---------- OSD ----------

111 Phase I Selections from the 09.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
Applied Colloids
11080 Industrial Circle NW
Elk River, MN 55330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 485-1368
Gary Pozarnsky
OSD 09-EP1      Awarded: 11/3/2009
Title:Nanophase Technology for Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) Battery Safety
Abstract:Many of the safety incidents that occur with lithium-ion batteries are due to the carbon anode currently in use. Incidents can occur that include overcharging in the system, which causes lithium metal to plate out of the cell and passivation at the surfaces of the electrodes in the cell, which can also cause an incident. Applied Colloids proposes the use of its proprietary nanomaterials in a "rocking chair" cell. This would eliminate the carbon anodes presently in use and improve the safety of both lithium-ion and lithium polymer batteries.

Excellatron
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Steve Buckingham
OSD 09-EP1      Awarded: 11/26/2009
Title:Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) and Lithium-ion Polymer (Li-polymer) Battery Safety
Abstract:Excellatron proposes to optimize an all solid-state secondary battery for safety. The all solid-state battery combines the high energy density of Li-ion technology with the power density, cyclability, and proven safety of thin film all solid-state battery technology developed at Oak Ridge National Labs. Despite the use of Li as the anode to maintain the highest possible energy density, the proposed all solid state battery allows for a cell that will be ultra safe even in the most extreme and abusive environments owing to the elimination of highly flammable liquid electrolyte used in current Li-ion technology. Even when ruptured at high or low temperatures or in underwater environments or short circuited or fast charged to overvoltage conditions the cell will remain safe. No overvoltage or deep discharge “safety” protection circuit will be necessary, or any provision for venting of gasses to prevent explosion. In fact the solid state prismatic design will be extremely resilient to puncture or venting even when crushed, and will provide dramatic improvements in durability and reliability under rough handling over existing technologies. The battery will extend the military temperature range of –40oC to 85oC to an increased upper limit of 150°C.

NEI Corporation
400 E Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-3141
Ganesh Skandan
OSD 09-EP1      Awarded: 10/21/2009
Title:Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) and Lithium-ion Polymer (Li-polymer) Battery Safety
Abstract:The proposed program aims to overcome the challenge of developing a Li-ion battery that delivers high performance while simultaneously improving the intrinsic safety of the Li-ion cell. Generally, safety at the cell level is sacrificed in order to achieve performance in terms of high charge/discharge rate capability and energy density. In contrast to the traditional single point approach of incorporating external controls such as a Battery Management System (BMS) to render a degree of safety to a Li-ion battery pack, the proposed approach aims at introducing multiple innovations in the components within the cell, particularly in terms of the materials used. Working in collaboration with a fully equipped battery manufacturer, we propose to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in Phase I by comparing it to the state of the art in Li-ion cell technology for high rate applications. 5 Ah cells will be fabricated and tested so the performance and safety characteristics can be ascertained quantitatively. Since the objective of the program is to develop safer Li-ion batteries that also have the needed rate capability and energy density, the Phase II program will focus on incorporating the Phase I innovations into larger scale Li-ion battery modules, and subjecting them to industry standard performance and abuse testing. Prototype battery packs will be delivered to the military at the end of the Phase II program for testing and qualification.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Christopher M. Lang
OSD 09-EP1      Awarded: 10/28/2009
Title:Electroactive Polymer Coating for Improved Battery Safety
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to form an electrochemical switch to prevent catastrophic failure in lithium-ion batteries by coating the cathode material with an electroactive polymer. The electroactive polymer can be reversibly “switched” from an insulator to a conductor upon oxidation permitting high rate capability during normal operation. In Phase I, PSI will demonstrate that upon a short or overdischarge the polymer reversibly switches to an insulator reducing the current flow to the cathode material. This reduced current flow will be demonstrated to decrease the localized heat generation by more than two orders of magnitude. PSI will also demonstrate that insulation of the cathode material limits irreversible degradation of the discharge capacity upon overdischarge maintaining cell balance and improving cycle life. In the Phase II program, we will scale up the coating procedure to produce cathode material on a production scale and demonstrate the technology in a 5Ah battery.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Wen Lu
OSD 09-EP2      Awarded: 11/9/2009
Title:A Novel Nanomaterial-enabled Hybrid Power System
Abstract:Developments in micro/nano technologies are leading the way to a new fleet of micro air vehicle (MAV) airframes. However, the unavoidable and ultimately the mission-limiting issue for all of these new systems will be on-board power. The lightest-weight current lithium-polymer batteries don’t provide sufficient energy densities and impose a variety of operational limitations that are unacceptable for practical MAV systems. ADA Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a novel power system that leverages recent work on ultra-high-efficiency nanomaterial electrodes and inherently safe electrolytes. Current hybrid-power systems for MAVs incorporate a high-energy device and a high-power device. The hybrid-power device proposed in this project is essentially an advanced lithium-polymer battery design able to operate in both high-power and high-energy modes with great efficiency, thus eliminating the need for separate devices. In Phase I, ADA will demonstrate the use of recently developed high-performance nanocomposite electrodes in prototype batteries that exceed the performance of current Li-ion batteries. In Phase II, the ADA team will synthesize solid-state electrolytes and combine them with nanocomposite electrodes to fabricate high-energy / high-power lithium-polymer batteries. A novel power system incorporating these new batteries will be demonstrated for advanced MAVs in the Phase II.

CFX Battery, Inc
1300 W. Optical Drive, Suite 300
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 610-0660
Sohrab Hossain
OSD 09-EP2      Awarded: 11/16/2009
Title:New Power Source for Micro Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:CFX Battery Company (CFXB) has been developing a series of new primary-battery products using a proprietary new Lithium-CFx primary-battery technology developed during the past four years at Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new technology offers very high specific energy (> 600 Wh/kg) and a dramatic improvement in power capability over previous Li-CF1 systems. CFXB proposes to adapt this technology to develop a new MAV battery that will meet or exceed all of the requirements for an improved MAV power source. During Phase I of the proposed program, CFXB will optimize its Li-CFx battery technology for the MAV application and conduct subscale battery tests to demonstrate feasibility. During Phase ll, CFXB will build and deliver full- size batteries. CFXB expects its new power source to extend the flight time of the MAV from 3X to 4X that of the current MAV battery.

CyVolt Energy Systems, Inc.
PO Box 31042
Seattle, WA 98103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 322-9714
Steven Ragsdale
OSD 09-EP2      Awarded: 11/18/2009
Title:Power Generation and Storage for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV)
Abstract:This Phase I innovation research project will develop a fuel cell/battery hybrid system to power and store energy for micro-aerial vehicles (MAVs). The objective of this small business innovation research project is to develop a hybrid power system capable of powering MAVs for extended flight times as well as providing increased power for payload packages. Current battery technologies are unable to supply sufficient energy for extended periods. Fuel cells are unable to provide the short-term peak power demands for these systems. The proposed concept combines power sources to extend run time or enhance power capability, while minimizing system weight or volume. By combing the power density of secondary batteries and the energy density of fuel cells, a hybrid system could supply both the power and energy demands of mission profiles. Leveraging each technology’s strengths current flight times are anticipated to double.

Excellatron
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Doug Danielson
OSD 09-EP2      Awarded: 12/1/2009
Title:Power Generation and Storage for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV)
Abstract:Current micro air vehicles (MAV) are limited to 30 minutes of operation due to capacity of the 100 g battery they carry. Next generation MAVs utilizing an advanced power system envisioned in this project will increase the mission duration to at least 90 minutes using a 130 g battery. This increase in mission duration will require an increase in energy storage density from 125 wh/kg to 403.8 wh/kg. Advanced solid state batteries have the potential to deliver an energy density of 799 wh/kg, which would allow a MAV to achieve the objective of at least doubling the mission duration. Excellatron has years of experience developing solid state thin film battery (SSTFB) technology and is using insights gained from that experience to develop the higher performance and lower cost advanced solid state batteries.

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8772
Ying Hsu
OSD 09-EP2      Awarded: 11/23/2009
Title:Microcombustion Power Generator (MPG)
Abstract:The Microcombustion Power Generator (MPG) is a new type of fueled-based power source designed for applications in the Micro Air Vehicles and other small Unmanned Aerial Systems. The MPG combusts liquid hydrocarbon fuels to produce heat and generates electrical power by thermoelectric conversion. With an estimated mass of about 130 grams, a preliminary concept for the MPG shows that it’s capable of producing 35 Watts nominal with an energy density of 420 W-hr/Kg. The projected performance of the MPG is about 3.5 times higher than the Lithium-ion battery being used by the Air Force today for the MAV. The MPG technology is also highly scalable. A concept for a 10 grams MPG power source is capable of delivering 3.5 Watts with an estimated energy density of 350 W-hr/Kg. In Phase I ISC proposes to develop a baseline MGP system design and conduct detailed designs and analyses of the major components, such as the micro combustor, heat exchanger and thermoelectric generator.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-0681
Vojtech Svoboda
OSD 09-EP3      Awarded: 11/25/2009
Title:High Power Enzymatic Fuel Cell with Complete Oxidation of Fuel for Small Power System
Abstract:Our objective is to develop a high power enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) with complete oxidation of fuel, thereby delivering a state-of-the-art power supply for low power military systems. The proposed EFC will leverage ongoing research at both CFDRC and Saint Louis University to provide a fully-integrate lightweight, low-cost, manufacturable, and renewable power supply, for various military and civilian applications. This solution offers several advantages over the existing electromechanical methods; higher energy density, low-cost, environmentally-friendly catalysts, and renewable fuel supply eliminating need for replacement or recharge. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a multiple enzyme cascade to partially oxidize sucrose (table sugar) and also develop and validate a computer model to aid in the design of the electrode. Additionally, we will design all components of the entire EFC system for maximal power density. In Phase II with enhanced computer model and computer-aided design, the EFC will be further improved by design and fabrication of electrodes capable of full oxidation of sucrose. The fully- integrated prototype will be capable of providing a proof-of-concept demonstration as a low power military power source. A multi-disciplinary team with proven expertise in biomicrosystems, bioelectrochemistry, and system design has been assembled to accomplish these goals.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-0159
Michael Danilich
OSD 09-EP3      Awarded: 10/27/2009
Title:Enzyme Based Biological Fuel Cell for Energy Storage and Generation
Abstract:Luna Innovations will determine the feasibility of developing a light weight enzymatic fuel cell that is capable of powering MAVs in the field at 10-10,000 mWatts. The proposed enzymatic fuel cell will provide significant improvements in power generation, stability, and life time over current biofuel cell technologies, resulting in an environmentally friendly, sustainable fuel cell technology. Additionally, the proposed technology is capable of running on various fuel sources scavenged from the surrounding environment, making it more versatile and lighter weight than traditional battery power for field operations. During Phase I Luna will fabricate multiple electrodes containing either oxidizing or reducing enzymes that will be evaluated and tested. Phase II will focus on maximizing power generation and reducing weight, while working to integrate the fuel cell technology with products such as micro air vehicles and unattended ground sensors to meet the market demand for power systems for small mobile electronic devices.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Anuncia Gonzalez-Martin
OSD 09-EP3      Awarded: 11/25/2009
Title:Enzymatic Based Bio-Fuel Cell
Abstract:Biologically-based systems using electrochemical energy conversion and storage (such as bio-fuel cells) have the potential to meet the ever increasing requirements for smaller energy storage systems for applications such as implantable electronic devices, biosensing, microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS), and micro air vehicles (MAV). Bio-fuel cells offer the potential for highly efficient, scalable power systems with the ability to utilize a number of fuels sources, possible extracted from the surrounding environment, enabling extended power system endurance. Lynntech proposes the development of an enzymatic-based bio-fuel cell capable of delivering high power with a minimum footprint. During the Phase I project, the technical feasibility of the enzymatic biofuel cell will be demonstrated, an initial concept design will be developed, and key elements will be model to demonstrate the ability to meet specified power system requirements. During the Phase II project, a prototype power system will be designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered to DOD.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mahsa Rouhanizadeh
OSD 09-EP3      Awarded: 11/24/2009
Title:Regenerative Enzymatic Biofuel Cell in a Multi-array Microfluidic Configuration
Abstract:To address the OSD need for biological-based energy storage and generation for small mobile power system applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Regenerative Enzymatic Biofuel cell in a Multi-Array Microfluidic Configuration (EZBiofuel). This proposed device is based on enzymatic reactions at the porous surfaces of cathode and anode electrodes, with oxygen and glucose as fuel materials. The innovations in EZBiofuel, its capability to regenerate glucose fuel via the photosynthetic process of cyanobacteria as a backup option for fuel storage, and its controllable output power with pneumatic valves in microfluidic channels will enable the system to prolong its lifetime. The array configuration of lightweight biofuel cells with porous electrodes coated with nanoparticles significantly increases the output power. Consequently, EZBiofuel offers power output in the range 10-1000 mW while weighing no more than 100 g. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate feasibility of the EZBiofuel by developing an initial concept design and modeling for a prototype of less than 100 g to generate power in the range 10 to 1000 mW. In Phase II, POC plans to construct and demonstrate operation of the prototype and evaluate its performance and limitations for several applications.

Active Signal Technologies, Inc.
Hammonds South, Unit Q 611 North Hammonds Ferry Road
Linthicum Heights, MD 21090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 636-9350
Keith Bridger
OSD 09-EP4      Awarded: 1/13/2010
Title:Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power System Conditioning
Abstract:Active Signal Technologies, in collaboration with Novacap and Alfred University, will advance the development of two bismuth sodium titanate (NBT) ceramic materials with very promising dielectric properties across the temperature range -55°C to 300°C. The work will include enhanced formulation variants and improved processing techniques to optimize for permittivity, loss, breakdown voltage and resistivity. NBT-based materials were selected because Type H (the most mature example of the class) has low combined temperature and voltage coefficient resulting in a net capacitance change < 20% across the band from -40°C to +200°C at full voltage stress. At the end of Phase I the team will deliver 3 fully-packaged 1-ìF, 600-V multilayer capacitors of each type produced on standard manufacturing equipment in a production plant. The selected materials represent two different methods of achieving the same goal of very compact, reliable, temperature stable capacitors but with property mixes suitable for quite distinct power conditioning applications. Because ceramic capacitors raise concerns about adverse failure modes, the proposal addresses key issues of reliability with advanced sorting and quality control methods, and capacitor design for graceful degradation. In Phase II nano processing is introduced to reduce intrinsic flaw size and raise breakdown strength.

