DoD SBIR FY09.3 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Air Force - Army - Navy - DARPA - DLA - MDA - OSD

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506 Phase I Selections from the 09.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
Firehole Technologies
210 s. 3rd Suite 202
Laramie, WY 82070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 460-4763
Emmett Nelson
AF 09-001      Awarded: 12/28/2009
Title:Novel Experimental and Analytical Methods for Designing Damage Tolerant Composite Structures
Abstract:In the proposed program, Firehole Technologies, Inc. will adapt Helius:MCT™, its industry- leading software product for composite failure-progression analysis of large structures, to the specific problem of simulating damage accumulation after impact or other initial imperfection. In parallel, the project will develop experiential methods to produce analysis input parameters that will be key to establishing the damage state of the composite. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this project will be a significant step toward enabling the Aerospace industry to realize the full potential of composite structures, as it would enable airframer to scale their analysis methods to entire structures while taking into account damage tolerance requirements. Additionally, the development of an industry standard coupon or small component test to characterize the damage tolerance of any composite material would provide air frame designers with engineering data equivalently accessible and equally essential as ASTM D3039 tension data is to ground based composite structures.

Materials Sciences Corporation
135 Rock Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Anthony Caiazzo
AF 09-001      Awarded: 12/23/2009
Title:Novel Experimental and Analytical Methods for Designing Damage Tolerant Composite Structures (MSC P9047)
Abstract:Composite materials often represent the most weight efficient and lowest cost solutions for airframe structures. Many of these structures are in areas that are susceptible to incidental impact damage and require adequate residual strength after impact for specified periods of service. Current design methodologies require designers to predict the residual response of full-scale composite structures based on costly and time consuming small-scale tests and, methods for translating the response of standard damage tolerance characterization tests to reliable predictions of the damage tolerance of full-scale composite structures have not been demonstrated. Under this program, Materials Sciences Corporation will demonstrate the feasibility of using damage models to predict the impact and residual strength response of small-scale tests, thus laying the foundation for designing a test capable of capturing more complex failure modes associated with full- scale multi-bay composite airframe structures. Data generated under the Phase II demonstration and validation program will enable development of improved unified experimental methods and publication of a new damage tolerance test standard validated via round-robin testing. This effort will be led by our subcontractor on this program, Professor Dan Adams of the University of Utah. BENEFIT: Materials Sciences Corporation expects that this SBIR program will yield a methodology for simulating the damage tolerance response of composite structures that has been validated through comparison with experimental data. This validated methodology will enable a reduction in time and funding resources required to demonstrate that damage tolerance requirements have been met for military and commercial aircraft components.

Biorobots, LLC
3030 E. 63rd St. #313
Cleveland, OH 44127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 246-0148
Richard J. Bachmann
AF 09-002      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:MAVlegs - Landing/running gear for perching MAV
Abstract:BioRobots, LLC, will develop MAVlegs, a landing/running gear system that will significantly enhance our military and intelligence personnel’s ability to execute persistent surveillance by enabling a bird-size MAV to perch on a parapet wall, ledge, or tree limb. MAVlegs will arrest the MAV at the point of touchdown, because the perching locations are characterized by limited area. MAVlegs will enable the MAV to crawl around the perch to reposition/reorient the on-board sensors for an optimal view of the target. MAVlegs will anchor the MAV to the perch to resist any winds that may arise during the period of surveillance. The Stanford micro-spine attachment mechanism will be customized to the MAVlegs purpose, specifically the need to perform distributed inward gripping. Discover Technologies Plastic Muscle, based on EAP technology, may figure prominently in the final design, as they are able to provide structure, actuation, and compliance. The system will comprise two front feet under the vehicle''s CG and one or more rear feet on the tail. The tail feet will provide the primary braking force on landing, eliminating the MAV tendency to pitch forward on landing. The front feet will cushion the landing and provide locomotion about the perch. BENEFIT: BioRobots expects successful completion of the proposed R&D to revolutionize the ability of our military and intelligence personnel to obtain persistent surveillance of a target. Persistent Surveillance MAV will also be useful by local law enforcement during fugitive/criminal searches. During the search, multiple MAVleg equipped MAVs could be deployed and land on various structures throughout the search area. Even after the law enforcement personnel seem to call off the search, the MAVs would remain on their perches, keeping watch for the criminal/fugitive.

Design Intelligence Incorporated, LLC
350 David L. Boren Blvd Suite 1780
Norman, OK 73072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 307-0397
James L Grimsley
AF 09-002      Awarded: 12/14/2009
Title:Ground Mobility and Landing Gear for a Bird-Sized Perching Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)
Abstract:The development of micro air vehicles (MAVs) will provide a military capability that has never before been fully realized. Technology developments in areas such as vehicle morphing and energy harvesting will enable greater mission capabilities in terms of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) – including “close-in ISR” and “personal ISR”, as well as lethality capabilities and signals intelligence (SIGINT). The current Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) MAV vision includes plans to develop a “bird-like” MAV by the year 2015 that is capable of “perch and stare” missions. When the MAV arrives at a mission station it will “perch” much like an actual bird lands and perches. A critical components for perching is the landing gear mechanism necessary to accomplish perching on a variety of surfaces and environments. Limited ground mobility is desirable for purposes such as energy harvesting (EH), sensor alignment, and assisted takeoff. The proposed Phase I research will develop multiple engineering design concept variants that utilize innovative bio-inspired principals from bird anatomy, innovative use of advanced actuator technology, as well as innovative robotics concepts to develop landing gear that can enable perching and limited ground mobility. Whenever possible, DII will utilize modular design concepts that enable broad mission capabilities. BENEFIT: Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) represent the most dynamic growth sector in the aerospace industry today. The total market size is expected to be between $40 billion and $60 billion by the year 2018. The proposed research, if successful, could provide significant breakthroughs and advantages for MAV operational capabilities. A successful outcome of this Phase I effort will result in technology that can be utilized by the DoD and other government agencies as well as the commercial sector. Advanced landing gear technology that supports UAVs/MAVs is useful to the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy for various mission needs. These types of UAVs/MAVs can also be used by other agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of the Interior, and others. It is important to note that the technology in this proposal is not limited to UAS applications. The concepts developed during the Phase I effort could have applications in other areas of robotics, automation, and medical prosthetics.

VISHWA ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LLC
25 BENNETT ST
BRIGHTON, MA 02135
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 276-0380
Peter Dilworth
AF 09-002      Awarded: 1/21/2010
Title:Ground Mobility and Landing Gear for a Bird-Sized Perching Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)
Abstract:Current MAV platforms suffer from lack of a landing gear that enables perching and ground mobility to support Recharging (or Energy Harvesting) and/or Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR). Minimizing the number of actuators, while providing perching and ground mobility, is a very hard problem. To solve these challenges, Vishwa Robotics & Automation (VRA) proposes experimenting with several high level concepts for perching and Ground Mobility. We plan to build several experimental lightweight prototype mechanisms with claws and appendages, with small servo actuators, or bistable solenoids, or springs, or a combination of these technologies, to enable different modalities. For perching, we propose concepts to land on ledges and on branches and other cylindrical objects like wires. For ground mobility, we present concepts that utilize modifications of perching mechanisms to save weight to enable ambulation on branches, wires, ledges etc BENEFIT: Potential Commercial Applications include: Remote-control climbers, crawlers, flyers etc., for tasks such as bomb sniffing,emergency search & rescue, border patrol and flying perching toys.

nanoPrecision Products, Inc.
411-B Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 597-4991
Shuhe LI
AF 09-003      Awarded: 1/15/2010
Title:Robust Optic Signal Distribution within Enclosures for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:nanoPrecision Products Inc. proposes to develop a complete and fundamentally new connection system for electro-optical avionic systems. nPP’s connection system will be compatible with the VME bus open architecture, and will hence enable fly-by-light (FBL) guidance and control systems. The connection system will use metallic ferrules that are robust, field maintainable, and immune to electro magnetic interference (EMI) in wartime scenarios. Furthermore, the metallic ferrules will be producible with nPP’s economical, high-production volume, ultra-high precision stamping processes. nPP proposes to investigate new fiber-optic interconnects that will provide integrated electro-optical systems compatible with the VME bus architecture. nPP will design and evaluate new metallic ferrules that can accommodate 12x1 fiber ribbons and are producible with nPP''s ultra-high precision stamping technology. These economical terminated ferrules will be arrayed within connectors to achieve hundreds of channels, perhaps as high as 432 channels, in a single Po connector. During this Phase I SBIR, nPP will design and evaluate the connection density and manufacturability of two novel connectors: a round military- style enclosure connector that can transmit electrical and optical signals across the enclosure walls through hybrid signal pins, and a right-angle, backplane-to-daughtercard connector that is dimensionally compatible with the Po interface on VME cards. BENEFIT: nanoPrecision Products Inc. (nPP) proposes to use their low-cost, high-volume, precision stamping processes to develop higher density connectors for optical signal distribution through (1) transceiver to card edge connector, (2) card edge to backplane connector, and (3) card or motherboard to the enclosure connector. This is widely applicable to fiber to-the-home networks now being widely deployed throughout the United States. The application base can also be expanded to include automotive data transmission and optical sensors providing lower cost and ease of installation and repair. Additionally, EMI- proof hermetic micro-electronic and optoelectronic packages and sensors in general will benefit. High density interfaces for optical transceivers, card edge connectors, mother board connectors, and enclosure connectors are also used in commercial datacenters. nPP proposes to develop a modular, scalable, right-angle, metallic connector and a high- density, hybrid, optical/electrical circular connector which can be used with existing commercial and ribbon cabling. The backplane fiber ribbon can be embedded in a fiberglass resin, a polymer, or a composite material, to form a monolithic optical motherboard. This can eliminate the unwieldy mesh of fibers within an enclosure. The demonstrated manufacturing precision achieved by nPP permits implementation of these high density array and circular connectors for both single mode and multimode applications. The proposed right angle connector concept can also be used for monitoring the health of composite structures by embedding the connectors and Bragg grating fibers within the composite structure. With respect to the manufacturing process, there is a need to develop a deterministic manufacturing capability to fabricate metal products with

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 652-0007
Charlie Kuznia
AF 09-003      Awarded: 12/21/2009
Title:Alignment Tolerant Components for Robust Optic Signal Distribution
Abstract:We investigate methods of routing optical signals for flight control from board-to-board and board-to-box for avionic systems. We are developing a method for organizing optical signals on robust substrates that simplifies the optical cabling between the board and box. We plan to investigate the used of miniature, ruggedized optical components that allow optical coupling between boards with high degree of tolerance for mis-alignment. BENEFIT: Commercial and business jet flight control and reusable launch vehicles. Nonaerospace applications include automotive drive by light, industrial automation, dense computing, and all optical computing.

