---------- DTRA ----------

19 Phase I Selections from the 09.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Marek Turowski
DTRA 09-001       Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Characterization and Mitigation of Radiation Effects in Nonplanar Nano-technology Microelectronics
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The successful outcome of this effort will support the use of ultra-deep submicron integrated circuits in DoD satellite systems that will result in very significant savings in weight, power and reliability for systems that include Space Radar, Space Tracking and Surveillance Systems, Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) and others. In addition, this effort will also support the use of compound semiconductor technologies (e.g. Antimony Based Compound Semiconductors, Indium Phosphide, and others) in these systems and their introduction into advanced spacecraft and missile systems with similar savings in both power and weight and coupled with increased performance. DESCRIPTION: Current satellite systems are fabricated using a mix of commercial and radiation hardened circuits. However, the use of advanced commercial integrated circuits devices results in added complexity to mitigate radiation effects that can result in the mis-operation and/or destruction of devices. In many cases, the penalties in increased power, area, weight and added circuit complexity out-weigh any potential benefits and preclude the use of the advanced commercial technology. Moreover, these technologies have demonstrated a sensitivity to radiation effects. The present methods to mitigate radiation effects, while proven to be effective at circuit geometries > 150nm silicon based technology, have been shown to be less effective when applied to integrated circuit feature sizes below 100nm silicon based and compound semiconductor technologies. In addition, the introduction of new technologies, e.g. quantum function circuits, will require the development of new mitigation approaches. Thus, if minimally invasive methods such as the use of alternative materials, circuit enhancements, and other innovative approaches could be developed to reduce radiation effects sensitivity these devices could be used with little or no penalties. Therefore, the basic approach to accomplish this task would be to leverage commercial microelectronics at the < 90nm nodes and augment these technologies with radiation mitigation techniques that would have minimal impact on the electrical performance and manufacturability. This same approach also applies to the radiation hardening of the compound semiconductor and other technologies. Additionally, the development of such methods requires the development of cost effective methods to model and simulate the radiation response of these < 90nm, compound semiconductor and other technologies. Without a robust modeling and simulation capability it would be both technically and economically unfeasible to develop these mitigation methods. PHASE I: • Identification of minimally invasive methods, including material approaches, to mitigate radiation effects in < 90nm microelectronics technologies, III-V, SiGe and other materials systems. • Development of cost effective radiation effects modeling and simulation methods for < 90nm microelectronics, compound semiconductor and other technologies for digital and analog/mixed-signal microelectronics applications. • Identification of design science approaches to mitigate radiation effects. PHASE II: • Electronic Design Automation

Lynguent, Inc.
P. O. Box 19325
Portland, OR 97280
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 575-9222
James Holmes
DTRA 09-001       Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Radiation Fault Analysis for 45 Nanometer CMOS-SOI VLSI Circuits
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The successful outcome of this effort will support the use of ultra-deep submicron integrated circuits in DoD satellite systems that will result in very significant savings in weight, power and reliability for systems that include Space Radar, Space Tracking and Surveillance Systems, Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) and others. In addition, this effort will also support the use of compound semiconductor technologies (e.g. Antimony Based Compound Semiconductors, Indium Phosphide, and others) in these systems and their introduction into advanced spacecraft and missile systems with similar savings in both power and weight and coupled with increased performance. DESCRIPTION: Current satellite systems are fabricated using a mix of commercial and radiation hardened circuits. However, the use of advanced commercial integrated circuits devices results in added complexity to mitigate radiation effects that can result in the mis-operation and/or destruction of devices. In many cases, the penalties in increased power, area, weight and added circuit complexity out-weigh any potential benefits and preclude the use of the advanced commercial technology. Moreover, these technologies have demonstrated a sensitivity to radiation effects. The present methods to mitigate radiation effects, while proven to be effective at circuit geometries > 150nm silicon based technology, have been shown to be less effective when applied to integrated circuit feature sizes below 100nm silicon based and compound semiconductor technologies. In addition, the introduction of new technologies, e.g. quantum function circuits, will require the development of new mitigation approaches. Thus, if minimally invasive methods such as the use of alternative materials, circuit enhancements, and other innovative approaches could be developed to reduce radiation effects sensitivity these devices could be used with little or no penalties. Therefore, the basic approach to accomplish this task would be to leverage commercial microelectronics at the < 90nm nodes and augment these technologies with radiation mitigation techniques that would have minimal impact on the electrical performance and manufacturability. This same approach also applies to the radiation hardening of the compound semiconductor and other technologies. Additionally, the development of such methods requires the development of cost effective methods to model and simulate the radiation response of these < 90nm, compound semiconductor and other technologies. Without a robust modeling and simulation capability it would be both technically and economically unfeasible to develop these mitigation methods. PHASE I: • Identification of minimally invasive methods, including material approaches, to mitigate radiation effects in < 90nm microelectronics technologies, III-V, SiGe and other materials systems. • Development of cost effective radiation effects modeling and simulation methods for < 90nm microelectronics, compound semiconductor and other technologies for digital and analog/mixed-signal microelectronics applications. • Identification of design science approaches to mitigate radiation effects. PHASE II: • Electronic Design Automation