Akron Polymer Systems, Inc.
2990 Gilchrist Road Suite 2100
Akron, OH 44305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 794-6359
Matthew J. Graham
OSD 09-EP4      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power System Conditioning
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to fabricate a capacitor with an energy density of at least 4 J/cc that is durable over 10,000 cycles with an operational temperature range of -55 °C to 300 °C. This goal requires that a new thermally stable, high dielectric constant material be developed. It is proposed that such a dielectric layer can be achieved using nano- composites. In particular, high dielectric constant barium titanate (BT) particles will be blended with a soluble proprietary APS polymer with high thermal stability (glass transition temperature (Tg) > 350°C and a thermal decomposition temperature (Td) of at least 500°C) to obtain the targeted thermal and electrical properties. To enhance BT nano- particle dispersion while maintaining the ability to operate at high temperatures, a new POSS based thermally stable compatiblization technique has been developed. The nano- composite will be constructed by blending the dispersed BT nano-particles in a polymer solution. The mixture will be homogenized using a high speed stirrer and the resultant solution will be spun-cast to yield a high performance dielectric composite material. These composites will be evaluated of their thermal and electrical properties to identify promising candidates for use in capacitors.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-2517
Robert Klein
OSD 09-EP4      Awarded: 12/29/2009
Title:Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power System Conditioning
Abstract:Advanced electronics and weapons systems in current and future US military systems are placing ever increasing demands on the electric power systems that drive these electronics. These power systems require operation at higher power loads, in more compact designs, and at a reduced weight. Improved wide-temperature capacitors are a key part of the new generation of power systems, as the currently available capacitors do not provide consistent operating parameters and high energy density over a wide temperature range. Luna Innovations proposes to develop metallized polymer nanocomposite film capacitors to provide high energy density over a wide temperature range (-55 to 300 oC). Metallized polymer capacitors have significant advantages over their ceramic, electrolytic, and glass counterparts, including mechanical reliability, high energy density, graceful failure, low-cost materials and processing, and a lack of ferroelectric and piezoelectric transitions. Luna has already demonstrated a polymer nanocomposite with high energy density and reliable dielectric parameters over the range of 25 to 150 oC. In Phase I, Luna will utilize improved materials to achieve the thermal operating range and further improve energy density, work with capacitor manufacturers to ensure economical scale-up in later phases, and develop a prototype capacitor design incorporating the polymer nanocomposite.

Nanotrons, Co
12B Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
King Wang
OSD 09-EP4      Awarded: 12/2/2009
Title:Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power System
Abstract:Nanotrons, in collaboration with the Nanodielectric Group headed by Prof. Lei Zhu at the Case Western Reserve University (Case Western), proposes a novel nano-engineering approach to develop a new category of nano-dielectrics for high energy density capacitor applications. The new approach combines the cutting-edge nanomaterials development and manufacture at Nanotrons and extensive experience in materials design and simulation within Case Western. The proposed nanodielectrics integrate high dielectric constant ceramic nanoparticles, a highly polarizable chemical ligand interphase, and a polyimide matrix with high breakdown strength and wide application temperature range. Our nanocomposites are expected to have a dielectric constant of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the matrix polymer, breakdown strength of over 200 V/ìm, dielectric loss less than 0.001, and calculated energy storage density of over 30 J/cc. These features are unattainable from the existing materials. Nanotrons also attempts to develop a scaling up process for dielectric material and identify prototype capacitor architecture. This Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc.
200 Innovation Blvd. Suite 237
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7400
Shihai Zhang
OSD 09-EP4      Awarded: 11/9/2009
Title:Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power System Conditioning
Abstract:We propose to develop advanced high energy density and low dielectric loss film capacitors with wide operating temperature range of -55 „aC to 300 „aC. The hybrid capacitor film will be developed utilizing the sol-gel process to introduce uniformly dispersed high-K nanoparticles into high-T polymer PBI matrix. The interface interaction

TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Seongtae Kwon
OSD 09-EP4      Awarded: 11/16/2009
Title:Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power Conditioning Systems
Abstract:TRS Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop ceramic capacitors as power conditioning capacitors for electrically driven military weapon systems. The proposed ceramic capacitor will combine some of the best features of high energy density, low dielectric loss, and high temperature stability. The capacitors developed on this program will have energy density >4J/cc, low power dissipation, and a wide working temperature range up to 300¡ÆC. In Phase I, ceramic multilayer capacitors will be fabricated and evaluated. This will include selection of the optimum material from paraelectric and linear dielectric ceramics, design and fabrication of capacitors and evaluation of capacitors such as breakdown strength, energy density and temperature stability. Graceful failure mode will be attempt by designing internal structure for self healing to improve the reliability of multilayer capacitors.

Applied Nanotech, Inc.
3006 Longhorn Blvd. Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Nan Jiang
OSD 09-EP5      Awarded: 2/1/2010
Title:Novel Si Nanostructure Material for Lithium-ion Battery Anode
Abstract:To obtain a noticeable improvement in the specific capacity of Li-ion battery, the conventional carbonaceous anode needs to be replaced with anodes having higher energy capacity. Si is far ahead of the other metals or metalloids in terms of high energy capacity; however, practical implementation using Si as an anode is hampered by the complete disintegration during the charge/discharge process and poor material cycle- ability. These problems are attributed to the significant volume changes that occur during charge/discharge process, resulting in poor mechanical stability and structural break- down. In order to overcome these challenges and develop Li-ion batteries with excellent charge rate capabilities and high power densities, we propose a novel nanostructured Si electrode and fabrication process that will effectively prevent particle aggravation during the charge/discharge cycle while providing high electronic conduction and mitigate structural damage that otherwise would be expected from large structural variations.

Boston-Power, Inc.
2200 West Park Drive Suite 320
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 475-6333
W. F. Howard
OSD 09-EP5      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Advanced Materials for Improved Safety Lithium-ion Batteries
Abstract:Boston-Power Inc. proposes a combination of high-energy Li-ion cathode materials and an electrolyte with high voltage and thermal (limited flammability) stabilities to meet the demand for ever-increasing battery run-times without sacrificing operating safety. Our target application is man-portable devices, such as communication equipment, cameras/videos, and portable computers. We will incorporate less-expensive cathode materials than conventional Li-ion batteries, and have scheduled discussions with a US chemical company to supply these compounds commercially. Evaluation of cathode intercalants and electrolyte candidates will be completed under Phase I, and a battery chemistry selected for pilot-scale production during Phase II. Boston-Power will take advantage of its expertise gained from manufacturing high-performing Sonata® batteries, which are designed for laptop computer industry and incorporate a form factor accentuating safety and cell longevity.

Inorganic Specialists
P.O. Box 181 965 Capstone Dr..
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4491
David Firsich
OSD 09-EP5      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:Si-coated nanofiber paper as a lithium ion anode
Abstract:Silicon coated carbon nanofiber paper is a transformative advance for lithium ion batteries. It shows stable cycling, low irreversible capacity, almost nonexistent persistent irreversible loss, and energy storage >1000 mAh/g (based on its full weight). Its dual use for energy storage material and current collection amplifies this nominal value far higher. The proposed Phase I research involves exploring/enhancing rate capability, and it also includes an initial look into joining technology to connect the paper to a metal tab. A pilot manufacturing system has already been developed and built to continuously make the uncoated paper. Using bulk-available nanofibers and a novel Si deposition method keeps our materials cost under $185/lb, clearly practical. By coating the paper with larger amounts of silicon, it is expected that 1400mAh/g of reversible storage can be reached.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Christopher Rhodes
OSD 09-EP5      Awarded: 2/1/2010
Title:Advanced Electrodes and Electrolytes for Improved Energy Density and Safety Lithium-Ion Batteries
Abstract:Rechargeable batteries with improved safety and significantly higher energy densities are needed to reduce the weight carried by soldiers, provide improved safety, provide power for extended duration missions, and enable constant and reliable soldier communication. Current state-of-the-art secondary lithium-ion batteries do not provide the energy density and safety needed for extended duration solider missions. The performance and safety of present lithium-ion batteries is limited by the current electrodes and electrolytes used (e.g. carbon anode, lithium cobalt oxide cathode, and organic solvent-salt electrolyte), and new materials are needed. Lynntech proposes to develop advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries based on advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components, resulting in batteries with higher energy densities and improved safety compared with current cells. During the Phase I project, Lynntech will develop advanced electrodes and electrolytes for the secondary Li-ion batteries, and evaluate the capacity, energy density, and cycle life of the components in half and full cells. During Phase II, Lynntech will optimize the cell components and evaluate the cycle life, temperature range, and rate capabilities of prototype cells to meet target specifications. The advanced rechargeable Li-ion batteries cells can provide improved safety, cost- effective, high energy density batteries for extend duration solider missions and other applications.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5051
David Ofer
OSD 09-EP5      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Novel High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery chemistry
Abstract:TIAX will develop a novel high energy lithium-ion battery chemistry that is projected to deliver over 270 Wh/kg in 18650-size cells. The phase I program will develop and demonstrate a high voltage cathode / high voltage electrolyte chemical system that enables this cell-level energy to be achieved. Novel cathode materials will be synthesized, physically characterized, and electrochemically cycled to high voltage in novel electrolytes vs. both lithium metal and graphitic carbon anodes. Resulting data will be used to model energy content for scaled-up lithium-ion cells employing the novel chemistry.

Altex Technologies Corporation
244 Sobrante Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8306
Kenneth Lux
OSD 09-EP6      Awarded: 4/7/2010
Title:CO2 Harvesting and Mobile Production of Liquid Fuel (CHAMP-Fuel)
Abstract:The proposed CO2 Harvesting And Mobile Production of Liquid Fuel (CHAMP-Fuel) process will help to reduce the number of fuel supply lines to forward-deployed bases by converting atmospheric CO2 and water into relevant amounts of fuel. Production of the fuel needs for operations on Iraq and Afghanistan via this process would yield daily fuel- cost savings of $23 Million per day, or $7 Billion annually.

Brookhaven Technology Group, Inc.
19 Bridge Road
Setauket, NY 11733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 941-8177
James Powell
OSD 09-EP6      Awarded: 3/30/2010
Title:Transportable system for production of liquid transportation fuel using atmospheric CO2 and water
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will investigate two methods of generating water and liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels, i.e. gasoline and diesel, in the field from atmospheric CO2 and water using an available non-CO2 emitting source of power. Enzymatic and molecular sieve methods are compared to determine the most appropriate for Army field use in terms of cost, weight, efficiency, readiness and transportability. The general process is to utilize electrical power and heat from available power sources to: 1) capture and recover the 385 ppm by volume of CO2 existing in the atmosphere, using physical and chemical means; 2) electrolyze water to produce hydrogen; and 3) combine the H2 and CO2, to produce the synthetic liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The CO2 would first be shifted to CO by the water gas shift reaction and then combined with H2 to produce synthetic fuel using a catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction. An alternative to F-T is a catalytic methanol reactor and dehydration to the hydrocarbon synthetic fuel. These methods will be investigated and optimized with respect to development of a mobile system that can be deployed to forward operating bases. Advanced electrolysis and F-T reactor methods are included in the study.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Alan Cisar
OSD 09-EP6      Awarded: 4/19/2010
Title:Novel Carbon Dioxide Capture Agents for the Synthesis of Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels
Abstract:Advanced energy conversion and storage technology is under intense development to meet the increasing power demand by the military. Consumption of petroleum-based JP-8 fuel for propulsion and for electricity generation in battlefield places a heavy logistic burden to the Army as evidenced during the recent wars. The cost and availability of this conventional energy source is becoming an important factor to the success of the military operations at present and in the future. Taking into account of the fully burdened cost of the petroleum fuel used in theater, and the extra vulnerability rendered by the dependence on this sole energy source, the Army needs to explore the possibility to develop capability to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from dilute (~400 ppm) but vastly abundant CO2 and water in the atmosphere anywhere on the globe. This technology, if fully developed, will enable the military to obtain a higher degree of energy security. In this activity, Lynntech is proposing a new class of CO2 binding organic liquids that chemically capture and release CO2 much more efficiently than other capture systems to extract CO2 from the air and use it as chemical feedstock for making liquid hydrocarbon fuel.

METSS Corporation
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Richard Sapienza
OSD 09-EP6      Awarded: 2/23/2010
Title:Extraction of Atmospheric CO2 and Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel
Abstract:Advanced energy conversion and storage technology is under intense development to meet the increasing power demand by the military. Consumption of petroleum-based JP-8 fuel for propulsion and for electricity generation on the battlefield places a heavy logistic burden to the Army as evidenced during the recent wars. The Army needs to explore the possibility of developing the capability to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from dilute but vastly abundant CO2 and water in the atmosphere anywhere on the globe. Under the program, METSS will conduct an evaluation of methods available for the sequestering of CO2 and water from the atmosphere. METSS will apply a room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based integrated system for converting syngas to high-octane liquid hydrocarbons. This process can then provide the technology needed to design a portable, modular or single unit synfuel reactor that can be easily installed and safely operated with a minimal logistics footprint at developed, remote, and austere locations.

TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2349
Gokhan Alptekin
OSD 09-EP6      Awarded: 2/26/2010
Title:A Novel System for Extraction of Atmospheric CO2
Abstract:The cost and availability of logistic fuels is becoming an important factor to the success of the military operations. There is also extra vulnerability rendered by the military’s dependence on this sole energy source for all operations. Hence, the army is interested in developing capability to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from dilute (~400 ppm) but vastly abundant CO2 and water in the atmosphere anywhere on the globe. The key challenge in such a technology is to recover CO2 and water available at ppm level in air and provide them as concentrated streams that are needed for conversion to hydrocarbon fuels. TDA Research, Inc proposes to develop a novel chemical sorbent-based solid-state compressor to collect and concentrate dilute atmospheric CO2 and H2O and use them as chemical feedstock to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels through reverse water gas shift (RWGS) and Fischer-Tropsch process. In Phase I, TDA will develop a high capacity, long- life regenerable sorbent that can effectively remove CO2 and H2O from air and pressurize the CO2 and H2 with applying heat to 300 psia. We will first perform bench- scale experiments to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the concept and perform many absorption and regeneration cycles (at a minimum 100 cycles) to identify the chemical life and mechanical durability of the sorbent. Based on experimental results, we will carry out a conceptual design of the CO2 capture and conversion system to produce 5,000 bbl/day of synthetic liquid fuels.

Aegis Technology
3300 A Westminister Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 554-5511
Timothy Lin
OSD 09-EP7      Awarded: 7/1/2010
Title:Enhancing the Utilization Efficiency of Cathode Materials in the Li Ion Batteries
Abstract:There is great interest in developing high-efficiency, lightweight Li-ion batteries with high power/energy density for various military applications such as electric drive and hybrid vehicles. One key technology to the development of such Li-ion batteries is a more advanced mateiral for cathode, in replace of the traditional LiCoO2-based material having the limted power and energy density and hence limited potential for future applications. In this SBIR project, Aegis Technology teamed with American Lithium Energy proposes to develop a novel class of phospho-olivine LiCo(Ni)PO4-based nanomaterials and the associated nanocomposite for cathodes of Li-ion batteries. This class of cathode nanomaterials, which is expected to demonstrate substantially enhanced power/energy density as compared with conventionally used cathode materials, can be also produced with a cost-effective, scalable process. In this Phase I study, we will demonstrate the technical feasibility of the proposed appoach, covering material/microstructure design, processing development, chracterization and prototyping. The Li-ion cell prototype by using such a nanomaterial cathode will be demonstrated and characterized, in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed nanocomposite in a systematic level. The successful technology development in this project will improve the design and fabrication of future Li-ion batteries with unprecedented energy density substantially exceeding those of currently available Li-ionbattery systems.

Bettergy Corp.
46 Bari Manor
Croton-on-Hudson, NY 10520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 426-2577
Lin-Feng Li
OSD 09-EP7      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:High Energy Density Lithium Ion Battery Cathode Material for Military Applications
Abstract:Military operating have increasing demand for battery power source in a wide variety of applications for communications and high-power weapons, which along with rapid advancement of personal electronic industry creates a huge imbalance between battery and power requirement by ever growing power hungry portable electronics. The capacity growth of the current lithium ion battery chemistry has reached the plateau. New out-of- the-box chemistry is disparately needed, which exerts a strong market pull for a battery technology of significantly higher specific and power. Driven by the strong market pull for this technology, Bettergy has invented a unique core-shell structured high voltage composite material as cathode material for next generation lithium ion battery, which could significantly improve the energy density, power density and safety of lithium ion battery.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2476
Robert McCormack
OSD 09-HS1      Awarded: 3/29/2010
Title:Predicting the Combined Impact of Social and Environmental Models (PreCISE Models)
Abstract:While long-term, global climate change has received the attention and concern of the world’s governments and populations, less consideration has been given to the short- term seasonal and inter-annual changes in climate likely to greatly influence the management of water, food, and energy resources. The Office of the Secretary of Defense and the United States Army Corps of Engineers seek to develop a web-based tool to facilitate planning stability operations based on predictions of climate change. In response, Aptima proposes to develop PreCISE Models, a web-based decision aid that presents the predictions of uniquely-linked models of weather and human social behavior in an intuitive way that will promote planning stability operations.

Climate Forecast Applications Network, LLC
845 Spring St NW #129
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 385-4404
Hai-Ru Chang
OSD 09-HS1      Awarded: 6/22/2010
Title:PREDICTING EXTREME EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH CLIMATE VARIABILITY/CHANGE HAVING IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONAL STABILITY
Abstract:The proposed research takes the first steps in addressing the challenge of providing early warnings for extreme events associated with climate variability and change to support identification of potential security threats and crises. The proposed methodologies will also support adaptive management of water, energy and agricultural practices and other adaptation strategies. We propose to lay the foundation for a web-based regional risk information and early warning system based on a probabilistic multi-model ensemble forecasting scheme. The Phase I research will establish a framework for assessing regional predictability and prediction capability of triggering weather/climate events on seasonal to decadal timescales, identify opportunities for effective prediction of climate related stability and security risks, particularly as it relates to energy, water and agriculture, and provide a conceptualized web-based user tool to turn climate based security risk identification into a prediction and advance response oriented decision support system. The resulting research will provide all the necessary inputs to turn the conceptual forecast system into a functioning, state-of-the-art climate-risk decision support system geared towards identifying and responding to climate driven security threats, which can be realized via a Phase II extension.

Information International Associates, Inc.
1055 Commerce Park Drive Suite 110
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 298-1226
Franciel Azpurua-Linares
OSD 09-HS1      Awarded: 3/29/2010
Title:Weather/Climate Variability Impact on Energy, Water and Food Resources and Implications for Regional Stability
Abstract:Military planners, humanitarian organizations, and international investors face an increasing level of uncertainty regarding geopolitical areas considered critical to their respective interests. Aside from the normal factors impacting geopolitical instability the nature and pace of climate changes being observed today and the consequences projected by the consensus scientific opinion are grave and pose equally grave implications for our national security. IIa and its partner, the University of Tennessee, believe that there is currently a sufficient body of high quality, reliable information in the areas of climate change, cultural/social science, political science and world instability indicators upon which high quality predictions of regional instability can be based. We propose to integrate existing and emerging data mining and knowledge discovery techniques to achieve a leap-ahead solution to this challenge. When developed, this methodology will yield predictions about regional instability that will be of great value to military planners, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and business investors.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner''''s Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-3533
Aaron M. Novstrup
OSD 09-HS1      Awarded: 5/28/2010
Title:Integrated Information Fusion and Behavioral Modeling with Limited Historical Data
Abstract:While great progress has been made in the lowest levels of data fusion, practical advances in behavior modeling and prediction remain elusive. While there remains much room to improve data fusion algorithms, the most critical failing of existing approaches is their inability to support the required knowledge modeling and continuing refinement under constraints encountered in many real-world modeling problems, including the problem of modeling the effects of changing climate conditions on human behavior. These constraints include a lack of historic exemplars, knowledge distributed over many individuals, and the need to maintain complex models over long periods of time. The proposed Propheteer system will directly address this issue through a self-facilitating knowledge modeling approach that can flexibly exploit qualitative knowledge contributions made by individual SMEs, fuse these contributions with evidence from external data sources, and reason about multiple situation interpretations within a mathematically sound, quantitative framework of probabilistic inference. Finally, Propheteer will provide analysts with the insight required to recognize model shortcomings, and will exploit its ability to compose models from fragmentary knowledge to streamline ongoing model refinement. Our prior experience and existing software components will allow for rapid progress in Phase I prototyping and provide a solid foundation for a complete implementation in Phase II.

Alelo TLT, LLC
11965 Venice Blvd Suite 409
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 566-7272
Andre Valente
OSD 09-HS2      Awarded: 2/1/2010
Title:C-CORE: a Framework for Workflows in Cultural Content, Ontology, and Resource Engineering
Abstract:Virtual language and culture training environments (VEs) offer an elegant and scalable solution for equipping Warfighters with cultural competency skills, in particular by allowing learners to entrench their procedural knowledge through practice-interactions with computer-generated forces (CGFs). To realize these promised gains, we require a way to develop trainers quickly and efficiently for multiple operation-specific environments, and methods for updating them based on new intelligence. In response, Alelo proposes a Cultural Architecture Generator called C-CORE, a framework for workflows in Cultural Content, Ontology, and Resource Engineering. C-CORE is a suite of authoring tools that result in highly authorable, culturally-aware CGFs that are platform- and scenario- independent. The resulting CGFs recognize and exhibit both speech and gestures, and they track learner responses for meaningful After Action Review. C-CORE leverages our existing authoring tools and extends them by supporting new semi-structured information sources like HUMINT and web-based data streams (to support model updates) as well as historical runs of the system (to support unit testing).

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Peter Weyhrauch
OSD 09-HS2      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:Culturally and Socially Aware Believable Agents (CASABA)
Abstract:Stability operations often require junior leaders and Warfighters with limited experience to interact and communicate personally and effectively with people whose cultures, languages, lifestyle, and beliefs are very different from those found in the U.S. It has become increasingly clear that strategy, operational plans, and implementing procedures must occur in the context of local cultural constraints to be effective. We propose to develop easy-to-use tools for creating virtual environments for socio-cultural training applications, including CGFs which can generate behavior and interpret their surroundings (including the trainee and his actions) based on realistic, nuanced cultural behavior models that are updated in real-time based on real-world data sources. We propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of Culturally And Socially Aware Believable Agents (CASABA), a tool for rapidly creating socially and culturally realistic virtual agents for immersive cultural training applications that dynamically adapt to the changing cultural environment. CASABA can deliver the required immersive cultural training to warfighters both before deployment as well as during deployment to best prepare Warfighters for mission success across a full spectrum of operations and cultures.

Soar Technology, Inc.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Glenn Taylor
OSD 09-HS2      Awarded: 2/11/2010
Title:Plug and Play Cultural Avatars for Training
Abstract:Immersive training environments tend to be good at graphics, but lack realistic cultural content, especially in regard to highly interactive cultural characters. There is a growing gap created by the ever-increasing need for realistic cultural training and the lack of availability of interactive cultural training environments. There are a number of ongoing efforts aimed at building cultural models. However, these models often suffer from low fidelity expression of cultural behavior, are typically tied to particular virtual environment platforms, and lack natural modes of interaction with trainees. With our partners at Vcom3D, we have been developing portable cultural avatars that combine the cognitive and physical aspects of cultural behavior, can generate realistic facial expressions and cultural gestures, and which have been inserted in a number of virtual environments. We propose to extend this existing work to include (1) new input and output modalities (e.g., gesture and speech), (2) scenario-building tools, and (3) after-action review capabilities, to simultaneously increase the state of the art in interactive cultural training while decreasing the cost to build and deploy those models in realistic training scenarios.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2476
Robert McCormack
OSD 09-HS3      Awarded: 2/16/2010
Title:FACETS: Forecasting Activities through Cultural, Epidemiological, and Temporal Semantics
Abstract:A central challenge for the U.S. armed forces is trying to forecast how host nation populations may respond to both planned and unplanned military activities. These activities include natural and human caused events that may be kinetic or non-kinetic in nature. To address this issue, we propose to develop the Forecasting Activities through Cultural, Epidemiological, and Temporal Semantics (FACETS) system. FACETS will allow company level and above military planners and leaders to use agent-based models of a given population to forecast likely opinion changes of individuals and groups to certain events. FACETS will be rooted in theories of social identity and influence to better shape the socio-cultural landscape of a given population. Furthermore, FACETS will apply epidemiological inspired models of information spread to help forecast when and where opinions to events will change within a population. To accomplish this, FACETS will incorporate latent semantic variable techniques to find relevant events, topics, and associated opinions within a wide span of internet data sources which will serve as the informational and event space of the population.

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0782
Benjamin Tyler
OSD 09-HS3      Awarded: 2/10/2010
Title:Algorithmic Behavior Forecasting
Abstract:In modern warfare, the ability for commanders to accurately forecast the behavior of a given population is essential for making high-quality decisions that can determine the success or failure of a mission. Anthropological experts can provide help to commanders in assessing certain situations and would-be effects of alternative actions, but such experts may not have enough up-to-date information, and they often bring their own biases. An alternative approach to behavior forecasting is to use computational methods, which have the benefits of being usable by non-experts, can be updated with the latest data in an automated fashion, and are free from personal bias. Aware of these issues, the OSD is seeking solutions for algorithmic behavioral forecasting. EDAptive Computing, Inc. (ECI) team proposes MAMBA, which will result in an innovative and commercially viable prototype system whose architecture and processes will result in more accurate and robust forecasts of human population behaviors. Through innovative algorithms and modeling techniques, embedded into a flexible and intuitive simulation framework, MAMBA will provide a solution to aid commanders in making decisions that involve such populations.

Intelligent Models, Inc.
10303 Sweetwood Ave
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 366-1194
Alexander Lubbyansky
OSD 09-HS3      Awarded: 2/23/2010
Title:Algorithmic Behavior Forecasting
Abstract:The success of United States'' military and Security-Stabilization-Transition-and- Reconstruction missions often hinges on the ability to understand and accurately predict the complex socio-cultural terrains of the theater of operations. The acquisition of mission-critical knowledge about the local population, conducted today by anthropological experts, is slow and prone to biases, resulting in inadequate knowledge pool, faulty recommendations, and inaccurate forecasts. To promote the rapid acquisition and effective use of the relevant socio-cultural knowledge, we propose to develop CASCADE (Computational Assessment of Socio-Cultural Action Dynamics and Events), which automates the processes of: (1) mission-critical knowledge discovery; (2) forecasting of populations’ potential responses to military-relevant events; and (3) discovery of effective means to shape populations’ responses and attitudes. CASCADE provides a unique computational framework for modeling socio-cultural terrains and dynamic behaviors and scenarios. It exploits the similarity of how behaviors are generated at the macro and micro levels to utilize the quantitative models of neural mechanisms to encode the higher-level individual and group behaviors.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 818-9925
David Anhalt
OSD 09-HS3      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Algorithmic Behavior Forecasting
Abstract:SET Corporation proposes to develop software for HSCB modeling, analysis and forecasting that can provide insight into potential outcomes of policy decisions, operational actions, and rules of engagement. The Forecasting Cultural Analysis and Simulation Tool (4CAST) will enable modeling of individual and group attitudes and behaviors. Analyst bias will be mitigated by: use of cultural primitives, timeline variation, semantic substitutions to Course of Action events, and other techniques. The result will be Monte Carlo simulations that identify critical event-chains that may impact operational plans. 4CAST will enable (1) rapidly access to a rich knowledge base of descriptive information about the society of interest, (2) rapid understanding of the potential influence of cultural factors on actions and effects of interest, (3) modeling and reasoning about the underlying socio-cultural factors that motivate and control the actions of leaders and populations, (4) identification of topics and areas of concern from a socio-cultural viewpoint so that planners can consider these factors when creating military, SSTR, and relief plans, and (5) generation of plausible futures that take into account the sequencing and timing of events –environment-related, socio-cultural, governmental, and military.