Wavefront Research, Inc.
616 West Broad Street
Bethlehem, PA 18018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 694-9778
Thomas W. Stone
AF 09-003      Awarded: 1/21/2010
Title:EXTREME ENVIRONMENT OPITCAL INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOIGES FOR INTRA-BOX AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The goal of this Phase-I SBIR effort is to establish the feasibility, performance, and advantages of novel module-to-module, card-to-card, card-to-box, and related optical interconnect devices for extreme environment aerospace applications. These technologies support both single mode and multi mode fibers and waveguides, are compact with small footprints, lightweight, support hundreds of channels, and are optimized for use in extreme aerospace environments tolerating the effects of shock, vibration, temperature, humidity, pressure extremes, and EMI effects. Connectorized versions allow for simple removal and replacement of cards in the box, and are both tolerant of contamination and readily cleanable. Finally, these devices are capable of low insertion loss, low crosstalk, and broad spectral performance. Specialized versions are optimized for a number of specific functions. The Phase-I effort includes design, modeling, and experimental demonstration of the feasibility of these devices, and a PHASE-II Engineering Development and Demonstration plan is developed. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefit from this research is the creation of a family of high performance intra- box optical interconnect devices that both decrease system size, weight, volume, and cost as well as increase system reliability and maintainability. This technology is initially focused on DoD markets, but will be expanded into commercial aerospace and Fly-by- Light markets, digital information handling systems, automotive systems, and related markets.

GoHypersonic Inc.
714 E. Monument Ave Suite 119
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Lance S Jacobsen
AF 09-004      Awarded: 1/20/2010
Title:Innovative Aerodynamic Measurement for Integrated Hypersonic Inlets
Abstract:This SBIR gives GHI the chance to evolve our measurement techniques within our overarching design-to-test process. If we can develop rapid instrumentation design methods and techniques that can enable us to quickly evaluate and fix problems with existing designs and quickly develop new designs with well thought out diagnostics, this would enable us to offer a complete service to new and existing programs in the aerospace community. This proposed SBIR program provides GHI the opportunity to develop tools which permit the development of rapid instrumentation arrays based on CFD simulations for performance quantification and troubleshooting, minimally-intrusive optical access for the hard-to-reach internal duct sections and automated instrumentation topologies for use with Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to enable a short transition from instrumentation concepts to wind-tunnel model generation using rapid prototyping techniques. The capabilities and tools developed here could be used to develop and improve inlet designs and accelerate other hypersonic-related design and testing programs within our company and the US aerospace community. BENEFIT: With respect to this proposal, commercialization is not only the selling of our design services; it also means that the technology developed here could provide a breakthrough opportunity and permit the widespread use of our services. Our proposed instrumentation and inlet model design techniques would greatly improve the data capture ability of small-scale inlets, greatly improving experimental investigations with rapid prototyped inlets. If we can provide a cost effective design and testing service with the ability to rapidly instrument and test models with a great deal of instrumentation at a relatively small price, then this would offer opportunities within the DOD, NASA and the US aerospace community. In addition to scramjet inlets, the tools developed here could be used on any other aerodynamic wind tunnel test article, enabling new business within other sectors of the wind-tunnel testing market, including UAV and auto-industry testing.

Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-4980
Jim Crafton
AF 09-004      Awarded: 1/25/2010
Title:Innovative Aerodynamic Measurement for Integrated Hypersonic Inlets
Abstract:Hypersonic propulsion systems are Hypersonic propulsion systems are characterized by high Mach number gas flows over vehicle surfaces and internal ducts. The flow often includes shock waves, shear layers, vortices, and separated flows. The ability to measure surface quantities such as pressure and skin friction on a hypersonic inlet model would provide increased insight into the complex flow characteristics that govern inlet performance. Unfortunately, nonintrusive sensors require optical access that has been difficult to obtain. Optical sensors for measurements of pressure (Fast Pressure Sensitive Paint) and skin friction (Surface Stress Sensitive Films) offer non-intrusive measurements on surfaces, exactly the capability that is needed to study hypersonic inlets. Unfortunately, the size of the cameras and light sources that are used in these systems have precluded their use in regions like an internal duct. During the past several years, camera and LED technology has evolved dramatically resulting in small packages for both imaging and illumination. Combining this new hardware with state-of-the-art optical technology for fast PSP and S3F measurements will result in a pair of sensors that can be miniaturized and utilized for non-intrusive measurements in traditionally inaccessible regions of the model. These measurements include continuous distributions of skin friction and unsteady pressure. BENEFIT: There is considerable interest in measurements of unsteady pressure and skin friction for evaluation of computational models and study of flow physics on hypersonic inlets, compressors, and other wind tunnel models with limited optical access. This system will provide advancement of the state-of-the-art in this field as the proposed research will develop a system for the measurement of continuous distributions of skin friction and pressure using a miniaturized imaging system for data acquisition. This miniaturized imaging package, and the associated Furthermore, the proposed technology is an optical sensor that is applied using spray coating techniques, and therefore, the sensor can be applied without modification to the model design.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Anthony Aeillo
AF 09-005      Awarded: 1/11/2010
Title:Cooperative and Fractional Redundancy for Cost-Effective Mixed-Critical Flight Control Systems
Abstract:The United States Air Force has a clear need for new unmanned assets that integrate with current assets in a mixed-initiative framework. The autonomy required by such assets, combined with the elevation of many mission-critical applications to flight-critical status, levies significant additional requirements for flight-critical computing and sensor hardware. Current approaches to this problem focus on integrating flight- and mission- critical software in order to avoid unnecessary replication of computer hardware. Sensors, however, remain unaddressed and require significant redundancy. Barron Associates will address this problem with two novel approaches to fault tolerance: cooperative redundancy and fractional redundancy. Cooperative redundancy allows a healthy aircraft to provide sensor data to a proximal aircraft that has experienced a sensor failure; fractional redundancy exploits analytical redundancy amongst sensors to reconstruct the value nominally supplied by a failed sensor. In the proposed research effort, Barron Associates will demonstrate cooperative redundancy by simulating an unmanned aircraft aiding another unmanned aircraft crippled by a sensor failure during the autoland flight phase. Barron Associates will also develop a general architecture for fractional redundancy and characterize the sensors to which both approaches are applicable. BENEFIT: Barron Associates anticipates a number of opportunities to apply this SBIR-developed technology to DoD programs. The DoD has a clear need for affordable unmanned assets that can integrate with current, manned assets. Hardware replication poses a challenge for affordability, yet single-string sensor suites offer insufficient reliability for flight-critical operations. Technologies like cooperative and fractional redundancy, which reduce hardware costs while maintaining suitable levels of reliability address this challenge and will help the DoD meet its need for affordable, reliable UAVs. Another evident application of the proposed fault-tolerance techniques is for manned aircraft. Fractional redundancy, in particular, has the potential to provide greatly improved failure isolation and recovery for critical sensors. Other potential uses of the proposed fault-tolerance technologies are in the areas of civilian UAVs intended to operate in the National Airspace as well as civilian manned aircraft. Last, fractional redundancy will offer the automotive sector cost reductions while maintaining overall sensor-suite reliability. There is an increasing trend in the automotive sector towards digital control systems for stability augmentation, braking, to four-wheel steering, etc., which will require reliable information from a diverse set of sensors.

Fiji Systems LLC
721 E North St. #1c
Indianapolis, IN 46202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 966-9592
Filip Pizlo
AF 09-005      Awarded: 12/18/2009
Title:High-Productivity, Assured, Mixed-Criticality Systems Development with Real-time Java
Abstract:This proposal will reduce certification costs due to the ability to partition low-criticality tasks and automate the generation of some certification artifacts using compiler techniques. By using Safety Critical Java as the source language, time and space partitioning will not entail expensive context switch cost or require additional memory for multiple operating system instances, which we expect will lead to better performance and lower resource usage. Furthermore, low-criticality tasks can use services such as real- time garbage collection and memory defragmentation to reduce development time while at the same time increasing software robustness. BENEFIT: Faster and less costly certification of mixed-criticality systems. Enabling avionics systems to leverage new technologies such as multi-cores and formal methods.