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-0666
Ketan Bhatt
DTRA 09-002       Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:Electrokinetic-based Microfluidic Universal Sample-Preparation (EMUS) Platform
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To develop a process to universally extract and prepare samples in the field that will be made available to a detector for rapid detection and notification. DESCRIPTION: It should be noted that sample preparation is not synonymous with purification or even enrichment, although both are extremely rigorous preparation methods. For the biological defense community, sample preparation can be considered a process in which analytes of interest are removed from interfering chemicals and materials present in a sample and treated to insure availability to the detection technology employed. Current technologies are “either-or” solutions, focusing on immunoassay and PCR/molecular techniques of analysis, both of which are used in fielded DoD platforms. No single platform to date has the capability to serve as a universal sample preparation technology simultaneously isolate proteins (immunoassay) and nucleic acids (PCR/molecular analysis). An additional current limitation is the lack of a suitable platform to deal with a wide variety of environmental samples capable of removing inhibitors of analysis, such as enzymatic inhibitors, irreversible binding agents of analytes/reagents, and particulates that foul fluidics, instruments, and cartridges. PHASE I: In Phase I of a SBIR project we are seeking a novel and verifiable approach to developing a universal extraction and preparation process such that field analysis and identification can be rapid and timely (i.e. on-site analysis by immunoassay or PCR in less than one hour with minimal logistical burden) for the warfighter and/or first responders. PHASE II: In Phase II of a SBIR project we are seeking the demonstration of the method and the concomitant protocol and/or instrumentation for the approach. This is characteristically described as a reduction to practice type of project that the extraction and preparation procedure can be demonstrated as useful and verifiable with a myriad of sample types and analytical procedures. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: In Phase III of a SBIR project a series of blind challenge samples would be tested at both the awardees laboratory as well as the governments medical and physical sciences laboratories. The round robin testing would be designed to verify the methods and approaches developed by the awardee. REFERENCES: 1. Lichtenberg, J., N. F. de Rooij, E. Verpoorte. 2002. Sample pretreatment on microfabricated devices. Talanta 56: 233-266. 2. Rose, L., B. Jensen, A. Peterson, S. N. Banerjee, and M. J. Arduino. 2004. Swab materials and Bacillus anthracis spore recovery from nonporous surfaces. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1023-1029. 3. Tsai, Y. and B. H. Olson. 1992. Detection of low numbers of bacterial cells in soils and sediments by polymerase chain reaction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 754-757.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-0678
Yi Wang
DTRA 09-003       Awarded: 3/22/2010
Title:An Integrated, Electrokinetics-Augmented Microfluidic Device for Forensic DNA Analysis
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Develop a small, field portable forensic DNA capability that performs rapid DNA analysis for comparison against PC-based or Web-based forensic DNA databases. This device should be able to perform forensic DNA analysis on swabs collected from incident sites. DESCRIPTION: Forensic DNA analysis is routinely performed on evidence collected from incident sites or swabs obtained from known individuals. This analysis is typically performed in a fixed facility and leverages several different pieces of equipment to produce a DNA profile. Forensic DNA analysis has the ability to provide crucial information on individuals that may have built or had contact with IED’s or potential bioagents. The ability to conduct rapid forensic DNA analysis on post blast IEDs, and objects/containers involved in WMD activities can provide significant insight into who may have manufactured or transported the device, and what agents it may contain. This information can be used by commanders and warfighters to increase their situational awareness and enhance their battle management capabilities. The ability to conduct rapid forensic DNA analysis in the field on swabs and exchange that information with PC- based or Web-based DNA databases will prove valuable in verifying identity and matching against profiles obtained from IEDs and other items. The end product should be a field portable device that performs all procedures required to produce a forensic DNA Profile including extraction, quantitation, amplification, separation, and analysis. The device should be able to perform Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), provide single base pair resolution, and produce outputs capable of being exchanged with PC-based or Web- based forensic DNA databases. The device should be operable in a variety of environments, temperatures, and conditions and be physically robust and reliable. It is also beneficial if individuals with minimal scientific training are able to operate the device. Current technologies such as liquid handlers, thermal cyclers, and genetic analyzers/sequencers do exist that perform individual steps of the forensic DNA analysis process but are designed to work in a laboratory environment. This device should combine these capabilities into a single device and be capable of conducting forensic DNA analysis in a mobile asset or facility on the battlefield. PHASE I: Fabricate a proof- of-concept prototype and demonstrate which forensic DNA analysis processes can be integrated into the end device. PHASE II: Fabricate 1 prototype field portable forensic DNA analysis device and demonstrate success in producing DNA profiles with a commercially available STR PCR amplification kit. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The proposed device may be used for rapid biological relationship testing or traditional state and local crime laboratory forensic DNA analysis at crime scenes. REFERENCES: 1. National Research Council. 2009. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. 2. Budowle, B. Toward a System of Microbial Forensics: from Sample Collection to Interpretation of Evidence. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, May 2005, p. 2209-2213.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Season Wong
DTRA 09-003       Awarded: 2/16/2010
Title:An Integrated, Field Portable DNA Profiler for Forensics
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Develop a small, field portable forensic DNA capability that performs rapid DNA analysis for comparison against PC-based or Web-based forensic DNA databases. This device should be able to perform forensic DNA analysis on swabs collected from incident sites. DESCRIPTION: Forensic DNA analysis is routinely performed on evidence collected from incident sites or swabs obtained from known individuals. This analysis is typically performed in a fixed facility and leverages several different pieces of equipment to produce a DNA profile. Forensic DNA analysis has the ability to provide crucial information on individuals that may have built or had contact with IED’s or potential bioagents. The ability to conduct rapid forensic DNA analysis on post blast IEDs, and objects/containers involved in WMD activities can provide significant insight into who may have manufactured or transported the device, and what agents it may contain. This information can be used by commanders and warfighters to increase their situational awareness and enhance their battle management capabilities. The ability to conduct rapid forensic DNA analysis in the field on swabs and exchange that information with PC- based or Web-based DNA databases will prove valuable in verifying identity and matching against profiles obtained from IEDs and other items. The end product should be a field portable device that performs all procedures required to produce a forensic DNA Profile including extraction, quantitation, amplification, separation, and analysis. The device should be able to perform Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), provide single base pair resolution, and produce outputs capable of being exchanged with PC-based or Web- based forensic DNA databases. The device should be operable in a variety of environments, temperatures, and conditions and be physically robust and reliable. It is also beneficial if individuals with minimal scientific training are able to operate the device. Current technologies such as liquid handlers, thermal cyclers, and genetic analyzers/sequencers do exist that perform individual steps of the forensic DNA analysis process but are designed to work in a laboratory environment. This device should combine these capabilities into a single device and be capable of conducting forensic DNA analysis in a mobile asset or facility on the battlefield. PHASE I: Fabricate a proof- of-concept prototype and demonstrate which forensic DNA analysis processes can be integrated into the end device. PHASE II: Fabricate 1 prototype field portable forensic DNA analysis device and demonstrate success in producing DNA profiles with a commercially available STR PCR amplification kit. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The proposed device may be used for rapid biological relationship testing or traditional state and local crime laboratory forensic DNA analysis at crime scenes. REFERENCES: 1. National Research Council. 2009. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. 2. Budowle, B. Toward a System of Microbial Forensics: from Sample Collection to Interpretation of Evidence. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, May 2005, p. 2209-2213.

