for DoD agencies to explore new designs for high performance rocket engines. Concurrently, rocket engines are increasingly used in the commercial, non-military, market. Examples are the various Earth-to-Space rocket-powered payload carriers, some of which are government-sponsored, others privately owned. Recent years have seen the birth of commercial space travel. While still in its infancy, increased activity in this area indicates a potentially big market in the near future. Since all these vehicles must be able to travel in vacuum, most of them will resort to chemically fueled rocket engines, which will encounter the same transient problems associated with military rocket motors. Consequently, the current proposal has potential for a diverse usage, benefitting both military and commercial sectors.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2807
Ryan Cavitt
AF 08-112      Awarded: 6/28/2009
Title:Injector Stability Screening Technique (ISST)
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to demonstrate and validate a laboratory scale experimental injector stability screening technique which will quantify injector element stability characteristics. The experimental approach promises to dramatically reduce development cost by utilizing a gaseous single element test facility which presents savings in hardware manufacturing, consumables such as propellant and test personnel. The simple test facility will allow rapid stability characterization of multiple candidate injectors which will be unobtrusive to schedule requirements. The key cost and time savings will be fewer full scale hardware configurations that must be manufactured which will in turn reduce the number of full scale tests required for qualification. The Phase 1 effort will evaluate the DoD plans for next generation engine development. The scaling technique will be applied to establish operating conditions for the laboratory scale burner and large-scale thrust chamber. Correlation between laboratory scale and full scale experimental data will be conducted subsequently. Upon validation, Phase 2 work plans will be developed to improve the screening technique. BENEFITS: The end product of this overall research and validation effort will create an experimental test facility and technique which will decrease engine development time at a reduced cost. The scaling technique will have application to virtually all high pressure liquid rocket engine development programs and existing engine upgrades for the Air Force, Navy, MDA, NASA and their contractors as well as commercial satellite launch companies. Development may reveal application to the screech phenomenon in air-breathing engines which will significantly open the commercial aircraft sector.

Sierra Engineering, Inc. formerly Johnson Rockets
603 East Robinson Street Suite 7
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 363-6161
Jeffrey A. Muss
AF 08-112      Awarded: 6/11/2009
Title:Advanced Combustion Stability Analysis Tools for Ox-rich Preburners
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR is the enhancement of the current state-of-the-art combustion instability analysis tools. The planned enhancement is focused on capturing the effects of injection element distribution and the inclusion of substantial film cooling and diluent injection. These characteristics are extremely important in the design of high-pressure oxygen rich staged combustion (ORSC) engines. The requirement for the preburner to mix all the oxidizer with only a small amount of fuel invariably results in the use of a combination of oxidizer film cooling and secondary diluent injection. Current combustion stability models cannot account for the effect of these design features. Injection element distribution and film cooling have also been shown to be important in stabilizing Russian ORSC engines. BENEFITS: The improved stability model has the potential to dramatically reduce the design-build-test cycles required to successfully develop both large staged combustion engines and a range of other liquid rocket engine concepts. Sierra Engineering is already a leading developer of combustion stability analysis tools. These enhancements will further solidify our position as the preeminent analysis software provider, and we will continue to provide state-of-the-art stability analysis for a range of government and commercial customers.

LiveWire Test Labs, Inc.
5330 South 900 East Suite 150
Salt Lake City, UT 84117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 293-8300
Paul Smith
AF 08-113      Awarded: 6/15/2009
Title:Weapon System Intermittent Fault Detection
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a feasible design for intermittent electrical fault detection and location for a weapons system using analog S/SSTDR for continual monitoring. We have already demonstrated the feasibility of the basic S/SSTDR technology for live aircraft in flight where analog real-time, randomly occurring, anomalous or intermittent age-related failure events are commonly not reproducible on the ground. In this project we will address the specific design considerations for full system deployment in both airborne and ground-based systems. This will include location, size, and weight of the sensors, power management (battery, power scavenging, etc.), data acquisition (wireless, infrared, etc.), feedback, and analysis (on board / off board), assessment of the required speed of acquisition and testing, the decision structure for responding to detected events. BENEFITS: POTENTIAL AIR FORCE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS The system being designed for this project is a weapon system test and maintenance method that is focused on finding intermittent faults and problems associated with age and incidental damage in an electrical wiring system. In addition to all weapon systems, all aircraft could benefit from similar application of the technology. This technology offers significant improvements in maintenance strategy for any application where there are intermittent electrical failures where the root cause is not easily found. POTENTIAL NON-AIR FORCE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS In addition to the Air Force applications, similar opportunities naturally exist in the commercial aerospace industry as well. This project paves the way for future in-flight wiring health management including potential prognostic health management applications. The first generation of in-flight sensors will be used to monitor systems for existing damage as well as to collect data for later prognostic applications. But aircraft are not the only applications needing this technology. Communication systems, overland power distribution, other types of transportation vehicles (trains, buses, large industrial equipment, automobiles, ships, etc.), consumer electronics, housing, large buildings and other structures, large control and monitoring systems, etc. Virtually every aspect of our lives are touched by electrical systems with aging wiring challenges, and this technology can radically change the maintenance paradigm in all of these applications.

Management Sciences, Inc.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Francis Peter
AF 08-113      Awarded: 6/15/2009
Title:Portable/Embedded Test Set for Real Time System Intermittent Fault Detection and Root Cause Analyses
Abstract:MSI is a leader in live diagnostic monitoring of conduits of aircraft electrical cables and harnesses. In a Phase II SBIR MSI has developed and is ready to flight test a new avionic instrument called the Digital Data Download Flight Information System. The first unit is for the F/A-18 to provide in-flight signature and flight data recording. The D3 is an open architecture that can be retrofitted into any aircraft. In an ongoing SBIR MSI has shrunk the D3 processing into a tiny instrumentation circuit called the Embeddable Programmable Instrumentation Chipset. MSI has built and demonstrated a Baseline Electrical System Troubleshooting System (BEST) using the same technology. The D3, BEST and EPIC perform continuous in-wiring signal monitoring and data logging. The D3 and EPIC are for on-board installations whereas the BEST is designed for live flight line weapon system inspection and troubleshooting. All units provide advanced diagnostics and root cause resolution. We propose new product set that adds real time parallelized NPD for blazing fast intermittent fault detection and simultaneous time stamped data recording of signals on multiple wires. These enhanced D3, BEST and EPIC will provide technicians with a systematic and comprehensive means for resolving intermittent faults. BENEFITS: The products that result from this research will have numerous practical applications in broad markets, especially for real time troubleshooting of complex electronic systems. It will provide a new tool to continuously inspect to detect intermittents and identify the root cause of unexplained, reoccurring failures. We see a massive commercial market for the same purpose in complex commercial electronic systems. Commercial equipment owners and facilities can use the same systems with tailoring and modifications. Use can also be achieved without significant changes.

Resodyn Corporation
130 North Main Street Suite 600
Butte, MT 59701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 497-5229
Scott Coguill
AF 08-114      Awarded: 6/25/2009
Title:Resonant Acoustic Mixing of Solid Rocket Motor Propellant to Minimize Property Variations
Abstract:Current mixing and casting procedures result in unwanted gradients in solid rocket motor (SRM) material properties with subsequent ballistic property variations. Resodyn Corporations¡¦ ResonantAcoustic¥ mixing (RAM) technology is poised to revolutionize the design, development and production of SRM¡¦s. RAM technology has the unique capability of rapidly mixing high solids propellant without using the high levels of shear that contribute to non-uniform material properties of the SRM¡¦s that are currently produced. Additionally a method to eliminate knit lines and reduces the number steps needed to fabricate an SRM is proposed. This proposal demonstrates the effectiveness of using RAM to mix composite propellants, both inert and Class 1.3, at both laboratory scale and engineered demonstration motor scale, and will develop a predictive model of mix effectiveness when using the RAM technology. BENEFITS: RAM technologies will have significant impact at all levels of the SRM industry from laboratory development work, to engineering prototype motors, and into qualified production programs. This technology dramatically reduces production cycle times and reduces the significance of propellant formulation uncured viscosity that currently dominates mixing procedures. When the RAM technology is integrated into all levels of the SRM industry, the inherent benefits of using RAM technology will allow for improvements in ballistic performance, insensitive munitions/safety, long term aging and reduced production costs.

Analytical Services, Inc.
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-2191
Joe Sims
AF 08-115      Awarded: 7/27/2009
Title:Aging and Surveillance Technology for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:ASI proposes an innovative and numerically-efficient approach to the modeling of crack propagation in solid propellant rocket motors. Our technology uses a coupled fluid- structure interaction model that is enhanced with an embedded grid capability. Such an approach eliminates virtually all of the bottlenecks that occur in traditional approaches, through elimination of the re-gridding that must occur between each iteration. Our approach improves on state of the art crack fluid dynamic modeling by treating the problem with the same fidelity as the structural aspects. As a result, we can model an arbitrary flaw of any size and any shape. BENEFITS: This technology can be used to more accurately predict whether a known propellant flaw is of the minimum critical size or in a critical area to where it will propagate to motor failure. It will be used, in the near term, to support ASIs activities in the Missile Defense Agencys upcoming aging and surveillance activities supporting the strategic targets program. In the long run, it can be used across every such program run by the Department of Defense.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-5723
Michael Pedrick
AF 08-115      Awarded: 6/25/2009
Title:Quantitative Propellant Diagnostics with Ultrasonic Guided Waves
Abstract:Given their polymeric and viscoelastic nature, solid propellants are subject to various aging effects that may lead to failure of the asset. Many of these aging effects relate back to degradation or variation in material properties/behavior over time. Luna proposes to address this issue with an ultrasonic guided wave approach capable of extracting engineering properties from portions of the propellant requiring only access to the outer surface of the case. In Phase I, Luna plans to address several key factors for determining feasibility of the proposed approach. Luna will measure bulk ultrasonic properties in propellant simulants provided by Aerojet at various stages of aging. Mechanical test specimens will be prepared to validate links between ultrasonic measurement and engineering properties. An initial two-layer mockup will be prepared to show connection between ultrasonic guided wave measurement and bulk ultrasonic properties. Connections between viscoelastic properties and aging effects within solid rocket propellants will also be explored. Successful outcomes from these four Phase I focus areas will help address high technical risks early in the program . These results are also fundamental in shaping the roadmap and framework for a continuing program to transition from measurement to practical instrument. BENEFITS: By partnering with Aerojet, Luna will be able to mature this collaboration into a potential business relationship with a prime contractor in this field. Luna aims to couple these developments with other solid rocket motor diagnostic efforts for a broader suite of measurement capability tied to mission critical assets providing a significant cost reduction to both military and aerospace entities by eliminating access maintenance and limit premature removal from service. Luna can leverage the developments under this program to further enhance the capability of its pre-existing Nondestructive Checkout Center (NCC) (an NDI and material characterization system developd for the DOD under a separate program) by providing that proof-of-concept system with a capability to assess more complex geometries and materials. This enhancement can greatly enhance the marketability of that system while that system provides a tangible manifestation of the proposed measurement approach.

Process Instruments, Inc.
825 North, 300 West, Suite 225
Salt Lake City, UT 84103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 322-1235
Rory Uibel
AF 08-115      Awarded: 8/21/2009
Title:Aging and Surveillance Technology for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:A need exists for a reliable, non-destructive, in-situ method to monitor the chemistry of solid rocket motor propellant to determine its health and stability during the service life of the motor. Ideally, the sensor would be able to monitor the chemical components of the motor and not affect the propellant, the liner, or the rocket motor composite casing. The proposed program will develop an optical fiber-based Raman scattering instrument to monitor curing, migration of contaminates, and other aging effects that could alter the propellant chemistry. Raman spectroscopic analysis can be made via small, inert, optical fiber microprobes (0.1 inch OD). In Phase I, we will collect Raman spectra from multiple Air Force rocket motor formulations using Raman microprobes that have been cast into propellants. The Raman spectra will be used to monitor curing, migration of potential contaminants, and other aging effects that can alter propellant chemistry. In phase II we will develop smaller and more robust microprobes that would be suitable for direct implantation into real rocket motors for monitoring long-term, real-time chemical composition of rocket motor propellant during accelerated aging/curing studies. This work could greatly reduce the current expense of ongoing non-destructive testing by major rocket motor contractors. BENEFIT: Rapid, in-situ determination of solid rocket propellant chemistry could greatly reduce the need for expensive destructive testing to determine the health of new and aging rocket motors. In-situ detection can be used to monitor aging effects that alter the propellants chemistry, and also determine the service life of the motor. Similar technology can be applied to many composite manufacturing systems such as aircraft and vehicle manufacturing where chemical stability issues are very important for service life.)

Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Brian Schaible
AF 08-115      Awarded: 7/17/2009
Title:Arrayed Sensors on Motor Case Exterior for Assessing Impact Related Damage to SRMs
Abstract:Health monitoring techniques applied to Solid Rocket Motors (SRMs) have the potential to improve fleet readiness and reduce overall program costs by extending the service life of assets and reducing lot level replacement of motors based on time alone. Sporian proposes to determine the feasibility of developing a sensor system and associated modeling and simulation components that will provide for the continuous monitoring and detection of motor case impacts and other rapid mechanical events that could be indicators of damage to or failures within motors. The overall concept for the proposed system is based on a distributed array of accelerometers placed around a motor case being used to generate data that are used as inputs to modeling and simulation efforts for predicting the location and severity of damage from case impacts or other mechanical events. Phase I efforts will focus on defining the system requirements including the requirements on the system to generate data useful to modeling and simulation efforts, evaluating competing system options, developing a preliminary design for the system, and prototyping and demonstrating critical aspects of the system in a laboratory environment. Sporian will work with ATK Launch Systems Group and Titanium Mirror, Inc. on the proposed effort. BENEFITS: The technology proposed will provide benefits to customers wishing to utilize wireless sensor platforms to better manage a variety of industries and military circumstances. Sporians technology will provide a wireless sensing platform that will be smaller in size, consume less power, be cost effective and will provide inputs for condition based maintenance. Commercial applications include asset management where customers are monitoring resources and wish to know their physical condition. Other commercial applications are found in health care where networked sensors can provide highly useful information to medical professionals, Homeland Security where networked sensors can provide real time information for situational awareness and building protection, and provide information to first responders and security personnel. Government use of the proposed development has applications in the asset management programs by providing conditioned based maintenance information and asset health monitoring.

Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Jaquitta Daniels
AF 08-115      Awarded: 7/9/2009
Title:A small, Low Power, Bore Gas Composition Sensor for Determining Aging Changes in Composite Propellants and Service Life Assessment.
Abstract:Determining the health of solid rocket motors (SRMs) is of critical importance in monitoring the reliability and projected life of the motor. Significant improvements in health monitoring prognostic capability and cost would benefit both ballistic missile and commercial space launch systems. A particular area of interest is development of bore gas composition sensors to determine aging changes in composite propellants. In particular, systems which can: fit into or around the motor, remain with the asset over its life, and non- destructively acquire high fidelity data would be highly advantageous. Such hardware should be lightweight, small, sensitive, and highly specific for multiple gasses, self powered for 5-10 years, facilitate easy data output, and should support the use of physics-based models to determine aging changes and service life assessment. The objective of the proposed work is to develop such a sensing module, based on the combination of a miniaturized surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy concept, and existing low-power wireless sensor network hardware. This Phase I effort will include: the definition of key system requirements, the evaluation of SERS substrate preparation processes, the evaluation of the sensing module hardware/packaging design concepts, and the construction and proof of principle demonstration of first generation hardware. BENEFITS: Sporian anticipates development of a low power, portable system designed to detect bore gases. In addition to the proposed military applications, this sensor will also be attractive for applications in occupational health and safety monitoring and industrial monitoring. The monitor could positively impact over $25 billion in annual productivity loss attributable to occupational disease and chemical exposures.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Kurt Hohman
AF 08-116      Awarded: 8/28/2009
Title:Micro Thermal Ignition of High Performance Green Monopropellants
Abstract:The future of monopropellant thrusters is moving towards energetic high performance green propellants based on hydroxyammonium nitrate (HAN) and ammonium dinitramide (ADN). One of the impediments in switching from hydrazine to one of these higher performance propellants is the lifetime issue of the catalyst bed. This class of propellants has high combustion temperatures that severely limit the lifetime of the catalyst material. To date, the use of these otherwise attractive propellants has been inhibited by the necessity to utilize lower performance formulations in order to obtain reasonable catalyst life. We propose to bypass the catalyst bed all together and investigate thermal ignition techniques suitable for micro chemical monopropellant thrusters. This component can be combined with Buseks micro-valve technology and a rocket chamber and nozzle. In Phase I we will demonstrate thermal ignition and combustion of one or more of these propellants and determine the feasibility of utilizing these techniques in space thrusters. In particular, micro ignition will be investigated for future micro chemical rocket development. In Phase II we will integrate the thermal ignition device with a micro chemical combustor and rocket suitable for attitude and control functions. The thrust goal will be in the range of 100mN and below. BENEFIT: Successful demonstration of the proposed technique should enable more vigorous introduction of high performance (energetic) green propellants space thrusters for integration onto spacecraft. ACS micro thrusters will be able to utilize green monopropellant formulations with expected specific impulse of 250 seconds, or more, with the successful outcome of this program. Further, should the thermal ignition concept prove scalable, larger scale thrusters should be able to utilize this ignition source, eliminating the catalyst bed altogether. In addition, non-spacecraft propulsion applications include ICBM post-boost, missile defense applications and chemical processing and injectors for combustion improvements. )

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Michael Tsay
AF 08-116      Awarded: 6/25/2009
Title:Precision Microvalve for Green Propellants
Abstract:Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a piezo-actuated, precision microvalve for metering extremely low flow rates typical of chemical micropropulsion. Existing microvalves offer no flow regulation and consume several watts due to their electromagnetic coil actuation while the piezo actuator consumes few mW. For micro and nano spacecraft which have of the order of 10W on-board, power consumption is crucial and low power valves are enabling. The proposed microvalve will maintain a set-point flow with 100:1 resolution. An active feedback system using a calibrated orifice will be incorporated thus eliminating actuator hysteresis and thermal drifts. Derived from highly successful and flight-qualified Busek product, the proposed microvalve will be small, light weight, and specifically designed to accommodate highly viscous green monopropellants. Other propellants can be accommodated because the valve body is universal requiring only an orifice change to operate with other fluids or broader range. The entire flow passage is welded offering high pressure rating making it also suitable for on/off service at the exit port of a propellant tank. In Phase 1 an advanced prototype of the microvalve will be constructed and tested. An EM model suitable for flight qualification will be developed in Phase 2 and delivered to AFRL. BENEFITS: The proposed microvalve will enable new micro propulsion systems for micro and nanosats that can not be realized at present because of the absence of suitable low power valves. Hydrazine has been phasing out from monopropellant space propulsion systems due to its toxicity. However, it is still a primary choice for micro chemical propulsions like ACS. For green monopropellants such as AF- 315 and ADN to evolve into a major role in ACS applications, a suitable feed system is essential. The proposed microvalve will attract attentions from NASA and U.S. Air Force who have shown great interest in adapting green monopropellants for future ACS thrusters and satellite propulsion.

EERGC Corporation
12 Hughes, STE 106
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 768-3756
Mark Sheldon
AF 08-116      Awarded: 9/18/2009
Title:High-Performance Low-Toxicity Monopropellant Thruster for Micro-propulsion
Abstract:EERGC, working in conjunction with the University of California at Irvine, has a concept for a new micro-thruster design based on an established miniaturized combustion chamber concept. The micro-thruster will operate with a high-performance low-toxicity monopropellant of direct interest to the Air Force, to produce thrust on demand at a high efficiency relative to the theoretical performance of that propellant. The proposed project represents a significant departure and advancement over prior research and development efforts by providing a robust scale-down of monopropellant propulsion, adapted from a validated miniaturized air-breathing combustor design. The proposed concept is inherently compatible with high-viscosity liquid fuels and a high temperature oxidative combustion environment. BENEFIT: The ultimate product of this development effort will be a storable, highly efficient, lightweight, compact micro-propulsion system firing the proposed monopropellant. This will be useful for a broad range of military and commercial applications including miniaturized spacecraft and nanosatellites for applications including surveillance, navigation, and communications; as well as for compact power generators, and micro gas generators.)

Acree Technologies Incorporated
1980 Olivera Ave Suite D
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Jeff Brown
AF 08-117      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings for Air Foil Bearings
Abstract:This purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid lubricant coatings in high temperature air foil bearings. Both the journal and foil components of the bearing will be coated. The journal will be coated with an innovative graded, nanocomposite structure while the foil will be coated with a proven CuAl alloy. The nanocomposite journal coating provides (1) lubricating properties over a broad temperature range (-40°F up to 1200°F), (2) thermal stability in air over this temperature range, (3) excellent loading capability without failure, (4) and excellent wear characteristics. The nanocomposite is deposited on top of a metal nitride with excellent adhesion to the substrate, oxidation resistance and thermal stability. The foil coating will be a CuAl alloy. The coating provides thermal stability and resistance against spallation over the temperature range of -40 to 1200°F. The ductile Cu assists in the bearing run-in to yield an aerodynamically smooth surface, maximizing the bearings loading capacity. BENEFIT: The development of new high-temperature solid lubricant coatings will allow the introduction of air foil bearings into new applications for turbo machinery. This will lead to improvements in engine performance, safety, and reliability.

Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Hooshang Heshmat
AF 08-117      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings for Air Foil Bearings
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop a robust foil bearing system suitable for application to the Liberty Works high mach engines for RATTLRS and BLACKSWIFT. An integral objective is to identify and verify a foil bearing coating system that can demonstrate stable operation at 50 lbs load and 25 m/sec surface speeds for several minutes during start up and before the hydrodynamic air film is formed. Several existing coatings will be tested and compared to MiTis Korolon, which has demonstrated successful operation at shut down conditions and after thermal cycling to 1500oF in an air environment. Another objective of this effort is to demonstrate the integrated bearing and coating system robustness. The specific objectives of this Phase I program are to 1) Establish the bearing and coating system requirements; 2) select the candidate materials, fabricate test components for testing and prepare the test rigs; 3) conduct screening testing to evaluate candidate coating systems; 4) review the test data and select materials systems for testing under Phase II; 5) prepare the conceptual design of the Phase II simulator of the Liberty Works High Mach engine and 6) prepare the final report including detailing the Phase II program plans. BENEFIT: This effort will increase the technology readiness level for compliant foil bearings so that they may be applied in the emerging High Mach gas turbine engines and subsequently end users in both the military and commercial sectors. Given the very specific end item application the first military application is expected in the systems such as RATTLRS and Blackswift. Once proven, many DOD and commercial legacy gas turbine engines will benefit. The most likely initial application of the advanced coating will be in seals, providing a substantial retrofit market for improved engine efficiency and durability. Other commercial applications include natural gas pipeline compressors, hydrogen gas compressors for transportation and delivery and many of the micro-gas turbines used for combined heat and power. By collaborating with engine contractors, the information gleaned from this program will support and enhance the marketability of foil bearings and seals for wide ranging applications including Integrated Power Units, gas turbine engines for use in UAVs, missiles, drones, helicopters and General Aviation aircraft, as well as turbo-expanders, turbochargers, industrial compressors/blowers, natural gas pipeline compressors and other energy producing oil-free turbomachinery.

Plasma Technology Inc.
1754 Crenshaw blvd.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3373
Satish Dixit
AF 08-117      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Coating Solutions for Air Foil Bearings
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a reliable and durable plasma spray high temperature solid lubricant coating that can be applied to the journal and/or top foil surfaces of the air foil bearing system. The coating will have an extremely low friction coefficient and low wear. The coating will sustain loads of up 65 lbs, surface speeds of up to 25 m/sec, high temperature thermal cycling capability up to 1200oF, and will provide a short duration lubrication at room temperature and as low as -40oF for a cold start-up of the control mechanisms. Also, the coating will sustain at least 10,000 cycles of startup and shutdown. The proposed coating technology can be realized using low cost manufacturing techniques. BENEFIT: Successful development of the proposed plasma spray high temperature solid lubricant coating technology would result in an extension of component lifetime and also improve on startup and shutdown efficiencies due to the low coefficient of friction. Once developed, the technology would first be implemented onto air foil bearing components of our industrial partner, Honeywell Aerospace. The developed coating technology can also be applied to other industries to replace liquid lubricants to improve lifetimes and efficiencies.

R&D Dynamics Corporation
15 Barber Pond Road
Bloomfield, CT 06002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 726-1204
Giri Agrawal
AF 08-117      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings for Foil Air Bearings
Abstract:This program seeks to identify and demonstrate improved solid lubricant coatings for use on compliant foil air bearings for gas turbine application. The Phase 1 effort will be to evaluate selected coatings for improved low speed operation, typical of a gas turbine engine, and to investigate a motion limiting snubber system to best protect the bearing and engine during high load conditions. The motion limiting system will also be designed to limit damage to the engine if a bearing should fail for any reason. In Phase II compliant foil bearings with optimized coatings will be demonstrated at actual gas turbine conditions. The motion limiting snubber system will be built and tested. Phase III will test the improved compliant bearings and motion limiting snubber system in an actual gas turbine engine. The results of the program will provide foil bearing improvements for use in advanced gas turbine engines e.g. RATTLR and HiSted gas turbine engines. BENEFIT: Advanced compliant foil bearings will reduce engine cost, weight, specific fuel consumption and increase flight range. Technology developed in this program will have several military applications, including advanced gas turbine engines, cruise missles, UAV''''''''s, decoys, and small aircraft engines. For commercial application the technology has potential for small general aviation aircraft turbine engines.

EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dharmasena Peramunage
AF 08-118      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Innovative Lithium Passivation for Improved Li-battery Functionality
Abstract:EIC Laboratories proposes to develop thin, robust passivation layers that permit the use of di-lithium-phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) superionic conductors as the ionic separator in a lithium battery. These passivation layers will establish a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) that is chemically and electronically compatible with Li2Pc. Li2Pc is advantageous as an electrolyte separator because of its high overall nearly single ion (Li+) conductivity, and nearly temperature independent ionic resistance, giving it superionic properties. However, it also has an electronic conductivity component which has made it unsuitable as a standalone electrolyte separator. In Phase I, EIC will evaluate several novel SEI options for suppressing electronic conduction in half and full cells. Phase II will entail optimization of the SEI layers and the development of Li/metal oxide and Li/oxygen batteries incorporating the new materials. BENEFIT: Batteries are used extensively in advanced aircraft electrical systems, in munitions and guns, and in drones and robotic vehicles as well as providing energy storage for expeditionary units and for a wide variety of weapons systems. Reconnaissance satellites developed and deployed by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) have an ongoing requirement for reliable and long cycle life battery power, as do a wide range of other Air Force and NASA space missions. Commercially, the batteries address broad markets in consumer electronics (Laptops, cameras, DVD, radios, etc.), wireless communication devices, including GPS, WiFi, cell phones, etcc., medical devices such as pacemakers, implantable drug delivery systems and electrical stimulation prosthetics, and ultimately electric vehicles.

Excellatron
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Scott Flanagan
AF 08-118      Awarded: 3/24/2009
Title:Innovative Methods or Materials for Passivation of Lithium Metal
Abstract:In collaboration with our subcontractor we will develop new lithium ion conductors based on modifications to the structure of an existing conductor. This material has been shown to have a very high lithium ion conductivity. Furthermore, the lithium ion conductivity is not subject to decreased ionic conductivity at low temperature as observed in other lithium ion conductors. However, the material is also known to act as an electronic conductor. This electronic conductivity prevents its use as a solid-state electrolyte in next generation lithium batteries. Thus, the targeted modifications will aim to disrupt the electronic conductivity while maintaining high ionic conductivity. The lithium-oxygen electrochemical couple has the potential to form the basis of a very high specific energy, rechargeable battery. This work will investigate the use of derivatives of the material to improve the cycle life, reliability, and safety of the lithium-oxygen battery. In addition to improving the performance characteristics of the lithium-oxygen battery, a larger prototype cell to demonstrate the scalability of the technology will be built. BENEFIT: A rechargeable, high specific energy battery with potential applications in aircraft, UAVs, onboard missile power, hybrid vehicles, portable electronics and tools, and medical applications. Improved reliability and safety of the lithium battery. Development work with solid-state electrolytes may be extended to improve safety of other rechargeable, lithium metal based batteries.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Christopher Rhodes
AF 08-118      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Advanced Solid Inorganic Lithium-ion Conductors for Solid-State Lithium Batteries
Abstract:High specific energy rechargeable batteries are critical for the development of improved power systems for directed energy weapons, aircraft, UAVs, missiles, and other Air Force applications. Conventional lithium-ion batteries utilize electrolytes containing flammable organic solvents which result in safety hazards. Solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes offer improved safety and increased specific energy and power and are critical to the development of next generation batteries. Di-Li-phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) solid electrolytes currently being developed by the Air Force have considerable potential but are limited by their non-negligible electronic conductivity. Lynntech proposes to develop advanced inorganic composites that function as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers and are compatible with Li2Pc solid electrolytes. The innovative material provides high ion conductivity, high electrochemical stability, no reaction with lithium metal, and negligible electronic conductivity. During Phase I research, Lynntech will optimize the electrolyte composition, determine the electrochemical properties as a function of temperature, and evaluate the electrolytes performance in full cell configurations. The development of the inorganic composite solid ion conductors will provide advanced solid state batteries with improved specific energies, specific powers, and performance over wide temperatures (- 40 to +60 deg Celsius). During Phase II, Lynntech will optimize the fabrication processes and develop multiple prototype solid-state batteries. BENEFIT: The proposed inorganic composite solid lithium-ion conductors can enable the development of lithium batteries with improved safety, specific energy and power, and low temperature performance. The technology has significant benefits and commercial potential based on the dual-use applications for both the military and private sector. Military applications include weapons systems, UAVs, remote sensors, and detection devices. Specific benefits for DOD include extended duration missions and improved capabilities. The commercial market for solid-state batteries is extremely high. Private sector applications include electric and hybrid vehicles, auxiliary power units, and consumer electronic devices which include cellular phones, laptop computers, and camcorders.

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Kwasi Foli
AF 08-119      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Multiphase Phenomena In Thermal Management Systems
Abstract:The advancement of aeropropulsion technologies has placed increasing demand on the structural and thermal capabilities of high speed aeroengines. Though hydrocarbon fuels have been used as cooling media in jet aircraft engines for several years, advanced flight vehicles are reaching a practical heat transfer limit beyond which the sensible heat transfer provided by conventional fuels is no longer adequate. One solution is to use endothermic fuels that absorb heat during chemical reactions. At the temperatures and pressures likely to be encountered in the thermal management system of high speed aircraft and rockets, the cooling medium will become supercritical in addition to undergoing thermal cracking and pyrolysis reaction. Advanced computational fluid dynamic models coupled with fuel degradation chemistry and advanced high temperature and pressure fuel component simulators are required to simulate the impact of fuel degradation in high speed aircraft cooling systems. This proposal involves the development a design tool for predicting the thermal stability of hydrocarbon fuels used in the cooling loops of high speed aircrafts, rockets and SCRAMJETs. BENEFIT: An important product from this project will be the development of a robust tool to be used in optimizing the design of thermal management for military and commercial flight vehicles. This product will give the design engineer much more freedom to test new designs operating with different fuels at wider range of operating temperatures and pressures. The market for this product will include gas turbine designers and manufacturers for both military and civilian aircraft as well as designers or rocket and SCRAMJET thermal management systems. The use of this tool will significantly reduce development costs by eliminating some design iterations and hardware testing, which is quite expensive and time-consuming.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2812
Millicent Coil
AF 08-119      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Heat Transfer Model for Bubbly Flows
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to develop a heat transfer model to predict heat transfer coefficient in bubbly flows in small tubes. This model is intended for application to thermal management systems in a variety of propulsion systems, including both air-breathing and rocket engines. The Phase I work will include parallel experimental and modeling work. The experimental program will measure heat transfer coefficient and void fraction in bubbly flows of a few fuels in small tubes. A simplified numerical model will simulate the experiments and build the foundation for a more complex model. Phase II work will implement the model in a CFD code and will validate its predictions with experiments on a fuel-cooled rocket engine nozzle. BENEFIT: The two-phase heat transfer model developed under this effort will enable engineers to use commercial CFD codes to model thermal management system for a variety of propulsion applications. Because two-phase heat transfer in small tubes is ubiquitous in propulsion system, the code and the understanding developed through using it will have application to a variety of groups within DoD, NASA, and commercial companies. ORBITEC intends to be a supplier of both the code and the expertise heat transfer in two-phase flow.

SPIRITECH Advanced Products, Inc.
731 N US Highway 1 Suite 1
Tequesta, FL 33469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Nicholas Pearson
AF 08-119      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Multiphase Phenomena In Thermal Management Systems
Abstract:A multi-component, multiphase flow model is proposed for modeling fuel/coolant properties throughout a fuel-cooled flow network for advanced thermal management systems. The Phase I program will develop a multiphase model to quantify the effects of the working fluids under multiphase conditions so that accurate overall system level thermal performance may be modeled and assessed. The multiphase flow model will be modular so that it may be executed as a standalone code or integrated with existing thermal management tools for high speed and low speed systems. The Phase I code will be applicable to gas turbines, rockets, scramjets, and space power generation systems. Fuel will be used as the primary coolant medium, and the multiphase effects to the cooling capacity will be quantified. Specific goals of the program are to develop and generate a physical model to describe and represent the multiphase conditions of fuel, use the model to quantify the multiphase flow conditions in a representative thermal management system, and validate the physical model using computational fluid dynamics. The Phase II effort will further develop the multi-phase flow model by incorporating additional multiphase flow regimes, adding a library of multiphase fuels, and validating the model with experimental data. BENEFIT: The multiphase flow model proposed herein is a commercially marketable software package focused on meeting the challenges facing high-speed air and space transportation in the 21st Century. This software package provides customers with a user-friendly multiphase flow network tool that may be applied in the design of heat exchangers for advanced thermal management systems. Applications include commercial aviation, missiles, and access to space. Potential customers in this field include both military (Air Force, Navy, Army, NASA and DARPA) and commercial (aircraft, propulsion, automotive, and power generation) customers. In addition, long-term commercialization also includes SPIRITECHs propulsion system components that will be developed using the software.

Industrial Measurement Systems Inc.
2760 Beverly Dr. #4
Aurora, IL 60502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 236-5901
Donald E. Yuhas
AF 08-120      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Instrumentation for Hypersonic, Air-breathing Engines
Abstract:The operating conditions of air-breathing propulsion engines demand designs that include cooling by the fuel and the use of lightweight materials that withstand extreme heat fluxes under oxidizing conditions. Currently there are no means by which the fuel temperature can be non-invasively measured with the required temporal and spatial resolution. It is important to monitor and maintain the maximum fuel temperature below critical levels in order to prevent coking. For ground-based experiments, real-time fuel temperature measurements can be used to relax the safety constraints, thereby allowing for higher speed flow and longer length experiments. Furthermore, experience, information, and instrumentation developed as the result of ground-based experiments can form the basis for in-flight test capability. Flight hardened test capability can be incorporated as part of a control strategy that would enhance overall combustor efficiency by balancing fuel flow rates with combustor wall temperature to yield most optimum operating conditions. In this program we apply the ultrasonic thermometry in 2 areas; 1) fuel temperature measurements in the manifold region and 2) fuel temperature in one of the combustor cooling passages. As a by-product of the cooling passage measurement we will also measure heat flux and surface temperature on the material between the combustion inner chamber and the cooling channel. BENEFIT: Ultrasonic thermometry offers unique capabilities to hypersonic vehicle development. Improved thermal transport measurement methods speed development, improve understanding, and enhance our ability to validate analytical models and hardware for numerous propulsion and aeroshell applications. The non-intrusive nature of the method is particularly attractive for hostile environment encountered in hypersonic flight. The immediate market for this technology is primarily in military applications where there is a need for improved thermal transfer measurement tools to drive the development and evaluation of hypersonic materials and components. In addition to the applications in hypersonic vehicle and propulsion systems, the ultrasonic temperature sensor technology has applications in the areas of space lift, space platform, combustion research, and missiles. There is also a potential commercial market in areas where thermal transport data is needed in relatively inaccessible regions such as combustion chambers, reactors and in some glass molding operations

Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Shin-Juh Chen
AF 08-120      Awarded: 3/19/2009
Title:Array Detector for Gas Species and Flow Properties Measurements
Abstract:This project will focus on the development of an imaging sensor, suitable for in-flight testing, for the non-intrusive measurements of local temperature, pressure, gas concentration, and velocity within the engine flow path of hypersonic flight vehicles. Development of scramjet engines for aerospace vehicles requires testing of engine components in wind tunnels and, more importantly, in flight. When incorporated into the engine flow path, the proposed sensor will provide crucial data for validating current computational models, and for developing new models for achieving high-fidelity simulations that are important to the scramjet engine designers. BENEFIT: The in-flight imaging sensor can provide information that is used as a feedback for engine performance control. The sensor has direct application for military engine manufacturers and Federal Research labs. In addition, this sensor should be of interest to academic combustion researchers, and could be used in environmental and atmospheric monitoring systems.