Real-Time Innovations
385 Moffett Park Drive, Suite 115
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 990-7420
Gordon Hunt
AF 09-005      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Technologies for Cost-Effective Mixed-Criticality Flight Control Systems
Abstract:UAVs must also operate over civilian populations; this imposes strict safety requirements. Traditionally, developers verify and validate entire software systems as a whole. This ensures that a problem in a non-critical component does not impact a safety-critical component. Unfortunately, testing the entire system is cost prohibitive, especially since it requires retesting when there is any change in any component. RTI proposes to develop a “mixed-criticality” separation middleware that allows building systems from independently-certified components. We will base our work on the widely-adopted Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard, extending it to separate communications by levels of criticality. As the leading DDS vendor, RTI is uniquely qualified to deliver and support this important technology. We will also work with top partners. Verocel, the leading provider of expertise and services for Software Verification, will provide tools and expertise to ensure that we build a certifiable design. Wind River Systems, the leading real-time operating system vendor, will ensure that our design works with separation kernels. Boeing, Northrop Grumman, and Raytheon will ensure practical application. This team will deliver a quality, certifiable architecture that works on real UAVs. This proposal will enable new UAV mission capabilities at affordable cost. BENEFIT: RTI was founded on the premise of successfully commercializing advanced research. RTI enjoys a 100th Percentile DoD SBIR Commercialization Achievement Index (CAI), placing it in the top 1% of companies receiving SBIR funding. Our basic strategy has two facets: (a) Providing research to AFRL will further the overall UAV flight control community’s effort to speed the adoption mixed-criticality technologies, thereby increasing general market demand for RTI products and services. (b) This research also will help in the certification and acceptance of our own “RTI Data Distribution Service, Safety Critical Edition” product offering. RTI Data Distribution Service, Safety-Critical Edition has been designed to the rigorous standards for safety certification, but is not yet certifiable. The overall market for this technology is emerging. To date, several commercial vendors are supplying pieces of the overall solution. We see our domain expertise, product performance, and customer support as primary differentiators between our potential competitors and us. We expect the proposed work done for this mixed-criticality SBIR effort will have applicability to both commercial and government unmanned system customers. Our architecture will let developers assemble precertified distributed components on an advanced UAV. It will support mixed-critical components and information flow, enforcing tightly controlled interactions. The final system will enable lower cost, lower power, smaller UAV designs that can execute complex missions. Most importantly, it will enable piecewise certification without requiring recertification of the entire UAV. This mixed-criticality distributed architecture will transform UAV designs.

WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Chris Walter
AF 09-005      Awarded: 1/27/2010
Title:Technologies for Cost-Effective Mixed-Criticality Flight Control Systems
Abstract:Future DoD systems, such as UAVs, will rely on greater functional integration and autonomy that create interactions among applications and resources that have mixed criticalities. WWTG’s innovations in this project will benefit the Air Force (and other DoD branches) by providing: 1) A tool-assisted design strategies for composing mixed critical system architectures based on Aspect Containment Regions (ACRs) mapped onto system partitions, 2) A middleware service that will assist and enforce the ACR mappings, 3) a means for non-invasive run-time diagnosis for detecting violations. A companion tool suite is used for analysis and certification using a model-based approach. In analyzing mixed critical architectures we utilize a component-based analysis approach centering on the representation of system security, safety, dependability and certification aspects within a comprehensive system architecture model. The process and tool can be used to reduce overall recertification costs while maintaining the required security, dependability, safety and real-time performance properties across the complete system life cycle. BENEFIT: Our approach contains many benefits when employed on complex high failure consequence systems that address system security, dependability, safety and life cycle cost. The key benefit that our technology provides is reduced system build/certification costs while maintaining high levels of system security, reliability and safety. By integrating system certification process sensitivities with system architectural models the cost drivers in the certification process are exposed and can be actively considered with other traditional design trade-offs. This leads to more cost effective initial designs and upgrades of existing systems. The integration of attributes for dependability and safety provide addition benefits; enabling early detection of reliability issues or potential safety violations, which in turn leads to deployed systems that are more robust and have lower cost due to elimination of expensive rework late in the development cycle. The benefits can be applied to any domain that relies on information flow and requires verification and certification of aspects for, security, dependability and safety. Foremost among these domains are DoD MILS/S, aircraft, ship control, C4I, grid computing, weapons systems and information security systems.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 848-5929
James Snider
AF 09-006      Awarded: 12/17/2009
Title:Structurally Embedded Power and Signal Cabling for Air Vehicles
Abstract:During the Phase I Program, Aurora will design and fabricate a small-scale demonstration article showcasing the developed embedded power systems technology. Design and manufacturing principals for the proposed embedded power systems technology will be developed as part of the Phase I Program. Test articles will be designed and fabricated using the developed principals and subsequently tested to determine system performance. Testing will consist of evaluating the embedment of conductive media and other portions of the developed embedded power system in a first order structural loading and temperature range. Recurring labor and qualitative manufacturing data will be collected during manufacture of the test articles which will be used to evaluate cost and developed manufacturing processes. Based on test and fabrication results, the embedded power system design and manufacturing principals will be revised in preparation for the fabrication of a large-scale article during the Phase II Program. BENEFIT: The need for structurally embedded power systems is primarily being driven by the U.S. defense industry for future aircraft development programs. The technology developed as a result of this program would find applications in both military and commercial aircraft applications. Aurora will work to develop this technology and transition any processes or techniques developed during the course of this program to the military and commercial sectors. Application of this technology to Department of Defense programs will help to allow reduced platform weight, decrease maintenance costs and provide the airframe designer with increased design possibilities. Aurora will market the design and manufacturing techniques developed during this program as a tool in the acquisition and development of new aircraft programs in both the military and commercial sectors. It is expected that the early market will include Department of Defense contractors and specifically programs focused on the development of advanced composite aircraft structures.

Minnesota Wire & Cable Co.
1835 Energy Park Drive
Saint Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 659-6763
Tom Kukowski
AF 09-006      Awarded: 12/7/2009
Title:Embedded Wire for Aircraft Applications
Abstract:The state of wiring in aging aircraft has been an increasing concern in recent years. Wire deteriorates with age and environmental conditions, particularly inflight vibration, which causes wires chafing. Wire failures can result in aircraft downtime, higher maintenance costs, mission failure, and even an aircraft crash. Composite materials may present a unique solution to the aging wire problem. Embedding wires in composite structure during manufacture has significant potential to reduce cost, weight, improve reliability, and most significantly, increase safety. It will also prevent exposure to extreme heat and cold temperature swings, humidity, salt damage associated with marine environments, contamination by aircraft fluids as well as in-flight vibration causing chafing of wires rubbing against other wires or the structure of the aircraft. This project aims to determine the feasibility of embedding wires in composite materials. Specifically, our technical objectives are: to review the wire requirements of aircraft in service with the U.S. Air Force; investigate the impact of embedding wire on structural integrity of composite materials; investigate novel mechanisms for forming stable electrical connections to embedded wires; and review test results and Air Force Requirements to assess the suitability of embedded wires for use in aircraft. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits of the research have both military and commercial applications. Military applications involve future vehicles featuring unitized composite structure such as:intelligence, transport aircraft, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) aircraft, and unmanned air systems. Commercial Applications involve commercial transportation systems that use composite structures such as buses, aircraft, trucks, ships, and automobiles.

Odyssian Technology, L.L.C.
511 East Colfax Avenue
South Bend, IN 46617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(574) 257-7555
Barton Bennett
AF 09-006      Awarded: 12/7/2009
Title:Structurally Embedded Power and Signal Cabling for Air Vehicles
Abstract:Odyssian Technology proposes to develop multifunctional “power-structure” technology for use in high performance military aircraft. Power-structure technology will involve the symbiotic coupling of structural stiffening with electrical interconnect functionality. This technology will ultimately result in higher performance air vehicles having reconfigurable or self-healing electrical power conductor grids and signal conductor networks embedded within advanced composite structures. The relatively large-area of the air vehicle structure will free-up design constraints by providing significantly larger area to allow for placement of highly redundant conductor networks and to provide greater surface area for improved thermal management. New structural configurations and material system designs will provide improved protection and insulation of the embedded electrical conductors. Novel ingress / egress concepts are proposed for connection of the structurally embedded electrical conductors and tubing or raceways to outside systems. Such concepts offer a variety of possible approaches for connection that are often derivatives or variations of existing proven connection methods. Concepts are also presented that offer the potential for reducing support structures, such as avionic racks. BENEFIT: Multifunctional structure with embedded electrical conductor interconnects will reduce purchase price or acquisition costs of land, air, and space vehicles by eliminating part count and the cost of protective jackets (i.e., harnesses), support brackets, clips, assembly, and installation In addition, weight and volume is reduced to improve system performance and operating efficiencies. Commercial applications exist in both the military and private sectors. Several emerging military platforms have an immediate need to minimize weight, volume, and cost. Private sector applications that are particularly sensitive to weight, volume, and cost include automobiles, recreational vehicle, satellites, and commercial aircraft.

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Srinivasan Arunajatesan
AF 09-007      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:High Speed Store Separation Data Acquisition Techniques
Abstract:The development of diagnostic techniques to simultaneously measure store trajectories and instantaneous flow state during store dispense at high speeds (Mach 2.0-5.0) from weapons bays is proposed. In Phase I of the proposed effort we will evaluate two different techniques for this purpose. The first technique is a photogrammetric method wherein sequences of store drop images obtained from a system of high speed cameras will be used to compute store position, velocities and accelerations. The second method is an onboard store telemetry system consisting of a pair of 3-axis linear accelerometers to obtain the 6-DOF movement of the store model, which will be transmitted back to a stationary receiver mounted in the tunnel roof. In both these methods, the store release will be synchronized with a series of surface pressure sensors on the weapons bay surface. This will allow a determination of the flow state at the time of release and during the entire drop event. The Phase II effort will carry out demonstrations of the systems to make quantitative measurement during wind tunnel drop testing over a wide range of Mach numbers and mature the technology for transition to the Air Force. BENEFIT: The successful development of the proposed measurement techniques during Phase II will result in a major improvement to the store certification process for internal weapons carriage systems. The procedures and methods developed here will significantly increase the reliability and safety of the procedures followed currently in the store certification process. The availability of this technique will also enable the further development of the store trajectory envelope prediction software CRAFT MCSD. The design of this SBIR product is such that it will seamlessly fit into the Seek Eagle certification process, with minimal changes to the current practices and method, while providing improved capability to the process. The strategy that CRAFT Tech will pursue involves strategic partnering and licensing with airframe and munitions prime contractors and/or sub-contractors. CRAFT Tech will provide the tools and models along with the knowledge, expertise and understanding necessary to develop platform-specific products that can be integrated into platform specific procedures. Other aircraft will be investigated for potential benefit, such as the B-1B, B-2, B-52, J-UCAS, F-117A, Long Range Strike Aircraft LRSA, etc.