Materials & Electrochemical Research (MER) Corp.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Raouf O. Loutfy
DTRA 09-004       Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:Novel Fuel Cell Supercapacitor Hybrid Power System
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Deliver a novel high endurance, reusable, safe and portable energy source for use in environments that preclude access to current common energy sources and/or make it logistically infeasible to utilize current portable energy source options. This energy source could provide a wide application to power a variety of WMD sensors/systems. DESCRIPTION: A myriad of applications for the dismounted soldier of the future will require portable energy, including communications, portable computers, chemical- biological-radiological sensors and other systems. These electronics are critical to soldier combat effectiveness. Primary batteries now provide the main energy source, but the acquisition, storage, distribution, and disposal of over a hundred different battery types poses an enormous logistical challenge on the battlefield. New technologies have at the same time increased the number and variety of power-driven functions that require soldier-portable power. Current batteries are often one-time use, such as traditional alkaline or lead acid types, that require a large logistical “footprint” to support or have adverse safety considerations and/or power capacity loss problems over multiple re-use, such as nickel-cadmium or lithium-type batteries. High energy density capacitors are needed for a variety of WMD technologies: new materials/manufacturing processes are needed to make these systems man portable. However, new power source technologies are beginning to appear in the early stages of technical development (i.e. fuel cells, smart hybrid batteries, etc). In addition, the need is present to make these new energy sources as small enough to power a backpack sized WMD sensor/system up to small vehicles, such as unmanned ground or aerial vehicles, which may be equipped with various WMD sensors/systems. PHASE I: Provide a lab demonstration of the potential capability of the novel energy source. PHASE II: 1. Build a portable prototype energy source that provides 20-W average power with 50-W peak and/or provides 100-W average with a 200-W peak for up to 1 week missions in the size configuration previously mentioned. 2. Adapt to provide power to up to two different sensors of choice or 3. Prototype high energy density capacitor with a minimum of 50 kJ stored energy. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: 1. New energy source could enable new uses for a wide variety of WMD and other sensors and technologies which could spur more commercial demand. 2. Enable new applications for portable sensors and technologies. REFERENCES: 1. Atwater, T.B., P.J. Cygan, and F.C. Leung. 2000. Man portable power needs of the 21st century. I. Applications for the Dismounted Soldier. II. Enhanced capabilities through the use of hybrid power sources. Journal of Power Sources 91: 27-36. 2. Fein, G.S. 2003. Manufacturers worked around-the-clock to replenish depleted stocks. National Defense Magazine, September. Available at http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/article.cfm?Id=1190. Last accessed on January 15, 2004. 3. National Research Council. 1997. Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 4. National Research

Princeton Nanotechnology Systems LLC
11 Deer Park Drive Suite 102-I
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 355-9550
Richard Skibo
DTRA 09-005      Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:Continuous Wave Compressive Sensing Terahertz Spectrometer for Low Vapor Pressure Standoff Detection
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: A prototype unit capable of detecting trace amounts of low-volatility chemicals from distances of 25+ meters. DESCRIPTION: The ability to detect trace chemicals from safe distances is critical. When those chemicals are low-volatility (as they are for many explosives), the difficulty of the problem greatly increases. Innovative solutions are being sought to address this technology problem. There are no acceptable products available that can detect trace amounts of low-volatility chemicals from relatively large distances, especially ones that are small and light-weight. Hand-held chemical detection units either don’t have the ability to detect from a distance (10s of meters), at very low concentrations, or with needed precision, resolution and sensitivity. Products which do have these characteristics tend to be fairly large and not readily transportable. Current research and development in this area generally involves spectroscopic methods including Raman, FTIR and terahertz. Each of these methods has had some success, but they still have problems in one or more of the characteristics mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, all of the characteristics are necessary for an acceptable product that can be used safely in many operational environments. The goal of this topic is to develop a technology that is capable of detecting trace amounts of low-volatility chemicals (for example, explosives and persistent chemical warfare agents) from large distances (25-30 meters or more). The end product should be small and light-weight. It must be able to detect multiple classes of chemicals (e.g., organic nitrates, organophosphonates) from a variety of surfaces (both porous and non-porous). Ideally, the end product will distinguish and identify the target chemicals from interfering substances (e.g., other chemicals, dust/dirt, diesel fumes). The end product can be from any technology area, assuming the technology is safe for general operational use. The technology must be innovative and not a general modification or adaptation of current research. If the proposed effort uses a technology currently being developed for this type of application (e.g., Raman, FTIR, terahertz), the application itself or its adaptation must be innovative. PHASE I: The technology at the end of Phase 1 should be able to demonstrate a proof-of-concept detection of at least 1 class of low-volatility chemicals on surfaces from distances of 3 meters or greater. PHASE II: The prototype unit should be able to detect at least two different classes of low-volatility chemicals, present in trace amounts, on at least 5 different surfaces (to include both porous and non-porous surfaces) from distances approaching 25 meters or greater. Detection needs to occur in the presence of common operational interferents (e.g., dirt/dust, oil/grease, fuel and/or fuel vapor). The prototype should be no larger than man-portable, with a strategy to reduce the product to a size approaching hand-held. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: In addition to Defense applications, the technology would have applications in Homeland Security, hazard response and/or mitigation, and industrial process or product control or assurance. REFERENCES: 1. M W P Petryk, "Promising