Soar Technology, Inc.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Robert Bechtel
OSD 09-HS3      Awarded: 2/23/2010
Title:Gleaner
Abstract:Most behavioral forecasting is done by social scientists or area experts, but they are a limited resource. Forecasting tools are needed to assist commanders’ decision-making directly, especially when there are no social scientists on hand. Such tools cannot require that the users hold PhDs, but must be usable and useful to commanders and staff expert in military decision-making. Soar Technology propose to extend the Power Structure Toolkit conflict modeling and forecasting tools to develop a decision-support tool suited for use in the field by commander-level decision makers. This enhanced PSTK will feature components for automatic model building based on data ingest from a variety of sources, but will be cast in terms familiar to the commander and will help explain its forecasts.

Alelo TLT, LLC
11965 Venice Blvd Suite 409
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 566-7272
Lewis Johnson
OSD 09-HS4      Awarded: 2/1/2010
Title:Using Serious Games for Socio-Cultural Scenario Training
Abstract:Alelo proposes to develop a framework for scenario-based training in operational cultural competence comprised of a toolset for developing training scenarios, and a run-time execution engine that can be integrated with a variety of game-based training environments. The scenario construction toolset will enable military users to develop and reuse socio-cultural training scenarios, including trainee performance standards. The run- time execution engine will incorporate instrumentation to compare trainee performance to the training objectives, and provide automated after-action review and remediation capabilities. The proposed framework will be designed to be platform independent, and at the same time integrate as seamlessly as possible with the user interface of specific game platforms, to provide trainees and trainers with a coherent, easy-to-use training environment. In order to produce accelerated results and best leverage DoD funding, we will leverage a number of technologies developed by Alelo in previous research and development projects.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2437
Webb Stacy
OSD 09-HS4      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Authoring By Cultural Demonstration
Abstract:Modern military missions require soldiers to communicate effectively and at a personal level with people whose cultures, languages, lifestyles, and beliefs are very different from their own. Constructing suitable, game-based, culturally relevant scenarios to prepare soldiers for effective communication is difficult, time-consuming, and expensive. Aptima proposes an innovative extension of cognitive science, technology and COTS scenario-authoring tools to simplify the creation of cultural concepts by non-programmers that will run the existing scenarios in a game-engine agnostic environment. Authoring By Cultural Demonstration (ABCD) will use radial categories as a framework for generalizing from space and time to vignettes containing gesture, facial expression, language, and other cultural abstractions. ABCD will connect the generalized vignettes into a cultural envelope that constitutes the scenario. Trainee’s actions during scenario execution will be monitored to ensure that the trainee stays within the envelope and inevitably encounters the cultural training opportunity.

CHI Systems, Inc.
1035 Virginia Drive Suite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Wayne Zachary
OSD 09-HS4      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:A Framework for Experiential-learning Design (FRED) with associated tools for Just-in-time Authoring of Cultural Knowledge (JACK)
Abstract:Overseas contingency operations and the growing importance of irregular warfare have created an increased need to train military personnel on non-kinetic activities in diverse socio-cultural environments. Serious games --simulation based training using computer game technology -- offers a promising approach to meeting this need, but the technology must first surmount challenges in the form of high development costs, poor integration with instructional methods and science of learning, low fidelity in Non-Player Character (NPC) cultural behaviors, and limited capability for customization post-deployment. To address these challenges, CHI Systems proposes a novel instructional and architectural vision called the Framework for Experiential-learning Design (FRED) with associated tools for Just-in-time Authoring of Cultural Knowledge (JACK). Cultural and non-kinetic skill training applications created and delivered with FRED integrate didactic instruction, game- based practice with individualized scaffolding, adaptive instructional sequencing, culturally realistic NPCs, and trainee performance assessment, all driven from an explicit hierarchy of learning objectives. The FRED architecture and JACK tools will leverage CHI System’s VECTOR, CulturePad, PAC and CAPOTE technologies to create a low-cost, computationally light-weight, deployable and transportable architecture for developing and delivering game-based cultural and non-kinetic training that is tied to the science of learning.

Vcom3D, Inc.(formerly Seamless Solutions, Inc.)
3452 Lake Lynda Dr., Suite 260
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-7309
Edward M. Sims
OSD 09-HS4      Awarded: 2/9/2010
Title:Tools to Create Serious Games with a Cultural Context
Abstract:For this SBIR project, Vcom3D and our partners at Soar Technology propose to develop a toolkit for rapidly creating Serious Games that train tactical application of cultural knowledge in authentic, experiential environments. This toolkit will extend the two Company’s platform independent Plug-and-Play Cultural Avatar (PnPCA) architecture by providing tools to rapidly create new scenarios that can incorporate emerging commercial and open source speech and gesture recognition technologies, speech generation, and ingestion of new cultural data. A key feature of the toolkit will be to make scenario authoring, performance monitoring, and performance remediation available to the actual users of the serious games. Critical components of the technology will be demonstrated on multiple platforms, including mobile, Web-based, and multi-user virtual world environments.

AFCO Systems Development Inc
150 Broadhollow Rd
Melville, NY 11747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 424-3935
Godfrey Vassallo
OSD 09-IA1      Awarded: 11/16/2009
Title:Real-time Adversarial Characterization and Adaptive Software Protection Countermeasures
Abstract:Rather than continuing to approach cyber security problems in a reactive fashion, ASD proposes to move to a proactive posture; anticipating and eliminating vulnerabilities while also being prepared to effectively and rapidly defend against attacks. Our approach collects data about the attacker as well as the attack, which it processes in real time. The data (observations) is then used by our protection technology to adapt to an on-going attack, while protecting and ensuring the operational integrity of the software under its protection. Our proposed approach contains four elements: • A secure coprocessor base platform that will be extended and enhanced • An adaptation of the OODA loop through a countermeasures autonomous agent • An innovative, optically-based and powered sensor subsystem • A multi-agent computer defense system that is based upon immunological principles

Clear Hat Consulting, Inc.
1207 Cole Rd.
Orlando, FL 32803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 896-7010
Shawn Embleton
OSD 09-IA1      Awarded: 11/12/2009
Title:Real-time Adversarial Characterization and Adaptive Software Protection Countermeasures
Abstract:This proposal seeks to address the problem of computer system survivability. Survivability can be defined as the capability of a system to fufill its mission in the presence of attacks, failures, or accidents. Properties that increase survivability include resistance to attacks, the recognition of attacks and resulting damage, the recovery of essential services following an attack, and the ability to adapt to minimize the damage from future attacks. In general, the biological immune system performs better at these survivability tasks than current computer security systems. For this reason, we have chosen to look to the biological immune system for inspiration in designing am adaptive cyber attack response mechanism. The final goal of the effort will be an adaptive, light weight, multi-layered response system that intrinsically promotes system survivability.

Codebex Inc.
8 Crown Court
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 470-2498
Ryan Knotts
OSD 09-IA1      Awarded: 11/12/2009
Title:Platform for Real-time Adversarial Characterization and Adaptive Software Protection Countermeasures
Abstract:Cyber threats to information systems and cyber-based critical infrastructure are expanding and evolving in techniques that avoid being detected, altered, and reverse engineered. Traditionally an attacker would utilize known vulnerabilities and leverage commercial or open source tools. The next generation of attackers may carry out more sophisticated attacks such as firmware modifications, BIOS implants, and hardware exploits. These evolving attacks continue to plague systems and networks due to their inability to adapt over time. Most of these systems rely on outdated information, rules, and signatures to detect and stop attacks. Codebex proposes an innovative platform that provides a secure, extensible, and out-of-band system for detecting, adapting, responding to new and more sophisticated attacks.

Galois, Inc.
421 SW Sixth Avenue Suite 300
Portland, OR 97204
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 626-6616
Louis Testa
OSD 09-IA1      Awarded: 11/16/2009
Title:Active Defense Against Code Injection Attacks
Abstract:The threat posed by remote cyber attacks has grown every year, with nation state attacks being the hardest to detect and blunt. A common cyber attack method against remote systems is the code injection attack, where the attacker finds flaws in a remote application then forces the application to execute injected code. Code injection attacks can give the attacker unlimited access to the attacked system and thereby an entryway into a secure network. An attacker will often follow this attack by leaving software that will allow for unlimited future access. Code injection attacks can be very difficult to detect, as they often use program flaws not known to the security community. These attacks continue to be developed to get around current defense mechanisms: signature detection and spectrum analysis. A more general approach of identifying and catching these attacks in progress is needed. We propose investigating a code injection attack detector based on abstract interpretation which would catch new types of attacks before they are publicly known. This detector would be combined with an active defense mechanism that could be configured to block the attacks while allowing a security officer to gather information about the attackers'' methods.

Smart Information Flow Technologies, d/b/a SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 789-0559
Dan Thomsen
OSD 09-IA1      Awarded: 11/10/2009
Title:GRASP: Global Recognition of Attacker Signatures and Policy Response
Abstract:GRASP integrates three innovative new technologies: application intrusion detection, proactive deception of attackers, and application intrusion response into technology to collect intelligence on the humans behind cyber attacks and adapt the mandatory operating system policy to prevent the intrusion in the future. Once detected, intruders are silently redirected to the secure GRASP Deception Shell, a software decoy. The Deception Shell presents varying sequences of stimuli. The attackers responses reveal information about the human behind the attack, such as what languages they speak, their cultural knowledge, and their attack skills and resources. Using data mining techniques these attacker metrics create attacker signatures that identify or partially identify the attacker. In response to the intrusion GRASP also adapts the low-level security policy to prevent the intrusion in the future, by monitoring and adapting resource accesses. Safety mechanisms are in place to ensure the evolving security policy does not impact legitimate users conducting mission critical tasks. Together the GRASP components provide intelligence and security currently unavailable to critical applications.

Assured Information Security, Inc.
245 Hill Road
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 336-3306
Joseph Sharkey
OSD 09-IA2      Awarded: 11/10/2009
Title:Countering Covert Access with SecureCore
Abstract:The x86 architecture’s inherent security model has a very large attack surface due to the fact that a large amount of software runs in a privileged level and has unfettered access to critical system state. Software used for data piracy or exfiltration, stealthy execution, malicious alteration of critical information, or control of network end-nodes takes advantage of this large attack surface to develop increasingly complex covert access methods. Countering such advanced attacks requires equally sophisticated techniques to reduce attack susceptibility and ensure trust. To this end, AIS, Inc. will leverage the SecureCore platform, a current AFRL/RI research program, to provide new capabilities that counter various classes of covert access methods. Using SecureCore to mitigate covert access effectively reduces the attack surface of the system. AIS, Inc. has already demonstrated the capability for SecureCore to prevent a number of specific covert access techniques; this effort will examine the feasibility of extending SecureCore to sufficiently address a wide variety of advanced access methods. These findings will lead to new opportunities to protect our systems from new and emerging threats and will pave the way for transition of the technology into a commercial product.

Clear Hat Consulting, Inc.
1207 Cole Rd.
Orlando, FL 32803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 896-7010
Sherri Sparks
OSD 09-IA2      Awarded: 11/6/2009
Title:Countermeasures to Covert Access Methods to Reduce Attack Susceptibility and Ensure Trust
Abstract:The primary objective of this project is to develop software and data protection technologies that provide countermeasures to sophisticated covert access methods on critical end node computer systems. We believe that machine learning algorithms can be applied to low level data streams in order to detect and prevent sophisticated, covert attacks against such systems. Machine learning algorithms have been successfully applied to the problem of network based intrusion detection, however, little research has been done toward applying them to other types of intrusive behavior that manifests in lower level non network based data streams. Furthermore, we believe that our approach has the potential to significantly advance the current state of technology for detecting sophisticated covert or intrusive system behavior. Anticipated benefits include a rational method of dealing with the false positive problem that has plagued many prior heuristic detection methods and the development of a generic detection platform applicable to both Operating System Dependent attacks like kernel rootkits and more sophisticated Operating System Independent attacks like SMM / BIOS rootkits. The end goal of this effort will be a unified framework capable of detecting both types of attack.

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0783
Jorge Sanchez
OSD 09-IA2      Awarded: 11/9/2009
Title:Countermeasures to Covert Access Methods to Reduce Attack Susceptibility and Ensure Trust
Abstract:Our proposal specifically addresses the stated requirements of the solicitation; we will develop software and data protection tools to detect and provide countermeasures to sophisticated covert access methods on computer systems. This includes hardware- based attacks which are currently undetectable through software-only approaches. The proposed EDAptive® TrEMBlE solution builds on previous EDAptive Computing, Inc (ECI) knowledge and technology – itself innovative – to provide detection of hardware-assisted attacks, otherwise undetectable through software only approaches. The resulting capabilities will result in a customized PCIe device and co-processor which will monitor traffic between non-trusted devices, detect anomalies, and create decoys for maliciously coded firmware attacks.

Pikewerks Corporation
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Jim Spadaro
OSD 09-IA2      Awarded: 11/10/2009
Title:Countermeasures to Covert Access Methods to Reduce Attack Susceptibility and Ensure Trust
Abstract:The majority of existing computer security products and software development efforts have assumed that the OS kernel, firmware, and low-level subsystems of the underlying computer architecture are trusted entities. However, recent demonstrations of novel and sophisticated attacks on several fundamental components found in standard laptops, desktops, and servers have emphasized that the foundations of trust upon which critical systems are built must be thoroughly re-examined. Pikewerks proposes to address deep- level vulnerabilities within computer systems through the development of a novel proactive monitoring approach for detecting and preventing even the most sophisticated covert access methods from achieving successful exploitation. Our approach seeks to prevent attacks by malicious insiders, intelligence operatives, or other sophisticated saboteurs that subvert core processing capabilities of a computer system by attacking low-level components such as maintenance processor modes (SMM), BIOS modules, hardware-assisted hypervisors, and peripheral firmware. The result of this Phase I effort will be a security design and proof-of-concept implementation that reduces a system’s susceptibility to low-level exploits while also providing high assurance that the fundamental components and devices of the computer system are operating in a trustworthy manner.