Computational Sciences, LLC
2317-A Market Place
Huntsvillle, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 270-0956
Edward J. Kansa
AF 08-121      Awarded: 3/23/2009
Title:Model-Free Control System for Scramjet Applications
Abstract:Flow fluctuations in the flame-holder cavity affect its stable operation that can lead to degradation of its performance. Efficient cavity operations can be enhanced through active control of injection of air and fuel mixtures. We propose to design and validate a novel Model-Free Direct (feedback) Control system to ensure stable cavity operation in the subsonic regime with smooth transitions to supersonic combustion. We will focus on a model-free strategy interacting with sensor and actuator arrays. Control system design and prototyping will be done with the aid of an existing simulation environment that connects flow solvers acting as plant emulators to control software. This approach will allow full accounting of the interaction of sensor-controller-actuator-flow dynamics in an active flow control loop. Phase I will focus sensor-controller-actuator model preparation, design of numerical experiments for control system testing, and simulation of combustor operations for testing of control system performance. The testing will involve control software-in-the-loop and control hardware-in-the-loop simulations. The response of flowfield to variations in the sensor-controller-actuator configurations will be evaluated. Phase II work will oversee the refinement of the existing control hardware prototype. Phase III commercialization will seek to exploit the natural dual-use applicability of the developed hardware. BENEFIT: In addition to military use, the generality of the controller design will be suitable for multi-use applications. Immediate use relates to optimization of flame-holder operations, and prevention of isolator unstart in scramjet combustors. It will also benefit areas where distributed flow control is of interest including: aerospace (L/D and maneuverability optimization), maritime (wake signature minimization), and automotive (combustion efficiency maximization). Controller hardware will be interfaceable with personal computers using low-cost PCI boards. Such an interface will allow for very efficient virtual prototyping of complete control systems.

Physics, Materials & Applied Math Research, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 903-2345
Kevin Kremeyer
AF 08-121      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Energy Deposition Techniques to Improve Scramjet Performance
Abstract:The proposed program will explore the deposition of energy in a scramjet inlet to (re)start supersonic/hypersonic flow, without any moving parts or actuators. The resulting expansion and heating can prompt flow-control that favors inlet-(re)starting. The approach can integrate well with other supersonic/hypersonic flow-control applications, which will further be considered in the course of the program. BENEFIT: The benefits of this non-mechanical approach to scramjet inlet (re)starting will be low-risk operation, with nearly instantaneous re-start and fast recovery of the starting system. The anticipated weight penalty is much less than mechanical systems, and there is no associated loss of efficiency when flying at the design point. Many of the currently proposed approaches involve mechanical mechanisms that involve risk and maintenance, with the alternative being to overbuild the powerplant to force the flow through the throat before throttling down to the desired operating conditions. If this technique provides the anticipated non- mechanical solution, a large weight constraint will be lifted, resulting in the possibility of closing the design on a single-stage (to orbit) hypersonic vehicle. This is of great interest to the large contractors as potential industrial partners. Depositing energy in the upstream flow can also enhance the combustion process through pre-excitation and heating of the air. This has the potential to employ the necessary hardware to optimize the combustion cycle during general operation.

Reaction Systems, LLC
1814 19th Street
Golden, CO 80401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 352-7161
David Wickham
AF 08-121      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:Catalytic N2O Decomposition for Piloted Scramjet Ignition
Abstract:Ignition, flameholding, and flame spreading is difficult to achieve in current hydrocarbon scramjet hypersonic missile designs. This is particularly true at the end of the initial rocket boost phase when the hardware and fuel can still be very cold. Reaction Systems proposes to develop a lightweight catalytic nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") ignition system to exothermically decompose N2O to a hot (>1400 C) 33% O2 stream to aid atomization, vaporization, and ignition of thermally stable hydrocarbons like JP-7. Preliminary calculations indicate that this hot O2 stream could easily possess a multi-megawatt effective thermal power in contrast to the multi-kilowatt levels associated with electrical plasma igniters. BENEFIT: The development of a highly active and thermally stable N2O decomposition catalyst could have applications in efficient and "green" satellite station- keeping and attitude control thrusters, and civilian and amateur hybrid rocketry.

SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI)
1200 Ashwood Parkway Suite 506
Atlanta, GA 30338
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 379-8002
John R. Olds
AF 08-121      Awarded: 3/20/2009
Title:A Thrust-Oriented Combined-Cycle Engine for Space Access
Abstract:SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) seeks government support to conduct preliminary development activities toward a unique new combined-cycle propulsion system for use in next-generation missiles, space access vehicles, and hypersonic strike aircraft. Combined-cycle engines advantageously integrate the best aspects of rocket engines and high-speed airbreathing engines and have been shown to offer vehicle-level weight, size, and cost advantages relative to separately installed propulsion alternatives. SEIs highly flexible SCAAT-Engine (Supersonic Core Air Augmented Thrusting - Engine) enables vehicle-optimized operation over a wide range of flight velocities and altitudes. Unlike other combined-cycle engine concepts, the SCAAT-Engine is specifically designed for adequate acceleration over the entire flight regime. For a nominal space access or long-range missile mission, the primary rocket is engaged for the entire flight -- generating a supersonic core flow exhaust stream. The supporting secondary airflow from the inlet and the ramscoops increases the rockets Isp by an average of 15% - 30% when combusted. The result is a small, compact and low cost vehicle configuration. Nominal propellants are LOX/LH2, but hydrocarbon alternatives are also candidate fuels. BENEFIT: SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) believes that a unique combined-cycle engine concept, if matured according to this research effort, would have several potential customers. If the SCAAT-Engine technology was licensed to a large-scale engine manufacturer, we estimate that hundreds of engines could be produced for the following potential customers: Emerging Commercial Space Access Firms, NASA/Civil Space Applications, Military Space Access Applications, and Military High Speed Missile Applications.

Electron Energy Corporation
924 Links Avenue
Landisville, PA 17538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 898-2294
Jinfang Liu
AF 08-123      Awarded: 3/5/2009
Title:High Temperature Magnetocaloric Refrigeration
Abstract:The magnetocaloric effect is a magneto-thermodynamic phenomenon in which a reversible change in temperature of magnetic materials occurs with a magnetization/demagnetization process. By cycling the material through these hot and cold states and exchanging heat through a fluid media, the system can generate an overall cooling effect. Research efforts in the last 10 years resulted in the discovery of materials with a giant magnetocaloric effect around room temperature and also proved that magnetic refrigeration technology based on materials that exhibit magnetocaloric effect offers great potential improvement in energy efficiency of up to 60% of a Carnot cycle. This work proposes the proof of feasibility (in Phase I) and development (in Phase II) of high temperature magnetocaloric materials and compact, low weight magnetic refrigerators that can provide hundreds of watts of cooling with efficiency greater than 50% of a Carnot cycle, and can operate in the temperature range of 200500C. The overall technical approach of the research effort in Phase I consists of (i) synthesis and study of crystalline and non-crystalline materials with substantial magnetocaloric effect above 200C, (ii) refrigerator system modeling based on specific parameters, and (iii) conceptual refrigerator design that can operate in the temperature range of 200-500C. BENEFIT: Magnetic refrigeration at elevated temperatures (> 200C), is an attractive technology for cooling high power density rotating machines and electronic devices with both military and commercial applications. Development of such systems would offer the opportunity to replace the current hydraulic cooling loops with a more local, and more efficient cooling system, which would greatly increase device lifetime. Commercial systems would include oil drilling and data logging equipment and instrumentation where temperatures are in excess of 200C; very deep reserves are being pursued aggressively due to the elevated demand and high oil prices which will last for the foreseeable future.

Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Ave. Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
Douglas Baer
AF 08-124      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Advanced Diagnostics for Detonation-Powered Vehicles
Abstract:The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase I program is to develop novel laser absorption- based instruments that provide rapid, in situ, simultaneous measurements of gas temperature, velocity and mole fractions of several important species in pulsed detonation flows. Based on laser absorption spectroscopy techniques, the instrumentation will employ room temperature novel mid-IR lasers to determine the concentrations of several combustion products and reactants with high sensitivity and capture the spatiotemporal evolution from deflagration to detonation. The Phase I instrument will be demonstrated in combustion flows at Los Gatos Research and at Stanford University. The fast response of the instrument will enable engineers and scientists to record precise measurements gasdynamic parameters in engine flows to identify temperature and species nonuniformities, combustion instabilities and to refine and improve computational models. BENEFIT: Instrumentation for measurements in rocket engine and gas turbine flows will enable Air Force scientists and engineers to monitor gas concentrations, temperatures and velocities under realistic rocket engine operating conditions. The instrument may also be used for measurements, control and thus optimization of generic combustion-powered flows (gas turbines, waste incinerators) to maximize efficiency and reduce unwanted pollutants.

Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
David Bomse
AF 08-124      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Advanced Diagnostics for Detonation-Powered Vehicles
Abstract:Pulsed detonation engines (PDE) have the potential to operate with higher efficiency and lower operating costs than scramjets and turbines. Initiating and sustaining detonation in a controlled, repeatable manner is difficult, at present, and requires optimization of a number of parameters. Key issues include the need for rapid fuel injection and fast mixing of fuel and oxidizer. Successful PDE development requires new diagnostics capable of rapid measurements of the concentrations and distributions of combustion species and products, as well as reaction temperatures. Optical diagnostics are preferred because they are non-intrusive. Southwest Sciences proposes the development of a high-speed (≥10 kHz) optical absorption diagnostic for detonation-powered vehicles. At the end of Phase II, we will deliver to the Air Force a prototype instrument capable of measuring the line-of-sight concentrations of at least three key combustion species such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and oxygen with time resolution of 1 ms, or better. The proposed approach builds on our recent successful work that achieved true frequency modulation spectroscopy at GHz bandwidths. We plan now to develop a variation of frequency modulation spectroscopy called high-speed, two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy that simplifies the signal processing requirements while maintaining fast time response. BENEFIT: We propose an enabling technology that will help with the development of pulsed detonation engines. These engines have the potential to be more energy efficient than do existing propulsion designs.

Spectral Energies, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF 08-124      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:High-Bandwidth Noninvasive Sensor Systems For Measuring Enthalpy and Mass Flux in Detonation-Powered Devices
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase-I research effort is to perform velocity, temperature, pressure, and H2O concentration measurements at the end of a detonation tube and the exhaust of a detonation-powered turbine at a rate of 50 kHz. These measurements will help quantify the efficiencies of detonation-powered devices. High-speed measurements of temperature, H2O mole fraction, pressure, and velocity will allow determination of the enthalpy and mass-flux in-and-out of the detonation-powered devices. Measurements will be performed using a state-of-the-art time- division multiplexing (TDM) sensor system available to Spectral Energies through GFE. Based on the Phase-I results and consultation with the AFRL scientists, we propose to design, build, and deliver a compact sensor system along with high-fidelity fiber-collimators for measuring velocity, temperature, pressure, and H2O concentrations along multiple lines-of-sight during the Phase-II research effort. Despite using absorption spectroscopy for determining the temperature, pressure, and H2O concentration, the TDM technology is fundamentally different from typical diode laser-based absorption sensors and has many advantages, specifically, allowing the acquisition of many spectral lines covering wide spectral range at very high speeds (>10 kHz) and thereby providing high-speed thermometry with better temperature accuracy and power spectral density (PSD) functions. The proposed TDM sensor system offers flexible coverage of such a broad spectral range that it is automatically suitable for virtually all applications within 5 psia and 1000 psia for a temperature range of 270K to 2700K. BENEFIT: Development of compact sensor systems for measuring temperature, pressure, and velocity at a rate of 50 kHz will enable engine manufacturers to investigate the performance of PDEs and detonation-powered devices and will also provide valuable high-bandwidth data to the numerical modeler. This sensor system will also help studying the ignition and flame growth phenomena and monitor the combustion processes and relevant dynamical phenomena at realistic operating conditions for the first time. This capability is particularly critical for the design and modeling of advanced, detonation-powered or ultra-compact, low-emission, gas turbine engines and for development of real-time combustion-control strategies. This technology will yield significant payoffs in military and commercial aviation as well as land- and sea- based power generation. This sensor system will also have broad impacts for on board sensing and control along with microscopy, biological imaging, imaging of hazardous gases, as well as other applications that require high-speed such as detonation, shock wave, and pulsed magnetic fields research. With minor modifications, the sensor system might become important for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography, thus opening the door to new imaging capabilities.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4944
Debasis Sengupta
AF 08-125      Awarded: 6/30/2009
Title:Prediction of Ignition Delay of Hypergolic Energetic Ionic Liquid
Abstract:In this program, CFDRC will develop a tool-kit for prediction of ignition delay of hypergolic energetic ionic liquids (EIL). Recently EILs have attracted considerable attention as next generation bipropellants to replace toxic monomethylhydrazine (MMH) Due to their low vapor pressures, they are safer to handle and transport, and more environmentally friendly than MMH. Accurate prediction of the ignition delay time of EIL with oxidizers, such as IRFNA, is critical to the development of new hypergolic EIL. In Phase I, CFDRC will evaluate two techniques, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We will select a number of descriptors that could potentially exhibit a strong correlation with ignition delay. The descriptors can be constitutional, structural, electrostatic and/or quantum mechanical. A QSPR and trained network will then be established with the ignition delay time and the descriptors. The correlation and network will be validated, and performance of these two methods will be critically analyzed. Additionally, we plan to initiate the physics-based detailed kinetics method with an aim to reveal the bottle-neck of hypergolic reaction which would help design new EIL with improved ignition delay. In Phase II, we plan to refine the model, develop a user-friendly tool-kit and continue extensive work on detailed kinetics to gain understanding of hypergolic reaction. BENEFITS: Development of proposed tool-kit will predict the ignition delay of energetic ionic liquids at the early stages of development (prior to their laboratory synthesis). This will save significant amount of time and cost of development of new hypergolic fuel. Since the new hypergolic ionic liquids will replace MMH, DoD and NASA will benefit from this work.

Wasatch Molecular Inc.
2141 St. Mary''''''''s Dr. Suite 102
Salt Lake City, UT 84108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 673-7452
Dmitry Bedrov
AF 08-125      Awarded: 7/17/2009
Title:Modeling and Simulation Tools for Predicting Hypergolicity in Energetic Ionic Liquids
Abstract:Molecular dynamics simulations using reactive (ReaxFF) and highly accurate non-reactive (APPLE&P) force fields will be utilized in molecular dynamics simulation study of mechnanisms and structure-property relations of hypergolicity in ionic liquids. Specific attention will be dedicated to establishing correlations between chemical and physical characteristics of ionic liquid/oxidizer mixtures. BENEFITS: This project will produce new technology and simulation methods/software that would allow to investigate and predict hypergolicity of mixture of where fuel component is ionic liquid. These tools will allow efficient design of novel hypergolic formulations with desired chemical and physical properties.

Ormond, LLC
4718 B Street NW Suite 104
Auburn, WA 98001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 854-0796
Daniel G. Alberts
AF 08-126      Awarded: 6/25/2009
Title:High Fracture Toughness in Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics
Abstract:Air Force and NASA contractors are in need of ultra-high temperature materials with improved toughness properties for hypersonics and rocket propulsion applications. This SBIR will make available a new technology that can significantly increase the fracture toughness of existing and emerging ultra-high temperature ceramics and composites. Ormond, LLC has developed data that indicates cavitation peening can be used as a novel low cost means of significantly improving fracture toughness in ceramics. This process is available nowhere in industry and it is capable of developing high intensity, deep compressive stresses similar to laser shock peening (LSP), but at a small fraction of the cost, without the technical flaws, and in ceramics. The proposed Phase I SBIR will demonstrate the feasibility of improving fracture toughness in ultra-high temperature materials, including ceramics and composites. Process development will include parametric testing and high temperature tests to demonstrate process performance. Phase II will end with a working prototype system that will be available as a low cost method of significantly enhancing the fracture toughness of the full range of ultra-high temperature ceramics and composites, as well as high temperature metals such as Inconel, rhenium and Gr-Copper. BENEFITS: This dual use technology will see widespread defense and commercial applications. While this SBIR specifically addresses improving fracture toughness in ultra-high temperature materials, the developed technology will extend to many ceramics, metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites. The need for improved fracture toughness in ceramics is felt across industry. Cavitation peening is a low cost process. When compared to laser shock peening, cavitation peening has capital cost that is an order of magnitude less. The operating cost is only a small fraction of LSP as well, and the process speed is significantly higher. LSP has not been demonstrated affective on ceramic materials. The Phase II program will provide the funding to fully develop the process and any new prototype tooling that may be required. Demonstration coupons and data will be provided to Air Force primes along with manufacturing cost data. The technology will be ready for production implementation on completion of the Phase II effort. Army ballistic testing has demonstrated that Ormond significantly improved the shock absorbing capacity of silicon carbide ceramics using cavitation peening. Several metals have been peened at Ormond with elevated fatigue strength as a result. These indicators demonstrate that Ormond will be successful in addressing the ultra-high temperature topic area.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Carmen Carney
AF 08-126      Awarded: 7/27/2009
Title:SiC Reinforced Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Materials for Structural Applications
Abstract:The desire for higher performance engines and hypersonic vehicles requires that new materials be developed to meet the harsh environments that will be encountered in thermal protection systems and engine components. One approach to higher thermal efficiencies in a gas turbine engine is to increase the turbine inlet temperature. While hypersonic flight such as that encountered in scramjets or reusable space access vehicles will experience higher temperatures at the leading edges. For a material to be successful in these environments it must be wear and erosion resistant and resistant to oxidation. A class of materials known as ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including carbides, nitrides, and borides of transition metals are prime candidates to fill these requirements. However, these materials suffer from inherent brittleness. To increase the fracture toughness, fibers of other oxidation resistant materials like SiC can be added. The strength, morphology, and dispersion of these fibers will play a crucial role in the ultimate strengthening of the UHTC composites. BENEFITS: Potential applications of SiC fiber reinforced UHTC materials are engine thrust chambers and structural insulators as well as thermal protection systems for leading edges of hypersonic flight vehicles. Due to their good electrical conductivity, UHTCs with increased fracture toughness can also find uses as electrodes for spark machining. UHTC materials may also find uses as catalyst supports.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 885-2200
David Campion
AF 08-128      Awarded: 1/22/2009
Title:Georegistration of Imagery with Target Tracking
Abstract:Dynamic Scene Analysis - a real time implementation of an image registration, target detection, tracking, and geo-location software product. Registration is based upon Mutual Information, a more efficient and robust technique than traditional feature-based methods. Reference imagery and live imagery are utilized as needed to refine the estimate of the sensor position and attitude in the geo-registration solution. The algorithm automatically and adaptively performs the required computations to maintain the desired level of accuracy. Moving ground targets are automatically detected using an algorithm based on Optical Flow; it is ideally suited to separate object motion from perspective-generated scene motion, greatly reducing false alarms. Tracks are formed in geo-registered coordinates using an Associative Tracker, enabling tracking of irregularly moving or intermittently visible targets and fusion of target information from multiple sources. Image Supplemented Tracking further distinguishes targets moving close together. Tracking algorithms are adaptively executed as needed to maintain accurate track while minimizing computational burden. The efficiency, flexibility, and adaptability of our processing stream lends well to implementation in a variety of computing environments. BENEFIT: This research will create a system that automatically detects, tracks, and geo-locates ground targets from airborne imagery at video rate, and determines the uncertainty of geo- locations. The processing is efficient and intended to be run on board the aircraft.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Michael S. Moore
AF 08-128      Awarded: 1/22/2009
Title:Georegistration of Imagery with Target Tracking
Abstract:Precise detection, tracking and geo-location of multiple moving and stationary targets from airborne sensors in real time poses a great challenge due to the separate registration tasks involved, with the most difficult being geo-registration which requires matching images taken under different conditions. Registration of one image to the next in a video sequence allows detection and tracking of moving targets by aligning common background features in the images, but to obtain the geo-location of these targets the image must also be registered to a geodetically calibrated reference image and overcome the potentially drastic differences in viewing angle, elevation and season to align common world feature points. Toyon proposes to design algorithms to unify frame- and geo- registration by combining the feature point analysis necessary for image registration. Toyons approach to computationally efficient geo-registration is based on a detailed understanding of automated video analysis, and will minimize complexity by only updating a frame to the geo-reference image when the scene content has significantly changed, mapping the known pixel geo-coordinates between intermediate frames. When fully developed in commercially available hardware, this technology is expected to provide significant improvements in exploitation of aerial video surveillance data, in real time. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the proposed research and development effort will result in a real-time video-based target detection and tracking system with track outputs in world coordinates and geo-referenced output frames. The main benefits are expected in military applications where coordination among multiple airborne and ground assets is necessary and real-time performance is critical. However, smaller scale operations would be able to use these capabilities along borders, near ports, or along the coastline to monitor for illegal or terrorist activities. The proposed techniques can be extended to land vehicle-born implementations for enhanced situational awareness along highways or country roads. Potential commercial applications include many police or homeland security applications.

Solution Engineering
205 Wasco Loop, Suite 103
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 386-9433
Daniel Allen
AF 08-129      Awarded: 2/2/2009
Title:Small Unpiloted Aircraft System (SUAS) Auto-tracking of Moving and Stationary Targets
Abstract:Solution Engineering, Inc. (SEI) proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype real time tracking system that supports robust multiple target tracking in an urban environment. The approach will focus on increasing the robustness of the core feature tracking algorithms, utilizing target invariant characteristics to extend the ability to track, coast, and reacquire targets. In addition higher level tracking logic based on a multiple hypothesis approach will be explored to enhance the high level tracking control logic that supports track confirmation, maintenance, coasting, and dropping. SEI will leverage its experience in tracking and data fusion, its products including: 1) an embedded DSP based video tracking and electronic stabilization application as well as, 2) a ground based tracker; both that currently support the TASE family of gimbals, and its video simulation tool, VideoSim. In addition, SEI will leverage its close relationship, both geographically and businesswise, with Cloud Cap Technology, and the expertise SEI has as developer of Cloud Cap Technologys Piccolo Command Center and GimbalUI to provide tools and test opportunities to support development and demonstration as well as test and refinement of the sensor centric navigation algorithms Cloud Cap Technology has on its development roadmap for the Piccolo Autopilot. BENEFIT: The benefits of this research are the development of more robust and accurate target tracking in an urban environment that supports an SUAS ability to maintain and reacquire tracks through sensor centric navigation and more robust tracking. Another outcome is the refinement of a simulation test environment that supports development and test of advanced algorithms as well as potential for high quality training opportunities in a fielded system. The benefits to commercial applications are improved robustness of tracking in urban or other difficult environments, as well as the simulation opportunities available to evaluate potential applications of the technology prior to purchase of a particular solution. Training in the commercial environment is an equally compelling benefit.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Tony Falcone
AF 08-130      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Multi-layered Multi-Sensor Dynamic Detection and Discrimination of Dismounts
Abstract:With the recent changes in threats and methods of warfighting, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities have become critical to the militarys efforts to maintain situational awareness and neutralize the enemys activities. While a number sensor platforms exist for ISR and many others are currently under development, each sensor alone faces limitations in meeting the ISR critera of world-wide perspective, fusion, detail and persistent surveillance. However, the complementary nature of these sensors facilitates a synergistic approach to Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and Tracking in ISR scenarios. To address this need, SSCI proposes the Discrimination using Sensor Collaboration and Verification (DiSCVer) system for dismount detection. We propose an architecture that calls for a high altitude, low resolution sensor generating cues that are passed along to available close-in sensing platforms for high resolution coverage of high priority targets. The proposed system will be flexible with regards to available sensors and will build on existing SSCI capabilities to develop efficient algorithms for dismount detection, density estimation, tracking and discrimination. We also propose the use of Learning Classifier Systems (LCS) to fuse features, contextual information and evidential information obtained from different sensors. BENEFIT: The algorithms developed in this effort will be of great use in many Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems used by the military in the Global War n Terror and the government for homeland security. The automated algorithms proposed in this effort will help reduce the burden on personnel involved in these applications. In addition, civilian applications such as environmental monitoring, medical engineering, etc., where detections algorithms are expected to perform consistently in a number of different operating conditions, can benefit from algorithms developed to fuse information from different sensors.

VIPMobile, Inc.
120 Montgomery Street Suite 2000
San Francisco, CA 94104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 632-1235
D. Pokrajac
AF 08-130      Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title:Airborne Dynamic Detection and Discrimination of Dismounts (AD4)
Abstract:The general problem is the lack of real time image/sensor exploitation technologies enabling automated decision and reporting processes to isolate, count and discriminate people from man-made flora structures, flora, fauna, and vehicles. The specific technical problem is the lack of innovative image and video exploitation algorithms and suitable sensor modalities or combinations to isolate, count, and discriminate people from structures. The VIPMobile, Inc. and Temple University ISR Team provides unmatched scientific and mathematical excellence relating to motion detection, identification, tracking, and classification of people using automated exploitation and surveillance. We possess technical and operational experience to design innovative image and video exploitation algorithms combined with optimal sensor modalities to provide airborne dynamic detection and discrimination of dismounts (AD4) in austere environments. Our team is part of the Counter Narco-Terrorism Program Office (CNTPO) basic contract to interdict, intercept, and apprehend counter-narcotics and narco-terrorism personnel, infrastructure and facilities. CNTPO provides the transition vision and Phase III commercialization vehicle for AD4 capabilities as well as CNT support worldwide. BENEFIT: Airborne dynamic detection and discrimination of dismounts provides foundation for search and rescue, law enforcement, and other security applications; commercial applications include oceanographic surveillance applications, and other airborne-related surveillance activities.

Integrity Applications Incorporated
5180 Parkstone Drive Suite 260
Chantilly , VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 997-7436
Ben Shapo
AF 08-131      Awarded: 1/6/2009
Title:Long-range Target Identification
Abstract:Robust long range target recognition for non-cooperative targets in low-observable environments requires recognition algorithms that exploit the physics of feasible long range sensors. Conventional methods of processing signals from non-cooperative moving targets extract very little of the useful information encoded in the signals, resulting in features with poor performance. In contrast, three-dimensional analysis allows extraction of stable, pose-invariant features. This analysis will generate high fidelity target models leading to improved assisted target recognition algorithms and the ability to re-acquire targets after obscuration. The Michigan Technological University Research Institute (MTRI), led by Dr. Mark Stuff, and Integrity Applications Incorporated (IAI), propose to develop, refine, and test signal processing algorithms that enhance exploitation of moving vehicles radar returns, allowing feature extraction not available to current processing. As described below, this work will investigate advanced estimation methods for decomposing signals into distinct scattering centers by combing DP approaches with insights and methods from a fielded Navy tracking technology along with local non-linear optimization processes, advances in motion analysis from new de-interference methods, continuum dictionary methods, automated 3D correspondence analysis for target orientations, and target rigidity analysis. BENEFIT: Since the technology will exploit motions of the sensor and/or motions of the target, it can have application to moving sensors (e.g., airborne) or fixed sensors. Thus the potential market for civilian applications includes many situations in which fixed cameras are now used, for which the extension to 24 hour, all weather effectiveness is needed. This includes large scale (e.g., city-wide) surveillance applications that monitor traffic and track vehicles.

Monopole Research
739 Calle Sequoia
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 375-0318
elizabeth bleszynski
AF 08-131      Awarded: 1/16/2009
Title:Long-range Target Identification
Abstract:The objective of this research is to develop a target-recognition approach which is robust in challenging conditions that include long stand-off distances, low-visibility environments, and non-cooperative targets. The key element is an effective use of data from continuous surveillance, that is, redundant data that can in principle be used to improve resolution in selected target areas. Monopole Research and its consultants have extensive experience and expertise in (i) large scale numerical simulation of electromagnetic propagation phenomena,(i) array and distributed sensor imaging in complex environments, and (iii) optimization and statistical methodology for systematically improving resolution of images in clutter. These are areas that are directly relevant to long-range target imaging in complex environments. The focus of the Phase I research will be to assess in depth the use of multiple frames over relatively long time intervals in order to improve resolution in imaging three dimensional moving targets under a variety of conditions. Both zero offset (SAR) and extended offset, numerically generated array data will be used to assess the scope and effectiveness of the imaging algorithms. We will address in detail the following issues, which form the scope of the research effort (i) How robust multi-frame image resolution improvement is to estimation errors in target and/or array motion. (ii) How well we have to estimate residual environmental effects, between the array and the moving target, so loss of image resolution can be adaptively reduced, especially when using multiple frames. (iii) Do computationally expensive interferometric array imaging methods enhance resolution sufficiently in multi-frame imaging so that the development of fast algorithms for their implementation can be undertaken. BENEFIT: The developed algorithms and the corresponding numerical simulations will present a significant step towards identifying a robust target recognition approach which would make an efficient use of data from continuous surveillance and which would lead to extract, with improved resolution, characteristic three-dim features of non-cooperative targets. We believe, the algorithms developed under this contract will provide the basis for a commercial package of interest to numerous Government agencies, as well as to the private sector.

Data Research & Analysis Corp.
1555 King St. #300
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 299-0700
Mike Hubbell
AF 08-132      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Distributed Real-Time Simulation Network Monitoring
Abstract:Distributed live, virtual, and constructive simulations are used extensively in both military and commercial applications. These distributed simulation systems inherently rely on the proper performance of the underlying network infrastructure. In performing this research, we plan to extend standard network monitoring techniques to predict and measure the performance of real-time, distributed simulation network infrastructure. The ultimate goal of this research is to convert network performance observations into user and application relevant performance metrics that can be used to collaboratively predict, monitor, and diagnose network performance in geographically distributed, non-homogeneous networks. BENEFIT: Research will develop new technologies for performing network system performance prediction and monitoring via collaborative, multi-layered visualization techniques. First we investigate how to measure large-scale distributed networks using minimally intrusive methods and network resources. Second, we look at presenting the information about the network health in a usable, actionable manner to help manage the network infrastructure.

Peerless Technologies Corporation
2300 National Road
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 490-5000
Michael Bridges
AF 08-132      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Distributed Real-Time Simulation and Network Monitoring Capability
Abstract:Peerless Technologies and SAIC as teammates have intend to provide a uniform yet extensible virtual platform for potentially, any current or emerging Grid infrastructure, to provide the Department of Defense (DoD) with a trusted and real-time universal reign over the Global Information Grid (GIG). In order to develop an open-source integrated system, capable of handling GIG feedback, including the capability to manage, monitor and disseminate the flow of inward intelligence data in particular, network health related parameters. Our team will design and develop a methodology and test plan for handling the real-time monitoring of LVC and network components in a geographically distributed secure simulation environment and a proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling concepts of the GIG-UI/Portal (Global Information Grid-User-Interface/Portal). Based on cutting-edge open-source technologies available, our team envisions the provision of indispensable support to any current or future national security related endeavors partaken by the DoD. Considered as immediate aspirations for this effort, Research and development will concentrate on novel mechanisms, methodologies, and advanced collaboration technology to monitor the health of distributed simulation networks that include live, virtual and constructive components. BENEFIT: Since network monitoring describes the use of a system that constantly monitors a computer network, commercialization applications of this R&D endeavor can be beneficial to almost any organization that can utilize this type of monitoring. Specifically, organizations that depend on distributive networks.

Technologies Engineering Inc.
877 Baltimore & Annapolis Blvd Suite 207
Severna Park, MD 21146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 518-6600
William Schoen
AF 08-132      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Distributed Real-Time Simulation and Network Monitoring Capability
Abstract:Technologies Engineering Inc (TEI) has developed a test control suite of software applications for the US Army. This application suite has equipped current users with a means of efficiently and effectively planning, scheduling, verifying, monitoring, and controlling test resources (to include verification of software applications); collecting and logging execution data; and after-action reporting of test execution. All of these functions are currently capabilities provided in both local and distributed test events. The existing application suite lacks the ability to synthesize and visualize the collected data to enable the rapid diagnostic, prognostic and forensic knowledge to be extracted from these multiple distributed data sources. This proposal will research methods and techniques (business rules) and visualization strategies that will provide an efficient and easy way to provide this knowledge to the test officer and those involved in distributed tests and exercises. The extensive capability already in use can be easily interfaced to the proposed components thus providing a resourceful approach to meet all of the Air Force requirements in a very cost effective way. BENEFIT: The concepts explored and developed through this effort will provide a mechanism of sharing real-time test outcomes through each phase of a system or process test. All test centers for all government agencies will have immediate access to information and knowledge about the status of their current testing phase, automatic configuration of test tools/instrumentation, immediate notification/remediation necessary to keep a test on track/schedule, immediate success/failure statistics, event planning and event analysis.

Seacoast Science, Inc
2151 Las Palmas Drive Suite C
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 268-0083
Sanjay V. Patel
AF 08-134      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Multifunctional Sensor System for Search and Rescue
Abstract:Accurate threat detection is required by workers in search-and-rescue and disaster relief operations. These threats come from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive (CBRNE) agents as well as electrical hazardous and air quality threats. This proposal focuses on the development of a multifunctional detection system specifically for collection, speciation, identification and quantification of gas phase chemicals, biological warfare agents, and potentially explosive environments. This ambitious, multidisciplinary program will utilize multiple sensor technologies to meet the requirements of the solicitation, including individual low cost detectors, such as chemicapacitive, metal-oxide, and electrochemical sensors, and more integrated technologies which have already been proven in other applications. Chemical sensors will be tested with Seacoasts preconcentration/chromatography system; thus combining selectivity from a diverse array of sensors with a miniature sampling system for amplified sensitivity. BENEFIT: The product proposed here could be used to by civilian and military search-and-rescue and disaster-relief workers to detect threats in area where CBRNE, electrical and atmospheric threats may exist. Once developed into a standalone system, device has very broad relevance in a number of other government and civilian applications. For example, these sensors may be used in any application for monitoring a variety of chemical targets where a premium is placed on early detection. The low cost, low power consumption and small size of this technology is expected to enable penetration of market space previously inaccessible to sensor systems. Portability makes this system more likely to be effective in rescue efforts over rough terrain.

Synkera Technologies Inc.
2021 Miller Dr. Suite B
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 494-8401
Clayton J. Kostelecky
AF 08-134      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Multifunctional Sensor for Search and Rescue
Abstract:Search and rescue forces are routinely tasked with performing personnel and material recovery in confined space environments, where they may encounter a full spectrum of environmental threats, including chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE), electrical, and atmospheric hazards. To determine the safety of confined spaces and other rescue environments, multiple pieces of specialized equipment are currently used. Unfortunately, the equipment in such kits has limited capability to identify all of the hazards that directly impact and heighten the threat to units to safely perform their assignments. The need to carry and use multiple pieces of specialized equipment makes it challenging for personnel to do their jobs effectively. Because nothing currently exists that meets the wide-ranging detection needs of personnel and for search and rescue missions in confined spaces a small, lightweight and portable multifunctional sensor instrument will be defined and developed for this demanding application. Synkera Technologies proposed to use sensors from current product line, available off-the-shelf sensors, and to develop sensors as necessary to meet the application. The instrument that is developed will not hinder the user and will provide real-time information to assess threats and determine a plan to carryout intended missions. BENEFIT: In addition to aiding military personnel carry out search and rescue missions, this project also offers the potential for a highly successful non-military commercialization. According to the Department of Homeland Security, there are 2.3 million front line first responders in the U.S., including fire departments, police, EMTs and bomb disposal. In addition, support to these front line responders in the form of port security, public health agencies, hospitals, emergency management, public works, venue security and others comprises an additional 23 million individuals. These end-users could benefit from the multifunctional sensor proposed here, but cost reduction is critical. Provided the multifunctional sensor for search and rescue can be demonstrated, the resulting market opportunity is quite sufficient to interest venture capitalists or corporate partners to fund cost reduction, manufacturing scale-up and product distribution channel development. If just 10% of the front line first responders (230,000 individuals) were provided with a multifunctional sensor system retailing at $500, the resulting revenue would be in excess of $100 million. A successful scale-up effort and penetration of the commercial market would result in significant cost reduction for US military markets.