Techshot, Inc.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Alan Jones
AF 09-007      Awarded: 1/27/2010
Title:Miniature Optically Synchronized Telemetry System (MOSTS)
Abstract:Techshot proposes an innovative solution to provide low cost time synchronized telemetry, flow diagnostics, and data collection to support small-scale wind tunnel free drop testing. A key feature is a synchronization technique for multiple data sources including high speed cameras to support proper correlation of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena. The proposed innovation uses software, electronics, and mechanics combined in a novel way by Techshot’s multi-disciplined engineering team to provide a low cost solution suitable for an expendable free drop model. Techshot technology from current weapons testing programs provides a miniature data acquisition design that can fit in small scale free drop models. High speed data collection and spooling across a high data rate telemetry channel enables full six degrees of freedom inertial data as well as temperature and pressure information to be collected before the free drop model is destroyed at the end of the tunnel. Flow diagnostics are supported through the correlated video of thin film coatings or pressure sensitive paint viewed at multiple angles. These features combined to enable a new level of testing and analysis to support characterizing separating payloads from a variety of parent vehicles in the Mach 2 to 5 ranges. BENEFIT: Techshot’s innovative solution is anticipated to provide an inexpensive technique to enable telemetry, control, and data acquisition during small-scale wind tunnel free drop testing. Further, the innovative data synchronization technique will provide a new level of synchronization between multiple data systems. Miniature electronics provide physical data acquisition from within the model at a level never before possible. The synchronization technique allows multiple cameras to be synchronized with each other as well as with the telemetry data. This new capability will allow the use of thin film or pressure sensitive paint to be used effectively in the study of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena. In addition, the synchronization capability allows multi-dimensional flowfield diagnostic views to be correlated in new ways. The small size allows the use of economical small-scale wind tunnels so that more testing can be accomplished. The new level of testing is anticipated to provide a new level of safety validation to support future weapon system design.

AdValue Photonics Inc
4585 S. Palo Verde, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-5468
Shibin Jiang
AF 09-008      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Isolator for Fiber Laser Amplifier Arrays
Abstract:High power fiber lasers have made significant progress in last several years. Several kW of output power has been demonstrated, which enables a wide range of new applications from laser welding, laser cutting, and laser drilling to military defense. While high power fiber lasers have been successfully deployed in industry, one piece of critical components, fiber isolator, is still not available. For the moment, free-space isolator has to be used. In this proposal, we propose to develop an all-fiber isolator for 1 micron high power fiber lasers and amplifiers. An all-fiber isolator with multi-hundreds throughput power level will be demonstrated and delivered. Successful development of this proposed all-fiber isolator will enable many new applications of high power fiber lasers, and revolutionize high power fiber laser and amplifier developments. BENEFIT: This proposed all-fiber isolator can be used for current DoD high power 1 micron fiber lasers and amplifiers programs. It can also be used for industrial high power fiber lasers. The development of this proposed all-fiber isolator can extend the life of many fiber lasers and amplifiers, further improve the reliability of fiber lasers, and enable coherent beam combining.

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
152 E Garry Av.
Santa Ana, CA 92707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
Ivan Tomov
AF 09-008      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Coherent Broadband Fiber-Array Laser (CBFAL)
Abstract:Compact, high power, 100 kW class plug-in efficient lasers, although difficult to develop, are critical for various applications. Existing solutions to this problem, based on coherent or incoherent combining of multiple fiber channels, have shown limited success. A new paradigm must be considered, encompassing both fundamental properties and practical results, to meet the challenging requirements of perfecting compact and high-power effective laser systems with high-quality output beam. An alternative solution to this problem is to couple the fiber channels inside a combined open cavity. Preliminary experimental data has demonstrated that this automatically solves the problem of mutual phase synchronization of the multiple channels. This proposal describes an innovative approach to developing a power-scalable fiber-array laser with a united output beam. The proposed method is inherently robust and auto-matches the spectral and polarization characteristics of individual channels. This should allow development of a laser system with an output power exceeding the multi-kW level. This Phase I effort includes design and analysis of a prototype system, along with laboratory measurements, to demonstrate concept feasibility. In addition, a commercialization strategy will be identified in order to market the system. During Phase II a prototype system will be built, tested, and demonstrated. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the technology developed in this project will enable the construction of viable commercial high-power CW fiber array lasers. A scalable, high-power laser system composed of a variable number of phase-matched channels will find immediate application in industries such as high-precision laser cutting, welding and cleaning, commercial marking and packaging, medical and surgical applications, and remote sensing and free-space communications. Possible military applications include target acquisition, non-visible high brightness illuminators, ranging and tracking, and long-range missile interception. They can also be used to identify and track chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction.

Optical Engines Inc
842 S Sierra Madre St Ste D
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(815) 301-5922
Donald L Sipes Jr
AF 09-008      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Ultra Compact Multi kW Fiber Amplifier Platform
Abstract:The key contributor to size and weight of a multi kW fiber laser array is the final power amplifier. Utilizing Optical Engines multi fiber coupled laser diode stacks and large diameter fiber pump combining technology, an ultracompact multi kW fiber power amplifier having a size < .01m3/kW and weight < 3kg/kW will be designed and validated, showing scaling ability to 6kw in a single stage. BENEFIT: kW class fiber amplifiers and lasers for the foundations for many applications requiring these high powers including directed energy, industrial material processing and high power remote sensing and long range optical communications.

AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Kent Taylor
AF 09-009      Awarded: 2/26/2010
Title:Measurement of laser irradiance on target for directed energy weapons
Abstract:The Laser Irradiance Measurement on Target (LIMT) project will provide a sensor mesh for direct, on-target measurement of laser beam characteristics of interest (e.g., irradiance level, beam size, time history of beam shape). Activities during Phase 1 of this project include identification and prioritization of requirements; design of system and subsystem components; evaluation of component designs against customer-defined requirements (including hardware testing of components as required); and recommendation for development and implementation in Phase 2. Analysis will provide sufficient data for improving lethality of US laser weapons and hardening US systems against the effects from opposition laser weapons. BENEFIT: AEgis has received Government and commercial requests for lower irradiance instrumentation from Air Force, Navy, and Boeing-SVS customers. We have received specific design requirements from NSWC-Dahlgren and AFRL/RDTA that support counter-UAS testing at a venue called “Black Dart” (an annual field demonstration held at China Lake that was initially focused on the asymmetric attack threat of COTS UAS technology). This event is now sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (OSD AT&L) and co-sponsored by the Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense Office (JIAMDO). This is a recurring venue that currently has no government scoring mechanism and could benefit from LITISM. AEgis had already made contact with the JIAMDO Black Dart lead (Lt Col Frederick). Future testing opportunities include Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) Extended User Evaluation testing with the 46th Test Wing at Eglin (the sponsors of an AEgis SBIR on DE instrumentation) and the Maritime Laser Demonstration (a Navy effort to put lasers on a ship in the next 18 months and demonstrate their effectiveness) – AEgis has made contacts with both of these organizations. During the transition phase, we will coordinate with the AFRL customer on further development of the HEL sensor mesh, including development of variants to meet specific needs for individual laser systems (if it proves necessary to develop a highly tuned sensor that is sensitive to a specific wavelength). AEgis will provide technical assistance to the AFRL customer, conducting market research as required to highlight technology transfer opportunities for commercial use of HEL sensors. For example, we have discussed using TISM-type irradiance sensors to aid in aligning solar collectors to capture maximum sunlight intensity.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Chien-Chung Chen
AF 09-009      Awarded: 2/26/2010
Title:Speckle enhanced high energy laser irradiance imaging system
Abstract:Optical Physics Company (OPC) is currently developing a remote HEL Irradiance Imaging Sensor (I2S) under a U.S. Army sponsored Directed Energy Test and Evaluation Capability (DETEC) contract. The proposed SBIR project presents a cost effective pathway to enhance the I2S bandwidth using dynamic laser speckle imaging. The end result is absolute HEL irradiance image of the target with 1 cm resolution at 5 km range at 5 KHz with the added the capability to track the jitter and drift of the HEL on the target to about 5 mm accuracy. The main advantages of this remote imaging system are its non- intrusiveness, operational flexibility, survivability, cost effectiveness, and 24 hour operation capability. Phase I investigation will verify the speckle imaging enhancement to I2S in the lab at TRL 4 scaled to a 5 km ground-to-air HEL engagement. The lab results will be incorporated with an analytic performance model and anchored to wave optic simulation. Phase I work will conclude with a design of the TRL 5 atmospheric demonstration planned for Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed HEL irradiance mapping technology serves immediate needs in several HEL testing programs as evidenced by the 2004 DETEC Tri-Service Study which identified ground and airborne target irradiance measurements as one of its five HEL shortfalls. OPC is already a participant in DETEC’s risk reduction effort for the Airborne Target Irradiance and Imagery Measurement (ATIM) Test-bed. If this project is successful, by the end of 2012, AFRL will have a fully functional irradiance sensor system at White Sands meeting all of the requirements specified in the solicitation.