Zomega Terahertz Corporation
1223 Peoples Ave
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 833-0577
Thomas Tongue
DTRA 09-005      Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Standoff Sensing for Low Volatility Chemicals Using Terahertz Radiation-Enhanced-Emission-of-Fluorescence
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: A prototype unit capable of detecting trace amounts of low-volatility chemicals from distances of 25+ meters. DESCRIPTION: The ability to detect trace chemicals from safe distances is critical. When those chemicals are low-volatility (as they are for many explosives), the difficulty of the problem greatly increases. Innovative solutions are being sought to address this technology problem. There are no acceptable products available that can detect trace amounts of low-volatility chemicals from relatively large distances, especially ones that are small and light-weight. Hand-held chemical detection units either don’t have the ability to detect from a distance (10s of meters), at very low concentrations, or with needed precision, resolution and sensitivity. Products which do have these characteristics tend to be fairly large and not readily transportable. Current research and development in this area generally involves spectroscopic methods including Raman, FTIR and terahertz. Each of these methods has had some success, but they still have problems in one or more of the characteristics mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, all of the characteristics are necessary for an acceptable product that can be used safely in many operational environments. The goal of this topic is to develop a technology that is capable of detecting trace amounts of low-volatility chemicals (for example, explosives and persistent chemical warfare agents) from large distances (25-30 meters or more). The end product should be small and light-weight. It must be able to detect multiple classes of chemicals (e.g., organic nitrates, organophosphonates) from a variety of surfaces (both porous and non-porous). Ideally, the end product will distinguish and identify the target chemicals from interfering substances (e.g., other chemicals, dust/dirt, diesel fumes). The end product can be from any technology area, assuming the technology is safe for general operational use. The technology must be innovative and not a general modification or adaptation of current research. If the proposed effort uses a technology currently being developed for this type of application (e.g., Raman, FTIR, terahertz), the application itself or its adaptation must be innovative. PHASE I: The technology at the end of Phase 1 should be able to demonstrate a proof-of-concept detection of at least 1 class of low-volatility chemicals on surfaces from distances of 3 meters or greater. PHASE II: The prototype unit should be able to detect at least two different classes of low-volatility chemicals, present in trace amounts, on at least 5 different surfaces (to include both porous and non-porous surfaces) from distances approaching 25 meters or greater. Detection needs to occur in the presence of common operational interferents (e.g., dirt/dust, oil/grease, fuel and/or fuel vapor). The prototype should be no larger than man-portable, with a strategy to reduce the product to a size approaching hand-held. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: In addition to Defense applications, the technology would have applications in Homeland Security, hazard response and/or mitigation, and industrial process or product control or assurance. REFERENCES: 1. M W P Petryk, "Promising

CapeSym, Inc.
Suite 1B 6 Huron Drive
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 653-7100
Shariar Motakef
DTRA 09-007      Awarded: 2/1/2010
Title:Electromagnetically-Stirred THM Process for Growth of CZT
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Improve radiation detection material processing for consistently more efficient larger detection materials with shorter overall preparation times. DESCRIPTION: The quality, quantity, size, and cost of radiation detection materials and system are limited by current manufacturing capabilities. Examples of current improvements have focused on hydrothermal process enhancement for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals and feedstock purification and conditioning. Next generation approaches to obtain cheaper higher quality detection materials incorporating nonhydrothermal processes and not solely dependent on feedstock material conditioning. Specific material quality and quantity metrics will be dramatically improved by these process innovations. Detection material characteristics must be maintained or exceeded. For example, consistent room temperature semiconductors with better than one percent energy resolution at 662 keV or scintillator materials with better than three percent. Processing methods should control, but not be based on standard material requirements such as ultra high purity and uniformity. Shortening the duration of material formation, as in the case of crystal growth while maintaining or improving detection performance are also essential. Post material formation reprocessing such as annealing and surface preparation are not considered. PHASE I: Examples of areas where dramatic improvements may be possible should be studied in the proof of concept phase to include: - Reduce crystal growth time from weeks to days and maintaining material quality - Increase usable detection material sizes in volume or usable area with no degradation in detector sensitivity - Improve detection material performance by nonhyrdothermal means (e.g., energy resolution) without increasing production cost - Improve chemical vapor deposition fabrication for radiation detector applications PHASE II: Prototype material fabrication must provide detection materials of sufficient size, quality and quantity for performance testing and be cost effective and production scalable. Methods and processes must be repeatable and reproducible. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Scope of potential follow-on: - Engineering design and integration of prototype material fabrication process to improve existing radiation detection material processes - Extending prototype processing to other semiconductor or crystal growth material processing technology areas - Producing improved radiation detection materials and samples for special applications such as scientific and medical research in high energy physics and medical monitoring, and to allow for additional detection material characterization - Expanding production applications to solar cells and electronic component fabrication REFERENCES: 1. Chen, H. et al., “High-Performance, Large-Volume THM CdZnTe Detectors for Medical Imaging and Homeland Security Applications,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2006. IEEE Volume 6, pp. 3629–3637. 2. Doering, R. (Ed.) et al., Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, CRC, 2007. 3. Hahto, S.K., “Negative ions for heavy ion fusion and semiconductor manufacturing applications,” Review of Scientific