Network Sensing Technologies LLC
2110 Lewis Turner Blvd
FT Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 226-4408
Michael Chaloupka
AF 08-135      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Geolocation Evaluation and Modeling System (GEMS)
Abstract:Phase I of the proposed effort will examine previous Team-developed EW simulations including existing AFRL tools and simulators, existing receiver hardware, advanced detection, tracking and geolocation algorithms, and existing techniques. System improvement recommendations for a flexible, generic RWR hardware architecture and signal processing capability will be researched and proposed. COTS software defined radios systems will be researched and identified for applicability. The system should be able to process 160MHz IF frequency data if a receiver or simulated receiver output is provided as well as process synthetically generated digital data streams. The overarching objective is to establish requirements and identify RWR signal processing platform COTS components for a cost effective, FPGA based system with conventional processors to reduce Government RWR ownership costs. The research addresses signals of interest (SOI) including, but not limited to, communications signals and radar signals from HF to Ku-band (30MHz to 18 GHz), and will include short-duration, low- bandwidth radio transmissions, wide bandwidth signals, and current, as well as, future generation wireless devices. BENEFIT: Current state of the art geolocation development and demonstration techniques require use of large scale, prime contractor hardware and software that are not readily available for examination and modification by third parties or the Government. There is clear need for a flexible geolocation technique development system capable of hosting geolocation algorithms with provisions for stimulus utilizing existing Government receiver measurement data sets, including injection of synthetic receiver data. The Phase I objective is to research innovative methods, technologies, COTS hardware and software algorithms for the precision geolocation and tracking of radio frequency (RF) emitters with subsequent implementation on COTS signal processing hardware during Phase II. The benefit of this and continuing reserach will establish a generic test bed for geolocation algorithm evaluations with potential for a generic commerical receiver product.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Eric Wemhoff
AF 08-135      Awarded: 1/7/2009
Title:Geolocation of RF Emitters
Abstract:A need exists for lower-cost, more agile solutions for RF emitter geolocation, appropriate for certain operations not currently supported, and not requiring dedicated EW resources or highly specialized hardware. The ubiquity, maturity, reasonable cost, and extensibility of modern digital RWR systems make that an attractive class of receiver hardware to start from. However while these excel at detecting and identifying RF guided threats, direction finding and geolocalization capability is often a weak point. SSCI sees opportunity to improve this situation. The cornerstone is a statistical data fusion system that opportunistically utilizes any of a number of measurement types. With such a system in place, several advances become possible: 1) Information that isn''t used in current geolocation systems because taken by itself does not lend accurate position fixes, can now be taken advantage of in novel ways. This includes, notably, received signal strength (RSS) and doppler shift (DS). 2) Compatibility with a wide array of sensor capabilities, platforms, and mission configurations (including single-platform). 3) Natural handling of prior information on emitter type and location, extension to provide improved detection association to specific emitters, and tracking solutions for mobile emitters -- all due to the way information is represented and retained. SSCI will be the prime contractor on this project. There will be a subcontract to Raytheon Missile Systems (Dr. Richard Poisel) for expertise in RF receiver systems and practice, and future transition opportunities. BENEFIT: The program will produce a system for geolocating, associating, and tracking emitters associated with RF guided threats. The system opportunistically uses sensor measurements, enabling both improved geolocation, and applicability to a wide array of missions and sensor configurations. The system is designed to make use of existing and planned RWR hardware and as such, incremental costs are kept low, and there is a believable route to transition validated technology into practice.

21st Century Technologies Inc.
4515 Seton Center Parkway Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Thayne Coffman
AF 08-136      Awarded: 12/17/2008
Title:ARCHIVE: Adaptive Responses to Context and History in Video Exploitation
Abstract:Archive enables improved exploitation of persistent wide-area sensors. These sensors offer new capabilities for maintaining battlefield situational awareness, but realization of their benefits is blocked by bandwidth limitations that prevent sending all the imagery to the ground, and by human limitations that slow interpretation of large data volumes. In Archive, foveated (variable resolution) imagery is used to reduce bandwidth while maintaining operational effectiveness. Acquisition and tracking algorithms localize and highlight targets, and drive the placement of high-resolution foveae. Consumers receive regions of interest at full fidelity while a lower-fidelity periphery maintains their situational awareness. The key innovation in Archive is a set of novel foveated exploitation techniques that improve performance by exploiting the long-term history unique to persistent wide-area sensors. Acquisition and tracking are improved by exploiting historical scene appearance, target position, target behavior, algorithm behavior, geospatial information, 3D structure, time of day, and other data. These provide richer statistical models, non-uniform priors, fewer false alarms, better behavior prediction, better track segment fusion, and improved situational awareness. Archive Phase 1 conducts experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Archive leverages 21st Century’s unique expertise and capabilities to provide superior exploitation with lower communication bandwidth and lower operator workload. BENEFIT: The Archive Phase 1 and 2 efforts will generate an engineering prototype of a foveated exploitation system that will collect, analyze, and exploit historical and contextual information stored in a pixelpedia or voxelpedia. Archive will overcome two obstacles currently blocking the exploitation of wide-area persistent surveillance imagery on the battlefield: limits on communication bandwidth and operator attention. Archive supports improved operational performance by providing superior target acquisition, tracking, and situational awareness to the warfighter through improved exploitation of wide-area persistent sensors. Use of historical and contextual information yields lower false alarm rates and improved target behavior prediction, both of which reduce operator workload. Archive provides an exploitation approach that learns and adapts, improving its performance over time. As a result, each intelligence consumer can support a larger geographic region, support that region more effectively, and provide more beneficial intelligence products to the battlefield commander. Foveation enables transmission of large format wide-area imagery to the ground, providing partial relief to communication systems under increasing demands. Exploiting long-term history and context information in target acquisition and tracking will allow the creation of spatially- and time-varying prior target probabilities for both position and behavior, thereby reducing false alarm rates and improving target state estimates and track segment fusion. These are novel extensions to the state of the art in foveated image exploitation systems, as well as the first examples of an extensible new paradigm for improving image exploitation through the use of history and context stored in the form

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 965-9968
Dean Wetherby
AF 08-136      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Persistent Electro-Optical/Infra-Red (EO/IR) Wide-Area Sensor Exploitation
Abstract:The ever-increasing size of persistent sensors requires automated tracking algorithms to be run on the aerial platform. However, transmission limitations restrict the automated analysis to forensic purposes to be off-loaded post-mission rather than providing actionable imagery that leads to timely intelligence. Our solution to this problem for gigapixel sensors is to transmit compressed image chips of moving vehicles detected by the on-board system. This solution provides actionable imagery within the limitations of the data link which is sufficient to allow tens of thousands of target image chips, compressed through zero-tree encoding of Haar wavelet coefficients followed by adaptive DPCM, to be transmitted every few seconds. Between appearance updates, the position and orientation of the vehicles will be updated on the ground station tracking display similar to pieces on a game board while reserving a portion of the bandwidth for full field of view updates every ten minutes. The minimization of false object detections is also imperative to reducing the demand on the data link when dealing with Massively Multiple Target Tracking (MMTT). We reduce false detections through context-based anomaly analysis, parallax mitigation, shadow compensation, and long-term information accumulated through the automated discovery of road networks. BENEFIT: The technology we propose to develop in this SBIR project will enable real-time exploitation of large-format imagery from ARGUS-IS and other gigapixel sensors. Currently it is impractical to extract much information from these sensors because of the sheer volume of data they produce. The proposed automated content extraction techniques will attract immediate interest from intelligence, mapping, and operational elements of the federal government.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Andrew P. Brown
AF 08-136      Awarded: 12/17/2008
Title:Persistent Electro-Optical/Infra-Red (EO/IR) Wide-Area Sensor Exploitation
Abstract:Toyon proposes to develop high-performance algorithms and real-time software for exploitation of persistent wide-area high-resolution video-rate imaging information in accordance with AFRL’s pixelpedia concept. The focus in Phase I is on demonstrating feasibility of key algorithm components of the architecture, including georegistered dense 3D reconstruction based on multiple view geometry, construction of statistical model components of the pixelpedia in the georegistered 3D framework, and extension of advanced real-time parallax mitigation algorithms to leverage the 3D and statistical data. While development of some algorithm components of the proposed architecture is reserved for a potential Phase II effort, other components can be integrated as they become available from other sources, via collaboration with AFRL researchers and other contractors. As part of the Phase I feasibility demonstration, Toyon proposes to demonstrate automated detection and tracking using a data source of interest to the government. This demonstration will incorporate the new algorithm developments on this project, and leverage existing detection and feature-aided multiple target tracking algorithms and real-time software developed by Toyon for AFRL and other customers. The final report will include algorithm details, evaluation results, and recommendations. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research and development will result in significant improvements in real-time exploitation of persistent wide-area high-resolution video-rate EO/IR imaging sensors, including automated target detection, tracking, and identification in dense and cluttered urban environments. Secondary technical benefits will include the ability to automatically calibrate imaging sensors using flight data, rapidly create high-fidelity georegistered 3D models of large scenes, perform on-line learning of georegistered statistical background models, and mitigate the effects of parallax in change detection. This technology would have direct applications in deployed and current developmental wide-area persistent surveillance EO/IR sensor systems, as well as in a broad range of Air Force and other DoD surveillance systems, including air-, ground-, sea-, and space-based platforms. One possible opportunity for transition of the developed technology is into the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) being developed by Raytheon, and Toyon has discussed this proposal with Raytheon and obtained a Letter of Support. In surveillance applications, geo-registered 3D data provides context for the sensor operator, as well as exploitation system operators. Highly precise 3D geo-registration is required for multi-look change detection to locate emplacement of possible structures of interest or of threats such as IEDs, and on shorter time scales to perform moving-target detection. The technology could also be used to provide improved realism in personnel training, and even in computer gaming.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Matthew Erdtmann
AF 08-137      Awarded: 1/6/2009
Title:SUAS-Mountable Multi-Spectral Photomechanical Imager
Abstract:Agiltron will demonstrate a low-SWAP (size, weight, and power) multi-spectral imager based on our proven photomechanical IR imaging technology where an LWIR scene is transduced into a visible signal and optically readout by a visible CMOS or CCD imager. The multi-spectral photomechanical imager that will be developed in this program will provide imaging capability in four different wavebands—the visible, NIR, SWIR, and LWIR—by extending the capability of its optical readout architecture to capture multiple wavebands and optically fuse them onto a single imager. This will enable the Air Force SWAP and resolution objectives for a multi-spectral imager to be met for the first time. BENEFIT: Advanced thermal camera technologies will play increasing roles in future military systems. Thermal cameras are the key component for military surveillance, night vision, target identification, and countermeasures. The proposed low-SWAP multi-spectral imager development program represents a major technology breakthrough, facilitating wide use of these highly capable imagers in military applications. In particular, the proposed novel approach will find immediate use in equipping SUAS platforms, such as the RQ-11B Raven, to grant the warfighter all-location, all-condition imaging. The multi- spectral imagers can also be deployed as helmet-mounted tactical sensors for infantry soliders, thermal weapon sights, replacements for image intensifier tubes in night vision goggles, and driver’s vision enhancement sensors. Targeted DoD end user agencies include the Army, Air Force, Marines, and SOCOM.

Applied NanoFemto Technologies LLC
181 Stedman St. #2
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 761-4293
Jarrod Vaillancourt
AF 08-137      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:A Thermal-Electrically Cooled Quantum-Dot Multi-spectral Photodetector and Focal Plane Array with High Photodetectivity
Abstract:Highly-sensitive multi-spectral photodetectors and imaging arrays are of great importance in numerous applications, including thermal remote sensing, environment monitoring, missile tracking and discrimination, material analysis and medical diagnostics. There are generally two types of imaging sensors, i.e. (1) thermal detectors and (2) photodetectors. Thermal detectors are slow in response and have limited sensitivity, making them unsuitable for fast and highly sensitive infrared imaging. Photodetectors are intrinsically fast and have high sensitivity. However, existing middle wave infrared (MWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) photodetectors are required to be cooled down to a low temperature of 77K to reduce dark current. The requirement for cryogenic cooling systems adds cost, weight and reliability issues. The proposed research aims to develop capable of thermal-electrically (TE) cooled multi-spectral (LWIR, MWIR and LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIPs) with fast response and high sensitivity. Such TE- cooled multi-spectral IR photodetector avoids the difficulty associated with cryogenic cooling systems and provides a reliable IR imaging technology for small and micro unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and standalone applications. In phase I, a preliminary TE- cooled multi-band QDIP will be developed for proof-of-concept demonstration. In Phase II, a prototype of ultra-compact TE-cooled 1Kx1K focal plane array (FPA) will be developed and delivered to Air force research lab. BENEFIT: The proposed innovation provides an enabling technology for thermal-electrically (TE) cooled multi-spectral imaging FPAs with high sensitivity. This kind of ultra-sensitive thermal-electrically FPAs not only significantly enhances detecting sensitivity and spatial and temporal resolution, but also substantially reduces costs, size, weight and power consumption and improve the system reliability. It forms a key building block for highly reliable and standalone IR imaging systems for high- speed target detection, identification and discrimination systems. Commercial markets include portable IR sensing and imaging systems for atmospheric pollution and drug monitoring, spectroscopy, and medical diagnoses. The technology developed herein is expected to significantly advance IR imaging technologies and greatly accelerate the commercialization of the ultra-compact and portable multi-spectral IR imaging technologies to meet the potential needs of the billion-dollar defense and commercial market.

Defense Engineering Corporation
124 Chartley Court Suite 100
Beavercreek, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 572-4576
James Utt
AF 08-138      Awarded: 5/1/2009
Title:Improved Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) Sensors
Abstract:AFSOC and other warfighting organizations have the requirement to distinguish enemy combatants from neutral non-combatants either alone or in groups. Movement, object manipulation, and other human activities vary widely and subtle interactions within groups occur continuously. Support tools are essential for the user particularly those that automatically detect, extract, and track relevant visual cues. DEC is developing a combination of sensors and algorithms which resolve sufficient detail in group images at indicated ranges that an estimation of intent can be with enough confidence to add value to user operations by reducing false alarm tasking of more expensive ISR Assets. BENEFITS: The DEC team will methodically construct a transitionable capability by leveraging a substantial existing technology base. DEC team will then conduct a successful laboratory demonstration based on recorded sensor data during Phase I and a flight demonstration for the prototype to be built during Phase II. DEC will work with the existing AFSOC ISR supply chain to begin transition and commercialization.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Justin T. Muncaster
AF 08-138      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Automatic Detection and Tracking of Suspicious Dismounts
Abstract:The capability to automatically monitor areas of strategic interest at increased ranges will undoubtedly yield a key advantage on the battlefield by reducing manpower and improving knowledge of enemy target locations. The ability to effectively exploit data from multiple sensor types to find, track, and recognize targets of interest such as dismounts is key to realizing the promise AFSOC advanced sensors. Yet due to a number of well-known challenges, including the large number of target classes and aspects, long and varying viewing range, obscured targets, cluttered backgrounds, various geographic and weather conditions, sensor noise, and variations caused by translation, rotation, and scaling of the targets, effective algorithms for discriminating enemy and neutral targets are still far and few between. An integrated solution which addresses the aforementioned problems in a rigorous, methodical way is necessary to achieve the goals of AFSOC advanced sensors. Our signal processing solution works with many sensors, in many environments, and has matured to the point of natural extension to dismount classification and intent recognition. We propose to augment our tracking solution with advanced machine learning and signal processing algorithms for both appearance-based and motion-based dismount recognition. Furthermore, we propose to recognize enemy combatants through the use of algorithms that can find line-shaped objects consistent with the shape and length of weapons. BENEFIT: Toyon''s approach has successfully tracked multiple, closely spaced targets using multiple sensor types (including EO, I2, MWIR, and LWIR), mounted on multiple platforms (hand-held, building pan-tilt-zoom, and UAV). Successful completion of this work will result in a prototype that can discriminate dismounts, identify weapon-like shapes, and run in real time. Such a system will improve battlefield awareness by emitting prioritized cues only on targets of interest.

Mnemonics, Inc.
3900 Dow Rd. Suite J
Melbourne , FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 254-7300
TJ Mears
AF 08-139      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:Support Jammer Queuing
Abstract:This activity seeks to investigate new concepts for improved RF sensing, integrated communication data links, and subsequent command and control targeted Jamming of Threat emitters. Several airframes will be considered as part of the overall Sensor/Jammer architecture to include Small-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms. These platforms would support Mobility Air Force (MAF) aircraft and the standoff jammers deployed in support of them. Critical challenges include sensing/geo-locating LPI Threat emitters, communicating their locations to the standoff jammer in real-time while using extremely high sensitivity, lightweight and low power sensor, and communication systems technology. Further, the system concept must be consistent with the Air Force Layered Sensing Architecture and provide a network-centric solution for delivery of data from the sensor platform to all appropriate layers within the architecture. This activity will develop the concept for the sensor sub-system and data link, their nominal interface requirements, and the hardware and software requirements that will define a system capable of demonstrating the concept. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the resulting Phase I and II studies provide not only an end-to-end solution for the Support Jammer Queuing requirement but will also provide building blocks for other Dual Use Missions. Examples of those potential missions are highly portable, high sensitivity directional RF sensors, flexible low SWaP future data links for LOS, OTH, and potential SATCOM solutions along with the numerous variations based on the building block integrations. Potential areas for other Government Agency support could include Border Security, Port Security, IED detection within Large Crowd environments, and flexible high bandwidth LOS networks for quick response implementation.

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Joseph Salzman
AF 08-139      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Support Jammer Queing
Abstract:Mobility Air Force assets deployed in forward positions are vulnerable to enemy air defenses and require protection, typically provided by high-power standoff jammer aircraft loitering outside the range of enemy missiles while radiating powerful waves of wideband energy at an entire region of enemy territory. However, the position of the standoff jammer may result in the jamming power being directed at the sidelobes of some ground-based threat emitters, and consequently ineffective. In order optimize the jam coverage of the standoff jammer, real-time information is needed of threat emitter locations, so that the jamming assets can be repositioned. To address this need, Technology Service Corporation (TSC) will be investigating the feasibility of Threat Emitter Geolocation System (TEGS) concept in Phase I, which consists of highly sensitive intercept receiver technology, coupled with a broadband antenna with front-hemisphere wide beamwidth, and powerful Geolocation estimation and tracking algorithms to determine and refine the location of the detected emitters and minimize the effects of multipath, atmospheric attenuation, and other interfering signals. These components can be made small, light, and power-efficient, to accommodate UAS SWaP constraints. Data is partially processed onboard airborne platforms, but must be fused with other airborne platforms’ information in offboard processing. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the potential outcome of this study will be hardware and software designs that will result in a small, lightweight ES receiver that can be carried onboard UASs, possessing the capability of detecting a variety of RF emitters, utilizing either conventional or low-probability of intercept (LPI) waveforms. The software algorithms, in combination of small UAS fleets (at least three), will provide the ability to Geolocate these emitters with sufficient accuracy to optimally position support jammers to protect vulnerable MAF assets. The technology may also benefit domestic commercial applications, among them are rescue missions to locate hikers and skiers carrying small RF beacons, and homeland security missions such as locating teams of intruders that communicate using cell phones.

Defense Research Associates, Inc.
3915 Germany Lane Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Ron Clericus
AF 08-140      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Simulation Technologies to Rapidly Evolve Network-Centric System-of-Systems Large Aircraft Advanced Situation Awareness (ASA) and Protection Concepts
Abstract:Man/hardware-in-the-loop laboratory simulation is the most cost-effective methodology for evolving/maturing advanced Advanced Situation Awareness (ASA) and Electronic Protection (EP) technologies for large aircraft because the battlefield can be brought to the laboratory through multi-spectral synthetic battlespace simulation. Current laboratory network-centric battlespace simulators do not provide the required fidelity to accurately simulate the parameters needed to develop ASA and EP capabilities. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by developing a Threat Target Simulator for Large Aircraft (TTSLA) for rapid prototyping of advanced ASA and EP systems. The TSLA flexible architecture will enable the development of advanced ASA and EP technologies for large aircraft within a controlled laboratory environment enabling repeatable test and step-by-step evaluation/debugging capabilities. TTSAL will provide simulator technology to develop ASA and EP technologies within new military concepts such as Lightweight Modular Support Jammer (LMSJ) and Core Component Jammer (CCJ) for application to military aircraft such as, B-2,, C-17 and C-130. During Phase II, DRA will develop a prototype capability and demonstrate key performance characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building-block capability for rapid evolution of ASA and EP technology. BENEFIT: The Phase I/II SBIR results shall provide a real-time network- centric battlespace simulation base that will address the needs of evolving advanced situation awareness and electronic protection concepts. This simulation technology base will be leveraged to provide network-centric battlespace simulation products resulting in Phase III initiatives that address both government and commercial applications in markets such as the telecommunications and sensor industries.

Network Sensing Technologies LLC
2110 Lewis Turner Blvd
FT Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 226-4408
Michael Chaloupka
AF 08-140      Awarded: 12/22/2008
Title:Geolocation Simulation Environment Toolset (GEOSET)
Abstract:The Phase I research will address AEF/MAF RF detection, situational awareness and counter-measure concepts and techniques through an integrated simulation and modeling environment. Identification of critical technology challenges, synthesis of advanced methods, and concept feasibility analyses leading to assessment technologies for geolocation and EA concepts are addressed. The research will outline new parametric simulation capabilities and leverage maximum reuse of government and corporate simulations, algorithms, tools and HIL interfaces to explore and evolve ES and EA concepts as applied to specific platforms and generic Radar Warning Receivers (RWR). Phase I will develop system requirements for a real-time software simulation platform consisting of medium and high fidelity multiple aircraft type navigation data geolocation, Pulse Data Word generation, geolocation algorithm solution models, distributed CORBA/DDS data publisher / subscriber and hardware interfaces. A goal of the system is to leverage existing work with new developments, combined with other efforts that integrate essential system components to physical hardware and HIL environments. Phase I of the proposed effort will examine previous developed products, including existing AFRL tools and simulators, existing receiver hardware, situational awareness software, advanced detection, tracking and geolocation algorithms and existing EA/ES/EP techniques. BENEFIT: The proposed research will establish requirements for a digital simulation associated with electronic warfare attack, protection, and support of large MAF/AEF mobility operation aircraft. Synthetically generated, as well as measured PDW data combined with real-time geolocation solution models, distributed EOB, OOB, ELINT database resources and advanced distributing messaging methods will provide the Government with a unique capability to explore EA/ES/EP Systems of System concepts for MAF/AEF aircraft operations. The simulations and real-time solutions / messaging method software may have the potential to be used with commercial hardware as the framework of new EW products.

GIRD Systems, Inc.
310 Terrace Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 281-2900
James Caffery, Jr.
AF 08-141      Awarded: 12/16/2008
Title:Polarization-Invariant Wideband Direction Finding
Abstract:Electromagnetic (EM) signal source direction finding (DF) or direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is a classical problem that exists in a wide range of applications. Wideband signals are becoming more prevalent nowadays. Therefore the need for wideband DOA estimation is becoming more urgent. Furthermore, in practical field scenarios, polarization effects can introduce errors in the receive process in systems designed under the single polarization assumption. In this program we propose an innovative solution to implement high-resolution electromagnetic (EM) source location estimation that are both scalable in bandwidth and capable of accurate estimation regardless of the source polarization. BENEFIT: The developed techniques will contribute to improving the situation awareness and targeting capabilities of airborne platforms on EM emission sources. Therefore all three services of the DoD may find applications of this new technology. In addition, other government and commercial applications are abundant, such as the government search and rescue agencies, the emergency 911 cellular service providers, and the commercial WiFi and WiMax services.

Gitam Technologies Inc
9782 Country Creek Way
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 885-9767
William S. Mccormick
AF 08-141      Awarded: 12/23/2008
Title:Polarization-Invariant Wideband Direction Finding
Abstract:There is current Air Force need to research, develop and implement direction-finding algorithms that are capable of precise localization of sources with unknown bandwidth, polarization and center frequencies. Variety of broadband sources having different polarizations, bandwidths, SNR-levels and coherence properties appear in many current and future COMINT applications, including ESM. Most published research on wideband DOA estimation routinely assumes single polarization and equal bandwidths with common center frequencies. However, in field scenarios, polarization effects cause errors in the receive process in systems designed under the single polarization assumption, and the frequency/BW parameters may also be unknown in practice. In this proposal, Gitam Technologies in collaboration with WGS Systems propose develop and implement the promising algorithms and verify performance with simulation. The Phase-I objective is to prepare a definitive trade-off study of the capabilities and limitations of the algorithms that will help us pinpoint the best algorithmic choices. Additionally, the necessary hardware architecture to supports the requirements of platform and signal bandwidth scalability has to be specified. To effectively address these requirements, hardware solutions that leverage high-performance, general purpose computing for adaptive and decision based processing, along with hardware acceleration of fundamental elements of the processing in FPGAs will be examined. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research will result in the development of a robust source localization algorithms and associated architecture capable of being integrated on an operational airborne platform. This capability will be of great interest to current and future military systems that require highly accurate source localization capabilities especially in remote unreachable regions. We expect there are two approaches to commercializing the development of this technology. First, there is the direct military application of source localization algorithms and architectures suitable for the Air Force and the other services. We plan to first develop the technology to maturity under Phase I and Phase II SBIR efforts. Once this has been done, we plan to market the technology to military programs, emergency service providers, and large systems integrators who build systems that require a rapid wideband source localization capability. The marketing presentation will make use of the algorithms and performance trade-off analysis conducted under these SBIR efforts. A part of this strategy is to have the matured capability inserted in a simulation exercise, such as those performed at Joint Forces Command, so that the potential of the proposed study can be demonstrated to many of the decision-makers that witness these exercises. The second approach to commercializing this technology is to apply it to other applications in the military world or in the civilian marketplace. Potential civilian applications include localization of mobile CDMA devices for Emergency-911, smart antennas or other applications, drug enforcement, and border patrol where wideband sources need to be tracked using passive means. Military applications include surveillance and estimation of

OPTRA, Inc
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Craig R. Schwarze
AF 08-142      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:LWIR Grating Spectrometer for Threat Warning
Abstract:OPTRA proposes the development of a hyperspectral imager based on a grating spectrometer operating in the long-wave infrared region in response to the Air Force’s need for an energetic event sensor. The grating multiplexes the use of an imaging array to enable rapid and simultaneous collection of both spatial and spectral information about the event. The spatial information is used to ascertain the location of the event, while the spectral information will be used to distinguish between events of interest and false alarms by exploiting explosive and propellant spectral signatures. The proposed technology is compact, contains no moving parts, and provides rapid spatial and constituent information of energetic events, thereby making it an ideal solution to the needs of the Air Force. The Phase I will produce an analytical model predicting the performance of the system as well as requirements and a conceptual design for a prototype system to be built during the Phase II. BENEFIT: In addition to applications in all branches of the armed forces, the proposed technology could also be used by homeland security and civilian police forces. The threat warning sensor could be used to autonomously monitor high value targets or high crime areas, as well as provide situational awareness in hostage situations.

Solid State Scientific Corporation
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
James E. Murguia
AF 08-142      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Energetic Event Sensor for Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Abstract:Solid State Scientific Corporation is pleased to propose this Phase I SBIR program to extend the development of a unique multi-spectral non-imaging sensor prototype based on Cross Dispersion Prism (CDP) technology for the detection and classification of energetic battlefield events. The proposed sensor will simultaneously acquire the spectral content of all energetic point targets within the sensor field of view at high frame rates. The sensor will employ a single camera and a novel prismatic optical element that will allow the sensor to operate simultaneously in both the visible/SWIR and MWIR bands with moderate spectral resolution, approximately 100 spectral samples per band. Using a custom optical system design and COTS electronics and camera package, the proposed spectral sensor will be lightweight, portable, rugged and suitable for airborne testing. The sensor system, including optics will weigh approximately 25 pounds and not require a liquid coolant. BENEFIT: A sensor that detects and classifies energetic events and provides real time geo-location information from aircraft will be a useful adjunct sensor for persistent surveillance platforms. Current assets generate large amounts of sensor data that must be processed by automated algorithms or human operators. Cueing the algorithms and operators to portions of the data that are likely to contain targets will have wide application in sensor management and optimization.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 885-2631
Scott Dobson
AF 08-143      Awarded: 1/20/2009
Title:Coherent Change Detection for Predictive Battlespace Awareness: Ground Moving Target Identification (GMTI) Forensics
Abstract:As US military mission change on the modern battlefield, so must the techniques and algorithms providing battlespace awareness. Asymmetric threats such as civilian vehicles operating in urban environments are increasingly becoming important. Current GMTI systems have difficulty in generating and maintaining tracks in these urban environments. Novel signal processing approaches are necessary to extract increasingly time critical information products over wide fields of view. Arete Associates will design, test and implement advanced processing algorithms showing greatly improved detection performance in difficult clutter conditions. BENEFIT: The proposed advanced radar processing algorithms are highly suitable for a variety of radar systems. The ability to detect and track slow moving targets in high clutter will allow land and sea surveillance systems including Army, Navy and DHS assets to operate with significantly enhanced capabilities.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 490-4705
Ronald Dilsavor
AF 08-143      Awarded: 1/15/2009
Title:Coherent Change Detection for Predictive Battlespace Awareness: Ground Moving Target Identification (GMTI) Forensics
Abstract:The SET Team proposes to develop advanced GMTI architectures and processing techniques that effectively exploit the diverse information collected by persistent, staring airborne multi-channel synthetic aperture radar systems towards the goal of detecting and tracking people and vehicles in challenging urban environments. The staring multi- channel SAR system continuously orbits a fixed region of interest and collects wide-area spot-mode radar data with a small number of receiver channels. The wide-beam SAR receivers each record clutter responses over a large Doppler spread so that moving targets of interest are typically endoclutter. The SET design will use multi-channel space- time processing to suppress clutter and simultaneously identify range and bearing to a target; thereby breaking the bearing/velocity ambiguity seen by single channel systems. Furthermore, data collected over multiple orbits of the staring sensor will be used to cancel correlated clutter; simplifying the clutter environment and enabling zero MDV target detection. The SET design will reflect constraints imposed by current/future processors and air-to-ground data links and will support forensic analysis of the radar observables to recognize activities leading up to designated trigger events. BENEFIT: The capability to track vehicles and people in difficult urban terrain and in day/night conditions is critically needed to support oversea, border, and homeland operations in the Global War on Terror. Wide-area persistent staring sensors are being developed to “see everything all the time”. These sensors produce vast amounts of data that must be mined for information. When events of interest occur, these sensors can be used to track forward in time or forensically back in time to uncover tactics, techniques, procedures, and facilities used by enemy insurgents. Automated tools such as those developed here will be needed to search through and extract information needed by warfighters, and security and law enforcement personnel.

Matrix Research LLC
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Robert W. Hawley
AF 08-144      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Develop low-cost high-speed image processing and visualization techniques for persistent surveillance applications.
Abstract:Persistent surveillance sensing allows for the production of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) movies that promise to allow continuous tracking of moving targets on the ground in dense traffic environments and through move-stop-move cycles that confound traditional tracking approaches. Real-time production of a sequence of very large SAR images is a significant challenge that facilitates many desirable exploitation approaches. Current approaches rely on a digital spotlighting followed by a computationally expensive back-projection at their core. Our approach will decrease the computation cost of the digital spotlighting and replace the back projection with a modification of the popular polar format algorithm. Initial calculations indicate that our approach will reduce the number of processors by as much as an order of magnitude. We anticipate great interest from a number of radar manufactures in the licensing of this faster implementation of a persistent surveillance SAR mode. BENEFIT: This research will allow real-time production of very large synthetic aperture radar images from an orbital persistent surveillance geometry. The algorithm will improve image quality and reduce computational resources required for any existing airborne radar system. These existing radar systems may be used for anything from terrain mapping and border patrol to site monitoring for counter terrorism.

Neva Ridge Technologies, Inc.
6685 Gunpark Drive Suite 230
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-9966
Richard Carande
AF 08-144      Awarded: 1/12/2009
Title:Develop low-cost high-speed image processing and visualization techniques for persistent surveillance applications.
Abstract:Neva Ridge Technologies proposes techniques to reduce the computational complexity associated with GOTCHA SAR processing through innovative improvements to the GOTCHA processor flow. The proposed approach treats the exploitation chain systemically. Specific improvements include the implementation of a fast back projection algorithm that combines SAR image formation steps with the co-generation of change maps via an image-guided registration process. In addition a new processing concept of operations that can drastically reduce the number of calculations required to extract information of value will be developed and tested during Phase I. All of these approaches will be assessed in terms of feasibility to increasing the effective throughput of the GOTCHA SAR exploitation chain and will for the basis for a Phase II implementation plan. BENEFIT: The ability to improve high fidelity SAR image generation and exploitation throughput is of great interest within the military community, and there will be many opportunities to extend the research performed here to other DoD customers. Similarly, development of these capabilities will be of interest to the medical imaging field (e.g. CT scans) where real-time image formation combined with real-time registration, will be of great value.

Integrity Applications Incorporated
5180 Parkstone Drive Suite 260
Chantilly , VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 997-7436
Christopher Kreucher
AF 08-145      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Radio Frequency Tomography for Reduction of Improvised Explosive Device Threats
Abstract:The Michigan Technological University Research Institute (MTRI), led by Dr. Mark Stuff, and Integrity Applications Incorporated (IAI), propose to exploit data collected from a constellation of single tone RF sensors arrayed around a scene to provide an all-weather day/night method for detecting IED placement activity. In our model problem, we consider a high-traffic road with a few dozen sensors placed on posts or buildings of opportunity around the road. These sensors produce surveillance data to allow monitoring and detection of suspicious activity. In particular, we will exploit the collected data in two ways. First, a Bayes-optimal nonlinear filter will process the RF data to detect and track vehicles moving through the scene. Kinematic features provided by the filter will show if particular vehicles are likely to have placed an IED (e.g., move-stop-move behavior demonstrate increased likelihood that placement activity is taking place). Second, when the filter detects candidate placement activity, we will combine a tomographic imaging approach with compressed sensing methods to form high-resolution change-detection images in the region of the suspicious kinematic behavior. These queued change images will be used to determine if IED sweep activities are again required. BENEFIT: The methods and capabilities developed under this SBIR will provide a means of tracking vehicles through an urban area and detecting suspicious events. As such, they can be used in a variety of other military and civilian applications, including citywide traffic analysis, border protection, and surveillance of protected sites like airports. Furthermore, the tomographic imaging and compressed sensing change detection strategies can be exploited in the commercial sector to monitor protected sites for unusual activity.

RemSense, Inc.
50849 Hawthorne Meadows
South Bend, IN 46628
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 478-3744
Scott Anderson
AF 08-145      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:Radio Frequency (RF) Tomography for Reduction of Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Threat
Abstract:This proposal address the applicability of the RF tomography concept to the detection of IEDs. In the proposal, RemSense, Inc. presents a clear Phase I path to establishing the RF tomography concept for this use by presenting a preliminary overview of the potential algorithms used for the concept. Further, RemSense has arranged a teaming agreement with FIRST RF corporation to take measurement data during the Phase I effort. BENEFIT: Aside from the obvious benefit that the tactical community, in general, would benefit from a robust method for detecting underground IEDs, the establishment of the RFT concept as an applicable method for detecting and classifying IEDs will promote the concept in general as a viable solution to other tactical scenarios. The added awareness of this concept may initiate further funding of its development to solve many of the practical issues of its deployment, such as automatic calibration of the sensor array to minimize the manual process of setting up the transceivers, pointing them, registering them, etc. This year alone, the Joint Imporovised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) has budgeted $2.57B to defeating IEDs in the battlefield. According to the JIEDDO 2007 annual report, one of the technological challenges to defeating IEDs is in detecting and classifying trip-wires and IED threats underground. These challenges are directly addressed by the RFT concept proposed here.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dan Stouch
AF 08-146      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:ICONVIEW - ISR CONstellation Visualization and Investigative Evaluation Workbench
Abstract:The complex challenges of successfully managing and tasking ISR assets to collect sensor data include the requirement for each ISR collection route to satisfy multiple constraints (e.g., collision avoidance and limited fuel supply) that make manual planning difficult. ISR routes must also meet numerous and often competing objectives (e.g., avoiding adverse weather effects, maximizing sensor performance, and consistently tracking targets). As a result, the number of sensors and sensor platforms, the highly diverse advantages of each, and the ways of combining them are making it harder for operators to maximize their use. As automated ISR constellation management algorithms are being developed, some means of identifying the best algorithm to use in each unique operational scenario is needed. We propose to develop ICONVIEW (ISR CONstellation Visualization and Investigative Evaluation Workbench) as a means of impartially evaluating and contrasting different ISR constellation management algorithms. ICONVIEW is a complete end-to-end analytical research environment capable of specifying scenario models, designing effectiveness metrics, executing simulations, and evaluating the results using advanced meta-data visualization techniques. BENEFIT: In addition to direct application of the developed system to specific programs within the DoD, we will provide consulting services to customers within the DoD, other federal agencies, and commercial entities that develop or employ data collection management algorithms to help them determine the best algorithm to use and to improve the performance of their existing algorithms. In particular, we will look at companies that rely heavily on route planning, such as public transportation for large urban areas, private utility services, and package or commodity distribution companies.