Scientific Applications & Research Assoc., Inc.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Michael Zintl
AF 09-009      Awarded: 2/26/2010
Title:Conformable, Disposable, Y2O3 Bead Array for HEL Measurement
Abstract:SARA’s Conformable, Disposable, Yttrium-Oxide Bead Array fills a key test and evaluation need in the directed energy community by facilitating local imaging of a high-energy-laser incident on a payload such that neither airflow dynamics nor power incident on the payload are unduly compromised. The camera-based imaging system is lightweight, easy to deploy, conformable to the chosen payload, is adaptable to a number of configurations including stationary target boards, towed bodies, missiles and mortar shells, and uses a minimum of complicated parts. Perhaps most important, the system has a unit- replacement material and fabrication cost as little as $10K, the expense of which, in relation to an expensive test day, is insignificant. SARA looks forward to working with the Air Force on this important HEL-diagnostic mission. BENEFIT: The development of a low cost, portable and disposable target board capable of measuring the irradiance profile of a High Energy Laser in proximity to the target is of paramount importance in diagnosing the laser target interaction. In order to assist the ABL lethality program in determining the vulnerability of boosting missile and optimizing the kill probability of a laser weapons system, the incident laser beam profile on target must be known with a high degree of accuracy. The proposed solution has the unique capability of monitoring the incident beam irradiation profile during live fire engagements without interfering with the lethality function of the laser weapon.

G A Tyler Assoc. Inc. dba the Optical Sciences Co.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Terry J. Brennan
AF 09-010      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:Spatial-Temporal Control Applied to Atmospheric Adaptive Optics
Abstract:A framework for studying the statistics of optical turbulence in an airborne platform is being proposed. This framework accounts for static, determined dynamic (or flowing), and random aberrations. It is recognized that the random aberrations due to the aero- optic boundary layer turbulence are not statistically homogeneous. This is handled with a quasi-homogenous model for analysis. This data analysis leads to the statistical information required to design a minimum variance phase estimator along with a detailed description of the noise covariance. Signal, camera, and speckle noise are modeled in detail for the phase estimator. The phase estimator along with a high fidelity deformable mirror model is used to develop a dynamic pseudo openloop control law. This control law will be tested against detailed simulation data over a range of stressing parameters and compared to more traditional control schemes. BENEFIT: The ability to successfully exploit the characteristics of the optical disturbance, both free space turbulence and aero-optics boundary layer turbulence, in an adaptive optics compensation scheme will significantly reduce the burden on the hardware requirements. In particular an optimal control design will require less temporal and spatial bandwidth as well as operate in lower and noisier signals which reduce requirements on the laser power and coherence length. This translates to less expensive, smaller, and lighter sensors, processors, and lasers.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 684-4100
Matt Whiteley
AF 09-010      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Spatial-Temporal Control Applied to Atmospheric Adaptive Optics
Abstract:MZA proposes the development of linear-time-invariant predictive controllers for use in adaptive optics (AO) systems to reduce the degradation associated with finite wavefront sensor sample rate and latency. These predictive AO controllers will provide equivalent performance to fully-adaptive methods, but are simpler in design/operation and more transparent to users than adaptive control. We will investigate variations on these techniques including periodic updating of the predictor model, and alternative implementations that may be integrated with adaptive control when feasible. We will address the synergy offered by predictive control when employed with flow regularization for an aero-optical shear layer. We will test an integrated flow regularization and AO control solution using wind tunnel data with variable flow rates and variable forcing frequencies. Wave-optics models will be developed incorporating the predictive controllers and simulations will be conducted to test our controller with aero- optics and free-stream atmospheric turbulence. A preliminary design for the software and hardware needed to implement the control method in real-time will be developed. MZA has partnered with UCLA (Prof. Gibson) and the University of Notre Dame (Prof. Jumper) for this Phase I program. BENEFIT: Robust adaptive optics compensation of aero-optics and free-stream turbulence for tactical aircraft-based lasers requires predictive control methods which will address performance degradation resulting from finite sample rate of wavefront sensors and the associated latency. Our Phase I program will result in adaptive optics (AO) control techniques which exploit the spatial and temporal properties of the disturbance, enabling reduced bandwidth requirements for sensors supporting these operations. When coupled with flow regularization actuators, the AO control will mitigate shear-layer disturbances associated with aircraft-mounted laser turrets. The result will be robust adaptive optics compensation for aero-optics and free-stream providing higher irradiance on target from directed energy weapon systems and improved bandwidths for laser communication. The enhancement of laser communications will enable robust optical data transfer to and from military and commercial aircraft. Commercial airlines could incorporate such technology into laser transceivers on-board their aircraft so that broadband internet, voice, and entertainment services could be provided in-flight with no interference to aircraft navigation systems.

Tau Technologies LLC
PO Box 9334
Albuquerque, NM 87119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 244-1222
Timothy Clark
AF 09-010      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Spatial-Temporal Control Applied to Atmospheric Adaptive Optics
Abstract:Our proposed approach is to generate a physics- and data-based characterization of the dominant spatio-temporal modes of the phase-perturbation due to the near-field turbulent environment of an aircraft-mounted turret-based system. This modal description will depend on view angle, and will be synchronized in flight, prior to engagement. The modes will represent the necessary corrections to a deformable mirror (DM) to correct for not only the “mean deformations” due to the potential field, but also for the optical effects of the coherent spatio-temporally varying vortex fields that are predominant in the wake of the turret. BENEFIT: If this approach is successful, it will result in an improved ability to image and to compensate directed energy weapons through wakes and through shear layers. This approach will thus extend the view angle, and hence the utility of airborne imaging and directed energy systems.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 747-6881
Russ Vernon
AF 09-011      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Conformal High Energy Laser Weapon System
Abstract:The weight, cost and volume drivers for a solid state HEL system on an aircraft are the HEL devices and the HEL transmitting telescope gimbals. The HEL bulk devices now being developed employ complicated optical amplifiers and resonators.. The Gimbals are housed in a turret projecting from the aircraft. The turret creates aero-optics HEL beam degradation. Recent developments in fiber laser and wide angle non-mechanical beam steering technology offers an HEL weapons approach that reduces size and weight considerably and allows conformal window(s) at the beam output(s) which eliminates the protruding turret and mitigate the associated aero-optics degradation. Temporally coherent fiber lasers of 1 to 3 kw will be available in the near future. Projecting these fiber beams through small apertures (with constrained sparseness) comparable to the atmospheric coherence length and coherently combining these lasers at the target will allow irradiance on target equivalent to the diffraction limit of the additive area of all the small apertures. The objective of this SBIR is to develop a conformal high energy laser weapon system design concept for high performance jet fighter aircraft which achieves on-target performance comparable to a 25 kW bulk laser with a 30 cm diameter conventional beam control system. BENEFIT: Replacing the bulk solid state laser with fiber lasers and replacing the gimbal and dome with a Wide Angle Steering System and conformal window will result in an architecture sufficiently small and light to enable tactical beam control from high performance aircraft. The organizing theme of this effort also creates and encourages early synergy and compatibility between the laser subsystems and the various disciplines that contribute to the design process used in implementing the HEL weapon system architecture. The methodology developed in this program can be used as a tool by the services for other laser system architectures or other military or commercial applications to insure the optimal design architecture for those systems will result in acceptable performance, smaller size, lighter weight and lower cost.

Nutronics, Inc.
3357 Chasen Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 524-7933
Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF 09-011      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Conformal High Energy Laser Weapon System
Abstract:The cumbersome beam director and turret associated with conventional high energy laser (HEL) weapon systems pose a significant barrier to integration of HEL technology on aircraft. Development of a viable conformal HEL system architecture based on phased array lasers would provide a critical enabling capability for aircraft that would also be relevant to ground based platforms. Nutronics, Inc. proposes a Phase I effort to investigate its Conformal Laser Weapon System (CLAWS) architecture. CLAWS leverages an innovative Nutronics HEL phasing approach that phases from the master oscillator to the target. CLAWS is conformal, realizing the vision of phased array laser systems. CLAWS does not use a beacon illuminator, instead using the return from the HEL beam on the target for phasing the HEL. CLAWS is not degraded by time of flight. CLAWS utilizes an innovative non-iterative phased array imaging method. The proposed effort will verify the capability of CLAWS using simulation and will evaluate key system trades associated with capability, size, weight, and power requirements for CLAWS to meet capability of a 25 kW laser with a 30 cm beam director. Trades will be characterized by subaperture fill factor and field of regard, enabling downselect of beam steering technologies. BENEFIT: The proposed effort has numerous potential benefits and commercial applications, including (but not limited to): laser communication, space situational awareness, astronomical ground based imaging, laser radar, laser rangefinding, aircraft self defense (both commercial and military), air-base defense, ship self-defense, and tactical precision strike.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Richard A. Hutchin
AF 09-011      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Conformal high energy laser (HEL) with aimpoint selection and maintenance
Abstract:Optical Physics Company (OPC) is proposing to develop a conformal HEL architecture that provides a complete tactical HEL system for an airborne platform. The OPC solution addresses all of the shortfalls in the state of the art, providing complete solutions for subaperture phasing, pointing, acquisition and tracking, as well as stray light control and aimpoint selection and maintenance. The near term goal is to achieve similar on-target performance to that of a 30 cm conventional beam control system using a 25 kW laser. At the same time, the technology scales well to 2 meter class apertures and Megawatt power levels for an ABL-type capability for a small fraction of the size, weight and cost. OPC’s past and ongoing efforts in deep turbulence correction, 3D atmospheric characterization, fiber laser subaperture phasing, beacon-less HEL architecture, and HEL boresight sensor provide an excellent basis for this conformal design. During Phase I trade studies will be conducted to better define and optimize the conformal architecture components in cooperation with our technology transition partner. In particular, the transmitter subapertures, sensor subapertures, processing and control functions will be evaluated to select final designs for the prototypes to be fabricated and tested in Phase II. BENEFIT: Tactical and long-range HEL systems are set to transform military operations in all services in the next 10-20 years. Much faster than missiles and with surgical precision, they will be extraordinarily effective against other weapons systems with minimal collateral damage. Conformal HEL designs promise extremely lightweight, high performance and cost-effective options which can enhance utility and speed deployment. On this project, OPC is teamed with a prime contractor who is a key player in high power fiber lasers as well as fighter jet production which supports the near-term application of a conformal HEL system on that platform.