Neotron Inc
5 Hayden Place
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 239-3461
Steven Paul Ahlen
DTRA 09-007      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Next Generation in Detection Materials Processing
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Improve radiation detection material processing for consistently more efficient larger detection materials with shorter overall preparation times. DESCRIPTION: The quality, quantity, size, and cost of radiation detection materials and system are limited by current manufacturing capabilities. Examples of current improvements have focused on hydrothermal process enhancement for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals and feedstock purification and conditioning. Next generation approaches to obtain cheaper higher quality detection materials incorporating nonhydrothermal processes and not solely dependent on feedstock material conditioning. Specific material quality and quantity metrics will be dramatically improved by these process innovations. Detection material characteristics must be maintained or exceeded. For example, consistent room temperature semiconductors with better than one percent energy resolution at 662 keV or scintillator materials with better than three percent. Processing methods should control, but not be based on standard material requirements such as ultra high purity and uniformity. Shortening the duration of material formation, as in the case of crystal growth while maintaining or improving detection performance are also essential. Post material formation reprocessing such as annealing and surface preparation are not considered. PHASE I: Examples of areas where dramatic improvements may be possible should be studied in the proof of concept phase to include: - Reduce crystal growth time from weeks to days and maintaining material quality - Increase usable detection material sizes in volume or usable area with no degradation in detector sensitivity - Improve detection material performance by nonhyrdothermal means (e.g., energy resolution) without increasing production cost - Improve chemical vapor deposition fabrication for radiation detector applications PHASE II: Prototype material fabrication must provide detection materials of sufficient size, quality and quantity for performance testing and be cost effective and production scalable. Methods and processes must be repeatable and reproducible. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Scope of potential follow-on: - Engineering design and integration of prototype material fabrication process to improve existing radiation detection material processes - Extending prototype processing to other semiconductor or crystal growth material processing technology areas - Producing improved radiation detection materials and samples for special applications such as scientific and medical research in high energy physics and medical monitoring, and to allow for additional detection material characterization - Expanding production applications to solar cells and electronic component fabrication REFERENCES: 1. Chen, H. et al., “High-Performance, Large-Volume THM CdZnTe Detectors for Medical Imaging and Homeland Security Applications,” Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2006. IEEE Volume 6, pp. 3629–3637. 2. Doering, R. (Ed.) et al., Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, CRC, 2007. 3. Hahto, S.K., “Negative ions for heavy ion fusion and semiconductor manufacturing applications,” Review of Scientific

Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation
626 Whitney Street
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Mahadevan Krishnan
DTRA 09-008      Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Critical Components/Enabling Technologies for High-gradient Particle Accelerators
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: High-gradient accelerator technology is sought for development of transportable accelerators capable of accelerating protons, electrons or muons. Portable- accelerator applications of interest to DTRA require protons with energy in the tens of MeV range and in the few GeV range; electrons in the 100 MeV range; and muons in the hundreds of MeV range. Critical technology is sought that will enable construction of systems operable from moving military platforms or will significantly reduce the overall footprint of currently available technology. DESCRIPTION: The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA is investigating the use of high energy, particle sources for detecting special nuclear materials (SNM). Systems transportable on military platforms are required. Reduction of the size and weight of existing and novel systems are goals. Critical technology that will lead to increased accelerating gradients will help to achieve program goals. The following examples may represent current state-of-the-art gradients for acceleration of protons: • Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity (SCRF): 47 MV/m • Normal-conducting RF: 290 MV/m • Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA): 100 MV/m • Target Normal Sheath Accelerator (TNSA): 1 TV/m • Radiation Pressure Accelerator (RPA): ≥1 TV/m In the TNSA the length of the accelerating gradient is limited to about 50 micrometer so that proton energy may be limited to around 50 MeV. The RPA offers potential for GeV protons directly from a thin foil but the required laser intensity exceeds the current capability (based on Hercules laser at University of Michigan) by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Key components of the DWA are insulating material with very high dielectric constant and high speed switching technology. Breakthroughs in key enabling technologies may be the critical paths for realizing practical transportable high-gradient accelerators. Other technologies, such as compact superconducting cyclotrons may also be attractive with regard to configuration on military platforms for generating protons in the tens of MeV energy range and, if scalable, the low GeV range. For acceleration of muons a critical component is the collector or cooling system needed to reduce the emittance of accelerator-produced muons so that they can be collected, injected and re- accelerated to the energies required for DTRA applications. PHASE I: Develop a design concept with a clearly defined Phase I to Phase II decision point that demonstrates the potential capability of realizing the objectives defined in this topic. The design concept should be benchmarked with data that validates its underlying assumptions. A clear Phase I to Phase II decision point must be part of the final delivery in Phase I along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE II: Demonstrate the design concept proposed in Phase I. This demonstration must include a discussion of how this design will be developed in Phase III into a viable system to meet the defined program goals. Potential partners for production and future use of the developed technology along with a clear Phase II to Phase III decision point must be included along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Industrial

RadiaBeam Technologies, LLC
13428 Beach Ave
Marina del Rey, CA 90292
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 822-5845
Alex Murokh
DTRA 09-008      Awarded: 2/5/2010
Title:High-gradient transportable laser accelerator for high duty cycle applications
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: High-gradient accelerator technology is sought for development of transportable accelerators capable of accelerating protons, electrons or muons. Portable- accelerator applications of interest to DTRA require protons with energy in the tens of MeV range and in the few GeV range; electrons in the 100 MeV range; and muons in the hundreds of MeV range. Critical technology is sought that will enable construction of systems operable from moving military platforms or will significantly reduce the overall footprint of currently available technology. DESCRIPTION: The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA is investigating the use of high energy, particle sources for detecting special nuclear materials (SNM). Systems transportable on military platforms are required. Reduction of the size and weight of existing and novel systems are goals. Critical technology that will lead to increased accelerating gradients will help to achieve program goals. The following examples may represent current state-of-the-art gradients for acceleration of protons: • Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity (SCRF): 47 MV/m • Normal-conducting RF: 290 MV/m • Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA): 100 MV/m • Target Normal Sheath Accelerator (TNSA): 1 TV/m • Radiation Pressure Accelerator (RPA): ≥1 TV/m In the TNSA the length of the accelerating gradient is limited to about 50 micrometer so that proton energy may be limited to around 50 MeV. The RPA offers potential for GeV protons directly from a thin foil but the required laser intensity exceeds the current capability (based on Hercules laser at University of Michigan) by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Key components of the DWA are insulating material with very high dielectric constant and high speed switching technology. Breakthroughs in key enabling technologies may be the critical paths for realizing practical transportable high-gradient accelerators. Other technologies, such as compact superconducting cyclotrons may also be attractive with regard to configuration on military platforms for generating protons in the tens of MeV energy range and, if scalable, the low GeV range. For acceleration of muons a critical component is the collector or cooling system needed to reduce the emittance of accelerator-produced muons so that they can be collected, injected and re- accelerated to the energies required for DTRA applications. PHASE I: Develop a design concept with a clearly defined Phase I to Phase II decision point that demonstrates the potential capability of realizing the objectives defined in this topic. The design concept should be benchmarked with data that validates its underlying assumptions. A clear Phase I to Phase II decision point must be part of the final delivery in Phase I along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE II: Demonstrate the design concept proposed in Phase I. This demonstration must include a discussion of how this design will be developed in Phase III into a viable system to meet the defined program goals. Potential partners for production and future use of the developed technology along with a clear Phase II to Phase III decision point must be included along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Industrial