DCM Research Resources, LLC
14163 Furlong Way
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 481-5397
Genshe Chen
AF 08-146      Awarded: 1/14/2009
Title:An Integrated Constellation Sensor Simulation Environment for Airborne ISR
Abstract:We propose a sensor web enabled reconfigurable ISR mission simulator which integrates innovative target tracking, data fusion and sensor management algorithms. We leverage novel game theoretic sensor management algorithm, hierarchical tasking and scheduling framework for asset allocation, new performance evaluation metrics, and metadata processing in compliance with Open Geospatial Consortium standards and service such as Transducer Makeup Language and open sources software such as GMAT to provide automated analysis and visualization. The proposed system has the following innovative components: (1) new information theoretic performance metric incorporating trustworthiness and risk for the evaluation of management technique, (2) awareness based game theoretic sensor management for sensor assignment and scheduling to track intelligent targets with evasive motion, (3) OntoSensor. OntoSensor will be served as a knowledge base for both low-level and high-level knowledge of sensors and platforms and their relations. (4) Sensor Web. The sensor Web is able to reconfigure, manage, control, access, discover, and analyze networked smart imaging/other sensors. The smart sensors can be dynamically reconfigured for optimized power consumption and data throughput maximization. Web services will be used in the simulator to realize a service oriented architecture (SOA) for seamless data exchange among the distributed networked smart sensors. BENEFIT: The proposed C2S2E simulator and algorithms have tremendous potential applications in the military sector. It can be directly used for the development of advanced mission planning and emergency preparedness decision support systems such as Space Situational Awareness Fusion Intelligent Research Environment (SAFIRE) program, Predictive Awarness & Net-Centric Analysis for Colalborative Intel Assessment (PANACIA), JSARS, Century ASW Concept of Operations (CONOPs), BMDS system, Future Combat System (FCS), Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, and JSSEO program. During the Phase I, we will work closely with Lockheed Martin MS2, who is a primary contractor on the Aegis weapon system, the Littoral Combat Ship, and C2 lead for the DDG-1000 program. We have developed a concrete and realistic plan to transition our technology to their programs (See support letter). In addition, DCM and Lockheed Martin are building a mentor-protégé program. We will leverage this relationship to identify the end customer, and work with these teams to transition our Phase 2 technology into their program. The DoD contact who knows the details of our work and who knows the above programs is Dr. Erik Blasch from AFRL. The market for military applications is quite large. Other potential commercial applications include medical diagnosis, quality inspection, disaster assessment, air traffic control system, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing and global awareness. We expect the aggregated market size will be similar to that of military applications

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Adam Langdon
AF 08-146      Awarded: 1/26/2009
Title:Combined Constellation Sensor Simulation Environment (C2S2E)
Abstract:A critical requirement in modern warfare is maintaining an accurate and comprehensive picture of the battlespace at all times. The ability to maintain this situational awareness is made more difficult by the ever increasing role technology plays in todays military. Advanced sensors, platforms, and weapons systems continue to provide important advantages when defending against a changing enemy. Assets such as the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) must collaborate with a diverse collection of sensors and platforms to provide ground situation information. This complex group of air, ground, communication, and command and control resources is combined to provide connectivity between forces in many locations. To take advantage of these advancing technologies, a constellation of sensors and platforms such as these must be properly managed to yield timely information to all participants. Recognizing this need, the DoD is seeking methods to evaluate constellation management techniques in a flexible, simulation environment. The proposed EDAptive® SPARCS solution meets these needs by delivering a flexible framework for sensor constellation modeling and the evaluation and comparison of control and optimization algorithms. The resulting capabilities will result in new methods for developing sensor fusion algorithms and allow the MDA to continue to expand and improve its global sensor network with confidence. BENEFIT: The need for delivering a comprehensive and accurate picture of the battlespace during an engagement is critical to the success of the Air Force. Any solutions that can aid in this goal will offer tremendous benefit to the Air Forces objectives. By providing better methods for managing and optimizing sensor resources, the Air Force can continue to deploy more advanced sensors in more places around the world. By increasing the complexity and size of their sensor constellations, the Air Force can continue to improve their ability to accurately monitor situations on the ground and support effective decision making. The driving force behind our proposal is to fulfill this need. By combining an intuitive visual modeling framework with reusable sensor models and resource management algorithms, our solution will improve the Air Forces ability to capture knowledge about its sensor s and platforms and transform this knowledge into useful information. The SPARCS product will be of value wherever large amounts of data must be fused to provide up-date information. We intend to focus our Phase I commercialization efforts on Air Force applications, in systems such as JSTARS. Our first targets after the Air Force will be our current MDA, Navy and Army customers. We will introduce the SPARCS product to our contacts in the Air Force, Navy, and Army. From there we plan to aggressively market SPARCS to the rest of the DoD as well. In addition, SPARCS will have significant industry applicability in the transportation and aerospace fields and we will pursue licensing opportunities in these markets upon product maturity.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Farzin Lalezari
AF 08-147      Awarded: 12/22/2008
Title:Conformal Antenna for Application to Jamming of IEDs
Abstract:The proposed program addresses the need for conformal and wideband antennas for ground and air vehicles primarily for support of J-CREW applications. FIRST RF has developed and produced a very novel wideband antenna that has been fielded on US Army, US Navy, and US Marines vehicles. The proposed program leverages this technology with three ongoing areas of research at FIRST RF: efficient wideband antennas, low-loss metamaterials, and innovative antenna integration strategies. Our proposed product is a conformal and wideband antenna that maintains impedance and pattern bandwidth despite placement near the vehicle body. The antenna can be integrated into a number of concealed and conformal locations around the body of a ground vehicle or airborne platform to conceal the mission of the vehicle. The capstone of this program will be testing at a local outdoor test facility aboard an actual HMMWV or full scale model of an MRAP to characterize the installed performance of the antenna. BENEFIT: The near term benefits of the technology are primarily for military ground vehicles supporting EW operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Long term benefits include concealed antennas for Special Operations and Intelligence Operations vehicles, wideband airborne antennas and Homeland defense and security.

Pharad LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive, Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 590-3333
Austin Farnham
AF 08-147      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:Wideband Conformal Antenna for CREW Systems
Abstract:In this Phase I project, Pharad proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel wideband, flat panel antenna capable of improving vehicle based CREW systems; allowing flat panel antennas to be mounted on various surfaces of the vehicle. This will allow CREW systems to operate more covertly, eliminating the visual signatures of existing larger antennas. The Phase I activities will include a comprehensive electromagnetic design and the mechanical design and fabrication of a prototype antenna assembly. The radiating element of this vehicle CREW antenna assembly will be based on our proven CREW antenna assembly for dismounted applications. This new vehicle antenna assembly will be designed to operate from 200 – 6000 MHz, handle RF powers greater than 200 Watts and direct electromagnetic (EM) radiation away from the vehicle surface. During Phase I we will complete the antenna design, fabricate a proof of concept antenna prototype assembly, carry out laboratory testing of its electromagnetic performance, and commence preliminary integration testing with CREW electronics. BENEFIT: The innovative conformal CREW antenna technology that will be developed as part of this program will find immediate application for mounting on US military tactical vehicles such as the HMMWV, MRAP, and the Stryker vehicle. The new antenna design will also be of benefit to other military land based vehicles as well as aircraft. In addition to the DoD, we believe that our novel antenna technology will find use in the Homeland Security applications that require conformal antennas for vehicles. Having smaller vehicle antennas with performance similar to larger whip antennas will be of great benefit and the elimination of large vehicle antennas will allow for more covert operation of CREW systems.

Goleta Star LLC
24085 Garnier St
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 891-2435
John Kirk
AF 08-148      Awarded: 1/22/2009
Title:Synthetic Aperture Radar Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI) for Detection, ID, and Tracking, of Moving Targets from Airborne Radar Systems
Abstract:The Goleta Star LLC team proposes to develop improved change detection algorithms that are well suited to applications that use persistent RF sensors for detecting, tracking, locating, and identifying targets in urban areas. We plan to develop advanced change detection algorithms that specifically address both IEDs and moving targets, including dismounts. The Goleta Star team has a significant expertise in image formation processing and change detection to be able to perform this proposed effort. During Phase I we will expand on our current efforts to develop multiple candidate change detection approaches and then trade off the candidate approaches that are most suitable for a Circular SAR applications and which are suitable for insertion into the Gotcha program and potential specific radar applications, such as evolving and developing AF UAV assets. Goleta Star has SAR / MTI data collection assets that can be used to support the development of the candidate approaches, even during Phase I. These assets can be configured to perform detailed development and test and evaluation of the selected capability during Phase II. Phase III would then be the transfer of this new capability to Gotcha elements and to suitable AF UAV assets. BENEFIT: The anticipated result from successful completion of this project will be the development and testing and demonstration of advanced change detection capability suitable for incorporation in the evolving Gotcha effort and in potential AF UAV assets. The AF will have a mode to detect, track and image moving targets that is applicable in surveillance and reconnaissance radar platforms of the Departments of Defense, Homeland, and Justice.

Mehrdad Soumekh Consultant
51 washington highway
amhesrt, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 785-6948
Mehrdad Soumekh
AF 08-148      Awarded: 2/3/2009
Title:Synthetic Aperture Radar Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI) for Detection, ID, and Tracking, of Moving Targets from Airborne Radar Systems
Abstract:Over the past decades, AFRL-WPAFB has initiated SAR signal processing programs to better understand coherent information in SAR imagery for ATR, MTI, CCD. Current effort is intended to further this objective by developing algorithms to detect changes in SAR imagery that are acquired at different time points. We plan to address the general problem of change detection in delta-heading multi-pass nonlinear SAR imagery that correspond to different slant planes of an interrogated scene; as a result one SAR image is a spatially- warped version of other SAR images, and their Doppler data are not identical. Our objective is to spatially and spectrally register these imagery such that a coherent processing of the resultant spatially and spectrally registered imagery could be exploited to detect subtle targets such as IEDs. Our approach is based on utilizing an accurate wavefront reconstruction algorithm that is capable of spatially-varying motion compensation using INS data, and forming coherent ground UTM images for multiple SAR databases; this results in spatially-registered imagery. Next, INS data are exploited for spectral registration of ground plane imagery. An adaptive filter is used to calibrate the multi-pass images with respect to the unknown phase, motion errors and variations of the SAR system electronics. BENEFIT: The anticipated result from successful completion of this project will be a set of innovative SAR signal processing algorithms to detect changes in scenes that are regularly interrogated by surveillance and reconnaissance radar platforms of the Departments of Defense, Homeland, and Justice.

Bridger Photonics, Inc
112 East Lincoln
Bozeman, MT 59715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 920-1339
Randy Reibel
AF 08-149      Awarded: 1/22/2009
Title:A Compact, Multimode LADAR For Target Identification Based Upon Joint Optimization of Optical and Computational Resources
Abstract:Bridger Photonics proposes to prove the feasibility of an innovative method for multi-mode target identification. To achieve this system, the team will combine the most advanced ultra-high-resolution FM-CW LADAR unit in existence with state-of-the-art feature- specific computational imaging concepts. This marriage will enable the team to identify and realize the truly optimal solution to the Air Force target identification need. Our team will actively illuminate scenes and project them onto non-image-like, low-dimensional subspaces that are specifically optimized for the Air Force''s target recognition and classification needs. We will examine available active sensing modes as well as the optical and computational resources available, and then jointly optimize these resources to obtain a preliminary multi-mode LADAR design. We will then identify the optical source, the critical optical and electrical components and demonstrate these enabling technologies. We will additionally perform “to scale” resolution demonstrations of the system''s jointly optimized optical / computational preliminary design and demonstrate the capability for rapid and accurate target identifications. Once this testing stage is completed, the team will utilize the lessons learned to form a final design and determine its feasibility. Our world class team includes experts from Bridger Photonics, the University of Arizona, and Montana State University BENEFIT: This system will offer LADAR imaging with resolutions and speeds that have never before been achieved. The system will directly and immediately benefit the Air Force, but the system''s capabilities will also extend to other military and reconnaissance high-resolution imaging applications.

Ophir Corporation
10184 W. Belleview Avenue
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 933-2200
Kent Hill
AF 08-149      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Small, Lightweight, Multimode Ladar for High-ConfidenceTargeting and ISR Missions
Abstract:The military tactics of our current environment—asymmetric warfare—demand effective targeting and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR). Target identification confidence can be greatly enhanced by interrogating and evaluating several, independent, target features. These include: surface reflectivity, surface type (metal vs. organic), target 3D structure, target 2D image and surface vibrations indicative of target type and motion. Dedicating a separate ladar to each, or even two, functions is size, weight, power and cost prohibitive—especially for airborne platforms. Ophir proposes to develop a small, lightweight and power-efficient ladar capable of operating in all of these modes (2D imaging, 3D imaging, Degree of Polarization (DoP) imaging, and vibrometry). Ophir will complete a trade study analyses to determine the optimal ladar system design and perform a proof-of-concept demonstration of the chosen ladar architecture. In addition, data processing architectures capable of exploiting multiple, independent target signatures for rapid, high confidence target identification will be investigated. In addition to manned and unmanned air vehicle military uses of the multifunction ladar, the civilian and commercial uses for the multimode ladar include Homeland Defense, support of civil authorities, NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey and NOAA. BENEFIT: The main benefit of a multimode ladar is to increase the confidence in military airborne targeting, and ISR. A multimode sensor that captures three independent target signatures– imaging (2D and 3D), Degree of Polarization (DoP) imaging and vibrometry-provides a higher level of confidence of identification of ground objects from air platforms, than a single sensor. In addition, a multimode sensor with several sensing modalities enables a reduction in the number of sensors needed on an airborne platform, thereby, minimizing sensor weight, size, and power consumption. The multimode ladar also benefits civilian, commercial applications such as using the ladar for Department of Homeland Security for UAV border patrol and SBInet pole-mounted, sensor pods for border surveillance. The ladar would also be useful in aiding civilian authorities in locating and identifying targets for law enforcement, and search and rescue due to the ability to use imaging, polarimetry and vibrometry to aid in improved identification. The missions of the U.S. Geological Survey and NoAA to classify terrain and objects would also benefit from the multimode ladar.

Sheet Dynamics, Limited
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Stuart Shelley
AF 08-149      Awarded: 1/22/2009
Title:Multimode, Laser Radar for High-Confidence Identification in Air Force Targeting and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Missions
Abstract:An innovative approach is proposed to extend traditional 3D ranging Ladar sensors to simultaneously acquiring vibrometry information. The sensor will also have the capacity to acquire polarimetric and spectral data. The combination of these modes of Ladar data will result in a multimode Ladar hardware sensor. Such a multimode sensor can provide independent features, the fusion of which in an ATR system can increase confidence and reliability compared to current systems. ATR system performance of the designed multimode Ladar sensor design will be evaluated. BENEFIT: Developing a multimode Ladar system would provide numerous opportunities to enhance ATR algorithms in other divisions of the Air Force and Department of Defense as well a numerous commercial and industrial applications.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 490-4704
Mark Backues
AF 08-150      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Algorithm Development for Predictive Battlespace Awareness
Abstract:Will develop and characterize a real-time SAR imaging and CCD system based on an SRC Hi-BAR architecture. The system will support high data bandwidth for very wide area imaging, and will include mixed architecture compute nodes for optimal performance. BENEFIT: The system will demonstrate an effective wide-area SAR imaging and tracking capability for support of counter-terrorism operations. System should be of interest to a variety of DoD and homeland security programs.

Sky Research, Inc
445 Dead Indian Memorial Rd
Ashland, OR 97520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 552-5141
Jack Foley
AF 08-150      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:Optimal Algorithm Development for UHF Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR) Applications
Abstract:The use of circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisition geometry can help to overcome some of the limitations imposed by currently available SAR technologies for sensing small targets in complex environments. CSAR data are collected over a full 360 degree azimuthal range by flying circular flight geometry while retaining focus on a target. CSAR image formation can be approximated by dividing circular arcs into small straight line trajectories, forming a subaperture. Existing fast backprojection algorithms can be then used for 2- and 3-D image formation. These image formation algorithms have been successful at generating high-resolution images for linear flight geometries, but key issues remain in formatting and applying them for accurate and efficient processing. Sky Research and its partners propose an optimal near real-time computing architecture for high resolution CSAR data processing through the use of novel algorithm development and parallel and distributed computing methods. The proposed approach combines distributed and concurrent computing for CSAR providing significant performance and image quality enhancements over conventional single processor techniques. The algorithm combines fast time-domain backprojection, coherent integration with innovative memory management, and change detection. A simple analytical model is proposed that allows assessment of the impact on performance of practical, application-specific properties. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of the proposed CSAR technology are significant to Department of Defense (DoD). These include the following: (1) A significant reduction in the time needed to form CSAR images. Simultaneous collection and transfer of data to a multi-core processing computer in the aircraft is expected to put real-time CSAR image exploitation within reach and open up a full 3D imaging and analysis capability for airborne intelligence assets. (2) Increased probability of detection and reduced false alarm rate. The successful implementation of this CSAR technology will lead to both higher quality imaging and target detection for ISR applications and higher efficiency and utility through the realization of near real-time processing. (3) Potential for very high resolution 3D imaging and ATR products. Numerical studies and limited experimental data have shown that CSAR can achieve 3D images and higher resolution than conventional linear SAR acquisition and imaging. (4) High fidelity persistent ISR and CCD. Improvements in image formation time will enable coherent and non-coherent change detection. High resolution imaging combined with change detection should dramatically increase our ability to push near real-time intelligence down to decision makers in the field. Continuous staring at the target also provides for temporal change detection and potential video SAR capability. This will greatly enhance surveillance capabilities for moving target indicators and vigilant sensing of urban areas.

UltraHiNet, LLC
709 SW 80th Blvd
Gainesville, FL 32607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 392-6831
Mark Schmalz
AF 08-150      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Algorithm Development for Predictive Battlespace Awareness
Abstract:UltraHiNet, LLC (UHN) proposes to develop innovative high-performance computational strategies for real-time (RT) CSAR auto-mated target recognition (ATR) and coherent change detection (CCD). These strategies will enable sustained tera to petaflop computational rates for CSAR and will support very high I/O rates to meet the real-time (RT) demands for staring CSAR observation of areas up to 20KM in diameter using architectures that meet the size, weight, power and other constraints of on-board processing systems. We propose to lev-erage our existing expertise for developing and mapping image and signal processing algorithms to parallel RT architectures (CSPARTA), to achieve the following Phase 1 objectives: (a) Analysis of GFI (government furnished information) CSAR algo-rithms as well as of application specific data collection rates to determine key parameters including operation mix, data lay-out, I/O requirements, and computational accuracy; (b) Mapping of GFI CSAR algorithms to parallel RT architectures (e.g., multicore, GPU, FPGA, clusters of such processors, etc.) that meet the size, weight, and power constraints of an on-board processing system; (c) Performance analysis of parallel RT implementations of the CSAR algorithms, to include computational and I/O cost, as well as error propagation and accumulation; and provide prototype imple-mentation on one multicore processor. BENEFIT: The proposed research will constitute a breakthrough in the solu-tion of problems related to improved performance for efficient, accu-rate image reconstruction from multiple views. These problems occur extensively throughout both the military and commercial sectors: the potential payoff is high. UHN will license or sell the solution to large aerospace and avionics companies for military applications. In addition, we plan to collaborate with commercial companies involved in law enforcement technologies, environmental monitoring and medical imaging applications.

Analytic Designs, Incorporated
245 East Gay Street
Columbus, OH 43215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 224-9078
Sean W. Gilmore
AF 08-151      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Wide-band Physics-based Radar Sensor Model for Signature Phenomenology Prediction
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) desires a method to map Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) performance to signature performance in order to aid database optimization. To better understand the physical mechanisms relating the sensing platform, candidate ATR algorithms, and the classifier database, advanced radar signal processing models are required. Analytic Designs, Incorporated (ADI) proposes a ``Wide-band Physics-based Radar Sensor Model for Signature Phenomenology Prediction'''''''' to model the radar sensor to target signature relationship. The technical goals of this Phase I program are as follows: (1) development of a wide-band physics-based radar sensor model for signature phenomenology prediction, and (2) validation of simulated results against suitable measured data. ADI proposes to leverage initial wide-band radar modeling capabilities developed under a previous Air Force program to provide a high- fidelity system level model for a Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM) waveform which includes sensor non-linearities and differential velocity effects over an extended target with full six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) motion. Measured data from the Automatic Target Radar Identification (ARTI) program will be used for validation. Development of these physics-based models may lend insight not only into the optimization of the database, but perhaps classifier and sensor design as well. BENEFIT: Commercialization of this modeling effort follows naturally as several of the major air framers including Northrop Grumann and Lockheed-Martin are concerned with database optimization for CID. The lack of measured data on non-cooperative targets makes simulation crucial to the comprehensive testing required to field ATR algorithms. Although the large air framers likely have in-house component level modeling capabilities, it is unlikely that they have explored simulations in terms of database portability, and may therefore benefit greatly from our approach to system level modeling.

Cyberdynamics Incorporated
1121 San Antonio Road, Suite D206
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-2431
Frederick L. Beckner
AF 08-151      Awarded: 1/21/2009
Title:Scattering Center Representation for HRR Database Portability
Abstract:Cyberdynamics Incorporated is proposing research to explore and demonstrate the benefits of using scattering center (SC) models as the primary information input of HRR aircraft signature databases and aircraft identification algorithms. Techniques of model- based scattering center extraction from complex range profiles will be studied and demonstrated. The portability of SC model representations is demonstrated by comparison of SC models obtained from different range profile representations. Direct methods of SC model range alignment and comparison will be demonstrated. The ability of the SC method to remove the coherent speckle noise inherent in complex range profile data from coherent sensors will be shown by comparing the variability of the extracted SC models with the variability of the source range profiles. BENEFIT: The proposed work will benefit the Air Force and their contractors by demonstrating the advantages of the scattering center representation of high range resolution radar echoes as compared to the more conventional range profile representation. It will show how this approach can improved database portability, reduce database size, and reduce or eliminate aircraft identification system performance degradation due to signature variability caused by coherent speckle. The commercial applications of the proposed work include the automatic sensing of linear features such as pipes in ground penetrating radar applications.

Spectral Energetics, Inc.
12321 Middlebrook Road Suite 150
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5120
Ronald Riechers
AF 08-151      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Radar Database Portability and Hybridization
Abstract:Measured radar data outputs behave differently depending upon the collection system. This makes comparison of competing hardware systems difficult. This research will develop a generic radar model that will incorporate representative linear and nonlinear components and determine the effect of these components on the output signal. This model will enable the radar acquisition community to evaluate competing designs more objectively. It will also identify the component or components that produce the most significant effects on the radar output data. The work will also incorporate ideas from information theory and signal processing to improve the target identification capability. BENEFIT: This work has direct implications on the use of electromagnetic energy as an interrogating signal in all areas of non-destructive evaluation. Most media have some nonlinear behavior, and the modeling techniques presented here will be used in this area to better understand the effects of intervening materials on the measurement of an object. Other applications in medical diagnostics are also anticipated.

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
George Bohannon
AF 08-151      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Radar Database Portability and Hybridization
Abstract:The performance of a Non-Cooperative Target Identification (NCTI) system is sensitive to both the quality of the signatures in the database and the extent to which the database is complete. Impediments to portability and hybridization can detrimentally impact the databases, and also significantly increase the cost of combat systems if they require database signatures to be generated separately for each system. TSC proposes to design a high-fidelity radar signature Toolbox to help identify and mitigate those impediments. During Phase I TSC will design a wideband radar signature model that combines high-fidelity wideband voltage-level sensor modeling with equally high-fidelity signature generation including a capability for using measured signatures. The Toolbox design will include motion models for exploring the effects of target and own-ship motion on the signatures and a tool for signature similarity analysis. The design requirements will be established by analysis and discussions with the SBIR Technical Monitor. The Phase I products will consist of a system architecture specification, documented mathematical equations, data interface definitions, and a demonstration. During Phase II TSC will fully develop the Toolbox, validate the sensor, signal processing, and signature models against field data, train AFRL personnel in its use, and document the system from technical and user perspectives. All software developed under Phases I and II will be deliverable to the Air Force. BENEFIT: The results of the proposed Phase I and follow-on Phase II work will provide the Air Force with a powerful set of tools for analyzing combat radar signatures to identify impediments to portability and hybridization. Application of these tools will reduce cost and improve NCTI performance of U.S. combat aircraft.

OptiComp Corporation
PO Box 10779
Zephyr Cove, NV 89448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 588-9670
Duane Louderback
AF 08-152      Awarded: 1/30/2009
Title:Novel Manufacturing Process of Optoelectronic Transceiver Technology
Abstract:The proposed program will develop OptiComp''s coarse WDM transceiver manufacturing technology. This WDM optical transceiver technology is highly novel, emphasizing manufacturability, ruggedization, modularity, ease of upgrade and qualification, extensive built-in diagnostic monitoring and test capabilities, as well as superior performance with reduced manfacturing complexity. The modular design of the modules enables easy upgrades from 4 to 8 or even 12 wavelengths, as well as straightforward insertion of higher bit rate electronics to upgrade from 2.5 Gbit/s to 10 Gbit/s with no additional changes. The digital diagnostic monitoring interface electronics subassembly, optical transmitter subassembly, and optical receiver subassembly can be fully tested individually, improving manufacturability and yield. The utilization of coarse WDM technology allows for lower fiber counts, improved size scalability, and reduced part counts. In addition, the modules incorporate monolithic power monitoring detectors for the transmitter eliminating addition parts and alignment requirements. All of the components incorporated in the module have been carefully chosen for their temperature tolerance, mechanical ruggedness, and ability to meet MIL-STD qualification. Special emphasis has been placed on matching component coefficients of thermal expansion, making the modules compatible with extreme temperature cycling requirements. BENEFIT: The proposed development program will lead to substantially improved manufacturing techniques for WDM optical transceivers, with applications in aerospace, satellite, and terrestrial applications. In particular, the modular packaging approach enables modules that can be modified for upgraded with very few changes in the design and with minimal requalification. In addition, the transceivers have relatively few parts and will be assembled in a straightforward approach that greatly enhances ruggedness and testability. This will provide greater yields and higher performance with less packaging effort and lower cost.

Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 495-2554
Sabbir Rangwala
AF 08-152      Awarded: 1/27/2009
Title:Disruptive techniques for hybridization of focal plane arrays for optical imaging sensors
Abstract:Optical imaging sensors are a critical technology for the warfighter. These sensors operate across the entire wavelength spectrum. They have been deployed across all military platforms especially ground vehicles, aircraft, and satellites. A key issue in increasing image resolution and lowering cost is the assembly of the focal plane array. The hybridization of the detector array and read out integrated circuit is a limitation in the manufacturability of these sensors. This proposal will demonstrate the use of new alignment techniques to develop a disruptive method for hybridization. This method will leverage recently developed approaches for making alignment features in semiconductors. In addition, it will also develop new interconnection processes that eliminate the need for indium based materials. This new process offers significant advantages for both cost and yields. It will also provide a path to obtain increased pixel counts at reduced pixel pitch. This will result in the availability of increased resolution sensors at lower costs. This will allow further deployment of imaging sensors for individual soldiers and unmanned vehicles. BENEFIT: This program will result in the development of a disruptive technology for fabricating image sensors based on focal plane arrays. The technology can be quickly commercialized and applied to imaging sensors.

QuantTera
15560 N. Frank Lloyd Wright Bl., Suite B4-
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 214-3524
Matt Kim
AF 08-152      Awarded: 2/5/2009
Title:Quick Turn Photonic Component Manufacturability Rapid Prototyping
Abstract:The Air Force recognizes the need for innovation in assembly-packing-test for fabricating airborne high-performance photonic components. Transmitters that can operate at various optical wavelengths are desired to allow re-configurability, increase system capacity, reduce the amount of electronic module board space, and eliminate complicated optical fiber cabling harnesses while minimizing the need for external optical couplers. Optical fibers networks can be used in Mil-Aero and defense applications, either as point-to-point data links or as portions of the global system LAN network. New versatile optoelectronic technologies utilizing dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) networks are the solution for these high bandwidth applications with the added advantage of re-configurability. These advances are necessary to replace legacy technologies, which are both costly to maintain and are not adaptable to meet emerging needs. A key component for DWDM networks is the development of multi-channel optical transmitters, which is the focus of the work proposed here. BENEFIT: Our technology will result in quick demonstrable custom devices state of the art devices with out the expensive R&D and manufacturing high costs with new novel photonic devices. Our optical bench process allows for the low cost demonstration of our component devices or COTS components for rapid demonstration of innovative assemblies. Such a procedure allow for versatile realizable program for the development of an alternative method to the typically a standard very labor intensive and costly process photonic assembly process.

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 420-3486
Charlie Kuznia
AF 08-152      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Planar Manufacturing for High Yielding and Robustly Packaged Photonics
Abstract:We propose the advancement of the MRL level of a TRL8 packaging platform that today offers both digital and RF photonic communications over links lengths typical of spacecraft and aircraft (< 300 meters). This platform produces photonic components capable of 1 Mbps to 10 Gbps data rates and readily scales to 100 Gbps. Multiple space, mil-airframe and missle/munitions programs are expressing interest in these components, but the lack of manufacturing readiness is retarding acceptance. BENEFIT: In general, as radar, sensor and communications systems become increasingly data-rate intensive, military aircraft and spacecraft designers have begun to rely on multimode fiber optic (MMF) technology for backbone data communications.

Physical Optics Corporation
Products and Engineering Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kevin Degrood
AF 08-153      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Gigahertz Digital Synthesizer
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an integrated, advanced digital frequency synthesizer, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Gigahertz Digital Synthesizer (GIDS). This proposed device is based on direct digital synthesis implemented as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The innovation in highly optimized indium-phosphide double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology coupled with systems-level component integration will enable the device to generate stable, low- noise, rapidly tunable sinusoidal waveforms in the 2 to 16 GHz range. As a result, this device offers optimum bandwidth, spurious free dynamic range, noise figure, tuning time, frequency stability, form factor, and weight, as well as minimal power consumption, lower cost, and digital control, which directly address the Defense Technology Area 7 requirements for a compact and low-power frequency synthesizer capable of coupling with digitally controlled active filters. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of GIDS by selecting the optimum synthesizer design after conducting a trade study, simulate the design, and then build a prototype from commercial off-the-shelf components. In Phase II, POC plans to evaluate the Phase I prototype test results and conduct refined simulations based on realistic ASIC element modeling for subsequent very large scale integration fabrication. BENEFIT: The low power consumption and small form factor of the GIDS device will permit quality signal generation for multiple applications, ranging from communications test instruments to medical research equipment. GIDS can be incorporated into wireless communications and electronic warfare systems across all branches of the military.

RBS Technologies, LLC
2703 Sycamore Ridge Ct
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-8189
Raymond E. Siferd
AF 08-153      Awarded: 12/11/2008
Title:Digital Synthesizer with Tuning Filter for Advanced Electronic Warfare (EW) Application
Abstract:There is a critical need for a low power, fast tuning, broad bandwidth digital frequency synthesizer for applications to advanced electronic warfare systems. Current Direct Digital Synthesizers (DDS) consume too much power are too large for space and airborne applications where power and size are critical factors. An integrated DDS is needed that 1) exploits submicron integrated circuit technology to meet power and size constraints, and 2) defines new approaches for the DDS architecture so that goals for tuning range, spur free dynamic range (SFDR), time to switch frequencies (tuning time), and tuning frequency resolution can be achieved. RBS Technologies LLC and its subcontractor Wright State University plan to pursue two innovative DDS architectures which would be implemented in submicron CMOS technology to meet the stringent objectives specified in the SBIR topic description. The proposed DDS architectures eliminate the need for the Phase to Amplitude Converter and Digital to Analog Converter, both of which are standard components in a conventional DDS. Both of these components are bottlenecks to achieving the desired spectral purity (SPDR), tuning range, and frequency switching times. Each of the proposed architectures will be compared for performance and power consumption during the phase I effort. BENEFIT: High performance compact low power Digital Synthesizers are a critically needed item at the present time and the demand will become stronger in the future. The application focus of this research effort is for Air Force advanced electronic warfare systems, but successful demonstration of a low power implementation of a integrated circuit digital synthesizer will also spur future R&D for Army and Navy EW applications. Fast tuning digital synthesizers have a number of commercial applications including avioncs and wireless communications.

EPIR Technologies Inc
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Don Rafol
AF 08-154      Awarded: 12/22/2008
Title:Ultra-Low Noise Amplifier for Enhanced Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) Detection
Abstract:We propose a low noise amplifier for receiver front ends in wideband communication systems. The circuit will exploit wide band noise reduction techniques such as active noise cancellation. High frequency, wide bandwidth signals have several advantages ranging from high data rate communications to high resolution RADAR. However, the biggest challenge in realizing these systems is the limitations in the performance of the electronics. It is difficult to simultaneously increase circuit bandwidth and reduce the noise. Advanced transistor technologies based on compound semiconductor transistors (like pHEMT and mHEMTS) have lower noise figures and higher frequencies of operation than conventional silicon-based transistors due to their higher electron mobilities. The proposed amplifier will be based on compound semiconductor transistors. We propose to further reduce the noise in the amplifier by using wideband active noise cancellation. In Phase I of the proposed effort, we will explore various low noise transistor technologies and perform behavioral simulations of ultra wide band receiver front ends to develop circuit specifications. In Phase II (if awarded), we will design, fabricate and test low noise amplifiers based on these circuit specifications. BENEFIT: Signals intelligence (SIGINT) and electronic warfare (EW) systems require robust, high performance systems to detect and identify the signal of interest in the presence of other interfering signals. The detection of signals requires electronic circuits with high dynamic range, bandwidth and linearity. The proposed low noise amplifier is based on compound semiconductor transistors and will have a widebandwidth and an extremely low noise figure which will help in detecting signals of very small amplitudes. The successful application of the developed circuit design and fabrication technologies could open doors to many commercial applications where low noise and high speed of operation are critical, such as RF/microwave front ends in personal communication systems, optical receivers and high sensitivity microphones. The market for these systems is consumer-driven and there are stringent restrictions on cost. To date, compound semiconductor-based transistor technologies have been able to capture only a small portion of the consumer wireless market. Research and development on low noise, low power and high operating frequency transistor technologies will lead to low noise, wide bandwidth systems that can be realized using these technologies. Next generation communication devices like cell phones, high speed internet and GPS receivers will have lower costs and performance far superior to current generation devices.

HYPRES. Inc.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Steven B. Kaplan
AF 08-154      Awarded: 12/15/2008
Title:Superconductor SQIF Amplifier for Wideband SIGINT Receivers
Abstract:The detection and identification of very low-level electromagnetic waveforms for Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) relies on receiver systems with very low noise figure and high dynamic range. This task becomes even more challenging when the signal sources of interest are wideband and/or when they rely on spread-spectrum, frequency-hopping or other digital signal-processing techniques for signal security. We propose to develop the Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter (SQIF) into a wideband ultra-linear low- noise amplifier to intercept and help identify these signals. The operation of Niobium SQIF amplifiers at a temperature of 4 Kelvin inherently enables very low noise temperatures. The SQIF amplifier is expected to dissipate only microwatts of power, enabling relatively low-power cryocoolers to be used. New designs and techniques are required to develop the spur-free dynamic range and wide bandwidth that will make them useful to near- future SIGINT receivers. BENEFIT: This development, if successful, will enable the detection and identification of low-probability-of-intercept and other small signals of interest that would otherwise be unable to detect. Our amplifier will have very low noise, a target bandwidth of DC to greater than 18 GHz, and a large spur-free dynamic range. This technology can be used for other applications, such as deep-space communications for unmanned NASA vehicles, wireless communications. The amplifier itself will consume only microwatts of power, which is orders of magnitude less than semiconductor amplifiers. In addition, it is compatible with Niobium superconductor mixed-signal and other superconductor digital circuits, which can be operated with low power dissipation on the same 4-Kelvin platform.

Auriga Measurement Systems LLC
650 Suffolk Street Suite410
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-1117
Mark Royer
AF 08-155      Awarded: 3/10/2009
Title:Next Generation Ultra-linear Super High Frequency/Extremely High Frequency (SHF/EHF) Solid State Power Amplifiers
Abstract:Future military satellite communication systems will achieve higher signal capacities by employing complex modulation and channel schemes that are closely spaced in frequency. Nonlinearities in the terminal electronics, particularly power amplifiers, cause spectral regrowth in the adjacent channels and degradation of error vector magnitude (EVM). This effort is to develop an approach for an ultra-linear 44GHz amplifier. The amplifier linearity should support an adjacent channel power ratio of -40dBc for a typical quadrature phase shift key modulation at output power greater than 1 watt with power added efficiency of greater than 30%. Our proposed approach is to achieve this goal by developing a linearized 44GHz amplifier using envelope tracking. This technology is being developed at Auriga as a powerful linearization technique for high crest factor signals, but has never been reported at this frequency band. The experiments proposed for Phase I will provide the amplifier parameters necessary to meet the power and efficiency goals. Using these parameters, we will address the optimum device selection and amplifier design approach in the later part of Phase I. At the end of Phase I, we will have completed the following tasks: 1) Design a linearization amplifier system, 2) Project performance of linearized amplifier under QPSK drive, 3) Demonstrate highly efficient amplifier design approach and 4) Select the necessary device (type, size, bias conditions, etc). BENEFIT: High efficiency linear amplifier technology at 44 GHz will enable high data rate communication via satellites. The technology will be applied to ground terminals which will be able to send and receive high speed data, critical for both military and commercial applications. The technology developed here can also be applied to other frequencies in the Ku to Q bands, which include various terrestrial communication applications.