Emergent Space Technologies, Inc
6301 Ivy Lane Suite 720
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 345-1535
David Gaylor
AF 09-012      Awarded: 3/16/2010
Title:Data Fusion Strategies for Automated, Distributed Tracking of Space Objects
Abstract:The Air Force goal of persistent space situation awareness will be achieved in part by the integrated application of distributed sensors appropriately exploited through advanced methods of fusion and automated analysis. This proposal aims to provide commanders with automated, real-time knowledge-enabled decision making capabilities necessary to avoid direct and observable conflict in space while dominating the space arena utilizing precise information and enhanced and automated decision-making capability. The driving goal of this proposed work is to fully integrate information operations among the various distributed resident space object tracking facilities. This proposal describes a plan to lay the foundation for a system-theoretic approach to fusing space object tracking data from a variety of distributed traditional and non-traditional measurements at both the local and network levels. The basic idea is to first utilize a hierarchical mixture-of-experts architecture regulated by learning networks to fuse the information from multiple sensors and information sources at local tracking stations and to then fuse the information and decisions from these multiple tracking stations at the network level to assess a situation in terms of threat and/or impact in a timely manner. BENEFIT: With precise information and enhanced, automated decision-making capability, commanders can be equipped with the knowledge-enabled decision making capabilities necessary to avoid direct and observable conflict in space while dominating the space arena. The driving goal of this proposed work is to fully integrate information operations among the various distributed resident space object (RSO) tracking facilities in order to fuse intelligence and operations to produce action plans that can be executed in real time. The hierarchical mixture-of- experts architecture and algorithms fuse information from multiple sensors and sources of information at local tracking stations and then fuse information and decisions from multiple tracking stations at a network level to assess a situation in terms of threat and/or impact in a timely manner. The architecture and algorithms developed during Phase 2 will be developed into a software product that could be incorporated into Analytical Graphic, Inc. (AGI)’s Orbit Determination Toolkit (ODTK) as an add-on module or integrated into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) based ground system. This product could then be integrated into the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS). Incorporating this software into ODTK as an add-on module would enable Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. to leverage the sales and marketing infrastructure of AGI to provide the widest possible dissemination and usage of the technology developed under this SBIR.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Aubrey Poore
AF 09-012      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Advanced Estimation and Data Fusion Strategies for Space Surveillance/Reconnaissance
Abstract:Space surveillance or reconnaissance is that component of space situational awareness focused on the detection of resident space objects (RSOs) and the use of multisource data including available radar and electro-optical data to track and identify space objects. Our proposed program aims to develop modern and robust approaches to tracking RSOs through the use of advanced nonlinear estimation (filtering) and correlation techniques. In particular, we propose the use of an adaptive multiple hypothesis and multiple frame assignment tracker for the association engine, enabling one to adaptively change between single and multiple frame methods. Further, to handle the diversity of forces of an object that differ in different regimes of space, we propose specializing the use of multiple models including Hierarchical Mixture of Experts to space surveillance applications. The problem of identifying groups or classes of events such as maneuver/change detection along with the confidence in the classification is also addressed in the proposal. The additional use of non-traditional data to augment real-time metric data enables one to refine overall event assessment and ultimately ensure a more robust and reliable system for tracking. BENEFIT: The first anticipated benefit from the proposed program will be the development of a modern and robust approach to tracking space objects through the use of modern nonlinear estimation and correlation techniques. A second anticipated benefit will be significant advance in change and maneuver detection. The combination ensures a robust system for tracking and change/maneuver detection. The key commercialization of the proposed program would be a transition of the algorithms and software, either alone or embedded in a modern multiple target tracking system, to the JSpOC Mission Systems. This program also provides the opportunity to work with other contractors and the nation''s Air Force labs in support of the nation''s space protection and situational assessment programs utilizing Numerica''s strengths in all phases of multiple target tracking, modern control systems, sensors, sensor resource management, and situation assessment.

Pacific Defense Solutions, LLC
1300 N. Holopono St Suite 116
Kihei, HI 96753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 264-9813
Keric Hill
AF 09-012      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Advanced Estimation and Data Fusion Strategies for Space Surveillance/Reconnaissance
Abstract:The accurate tracking of resident space objects (RSO)s depends on the rapid estimation of orbits using the knowledge gained from sparsely sampled observations of satellites under the influence of interacting gravitational and drag effects. Examples of scenarios operating within this environment include tasking follow up observations of debris created from collision events, accurately establishing the identity of objects that are located within close proximity, and reacting to controlled on-orbit deployments of additional space objects. New near real time and computationally efficient algorithms that can estimate non-Gaussian RSO error characteristics are available that could characterize RSO error to a much higher fidelity than current methods. For example, it has been shown that typical “banana-shaped” covariance profiles displaying more uncertainty along-track, than cross-track are reproducible with this technique. This type of information combined with orbital estimates provides more actionable space situational awareness (SSA) knowledge. Combined with an innovative space surveillance network (SSN) simulator that uses smart scheduling of assets in a flexible and responsive publish-and-subscribe network environment, these algorithms will be developed and tested for their applicability to improving the speed, accuracy and responsiveness of RSO tracking. BENEFIT: Currently, the SSN uses the NORAD SGP4 orbit models for predicting satellite positions that do not have the associated covariance estimates. PDS will provide a performance assessment of utilizing these innovative orbit estimation and RSO track association algorithms developed under this project by testing their accuracy and responsiveness of RSO tracking against realistic use cases generated with an innovative space surveillance network (SSN) simulator. Once these algorithms are validated under “real world” simulations, PDS will test and validate these algorithms with actual SSN data. PDS intends to work closely with the Air Force in transferring technology for their critical objectives. The primary DoD end-customer for these algorithms is the JFCC-Space through the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which detects, tracks, and identifies all man-made objects in Earth orbit. Through current program experiences, PDS understands the acquisition process involved in transitioning algorithms from concept to validation, development, testing, (SMC SSA Technology Branch) and deliverance of an operational product to the warfighter (AF Space Command).

Farr Fields, LC
1801 Count Fleet St SE
Albuquerque, NM 81723
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Everett G. Farr
AF 09-013      Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title:Automated and Adaptive RF Effects Testing
Abstract:Testing electronics for vulnerability to radio frequency (RF) radiation is time-consuming, due to the large number of source variables of interest. One typically searches for the minimum electric field that causes upset, as a function of center frequency, pulse width, pulse repetition frequency, number of pulses, and bandwidth. It is impossible to test all combinations of all the variables, so one must intelligently select the source parameters most likely to expose a vulnerability. To select source parameters, we propose using standard techniques from minimization theory. We first select a few frequencies where the test object seems most vulnerable; either where the object is resonant, or at its operating frequency. At each frequency, we iteratively select source parameters, and test to find the E-field upset threshold. We then measure the local gradient of the threshold function and follow a steepest descent path. The source variables will all be controlled electronically. Also, one can automatically determine whether the test object has been upset, and send a reset command. Eventually, this will lead to a completely automated system, which will intelligently select the test parameters, monitor the status of the device, reset it as necessary, and converge on a minimum electric field upset threshold. BENEFIT: This research will lead to an efficient procedure to test components for vulnerability to RF radiation. During Phase I, a partially automated experiment will be set up to test the vulnerability of a mobile phone. If this research is successful, then Phase II would involve the complete automation of the procedure developed in Phase I. It would also involve developing the technique to automate the testing of more complicated devices, which might not be as easily tested as a mobile phone.

Nokomis, Inc
310 5th St.
Charleroi, PA 15022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 483-3946
Stephen Freeman
AF 09-013      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Autonomous and Adaptive Technique to Collect and Analyze RF Effects Data
Abstract:High-Power Microwave and Radio-Frequency Directed Energy Weapon (HPM/RF DEW) Technologies effectively engage electronic systems in mission scenarios, debilitating or disrupting critical functionality. Optimal selection of HPM/RF DEW source parameters is dependent upon both the inherent susceptibility of the circuitry and the ease with which RF radiation couples from the outside of a system to the circuitry within. A number of techniques exist to identify the key source parameters; however, all are not without their shortcomings. This proposal offers an innovative empirically-driven automated testing technique to quickly determine the coupling cross-section, inherent susceptibility and level of device disruption for targets of interest. The technique exploits the underlying mechanisms by which RF energy is coupled into a device to dissect the multi-variable optimization problem into two discrete analysis steps, significantly simplifying the determination of the optimal set of source parameters. BENEFIT: The finalized system would generate a large database of RF effects quickly. The Department of Defense and commercial entities looking to gain confidence in the RF immunity of their products would benefit from the availability of such an analysis. Indeed, it is much cheaper to include RF mitigation/hardening from the start, rather than to retrofit systems in the field. Retrofitting can cost 10 to 15 times as much as an initial design adjustment. Although improved gaskets, seal materials, designs, and metalized composite materials are becoming available to improve shielding, verification that these components are effective is an arduous process. Manufacturers in this area would directly benefit from the proposed research and engineering, and customers would gain confidence in the electromagnetic hardening of these solutions.