Ovonyx
2956 Waterview Drive
Rochester Hills, MI 48309
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 299-6002
Wolodymyr Czubatyj
DTRA 09-011      Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Hardening Electronics to Electromagnetic Threats
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: New lower-cost technologies for hardening critical electronic systems and infrastructures against electromagnetic threats across the frequency spectrum from the various forms of the electromagnetic spectrum to the various emissions of electromagnetic spectrum (EM) (non nuclear and nuclear) to include nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and high power microwaves (HPM). This effort should focus on addressing the complex problem of strategic mobile communications systems. DESCRIPTION: Electromagnetic threats (HPM and EMP) pose problems to electronics both as conducted (e.g., wires and antennas) and radiated (e.g., apertures and cracks) threats. Over the past years a variety of techniques have been developed to protect electronics from these threats that operate over selected frequency bands. However, these techniques are frequently costly to implement and have size limitations. The desire is to develop novel techniques that are low-cost, lightweight and compact. Further, it is desirable that the techniques are applicable over a broad frequency range covering both EMP and HPM spectrums. Approaches that deal with individual conducted or radiated threats are of interest for critical systems, infrastructures, and facilities. In the area of nuclear EMP, it is desired to have conductive protection devices that cover the early time (E1), mid time (E2), and late time (E3) threat environments with one compact unit. In HPM, methods to protect the electronics directly (similar to radiation hardening electronics) would be of great interest. PHASE I: Proof of concept should be demonstrated by analysis and/or preliminary experimental device. A detailed plan for further engineering development and demonstration by testing in Phase II should also be provided. A clear Phase I to Phase II decision point must be part of the final delivery in Phase I along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE II: Successfully demonstrate the operation of the prototype hardening device against specified electromagnetic threat(s) without effects on the protection device or protected circuit. Industry and government partners for Phase III must be identified along demonstrated support for the proposed design/prototype. A clear Phase II to Phase III decision point must be part of the final delivery in Phase III. PHASE III: Demonstration of EMP and HPM protection devices to meet MIL-STD 188-125-2 and other applicable military and commercial standards may result in DoD program managers funding further development of the technology. Dual use of devices for protection of both military systems and commercial facilities/civilian infrastructures from potential terrorist threats is a plus. REFERENCES: 1. MIL-STD- 188-125-2; MIL-HDBK-423; High-Power-Microwave Hardening Design Guide for Systems, HDL-CR-92-709-5, April 1992, MIL-STD-464, MIL-STD-461.

Integrated Solutions for Systems
P.O. Box 5148
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 342-8792
Atris Ray III
DTRA 09-012      Awarded: 2/22/2010
Title:Weapon Payloads for Bulk Chemical and Biological Agent Neutralization
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To provide new and innovative conventional weapon concepts that can neutralize (e.g., kill or decompose) large quantities of containerized chemical and biological warfare agents in a non-permissive environment with no intentional agent release, minimizing collateral effects. DESCRIPTION: For offensive operations, current conventional weapons rely on blast and fragmentation as their primary mechanism to defeat chemical and biological targets. Unfortunately, these same mechanisms can create large and unacceptable consequences through the release of hazardous and toxic materials into the environment. A preferred solution to this problem is the ability to neutralize large quantities of chemical and biological warfare agents within their storage containers and warheads, rendering the agents ineffective to the adversary. This type of capability is envisioned to directly transfer the neutralizing energy, environment, or materials into the containers with no intentional release of the agents. No intentional release of the agents in turn basically negates any potential collateral effects issues. It should be noted that ionizing radiation technologies for bulk neutralization have shown promise in this area, but are beset with potential political and legal issues, as wells as create additional collateral damage concerns. Consequently, alternative conventional technologies are sought that cannot only neutralize large quantities of chemical and biological agents, but are also robust against a wide variety of agent types and can easily be integrated into weapon systems. It is expected that proposed technologies may run the gamut in terms of time and distances to neutralize, and effective performance may be limited to certain building environments. Note this solicitation does not address demilitarization operations, although proposed concepts may be based on similar technologies. PHASE I: Phase I must develop a potential weapon payload conceptual design(s) and its method to neutralize bulk quantities of chemical and biological warfare agents. Concept(s) effectiveness will be proven through modeling and simulation against specific agents and containers stored in both production facilities and storage facilities. The design concept should be benchmarked with data that validates its underlying assumptions. A clear Phase I to Phase II decision point must be part of the final delivery in Phase I along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE II: Phase II must develop a prototype payload capable of neutralizing chemical and biological warfare agents in typical containers and demonstrate and evaluate the prototype payload against bulk stored biological simulants and measure its effectiveness. The final report must clearly demonstrate how this concept will be made into a fieldable system with a complete discussion of the design tradeoffs required to make this system a viable system for field use. Potential partners for production and future use of the developed technology along with a clear Phase II to Phase III decision point must be included along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Potential dual use applications of this technology include uses by the Center for Disease Control (CDC),