Innovative Technology
6806 West 3rd Street #28-16
Greeley, CO 80634
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 488-0304
JAMES WHELEHAN
AF 08-155      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Next Generation Ultra-linear Super High Frequency/Extremely High Frequency (SHF/EHF) Solid State Power Amplifiers
Abstract:Future military satellite communications systems will have higher signal capacities by employing complex modulation schemes in channels that are closely spaced in frequency (21MHz). Nonlinearities in the terminal electronics, particularly power amplifiers, cause spectral regrowth, where by extraneous power from one channel interferes with signal from adjacent channels. As a result, communication data rates are adversely affected by the adjacent channel interference.Our proposed concept is a self-contained MMIC power amplifier that incorporates a shunt cold-mode MHEMT at the input to the power amplifier. The shunt cold-mode provides the necessary predistortion to linearize the power amplifier. Both circuits will be laid out on a single chip. With the use of MHEMTs for both circuits, a single MMIC processing can be used for the final amplifier. Based on a preliminary analysis, the ultra-linear Q-Band amplifier has an Adjacent Power ratio of < - 40dB for a typical quadrature phase shift modulation scheme (QPSK). The output power is greater than 1watt, a gain greater than 15dB, and a power added efficiency(PAE) of that exceeds 30%. BENEFIT: The successful development of the ultra-linear ampliifer has many benefits for both the military and commercial marketplace. With the communication frequencies and channels being saturated, the need exists to increase the data rate within the existing frequencies. Interference between channels prevent increasing the capacity due to nonlinearities in the system. A more linear power amplifier would allow the number of channels to be increased and thereby increasing the data rates. This would allow military systems to easily increase their data rates as well as the commercial satellite communication market.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
James Schellenberg
AF 08-155      Awarded: 3/10/2009
Title:Next Generation Ultra-linear Super High Frequency/Extremely High Frequency (SHF/EHF) Solid State Power Amplifiers
Abstract:We propose to develop an ultra-linear, 1-watt solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) operating at 44 GHz with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 40%. A cornerstone of our approach is the development of a power MMIC with an efficiency of greater than 50%. This will be achieved by employing state-of-the-art wide bandgap GaN (Gallium Nitride) devices in conjunction with two circuit innovations. First, we are using switching-mode amplifier concepts to realize these efficiency levels. This has never been done before at this frequency. Secondly, we are employing a push-pull amplifier configuration for further improvements in efficiency and harmonic content. Using this combination, computer simulations indicate that drain efficiencies of 70 percent are possible. Finally, we are utilizing Envelope Tracking (ET) or possibly Pulsed Load Modulation (PLM) to linearize this switching-mode amplifier. This also has never been attempted before at this frequency. Simulations described in this proposal indicate that with this innovative approach, we can simultaneously achieve both the linearity and efficiency goals of this program. In fact, simulations indicate that with an output power of 1 watt, we can achieve PAE levels of 40% or more, while maintaining an adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of better than - 40 dB. BENEFIT: Future MILSATCOM terminals require linear, high-efficiency power amplifiers for ground terminals. Linearity is required in order to prevent spectral regrowth, i.e. extraneous power from one channel interfering with signals in adjacent channels, and high efficiency is required to minimize both power consumption and self-heating, which in turn causes thermal stress. Currently available Q-band power amplifiers simply cannot simultaneously satisfy these linearity and efficiency requirements. Employing innovative switching amplifier concepts, our approach addresses this need. Applications for linear, high-efficiency amplifier technology abound for agencies other than the Air Force, ranging from SATCOM applications for the Army in the 29.5 to 31 GHz band to radar applications for all military services in the radar bands (33 to 38 GHz). For radar, high efficiency is particularly important for airborne applications such as UAVs and fire control radars where the prime power is limited.

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
John Leon
AF 08-156      Awarded: 12/11/2008
Title:Novel Device Processes For Anti-tamper Applications
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) will work together with a prime supplier of U.S. military weapon systems to develop a new “strain-driven” interconnect approach for Anti-Tamper applications. This approach will integrate with Irvine Sensors patented stacked die process for developing 3-Dimensional components. We plan on modifying ISC’s MDEM AT device components with the new “strain-driven” component interconnects called “MDEM- 3D”. The MDEM-3D device incorporates field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), memory (FLASH die), processors, and a variety of sensors. Test methodologies will be developed with the new MDEM-3D device supporting the concept in the prevention of reverse engineering efforts. Fabrication approaches will be developed with the prime for prototype development in Phase II and an insertion plan after the Phase II. BENEFIT: Our device can be integrated into both military and commercial markets where long an active storage life is required. Prime contractors have been identified and are interested in working with this technology for insertion into their current and future U.S. weapon systems as a “key technology”.

Physical Optics Corporation
Products and Engineering Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kang Lee
AF 08-156      Awarded: 12/11/2008
Title:Conductive Ink Circuit Antitampering
Abstract:In response to the Air Force solicitation for novel strain– and chemical–driven antitamper (AT) technologies at the die level, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a currently unknown and completely new Conductive Ink Circuit Antitampering (CICAT) technique based on chemical-driven AT technology at the die level. The CICAT applies conductive ink circuitry (CIC) to prevent reverse engineering by hiding die intraconnect patterns and also protects against X-ray inspection. This function-obfuscation technique only slightly (purposely) changes the die interconnectivity topology, and does not change at all the functionality of the integrated circuit (IC) die. The conductive ink circuits have two active degrees of freedom (DoFs) with highly variable characteristics: specific conductivity and conductive path cross-section. Those two extra DoFs allow a design with highly-flexible CICs that can mimic the exact electronic performance of regular die interconnects. The CICAT method gives a very low probability of reverse engineering and is highly tamper-resistant due to multilevel function obfuscation protection. For early verification, POC will, in Phase I, develop and test a preliminary prototype of the CICAT system. BENEFIT: Multilevel function obfuscation protection of highly tamper-resistant AT systems such as CICAT can be instrumental in such critical IC components as cryptoprocessors, memories, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), wherever AT Security Level 4 at very high performance levels is needed. The CICAT product family can be attractive in Homeland Security, Army, Navy, and Air Force physical security applications, where tamper-resistant protection of critical security parameters is of utmost importance.

Applied EM Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
C.J.Reddy
AF 08-159      Awarded: 12/23/2008
Title:Anti-Jam Improvements by Combining Remotely Located Global Positioning System (GPS) Antennas on an Unpiloted/Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Platform
Abstract:Currently, there are two types of antenna configurations which are used with GPS receivers, fixed reception pattern antenna (FRPA) and controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA). FRPA is a single element antenna and can not use angle of arrival as a discriminator to suppress interfering or jamming signals. CRPA is an array of antenna elements with the ability to reject interference signals. Many DoD platforms use FRPA due to the cost, size and weight issues. Also, a given platform may have many GPS FRPA to support various communication/ radar/ navigation systems on board the platform. Applied EM proposes a thorough performance evaluation of GPS antenna electronics when conventional antennas (GAS-1 CRPA, GAS-1N CRPA, etc.) are replaced with a set of GPS FRPA. The performance evaluation will be carried out under the jamming scenarios of interest for selected FRPA distributions. The goal will be to come up a distribution consisting of four or seven FRPA which lead to the best AJ performance. The AJ performance of the two FRPA distributions will be compared with the performance obtained using a GAS-1N CRPA and a GAS-1 CRPA, respectively. In Phase II, two antenna arrays will be built and their performance will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: The proposed solution is based on the development of a practical GPS AJ system for DoD platforms. Our research effort will also focus on implementation techniques with realistic FRPA designs which will help toward commercialization. This technology has applications in many military systems.

RBS Technologies, LLC
2703 Sycamore Ridge Ct
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 329-8189
Raymond E. Siferd
AF 08-159      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Anti-Jam Improvements by Combining Remotely Located Global Positioning System (GPS) Antennas on an Unpiloted/Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Platform
Abstract:The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a vital element in numerous military and commercial applications. It is required that GPS receivers operate efficiently in hostile jamming environments. There is a critical need to incorporate advanced anti-jam techniques such as STAP and SFAP into UVA GPS receivers; however this normally requires the use of optimized multi-element CRPA antenna. The focus of this effort is to replace the multi- element CRPA with a number of fixed reception pattern antenna (FRPA) that will facilitate STAP/SFAP anti-jam techniques. For the phase I effort RBS Technologies and its subcontractor Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems plan to develop alternative architectures that combine several FRPA antennas into a pseudo-CRPA array together with the required subsystems and digital signal processing for incorporation of STAP/SFAP into a UAV GPS receiver. The antenna arrays are realized using existing FRPAs and alternative architectures will be considered for RF down conversion and STAP/SFAP processing. Anti-jam performance will be assessed using MATLAB/SIMULINK models and preliminary subsystem circuit simulations. The Phase I effort will result in identification of a viable approach for the use of the FRPA array antenna to implement anti-jam capability into UAV GPS receivers. BENEFIT: Extensive military applications are envisioned for a cost effective technique for using FRPA antennas to implement anti-jam UAV GPS receivers. These same techniques would apply to numerous airborne and ground platforms for both military and commercial applications.

Cognitive Radio Technologies, LLC
147 Mill Ridge Rd, Suite 119
Lynchburg, VA 24502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 230-6012
James Neel
AF 08-160      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Cognitive Radio Technology
Abstract:This project will research and develop enabling technologies for realizing a multi- functional Software Defined Radio based Cognitive Radio Network (SDR based CRN) capability, which will maximize spectrum efficiency by utilizing both unused and underused spectrum of opportunity. The “SDR based CRN” will minimize interference to the licensed primary users, and at the same time maintaining network Quality of Service (QoS) goals and maximize end-to-end objectives. Phase I of this project will research and develop techniques for identifying and sharing non-contiguous spectrum access opportunities and the presence of primary and secondary users to support non- contiguous OFDM (NC-OFDM) waveforms, develop cross-layer CRN algorithms that combine routing and spectrum management to achieve end-to-end objectives while maximizing spectral efficiency, define and evaluate a MAC layer protocol for cognitive radio networking based on existing research and the results of Phase I, and develop a plan for implementing the developed techniques on commercially available SDRs in Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed solution – cross-layer compartmentalized CRN processes – can dramatically improve spectral efficiency (> 30 dB) and increase network capacity by a factor of 16. can theoretically be applied to the management and post-deployment optimization of wireless networks implementing any waveform. The processes could be applied separately or as a complete package to DoD SDR networks and many commercial networks. However, we believe the solution will see its greatest advantage over traditional network management solutions in high density networks, networks with rapidly changing environments, and networks where management is difficult - sensor networks (e.g., zigbee, WiMedia), mobile ad-hoc networks (almost exclusively military networks), vehicular networks (e.g., 802.11p), and consumer networks (e.g., WiFi, home gateways, and femtocells) where a large number of networks may coexist but yet are necessarily not centrally managed.

Echo Ridge, LLC
11127 Elmview Place
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 470-7885
John Carlson
AF 08-160      Awarded: 12/24/2008
Title:Cognitive Radio Technology
Abstract:Echo Ridge proposes to conduct gap filling R&D in this crowded research field, all directed towards increasing CR functionality and performance, primary user interference minimization, and ease/realism of testing. PHY research to enable joint communications/radar/ jamming functionality in a CR will be conducted. Organic geolocation performance enhancements for primary and secondary nodes including receive-only nodes enabled by networking of CR will be researched. Performance modeling will be accomplished using DIGSIM, a field verified mature MATLAB-based location accuracy modeling tool. MAC research to enhance joint communications/radar/ jamming functionality in a CRN will be conducted. Design of a CRN test bed based on a commercial SDR platform with a novel architecture that supports a realistic wireless channel model without resorting to full scale field-based testing will be undertaken. The long term goal of test bed will be to provide necessary test data to move CR technology from the lab to field and market. BENEFIT: The proposed research will describe an approach and potential performance for cognitive radio platforms to provide joint communications/radar/jamming functionality. Joint functionality is useful to the DoD in terms of mission performance, flexibility, agility, cost and reliability. The research will increase organic geolocation performance which is a key input to spectrum sensing and therefore to the degree of primary user interference and CR radio QOS. Ultimately, meeting acceptable levels on these metrics will determine the future timing and use of CRs, both for government and commercial applications. The research will produce a design for a realistic and cost effective test bed. This is a key item in convincing skeptics of CR compatibility with primary users. The test bed can serve commercial policy making needs (FCC), and the equivalent of type certification for specific CR applications (i.e, use of CR in television bands).

Shared Spectrum Company
1595 Spring Hill Road Suite 110
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 761-2818
Mark A. McHenry
AF 08-160      Awarded: 1/7/2009
Title:Cognitive Radio Technology
Abstract:The Phase I objective is to research and develop enabling technologies to build a multi- functional Software Defined Radio based Cognitive Radio Network (SDR based CRN) capability, which will maximize the spectrum efficiency by utilizing both unused and underused spectrum of opportunity. We develop a non-contiguous waveform algorithm that determines the sub-band frequency limits and sub-band maximum transmit power levels considering: (1) Non-ideal transmitter power amplifiers (with inter-modulation distortion that fills in the transmitted spectrum between sub-bands), and (2) Non-uniform legacy radio channel usage (each legacy channel has different temporal occupancy statistics). We develop a distributed, geographic and frequency based, distributed sensing and transmission algorithm to enable heterogeneous systems (communications, SIGINT, Jamming, and radar) to share each other’s sensing and transmissions to satisfy joint goals. We develop a method to efficiently exchange spectrum measurements between heterogeneous nodes and to determine each node’s sensing and transmission tasks. We determine the design metrics necessary to implement these techniques on commercially available SDRs for Phase II development and for near-term DoD deployment. BENEFIT: Military application: This system could be used in a very broad range of civilian and military applications. Communication systems and networks exist in numerous forms (cell phones, radio comms, wireless data networks, etc.) and this technology could be applied to all aspects of them. Spectrum efficiency is of utmost importance to commercial communications companies looking to improve quality of service (QoS) for their users. Military radar technology could be enhanced by the CRN technology as well.

Coherent Logix, Incorporated
1120 South Capital of Texas Highway Building 3, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 382-8957
Nirali Patel
AF 08-163      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:Advanced Low-Power Integrated GPS Receiver (ALPIGR)
Abstract:Coherent Logix, Inc. (CLX) proposes the development of a low power, integrated GPS receiver and anti-jam unit based on a software defined radio (SDR) platform built around its massively parallel HyperX digital signal processing technology. Integrating results from previous and current projects, the architecture for the system will be defined and a system development plan will be created. BENEFIT: Low power GPS systems built on SDR technology can be used to “future-proof” systems so that they can be adapted to improvements in both GPS receiver algorithms and anti-jam algorithms as well as future improvements in GPS infrastructure.

NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown
AF 08-163      Awarded: 12/11/2008
Title:Low-Power, Software Defined Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver
Abstract:Recent improvements in Software Defined Radio technology have resulted in miniaturized, low cost radios for communication applications. Under previous efforts, NAVSYS has shown the capability to also use these SDRs for GPS navigation. We propose to leverage our previous experience with software GPS receivers to develop under this contract a miniaturized, low-power GNSS SDR that has the flexibility to support current and future GNSS signals and also provide advanced multipath mitigation and anti-jam protection. Under the Phase I effort we shall develop a top level design for the GNSSƒÝSDR components suitable for building an SDR capable of tracking multiple satellite signals, including at least six satellites with P(Y) and C/A code operation, and requiring less than 2 watts of power. Using our existing GPS-Lite product we shall benchmark the expected software and firmware performance on the selected SDR components to assess the expected power consumption of our design. The Phase I report will describe the GNSSƒÝSDR design and the plan for implementation and testing of the GNSSƒÝSDR prototype under the Phase II effort. BENEFIT: The NAVSYS GNSSìSDR will enable the military to issue more units (due to the decreased cost) to provide greatly improved accuracy that will shorten battles and save lives. The civilian public protectors will be able to execute their tasks more efficiently. The public protectors will be able to prove that arrested intruders were really within US jurisdiction to support the legal system in court.

Data Research & Analysis Corp.
1555 King St. #300
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 299-0700
Jerry Mehlberg
AF 08-164      Awarded: 3/5/2009
Title:AFSCN Beam Scheduling & AFSCN Resource Management System (ABS & ARMS)
Abstract:The forecasted volume of satellite support contact requests for the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) is expected to sharply rise in the near future. In order to meet this demand, the AFSCN will have to increase its capacity. An innovative new antenna design, the geodesic dome phased array antenna (GDPAA), has the potential to significantly increase the AFSCN capacity when deployed. However, this new antenna design has characteristics that dramatically increase the complexity of scheduling satellite support contact requests. The promise of increased capacity may not be realized unless an effective method for scheduling these new antennas is developed. Furthermore, since it is likely that not all of the old antennas will be replaced, the scheduling method will still have to work for them too. We propose to develop and test a parallelizable hybrid algorithm to derive near-optimal AFSCN scheduling solutions quickly in a hierarchical distributed architecture and to demonstrate these solutions in an AFSCN emulation that we will develop for that specific purpose. BENEFIT: The Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) is a global network of ground stations and control centers that provide satellite operations services to select Department of Defense, National Security element, and allied and civilian satellites. The current network is reaching capacity and adding the geodesic dome phased array antennas is crucial to increasing the capacity of the AFSCN. Developing the automated scheduling system proposed herein is, in turn, crucial to the successful deployment of the GDPAA. In addition, the scheduling and management technology needed for this system could be applied to other space-based and mobile networks such as those operated by NASA, DoD, and our allies.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Dean Paschen
AF 08-164      Awarded: 3/10/2009
Title:Automated Resource Management and Beam Scheduling of Antenna Network for Space Operations Support
Abstract:The Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) currently uses parabolic dish antennas at the Remote Tracking Station (RTS) sites and Automated RTS (ARTS) sites. Operation of these sites does not currently include automated scheduling and resource management of the satellite contacts. As a result, planning Satellite Operations (SATOPS) is still a manual function. FIRST RF proposes a Global Resource Management (GRM) architecture using automatic algorithms at the global level and hardware updates from the local level. While the proposed approaches are automated, all aspects of the operation will emphasize human monitoring, control, and algorithm improvements. The addition of Geodesic Dome Phased Array Antenna (GDPAA) technology into this network will greatly enhance the resources (multiple beams, fast beam switching, gain on demand, etc.), but these capabilities also increase the complexity of planning and scheduling. The FIRST RF team includes engineers with extensive experience in the operation of multi-faceted phased arrays like the GDPAA as well as academic experts from Colorado State University (CSU), who have extensive experience in optimal scheduling algorithms for the AFSCN and the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The proposed scheduling architecture will meet the current and future needs of the AFSCN, as well as commercial space operations. BENEFIT: Implementation of an efficient and user-friendly scheduling algorithm will optimize usage of the AFSCN resources to support the maximum number of satellite contacts while preserving flexibility to accommodate high priority requests. Automated scheduling will also enable maximum utilization of the highly flexble GDPAA ground stations that will be incorporated into the AFSCN. Military application: The generality, scalability, and modularity built into the automated RM and beam scheduling solution thus developed will enable a wide applicability to many space mission systems. Commercial application: Extensive commercial applications are anticipated due to similarity between the military and commercial space operations

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner''s Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Richard Stottler
AF 08-164      Awarded: 3/10/2009
Title:Antenna Network Optimization using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Abstract:Scheduling Air Force''''s Space Communications resources is a large, complex, distributed problem. We have developed an innovative planning and scheduling system architecture which facilitates the development of more intelligent, optimizing scheduling algorithms. It has been applied to NASA Ground Network (space communications) scheduling and several domains including those involving similarly complex constraints, such as the problem of optimizing ballistic missile engagements which includes complex line of sight (LOS) and range calculations between satellite-based sensors and three-dimensional ballistic missile trajectories. The innovation is to apply that expertise, the planning and scheduling architecture, and a new domain-independent algorithm, to the problem of scheduling and optimizing the antenna network. The ultimate goal of this proposed effort is to improve the satellite communications resource scheduling capability. The goals of the Phase I research are to understand the current and future antenna network resource and beam scheduling domain, investigate integration requirements, elaborate the heuristics, algorithms and techniques for improved scheduling, analyze them as to their feasibility, define the metrics for scheduling performance, further prove the feasibility through prototype development, and develop the Phase II system design. BENEFIT: The most direct target for the results of this effort is the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). By both demonstrating significantly improved performance during Phase II and ensuring that the ultimate results can be integrated into the operational scheduling system, the Air Force will have a strong incentive to operationalize the Phase II development of the proposed Scheduler. We are already marketing Aurora, our general intelligent planning and scheduling framework, and customizing it for a variety of domains. The additional capabilities developed for communication scheduling can be synergistically marketed to the same clients. For example, the bottleneck avoidance algorithm proposed to be fully developed here would be applicable to many Aurora customers. We anticipate that this effort will result in additional scheduling algorithms that we will be able to incorporate into our existing scheduling products, thus increasing the benefits they provide and their value.

Quantum Dimension
5412 Bolsa Ave, Suite B
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 893-6004
Michael A. Enright
AF 08-165      Awarded: 12/22/2008
Title:Innovative Mobile Navigation Device Using Signals of Opportunity
Abstract:Quantum Dimension is undertaking critical research objectives in order to provide robust mobile navigation capability using signals of opportunity (SoOP) and two cooperative mobile devices. Our approach to this complex problem is to combine a advanced navigation and signal processing algorithms and analysis with cutting-edge mobile handheld design. We advance the state-of-the-art by developing sophisticated navigation algorithms to improve location accuracy relative to GPS in both suburban and urban areas indoors and where there is time-varying multipath fading. In order to provide an extended coverage area and allow for navigation without requiring an internet connection, we will develop an ad-hoc mode supported by mobile ad-hoc networking. As such, we are able to provide capabilities for users not within a fixed coverage area. Finally, we will address a critical element of navigation with SoOP that has yet to be addressed; namely, architecting and designing a mobile device that combines resilient navigation with mobile ad-hoc capability. Our approach involves utilizing these SoOP by employing commercially- available components, which is at the core of our expertise. Based upon the results of our analysis, modeling, simulation, and choice of hardware components, we expect to be at TRL 3 by the end of this feasibility study. BENEFIT: First, our solution is a stand-alone system that is not dependent upon existing commercial/military infrastructure access so it can be used when other systems are unavailable. Secondly, our innovations provide high-resiliency in urban, suburban or other areas where vehicles, buildings, and natural structures interfere with navigation signals. Thus our solution can support multiple types of government, military and commercial applications. These include existing and pending navigation-based programs like Air Force’s GPS III, the Army’s Future Combat Systems, and the Navy CANES program. Our solution provides ad-hoc navigation which will provide a viable solution for Homeland/First Responders in Search and Rescue and other situations where fast response is critical to reducing or preventing the loss of life. Also we can apply this to commercial applications where loss of power is unacceptable or where service is required indoors or in urban areas which are not accessible with today’s navigation solutions. Additionally our utilization of commercially available components increases the likelihood of adoption for new and current navigation users who can benefit from these innovations.

Sigtem Technology, Inc.
1343 Parrott Drive
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 312-1132
Chun Yang
AF 08-165      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Cooperative Handheld Location Device Using Signals of Opportunity
Abstract:We propose to develop a cooperative handheld location device (CHLD) using signals of opportunity (SOOP) to complement and substitute GPS wherever the latter becomes unavailable. Examples of signals of opportunity include the field and/or segment sync codes in digital radio transmissions (e.g., digital TV signals). The proposed cooperative positioning concept includes differential ranges between cooperative devices to the same SOOP source and the relative ranges between the cooperative devices. The cooperation among networked location devices not only allows them to choose the most appropriate positioning mechanism but also provides them with additional measurements to reduce the number of SOOP otherwise required. In addition to data exchange, the radio link between two cooperative devices also allows for estimation of their clock offset and relative ranging. In Phase I, the proposed concepts will be formulated, analyzed, and simulated in computer for performance prediction and engineering tradeoff. The Phase I approach will be translated into hardware/software prototyping in Phase II for testing and demonstration. BENEFIT: When successful, the proposed research will produce a cooperative handheld location device where GPS is not available. This will have great potentials in many military, homeland security, and commercial applications alike for positioning and navigation in urban and indoor environments.

Wavepoint Research, Inc.
7444 Timber View Drive
Newburgh, IN 47630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 490-7947
Eric R. Wandel
AF 08-165      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:Cooperative Handheld Location Device Using Signals of Opportunity
Abstract:This Phase I effort will show that cooperative receiving devices can determine their locations with good accuracy using only signals of opportunity without a global positioning system (GPS). Using emitter of known location, algorithms for calculating receiver location from cooperative signal processing routines will be developed. The focus of the Phase I effort will be on high-power terrestrial broadcast signals from AM, FM and TV stations, but other signals of opportunity such as cellular base stations and wireless access points will be considered. By completion of this project, a cooperative handheld location device using signals of opportunity will be developed and demonstrated through modeling by: (1) developing algorithms sufficient for determining TDOA of transmitted signals to cooperative receiver devices; (2) developing algorithms sufficient for determining location of receivers from TDOA information related to emitters of known location; and (3) preparing a detailed computer simulation to characterize performance of the algorithms using signals of opportunity. The accuracy of a number of scenarios will be characterized – including variations in transmit / receive geometry, signal to noise ratio, and numbers of emitters and receivers – by developing a detailed simulation in order to perform a Monte Carlo analysis across the variations. BENEFIT: The utility of cooperative receiving devices that can provide location information in GPS deprived environments has numerous applications in military and commercial applications. Such a handheld unit would help ensure no loss of capability when GPS is unavailable, including within buildings. Within military applications, the threat of GPS denial is real. This may include jamming, blocking or spoofing. By integrating a secondary capability to ascertain position information that does not rely on GPS, a more robust capability will be provided to the warfighter. Also, in both military and commercial applications, the need to determine precise position within a building is not met by GPS. Warfighters, firefighters and other law enforcement personnel operating within buildings, where it may further be desired to determine elevation information, would benefit greatly from this device.

Euvis Corp
685 Cochran Steet, Suite 160
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 583-9888
Neng-Haung Sheng
AF 08-166      Awarded: 12/30/2008
Title:Wideband Direct Digital Synthesizer
Abstract:This proposal presents two approaches to increase the DDS analog output bandwidth beyond 2.5GHz to extend the required frequency hopping bandwidth for advanced satellite communications. As the sole supplier of > 3GHz DDS and other DAC-related high- speed mixed signal products in the worldwide open market, the proposed approaches are based on Euvis’ existing 3.2GHz DDS products to minimize risks. The prime approach we propose to improve the analog output bandwidth of the DDS is the parallel-interleaved architecture with Double Sampling Rate (DSR) DAC, where parallel implementation of digital functions allows faster processing with little demand for increased transistor speed while the DSR DAC double the analog output sampling rate and the corresponding output bandwidth. The second approach is to utilize the 2nd and the 3rd Nyquist band with Euvis patented Return-to-Zero or Complementary Interpolation DACs. The module to be proposed includes the developed DDS IC integrated on PCB with FPGA as the pseudo- random code generation, data storage and control functions. Then the data modulated single sideband IF signal will be up-converted to 5GHz or higher. The module will have the operating characteristics of low cost, sub-microsecond hopping time, low spurious content, small size, power and weight. BENEFIT: We have established many customer bases through the selling of our 2 ~ 3 GHz DDS and other 2 ~ 4 GHz DAC-related products in the past 3 years. These customers include both defense companies and commercial industries. The applications covered satellite communication spread spectrum terminals (SCAMP program), Radar, EW, DRFM, Software Defined Radio, scene generation, fast tuning frequency synthesizers, arbitrary waveform generations, UWB, WLAN testing and hard drive testers. We have frequently got requests from these customers about the availability and schedule for the next generation wider bandwidth DDS products. As the frequency band of commercial wireless communication systems are pushing from 900 MHz , 1.9 GHz to 5.8 GHz and even higher, there are big commercial opportunities to use the wideband DDS for frequency hopping wireless data modem applications. The availability of the new DDS product with wide bandwidth will enable many of our existing customers to start designs with this new product to improve their system performance. It also will penetrate into consumer wireless communication markets. The commercialization channel already exist for Euvis and there will have more commercial markets to be explored as the wider bandwidth DDS is available.

SOTEKCO LLC
108 W. BARRE ST.
BALTIMORE, MD 21201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 629-5563
Paul Sotiriadis
AF 08-166      Awarded: 12/11/2008
Title:Wideband DDS-based Programmable Frequency Synthesizer with Enhanced Phase-Noise and Spurious Free Dynamic Range Performance
Abstract:This SBIR work plan consists of a research effort to explore and implement a three part innovation to achieve a wideband DDS-based programmable frequency synthesizer (PFS) with enhanced phase-noise and spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). The proposal summarizes the competitive advantages of various techniques for achieving PFS. This understanding provides the motivation for three innovations. Innovation (1) consists of a truncation-free DDS technique to achieve low phase-noise and high SFDR but sacrifices frequency resolution. Frequency resolution is recovered using Diophantine Frequency Synthesis (DFS), an approach initially developed for PLL-based systems that can also be applied to DDS architectures. The implementation embodies innovation (2) where DFS is used to program pairs of truncation-free DDS thereby recovering frequency resolution while preserving low phase noise. DFS uses frequency mixing and to maintain the desirable high SFDR, innovation (3) is realized where Diophantine Frequency Mixing Algorithms for suppressing mixing spurs and enhancing the SFDR are implemented. The research initiative consists of a theoretical and modeling effort combined with a hybrid circuit implementation and evaluation of the proposed PFS architecture to validate its efficacy. This effort will facilitate an integrated circuit implementation expected to achieve the desired performance goals and suitable for commercialization. BENEFIT: Agile frequency synthesis is fundamentally important to a vast range of military and commercial applications ranging from satellite communications to radars to navigation to scientific instrumentation. The proposed work plan will lay out the foundations of new frequency synthesis technology that can achieve multi-GHz frequency ranges with exceptional phase-noise (-150 dBc/Hz @ 1KHz) performance with very low spurious levels (SFDR>80dB) at the same while offering high frequency resolution (Hz) and very fast frequency hoping (ns). Phase – I of this proposed plan is focused on the theoretical modeling & optimization of the proposed high-level architectures as well as the discrete- component implementation of a prototype that will demonstrate the capacities of this new technology. Phase – II of this work plan will offer the opportunity of circuit integration. Miniaturization, ideally a single-chip frequency synthesizer of performance compatible with that promised by Phase - I effort, will enable the major advancement of several military and commercial applications. Successful demonstration of an integrated-circuit prototype is expected to attract significant attention in the RF & microwave community, especially from major semiconductor companies active in wireless communication products. Phase – III would allow refining this technology and embedding it in complex military and commercial systems.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5254
Arvind Bhat
AF 08-167      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Software-defined, reconfigurable, plug-and-play transceiver
Abstract:Intelligent Automation Inc, proposes to develop a software defined Plug-and-Play (PNP) transceiver capable of digitally synthesizing arbitrary waveforms. A digital approach provides excellent control over amplitude, phase and frequency, which is critical for phase-array radar implementation. High-speed Digital-to-analog and Analog-to-Digital converters interfaced with modern FPGA technology have simplified digitally synthesized waveform generator and wideband receiver designs. The proposed technique will leverage IAIfs vast experience in Software Defined Radio (SDR) and RF hardware design. Our innovation focuses on implementing monolithic waveform generator and integrated receiver (will be referred to as gTransceiverh throughout the proposal) using digital techniques and minimizing the number of analog components. The form-factor of such a transceiver will be comparable to a typical handheld mobile device (cell phones, PDAfs). An X-band front can be easily integrated with this waveform generator module using MMIC components, thus making it a complete single channel radar transceiver, with plug-and-play capability. A software-defined reconfigurable transceiver has the potential to greatly improve the performance and efficiency PNP backplanes for phase-array radar applications. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is built upon the software defined radio expertise of IAI. The most promising commercial applications outside of Air Force are: EArbitrary wideband waveform synthesizer EReconfigurable radar transceiver with multi-mode capabilities ECognitive radios

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Geoffrey Burnham
AF 08-168      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Coherent 3D LADAR Vibrometer with fiber lens array beam steering
Abstract:Building on the experience in coherent detection optical system design, in fiber lens array beam steering, in fiber optics component fabrication and high speed modulation development, in random surface light scattering, and in light propagation properties, AGILTRON proposes to establish a 3D LADAR Vibrometer for realizing target detection and identification. The proposed approach transfuses the gradient index fiber lens technology into the sensor to realize 2D beam steering. Cut from same fiber bundle, two matched fiber lens arrays are aligned once two pairs of fiber lenses are aligned. By mounting the lens arrays on two tuning forks respectively, agile 2D beam steering is realized. A fast PM delay-line developed by AGILTRON is used to extend the coherent detection range. An RF frequency is used to make a mark on the laser beam for distance measurement, while the low frequency Doppler shift is detected in the low frequency channel. In this Phase I program, a detailed analysis of the system construction, key part design and sensing models will be carried out, supporting experiments will be conducted, and a demonstration prototype will be designed for construction in Phase II. BENEFIT: A coherent 3D LADAR with vibration feature meter can be used to gather enough information on the battlefield for target identification, and to provide physical security support in anti-terrorism scenarios. Additional civilian applications for the proposed sensor technology include environmental sensing such as a bridge vibration remote sensing, determining the topology of a city or a geographical region.

MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Cecil F. Hess
AF 08-168      Awarded: 1/13/2009
Title:Long-Range Laser Vibrometer for Target Identification
Abstract:MetroLaser proposes to interface a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) sensor to a phased array telescope (PAT) for long-range vibration and target identification measurements and presents a work plan to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. LDV systems are well suited for long-range interrogation of vibrational signatures, and they have been shown to work at standoff distances of several kilometers. Unfortunately, LDV have two significant limitations that impact their measurement sensitivity in practical environments: 1) they experience significant signal deterioration when the target is moving, and 2) a turbulent atmosphere deteriorates its signal sensitivity, especially at shorter wavelengths. In this proposal, we discuss strategies to mitigate both of these problems; and we show ways to develop a long-range LDV for target identification that is compact and rugged. The Phase I work will consist of both analyses and proof-of-concept experiments to evaluate the feasibility of using coherent LDV at short wavelengths for long ranges. BENEFIT: The proposed system will fill a market need for a long-range laser vibrometer. Presently, there are no viable commercial off-the-shelf, long-range LDV systems that operate on arbitrary surfaces at distances of about 50 m and above. Furthermore, there are no commercial LDV systems that operate at the eye-safe wavelength of 1.55 microns. Market inputs indicate that there is a significant need for a long-range LDV like the one proposed here; that is, a system that can operate on targets of arbitrary reflectivity and that is capable of measuring several locations simultaneously. Specific commercial and/or military sectors include remote vehicle inspection, bridge inspection, inspection of electrical transformers, and remote inspection of historical buildings.

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Jeffery R. Philson
AF 08-169      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:Ground-based Radar Space Object Identification (SOI) for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)
Abstract:The United States is heavily invested in, and dependent on, space assets for both military and commercial applications. These assets must be protected from man-made and natural space objects that pose a threat. An improved all-weather, day or night Space Object Identification (SOI) and tracking capability would enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and support improved protection of U.S. space assets. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) is proposing an innovative ground-based radar SOI capability that can provide ultra-high resolution three-dimensional (3-D) radar images of space objects, while simultaneously estimating the motion state of the object. Object features including length and volume can be estimated, object maneuvers can be detected, and future space-time paths of objects predicted. BENEFIT: TSC’s approach relies on an innovative physics- based signal processing technique and is compatible with current Space Surveillance Network (SSN) assets. Our algorithms can provide a new tool for intelligence data collection against foreign satellites and for the characterization of space debris. The technology can be used as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of spacecraft anomalies, providing attitude, shape, and motion characterization of spacecraft. Our techniques can also verify successful deployments during space missions. These same techniques are also useful for discriminating threats during the midcourse phase of ballistic missile defense.