Voss Scientific, LLC
418 Washington St., S.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-4201
Donald Voss
AF 09-013      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Automated Susceptibility Test Architecture (ASTA) for the Efficient Determination of RF Susceptibility of Electronic Systems
Abstract:Voss Scientific proposes an innovative methodology to determine the susceptibility of electronic systems to electromagnetic interference. Termed the Automated Susceptibility Test Architecture (ASTA), this novel adaptive approach will result in decreased test times and potentially discover unique waveforms that will substantially reduce the intensity of the microwave illumination required to cause the desired effect. The architecture includes an agile RF source controlled by an intelligent automation application. By reducing the required intensity, missions scenarios which were previously impractical will be within reach. The potential benefits of this technique include smaller High Power Microwave (HPM) sources, longer stand off ranges, more reliable results, improved hardening methods, and reduced collateral effects on unintended targets. In addition, the autonomous technique proposed will greatly increase the breadth and number of illumination conditions which can be achieved in the time available for testing, and reduce the manpower required to execute the test. This improvement in efficiency is highly beneficial to both commercial EMI and military applications. By leveraging the previous investment by the Air Force in both RF / microwave test equipment and data acquisition software, a demonstration of this concept can be completed within the constraints of Phase I funding. BENEFIT: The capability to explore the RF illumination parameter space with both increased breadth and detail using an automated system will provide enormous benefit to both the military HPM community and the commercial EMI industry. The primary benefit to the military is the capability to perform previously impossible missions. The reduced susceptibility levels obtainable with this technique will allow the use of smaller sources at longer standoff distances. This capability also provides the information needed to improve RF shielding and hardening for US systems, providing an increased level of confidence on the battlefield. In addition, the customized waveform produced by the system is unique to the target asset. This greatly reduces the probability of undesired collateral effects on unintended targets. The commercial EMI industry will also benefit from improved hardening capabilities provided by this approach and by the general test automation methodology. The improved efficiency and reduced manpower required for the test will be an advantage to both military and commercial users.

APPLIED ENERGETICS
3590 East Columbia St
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 628-7415
Eric Koschmann
AF 09-014      Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:Advanced Dielectric Insulation Techniques for High Voltage Pulsed Power Systems
Abstract:Current state-of-the-art, high voltage, pulsed power systems designed to drive high power microwave (HPM) sources utilize Marx generator designs. The high voltage insulation of these devices has been traditionally based on either high dielectric strength oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The dielectric strength of the insulating medium determines the minimum size of the tank enclosure of the Marx generator since it determines the maximum voltage standoff between the fully erected Marx output voltage and the tank wall. We propose to develop an advanced insulating technique based on our patented nested high voltage generator. This technique uses solid insulation with field grading foils that minimized the distance from the fully erected voltage and the tank wall. This proposal describes such a device, expected space savings, and how we plan to model, build, and test a unit based on this construction. BENEFIT: The potential decrease in volume by 40% of high voltage pulsed devices due to this technology makes possible smaller, light-weight payloads for airborne HPM equipment. This can also be used in commercial high voltage applications such as pulsed x-ray or electron beam equipment. This is also beneficial in any mobile pulsed high voltage application where size and weight are critical design factors.

Applied Physical Electronics, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Thomas Holt
AF 09-014      Awarded: 2/26/2010
Title:Advanced Dielectric Insulation Techniques for High Voltage Pulsed Power Systems
Abstract:Directed energy has emerged as a prime military technology for attack and for defense. A major problem with presently available directed energy systems is the size, weight and volume of the power systems which is a function of the high-voltage, dielectric insulation techniques employed. Advancing insulation techniques, either by increasing dielectric strength of materials, by applying sophisticated design methodologies to create laminated dielectrics, or by using innovative manufacturing techniques to implement grading rings, all act to reduce system volume by maximizing insulation performance. APELC proposes to investigate innovative solid-dielectric insulation approaches and assess their effectiveness under transient conditions. The first proposed approach would employ a laminated insulator created by alternating coaxial layers of insulating materials. The second proposed approach would consist of grading rings comprised of the same moderately conducting compounds used in the previous method; however, the alignment of the rings would be in the axial direction. A combination of these two methods should help mitigate bulk breakdown through the insulator and surface flashover along the length of the insulator, two problems that are prevalent in compact Marx generators. BENEFIT: Power Industry, Automotive Industry, Consumer Electronics

Diversified Technologies, Inc.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Nick Reinhardt
AF 09-014      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:Advanced Dielectric Insulation Techniques for High Voltage Pulsed Power Systems
Abstract:High voltage systems require extreme levels of insulation - to prevent arcing and corona. Therefore, reliable high voltage design typically requires large containers to provide room for such insulator interfaces. Our proposal is to “bring in the walls” by designing a conformal blanket of laminated insulating material, which can safely and reliably withstand very high potential drops over small gaps. Our proposed solution is to use solid dielectrics in a laminate of thin films, with controlled grading of the film boundaries to produce a High Voltage Protective Blanket. We do not propose embarking on a materials development effort in this SBIR – we plan to engineer a solution to make the most of available materials. In this way, we can substantially increase the acceptable gradients in high voltage systems for moderate cost – enabling a new generation of compactness and reliability to high voltage engineering. BENEFIT: Compact, reliable electrical insulating materials will have significant impacts on the size and weight of future military systems, including Directed Energy, High Power Microwave, Radar, and Laser systems. This insulating technology will allow these systems to be smaller and lighter, enhancing their deployability on airborne, space, and transportable platforms. Similarly, the use of this compact insulating materials designed in this SBIR will significantly reduce the size and weight of commercial systems utilizing high voltage, including medical accelerators for cancer treatment, food processing, materials modification, and semiconductor implantation.

Bennett Aerospace, LLC
2054 Kildaire Farm Road #181
Cary, NC 27518
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 859-5454
Douglas Bennett
AF 09-017      Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title:Holographic Waveguide Visor Display
Abstract:Bennett Aerospace proposes to develop a transparent visor for helmet-mounted display (HMD) applications. The novel visor utilizes the wave-guiding characteristics of light to provide a low mass and a large eye box. BENEFIT: The revolutionary technology provides significant improvements in terms of mass, cost, volume and optical performance. Bennett Aerospace’s approach allows for a larger field of vision, offers user-friendly ergonomics, and can be readily integrated within current aviator helmets.

HOLOEYE Systems, Inc.
6150 Yarrow Drive Suite F
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 603-8140
Peter Zeidler
AF 09-017      Awarded: 4/9/2010
Title:Holographic Waveguide Visor Display (HWVD)
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to develop a binocular see-through HWVD reference design. The optical system will couple a state of the art high resolution 1920x1080 LCOS microdisplay with a state of the art holographic waveguide. The optical design will attempt to utilize the entire LCOS display to yield 1920x1080 resolution. Utilization of the waveguide will allow for a wide 40 degree (diagonal) FOV, while having a large 30x30 mm eyebox. With the advantages obtained by use of the optical waveguide and the small LCOS microdisplay, the proposed HWVD system should enable significant cost, volume, and weight reductions as compared to existing designs. The design will also address power and efficiency requirements consistent for a pilot HMD system. The proposed design will take advantage of the commercial viability of high resolution displays developed for the consumer HDTV market, which allows for panel costs at a fraction of what was available previously. Use of an LED light source will allow for utilization of specific wavelengths tailored to specific applications, and allow for any high brightness requirements. Looking at the waveguide roadmap, the design team will outline a path towards a full color HWVD with a larger FOV. BENEFIT: Production of a low cost binocular helmet mounted display using holographic waveguide and LCOS technology that can be used in multiple military and commercial applications.

optical resolutions, inc.
155 East Main Street Suite 308
Brewster, NY 10509
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 940-0457
Paul Weisman
AF 09-017      Awarded: 4/9/2010
Title:Holographic Waveguide Visor Display (HWVD)
Abstract:The USAF has defined the need to replace bulky, expensive, multi-element classical projection optics systems with light-weight, thin see-through diffractive optics in a waveguide configuration. A novel multiple holographic element design is proposed which is more efficient than conventional input-output gratings on a waveguide substrate. This multi - HOE design will increase the FOV and improve the light throughput for functional gaze angles within the eye box. The holographic structures will be spatially optimized by an exclusive post recording technique which adds a new degree of freedom in the hologram design as compared to traditional methods. Phase I optical design work will be complemented with fabrication and characterization of these unique spatially tuned holographic gratings which are critical to obtaining the desired system performance. Pathway to color is open since the holographic media is panchromatic. Using proprietary processes already developed for manufacture of LEP eyewear that incorporate holograms and a versatile qualified ballistic eyewear system with a unique two-part polycarbonate lens, transition to curved visor will be investigated to develop an integrated holographic waveguide display visor (HWVD). The technology offers a foundation for advancing HMD’s with broad functionality for both military and civilian forces. BENEFIT: Replace bulky, expensive, multi-element classical projection systems with lightweight, thin, see-through diffractive optics. Decrease weight and bulk on the head and improve ergonomics.

Vuzix Corporation
75 Town Centre Dr Suite H
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 359-5911
Joseph Rodibaugh
AF 09-017      Awarded: 4/22/2010
Title:Holographic Waveguide Visor Display (HWVD)
Abstract:Recent developments in holographic optics make it possible to replace current optical systems with light weight, see-through optics. The research proposed by Vuzix will determine the feasibility of a holographic waveguide visor display (HWVD). Vuzix will pursue an approach using newly refined holographic recording materials. This technology development must increase eye movement freedom by 100x while decreasing the space and weight requirements by 10X. The approach envisioned by Vuzix is also extensible to full-color displays and curved visors. The successful development of HWVD will allow the Air Force to field a lightweight head-mounted display (HMD) with the high acuity and field of view required by the warfighter. HWVDs have the potential to supersede existing display technologies, particularly in the defense and entertainment markets, much like the LCD has superseded the CRT. The HWVD is expected to be a near term replacement for aircraft helmet mounted displays, ground soldier head-mounted displays, training and simulation devices, and consumer video eyewear. BENEFIT: Development of the HWVD will allow the Air Force to field a lightweight HMD with the high acuity and field of view desired by the warfighter. Additional military applications such as light weight, high performance HMDs for ground forces, unmanned vehicle piloting and covert surveillance exist. Commercial applications range from mobile computing and consumer gaming to industrial inspection systems and next generation Televisions.