Sentar, Inc.
315 Wynn Drive Suite 1
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Al Underbrink
OSD 09-IA2      Awarded: 11/10/2009
Title:Legerdemain: An Illusion-based system to thwart covert access and exfiltration
Abstract:The integration of software and components from multiple sources, the interconnection of systems via the internet, and the rapid pace of change in the computer industry as a whole virtually guarantee the continued emergence of threats to systems and information via new and undetected vulnerability vectors. Moreover, malicious insiders and social engineering can also be involved in cases of covert access, as can access points that must be kept open for normal system operations. Even in cases where software and hardware exist and remediation is possible, vendors often cannot be counted on to provide solutions in a timely manner. Taken together, these factors present an opportunity to attackers, giving them numerous avenues of attack, and consequently, “first move” advantage. There is therefore a need to restore initiative to the legitimate administrators of systems that are vulnerable to attack. Sentar, Inc. and Lockheed Martin have teamed to develop Legerdemain. Legerdemain protection strategies consist of combinations of deceptive techniques that can be either anticipatory or reactive. The Legerdemain approach applies illusionist “sleight of hand” techniques to manipulate both the items to be protected and the protection mechanisms in order to secure CPI against network-based attacks, host-based attacks, and reverse engineering.

BlueRISC Inc
28 Dana Street
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-0599
Kristopher Carver
OSD 09-IA3      Awarded: 11/6/2009
Title:Software Protection to Fight through an Attack
Abstract:This project proposes the research of an adaptive software-protection technology based on moving critical software components and data in and out-of-band depending on whether an attack is ongoing or not, and its severity. The approach is based on adaptive and gradual increase of the protection, deployed at runtime, by varying the fraction of the execution and data mapped to one or more trusted hardware protection devices (HPDs) during an attack. The proposed solution will considerably improve the security provided by current state-of-the-art software protection solutions and will provide a means for software to remain operational and trustworthy during an attack.

Computer Measurement Laboratory, Inc.
128 E Pine Avenue
Meridian, ID 83642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 884-2138
John Munson
OSD 09-IA3      Awarded: 11/5/2009
Title:The Design of Defensive Software Systems
Abstract:CML proposes to extend its current work in dynamic kernel monitoring for attack recognition and mitigation. The focus of this proposal is on mitigating the effects of an attack on executing software process by an individual user. The object of interest is the mapping of the activity of a user of a software system onto a model of their normal use of this software. In the construction of a mathematical model of certified software activity there two distinct sources of variation in the actual execution vocabulary of the software: the variation that is due to the differences between users of the application and the variation with each user in the way that they use the software. In our previous research investigations we have focused on the total variation of activity across all users. To establish a defensive posture for software that is being misused by an authenticated user, we must construct multiple models of normal activity; one for each user. In this new research aspect we will increase the level resolution for software activity to the individual user level. This will, in turn, permit the system to recognize and react to the abnormal activity per individual user.

GrammaTech, Inc
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Alexey Loginov
OSD 09-IA3      Awarded: 11/9/2009
Title:Software Protection to Fight through an Attack
Abstract:New vulnerabilities and attacks on software applications and the underlying systems are discovered daily. Most security research focuses on detection of attacks--typically, by monitoring the execution of an application and detecting anomalous behavior. Little attention has been paid to how an application should respond to an attack. Generally, it is assumed that the application under attack is terminated and, possibly, restarted. While such a response eliminates the threat of being compromised, it is not appropriate for many types of systems: for safety-critical systems, systems that must remain operational for long periods of time, and systems that use persistent data (such as file systems and databases), rebooting to restore a safe state (even when an attack is detected) is often not an option. We propose a tool that will allow applications to recover from attacks and remain operational. The tool will monitor the execution of a program and, once an attack is detected, will repair the application’s run-time state corrupted by the attack to keep the application operational. As a separate once-per-application task performed offline, the tool will use a combination of advanced dynamic and static program-analysis techniques to learn the invariants necessary for repairing the application’s run-time state.

Pikewerks Corporation
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Cody Buntain
OSD 09-IA3      Awarded: 11/5/2009
Title:Deception Studio: Attacker Characterization and Dynamic Relocation
Abstract:One of the most significant weaknesses that faces modern software protection solutions is the reliance on static policies and rule sets that are established based on “known” attack methods at the time of development. In reality, attacks are not static; they adapt over time, and evolve to defeat protections as they are made public. Pikewerks proposes to address both of these weaknesses by developing a system, referred to as Deception Studio that characterizes and appropriately reacts to attackers in real-time. As has been successfully implemented in traditional warfare, it will strive to shape the attacker’s perception, and create an illusion capable of manipulating their planning process. This concept is based on the combat operations process defined by John Boyd referred to as Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA). Deception Studio will characterize the attack, and tailor defenses based on what is observed.

Zephyr Software LLC
2040 Tremont Rd
Charlottesville, VA 22911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 974-1356
Clark L. Coleman
OSD 09-IA3      Awarded: 11/6/2009
Title:Lightweight Virtualization to Detect, React, and Adapt to Cyber Attacks
Abstract:Many software defenses against reverse engineering, piracy, and tampering rely on disabling the software when such attacks are detected. The proposed research makes innovative use of proces-level software virtualization on a per-application basis to defeat such attacks without disabling the software. The virtualization technology keeps normal operational run time overhead low, invoking more expensive graded responses only after an attack is initially detected and defeated. The graded responses will be powerful enough to cope with determined nation-state attackers possessing powerful attack resources. The defenses can be thought of as a control system, in which sensors detect attacks and actuators provide graded responses to attacks. The architecture of the defensive system is extensible, permitting further research and development to add new sensors for additional attack classes of concern to the defense community (e.g. back doors and implanted Trojan horses).

AVIRTEK, INC
1236 E. Grant Rd
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 312-9550
Tejaswini Chadaga
OSD 09-IA4      Awarded: 11/6/2009
Title:Autonomic Knowledge Representation Construction for Software Protection Systems
Abstract:The increased complexity, scale and capabilities of current software elements make current security tools and technologies incapable to protect software against attacks. It also makes it very hard to proactively detect their vulnerabilities that might be exploited by attackers. Our focus will be to investigate and study the construction of a near human knowledge representation of the state of a system that is running an application of interest, in order to protect that application from reverse engineering and tampering attacks. The underlying assumption here is that through continuously monitoring a correct and sufficient set of applications, system resources, and communications metrics, the AKRCSPS will be able to determine any hostile behavior. Once the hostile behavior is detected and characterized, the AKRCSPS will plan what reaction is to be taken to perform protection and countermeasure actions. Furthermore, through the use of autonomous agents, we can destroy the ability of the attacker in launching attacks against our system. The capabilities that will be developed in Phase I of this project will be critical to construct the autonomic representation knowledge about the software’s state and defend against software attacks to achieve superiority for current and future software protection system.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Catherine D. Call
OSD 09-IA4      Awarded: 11/24/2009
Title:Software Protection through Autonomic Representation of Knowledge (SPARK)
Abstract:Cyberspace is a war-fighting domain, and cyber warfare poses a real and significant threat to the security of the United States. Today’s nation-state-class attacks target critical software applications and intellectual property via acts of piracy, theft, and reverse engineering. They are increasingly difficult to differentiate from normal operations and often take advantage of users’ trust in a system’s operating environment, hardware, memory, I/O, and other attack vectors. To counter such novel attacks, software protection systems must move beyond traditional and defeatable solutions that rely on signatures and integrity checks. Such protection systems must provide a near-human ability to derive meaning and draw quantitative conclusions from system event data and must adopt a machine learning approach to improve their ability to detect, prevent and remediate novel attacks with experience. To meet these requirements, we propose to develop a Software Protection through Autonomic Knowledge Representation (SPARK) system to provide human-assisted knowledge construction and machine learning within an otherwise autonomic attack detection and software protection system. Key features of our system include the use of multiple modeling techniques to ensure a “best fit” to the underlying state, events and run-time context and a natural language processing-based approach to knowledge construction and representation.

Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Chris Lomont
OSD 09-IA4      Awarded: 11/6/2009
Title:Autonomic Knowledge Representation Construction for Software Protection Systems
Abstract:Leveraging our current thrust of research into novel modes of computer, this project will focus on characterizing the state of the system using low-level descriptors abstracted with machine learning and processed to identify normal operation from varying levels of suspicious behavior. With this, we will be able to thwart novel attacks, providing a needed and novel security capability.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5255
Wilbur Peng
OSD 09-IA4      Awarded: 11/18/2009
Title:Extracting and Representing Knowledge for Software Protection Systems
Abstract:The key innovation of our proposed approach is an extensible pluggable framework for the creation of knowledge-based, autonomic host-based software protection systems. The architecture will consist of an integrated knowledge representation approach across and within abstraction levels. It enables the autonomic system to map from low level concepts (events, logs) to high level concepts and incorporate human knowledge about the operational environment and domain. It will enable the integration of disparate models of the software system, including both static analysis and runtime observation. Pluggable elements within the architecture include filters, preprocessors and log analyzers, clustering, data mining and trace analysis frameworks, and pluggable dependencies and behavior patterns analysis and visualization approaches. The approach will use both static analysis of software code as well as stored software application profiles to characterize baseline and anomalous application state. Outputs of the system include human understandable representations and visualizations of anomaly types, detected event patterns and classifier outputs.

WebWise Security, Inc.
Building B, Suite #227 5266 Hollister Avenue
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 696-6910
Giovanni Vigna
OSD 09-IA4      Awarded: 11/9/2009
Title:Autonomic Knowledge Representation Construction for Software Protection Systems
Abstract:Applications that are deployed using the web or that are based on web services are becoming more common and sophisticated, handling confidential and sensitive information, such as health records, credit card data, and social security numbers. Unfortunately, the wide accessibility of these applications, the critical nature of the data they handle, and the frequent lack of effective security mechanisms in their implementation have made these applications and services the favorite targets of attackers, who are looking for monetary gain or intelligence. We propose to develop an autonomic protection system based on machine learning techniques that builds a knowledge base associated with web applications and services and leverages this information to protect the modeled applications/services from novel attacks. In addition, the proposed system implements a model-driven request routing system that allows for the dispatching of possibly-malicious requests to versions of the web application/service that contain sanitized version of sensitive information. The resulting system will be able to automatically reconfigure the processing of requests so that both the impact of an attack and the consequences of a false positive are minimized.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Curt Wu
OSD 09-IA5      Awarded: 11/17/2009
Title:Cyber Situational Awareness Service and Software Development Kit (CSASS)
Abstract:Cyber warfare tactics can covertly turn our forces’ technological strength into an operational weakness. While much of the attention in both the military and commercial cyber security communities is on abrupt and blunt attacks on the network, the most insidious cyber threat to our forces are subtle and persistent attacks leading to compromised databases, processing algorithms, and displays. All warfighters must be given a tool to identify these subtle cyber attacks, to understand the effects these attack may have on decision-making, and to continue the fight in spite of such an attack. To address these needs, we propose to design and demonstrate a Cyber Situational Awareness Service and Software Development Kit (CSASS) that monitors, assesses, and communicates enterprise health information to support real-time warfighter decision- making. To accomplish this, we will identify a scenario to perform a work-centered evaluation of the implication of enterprise health on warfighter situational awareness and establish a supporting domain ontology. Also, we will design a monitoring engine built on stream processing technology which will listen for system interactions to feed a networked intelligent agent architecture that will provide continuous, real-time assessment of unfolding complex cyber behaviors to the warfighter.

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Ronald Fernandes
OSD 09-IA5      Awarded: 11/17/2009
Title:Cyber Network Attack and Intrusion Detection and Recovery Environment (CYANIDE)
Abstract:Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (KBSI) proposes to develop Cyber Network Attack and Intrusion Detection and Recovery Environment (CYANIDE), a customizable environment for developing, testing and deploying sensing and monitoring technology for centralized and distributed cyber attacks on a wide range of information and sensor networks. CYANIDE is an intrusion detection and recovery experimentation framework that emulates behaviors of host cyber networks as well as attack processes and intrusion detection techniques. It is intended for new cyber network infrastructure such as semantic web enablement based sensor webs, grid and cloud networks, mobile ad hoc networks and wireless sensor networks. Because classical signature-based and anomaly detection based techniques are ineffective in such networks, KBSI will investigate new graph- based intrusion detection techniques on the CYANIDE platform.

Pikewerks Corporation
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Erik Lotspeich
OSD 09-IA5      Awarded: 11/19/2009
Title:Data Aggregation and Visualization Environment
Abstract:The rapid increase in diverse and interconnected Information Technology (IT) applications necessitates software solutions that can simultaneously provide cyber situation awareness and real-time status of health of the networked environment. There is a pressing need to aggregate and consolidate information from mission-critical systems and sensors. A unified means of visualization abstracts low-level details so that decisions can be made with confidence – an operator must be able to trust the management console; this is especially true during an attack or failure of infrastructure or sensors when the ability to “fight through” the attack requires continued management of the infrastructure and interpretation of the collected data. Pikewerks will develop a Data Aggregation and Visualization Environment (DAVE) for portraying situation awareness and overall enterprise health within a cyber network. DAVE will be platform independent, support multiple domains and provide an interface for distributed plugins. The distributed plugins will be used for data processing, collection, and dispatching agents for situation awareness, healing and new sensor types.