NanoTEM
9375 E. Shea Blvd. Ste. 100
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 243-5374
Fred Shaapur
AF 08-170      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Nanostructural Analysis of Semiconductor Devices
Abstract:Phase I proposal focuses on the demonstration of the feasibility to improve the efficiency and to lower the cost associated with nanostructural analysis of semiconductor devices by implementing a two-pronged strategy. The proposed methodology combines streamlining the required specimen preparation processes with application of test structures for the above purpose. This strategy will minimize the required time and effort for sampling a semiconductor device, which in turn will lower the overall related cost and turnaround time. In Phase II, we plan to develop and prototype a specimen preparation subsystem and design and fabricate a variety of test structures based on the exploratory development effort that we conduct in Phase I. BENEFIT: The availability of a “better, faster, and cheaper” nanostructural analysis option through an improved instrumentation and methodology will have an immediate impact on the extent of its use in the semiconductor industry, which in turn could lead to an accelerated development and introduction of higher quality semiconductor-based device products to the market at a lower cost.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Gary Mikaelian
AF 08-170      Awarded: 12/18/2008
Title:Scanning X-Ray Diffraction Microscope
Abstract:Advancements in compound semiconductor manufacturing call for a constant growth in the complexity of its materials and nanostructures. The Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate (AFRL/SN) is seeking novel imaging tools and techniques, as well as image analysis and processing methods, which will encourage routine use of nanoscopic structural probes within the compound semiconductor industry. To address this Air Force need for efficient nanostructural and atomic level compositionial analysis of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy (ScanXM) system. This proposed ScanXM is based on a combination of coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The innovation in using a combination of the two X-ray imaging and image processing techniques will allow ScanXM to achieve a high spatial resolution of 10-20 nm. As a result, this technology offers a novel imaging tool for nanoscale structures analysis. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ScanXM by assembling all fabricating components in a single system and evaluating its spatial resolution and analytical capabilities. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a pre- production prototype ScanXM and demonstrate that it can be utilized in compound semiconductor device imaging applications. BENEFIT: Military applications of the ScanXM will include using it as an analytical tool for the AFRL/SN compound semiconductor research. In addition, commercial applications of the ScanXM will include development of a novel microscopy technique, which will be used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry, microbiology, and nanotechnology research.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Curt Wu
AF 08-171      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Trust-Aware Routing Protocol (TARP)
Abstract:The Layered Sensing Leadership Group has defined the Layered Sensing Concept as key to future Air Force Science & Technology strategy, and effective data dissemination is integral to its success. A wireless sensor network (WSN) must not only maintain rapid throughput with minimal power consumption, but it must also maintain data integrity by incorporating trust into a continuously optimizing data routing protocol. We propose to assess the trustworthiness of nodes in a WSN with a rapid automated approach to learning baseline behavior and detecting anomalous behavior. To augment unsupervised learning techniques, we propose to include a rule-based module to encode expert knowledge. We will infer the trustworthiness of a node within an operational context. Because different nodes may arrive at different assessments of a target node’s trustworthiness, we propose a lightweight aggregation mechanism to merge multiple assessments. We will then integrate trust-based routing with other parameters in an optimization function that will be the basis of our routing protocol. The protocol will be adaptable to changing network conditions, customizable for dynamic operational requirements, and scalable to extremely large networks. BENEFIT: We expect the trust- aware routing protocol to have immediate and tangible benefit for a number of military sensor network systems including DCGS and FCS. We also see broader application of the trust-based routing to other domains such as social network analysis. Members of a social network could establish a network based on trust rather than simply based on the degree of separation in links.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5209
Julia Deng
AF 08-171      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Building a Trust-Aware Dynamic Routing Solution for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:To fully achieve the performance goal of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes need to cooperate in data collection and routing. However, sensor nodes are faced with a variety of risks due to the harsh operation environments. For example, nodes may misbehave by agreeing to forward packets, but failing to do it later, since they are selfish, malicious, or broken. The current routing protocols either have no security consideration at all based on the fundamental assumption that the sensor nodes will cooperate and not cheat, or focus on the efficient use of cryptographic mechanisms to authenticate routing packets. We argue that the conventional view of security based on cryptography and authentication alone is not sufficient to provide a complete solution for developing trustworthy sensor networks, due to the unique characteristics and novel misbehaviors encountered in WSNs. In this proposal Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes a Trust-Aware dynamic Routing Framework (TARF) for WSNs. The proposed solution will work as a complementary to the cryptography based approaches. Our intent is to incorporate theories of trust from social networks into sensor networks in order to provide a reliable and trustworthy routing path in the dynamic WSN environment with both system and environmental uncertainties. BENEFIT: First, the proposed TARF solution has tremendous applications potential in dynamic military applications. Given the GIG vision, such heterogeneous and dynamic wireless sensor networks will be common and therefore secure, robust, efficient and reliable routing solution is necessary. The proposed Trust-Aware Routing architecture, algorithms, and the developed simulation tool can be applied to various military networks for major programs like surveillance network, Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, Future Combat System (FCS), etc. IAI has teamed with Honeywell on the FCS-Platform Soldier Mission Readiness System and with Northrop Grumman on FCS-logistic decision support system. We will leverage these relationships to identify the end military customer, and work with these teams to transition our Phase II technology into the FCS and other programs. In addition, our industry partner, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon and Telcordia can also transition these technologies. The market for military applications is quite large. Second, due to the increasing popularity of various wireless technologies, our proposed solution can be applied into a large number of commercial applications, such as wireless sensor networks, wireless ad hoc networks, wireless mesh networks, disaster networks, and border monitoring networks. The size of the market is quite large and may grow rapidly with the commercial demand in network reliability and availability. We expect that the aggregate market size will be similar to or larger than that of military applications.

mZeal Communications
166 Boulder Drive, Suite 108
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 665-0281
Rajini Ananchi
AF 08-171      Awarded: 12/11/2008
Title:SECURE ADAPTIVE ROUTING PROTOCOL (SARP) FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS (WSNs)
Abstract:The Secure Adaptive Routing Protocol (SARP) for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) creates secure, adaptive-to-security-failures, multi-path routing protocol which exploits the trustworthiness metrics, respects the computational, communicational and memory limitations of wireless sensor nodes. SARP relies on a comprehensive and multi- dimensional distributed evaluation of the trust level of nodes, detection of adversary nodes, reliable propagation of trustworthiness metrics, and defenses for the routing protocol and the trust propagation. This trust evaluation and propagation are performed according to the decision maker’s specific intent or service from the WSNs and depending on the mission requirements, and are aimed at exploiting the most trusted and reliable information to provide the optimal routing. SARP is a multi-path cost-based distributed routing algorithm, which uses the proposed trustworthiness metrics as routing costs to calculate the most secure and reliable paths in the network. SARP quickly adapts a new route in case of a security failure and propagates this security failure information to the nodes as quickly and efficiently as possible. SARP contributes to the situational awareness capabilities of tactical WSNs by providing the cost-aware secure routing dimension to the sensor systems as well as providing scalable, dynamic, energy-efficient and robust solutions against security failures. BENEFIT: SARP will see near-term commercial opportunities in the places where the challenges to secure distributed wireless sensor networking are most difficult in specific scenarios for the Military, Department of Defense, and Homeland Security. SARP is envisioned to merge the capabilities of various sensor motes via a comprehensive secure protocol design for candidate applications such as battlefield awareness, enemy vehicle tracking, homeland infrastructure protection, and surveillance. SARP will support mobile sensor networks, where there is a need to maintain the trust at a very high level so as to be able to rely on the collected information in life threatening situations. Therefore SARP will enhance situational awareness capabilities and will provide support for trusted sensor network applications and enable the collection of trusted actionable intelligence. As SARP matures it will target the larger markets of wireless sensor networks in industrial & commercial applications (ex. Hotel room thermostats, factory automation, etc.). These markets require a secure sensor network less for privacy, but to maintain a high level of cost effectiveness. To reach these high cost efficiency levels, the sensor network must be power efficient, dynamic, and adapt to both attempts from unauthorized manipulation and resiliency to node failures. SARP is being designed with all these capabilities and more. Thus it will meet the needs of these markets easily.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-9725
Juan Vasquez
AF 08-172      Awarded: 1/23/2009
Title:Three-dimensional Context and Feature Aided Multitarget Tracking
Abstract:Dismount discrimination is often based on static EO or IR target attributes such as height, length, and color. Various algorithms such as gait estimation have been developed to distinguish dismounts from other moving objects. Techniques that build high-fidelity 3D models of dismounts are fragile when applied to real imagery (i.e., video mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with limited communication bandwidth and operating in windy conditions). A novel approach is to exploit the information derived from the track state being provided by a tracker to enhance existing methods for gait estimation and 3D target modeling. Specific attention will be given to managing lower resolution EO/IR data and combining the strengths of recently developed concepts in order to provide robust methods for dismount discrimination and feature aided tracking. In addition, micro-doppler radar features will be exploited to provide dismount gait estimation, which leads to the benefit of a layered sensing approach. The micro-doppler radar features are highly dependent on target orientation to the sensor. Knowledge of this orientation provided by other layers in the sensing network will significantly enhance the radar-based discrimination and classification. The layered sensing paradigm provides opportunities for data fusion at the measurement or track level. BENEFIT: The specific problem of three- dimensional multi-intelligence surveillance systems is addressed. The developmental sections of the software can be translated into a real-time system for direct use by the military and civilian reconnaissance communities. Specific DoD programs include instantiations of several UAV sensor platforms, the recently deployed Angel Fire system, and the evolving ARGUS-IS persistent video platform. UAV video platforms are becoming increasing prolific and provide new opportunities to employ layered sensing architectures. Demonstration of Numerica’s capabilities in the layered sensing problem domain will be directly marketable to civil application areas such as include border patrol and urban surveillance. The recent increase in aerial systems capable of providing persistent radar or video will be appropriate for homeland defense applications that require wide area sensor coverage along with high-confidence tracking solutions. The tracking technology developed under this SBIR will be extensible to private surveillance systems without the need to modify existing hardware systems. As such, a licensable version of a matured software suite will be realizable. Numerica has on-going relationship with Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, and various other DoD contractors with programs related to surveillance systems.

Photon-X, Inc
4835 University Square Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3416
Blair Barbour
AF 08-172      Awarded: 1/7/2009
Title:TETMAN: Three-dimensional Exploitation Techniques for Moving And Non-rigid targets
Abstract:The Air Force is seeking a means of using multiple types of sensors (EO, IR, RF) on multiple platforms to perform layered sensing of a large region. The sensors will combine their outputs – including feature extraction/data representation – through a shared GIS system. The multi-sensor, co-registered data will result in improved situational awareness. Human dismounts will be the smallest object of interest. Relatedly, the Air Force also seeks an ability to model human (non-rigid) motion. This requires 3D modeling. Furthermore, in the context of the layered sensing scenario above, this 3D human motion modeling implies an ability to detect, recognize/categorize/identify, and track dismounts at some distance. Also, given that at least some of the sensors will be airborne, this implies that the sensor and non-rigid target object both will be moving. The sensor output will feed into the above GIS layered sensing system. In response to these needs, Photon-X, Inc. proposes to research the use of its 3D spatial phase imaging camera to discern humans within a scene, capture human motion, and relay the information to a GIS database for continuous situation awareness. The Photon-X system uses a single video camera to capture a high-resolution 3D image at any range (lens-determined). BENEFIT: If successful, the proposed research would provide the basis for high-resolution tracking of human motion, placed in precise context within a GIS framework. This would greatly enhance situation awareness within the monitored target area. Capabilities for layered sensing and GIS-registered data would offer a significant additional surveillance and intelligence tool for numerous government entities. Furthermore, many of the technologies expected in this SBIR project lend themselves to commercial uses, including: security monitoring for trespassers, group segmentation to differentiate individuals at a security access point, and human motion modeling for various remote control or gaming and entertainment uses.

Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Richard Utano
AF 08-173      Awarded: 1/9/2009
Title:Mid-Infrared Solid-State Active Sensor
Abstract:Raman fiber laser source based on novel fibers offer an exciting possibility for the mid-IR and longer wavelength regions. Such mid-IR sources are pumped by commercially available fiber lasers, and offer power-scalable, multi-spectral outputs in desired atmospheric bands of interest. BENEFIT: (1) Robust and wavelength-agile mid-IR laser sources for IRCM (2) Mid-IR sources for remote-sensing in atmospheric transmission windows (3) Mid-IR sources for spectroscopic detection

L2 Tech, Inc
3149 S. Chrysler Ave.
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-0200
Philip Lam
AF 08-173      Awarded: 1/12/2009
Title:All-Fiber Infrared Raman Laser
Abstract:We propose to develop an all-fiber Raman laser based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic Bandgap fiber that is fabricated by new infrared materials. The Raman laser, pumped by commercially available fiber laser at near-infrared wavelength, can generate infrared wavelength in a broadband from 1.5 to 12 microns. Its wavelength can be tuned by tuning the pump laser output. The all-fiber Raman laser is robust, insensitive to environmental changes in temperature, pressure, humidity, and vibration. It can be used for countermeasures to the next generation of heat seeking missiles and for long range, remote sensing of targets and threats. In Phase I, we will fabricate the gas-filled hollow- core photonic bandgap fiber. A mid-infrared fiber laser will be built and characterized. BENEFIT: The all-fiber, robust and compact infrared Raman fiber lasers can be used as infrared countermeasures (IRCM) for defense against heat seeking missiles or man- portable air defense system. Illumination, targeting, secure communications and sensing are also important military applications for the fiber lasers. Infrared lasers are of great interest for a wide range of scientific and technological applications from spectroscopy and frequency metrology to information technology, industrial process control, photochemistry, photobiology and photomedicine, contamination control, atmospheric chemistry, imaging as well as rapid detection of explosives, chemical and biological agents.

Q Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Glen Rines
AF 08-173      Awarded: 1/8/2009
Title:Tm:fiber-based Solid State Active Sensor
Abstract:Advances in diode-pumped solid state lasers and high-quality nonlinear materials have facilitated development of broadly tunable, all-solid-state, mid- and long-band infrared sources suitable for countermeasures and long-range sensing of targets and threats. Present systems are based on bulk-crystal pump lasers, either 1064-nm wavelength neodymium-doped or 2000-nm-region, holmium- or thulium-doped lasers, combined with suitable nonlinear wavelength converters, such as optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). Recent advances in high-power fiber lasers suggest that they can replace the bulk devices as pump sources, with the advantages of reduced sensitivity to environmental changes, simplified thermal management and greater packaging flexibility. In a related area, the same large-core fiber designs used in the lasers can provide a robust means to deliver pump power to different locations in the platform of interest. We propose to design and develop an innovative, efficient, IR-generation system that combines a flexible waveform/wavelength generator, an efficient, fiber-based power amplifier, a fiber delivery system and a fiber-coupled OPO. BENEFIT: The system design, with all the elements optically connected via rugged, low-loss, fiber, allows for maximum flexibility in deployment on different platforms, as well as allowing modular service of the components. Potential commercial applications include fence-line monitors at industrial sites, needed to meet Clean Air Act requirements and process-control monitors designed to detect and quantify small quantities of gases crucial to a particular chemical process.

Correlated Solutions, Inc.
120 Kaminer Way Pkwy. Suite A
Columbia, SC 29210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 926-7272
Hubert W. Schreier
AF 08-175      Awarded: 12/16/2008
Title:Verified and Validated Software for Three-dimensional (3-D) Fatigue Crack Growth and Stable Crack Extension
Abstract:Development of a software tool capable of predicting crack growth in structures with complex geometries for accurate structural life predictions and residual strength assessment is proposed. The custom crack growth simulation tool, CRACK3D, will be used as the basic code for further development and implementation. First, further enhancement of the CRACK3D module for computational geometry and topology will be performed so that CRACK3D can handle most of geometric features present in modern aircraft structures. Second, CRACK3D will be modified to contain built-in advanced computing techniques, including high performance computing FORTRAN/C++ coding, parallel computation option for running on distributed memory system and shared memory systems. Third, the three-dimensional virtual crack closure technique, 3D VCCT, will be used to calculate stress intensity factors for complex crack geometries under arbitrary mixed mode loading conditions. Fourth, the alternate superposition-based method will be used to take into account the effect of residual stress on fatigue crack growth rates. This method is simple and relatively accurate. A crack closure based approach can also be implemented for improving the accuracy of the alternate superposition-based method if accuracy becomes a concern. Finally, experimental validation of the capabilities will be performed using either existing literature or simple coupon experiments. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the proposed effort provides the foundation for conversion of CRACK3D into a form that would provide AF personnel with an efficient and effective simulation tool for assessing selected flaw criticality. Specifically, the following results are anticipated. (1)A finite element formulation of VCCT with 10-noded tetrahedral elements, implemented in CRACK3D, for simulating three-dimensional crack growth using unstructured meshes. (2)A program module for re-meshing local regions around critical crack fronts and containing internal material boundaries, for modeling crack growth in multi-material structures. (3)A program module of computational geometry and topology for updating structural geometry and topology due to crack growth in structures with arbitrary, complex geometries.(4) A theoretical model and simulation methodology of fatigue crack growth in structures under mixed mode loading conditions, implemented in CRACK3D, for prediction of fatigue crack path under general loading conditions, and (5) An enhanced software package, CRACK3D, for calculation of stress intensity factors under mixed mode loading conditions and fatigue crack growth simulation, in addition to simulation of stable tearing crack growth. Taken together, completion of these developments provides the foundation for future Phase II efforts to make the 3D fracture analysis methodology both effective and relatively easy to use. The modified version of the software package CRACK3D is intended for commercialization at the completion of the Phase II effort. To achieve this goal, various strategies will be used to publicize CRACK3D and to demonstrate its capabilities and applications. Included in this effort will be development of a relatively easy-to-use interface to allow users to utilize the power of

Simmetrix, Inc.
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 348-1639
John Tourtellott
AF 08-175      Awarded: 11/25/2008
Title:Modeling and Analysis of Crack Propagation in Structures
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR will provide a flexible and expandable system for the simulation of crack propagation in structures. The work here will build off of years of work already invested in developing such a system. The software will be designed to be easily incorporated into existing design processes by directly utilizing CAD design geometry and existing commercial finite element analysis software. The crack propagation criteria to be initially used is one that has been validated and is currently in use at a major aerospace manufacturer, however the system will be designed to incorporate other crack growth criteria to address other types of materials. BENEFIT: The failure of engineered structures due to propagation of cracks has caused many highly visible and costly accidents in recent years in structures ranging from bridges to aircraft. Better understanding of this failure mode and ease of evaluating the potential for such failures is critical to improving the design of a wide range of products. The software developed in this project will be specifically designed for easy integration with existing design processes to reduce unexpected failures and allow further optimization of structures to reduce weight and cost.

Global Engineering and Materials, Inc.
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme, CT 06333
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 398-5620
Jim Lua
AF 08-176      Awarded: 12/12/2008
Title:Composite Damage Evaluation Tool
Abstract:The focus of the proposed effort is to develop a coupled composite damage assessment and repair evaluation tool for a given damage state measured by a NDI technique. New solution modules for damage and repair representation will be developed and linked with our existing mesh independent extended finite element (XFEM) toolkit for ABAQUS. This tool will for the first time be able to model arbitrary location and size of damage and geometric configuration associated with either a bonded or a bolted repair without user intervention or remeshing. High computational efficiency is achieved via the coupled XFEM shell and hybrid interface element formulation. The developed toolkit provides a great flexibility in incorporation of NDI field data and exploration of an optimal repair option. GEM has secured commitments for technical support from Bell Helicopter, who will assist in evaluation of composite repair analysis tool by fabrication of coupon specimens, introduction of initial damage via impact, damage evaluation via NDI, repair design and implementation based on SRM and GEM’s tool prediction, and performance of post-test on repaired specimens. In addition, our consultant, Professor Ted Belytschko from Northwestern University, will aid in tool development and module integration. BENEFIT: The results from this research will have significant benefits and commercial application in the aerospace, automotive and many other industries. It will result in 1) a commercially viable, accurate, computationally efficient, and user-friendly damage assessment and repair evaluation tool; 2) a physical mapping relation between the NDI data and a rational repair decision; 3) a condition-based repair decision to improve reliability and reduce cost of repair process; and 4) a standardized toolkit to reduce flow times for disposition and increase the reliability of repair. By teaming with Bell Helicopter will considerably shorten our development cycle from developing a prototype tool to commercially available design software.

KaZaK Composites Incorporated
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Antonio Miravete
AF 08-176      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Analytical Tools for Composite Material Damage Evaluation
Abstract:Large unitized composite structures significantly reduce part count and cost of manufacture. Damage tolerance assessments of unitized structures are essential to ensure known damage threats will not compromise the safe operation of aircraft. The current practice of residual strength assessment and tests based on small BVID (barely visible impact damage) and large CDT (critical damage threshold) damage is known to increase in-service repair costs of thin composite honeycomb panels. There is therefore a need to develop accurate damage tolerance assessment analysis methods and efficient repairs. This proposal aims to develop analytical and computational tools for quantitative damage tolerance assessment of traditional composites based on progressive damage modeling. Analysis and tests will be performed on the residual strength and integrity of representative damaged components and adhesively bonded repairs. A constituents- and micromechanics-based failure approach (MMF) to damage initiation and progression for traditional composites will be employed. This will extend the considerable analysis capability and concept, hitherto successfully applied to conventional CFRP structures, to repaired composites and optimized repair processes. The development of tools under Phase I will enable the selection of the most promising candidate concepts for further testing and verification under Phase II. BENEFIT: Ensuring the survivability of hybrid composite structures against various levels of damage threats by embedding damage- tolerant features will increase the margin of confidence in the design of large unitized aircraft structures. The developed rational quantitative methodology and analytical tools are applicable whenever damage tolerance assessment and knowledge of need-to-repair are critical, such as in military and civil aviation overhaul and maintenance services. The tools will also enable the assessment of the effectiveness of various proposed repair schemes in restoring structural integrity.

M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 981-7797
Scott Young
AF 08-176      Awarded: 12/12/2008
Title:Advanced Composite Damage and Repair Evaluation System
Abstract:This proposed Air Force Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Project seeks to develop a composite damage evaluation tool for rapid repair analysis. The software system is designed to modify a finite element model to include the damage sustained during service operations through the use of an intuitive graphical user interface. The analysis performed by the proposed system includes strength, stiffness, and life characteristics the newly repaired composite structures. Aerospace OEMs as well as government agencies can benefit from this tool. BENEFIT: The benefits of the ACDRES software tool are rapid analysis of proposed repair of in service composite components, easily creating a finite element mesh of the damage through the use of overlaying pictures of the sustained damage in the model of the component. Potential Commericial applications include sales to aerospace OEMs such as Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, and Northrop-Grumman. In addition the Department of Defense and NASA could see a large benefit from using this tool.

Materials Sciences Corporation
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Gerald V. Flanagan
AF 08-176      Awarded: 11/26/2008
Title:Composite Damage Evaluation Tool (MSC P8053)
Abstract:Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC) has plans to modify and enhance an existing modeling approach for damaged composites to address the problem of damage evaluation and repair in composite structures. The discrete damage space homogenization method, or DDSHM, uses a finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) of material. The analysis includes explicitly modeling of all the possible crack locations within the RVE. By cycling through all the possible crack length combinations and recording energy changes, the system can build up a nonlinear material model that accounts for damage evolution. The nonlinear material model is then used in a conventional structural analysis of a damaged element to determine residual strength. The method will be validated using a series of coupons that provide baseline data, and will demonstrate the ability of the system to track damage growth. MSC will create a software plan that will show how this central element of a complete system will be integrated with nondestructive inspection information, and precompiled parametric finite element models of typical structural elements and repairs. BENEFIT: The proposed research will lead to a software system that can rigorously capture the effects of damage on composite structures. The system will have a direct impact on the ability of Air Force, Navy, and commercial airlines to support composite structures. It will enable operators to determine if repair is necessary, and whether a proposed repair will be effective in returning the structure back to its original performance levels.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Jason O. Burkholder
AF 08-177      Awarded: 12/10/2008
Title:Rugged Synthetic Jet Actuators for Pracital Flight Control Applications
Abstract:Many roadblocks exist to bringing promising synthetic jet actuator flow control technology to fruition in a military application, including environmental sensitivity, scalability to a full- size aircraft, narrow dynamic range, and variability of performance between nominally identical actuators due to manufacturing imprecision. Many of these limitations are inherent in traditional piezoelectric-driven synthetic jet actuators (SJAs). Barron Associates and the University of Wyoming propose an innovative new SJA design that promises to overcome many of the limitations of traditional SJAs. The proposed SJAs will feature a much broader dynamic range, improved manufacturing uniformity and scalability, and vastly improved environmental robustness. The overall objectives of the Phase I effort will be to construct coated piezoelectric SJAs and test these actuators alongside SJAs of the new design. A series of environmental tests and subsequent wind tunnel tests, including an existing adaptive feedback controller, will be used to assess peak performance and environmental robustness and objectively compare the design approaches in terms of reliability, cost, weight, etc. Actuator failure modes and failure probabilities will be statistically modeled. BENEFIT: Although promising active flow control results have been achieved in controlled environments, traditional synthetic jet actuator designs feature inherent limitations that may prove to be insurmountable in a practical military aircraft application. For synthetic jets to make the transition from laboratory scale tests to aircraft platforms, a robust synthetic jet actuator must be developed that can withstand the harsh operational environments typical of military air vehicle missions. An innovative new synthetic jet actuator design may overcome many of these limitations and may prove to be suitable for widespread application in operational environments. A suitable synthetic jet actuator could give rise to many diverse applications, including enhancement of aircraft high lift systems, back-up aircraft flight control power for improved safety, and many other instances of high-payoff lift enhancement and/or drag reduction.

Omega Piezo Technologies
2591 Clyde Ave.
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-4160
David Pickrell
AF 08-177      Awarded: 12/9/2008
Title:F-35 Lift Augmentation with Synthetic Jets
Abstract:Synthetic Jet (SJ) actuators have recently been pursued as solutions in active flow control applications, aeroshaping of airfoils, and even thermal management of microelectronics. Of particular interest is the use of piezoelectric SJ actuators as flight air flow control devices where their compact size, reduced weight and all-electric actuation make them desirable for use on high performance military aircraft. In the proposed program, piezoelectric synthetic jets will be systematically developed, and under the prescribed environmental conditions, be tested for both military and commercial aircraft applications. Fully functional piezoelectric synthetic jet prototypes will be assembled and tested in a laboratory environment in accordance with military and commercial specifications. The variability of SJ peak performance will be measured with respect to operational conditions, and material and device characteristics. Conformal coatings or encapsulation devices will also be developed to protect the synthetic jets from corrosive saltwater environments, operational temperature extremes, and damage due to abrasive dust. Overall performance of prototype piezoelectric SJ actuators will be reported along with plans for Phase II development and commercialization. BENEFIT: Development of reliable piezoelectric synthetic jets will increase the performance of aircraft high lift systems, reducing aircraft wing size, weight, and cost for both military and commercial applications. Overall complexity and weight reductions, combined with improved resistance to corrosion and dust fouling for example, will improve lifetime performance expectations and reduce manufacturing and maintenance costs over the hydraulic and electromagnetic systems currently being used. Furthermore, the proposor and their project partners will develop synthetic jets for other applications including, microelectronic thermal management systems.

Acellent Technologies, Inc.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-1188
X. Peter Qing
AF 08-178      Awarded: 12/8/2008
Title:Structural State Sensing
Abstract:Acellent proposes development of structural state sensing systems that function analogously to nervous systems. Different sensor types (including piezoelectric) will be used in a variety of ways to determine system state within the complex structures and advanced materials used in aviation. Multi-Modal Sensing (MMS) states include selectable characteristics, from simple temperature and pressure to complex inferences, such as location and degree of damage. MMS systems are intended to communicate with computation / control systems enabling aircraft to automatically respond quickly to different detected environmental, loading, or damage states. This technology is anticipated to allow less massive future composite designs as MMS will allow physical compensation for unusual environments, system loadings, and mechanical material insults (damage). Timely sensor information will assist flight operations as well as allow more intelligent maintenance. Additionally, active sensing will be combined with passive detection technology to expand range and resolution of detected characteristics. Design emphasis is broadly placed on sensing capability, reducing implementation risk by leveraging Acellent’s SMART LAYER™ technology, low mass, and as little wiring as practical. BENEFIT: MMS can move to commercial aircraft as these incorporate increasing amounts of composites, leading to designs that weigh less, and can also respond to environments and loadings. Lighter weight translates to decreased drag, and associated fuel savings. Automated responsiveness can increase aerodynamic efficiency and piloting options should damage occur, decreasing cost and contributing to aviation safety.

MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
25 Health Sciences Drive Suite 125
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6691
Christopher Gouldstone
AF 08-178      Awarded: 12/8/2008
Title:Aware Composite Structures
Abstract:Mesoplasma Direct-Write is a high-precision deposition technology for fabricating multilayer sensors, antennas and interconnects. It is proposed to apply this technology to measuring structural and aerodynamic states of composite structures. This will be achieved, in the case of structural states, by fabricating sensors onto and between laminae. Aerodynamic states will be measured by surface-deposited sensors. Recent work has demonstrated strain gages and thermocouples integrated with composite structures. The proposed effort builds on lessons learnt and expands to new classes of direct write sensor, including a capacitive pressure sensor; a capacitive crack sensor; and a thermally-based stagnation point location sensor. Direct Write sensors will be integrated into a unitized composite structure. Having demonstrated these sensors and embedding within composites, a clear path to Phase II will be outlined, in which full integration will be addressed. BENEFIT: This program will apply MesoScribe’s expertise in low-profile sensor fabrication and composite integration to a new class of sensors for aerodynamic states. Existing capabilities for measuring mechanical (strain, cracks) and thermal states (temperature, heat flux) will be augmented with pressure sensing and stagnation point location. Successful demonstration of these sensor designs will expand MesoScribe’s catalog of sensing capabilities, and allow the Company to exploit more fully the burgeoning market for intelligent structures.

SI2 Technologies
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5300
Tom Fusco
AF 08-178      Awarded: 12/8/2008
Title:An Embedded State Sensing System for Adaptively Guided Aircraft (1000-110)
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes to develop an embedded state sensing system for adaptive multifunctional air vehicle structures to enable fly-by-feel or intelligent control. The embedded sensor system will: (1) be capable of actively sensing a number of aerodynamic and structural performance dynamics encountered by the aircraft, (2) enable the efficiency of the aircraft aerodynamics and structure to be maximized throughout the flight envelope, and (3) permit fly-by-feel technologies through the combination of locally processed sensor data and reactive and predictive control algorithms. SI2 will use its proprietary System Integrated Design and Manufacturing (SIDM) technology (which utilizes patented Laser Transfer and Direct Write fabrication techniques) to design and integrate the sensor system directly with the platform’s airframe. SI2’s prior experience in developing structurally integrated electronic systems for air platforms will be utilized to develop a lightweight, robust network of embedded state sensors. BENEFIT: SI2’s approach to developing a structurally integrated sensor system for adaptive multifunctional air vehicle structures minimizes the space, weight, power, and cost burden of implementing “smart structures”. Both structural functionality and aerodynamic efficiency are improved without compromising asset performance (e.g. endurance). Increased structural functionality reduces the need for large safety factors and permits the aircraft to fully exploit the physical limits of airframe and while increasing the flight envelope. Additional aerodynamic efficiency permits increased range and payload while decreasing the stresses on the airframe. This is important for a wide range of aircraft from small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) to high altitude, long endurance (HALE) aircraft such as the Air Force’s Global Hawk. Hence, the technology may also be extended to commercial aircraft where it may be utilized to increase fuel efficiency, which has significant market impact.

Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 220-5040
Arun S. Mangalam
AF 08-178      Awarded: 12/8/2008
Title:Reconfigurable Structural and Aerodynamic State Sensing System For Multi-Functional Structures
Abstract:A reconfigurable structural and aerodynamic state sensing system will be developed for determining the internal states such as temperature, strain, loads, deformations, shape and damage, as well as external states such as stagnation point, separation point and surface pressure profile. The effort will require development of instrumentation and integration techniques for interfacing distributed, dissimilar sensors with intelligent measurement electronics subsystems to provide direct aerostructural feedback for deformation compensation and structural health monitoring. Emerging sensor fabrication technologies such as direct write and thin film electronics will be used to enable reconfigurable sensor arrays that are embeddable, low cost, and redundant. Tao Systems'''''''''''''''' high sensitivity, large bandwidth, active sensor circuit design uniquely combined with a programmable switching network will be used to configure and operate strain gauges, temperature, hot-film and pressure sensors, and accelerometers with minimal power consumption and increased accuracy. The proposed technology will lead to increased distributed sensor reliability without sacrificing sensor bandwidth, sensitivity or multi-functionality for obtaining sub-millisecond response structural and aerodynamic state. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is applicable to all classes of future military vehicles (small UAV''''s to transports) featuring unitized composite airframe construction. This technology would be applicable to commercial transportation systems that utilize composite structures such as aircraft, ships, automobiles, trucks, etc. It will also find application in wind turbine blades and rotorcraft systems.

Industrial Measurement Systems Inc.
2760 Beverly Dr. #4
Aurora, IL 60502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 236-5901
Donald E. Yuhas
AF 08-179      Awarded: 12/8/2008
Title:Technologies for Rapid Affordable Hypersonic Flight Testing
Abstract:Innovative measurement methods and instruments are needed to advance the state-of-art of hypersonic flight. Improved thermal transport measurement methods speed development, improve understanding, and enhance our ability to validate analytical models and hardware for numerous propulsion and aeroshell applications. Recent studies have shown that in many hypersonic applications ultrasonic-based temperature and heat flux measurements offer distinct advantages over conventional methods. The transient temperature response is limited only by the velocity of sound and not the thermal mass of the sensor. Measurements can be made remotely, which prevents the disturbance of the measured quantity and removes the sensor from the harsh thermal environment. Measurements can be made without modifying the structure in any way e.g. drilling. In spite of these advantages, ultrasonic thermometry has not found widespread use. One reason for this limited use is the lack of low-cost, compact, dedicated, instrumentation which takes full advantage of the ultrasonic-based methods. In this proposal, we fill this gap by developing and demonstrating a multi-channel ultrasonic-based temperature and heat flux measurement capability. This innovation will be initially applied to boundary layer transition measurements in ground-based experiments, but will have the potential for application in a host of in-flight hypersonic experiments. BENEFIT: Ultrasonic thermometry offers unique capabilities to hypersonic vehicle development. Improved thermal transport measurement methods speed development, improve understanding, and enhance our ability to validate analytical models and hardware for numerous propulsion and aeroshell applications. The non-intrusive nature of the method is particularly attractive for hostile environment encountered in hypersonic flight. The immediate market for this technology is primarily in military applications where there is a need for improved thermal transfer measurement tools to drive the development and evaluation of hypersonic materials and components. In addition to the applications in hypersonic vehicle and propulsion systems, the ultrasonic temperature sensor technology has applications in the areas of space lift, space platform, combustion research, and missiles. There is also a potential commercial market in areas where thermal transport data is needed in relatively inaccessible regions such as combustion chambers, reactors and in some glass molding operations.

MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
25 Health Sciences Drive Suite 125
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6691
Jason Trelewicz
AF 08-179      Awarded: 12/8/2008
Title:Integration of Direct-Write Sensors and Interconnects for Sounding Rocket Payload Test Platforms
Abstract:Sounding rockets present an excellent platform for long-duration studies in the hypersonic flow regime, however the environmental conditions during flight are extreme, thus placing significant constraints on sensor technologies integrated into such applications. MesoScribe has developed a process technology for harsh-environment sensor fabrication that is well suited for instrumenting sounding rockets for hypersonic studies. Thermocouples, strain gauges, heat flux sensors, and skin friction represent sensors in various stages of development (thermocouples are the most mature; skin friction the least). Founded in 2002, MesoScribe Technologies, Inc. has been developing sensors for harsh environments since its inception in 2002. This Phase I proposal is aimed at adapting Mesoscribe’s unique direct-write technology for integrating its sensor capabilities into applications for hypersonic flight, particularly using NASA’s sounding rocket test platform. BENEFIT: The integration of Mesoscribe’s direct-write sensor technologies for hypersonic flight vehicles has significant and widespread potential application in many DoD applications. As there has been a renewed interest in hypersonic studies and designs, the ability to make reliable in-flight flow measurements such as temperature, strain, heat flux, and skin friction is critical. If MST''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s sensors offerings are successfully developed and tested, they would become flight-proven technologies for a host of current and future hypersonic programs, both space- and ground-based.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2453
Nathan Schurr
AF 08-180      Awarded: 12/19/2008
Title:Learning Estimates of Aggregate Performance (LEAP)
Abstract:Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems are becoming more and more complex, with ever increasing fidelity of data and ever increasing numbers of deployable UAVs and other sensors. Error rates are currently the best predictor of performance in autonomous, human, and sociotechnical systems. However, there are three key issues that arise when trying to determine the error rate of the complete ISR system: 1. learning algorithms must handle the sparse data available; 2. lack of structure in the data; and 3. complexity of overall human-automation system performance. Aptima proposes to address these challenges with a comprehensive human-system approach called Learning Estimates of Aggregate Performance (LEAP). The LEAP approach proposes to leverage techniques in both human modeling and machine learning to arrive at a solution that is both feasible and useful for calculating overall ISR system performance. LEAP leverages Signal Detection Theory to form an accurate model of human error and Relevance Vector Machines in order to reduce the necessary amount of training data. The LEAP approach, once achieved, has the ability to create more accurate performance estimates with much fewer human experiments necessary than with traditional learning approaches. BENEFIT: • Drastic reduction the number of human experiments necessary in addition to leveraging available data to the fullest extent possible. • Groundwork for human operator-based and human operator-model-based experimentation. • Deep understanding of the important human factors that must be considered in the ISR system. • Signal Detection Theory-informed models of human operator error and performance.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Ranga Narayanaswami
AF 08-180      Awarded: 12/16/2008
Title:SUMATRA: Supervised Modeling of ATR Algorithms
Abstract:Automated and assisted target recognition (ATR) is an important aspect of an Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems. The role of ATR systems is to detect, classify, recognize and identify targets, based on input sensor data from a variety of sources. ATR system performance varies with the quality of the sensor data, the difficulty of the environment being assessed, and the separability of the target signatures in some feature space. In addition, the potency of the ATR algorithm in the extraction of feature information from the data is of importance. In order to maintain a high vehicle to operator ratio in ISR systems a key criterion is the false alarm rate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves relate the probability of detection of a target to the probability of a false alarm. The position on the ROC curve is a function of response bias which is directly related to the threshold set in the ATR detectors. The goal of this proposal is to develop a methodology for performance prediction and modeling of operator in the loop ATR systems. The proposed SUMATRA system (Supervised Modeling of ATR Algorithms) will relate physics and geometry-based vectors to false alarm rates. BENEFIT: In order to maintain a high vehicle to operator ratio in ISR systems a key criterion is the false alarm rate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves relate the probability of detection of a target to the probability of a false alarm. The position on the ROC curve is a function of response bias which is directly related to the threshold set in the ATR detectors. One way of achieving a lower false alarm rate is to lower the threshold. This shifts the operating point and lowers the false alarm rate, but it comes at the expense of a concomitant lower probability of detection. Of course this is undesirable. A better option would be to move to another curve instead which can reduce the false alarm rate without the associated drop in probability of detection. In order to achieve this, performance modeling of ATR algorithms, which can include the operator in the loop is critical. The proposed SUMATRA system will model the performance of ATR algorithms and therefore be a vary valuable tool for the Air Force. I addition, civil use in security systems, such as airports, public transportation and even closed video surveillance is anticipated.