Karagozian and Case
2550 North Hollywood Way Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 240-1919
John E. Crawford
DTRA 09-013      Awarded: 1/27/2010
Title:Predicting Ultra High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) Residual Strength after Multiple Penetrations and Blasts
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Find a reliable and inexpensive way to define UHPC component damage due to multiple loading events of penetration and blast. Develop appropriate engineering aids/software defining structural capacity due to incremental abnormal loadings events (e.g., multiple air strikes) taking into consideration the differences in response of UHPC when compared to normal strength concrete. DESCRIPTION: DoD needs to develop the ability to efficiently and effectively assess damage and evaluate the residual strength (structural capacity) of UHPC structural components with compressive strengths in excess of 30 ksi, and similarly escalated tensile and bending strengths, to airblast, fragments, and munition penetrations. Currently, damage predictions require a baseline assessment of vulnerability at a pristine state and an a priori understanding of the localized damage evolution and prevalent boundary conditions of the structure at each incremental loading stage, such as occurs in a multi-strike event. A multi-strike event is defined as a repeated abnormal loading of a structure or its components. A continuous definition of the residual capacity of damaged components and structures is extremely important for weaponeering multiple layered hardened targets, and could be exceptionally helpful in planning protection from sequenced terrorist attacks or follow-on abnormal loads such as extreme wind and hurricane conditions. PHASE I: Phase I should clearly demonstrate the ability to quantify (or define) the resistance (or damage) of component/structure of the pristine and damaged UHPC in a minimum of two dimensions. A clear Phase I to Phase II decision point must be part of the final delivery in Phase I along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE II: Phase II must demonstrate a methodology for evaluating damage and pertinent engineering level aids/software describing evolutionary damage and residual strength/structural capacity due to multiple abnormal events and disassociated of continuous testing or analyses. The Phase II final report should include a development plan and partnering approach for follow-on production and fielding along with a roadmap that takes the program through Phase III. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: PHASE III should include identification of support for commercialization of the developed product to predict the remaining strength (residual strength) of UHPC damaged by penetration and blast. The software should be able to specify which parameters are important to resist damage for use in architecture, engineering, and construction industries for economical but robust construction of the military and civilian sectors. Its application should include protective panels, structural elements (such as roofs, walls, slabs [shells, plates], beams, columns, and piles), and facilities (such as bunkers, nuclear power plants, and airport runways). The software also should consider predictions of remaining strength due to abnormal loadings from seismic, hurricane and tornado events. REFERENCES: 1. US Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, “Material Property Characterization of Ultra-High Performance Concrete,” Publication No. FHWA-HRT-06-103, 2006 August 2.

Diversified Technical Systems, Inc.
909 Electric Ave Suite 206
Seal Beach, CA 90740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 493-0158
Mike Beckage
DTRA 09-014      Awarded: 2/5/2010
Title:Digital Data Recorder for Gauges in High Speed Weapons During Survivability Testing
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate novel/effective/survivable electrical and mechanical systems for a high g-load (100KGs for 2 msec duration and 30KGs for 5 msec duration) shock gage and data recorder. This system is to be used in high-velocity (>2,500 ft/sec) penetration experiments into rock and concrete (unconfined strengths of 1.5 ksi to 8 ksi) and high g load pyrotechnic events (120 KGs for 0.5 msec duration). DESCRIPTION: The weapons community currently has a strong need to obtain payload data on conventional munitions to aid in shock hardening existing weapon systems and researching new conventional systems developed in the future. For the next generation of weapons, military platforms will shrink in size but performance and lethality is expected to increase through novel new engineered designs, along with increasing the striking velocity of the warhead. Additionally, in order to increase the performance of these smaller systems, precursor shape charge warheads may be employed in some systems to soften the target in front of a penetrating advanced design warhead. The main warhead electronics, however, will have to survive the pyrotechnic shock generated by the shape charge detonation and then function (95 % of the time) after a full penetration into the target. Currently, many of the components that are used in fusing and data recorder systems do not perform well in high shock and pyro environments. Because of these issues, little is known about the witnessed conditions of the weapon system in these situations. A new, miniature, high-velocity/pyro-shock sustaining data-recorder is needed. This will measure and aid in understanding the conditions that a modern penetrating weapon system must survive in order to facilitate the design of new ones. PHASE I: In this phase, a proof of concept or prototype design of a novel high- velocity/pyro-shock multi channel digital data recorder must be developed. Included in this proof of concept will be a demonstrated capability for controller software, indentified hardware for data collection, recording capability, and a validated method for data retrieval/management. Minimum general requirements are 12 bit, 3 internal acceleration channels, 6 external digital data channels, non-volatile memory, sample rate of at least 1 Mega sample/sec/channel, 0.5 seconds of recording time, adjustable recording parameters to maximize recording flexibility, and built-in battery power conservation methods. System volume (without power source) will be no larger than 8 cubic inches. Designs that include novel passive or active mechanical designs that protect the electronics from very severe catastrophic loading environments are highly desirable. A clear Phase I to Phase II decision point will be accomplished by an evaluation and determination of the system feasibility, the use of high g tested components in the design, plus the overall design robustness and potential survivability of the system. PHASE II: In this phase, a prototype(s) will be developed and tested. As part of this demonstration, flexibility for use in measuring a variety of weapons system configurations must be shown either through design or prototype. Industry and government partners for Phase III

Dynamic Systems and Research
8219 Pickard Ave NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 238-3192
Anthony Mittas
DTRA 09-014      Awarded: 2/5/2010
Title:Digital Data Recorder for Gauges in High Speed Weapons During Survivability Testing
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate novel/effective/survivable electrical and mechanical systems for a high g-load (100KGs for 2 msec duration and 30KGs for 5 msec duration) shock gage and data recorder. This system is to be used in high-velocity (>2,500 ft/sec) penetration experiments into rock and concrete (unconfined strengths of 1.5 ksi to 8 ksi) and high g load pyrotechnic events (120 KGs for 0.5 msec duration). DESCRIPTION: The weapons community currently has a strong need to obtain payload data on conventional munitions to aid in shock hardening existing weapon systems and researching new conventional systems developed in the future. For the next generation of weapons, military platforms will shrink in size but performance and lethality is expected to increase through novel new engineered designs, along with increasing the striking velocity of the warhead. Additionally, in order to increase the performance of these smaller systems, precursor shape charge warheads may be employed in some systems to soften the target in front of a penetrating advanced design warhead. The main warhead electronics, however, will have to survive the pyrotechnic shock generated by the shape charge detonation and then function (95 % of the time) after a full penetration into the target. Currently, many of the components that are used in fusing and data recorder systems do not perform well in high shock and pyro environments. Because of these issues, little is known about the witnessed conditions of the weapon system in these situations. A new, miniature, high-velocity/pyro-shock sustaining data-recorder is needed. This will measure and aid in understanding the conditions that a modern penetrating weapon system must survive in order to facilitate the design of new ones. PHASE I: In this phase, a proof of concept or prototype design of a novel high- velocity/pyro-shock multi channel digital data recorder must be developed. Included in this proof of concept will be a demonstrated capability for controller software, indentified hardware for data collection, recording capability, and a validated method for data retrieval/management. Minimum general requirements are 12 bit, 3 internal acceleration channels, 6 external digital data channels, non-volatile memory, sample rate of at least 1 Mega sample/sec/channel, 0.5 seconds of recording time, adjustable recording parameters to maximize recording flexibility, and built-in battery power conservation methods. System volume (without power source) will be no larger than 8 cubic inches. Designs that include novel passive or active mechanical designs that protect the electronics from very severe catastrophic loading environments are highly desirable. A clear Phase I to Phase II decision point will be accomplished by an evaluation and determination of the system feasibility, the use of high g tested components in the design, plus the overall design robustness and potential survivability of the system. PHASE II: In this phase, a prototype(s) will be developed and tested. As part of this demonstration, flexibility for use in measuring a variety of weapons system configurations must be shown either through design or prototype. Industry and government partners for Phase III