Real-Time Innovations
385 Moffett Park Drive, Suite 115
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 990-7439
Ariel Salomon
OSD 09-IA5      Awarded: 11/20/2009
Title:Developing Cyber Situation Awareness for Enterprise Health
Abstract:To ensure survival, next-generation networks in defense enterprise systems must monitor the health of each component, detect failures and anomalies, and fight through attacks. Currently-deployed intrusion detection systems (IDS) and network monitoring tools cannot provide the complete view and seamless access required to understand and react quickly. Real-Time Innovations (RTI) will develop a distributed framework that can collect status from an ISR or enterprise network, integrate the information into a common picture, and deliver the data for analysis fast enough to respond decisively. The framework will integrate the most proven commercial and open-source sensors and probes. Data-Distribution Service (DDS) standard-compliant middleware will provide portable, interoperable, real-time data delivery. Operators and analysis servers will then simply subscribe to this data, learn the schema, and perform analysis, aggregation, or recording. RTI has extensive experience with sensor fusion, defense networks, visualization, and supporting TRL 8/9 technology in mission-critical applications. We will collaborate with Prime and Government partners to validate our architectural design for applicability in complex military systems. This research will build an open, extensible infrastructure for collecting, visualizing, analyzing, and reacting to health information in real-time. Dynamic, real-time Situational Awareness (SA) will increase network reliability and agility during offensive and defensive cyber conflict.

Zel Technologies, LLC
54 Old Hampton Lane
Hampton, VA 23669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 722-5565
James K. Williams
OSD 09-IA5      Awarded: 11/6/2009
Title:Developing Cyber Situation Awareness for Enterprise Health
Abstract:Zel Technologies will provide a feasibility report and demonstrate a proof-of-concept Enterprise Health and Situation Awareness (EHSA) prototype for mission-oriented network situation awareness and enterprise health. We will extend our existing automated Course of Action (COA) Modeler (ACAM) with two emerging technological enablers in this effort: security metrics (SM) and visual analytics (VA). We enhance results from traditional sensors and conventional situation assessment solutions for network operations with new sensors and ambiguity resolution. ACAM enables anticipatory and predictive awareness at enterprise and enclave levels. Our concept includes a unique data mining capability for unifying data from multiple sources and indicating possible new observables from ontology changes detected in the data itself. Automated ontology creation integrates observations from existing and emerging sensors and sensor webs, and offers the capability of creating new sensors compatible with a distributed semantic sensor web. Human understanding is aided by advanced VA techniques for knowledge representation that provide 2D, 3D, and non-traditional displays with interactive levels of detail. Combined information supports visualization displays for distributed cooperative decision makers to determine the effects of network cyber attacks on the mission and organization. The prototype will provide the information and capability for autonomic and man-in-the-loop responses.

EOIR Technologies, Inc.
P.O.Box 1240
Spotsylvania, VA 22553
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 331-7974
Eric Kahler
OSD 09-SP1      Awarded: 5/4/2010
Title:Cloud Analytic Tools
Abstract:EOIR Technologies (EOIR) understands that Cloud Computing is rapidly emerging as an underlying technology enabler for managing information in a highly complex environment. To realize the full potential of Cloud Computing in the Intelligence Community (IC), intelligence analysts require a highly dynamic analytical environment that capitalizes on the strengths and benefits provided by a Cloud Computing architecture. EOIR proposes designing and developing a next generation analytical tool set that takes advantage of the Cloud Computing architecture by enabling users to dynamically orchestrate both the data sources in the cloud as well as a “compose-able” set of integrated but independently encapsulated modules. Modules that can be combined in numerous ways to accommodate the rapidly changing roles and responsibilities of the analyst in a manner that eliminates the need to recreate entire applications as requirements continue to evolve. In Phase I, EOIR will research the feasibility, design and detailed cost of building a dynamic Cloud Analytical tool set that leverages existing COTS and GOTS software including a GOTS, open standard collaboration environment called Impulse. Currently, the Impulse open platform provides a common, standards based platform for deploying integrated modules that seamlessly interact with other modules built on the same open standards.

Kitenga Co.
2195 Tahoe Circle
Tracy, CA 95376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(209) 834-1270
Mark Davis
OSD 09-SP1      Awarded: 4/27/2010
Title:ZettaViz: Visual Analysis Workflows for Data Resources in the Cloud
Abstract:The future of information analysis in the orbital, air, ground, sea and undersea battlespace is a future characterized by massive information streams and data overload. Existing tools and capabilities are also incapable of handling the huge bandwidth and analysis needs of semi-structured, unstructured (text) and geo-spatial information resources. Kitenga Co., as part of our ZettaVox cloud and cluster content mining product line, proposes to develop a novel analysis architecture capable of handling cloud-scale content analysis problems. The proposed system, ZettaViz, will support the authoring, deployment, use, reuse and dissemination of analysis products, and will provide massively scalable information understanding. Further, ZettaViz will support rapid reconfiguration of analysis visualizations, data sources and data destinations to improve and enhance battlespace understand and situation awareness.

Optillel Solutions, Inc.
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley, CA 94704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 846-3909
Jimmy Su
OSD 09-SP1      Awarded: 4/19/2010
Title:Cloud Analytic Tools
Abstract:The team of Optillel Solutions, Inc and Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) propose to develop a generic cloud-based analytic tool, the Nimbus Analytic Toolset (NAT), a fundamental set of composable functions spanning the range of analytic activity. This toolset will employ virtualization techniques to facilitate transparent operation across the growing array of cloud computing infrastructures, including Hadoop, Amazon AWS and others. We will demonstrate the power of the Cloud for deploying Predictive Analytics algorithms including supervised learning (classification|regression), unsupervised learning (clustering|one-class learning) and discovery operations (anomaly/outlier detection|novelty discovery). NAT will support a graphical programming paradigm to compose processes in which petabytes of distributed data will fuel the generation of predictive models to support crucial tasks such as situational awareness, surveillance and data mining. MAC researchers will work closely with Optillel''s distributed computing experts to develop a viable strategy for deploying an advanced approach to the construction and utilization of Ensembles of Decision Trees into the Cloud model. MAC has evolved this pattern recognition framework over the past several years on programs with various government agencies. The proposed toolset will provide a flexible framework for the analyst that will allow easy adaptation to the rapidly shifting wartime environment.

Serene Software Inc
116 19th Ave. N. Unit 503
Jacksonville Beach, FL 32250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 777-1847
Thoma Plunkett
OSD 09-SP1      Awarded: 4/26/2010
Title:Cloud Analytic Tools
Abstract:The Serene Software team proposes to develop a set of analytical tools for cloud scale data that can be composed into workflows or used independently. The tool set will enable Intelligence Community analysts to modify analytic tools in the field to keep up with high operational tempo and deliver full capabilities of a cloud computing architecture. Our approach builds on Free Open Source Software (FOSS) projects for cloud computing and data analytics, likely using Apache Hadoop at its core. Hadoop is built on the MapReduce algorithm invented by Google for large-scale, reliable, inexpensive analytics. Our commercialization strategy in Phases II and III includes contributing project changes back to the open source projects used and building a set of related proprietary technical services. Our approach enables other agencies and corporations to leverage this investment and more easily benefit from these efforts. The project’s technical rigor and commercial applicability will be augmented through review by Dr. Csaba Egyhazy and commercialization and technical guidance from our advanced industry partners. In Phase I, we will establish the foundation for further development and technology transfer at the completion of Phase II. The Serene Software team will work closely with OSD and the program offices during Phases I and II to ensure that we are responsive to DoD needs.

Sytronics, Inc.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6110
Jeffrey S. Collier
OSD 09-SP1      Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title:CloudDeck: A Layered Solution to Providing Cloud Analytics
Abstract:The Warfighter has access to ever-increasing amounts and types of net-centric information. His tools for data storage and access, analysis, and decision-making are in a constant state of flux as they are improved or replaced. Cloud computing addresses the situation by hosting the applications and the data in a virtualized accumulation of computing resources (or cloud) and providing access via a web-based interface. This paradigm has met with success in the office problem domain for the commercial industry. CloudDeck strives to bring the cloud concept to the military tactical operations realm by assembling a toolset of analysis services and by integrating these services in a workflow. The CloudDeck''s five layers represent the different facets of the problem: the first two layers are well-known cloud computing system foundations but the other three address new research in analytics services, workflow, and user interface issues that are heart of this approach. Software agents will provide mission-based decision support for helpful insights into the workflow and analytic issues, and visual workflow representations and visual thinking techniques will illuminate the user interface research. The CloudDeck design is anticipated to easily scale from laboratory-based testbeds to large-scale server farm-based frameworks, with rapid fielding to the warfighter.

Daniel H. Wagner, Associates, Incorporated
40 Lloyd Avenue Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
W. Reynolds Monach
OSD 09-SP2      Awarded: 1/4/2010
Title:Context Management Architecture for Tactical Environments
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will focus on the design of intelligent information management techniques across large-scale enterprises, with special emphasis on the needs of the Department of Defense (DoD), but with applicability to a wide array of government and commercial applications. Building on research and development in the areas of knowledge representation, distributed databases, information flow optimization and intelligent compression, and multi-agent systems, we will design a robust Context Management Architecture (CMA) to provide end-users with operationally relevant information from the continually growing number of networked data sources (e.g., distributed sensors, online databases, decision support systems). The CMA will provide efficient and effective information management for distributed applications by maintaining conversations among nodes based on varying levels of domain content awareness, while abstracting the underlying data sources into a virtual data store. If awarded, Phase II will lead to a prototype implementation of the CMA, with special emphasis on an identified Phase III transition target (e.g., a DoD program of record), but with extensibility to other government and commercial enterprises.

Kitenga Co.
2195 Tahoe Circle
Tracy, CA 95376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(209) 834-1270
Mark Davis
OSD 09-SP2      Awarded: 1/4/2010
Title:ZettaMeta: Metadata Management Using Distributed Semantic Data Adapters
Abstract:The future of net-centric DoD operations is a future characterized by massive data management problems and information overload. Existing tools and capabilities are incapable of handling the huge bandwidth and analysis needs of structured data, metadata, semantic content, and unstructured information resources. Kitenga Co., as part of our ZettaVox cloud and cluster content mining product line, proposes to develop a novel distributed metadata management architecture capable of handling complex arrangements of semantic web, text and structured data for cloud-scale analysis problems. The proposed system, ZettaMeta, will support the application, use and reuse of DoD standardized metadata like DDMS across heterogeneous computing architectures through an advanced adapter system that is hardened against failures and uses dynamic knowledge interchange to accelerate queries and discovery over disparate resources.

VIStology, Inc
5 Mountainview Drive
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 788-5088
Christopher J. Matheus
OSD 09-SP2      Awarded: 1/4/2010
Title:High-performance, Large Scale Data Handling in Tactical Environments
Abstract:In a competitive, dynamic, resource-scarce, and frequently hostile external environment as well as in a complex, diversified, and large internal system, it is increasingly important for organizations to react as quickly and precisely as possible to new and continuously growing challenges. Large organization and the government, in general, and the Department of Defense, in particular, are facing increasing levels of information sharing, exchange, and collaboration coupled with the necessity to maintain high levels of interoperability along with security, trust, integrity, efficiency, consistency, etc. Much progress has been made in recent years towards defining standards that enable improved information sharing and interoperability. New, especially XML based, standards (e.g. SOA) enable disparate systems to communicate with one another. These technologies also enable discovery of services through the use of metadata and related techniques. In this work we propose to take a further step and use ontologies (e.g. OWL based JC3IEDM) to provide semantically-sound techniques for better implementation of information management functions. This will provide the basis for a truly dynamic interoperability that will allow heterogeneous systems to reuse and leverage their capabilities without dramatic changes to their individual structures.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Mun Wai Lee
OSD 09-SP3      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:Automated Scene Understanding
Abstract:Automatic visual content extraction and scene understanding is an enabling technology for video surveillance, situational awareness, and force protection applications. High-level scene comprehension requires a deep understanding of objects, scene elements and their inter-relations. Current systems lack a general visual knowledge framework and efficient computational algorithms for detecting large number of object categories. We propose to develop video inference algorithms and a modular architecture for scene understanding based on the computational framework of And-Or graph. Various image inference modules can be easily integrated to the framework through an API for scene understanding. The architecture should also support the input of user-provided context to improve inference. Leveraging earlier work on semantic annotation, we will develop algorithms to infer complex relationships between scene entities. Plain text reports of the scene will be automatically generated to describe these relationships, contextual information, as well as events of interest. To achieve high compression rate for bandwidth-constraint applications, the text description are used to synthesize image and video to provide a representative rendering of the scene and events. In addition, we propose a method for indexing hierarchical data as well as a scalable framework for searching large imagery dataset.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 965-9966
Qinfen Zheng
OSD 09-SP3      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:Automated Scene Understanding: Recognizing Function from Form and Motion
Abstract:Recognition of objects and their relationships is a critical part of automatic scene understanding. Scene understanding based on object appearance alone is not sufficient as the functions of a facility change over time, especially in areas of ongoing conflicts. However, almost all surveillance imagery contains vehicular and human activities. By monitoring the activities of vehicles and dismounts, we can better recognize the true functions of buildings, vehicles, and facilities, and hence understand the scene more accurately. SET Corporation proposes to develop a scene monitoring and event recognition toolbox for activity and facility recognition through functional interpretation. We will start with detection and tracking of all moving vehicles and humans, recognize the activities that humans and vehicles are involved with, and finally determine the nature of the facilities with which humans are interacting. If successful this novel approach will constitute a fundamental advance in video understanding, with applications in reconnaissance and surveillance for counter-terrorism and counter-insurgent operations.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 680
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Hieu T Nguyen
OSD 09-SP3      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:An Automated Visual Knowledge Discovering (VKD) System
Abstract:As imagery sensing is among the essential capabilities in the future combat systems, the anticipated dynamics of the future battlespace will require a greatly increased level of automation in analysis and processing of imagery data. Most of the image analysis tasks including indexing and retrieval need or would benefit from a full explanation of the scene, consisting of the locations and scales of detected objects and their relationships to one another. For many DoD data, however, there are challenges to achieving this capability, including the large variability in scene configuration and object attributes, and the difficulty in incorporating geometric constraints between objects. UtopiaCompression Corp. (UC) proposes a novel Visual Knowledge Discovery (VKD) technology that can affectively address these issues. The system performs automated scene analysis, inference, and annotation using a novel hierarchical and contextual image model. The model provides a full explanation of the scene including the scene hierarchy and the relationship between objects, and is capable of representing a variety of scenarios with large variability in scene structure and number of objects. The proposed technology will significantly enhance the capabilities of the DoD in annotation, indexing, and knowledge mining of large image databases.