ATA Engineering, Inc
11995 El Camino Real Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 480-2101
Parthiv Shah
AF 08-181      Awarded: 12/22/2008
Title:Multiphysics, Coupled Analysis Framework for Hypersonic Vehicle Structures
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of a practical multiphysics coupled analysis framework for hypersonic vehicle structures. This Phase I SBIR has two parts. The first part involves the definition of a hypersonic vehicle mission and its aero-thermal environments to locate and characterize regions where tightly coupled analysis will be necessary. This will include a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art analysis methods and identification of the current limitations of each method in the context of the desired prediction confidence levels. The second part involves the development of a conceptual framework, using appropriate state-of-the-art multiphysics tools, to simulate the response of high-speed vehicle structures in those environments. As the proposed program requires integration of multiple engineering disciplines in order to achieve a best, practical solution, the SBIR team will utilize various areas of expertise within ATA Engineering, along with expert subcontractors. ATA and its partner at Mississippi State University have already successfully developed related multiphysics components, including coupled thermo-structural analysis, coupled aeroelastic analysis, and coupled aero-vibro-acoustic analysis. BENEFIT: The improved predictive accuracy of the multiphysics coupled analysis tool that will be developed under this SBIR will be a key enabler in the future development of hypersonic air vehicles that must withstand extreme aero-thermal and aero-acoustic environments. Applications in the DoD market include reusable and single-use military hypersonic vehicles, as well as stealth aircraft with ducted exhaust. In other commercial markets, a coupled fluid-thermal-structural design tool would have application to nuclear engineering and related DoE applications. An unsteady CFD tool that could accurately predict fluctuating pressure levels (FPL) loading under turbulent boundary layers and aerodynamic shocks would have very wide application.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Essam Sheta
AF 08-181      Awarded: 1/6/2009
Title:Tightly Coupled Aerothermoelastic Analysis Tool for Hypersonic Vehicle Structures
Abstract:A tightly coupled multi-physics framework is proposed for computational aerothermoelastic simulations of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. The multiphysics framework will be developed, validated and demonstrated by enabling variable degree of coupled interactions between non-linear flexible structures, aerodynamics, and heat transfer modules. The framework will be developed by leveraging CFDRC''''s CoPhy, a sequentially tightly coupled high-fidelity multiphysics engineering analysis tool, and the Multi Disciplinary Computing Environment (MDICE) for loosely coupled aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic simulations. The Phase I effort focuses on determining the characteristics of high speed structural components and the extreme environments in which a tightly coupled aeroelastic & aerothermoelastic analysis is necessary. The feasibility of the proposed technology will be demonstrated for a set of benchmark aerothermoelastic applications. In Phase II, the efforts will be focused to minimize energy transfer errors by improving the coupling between the solvers across interfaces, improvements to the grid deformation module, engine noise modeling and enhancements to the overall framework. In addition, other thermal, structures and/or CFD modules can be identified and integrated into the MDICE framework. Demonstration of the full capabilities of the technology will be conducted for typical aerothermoelastic simulations of aerospace vehicles. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will provide an accurate and comprehensive analysis tool for truly coupled aerothermoelastic simulations of aerospace vehicles. The proposed technology will be of great interest to the Air Force to analyze interaction characteristics of fluid, structural, acoustic, thermal fields of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. The framework will also be of great interest to NASA, DoD agencies, and other aerospace private industry partners , in particular AFRL and Lockheed Martin who have been collaborating with CFDRC in this technology for several years. Ultimately, the framework will lead to improved safety of aerospace vehicles and significantly reduce the dependence on flight tests and wind tunnel testing, thereby reducing the time required to certify new military and commercial aircraft. General applications of the technology include general fluid-structure-thermal interaction problems such as heat exchanger vibration, panel flutter of space vehicles, turbomachinery blade vibrations and many others.

Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-4980
Jim Crafton
AF 08-182      Awarded: 11/24/2008
Title:Integrated Real-Time Optical Measurement Techniques for Aeroelastic Testing
Abstract:Aircraft designs with slender/morphing wings/control surfaces can be difficult to instrument using traditional sensors. Furthermore, data with high spatial resolution, including model geometry, pressure, and skin friction, is necessary for validating numerical models used for aircraft design. Finally, simultaneous measurements of geometry and scalar or field data allow the CFD grid to be modified to match the experimental data, then the CFD can be re-run with this modified geometry. Here we propose a system that combines several existing technologies, Video Model Deformation (VMD), Fast Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP), and Surface Stress Sensitive Films (S3F) for acquiring simultaneous measurements of model geometry pressure and skin friction. Each of these techniques utilize a common set of tools to image the model surface and determining scalar or field information from processing these images. Here we propose a system that combines VMD based model geometry measurements with fast PSP and/or S3F. The proposed system is capable of producing non-intrusive, high spatial resolution distributions of 3D model geometry, pressure, and skin friction. The bandwidth of the system is limited by the camera, with frequencies of 10-Hz to 1-kHz attainable in standard wind tunnels using off the shelf technology. BENEFIT: There is considerable interest in combined measurements of pressure, skin friction, and geometry in several fields including aircraft manufacturing as well as biomedical applications such as detection of ulcers on diabetic feet. This system will provide an advancement in this technology that should be of value to both fields.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Richard O Claus
AF 08-182      Awarded: 12/2/2008
Title:Flexible Metal Rubber™ Sensor Skin Appliqués
Abstract:The objective of this Air Force SBIR program is to develop flexible, conformal Metal Rubber™ sensor skin appliqués for the distributed measurement of skin friction and pressure on aeroelastically tailored wind tunnel models. The sensor skin arrays would allow the direct mapping of shear and normal forces on model surfaces without requiring large recessed cavities within the model structure. Incorporation of buried strain sensor elements within the skin would allow decoupling of external forces and model material deformation effects. Wall shear and normal stress measurement data are important to 1) establishing boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics analysis of air vehicle boundary layer flow and turbulence, and 2) active flight control of air platforms. During Phase I, NanoSonic would design, fabricate and test new Metal Rubber™ strain and air data sensor skin materials and arrays capable of surviving the thermal, mechanical, UV and chemical environment, and work with ARFL to transition the use of such sensor skins to use on wind tunnel models. The new high performance Metal Rubber™ materials, sensor skin arrays, and data acquisition and signal processing electronics would be evaluated using air and water flow systems at NanoSonic and in wind tunnel facilities at a partner institution BENEFIT: Applications of conformal Metal Rubber™ ‘sensor skin’ arrays include 1) direct distributed measurement of air data on wind tunnel models to establish CFD boundary conditions as part of air vehicle development, 2) co-located measurement and mapping of skin friction and pressure on full-scale flight test aircraft, 3) conformal, skin-like 2D tactile sensor arrays for astronaut-assisted or telerobotic manipulators, and 4) distributed physiological sensor arrays of blood pressure, and heart and respiration rate for astronauts during extended space missions and extravehicular activities. Additional applications of similar conformal Metal Rubber™ ‘sensor skin’ arrays include 1) measurement of skin friction and pressure on operational hydrocraft, 2) tactile sensor skin arrays that can flex in addition to bend, 3) 2D strain and pressure sensor arrays for biomedical instrumentation, and 3) sensors for high performance military aircraft, especially UAVs and Morphing Aircraft that require active air data sensing and flow control to optimize performance.

STRAD Corporation
3612 Shannon Road Suite 200
Durham, NC 27707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 858-6383
Granger Hickman
AF 08-184      Awarded: 4/7/2009
Title:Robust Wideband Aircraft Altitude Estimation for Over-the-Horizon HF Radar
Abstract:Robust altitude estimation for over-the-horizon HF radar requires a combination of advanced signal processing and high fidelity ionospheric propagation modeling. Since aircraft height is manifested in closely-spaced direct and ground-bounce multipath reflections off the target, we propose two new high resolution signal processing methods for discriminating small time delay differences from a sequence of radar dwells. Both methods exploit frequency-hopped illumination over a wide band. The first exploits frequency-selective fading of the target peak over a sequence of amplitude range- Doppler surfaces. The second synthesizes an ultra-wideband coherent chirp by using a model to stitch together multipath returns across multiple radar dwells. Since altitude estimation requires that returns be correctly associated with ionospheric raypaths (i.e. ordinary or extraordinary rays through the E, F1, or F2 layers), we propose using high fidelity propagation modeling to predict aircraft height from measured direct and ground bounce arrivals. In order to study the robustness of our methods, we will perform a preliminary analysis of how ionospheric modeling errors affect altitude estimation accuracy. Finally, we will develop a plan for validating our analyses using existing OTH radar data and/or new altitude estimation trials. BENEFIT: The capability for reliable altitude estimation for OTH radar will benefit both existing and future OTH radar systems. For example, robust altitude estimation could serve the national defense mission of a Next Generation OTH Radar by helping to distinguish a fast low-flying cruise missile from a high altitude Learjet-class aircraft of similar speed. Alternatively, altitude estimation could serve the counter-narcoterrorism mission of the Relocatable OTH Radar (ROTHR) system by providing a means of both identifying low-flying aircraft trying to evade ground-based radars, as well as vectoring intercept aircraft. We also forsee opportunities for adapted this technology to wireless urban and indoor multipath geolocation, namely situations where conventional GPS localization is compromised.

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 797-0613
Mark Cammarere
AF 08-184      Awarded: 4/16/2009
Title:Over the Horizon Skywave HF Radar Object Altitude Estimation
Abstract:The ability to perform persistent, wide-area surveillance of the air and sea approaches to the U.S. mainland has been and remains a primary mission requirement for both the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and the United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). In addition to major contributions to illegal drug interdiction, in light of an emerging threat posed by terrorist use of UAVs, this ability also supports Department of Homeland Security missions. However, current OTH radars are deficient in that they cannot provide object altitude information. Therefore, they are unable to provide the accurate track information needed to discriminate surface and low-flying aerial targets or to effectively hand tracks off to other assets for interception. This deficiency arises from the dispersive nature of the ionosphere itself the location of the reflection point varies with time. TSC proposes an innovative track filter technique to dynamically estimate and correct for the Total Electron Count (TEC) experienced by the signal. This correction will allow the application of target height finding techniques that TSC had developed for other applications. BENEFIT: Effective application of target height finding techniques to OTH radar will allow these valuable, wide-area surveillance assets to: 1) effectively distinguish air and surface traffic, 2) effectively hand-off target tracks to other sensors, and 3) have their outputs more easily integrated into the C2 enterprise.

Black River Systems Company, Inc.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Peter Shea
AF 08-185      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Next Generation Sensor Resource Management for Persistent and Responsive Situational Awareness
Abstract:Todays battlefield environment contains a large number of sensors onboard multiple platforms. In an attempt to maximize sensor performance, todays sensors employ rudimentary or in some cases inflexible sensor tasking schemes which are highly tuned approaches that are not very robust to changes in the mission, environmental conditions, heterogeneous sensors, and different system architectures. The general missions of interest include search, detect, track, and classification and as a result there is a need to manage sensors to not only address the needs of the individual mission, but also to consider potential overlap between the different mission areas. As the complexity of the problem space increases and new sensors become available, it is critical to have a sensor management scheme that is capable of incorporating new environmental knowledge, new sensors and different systems approaches with minimal impact on the overall system. The objective of this Phase I SBIR effort is to combine the Black River Systems Company sensor management testbed with Atmospheric and Environmental Research environmental impacts tools to provide optimal sensor tasking in a decentralized, distributed configuration that can save analysts time and money while providing overall improved predictive situational awareness. The focus of our Phase I effort will be to use reasonably mature and readily available technologies from our two companies to demonstrate the performance gain achievable when accounting for the dynamic environmental state at the time of sensor tasking. BENEFIT: Upon successful completion of our Phase I effort we will have demonstrated the ability to incorporate environmental models and predictions into a closed loop sensor management testbed. Using this capability we will perform a series of trade studies to understand the performance gains for different numbers and types of sensor platforms and sensor management configurations.

DCM Research Resources, LLC
14163 Furlong Way
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 481-5397
Genshe Chen
AF 08-185      Awarded: 3/4/2009
Title:Awareness-based Compressed Data Collection and Dynamic Resource Management for Large-Scale Sensor Networks
Abstract:For large-scale complex systems, situation awareness calls for a holistic approach to information collection, decision making and resource management. In this project, several key technical innovations are proposed to attain predictive and responsive situation awareness. We holistically put together several critical functional blocks to cope with dynamic spatial-temporal battlefield: I) large-scale fast data acquisition using compressive and active sensing; II) cooperative in-networking processing among network nodes using distributed optimization and control; III) game-theoretic competition for combat; and, IV) unified network-centric resource management governing all of I) II) and III). These functionalities are intertwined in attaining robust situation awareness; as a result, this project will provide a unified treatment to these functional blocks through distributed network optimization and gaming. Agglomerating all these functionalities, we introduce novel information-awareness metrics to enable responsive situation awareness under mission-critical conditions. BENEFIT: The proposed awareness based space sensor resources management algorithms have tremendous potential applications in the military sector. It can be directly used for the development of advanced mission planning and emergency preparedness decision support systems such as Space Situational Awareness Fusion Intelligent Research Environment (SAFIRE) program, US Space surveillance Network and Space Command and Control programs, Predictive Awarness & Net-Centric Analysis for Colalborative Intel Assessment (PANACIA), JSARS, Century ASW Concept of Operations (CONOPs), BMDS system, Future Combat System (FCS), Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, and JSSEO program. During the Phase I, we will work closely with Lockheed Martin MS2, who is a primary contractor on the Aegis weapon system, the Littoral Combat Ship, and C2 lead for the DDG-1000 program. We have developed a concrete and realistic plan to transition our technology to their programs (See support letter). In addition, DCM and Lockheed Martin are building a mentor-protégé program. We will leverage this relationship to identify the end customer, and work with these teams to transition our Phase 2 technology into their program. The DoD contact who knows the details of our work and who knows the above programs is Dr. Erik Blasch from AFRL. The market for military applications is quite large.Other potential commercial applications include medical diagnosis, quality inspection, disaster assessment, air traffic control system, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing and global awareness. We expect the aggregated market size will be similar to that of military applications.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Adel El-Fallah
AF 08-185      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Unified Multisatellite-Multisensor-Multichannel SSA
Abstract:Dynamic sensor management of disparate and physically dispersed mobile sensors presents a daunting theoretical and practical challenge, especially when they are embedded in communication networks. Tasking of sensors carried by space-based platforms is constrained by their own physical characteristics and those of their platforms; by communications constraints; by target information value; by the information value of the sensors themselves; and by the tradeoff between maintaining existing tracks and search. The Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) team proposes a foundational, control-theoretic approach to dynamic Space Situational Awareness (SSA) resource management of platform-borne netted sensors. Our proposed research will build on existing work by extending it to multiple sensors carried by multiple satellites that are interconnected via possibly complex ad hoc transmission networks. Our approach is based on five innovations: (1) a multisensor-multitarget likelihood function that encapsulates all relevant information regarding the characteristics of the various sensors situated on various platforms and various nodes of a communication network; (2) a dynamic "tactical importance function" (TIF) that mathematically specifies the meaning of "tactical significance" for a given space theater at a given moment; (3)an intuitively meaningful sensor management objective function, the expected number of ToIs (Targets of Interest), that inherently optimizes multisource data fusion and the coordination/collaboration among the platforms; (4) integration of these concepts with approximate multitarget detection and tracking filters; and (5) theoretically rigorous incorporation of the constraints due to sensor kinematics, platform kinematics, and communication-systems topologies and characteristics. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of sensor management technologies during all phases of the project. BENEFIT: Dynamic Multisatellite-Multisensor-Multichannel resource management would support information supremacy in possible future militarized space environments. Commercial application of sensor management exists in any application involving netted, fixed or mobile sensor systems, for example border control, coastline control, and security surveillance.

Eikos, Inc.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
David Britz
AF 08-186      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:20% Efficiency Rad Hard Thin Film Multi-Junction Solar Cells
Abstract:Eikos Inc proposes to create 20% efficient radiation hard dual junction thin film photovoltaics. We will utilize our unique hole conducting transparent electrode made from carbon nanotubes as an interconnecting layer between the two junctions. These devices will demonstrate high efficiency, and the capability for deposition onto flexible substrates for a power density >1,000 W/m2 BENEFIT: Eikos anticipates that higher efficiency solar cells will be developed under this Phase I. These solar cells will be compatible with flexible substrates and roll-to-roll processing. Such devices will be useful for space- based and terrestrial solar power genereration.

Epitaxial Laboratory, Inc.
25 Tiana Place
Dix Hills, NY 11746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 508-0060
Jie Piao
AF 08-186      Awarded: 3/3/2009
Title:High Efficiency Flexible Thin Multi-Junction Solar Cells
Abstract:ELI has recently produced ~16% AM0 efficiency crack-free flexible solar cells. We also developed over 25% AM0 efficiency thin film solar cell technology. As future demands are made for higher efficiency, improved Watt/weight, Watt/area, Watt/cost, it is clear that the current approaches should be improved to reflect new requirements. In order to achieve over 30+ efficiency flexible solar cells to meet next generation space power requirements ELI propose to develop (1) multi-band AR coating on high efficiency solar cell that we already have (2) develop processing methodology for improved fill factor and efficiency for space application including metal finger size and thickness (3) develop/improve scalable processes for crack-free bonding to lightweight flexible substrate (1 mil thick Ti foil, or flexible kapton or polymer) for 1000 W/kg specific power and stowability. Once we optimized our high efficiency flexible cells for space applications, we will move on to develop multiple junction cells using combined MOCVD and MBE approach for >33% ( 35%) AM0 flexible solar cells and arrays in phase II and phase III. BENEFIT: High efficiency, high specific power (>1000W/Kg), and cost effective solar cells and modules have many applications in both military and commercial sectors. These applications include but are not limited to space craft, satellites, submarines, electrical vehicles, residential co-generators, and many remote field units. Many U.S. companies are interested in high performance, cost effective solar cells and modules, including aerospace industries, utility firms, auto makers, defense industries, and many others.

MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Noren Pan
AF 08-186      Awarded: 4/7/2009
Title:High Efficiency Thin Multi-Junction Solar Cells
Abstract:The proposed SBIR will focus on the development of wafer bonding of GaAs and InP to produce a two junction tandem solar cell which will be the basis to realize a high efficiency solar cell with high manufacturing yield.The target efficiency of the two- junction solar cell is 40% at under AM0 illumination. The proposed wafer bonding process based on ELO wafers is expected to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cell chips by at least 50% through the GaAs and InP substrate recycling, combined with a reduction in the solar cell thickness. This cost advantage will be obtained without any reduction in conversion efficiency. BENEFIT: This research would provide a foundation for lower cost, higher efficiency solar cells that could have wide benefits for space and terrestrial applications. The ability to remove the substrate along with wafer bonding would provide a clear pathway towards higher efficiency.

OptiCOMP Networks, Inc.
60 Phillips Bld''g 3 Ste 2
Attleboro, MA 02703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 431-2268
John Farah
AF 08-186      Awarded: 3/3/2009
Title:Polyimide substrate for thin multijunction solar cell
Abstract:This SBIR project concerns the fabrication of thin high efficiency multijunction solar cells starting from lattice mismatched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge cells that are grown epitaxially inverted on germanium wafers. These 3-junction cells have achieved efficiencies up to 40.7% recently. The germanium wafers with the epi-layers are bonded to polyimide substrates and thinned by grinding and chemical etching. Different bonding techniques will be investigated including adhesiveless fusion, liquid based adhesives and dry film lamination. The sequence of thinning will be determined. The strength of the bond will be characterized. The thin epi-layer is transferred to the polyimide wafer. The polyimide substrate serves as a permanent lightweight and flexible carrier for the thin multijunction solar cell for space applications. The polyimide substrate has the advantage of thermal dimensional stability at high temperatures. It can support the thin epi-layer during subsequent front side processing. There is possibility of saving the expensive Ge wafer for reuse. The Phase I project will focus on optimizing the bonding between the III-V materials and the polyimide and on thinning the Ge and polyimide wafers to achieve specific power ratio of 1000 W/kg at the array level. BENEFIT: This project concerns flexible multijunction solar cells for military and commercial space applications. The ultimate customers are the satellite prime contractors and service operators who are very interested in high specific power, high efficiency solar arrays that can be stowed in small volume. In space on military and commercial satellites volume and payload are at a premium. The polyimide can meet the target specific power of 1000 W/kg at the array level cost effectively. Satellite manufacturers will be motivated to take advantage of the lower mass in order to utilize smaller less expensive launchers. Also, a smaller array stowage volume and mass means that the satellite payloads size and capability can be increased, which will result in higher revenues for the satellite service operators. This technology will enable solar arrays capable of providing 200 kW, which are contemplated for a large US government military program. Also this technology will be useful for high altitude airships.

Analytic Design Laboratories
3750 W 1975 N
Plain City, UT 84404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 825-7716
John Campbell
AF 08-187      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Next Generation Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array
Abstract:Analytic Design Laboratories proposes a Next Generation FPGA that is deterministically place and routable. Conventional FPGAs rely on synthetic annealing to optimize function placement and connection routing. Synthetic annealing randomly moves functions and connecting paths to improve circuit performance to an acceptable level. The side effect of random improvement is jumbled signal flow and greater need for connectivity. Deterministic placement and routing preserves orderly flow of information across the chip and allows chip real estate otherwise used for connectivity to be redirected to providing additional computational resources. Orderly flow of data is a characteristic of machinery built from programs written in high-level computer languages and the Next Generation FPGA, by enabling deterministic routing, makes greater computational resources available to the software. BENEFIT: Being able to deterministically place and route an FPGA results in more computational power being concentrated within the Next Generation FPGA for use in executing software. Deterministic routing has the additional benefit of being much faster than synthetic annealing, something that aids the system developers. The algorithm enabling deterministic place and route also enables automatic allocation of software codes to the optimal chip in a system consisting of Next Generation FPGAs, conventional FPGAs, and microprocessors.

SEAKR Engineering, Incorporated
6221 South Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 784-7673
Ian Troxel
AF 08-187      Awarded: 2/25/2009
Title:Next Generation Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array
Abstract:As the US DOD and other agencies continue to undertake ever-challenging missions, the performance of space On-Board Processing (OBP) is often the limiting factor on what is achievable for a given mission objective. To meet this demand, the defense industry as a whole has increasingly incorporated advanced technologies to bridge the performance gap brought on by increasing sensor data production, limited downlink capacity, and the need for real-time battlespace situational awareness. The use of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have contributed significantly in increase performance, but drawbacks such as radiation susceptibility, power consumption, floating-point processing overhead, and a challenging programming model make them suboptimal solutions for many critical DoD aerospace missions. Multi-core processing architectures show significant potential to address this performance gap. MAESTRO is a 49-core processor under development by Boeing using Radiation-Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques funded by the NRO On-board Processing Expandable Reconfigurable Architecture (OPERA) program. The program is only funding for the development of the OPERA processor, and for Phase I, SEAKR proposes to lay the groundwork for developing a flexible MAESTRO space qualified On-Board Processing (OBP) system. BENEFIT: As the US DOD and other agencies continue to undertake ever-challenging missions, the performance of space On-Board Processing (OBP) is often the limiting factor on what is achievable for a given mission objective. To meet this demand, the defense industry as a whole has increasingly incorporated advanced technologies to bridge the performance gap brought on by increasing sensor data production, limited downlink capacity, and the need for real-time battlespace situational awareness. The use of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have contributed significantly in increase performance, but drawbacks such as radiation susceptibility, power consumption, floating-point processing overhead, and a challenging programming model make them suboptimal solutions for many critical DoD aerospace missions. Multi-core processing architectures show significant potential to address this performance gap. MAESTRO is a 49-core processor under development by Boeing using Radiation-Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques funded by the NRO On-board Processing Expandable Reconfigurable Architecture (OPERA) program. The program is only funding for the development of the OPERA processor, and for Phase I, SEAKR proposes to lay the groundwork for developing a flexible MAESTRO space qualified On-Board Processing (OBP) system.

Radiation Assured Devices, Inc.
5017 North 30th Street
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0800
Charlie Beebout
AF 08-189      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Minimally-Invasive Radiation Hardened Semiconductors
Abstract:We have developed engineered epitaxial layers based on nanostructure technology that can be applied in hardening advanced deep submicron commercial silicon devices (90nm and smaller line width) against total dose degradation, single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SETs) by minimizing collected photocurrents (electron-hole pairs) via recombination centers. This could provide an ideal solution for deep submicron commercial architectures. Texas Instruments (TI) has reviewed our nanostructure- engineered epitaxial layers and is interested in developing the technology for use in their expanding radiation hardness assured (RHA) military and aerospace product line. Success of this project in a TI fab would open up possibilities for running this material in other domestic deep submicron fabs. Radiation Assured Devices in conjunction with Ball Aerospace is currently running a test lot of engineered substrates with TI. Under this proposed Phase I effort we would characterize the test chips obtained from the current TI run (due for delivery in January 2009) for radiation hardness, electrical performance (power, speed leakage, etc) and long term reliability and prepare a Phase I final report in conjunction with TI on migrating the engineered substrate technique to 90nm or smaller technology nodes. BENEFIT: The nanostructure-engineered substrates we are proposing would be an ideal solution to leverage commercial integrated circuit architectures and provide radiation hardened capability without any required changes in the IC design or the fabrication process. The only change would be that a special nanostructure-engineered substrate would be substituted for the standard raw substrate that would typically be used. In this manner, a radiation hard version of these Integrated Circuits could be produced without any changes required in the IC design or to the wafer fabrication process.

Silicon Space Technology Corporation
804 Las Cimas Parkway Suite 140
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 550-3938
Robert Fuller
AF 08-189      Awarded: 2/20/2009
Title:Minimally-Invasive Radiation Hardened Semiconductors
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST), working with Texas Instruments (TI), proposes to demonstrate a method for radiation-hardening of TI¡¯s C027 90nm process with SST¡¯s Buried Guard Ring (BGR) and Parasitic Isolation Device (PID) innovations. SST plans to build upon recent successes at radiation hardening scaled CMOS processes at TI, with successful integration into two products in TI¡¯s C05 process at 180nm. Extensive TCAD and lithography simulations predict the BGR and PID will also port to the 130nm technology node as well as it did at 180nm. Short loop silicon runs on the critical active area and poly steps have confirmed this. Scaling to the 90nm node is the next logical step for both the PID and BGR, and should work at 90nm as well as at 130nm and 180nm. The PID is moderately invasive, but less invasive than equivalent HBD designs. The BGR is minimally invasive by any definition. It can be integrated into the process flow, and does not require any changes to the design or to existing masks. A BGR-hardened version of TI¡¯s 90nm process will make TI¡¯s 90nm portfolio of circuits immediately available in this RH process¡ªwith the expected improvements in SEE, Dose Rate and reduced leakage current. BENEFIT: Silicon Space Technology is developing and demonstrating multiple radiation-hardened client-based processes and products in a commercial foundry manufacturing environment through integration of our unique RH process modules ¨C which have been proven in silicon products. SST¡¯s techniques are both patented and have other patents pending. SST¡¯s BGR and PID technology mitigate Single-Event Effects (SEE) by significantly reducing the cross-section. BGR significantly increases Dose Rate (DR) threshold performance to > 6.8E9 rad(Si)/sec, and PID can be tailored to increase Total Ionizing Dose (TID) performance beyond the Mrad level. The Company will use both government R&D and venture capital funding to further establish its RH technology at a commercial IC foundry to pervade the Space/Mil/Aero electronics marketplace using the fabless ¡°RH Client Process¡± model. Our multi-faceted fabless business/technical strategy is in its fifth year of commercialization, and we have been advised our innovations have progressed rapidly to a TRL = ¡Ý6. SST¡¯s strategic competitive advantages spring from the ability to redesign any commercial semiconductor manufacturing process by adding unique RH process modules which transform the commercial process into a new radiation-hardened process variant. Additional advantages can be gained by providing a streamlined approach toward translating circuit designs from the original commercial process to the new radiation-hardened version of that process¡ªas is proposed here using TI¡¯s commercial 90nm C027 process. The SST model is similar to the proven fabless IC production model invoked by many successful IC design companies throughout the world, but employs the unique ¡°RH Client Process¡± ¨C IP which provides the Company with a strategically significant advantage. By partnering with the USA-based third-largest semiconductor company in the world, who produces thousands of leading-edge standard products for commercial markets, a broad selection

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 823-1293
Chuck Tabbert
AF 08-189      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Radiation Hardened Microcontroller for Fiber-Optic Applications
Abstract:Initial interviews with satellite system designers shows that they want the proposed fiber-optic links to self-configure during start up, report link health and status (similar to JTAG in the electrical domain) and report link anomalies (breaks, misalignments etc) during ground test satellite integration all without burdening the flight payload or bus computers. Self-starting and self-diagnosing fiber-optic links require special microcontrollers not available in the Rad Hard community today. Specifically, the microcontroller must have non-volatile memory, SRAM and a high linearity, relatively low speed Analog to Digital converter (ADC) for holding and executing start up configuration instructions and realtime modification of laser driver conditions as environmental conditions change. This proposal is to develop this radiation hardened microcontroller using either hardened-by-design or hardened-by process techniques to bring this device to market. Ultra Communications presently uses a Silicon Labs controller for non radiation hardened applications. BENEFIT: The avionic, missile and satellite community are on the verge of implementing high speed fiber-optic network connectivity is most, if not all, next generation platforms. These platform need small, low cost microcontrollers that are currently not available.

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
3 Parthenia
Irvine, CA 92606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
G. Tartakovsky
AF 08-190      Awarded: 2/20/2009
Title:Innovative Lasing Techniques for Satellite Signal Distribution
Abstract:Detection and ranging (DR) of the space objects, such as space debris or non- cooperative space vehicle is important for national space assets protection and survivability. We propose DR laser system with its design based on fiber laser (FL) technology that can satisfy space applications requirements. Using FL technology allows for an essential reduction of the power budget of the laser module and simplifies the thermal management. In the proposed solution the integration of FL technology with a solid-state laser guarantees the required operational range while solving the problem of system safety operations. Phase I work plan will consist of detailed analysis of the proposed approach, culminating in a preliminary design of the prototype system to be developed in Phase II. BENEFIT: Commercial applications for the detection and ranging laser system include motion detection of various objects, and can be used in airports, commercial and military airplanes, and R&D facilities. This would enhance the ability to detect and measure the mobility of remote objects, including hidden targets of interest from airborne and ground-based platforms. The business potential for this instrument is many hundreds of units.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Gennady Medvedkin
AF 08-190      Awarded: 3/25/2009
Title:Silicon Microchannel Nanocrystal Multiresonator Laser
Abstract:To address the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate need for innovative lasing technologies for satellite signal distribution, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Silicon Microchannel Nanocrystal Multiresonator Laser (Nano MULA). This proposed device is based on silicon microchannel technology and Si/SiO^2 waveguides. The innovations in Nano MULA especially the capability to pump the Nano MULA electrically rather than optically will enable the silicon device to lase, and potentially result in a ten-thousand-fold increase in data transfer rates, significantly reducing weight and power consumption for signal distribution. As a result, this device technology offers the fabrication of controllable waveguides, a combination of conventional semiconductor processes, and a novel scheme of utilizing nanocrystal media in arrays, which directly addresses the MILSATCOM platform requirements for all- silicon lasing, dose radiation tolerance, and thermal stability. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a lasing effect in a Silicon MCP Nano MULA diode structure under external laser pumping. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a prototype to show the direct electron-hole injection lasing effect in Nano MULA. BENEFIT: The commercialization of this development will benefit the nation by improving on-chip computer technologies that are entirely based on silicon materials, and the aerospace industry because it improves optical communication in MILSATCOM systems in a cost- efficient manner. The potential market for this technology spans both the private sector and the government, including the military.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
James Coward
AF 08-190      Awarded: 2/20/2009
Title:Innovative Lasing Techniques for Satellite Signal Distribution
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose the COMET modular satellite laser system. The system integrates tunable laser diodes, fiber amplification, and wavelength division multiplexing to produce a highly flexible and scalable light source suitable for satellite communication and sensing needs. BENEFIT: The COMET system is designed for multi- function use with scalable bandwidth and optical power. High average power or peak power is user commandable. Peak power can scale by over 30X via wavelength multiplexing. COMET provides a future proof platform that can scale, meet the growing bandwidth, and sensing needs.

Freedom Photonics LLC
615 A State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 277-3031
Milan Mashanovitch
AF 08-191      Awarded: 2/19/2009
Title:Terabit Per Second Optical Router for Space-Based Satellite Network
Abstract:Freedom Photonics proposes to utilize highly integrated photonic components to design and implement a space deployable optical router. This approach will allow for size, weight and power requirements to be met. BENEFIT: 1000x increase in available bandwidth, with 50% volume, weight and power consumption. Significant commercial market in fiber optic transport systems of the next generation.

OptiComp Corporation
PO Box 10779
Zephyr Cove, NV 89448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 588-4176
Dave Peters
AF 08-191      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Terabit Per Second Optical Router for Space-Based Satellite Network
Abstract:The major requirements for this program include the modeling of optical routing technologies appropriate to space-borne systems at very high speed. This program will investigate optical routing at speeds to from 3.125 ro 10 Gbps per channel, with a wavelength/channel density from 4 to 16 wavelengths. Models will be constructed for these regimes, and an experimental demonstration of an 8-wavelength, 10 Gbps per channel optical router using Serial Rapid IO routing and OptiComp 8-wavelength CWDM optical transceivers. BENEFIT: The proposed SBIR program provides dual use commercialization opportunities for both military and commercial satellite applications. Despite the current market slowdown, the global market opportunity for optoelectronic systems is large and is expected to grow, especially in area requiring high-capacity data handling. Based on our integrated technology, OptiComp Corporation (OCC) is currently developing VCSEL-based optoelectronic switching modules for use in commercial local, metro, storage, and wide area fiber optic networks, as well as switching networks for military applications ranging from avionics to satellites. OCCs CWDM switching architecture provides a high degree of fault tolerance and self routing, making it ideally suited for inter-satellite networks. This will further develop OCC routing and switching architecture for the specific requirements of intra-satellite networks. In particular, this will address issues such as fault tolerance, redundancy, scalability, and dynamic reconfiguration as well as the need to deal with burst data by utilizing VCSEL/detector pairs with coarsely spaced wavelengths. The proposed effort is directly compatible with OptiComp''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s other federal programs currently developing VCSEL-based technology for optical communications. In particular, this program directly leverages the companys current efforts to develop optical networks and interconnects for satellite applications. The development of compact CWDM transmitter and receiver technologies will provide small volume, high-capacity interconnectivity for military and commercial applications. This technology is especially applicable to satellite networks where size, weight, power consumption, and fault tolerance are primary considerations.

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 420-3486
Charlie Kuznia
AF 08-191      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:All Optical Terabit Router for Space
Abstract:We propose the development of a low-power, space-worth optical router capable of terabit per second data throughput. An all-optical router would enable allow format- independent optical data transmission, fulfilling the Air Forces vision of legacy systems aggregation. The overall goal is to create an innovate method of routing data between satellite nodes without O-E-O conversion on a connection-less routing architecture. The unique properties of optics enables a novel concept of encoding the router control information on the signal itself, allowing for packet-based switching. BENEFIT: Military application: Extensive applications in advanced military satellite communications. Commercial application: The systems, when implemented, will have significant applications in the advanced commercial satellite market beyond the Galileo or Euro SATCOM market.

Microelectronics Research Development Corporation
4775 Centennial Boulevard, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0805
Steve Dilllinger
AF 08-192      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Exploiting Commercial Microelectronics for Space Applications
Abstract:State-of-the-art integrated circuit serializer/deserializers (SERDES) produced at 90nm geometries and below have identified Single Event Effect (SEE) hardness weaknesses, especially Single Event Transient (SET) induced multiple bit data loss in high speed data paths. MRDC will address these effects in Phase I through application of our extensive design hardening experience to a >4Gbps SERDES macro by hardening all components required for a SEE hard high data rate SERDES. We will evaluate the SEE hardness level of an existing MRDC PLL and the high speed differential cells needed to process very high rate data streams for applications in fiber channel and XAUI systems. We will propose improvements in circuit topologies which will demonstrate a significant increase in SEE hardness of the PLL and the high speed data path over current standard implementations. During these analyses any other circuit modifications to improve the SEE hardness of the overall SERDES design will also be implemented. The Phase II effort will be sequential to Phase I and result in a fully SEE hard SERDES interface capable of supporting 4Gbps fiber channel interfaces being built in a <90nm state of the art CMOS process based on existing intellectual property of MRDC and fully characterized for use in radiation environments. BENEFIT: This technology will enable high data rate communications for the space community for the first time. By doubling to quadrupling the data transfer rate available current bottlenecks in high bandwidth communications will have a solution. Commercial applications include 4Gbps and 8Gbps Fiber Channel, XAUI, SAS, and any other serial data transfer protocols which require a high bandwidth SERDES.