Applied Simulations, Inc
1211 Pine Hill Road
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 506-1956
Rainald Lohner
DTRA 09-015      Awarded: 2/5/2010
Title:Next Generation Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Codes
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Develop a fast running Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Finite Element code taking advantage of hardware and software technologies developed in the gaming industry. The CFD code will be used to model highly non-linear and dynamic external blast events in urban settings and internal blasts inside structures. DESCRIPTION: The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) seeks proposals for development of the next generation high fidelity CFD codes for faster simulation of the blast environment. Existing codes used for this purpose are primarily written for computations on Central Processing Units (CPUs). The calculations are performed either in a serial or parallel fashion on single or parallel CPUs. At present a typical blast calculation for an urban environment or calculations for building collapse takes weeks to months of CPU run time. With ever increasing popularity of computer and TV games and animated movies, the gaming industry and chip manufacturers are investing heavily on improving the processing speed of the hardware and improving the software for life-like visualizations. For example, Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in today’s computers and gaming consoles are used for 50-70 times faster computations than CPUs. Other hardware improvements include the so called desktop massively parallel supercomputers with hundreds of energy efficient CPUs bundled into a desktop computer. New hardware consoles combined with innovative software allow users to interact with games in more natural and life-like fashion using handheld devices with motion sensors and touch-screen displays. To take advantage of these technologies, researchers in the academia have recently started experimenting with high fidelity finite element models written for processing on GPUs that have led to impressive speed up in computations. This solicitation is for development of a commercial fast running CFD code on GPU processors or desktop supercomputers. In the first two phases of the program a clear demonstration of the viability of the proposed method is required including mitigations of risks associated with limitations of gaming technologies in general purpose computing. Faster running codes with user friendly interfaces are important requirements in order to assess damage to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) facilities or to plan for protection of personnel and mission critical equipment in a protected facility. PHASE I: The successful Phase I project should develop the proposed methodology in sufficient mathematical detail to show technical competency. At a minimum the Phase I work should clearly demonstrate the expected speed up or ease of use of the new methodology by working out an example problem. PHASE II: The successful Phase II project should develop a prototype CFD code and compare the results with legacy codes and experimental data. An important aspect of this phase of the program is to develop a detailed plan for commercializing the prototype for use by the government and the private sector. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Potential dual use, non-defense applications of fast running CFDs are in weather modeling, modeling of wind loading on structures and more realistic and physics based

Reaction Engineering International
77 West 200 South, Suite 210
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 364-6925
Martin Denison
DTRA 09-015      Awarded: 3/1/2010
Title:Next Generation Blast Simulation
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Develop a fast running Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Finite Element code taking advantage of hardware and software technologies developed in the gaming industry. The CFD code will be used to model highly non-linear and dynamic external blast events in urban settings and internal blasts inside structures. DESCRIPTION: The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) seeks proposals for development of the next generation high fidelity CFD codes for faster simulation of the blast environment. Existing codes used for this purpose are primarily written for computations on Central Processing Units (CPUs). The calculations are performed either in a serial or parallel fashion on single or parallel CPUs. At present a typical blast calculation for an urban environment or calculations for building collapse takes weeks to months of CPU run time. With ever increasing popularity of computer and TV games and animated movies, the gaming industry and chip manufacturers are investing heavily on improving the processing speed of the hardware and improving the software for life-like visualizations. For example, Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in today’s computers and gaming consoles are used for 50-70 times faster computations than CPUs. Other hardware improvements include the so called desktop massively parallel supercomputers with hundreds of energy efficient CPUs bundled into a desktop computer. New hardware consoles combined with innovative software allow users to interact with games in more natural and life-like fashion using handheld devices with motion sensors and touch-screen displays. To take advantage of these technologies, researchers in the academia have recently started experimenting with high fidelity finite element models written for processing on GPUs that have led to impressive speed up in computations. This solicitation is for development of a commercial fast running CFD code on GPU processors or desktop supercomputers. In the first two phases of the program a clear demonstration of the viability of the proposed method is required including mitigations of risks associated with limitations of gaming technologies in general purpose computing. Faster running codes with user friendly interfaces are important requirements in order to assess damage to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) facilities or to plan for protection of personnel and mission critical equipment in a protected facility. PHASE I: The successful Phase I project should develop the proposed methodology in sufficient mathematical detail to show technical competency. At a minimum the Phase I work should clearly demonstrate the expected speed up or ease of use of the new methodology by working out an example problem. PHASE II: The successful Phase II project should develop a prototype CFD code and compare the results with legacy codes and experimental data. An important aspect of this phase of the program is to develop a detailed plan for commercializing the prototype for use by the government and the private sector. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Potential dual use, non-defense applications of fast running CFDs are in weather modeling, modeling of wind loading on structures and more realistic and physics based