Analatom Incorporated
562 E. Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-9392
Richard Clements
OSD 09-SP4      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Designing Large Data Handling Architectures
Abstract:Global War on Terror requires critical need for accessing intelligence information databases for actionable decision processes. To enhance intelligence information based decision making a methodology must be established for storage and retrieval from multiple database systems, and subsequent analysis based on information’s meaning rather than predetermined manually assigned categories. Open and standards based architectures are needed to efficiently assemble large amounts of data with greater agile information sharing strategies. Automation of handling large data amounts can be achieved by using metadata, alignment of vocabularies, data sharing governance rules, and defined business processes. Analatom proposes investigating a more robust query and index paradigm having large data handling architectures focusing on ‘Concept Footprints’. Associated pools of data leave ‘multiple’ tracks of variously weighted associations through historical usage and prior user interest. Proposed software will allow multidimensional associations to form (organize and attract to similar concepts and associations) within like concept neighborhoods. These resulting (task oriented) multiple architectures are referred to as ‘Information/Knowledge Cubes’. These then afford access into extremely large data sets and repositories to be concept oriented. Additionally, queries need not be specific or limiting, but rather can be presented to data repository (Knowledge Cube) as incomplete or ‘fuzzy’ textural queries.

Harmonia, Inc.
2020 Kraft Drive, Suite 1000
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Marc Abrams
OSD 09-SP4      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Designing Large Data Handling Architectures
Abstract:We focus on a solution for ultra-scale data handling, into the terabyte range and beyond. Our solution leverages the latest advances in storage technology, and can be used in a cloud, to exploit cloud-native features. We address the following functional requirements: discoverability of data sources, federated source handling for data originating in domains with different admin policies, heterogeneity of data, retrievable data (both push and pull), classifiable data, labeled data as to classification, searchable data using metadata for semantic searching, transformable to extract, shape, and analyze data streams, shareable to allow consumption by stakeholders with different permissions, management of the overall architecture, and analyzable to analyze data in the context of one or more ontologies. We apply ultra-scale columnar oriented data handling, grid computing, semantic tagging of data, and related concepts to achieve the functional requirements.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4631
Pan Gao
OSD 09-SP5      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:A Statistical Grammar Approach for Human Activity Discovery from Video
Abstract:IAI and its academic partners propose to develop a human activity discovery system based on linguistic human activity language and statistical grammar model. This system will estimate human body pose and anthropometry from video data and infer human behavior using a statistical grammar based approach. This approach fuses two recent advances in computer vision research. First, our advanced tracking algorithms will present a series of hypotheses of human poses recognized within a video sequence; these detection and tracking algorithm will use modern segmentation techniques to extract labeled silhouettes, feeding a 3D reconstruction algorithm that relied on local optimal search of the pose space. Second, algorithms that operate on our statistical model of human motion and behavior, the Human Activity Language, combine these pose estimates into unified, robust estimate of pose and activity. We hypothesize that combining action and pose estimation under a single framework will more robustly identify both. Our algorithms will be useful in both recognition and in reproduction of human action. Upon success, our research will be transitioned into fields of persistent surveillance, health care, robot intelligent interactions with human and modeling and simulation.

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 881-4910
Anthony Hoogs
OSD 09-SP5      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:Discovery of Human Activity from Video
Abstract:We propose to develop a video analysis system that detects suspicious, significant events using two methods: monitoring current activity against learned models of normal behavior, and searching for events explicitly indicated by the video analyst. The underlying behavior representations are based on object interactions in space and time, as well as temporal dynamics. Fusing anomaly detection and directed search should yield advantages of both. The system will be integrated with our VIRAT system, being developed on a major DARPA program, for content-based video retrieval based on actions and activities.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Asaad Hakeem
OSD 09-SP5      Awarded: 2/4/2010
Title:An Integrated Framework for Context-Enabled Discovery of Human Activity from Video
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will constitute design of algorithms, toolsets and interfaces to detect human activity from video and improve operator’s wide area situational awareness of live feeds from multiple aerial and ground sensors in the battlefield. The key innovations in the proposed effort are: 1) automated and robust detection of atomic actions that may span multiple sensors, 2) extraction and exploitation of scene context for improving activity discovery, 3) an interactive activity specification framework for effective threat specification and automatic recognition, tuned towards the requirements of the operator in the battlefield, 4) automatic context-enabled wide area activity recognition by using information from multiple heterogeneous sensors and 5) enhanced user interface based on NASA’s WorldWind geo-browser plug-in for wide area situational awareness of the operator. In addition, metrics for activity detection evaluation will be investigated and a thorough performance analysis of the proposed innovation will carried out. to ensure robustness and This will ensure that a scalable and robust baseline activity discovery system is developed by the end of Phase I.

VIPMobile, Inc.
100 Montgomery Street Suite 2000
San Francisco, CA 94104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 632-1238
Dragoljub Pokrajac
OSD 09-SP5      Awarded: 2/4/2010
Title:Discovery of Human Activity from Video
Abstract:The general problem is that current surveillance data is limited to real-time analysis by direct human monitoring or forensically through recording. The large amounts of data received from surveillance cameras pose a challenge for software to interpret potential threats beyond object and text recognition. A system is needed to automate monitoring processes and provide a predictive advantage to monitoring people by identifying potential threats from observed human activities. The specific technical problems we are addressing involve the need for technology to automate understanding of human behavior using contextual information, obtained by observing interactions in space and time. Image and video exploitation algorithms need to first decompose incoming visual information, distinguishing humans from natural and man-made structures. Further computation must then discover human activity based on motion, posture and body positioning. Potential threats are identified based on predetermined hostile human activity. The resulting classifications of detected threat events are visually communicated to the end user. VIPMobile is developing a lean and robust software package that exploits incoming video data to interpret human behavior with systematic analysis of spacial-temporal block algorithms, motion detection, tracking and outlier identification. The system also utilizes a database of predefined hostile behavior factors that processes feature extraction and edge detection to visually communicate anomalous activity to monitoring personnel in near real time so preventative actions can be taken.

21st Century Technologies Inc.
4515 Seton Center Parkway Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Stephen Hilderbrand
OSD 09-SP6      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:SWIFTER: Semantic Wiki Infrastructure for Faceted Tracking of Entities and Relations
Abstract:As the need to monitor ever-increasing amounts of information, the need to fact check continues to grow. It is important for analysts to stay ahead of the information curve; an analysis based on yesterday’s news may be erroneous, especially in the case of key information changes. Today, individual users must manage their own updates, which means logging into the wiki and checking the update logs. In a large wiki, this is a time- consuming process, which analysts cannot afford to engage in on top of their other daily duties. This proactive monitoring of the wiki detracts from their more important analysis duties. In response to this need for rapid context in information dissemination, 21st Century Technologies, Inc. (21CT) proposes SWIFTER – Semantic Wiki Infrastructure for Faceted Tracking of Entities and Relations, a system that provides this level of automated support. SWIFTER employs semantic resources and technologies, similarity measures, and user feedback through an intuitive dashboard interface to enable context-aware intelligence to analysts and warfighters. SWIFTER draws from the collective experience of commanders, analysts, and warfighters to provide timely alerts to others at the same echelon and/or in the same area of responsibility (AOR).

Modus Operandi, Inc.
709 South Harbor City Blvd. Suite 400
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 473-1421
Richard Hull
OSD 09-SP6      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:Wiki for Intelligent Semantic Event Reporting (WISER)
Abstract:Fighting the ‘Long War’ requires a long memory as well as the ability to recognize and adapt to constant, rapid change. In accumulating knowledge about the Global War on Terror, the intelligence community seeks to keep track of potential or known terrorists, their organizations, their targets, and their tactics. Crucial nuggets of information are often embedded within free text reported by numerous disparate sources. Whether consumed by an analyst or by a warfighter, each new report forces its reader to determine: Does this just confirm what we already know, or has something significant changed? Modus Operandi proposes WISER to identify those significant changes and notify interested subscribers. WISER will extend MO’s Wave Exploitation Framework (Wave-EF) product with innovative algorithms to detect significant changes in the knowledge base. WISER will automatically populate a semantic wiki from incoming disparate intelligence sources using MO’s innovative semantic event extraction and enrichment techniques, and our innovative aggregation approach to correlating related triples.

Vision Systems & Technology, Inc
6021 University Blvd Suite 360
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-5555
Edward Swing
OSD 09-SP6      Awarded: 2/4/2010
Title:The BattleSpace Luminary System
Abstract:While the Global Information Grid provides access to multiple data sources, modern warfighters and analysts must determine when new information directly impacts their mission, and what additional meanings they could infer from the new data. The government needs a system that can extract and identify the semantic meaning of new data, append or update this information in a semantic wiki, and provide alerts to warfighters and analysts alike. Team VSTI proposes the Battlefield Luminary System to meet these needs. The system will use formal ontologies to extract information from a variety of data sources, use this information to update a semantically-enabled wiki, create additional media content to enhance understanding through visualization, and then disseminate relevant alerts to analysts and warfighters in the field. In Phase II, the system will extend to include additional reasoning and extraction techniques, and apply other semantic tags such as microformats. The system also offers numerous commercial applications. By applying different ontologies, the military could apply the system to supply chain management. Field medics and physicians could apply the system to patient medical records, and financial analysts could apply the system to monitoring economic indicators.

VIStology, Inc
5 Mountainview Drive
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 788-5088
Christopher J. Matheus
OSD 09-SP6      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Semantic Wiki for Page Alerting
Abstract:In the Global War on Terror (GWOT) large amounts of data must be effectively analyzed in a timely manner in order to provide an accurate and up-to-date understanding of current and potential threats. This problem requires robust real-time knowledge management that can be placed in the hands of human analysts. At the forefront of research in this area is the recent emergence of Semantic Wikis – web-based collaborative knowledge applications based around semantic web technologies of knowledge representation and automated reasoning. We propose to design an advanced Semantic Wiki customized to handle the large amounts of data relevant to the GWOT. The solution will leverage VIStology’s expertise in ontology management, text processing, consistency checking and highly efficient automate reasoning over semantic knowledge structures. For Phase I we will implement a prototype based on our design that will demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed approach. This prototype will have integrated into it as core components a fast reasoning engine, a rule-based alert notification engine, a robust consistency checker and state-of-the-art text extraction algorithms. A key capability will permit users to define high-level rules describing data patterns that will be monitored in real-time with notifications being sent out immediately to the appropriate users by email, SMS, twitter or an alternative means at the user’s choice.

Fetch Technologies
841 Apollo Street Suite 400
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-9849
Greg Barish
OSD 09-SP7      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Novel Distributed Processing Environments
Abstract:Abstract

Prism Informatix, LLC
5310 N Camino Sumo
Tucson, AZ 85718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 991-8381
John W. Wissinger
OSD 09-SP7      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:Rigorous Framework for Distributed Processing with Dynamic Stochastic Information
Abstract:The vast and ever-increasing amount of networked information available creates a growing need for information processing systems that distribute decision making rather than centralize data. But distributed decision systems are notoriously hard to analyze. One reason is that the complexity of the design process encourages the use of ad-hoc methods, so it can easily become impossible to say how well a system actually performs vs. the best that could be done. Prism Informatix proposes to address the need for an optimal framework by extending the rigorous and established theory of distributed hypothesis testing networks. The basic framework has aroused considerable interest because it provides an optimal, analytically tractable, and highly intuitive approach to modeling distributed cooperative (team) decision making under uncertainty. To develop the theory into a practical information processing framework, we modify and extend it to handle real-world stochastic information dynamics, but in a manner that preserves the mathematical structure necessary to support analysis. We implement the new framework in a computational testbed where instrumented analysis studies allow its feasibility to be established.

Sharpe Engineering Inc.
3 Copper Lane PO Box 5310
Mount Crested Butte, CO 81225
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 349-0442
Jim Sharpe
OSD 09-SP7      Awarded: 1/4/2010
Title:Novel Distributed Processing Environments
Abstract:DoD data processing requirements are dramatically evolving. Dataset size and variety are rapidly increasing, as are the speed at which the data is generated and the need for faster response times. However, the problem is more than simply having to deal with data size or speed of arrival. Rapidly evolving problem spaces and requirements mean that the processing and analysis solutions also must be quicker to develop and more agile. This proposal introduces a high-speed, cloud-native analysis framework based on a standard set of analytical components, which is capable of addressing a wide variety of data shaping, discovery, and situational awareness problems. Our technical approach applies a hybrid hierarchical reasoning framework via a standard set of analytical elements to extend a stream-based execution platform enabling the rapid production and evolution of solutions to complex analysis problems. A key aspect of the proposed technology is tailoring the individual analysis components for high throughput as well as horizontal scalability. The functional depth is built through the aggregation of many atomic processing components as opposed to fewer more complex modules and the stream- based runtime environment will support on-the-fly changes to live operational analysis networks to adapt rapidly to evolving problem spaces.