Space Micro Inc.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
David R. Czajkowski
AF 08-192      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Exploiting Commercial Microelectronics for Space Applications
Abstract:Space Micro teamed with OptiComp, proposes to exploit commercial microelectronics to meet space radiation environments, thus enabling new DoD space programs. We will apply a variety of hardening techniques to COTS driver circuits, both proprietary and industry standard, which should allow the application of commercial parts with radiation mitigation. BENEFIT: Benefits will accrue to many DoD space programs once this R&D is complete. These programs include TSAT, Advanced GPS, Radarsat, and F6. NASA missions can also take advantage of rad hard/tolerant optoelectronic subsystems. Commercial spacecraft for applications such as imaging, communications will need advanced photonics and optoelectronics which will survive in a natural space radiation environment.

TransEl Corporation
10701-D Montgomery Blvd NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 275-0608
Jake Tausch
AF 08-192      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:New algorithmic hardening schemes and multi-bit error detection/correction to enable the use of commercially derived memories in space
Abstract:The proposed effort will demonstrate the suitability of a mature commercial production technology in meeting the requirements for a cost effective, high capacity non-volatile memory solution for space systems. The feasibility of mitigating radiation sensitivities in, and improving the reliability of, devices built upon the selected technology will be demonstrated during Phase 1. We will develop and demonstrate new radiation mitigation methodologies which will include novel, compact, and straightforward error detection and correction schemes and algorithmic hardening schemes to enable the use of commercial electronics and commercially derived technologies in space. The combination of these approaches will provide a practical pathway to development of high performance non- volatile memory solutions built on or around commercial platforms capable of providing full triple bit error correction with a worst-case BER of 1.18E-19 err/bit/day, and a storage capacity suitable for use in data recorders and as high gate count FPGA boot ROMs. BENEFIT: These innovative hardening methods will be an important element of the foundation for a practical pathway to overcome limitations that continue to plague space system developers. The proposed approaches and methodologies will enable the reliable use of suitable commercial and commercially derived non-volatile memory devices and technologies to serve as robust, ultra-high reliability platforms upon which to build next generation, high capacity, and radiation hardened products. This pathway will allow space system designers greater flexibility to develop new system designs and architectures while improving their ability to leverage emerging commercial system designs and architectures. This will improve the responsiveness of space systems at reduced cost. The proposed approach will lead to sustainable and scalable solutions providing improved power, weight, volume, and performance of space computers while enabling the use of contemporary and emerging configurable space processors based on commercial electronics advancements. Once demonstrated, these methods can be implemented within the design of memory products to provide practical and robust companion boot ROM solutions for FPGAs as well as a useful, simple, and high capacity platform for high reliability data recorders and mass storage systems. Potential Commercial Applications: Code and data storage products for high reliability commercial, civil, and military aerospace computation, communication, and navigation systems, including flight computers, controls, and avionics for spacecraft, aircraft, and UAVs; industrial and automotive controls and electronics; single chip companion boot ROMs for high reliability FPGAs including SIRF, XTMR Virtex designs, Achronix high speed configurable logic devices, and Altera Stratix devices.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5269
Babak Azimi-Sadjadi
AF 08-193      Awarded: 2/20/2009
Title:Bandwidth Efficient SATCOM Waveform Techniques
Abstract:We propose the design and implementation of spectrally efficient next generation satellite communications waveform using OFDM that incorporates a single, common pre-distortion filter at the transmitting ground station in order to simultaneously eliminate the distortions caused by the power amplifiers at the ground station as well as at the satellite. The proposed ideas eliminate the need for on-board power amplifier pre-distorter, thereby conserving on-board power as well as providing the flexibility to design effective closed- loop pre-distorters at the ground-station. In addition, since the implementation is done at the ground station, the proposed design is satellite-independentE and can function with both modern satellites, and satellites using legacy hardware. BENEFIT: As the demand of high data rate and high spectral efficiency increases, next generation satellite communications will incorporate pre-distorters in order to mitigate the effects of nonlinear amplifiers. The potential usage for such a product is not limited to military satellite communications, and spans the commercial satellite and terrestrial communication networks. A key advantage of our proposed design is that the end product is waveform- independent (e.g. OFDM, WCDMA), and can be utilized for military and commercial satellite communications, and also for terrestrial communications that utilize, for example, LDMOS amplifiers. Whereas our immediate customer is Air Force, we envision that our prototype will be applicable to mobile user objective system (MUOS) that uses WCDMA for mobile satellite communications. In addition, we plan to transition this technology into a product by contacting companies such as General Dynamics (the prime contractor for MUOS), and Hughes networks for commercial applications. On the terrestrial applications front, we are in contact with global leaders in WiMax such as Intel, and expect to transition our technology into a product through these companies.

ORB Analytics, LLC
5 Hillside Rd
Carlisle, MA 01741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0484
Sam MacMullan
AF 08-193      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Flexible, Adaptive, and Practical Bandwidth-Efficient Waveform Design
Abstract:Current SATCOM systems provide far from the best possible theoretical bandwidth- efficiency. Techniques have recently emerged that provide point solutions allowing very efficient performance. However, with these approaches, little attention is usually paid to the implementation complexity or the impact of system impairments and nonlinearities. Furthermore, the waveform rate needs to be flexible and adaptive to allow operation in rapidly time-varying channels (e.g., with On-The-Move (OTM) systems) and across a wide range of terminal types. To satisfy SATCOM requirements, ORB Analytics, LLC, proposes an LDPC coded system that operates with modulation chosen from CPM and MQAM/OFDM depending upon the terminal capabilities, service requirements, and operating scenarios. The proposed Phase I effort would investigate design methods that provide the required flexibility and adaptability by careful design of the interface between the demodulator and decoder, the choice of specific LDPC code and modulation, and the incorporation of impairment compensation methods. BENEFIT: Given the overall scarcity of spectrum and increasing communications demands, the need for bandwidth-efficient waveforms extends across a wide range of military and commercial applications. ORB Analytics, LLC, believes a successful demonstration of the proposed bandwidth-efficient waveform could lead to its use in future military SATCOM and terrestrial communications systems as well as commercial communications systems including cellular, wireless local area network, and wireless personal area network systems. Further the flexibility and adaptability inherent in the proposed design makes it suitable for military and commercial cognitive radio initiatives including wireless regional area networks.

Vulcan Wireless Inc.
2195 Faraday Ave Suite F
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 602-0606
Kevin Lynaugh
AF 08-193      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Bandwidth Efficient SATCOM Waveform Techniques
Abstract:The proposed waveforms enable spectral efficient modulation to be implemented effectively for space communications applications. Reduction of EIRP while maintaining the maximum utilization of spectral efficiency is the key performance metrics. The crest factor is minimized through digital signal processing. BENEFIT: The results of this effort would improve the capacity of exiting satellite communication links. Increased data link capacity while maintaining minimum transmitter power. Reduced space vehicle power draw is always a critical parameter on a space vehicle.

AKELA, Inc.
5551 Ekwill Street Suite A
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-6414
Allan Hunt
AF 08-194      Awarded: 2/25/2009
Title:Autonomous Vehicle Awareness Sensors
Abstract:AKELA is proposing to use a small, low cost, low power radar with operating parameters that can be quickly changed to explore the issues associated with the detection of moving targets from spaceborne platforms. The radar will be used as a baseline to compare against other implementation alternatives in a simulation to investigate the trade space, and to use the trade-off results to perform a conceptual design of a minimum cost system. Since our efforts build on existing experience and technology, we know where many of the risks to system implementation are. This will allow us to focus on the impact of those risks in our simulation and conceptual design activities, and increases the chance that we will be able to identify a development path that mitigates those risks. BENEFIT: Successful completion of our proposed program will result in determining the feasibility of using a wide bandwidth radar for providing situational awareness and collision avoidance for spacecraft platforms. The existing radars size, cost, and weight are very close to meeting the requirements suitable for a spacecraft. Its operating capabilities give it the potential to be tailored to accomplish the autonomous vehicle awareness sensing requirement for spacecraft systems.

Epsilon Lambda Electronics Corp.
396 Fenton Lane Suite 601
West Chicago, IL 60185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 293-7118
Robert M. Knox
AF 08-194      Awarded: 2/23/2009
Title:Autonomous Vehicle Awareness Sensors
Abstract:This topic is designed by the Air Force to develop a self contained sensor system that autonomously detects and tracks objects in the vicinity of a host platform and prescribe collision avoidance maneuvers as appropriate. In this proposal the platform will be a space platform, the sensor will be dual mode and the detection range will be short as a step toward longer detection range in the future. The objects to be detected are other space platforms or space debris. The sensor could be used for autonomous docking maneuvers of space platforms or separation of a space platform from a launch vehicle. For autonomous ground or rotary wing UAS operations, the sensor could also be used for hazardous obstacle detection and avoidance. The reason for this limited scope of applications is that object detection range of the sensor will be limited by the fact that affordable, reliable, compact, light weight COTS solid state device technology will be used rather than costly, customized, power hungry transmitter technology which is needed to achieve extended range. Proposed is a very small, low cost, high resolution, dual-mode lightweight sensor. The dual-mode sensor combines high resolution millimeter radar with high resolution electro-optical sensor. BENEFIT: The initial application is the stated topic use for Autonomous Vehicle Awareness. There are other governmental and commercial applications. Some of the many possible DOD/DHS uses include (1) Detect vehicle and human movement in a military remote or urban environment, (2) Detect vehicle and human movement in border security or law enforcement activity, (3) Detect security violations (weapon detection) at portals to secure facilities. Commercial applications include automotive collision warning, and obstacle avoideance for unmanned robotics.

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6800
Richard Myers, Ph.D.
AF 08-194      Awarded: 4/1/2009
Title:Autonomous Vehicle Awareness Sensor
Abstract:Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) in collaboration with Munro Ranging, LLC will develop an active laser sensor for autonomous satellite awareness systems. The instrument will be based on two innovative technologies developed by Munro Ranging and RMD to allow accurate and timely situation awareness of the host vehicle. By coupling with RMDs avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays, the unit will be able to perform simultaneous ranging and tracking using a single transmitter-receiver pair. In addition, a novel ranging method will allow for more compact packaging and require less power than ordinary laser ranging systems. The information gathered by the sensor will then be used to calculate the target objects velocity vector relative to the host satellite and assess the hazard level. When integrated with the control systems of the satellite, autonomous operation will be realized. BENEFIT: There are a numerous applications that can benefit from the development of a low-cost, compact ranging and tracking sensors for autonomous vehicle operation. Some of these applications include, 3-D imaging, collision avoidance and warning for automobiles, adaptive cruise control, robotics, industrial sensing, surveying, camera autofocus, law enforcement, border security, sports (golf, archery, hunting, baseball, tennis, etc.) and smart weapons.

Composite Mirror Applications, Inc.
1638 S. Research Loop Suite 100
Tucson, AZ 85710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 733-9302
Robert C. Romeo
AF 08-195      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Deformable, Variable Radius of Curvature Mirror (VRM) for Wide-FOV Zoom SSA Sensors
Abstract:We are proposing to develop a variable radius of curvature mirror (VRM) produced from carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials. This will support a compact, lightweight, robust imaging system for space platforms than can survey a wide area for situational awareness and optically (NOT electronically) magnify an area-of-interest almost instantly without macroscopic motion. Conventional zoom systems require cams and/or gears to vary the spacings between lens (mirror) groups or mechanical rotation stages to exchange lenses in the optical train. Conventional gimbals are heavy and power hungry. If successful, our system will use active reflective optical elements to view a wide area with low resolution and zoom-in with high resolution to track a potential threat without any macroscopic mechanical motion in the system. This technique could ultimately be applied to space and airborne systems for surveillance and reconnaissance, acquisition, tracking, and pointing, or other systems where mechanical motion is undesirable. Significant limitations in the dynamic range of deformable mirrors are major technical hurdles that will be addressed in this proposal. BENEFIT: CMA intends to progress this concept forward to the extent it has been tested to meet mission demands for this SBIR. This proposed effort represents the initial stages of bringing the technology to the attention of the DoD for evaluation. We expect favorable results to carry this to the level of a COTS technology for the application defined by the SBIR. CMA is a small organization and anticipates the need to partner with appropriate industry to bring it more effectively and with reduced risk to the government. Upon success of the Demonstration in Phase II, CMA/SNL will pursue commercial applications of Space-based Earth Imaging Systems. It is expected that the Air Force will seek to transition the technology and tools that will be developed during this program. This may involve transition to Department of Defense (DOD) user organizations, or industry partners in support of DOD. Obvious government agencies interested in Spaced-based Earth imaging include all DoD, NRO, NSA, NGA and the like for high spatial resolution imaging systems. As well, potential customers include GeoEye, Inc. for Imaging and others offering commercially available systems to the private sector. SNL is ideally suited to provide for the transfer of critical technologies, tools, and expertise with ongoing proactive technology transfer initiatives. SNL has licensing processes that can be engaged on behalf of the identified users. Licenses appropriate for use of intellectual property for government purposes may be royalty free. At the appropriate time and at the direction of the Air Force SBIR Program Manager, the CMA/SNL/NRL Team will create the appropriate linkages and relationships with other participants in industry and DOD operations/user organizations.

Iris AO, Inc.
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley, CA 94704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 849-2375
Michael Helmbrecht
AF 08-195      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Wide Field-of-View Imaging Sensor System for SSA
Abstract:Iris AO will extend previous development research in the area of piezoelectrically actuated membrane deformable mirrors (DM). These extensions are to achieve extreme degrees of curvature required in an optical zoom system based on DMs. These MEMS devices are very small, low weight, and consume very little power. The properties make the ideal for deployment in satellites for space situational awareness. Goals of the Phase I work are to (a) characterize existing prototype devices and extend the design for extreme curvatures and a larger (8mm) optical aperture, (b) fabricate prototype devices, and (c) characterize the fabricated prototypes and use results for design process improvement. This Phase I work is confined to the 8mm devices for compatibility with existing packaging and test equipment. Fabrication of devices with the ultimately required 20mm aperture will be addressed in Phase II research. BENEFIT: A deformable mirror capable of achieving very high curvature will be developed based on MEMS processing. This enables construction of an optical zoom characterized by very light weight and low power consumption. Beyond the base function as an optical zoom, the deformable mirror capable of adaptive optical correction of low order aberrations. Commercial applications include laser communications, laser processing of materials, and biological imaging.

StarVision Technologies, Inc.
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 458-1445
James Ochoa
AF 08-195      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:EFFI: Enhanced Field-Foveated Imaging Sensor
Abstract:Situational awareness sensors are highly desirable in order to be able to detect, track, image and possibly predict the intent of unknown space objects. Currently designed systems are restricted in their ability to image objects at varying ranges (consequently limited spatial resolution) and the field of coverage is inherently poor. StarVision Technologies Inc. in collaboration with Lockheed Martin proposes an innovative concept EFFI: Enhanced Field-Foveated Imaging System. EFFI is a single sensor system capable of wide field-of-view and narrow field-of-view imaging over any desired field angle in the image. This proposal defines the Phase I work scope required to demonstrate through systems analysis, design and simulations the feasibility of this innovative sensor concept. Successful completion of the Phase I effort will lay the foundation for design, fabrication and testing of the key elements of the sensor design in Phase II. BENEFIT: Military benefits include surveillance satellites for resident object characterization, commercial applications include surveillance and inspection of friendly satellites

Data Fusion & Neural Networks
1643 Hemlock Wy
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 824-3131
Derek Surka
AF 08-196      Awarded: 3/18/2009
Title:Autonomous Mission Manager for Space Superiority and Responsive Space
Abstract:The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an onboard autonomous mission manager for space superiority and responsive space. Experts in data fusion, autonomous flight software, and maneuver planning will define the architecture for a modular, re-usable mission manager for Defensive Counterspace and demonstrate a prototype autonomous flight system for detecting and responding to a co-orbital anti- satellite (ASAT) threat. Three autonomous software components will be addressed: abnormal event detection and assessment, threat countermeasure and evasive maneuver planning, and mission flight software for autonomous task sequence execution. Components will adhere to the Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture to enable extendable software uploads and be designed to work within the limited computational and memory resources on-board a satellite. Key features of the proposed system include a) enhanced scalability through modularity; b) robust, retrainable event detection and assessment software; c) innovative maneuver planning techniques that account for future actions of an uncooperative ASAT threat; d) improved verification and validation through the use of common ground and flight components; and e) reduced development risk through flight and operational heritage. BENEFIT: The primary markets for the integrated mission manager are military and national security space. These entities are explicitly involved in the SSA and DCS missions so can directly benefit from deploying the autonomous situation awareness and threat response software on any or all deployed satellites. The successful demonstration of the mission manager as part of a flight system in Phase 3 would open up these markets. A secondary market is commercial and civil space. DF&NN has experience commercializing the results of SSA-focused SBIRs. An example of this is the SAS Neural Network Abnormality Detection & Recognition (NNADR) system that DF&NN has delivered for real-time satellite operations at SOC-96. NNADR detects out of pattern temporal abnormalities that are well within normal limits, thus reducing the number of false alarms and increasing sensitivity. The DF&NN commercialization strategy is to bring the proposed technology to market via licensed software. During its existing JSARS SBIR Phase II, DF&NN has already marketed our satellite-as-a-sensor (SAS) Blue Force Status (BFS) and Abnormal Catalog Update (ACU) software products to SMC and ESC, respectively.

Design_Net Engineering LLC
10311 Hampden Ave. Suite A107
Lakewood, CO 80227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 462-0096
Ken Center
AF 08-196      Awarded: 3/9/2009
Title:A Modular Architecture for Responsive Configuration of Satellite Autonomy
Abstract:A repeating topic in aerospace discussion forums is the ever-increasing reliance on space assets to support our national infrastructure. Their vulnerability has led to significant discussion about how to facilitate better situational awareness and protection of these assets. As the space environment becomes more utilized the management effort will inevitably become increasingly complicated. One strategy is to offload the ground by making satellites more capable at a platform level allowing them to draw from collective situational information to satisfy their own needs and respond appropriately to space arena changes. This capability is commonly termed spacecraft autonomy. Previous implementations have been tailored to the mission at hand tightly coupled to the hardware and software instantiated on that particular spacecraft. If autonomy is to become robust and commonplace, the community needs a standardized approach. DNet and SRA are developing an architecture specifically designed to accommodate the needs of spacecraft autonomous operations. The architecture will be naturally predisposed to scalability, rapid configuration, and reusability all qualities that are necessary features of a framework that will be significantly built upon in the years to come to address the maintenance and protection of our military, science and commercial space infrastructure. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of this research extend well beyond the initial tactical military application. AFRL has pressed for standardization of space system components to streamline the satellite life cycle to address the needs of ORS. These SPA standards have culminated in an implementation on the PnPSat program, which is ongoing at the Responsive Space Testbed in Albuquerque. A major focus area has been satellite autonomy, which is comprised of modular, reusable code elements. Using supporting design and development tools, the conceptualization, assembly, and testing of SPA-based systems can occur in exceedingly short timeframes, satisfying the specifically expressed ORS objective of maintaining a satellite depot that can field a request for tactical capability and deploy supporting assets within the course of one week. Clearly, the ability to design and build spacecraft in much shorter periods of time is an attractive option to the aerospace sector as a whole. We expect that the standards, as well as the data architecture that facilitates these significantly reduced development times, will gain favor in the wider community and become commonplace within the next decade. The anticipated benefits of this system for defensive counterspace are increased space awareness and practical defensive countermeasures.

Traclabs, Inc.
8610 N. New Braunfels, Suite 110
San Antonio, TX 78217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 461-7884
David Kortenkamp
AF 08-196      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Autonomous Mission Management for Satellite Systems
Abstract:Satellite intelligence information is being used increasingly for real-time operations. This requires satellites that can be quickly tasked for new objectives and that can respond to opportunistic situations. Unfortunately, today''''s satellites rely on ground operators to control them. This means there is a large delay between when a new task is requested or a new threat identified and the response by the satellite. The usefulness of satellites and satellite information would be increased if the satellites could respond quickly and effectively with limited ground operator interaction. In addition, because satellites are increasingly important to modern warfare they also face increasing threats from anti- satellite weapons (ASATs). Thus, they need a means to effectively and autonomously respond to these threats. This proposal offers an integrated architecture for autonomously managing satellite missions. It combines state-of-the-art planning with open source NASA execution technology and NASA-developed event detection and assessment software. These are integrated to create a responsive, autonomous mission manager for space systems. BENEFIT: Autonomous systems are becoming increasingly prevalent in military and civilian applications. While the system described in this proposal will be targeted towards military satellite systems, similar technology could also be applied to UAVs, UGVs, robots, space vehicles, commercial satellites, computer security, process automation and intelligent vehicles. This creates a large number of commercial applications for technology developed under this research.

Microelectronics Research Development Corporation
4775 Centennial Boulevard, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 294-1962
Michael Sibley
AF 08-197      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Reliable and Rad-Hard Microelectronics
Abstract:Producing components that satisfy all of the BMDS space and interceptor environment specs traditionally has been not only costly but also untimely. As semiconductor companies continue along path set by Moores Law producing chips that have the necessary lifetime of a MIL Space application is a matter of fact. Testing must be preformed on the silicon to ensure that the silicon will meet or exceed the extreme environments of space. We propose in the Phase I test circuits that will enhance the reliability and the radiation hardness of the process. On-chip metrology circuits will be designed to reduce test time and simplify the test setup. BENEFIT: If a Phase II and Phase III options are exercised for this proposal the AFRL and other DoD systems will have access to state of the art on-chip metrology circuits for monitoring the reliability radiation hardness of the Structured ASIC wafers. Micro-RDC will be able to pre-screen Structured ASIC die quickly before they are sent of for full P&Q. Micro-RDC will also be able to collect an extensive history of the process on a lot to lot bias. These metrology circuits will not be limited to the 90 nm Structured ASIC fabric but will be useful in qualification of many technologies nodes.

Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
James Hofmeister
AF 08-197      Awarded: 2/25/2009
Title:Reliable and Rad-Hard Microelectronics
Abstract:The ability to measure and characterize critical circuit parameters is a necessary requirement to developing reliable microelectronics for military applications. An industry- first capability is provided: a set of radiation-hardened by design (RHBD) test structures to allow design engineers to measure and characterize these critical parameters both before and after irradiation. Upon completion, these RHBD structures will be added to Ridgetop Groups Design-for-Manufacturing Tools (nanoDFM). Die Level Process Monitor (DLPM) are precise in-situ integrated circuits (ICs) placed onto a die to extract information that measure and characterize key parameters that are very susceptible to manufacturing process variations. Design engineers can then correct for process variations, better center designs, or adaptively correct operation as the IC degrades or becomes irradiated. The DLPM structures are the following: (1) threshold voltage shift, (2) resistance mismatch and (3) capacitance mismatch. There are prognostic cells to detect radiation- induced voltage shifts, increased leakage current and memory cell errors. New structures provide information on Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) and the effects of process variation and radiation on timings and operations associated gates, voltage references and flip-flop memory cells. These structures will be designed for the IBM 65- nm 10RF bulk Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process node. BENEFIT: Ridgetop Group owns patented DLPM and PDKChek technologies that have been successfully developed and used for larger feature size technologies. For the smaller and lower-power IBM 65-nm 10RF bulk CMOS process, the existing DLPM and the new structures need to be designed, fabricated, tested and documented to provide design engineers with the necessary capability for extracting information to measure and characterize critical circuit parameters, which in turn leads to more reliable microelectronics: circuit designs can be more effectively centered. Radiation-hardened circuit designers will be able to extract the same level of information from a RHBD nanoDFM suite of tools: this is an industry-first capability.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Thomas Roy
AF 08-198      Awarded: 2/12/2009
Title:Self-Powered Electrospray Thruster Cluster for Deorbit-Detumble Applications
Abstract:Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a self-powered, self-contained propulsive de-orbit system that will (a) fit within a 12 in. x 12 in. x 1 in. volume, (b) weigh less than 5kg, (c) requires no propellant tanks or valves (or any other moving parts), (d) apply torque to the spacecraft in a detumbling operational mode (e) de-orbit a 200kg asset from 700km to 200km within a 10 year period qualified. The propulsion system is based on long life, low power electro spray thruster Busek is uniquely poised to deliver this technology, as it has built and delivered the first space-qualified electrospray thruster to JPL (ST7-DRS program), and is the leader in developing electrospray thrusters for specific mission profiles for both NASA and the DoD. Busek is not proposing a balloon, sail, parachute or tether because in the event that a spacecraft is tumbling out of control, each of these options is subject to twisting around the spacecraft, rendering the device useless. A deorbiting thruster cluster that can apply torque to the spacecraft, and that can sense when to burn against the orbital path, is immune to this otherwise debilitating condition. BENEFIT: Given the growing need to develop a reliable deorbiting technology that can respond to a variety of conditions, the proposed deorbiter/detumbler thruster is promising. Initially our efforts will be to secure Phase II funding to optimize and mature the design. A flight program is a critical goal to validate the durability and stability of the electrospray thruster operation and responsiveness to a variety of conditions. The anticipated market for the electrospray thruster package developed by this effort is expected to extend from scientific and military missions into commercial satellites. Market forecasts by Futron Corporation predict steady growth in commercial satellites. Though colloid thrusters are in a relatively early stage of product development, the team assembled for this program is world-class and on the leading edge of this technology development which includes a number of novel design features including no moving parts and the ability to operate for years continuously, with no propellant tank other than an extension of the thruster itself. This elegant design results in a simple, durable system that could be used in a variety of mission profiles and deorbit a variety of space assets up to 700km and approximately 200kg or more. We expect further development efforts could extend the range of assets that can be deorbited by this device, and be installed on every space asset of that spacecraft class that is launched.

MMA Design LLC
PO Box 7804
Loveland , CO 80537
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 886-7306
Shane Stamm
AF 08-198      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Low-Cost Deorbiting System
Abstract:Development of a mechanical de-orbiting system that can be attached to a DoD satellite asset as part of the initial mission planning can provide a means to safely and cost effectively de-orbit a satellite once it has completed its mission or if a de-orbit is required due to a failure of a key system or instrument. The fact that all satellites will fail over time leads to the need to de-orbit them. By attaching a mechanical de-orbiting module it is possible to extend the usable life of the satellite by utilizing the available onboard propellant to be used for station keeping or other ACS maneuvers in lieu of saving the propellant for a de-orbit maneuver. BENEFIT: Low-cost attachable structure that can be installed on a wide class of satellites to aid in reducing the time to de-orbit the satellite without the use of secondary systems such as on board propellant. Once designed, developed and qualified the system can be installed on a wide size and configuration of satellite. The mechanical system is simple with low parts count and does not require high power to initiate or operate to perform its mission. The technology will be directly applicable to DoD, Civil and Commercial Space programs.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Thomas W. Vancek
AF 08-198      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Drag-Brake Deorbiting System
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a low-cost, low-impact, highly reliable membrane-based Drag-Brake Deorbiting Systems (DBDS). The DBDS will be designed to be attached to spacecraft prior to launch, or, attached to on orbit assets using a servicing vehicle. In operation the DBDS dramatically increases the drag area of a spacecraft to accelerate its deorbit at end-of-life. Provisions are included to allow the DBDS to operate autonomously, able to deploy and deorbit a spacecraft that is no longer communicating or has failed entirely even if the spacecraft is tumbling uncontrollably. The DBDS is passively stable which minimizes system complexity and ensures reliable operation. PSIs innovations in membranes, nano-fiber rip-stop technologies, and electronics miniaturization ensure that the proposed system will meet all of the Air Forces requirements. BENEFIT: PSIs proposed DBDS will play a critical role in reducing orbital debris. By providing a mechanism to deorbit end-of-life spacecraft the DBDS will ensure that useful orbits are vacated, and minimize the possibility of orbital debris cased by hyper velocity impacts on the spacecraft, or explosion of the vehicle. The DBDS will allow R&D spacecraft to be compliant with DoD Instruction 3100.12, Space Support, Section 6.4, Spacecraft End-Of-Life requirements.

Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Robert Hoyt
AF 08-198      Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title:The Terminator Tape Low-Cost Deorbiting System
Abstract:TUI proposes to develop a Terminator Tape deorbit module that will utilize both aerodynamic drag enhancement and passive electrodynamic drag to enable spacecraft to comply with post-mission orbital lifetime restrictions while minimizing cost, mass, volume, and footprint impacts to the spacecraft. At the completion of the satellites mission, this module will deploy a several-hundred meter length of metalized mylar tape, utilizing gravity gradient forces to align it along the local vertical so as to maximize its aerodynamic drag area. Voltages induced by the conducting tapes motion through the Earths magnetic field will charge the top and bottom of the tape relative to the ambient environment, driving collection of electron and ion currents which will result in a small but significant flow of current along the length of the tape. This current will induce an electrodynamic drag force on the system, enhancing the orbital decay of the system, especially at mid-to-high- LEO altitudes where neutral drag is small. The proposed effort will develop a preliminary design and prototype for the hardware and its spacecraft interface, perform detailed analysis and simulation of the deorbit performance of the system, and develop a plan for maturation and validation of the hardware through ground and on-orbit testing. BENEFIT: The Terminator Tape deorbit module will provide a lightweight, low-cost, autonomous capability for ensuring that spacecraft and upper stages meet orbital lifetime requirements. It will enable DoD spacecraft lacking propulsion capabilities to operate at mid-to-high-LEO altitudes without violating debris mitigation requirements, and it will enable spacecraft with propulsion to be operated to their full delta-V and lifetime capability, maximizing return on the investment made in these systems. Additionally, it can provide a back-up means for stabilizing spacecraft that experience attitude control failures. The Terminator Tape will be equally applicable to DoD, NASA, and commercial spacecraft, and its potential market is every satellite, upper stage, interstage, and other object launched into LEO.

Applied Science Innovations, Inc.
185 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 833-6897
Mikhail Gutin
AF 08-199      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Enhanced Lucky Imaging for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:To address the need of the Air Force in terrestrial based optical imaging for space situational awareness (SSA) with high-resolution imagery, Applied Science Innovations, Inc. (ASI) proposes development of the Coded-Aperture Lucky Imaging for Space Situational Awareness (CALISSA) – a novel, computational coherent-imaging technique capable of high-resolution and high performance imaging without increasing optical telescope size. Adaptive optics techniques have been the primary method for compensating for the degradation of imagery by atmospheric turbulence. A new technique, “lucky imaging” was enabled by developments in low light level charge coupled devices with very low noise. Both adaptive optics and lucky imaging rely on a star of known quality in the field of view. High-resolution imaging in SSA requires an alternative to fixed reference stars. The proposed patent-pending CALISSA addresses the needs of SSA imaging with a novel coded-aperture optical system with extremely high resolution and dramatically reduced effect of atmospheric turbulence, with low-cost, lightweight optics. Phase I will establish feasibility of the CALISSA concept. In Phase II, a functional pre-production CALISSA prototype will be developed and delivered to the Air Force for evaluation and use. In Phase III, the CALISSA design will be further developed to Technology Readiness Level 9 and commercialized as a ground-based imager for SSA. BENEFIT: The benefits of the proposed CALISSA include extremely high, nearly diffraction-limited resolution, virtually eliminated atmospheric effects; high frame rates, and extremely broad spectral coverage. Commercial applications of CALISSA are in high- resolution terrestrial imaging of distant objects, improved satellite and aerial reconnaissance, security, surveillance, free-space optical communications, space-based remote sensing, weather sensing, and high-altitude aerial photography.

Hart Scientific Consulting International LLC
4370 E. La Paloma Dr.
Tucson, AZ 85718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 907-1857
E. Keith Hege
AF 08-199      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Enhancing High-Resolution Imagery for Space Situational Awareness with Lucky Imaging and Adaptive Optics
Abstract:We propose the development and laboratory demonstration of a method that will revolutionize the high resolution satellite imaging capabilities of ground-based optical systems. Current imaging systems supporting Space Situational Awareness (SSA), even those equipped with state-of-the-art adaptive optics (AO), fail to exploit the intrinsic field of view of the imager at the full resolution of the telescope. Our integrated approach will bring together advances in optimal data selection (lucky imaging), visible wavelength sensor technology, and adaptive wavefront compensation to offer imaging over the entire field at the limit of resolving power imposed by physics. This major enhancement of capability may be implemented on existing imaging systems with no changes to their opto- mechanical hardware, and will be packaged to provide real-time results as a module in a net-centric SSA environment. Our strategy calls for an initial development in numerical simulation using full-wave optical propagation software, combined with both real image data of orbiting vehicles and high-fidelity models. The simulation will enable the determination of optimal data selection criteria and evaluation of AO as an adjunct technology. Concurrently, a bench-top laboratory demonstrator will be designed and built, to include AO using a MEMS deformable mirror, and realistic multi-layered atmospheric turbulence with variable Greenwood frequency, Fried parameter, and Cn2 profile. Results of the numerical simulation will be transferred to the laboratory for a complete proof-of-concept demonstration. The laboratory test results will form the basis for the design of a system to be fielded in Phase II, and will be essential to identify potential areas of technical and programmatic risk to be addressed in the later phase. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits: Improved resolution imaging of satellites with no upgrades to the electro-optical hardware. Improved contrast for detection of potentially hostile microsatellites. Commercial applications: Perimeter security at military bases and secure civilian facilities (e.g. airports). Border security (identification of illegal border crossers). Law enforcement (e.g. facial recognition, reading license plates at unprecedented distance).

MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Vladimir Markov
AF 08-199      Awarded: 2/13/2009
Title:Lucky Imaging with Coherent Illumination and Tracking for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:Ground-based optical imaging of space vehicles in orbit and launch vehicles in boost phase is crucial to Space Situational Awareness (SSA). The limiting factor is atmospheric turbulence. Recent advances in CCDs have allowed for practical implementation of Frieds Lucky Shot concept, in which the optical path is occasionally clear of distortion for short periods of time. This allows for near diffraction-limited performance for terrestrial telescopes. Due to the rapid motion of space vehicles, lucky imaging must be adapted for use in SSA. In response, we propose the Coherent Lucky Imaging Monitoring Awareness Tracking and Evaluation (CLIMATE) system which employs MetroLasers proven target-in- the-loop optical phase conjugation (TIL-OPC) to coherently illuminate glints on targets and independently measure the Strehl Ratio of the optical path at very high speed. The CLIMATE system will employ the TIL-OPC technology to perform both anisoplanatic and isoplanatic lucky imaging. In the case of isoplanatic imaging, the high speed Strehl ratio measurements will be used to automatically cull and register the imagery, reducing processing and storage by an order of magnitude. In Phase I, testing of the CLIMATE system will be performed under laboratory conditions. In Phase II, the system will be integrated with SSA platforms. BENEFIT: Given that atmospheric turbulence is a limiting factor in nearly all long-distance terrestrial and airborne imaging, the CLIMATE system will be indispensable for a broad variety of applications. Initially, MetroLaser will focus on use with remote sensing and use at proving grounds for tracking and observation of test vehicles.

Excellatron
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Jack Ma
AF 08-200      Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title:Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries for Space-based Applications
Abstract:This proposal is for an all solid state battery having a specific energy more than twice conventional lithium batteries. The rechargeable battery uses a lithium metal anode with ceramic electrolyte. There are no liquids to leak out, catch fire, boil or increase in pressure. There is no mechanism for lithium dendrite evolution during recharge. Research under this proposal will also address unique processes for refining ceramic electrolyte and cathodes. BENEFIT: Space missions have several critical requirements for batteries. This new battery will be capable of operating in high vacuum and able to withstand severe launch environments such as vibration, shock and acceleration. It will also have high energy and long cycle life.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Christopher M. Lang
AF 08-200      Awarded: 3/13/2009
Title:Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Based Lithium Ion Electrolyte
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to demonstrate a lithium ion battery electrolyte/separator system capable of high performance operation with improved safety at operating temperatures between -40 and 70oC. Continuously nano-porous structures, fabricated as thin battery electrode separator membranes will be used to sequester inexpensive liquid lithium ion battery electrolytes as a composite liquid/solid state battery separator assembly. Calculations indicate that due to freezing point depression, reduced vapor pressure and anion size exclusion properties of the nano-porous materials, the proposed electrolyte/separator assemblies will have low temperature performance to - 60oC, reduced electrolyte vapor pressure at elevated temperatures and Li+ transference numbers approaching 1.0. BENEFIT: The primary market for the proposed technology is the military in particular for space applications. The temperature extremes and long cycle life demands of space deployment would benefit from the robust electrolyte. Similarly, the proposed technology would be beneficial in the uniquely harsh environments in which battery powered combat devices operate. The technology can be further extended to commercial devices such as hybrid and electric vehicles, cordless power tools, remote sensing devices, and portable communications such as cell phones and two-way radios.

Yardney Technical Products, Inc.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Joseph Gnanaraj
AF 08-200      Awarded: 2/19/2009
Title:Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries for Space-based Applications
Abstract:The o