IllinoisRocstar LLC
P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 766-2567
Mark D. Brandyberry
OSD 09-W01      Awarded: 8/2/2010
Title:Shock Initiation of Energetic Materials Due to Mesoscale Features
Abstract:IllinoisRocstar LLC envisions the initial product of this effort to be a shock-to-detonation module (Rocpack-RocSDT) for inclusion in our insensitive munitions simulation code, IMSIM. IMSIM is a first-generation software product for the simulation of energetic material behavior in insensitive munitions-related studies and applications. The overall IMSIM process initiates with nondestructive characterization of the as-cast energetic materials, then moves to statistical characterization of the experimental energetic, and concludes with a prediction of thermo-chemo-mechanical properties of interest for insensitive munitions applications. Analytical and consulting services will be available based on IMSIM at the end of Phase II. We envision capabilities to include prediction of the micromechanical properties of energetic materials in a variety of forms. Markets other than energetic materials property prediction are likely as well. These services are demanded by the DoD components, DOE, transportation companies, Homeland Security, and others involved in modeling the response of energetic materials.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8364
NAIDA LACEVIC
OSD 09-W01      Awarded: 5/11/2010
Title:Modeling Energetic Materials at the Meso Scale
Abstract:NextGen Aeronautics, in collaboration with Prof. Cagin’s group at Texas A&M University and Prof. Vitali Nesterenko of the University of California, San Diego, is proposing a new computational tool, MesoShock, for microstructure-response prediction in energetic materials. MesoShock extends a standard particle mechanics package into a Dissipative Particle Dynamics with Conserved Energy (DPDCE) engine and, along with s a collection of python modules, provides prediction of pressure, temperature, internal energy, and reaction extent during microstructure interaction with shock waves for energetic materials of interest.

Dynamic Systems and Research
8219 Pickard Ave NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 270-3088
Danny J. Frew
OSD 09-W02      Awarded: 5/27/2010
Title:Mechanical Characterization of Energetic Materials
Abstract:In this program, DSR proposes to develop test equipment that can be used by the Air Force to begin investigating inert and live explosive material properties under different pressure and temperature environments. Strain-rate levels will be adjustable with this equipment and will vary between 10-5-10-2 s-1 dependent upon the stiffness and strength of the test material. When completed, 25.4-mm-diameter specimens with length- to-diameter ratios of at least 2 can be tested at high confining pressures and under a wide range of temperature extremes in this device. In Phase I, mechanical, hydraulic, and temperature application designs will be developed for the test device with the capability to apply confining pressures up to 200 MPa to the right-circular cylinder samples over a wide range of temperatures. DSR plans to design a highly-accurate instrumentation configuration that will allow for accurate measurements as well as provide the necessary servo-loop feedback to obtain high-fidelity behavior of the test specimen. In Phase II, the mechanical, hydraulic, and instrumentation designs conceptually developed in the Phase I effort will be used to build the device and validate its capabilities (using an inert simulant material) under a variety of different conditions.

L J ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
2607 Bridle Lane
Walnut Creek, CA 94596
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 253-2939
Chi Tsieh Liu
OSD 09-W02      Awarded: 6/16/2010
Title:Mechanical Characterization of Energetic Materials
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop experimental and diagnostic technologies for characterizing the mechanical response of high explosive materials. It is well known that the prediction of structural integrity depends upon a thorough knowledge of the stresses and strains produced in the structure and the ability of the material to support these stresses and strains without failure under service loads. To achieve this goal, a full characterization of the material under the service loads is a prerequisite for the development of a reliable constitutive model to predict the stress and strain and the integrity of the structure. In this program, experimental and diagnostic techniques are developed to characterize the mechanical behavior of a plastic-bonded explosive stimulant under different strain rates, temperatures, and confining pressures. The loading ranges of strain rate, temperature, and confining pressure considered in this program are 100/sec to 1000/sec, -60oF to 60oF, and up to 40000psi, respectively. In addition, constitutive models are developed and implemented into a finite element computer code and the optimum nondestructive testing techniques to monitor damage initiation and evolution processes in the material for selected loading conditions are determined.

IllinoisRocstar LLC
P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 766-2567
Mark D. Brandyberry
OSD 09-W03      Awarded: 8/4/2010
Title:Utilizing Medical Imaging Technology for Generation of Mesoscale Computational Descriptions
Abstract:Abstract

Simmetrix, Inc.
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 348-1639
John Tourtellott
OSD 09-W03      Awarded: 5/26/2010
Title:Utilizing Medical Imaging Technology for Generation of Mesoscale Computational Descriptions
Abstract:The focus of this SBIR project is to provide the technologies needed to go from image data of material microstructures to geometric models representations, and associated meshes of those geometries, that will support the effective application of engineering modeling and simulation to predict the physical properties and behavior of energetic materials. The technologies to be developed will combine advanced image segmentation methods with knowledge of the basic engineering properties of the constituent materials to provide microstructural geometric models that are relevant to engineering analyses. The resulting geometric models will them be automatically and adaptively meshed as needed to support their accurate analysis by finite element and/or finite volume methods. Procedures will be provided to create the input and adaptive control methods for both Lagrangian and Eulerian based mathematical formulations and software. This project will also provide an interactive user environment that will support the addition of new information on material constituent properties and mesh control into the process.

Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 NW 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL 32609
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 271-8841
Jeffrey Wright
OSD 09-W03      Awarded: 5/11/2010
Title:A Software Tool for Transforming XCMT Images into Computational Mesostructures
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is to deliver a software tool that can take information from a general imaging modality and convert the information to a form that is compatible with standard computational platforms for performing research and analysis of mesoscale dynamics. A key aspect of modeling energy deposition from activated high explosives (HEs) is that the fundamental mechanisms of energy release manifest at the mesoscale corresponding to particle sizes (tens of microns in size). Tools to conduct increasingly sophisticated and realistic computational modeling of the mesoscale dynamics of HEs under the effects of imposed loads are under development by numerous researchers including the proposing team. To facilitate this, one must first have the ability to capture the geometry of the meso-structure of real samples of HEs and to transmute the images into a form that can be input to advanced computational codes (hydro-codes) that can then conduct numerical experiments on these samples. This proposal lays out a plan for developing a comprehensive software tool for receiving images from x-ray computed micro-tomography (XCMT) – and other sources – and reconstructing a 3D sample from such data. The output will be 3D models that can be used in a variety of hydrocodes.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Z. J. Chen
OSD 09-W04      Awarded: 5/12/2010
Title:A Mesoscale Modeling Tool for Heterogeneous Explosives with Accurate Multi-Physics Models and Detailed Chemical Kinetics
Abstract:In the proposed SBIR project, CFDRC will develop an efficient, high-fidelity computational tool to simulate compaction wave propagation and the ensuing multi-physics phenomena in heterogeneous explosives (HEs), including the effects of shock wave on external targets. Physics that will be accurately modeled include: (1) Resolution of subgrain-size hot spots; (2) Granular deformation and packing due to high-speed projectile stimuli; (3) Global kinetics for HE decomposition and detailed kinetics for gas phase reaction; (4) Momentum- and energy-coupling between the moving particles and gas flow; and (5) Deflagration to detonation transition. In Phase I, we will demonstrate feasibility using CFDRC’s advanced flow solver, CoBi, which already includes the following models: (1) Innovative “immersed-particle method” to couple granular motion and gas flow; (2) Finite element method (FEM) to simulate particle deformation; (3) Compressible flow capability including shock wave capturing; and (4) Multi-step chemistry. In Phase I, CoBi will be enhanced by adding condensed- and gas-phase kinetics for HMX, and by coupling the immersed-particle method to the FEM module. In Phase II, the focus will be to improve the accuracy of all models and to make CoBi comprehensive by implementing: (1) Dynamically adaptive mesh refinement for moving shock capturing; (2) A database that provides the user with multiple options for both condensed- and gas-phase kinetics; and (3) Efficient code parallelization. The comprehensive tool will be extensively validated against benchmark cases, and finally demonstrated for problems of interest to OSD.

IllinoisRocstar LLC
P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 766-2567
Mark D. Brandyberry
OSD 09-W04      Awarded: 7/8/2010
Title:An Advanced Multiphase Solver for Blast Propagation in Dusty Environments
Abstract:Abstract

Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 NW 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL 32609
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 271-8841
Siddharth Thakur
OSD 09-W04      Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title:Advanced Simulation Framework for the Mesoscale Dynamics of Heterogeneous Explosives
Abstract:The proposed work seeks to develop a computational tool to conduct sophisticated and realistic computational modeling of the mesoscale dynamics of heterogeneous energetic materials/high explosives (HEs) under the effects of imposed loads. Designing propulsion devices and munitions for precise operational performance demands comprehensive understanding and manipulation of the spatial and temporal distributions of energy release in activated energetic materials. A key aspect of modeling energy deposition from activated HEs is that the fundamental mechanisms of energy release manifest at the scale corresponding to particle sizes (typically tens of microns in size). Therefore, control and manipulation of energetic material performance in a macro-scale system requires understanding, modeling and prediction of its behavior at the mesoscale. The key features of the work are: (a) large-scale simulations of the dynamics and energetics of meso- structures under varying conditions of mechanical loading.; (b) accurate modeling of the material properties of the components of the HE; (c) realistic portrayal of meso-structural details in terms of geometry and composition; (d) the model should provide physical understanding and predictive capabilities that can be translated into quantitative information that can be used to represent meso-scale dynamics in a macro-scale simulation of the overall performance of an explosive/propellant.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 995-4859
AKHILESH JHA
OSD 09-W05      Awarded: 8/30/2010
Title:Reactive Material Dynamic Response & Energy Release
Abstract:As a special category of energetic materials, reactive materials consist of components which are not generally considered reactive on their own until subjected to a sufficiently strong mechanical, electrical or laser stimulus. As opposed to the traditional warheads, which use inert metal fragments as a means to produce most damage, the reactive fragment warheads release high amount of chemical energy in addition to the kinetic energy so that the total energy on target can be increased by 5 or more times. Energy release of reactive materials is a multiscale multiphysics phenomenon. Although some existing continuum methods did couple thermal, chemical and mechanical energies, lack of physics in various length scales and time scales limits the practical application of such methods. In the proposed method, a multiphysics framework will be constructed through coupling governing equations in heat transfer, chemical reaction and mechanics. Macroscopic properties, such as total release energy, temperature evolution, and quasi- static pressure, will be studied through coupling macroscale with micro and nano scales. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes both multiphysics and multiscale modeling technique to provide a consistent mathematical framework to quantify energy release from a reactive material from a high-speed impact. The algorithm will be finally integrated with a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code of ANSYS or LS-DYNA.

Utron Kinetics, LLC
9441 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Karthik Nagarathnam
OSD 09-W05      Awarded: 8/17/2010
Title:Rapid High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Consolidation for the Development of Reactive Fragments and their Dynamic Properties
Abstract:The major objectives of the Phase I effort will be focused on CDC high pressure compaction/fabrication, post-processing, testing and materials performance/baseline preliminary material modeling of the kinetic behavior of the energetic material compositions based on select geometry and CDC materials properties. CDC compacted candidate reactive fragment warhead/projectile materials include Hf/Al, W/Al, Al/Boron, Hf/Zn, Zr/Zn, Zr/Al, or Ta/Al, Mo/Al, and select materials with boron, molybdenum oxide and/or sulfur. Select geometrical shapes such as 0.5 inch diameter cylinders/disks, near spheroidal pellet shapes (e.g., 0.5 inch diameter), and 3.5 inch long tensile dogbones will be fabricated using the available 300 ton CDC press and existing die/punch assemblies for initial exploration. Compositions will be optimized in consultation with OSD sponsors to obtain densities closer to 7 g/cc or higher. Appropriate experimental process optimization at much higher compaction pressures (e.g., 50 to 150 tsi) will be developed as an integral part of Phase I and Phase II. Key CDC process optimization, suitable sintering/heat treatment responses, near or net shaped reactive fragments/warhead spheroidal pellet part quality, microstructural/microchemistry properties, and mechanical properties such as hardness and other strength durability properties at room temperature will be evaluated in Phase I. In Phase II, scaling up, materials/manufacturing of reactive fragment warhead components such as multiple-pressing of several spheroidal shaped warheads etc will be planned and the developed CDC parts after optimum processing conditions.

Bennett Aerospace, LLC
2054 Kildaire Farm Road #181
Cary, NC 27518
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 859-5454
Douglas Bennett
OSD 09-W07      Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title:Hybrid Energetic Materials System: Piezoelectric
Abstract:The objective of this proposal program is to develop a highly advanced hybrid energetic materials system using piezoelectric materials that have the ability to increase system energy yield by an impressive 3 to 5x over conventional energetics and in some cases 10x.

Gunger Engineering LLC
207 Crystal Ct.
Niceville, FL 32578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 865-6137
Michael Gunger
OSD 09-W07      Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title:Hybrid Energetic Materials System
Abstract:Nano-energetics/hybrid energetic systems have been under development for decades with only one weapon system explicitley incorporating these materials, the Thermobaric Hellfire warhead, with a solid FAE surround. There have been other implementations but these are primarily in the areas of warhead defeat, such as occurs during EOD operations. Hybrid Energetic systems offer signicantly more energy on target and more control over the delivery rate. They also potentially offer Insensitive Munitions advantages. In general, for a material to be weaponized, it must be evaluated under standard JMEM procedures and be shown to be advantageous to the warfighter. In addition, it must be predictable in response, if must be capable of being modeled and it must meet shelf life/storage requirements. This proposal seeks to address the weaponization requirements and develop,ultimately, a weapon/weaponization approach, using a hybrid energetic system, which will demonstrate not only the applicability of the materials to the battlespace but will also develop a methodology for similar systems in the future.

Streamline Numerics, Inc.
3221 NW 13th Street, Suite A
Gainesville, FL 32609
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(352) 271-8841
Siddharth Thakur
OSD 09-W07      Awarded: 6/16/2010
Title:Development and Testing of Advanced Hybrid Energetic Material Systems
Abstract:The overall objective of the proposed effort is to advance and test novel design ideas of hybrid explosives and accurately assess their effectiveness in delivering game changing effects. A three-pronged computational approach is proposed that consists of a microscale and a mesoscale formulation, with a tight coupling between the two. The work will have the following major components: (a) Conduct microscale simulations of particle combustion incorporating all relevant physics, including ambient shock/detonation wave, ambient turbulence, multi-component heat and mass transfer, detailed chemistry, oxide condensation, radiation, internal circulation of droplet and the oxide cap. (b) Develop accurate models of metal combustion for use in mesoscale simulations by employing the power of high performance computing to carry out a large set of well- organized microscale simulations that span the relevant parametric space. (c) Develop a computational framework to examine at the mesoscale unique hybrid explosive designs that have the potential to increase the initial blast pressure by factor two or more than what can be currently achieved.