Chatten Associates, Inc.
1094 New Dehaven Avenue Suite 200
West , PA 19428
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 940-6040
Dale R. Tyczka
AF 09-018      Awarded: 4/22/2010
Title:Dichoptic Vision System (DiVS)
Abstract:Today’s head-mounted displays fall short of providing wide-FOV imagery with high visual acuity. One reason for this is the difficulty of creating lightweight, distortion-free wide- angle optics. Instead of attempting to recreate the entire visual field at high resolution, we propose to present a small, high-resolution foveal image to one eye and a larger, lower- acuity peripheral image to the other. This combination loosely mimics the human eye, in which high visual acuity is present only in the narrow foveal region. By limiting high- resolution imagery to only the foveal image, the wide-angle peripheral optics can be greatly simplified. To determine if this “dichoptic vision system” (DiVS), can be used effectively, we propose to build benchtop and head-aimed DiVS demonstrators using COTS components. The demonstrators will be used to evaluate design concepts, leading to a lightweight, wearable DiVS prototype to be built in Phase II. A reference binocular system (RBS) will also be designed. We will also design a set of human subjects experiments including tasks representative of those performed by pilots, ground vehicle drivers, dismounted soldiers and EOD robot operators. Our experimental plan will be submitted to one or more Institutional Review Boards for approval of performance in Phase II. BENEFIT: DARPA’s MANTIS program would specifically benefit from this effort’s hardware designs and experimental plan. A well-designed foveal/peripheral dichoptic vision system would also open up new capabilities for the display industry and enable HMD users to have much better situational awareness while also retaining the high visual acuity necessary for their primary tasks. All applications which require operators to view the world indirectly will benefit from this system. Specific examples include remote piloting of UAVs, ground vehicle driving using sensory inputs and EOD robot operation. If coupled to a head-aimed camera system, the benefits can be even further increased. The gaming and home entertainment markets could also benefit, as they constantly strive to improve their reproduction of the visible world.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Michael Browne
AF 09-018      Awarded: 4/22/2010
Title:Dichoptic Vision System (DiVS)
Abstract:The unlimited field of regard of head mounted displays (HMDs) provide military users significant advantages in situational awareness. Because of the limited resolution of the HMD display source, HMD designers are often faced with the “resolution/field of view invariant”, which says that an HMD can either have a wide field of view or a high resolution, but not both. One of the most promising ways to address this invariant is via the use of dichoptic imaging. Although the concept of dichoptic imaging is not new, there has not been a definitive study done that quantifies the advantages (and perhaps disadvantages) of dichoptic imaging for use in aircraft and soldier environments. SA Photonics has partnered with Rockwell Collins Optronics to investigate using dichoptic imaging to break the resolution/field of view invariant. We will do this in Phase I by using a benchtop dichoptic display system and a series of demonstrations and in Phase II with a prototype dichoptic HMD. For reference purposes, we will also use a baseline configuration where both eyes view the same high resolution, but NFOV image. If a dichoptic imaging system is proven to increase situational awareness, we will design a fieldable dichoptic HMD in Phase III. BENEFIT: The benefits of this project will be that we will collect evidence to either help prove or disprove the dichoptic hypothesis. If proven, it will open the doors to HMD designs that will significantly increase operator situational awareness. In addition, we will use this research to understand which parameters (resolution, brightness, etc.) might be adjusted to maximize user comfort and performance. If our research cast doubts on the validity of the dichoptic hypothesis, it will help ensure that research time and money are not spent unnecessarily on developing dichoptic HMDs.

Luminit, LLC
1850 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Fedor Dimov
AF 09-020      Awarded: 4/13/2010
Title:Integrated Substrate-guided Wave-based Eyetracker and Helmet Mounted Display
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an eye (gaze) tracker for pilot helmet mounted display system integrated into a visor to increase effective instantaneous targeting FOV, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Integrated Substrate-guided wave (SGW) based Eyetracker and Head-Mounted Display (ISEHMD). This proposed device is based on Luminit holographic technology and advanced eye-tracking software. The lightweight low-profile see through ISEHMD will offer wide FOV, large eyebox, and precise eye tracking and targeting. In Phase I, Luminit will demonstrate the feasibility of ISEHMD by developing a preliminary design of near-to-eye (NTE) ISEHMD and conduct benchtop proof-of-concept demonstrations. In Phase II, Luminit plans to fabricate and demonstrate a prototype gaze tracker integrated into a NTE eye display. A successful ISEHMD Phase II prototype will lay the groundwork for transitioning the technology to Phase III, which will advance the key technologies to implement a producible low cost high resolution ISEHMD. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will enable the application of ISEHMD for pilot eyewear (goggles, glasses) to increase situational awareness for dismounts and command center interfaces, Soldier’s Integrated Protective Ensemble (SIPE), logistics, and training. The new integrated eye tracker and HMD system will find numerous real-time 3D virtual reality applications in medicine, avionics, education, CAD, portable computing and communication devices, industrial human-system interfaces, law-enforcement, fire fighting, space exploration, and video game markets.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Edward DeHoog
AF 09-020      Awarded: 4/14/2010
Title:Holographic Waveguided Eye Tracker
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an eye tracker for avionics helmet systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Holographic Waveguided Eye Tracker (HWET). This proposed HWET is based on holographic waveguide technology and optical motion sensors. Innovations in angularly multiplexed diffractive optics and use of optical motion sensors will enable the design of a HWET that offers a low profile, lightweight, fast eye tracking device that can be integrated into the visor or lens of fighter pilot avionics helmets and will not inhibit the user’s vision or impair the pilot’s abilities during high-g maneuvers. This will provide eye position-based weapons cueing by line of sight. In Phase I, POC will design a near-to-eye gaze tracker that can be mounted in a waveguide HMD. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed HWET with both computer modeling and a functional prototype. In Phase II, POC plans to optimize the HWET system and show its ability to function at an eye-safe, invisible wavelength and to be integrated into a near-eye display based on holographic waveguide optics with a 30 mm eye box and large FOV. BENEFIT: Eye tracking has a large commercial application in marketing research and usability testing. Businesses everywhere use eye tracking to determine how effectively their products and advertising capture potential customers’ attention. Other markets include academic and medical research. Medical researchers use eye trackers to link visual stimulus to physiological response. Compared with existing eye tracking systems, HWET will offer a smaller, cheaper, less cumbersome, more aesthetically pleasing eye tracking system unlike any current commercially available system.

SBG Labs Inc.
1288 Hammerwood Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 793-2695
Jonathan Waldern
AF 09-020      Awarded: 4/13/2010
Title:Eye Tracker for Avionics Helmet Systems (ETAHS)
Abstract:It is recognized that Holographic Waveguide Technology represents a revolutionary step for Helmet Mounted Displays and Head Up Displays for military applications. The goals of compact, low mass, low cost, high performance optics have not been achievable with conventional optics. Holographic Waveguide Optics represents a new tool for the optical designer to craft new innovative solutions for military and consumer displays. Eye tracking can extend the pilot’s ability to designate targets well beyond the head mobility limits. An integrated eye tracker has been problematic using conventional optics since it has led to additional bulk and weight which is already at the limits of acceptability for fast jet operations. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate how Switchable Bragg Gratings (SBGs) developed by SBG Labs Inc. will lead to an integrated eye tracker system that will meet the SBIR requirements and be compatible with the Holographic Waveguide Visor Display proposed by SBG Labs (AF 09-017) BENEFIT: Fully integrated with low profile, wide field of view Holographic Waveguide Visor Display (HWVD) Facilitates the capability to control location of the projected exit pupil of the HWVD which will save power and improve stray light properties (important for night operation)

ALCES Technology, Inc.
650 West Elk Avenue #8 PO Box 11180
Jackson, WY 83002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 732-1994
David M Bloom
AF 09-021      Awarded: 4/7/2010
Title:Ultrahigh Definition Microdisplay (UDM)
Abstract:Advanced helmet-mounted displays (HMD) have been proven to improve the safety and success rate of warfighters in combat situations. These HMD systems provide pilots and warfighters with enhanced situational awareness and augment their abilities to fulfill their mission objectives. However, current systems are limited in display resolution, bit depth, and refresh rates. To maintain a strategic advantage, next-generation HMD systems must incorporate a new generation of microdisplay technologies. The Alces Microdisplay is an ideal candidate for the ultrahigh definition HMD systems because of its small pixels, high speed operation, and precise analog control. Through support from the USAF and NSF, Alces has accelerated the development of this microdisplay technology and has demonstrated operation in lab display systems. A commercialization roadmap is being planned to introduce this remarkably versatile technology into various markets and applications. Relative to existing technologies such as LCD-based microdisplays and digital micro-mirror devices, Alces Technology’s MEMS-based approach offers significant advantages: 1) reduced device-size, 2) improved optical efficiency, 3) linear scalability to ultrahigh resolution, 4) high frame rate operation. The Alces Microdisplay is a breakthrough scalable display technology with the potential to bridge the gap to visual- acuity limited displays and next generation ultra-high definition HMD systems. BENEFIT: The Alces Microdisplay technology is an innovative display technology with many beneficial qualities in size, scalability and operation. The design is capable of leveraging commercial polarization optical components and emerging laser sources, making the display technology well-aligned with commercial display trends. Alces expect to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an Alces Microdisplay in a HMD system through collaborative efforts with firms such as Rockwell Collins, who has reviewed the technology and is encouraged by its potential. With these efforts, Alces will be able to realize a stronger HMD design and a quicker path into production. For commercial success, Alces is aligned with the consumer microdisplay market, which addresses various applications including HMDs. The consumer microdisplay market is expected to follow a similar path as CMOS imagers and their adoption into portable consumer electronics such as cell phones, multimedia devices, and digital cameras. With microdisplays, larger images can be generated offering product differentiation and new services and applications. Markets served by microdisplays include various compact projection technologies, high-performance projection technologies, heads-up displays (HUD), and rear projection displays. To address these broad market groups, Alces Technology is focusing its Alces Microdisplay products around three target resolutions: 2K (2048 x 1080), 4K (4096 x 2160), and 8K (7680 x 4320). With these digital cinema standard resolutions, the Alces Microdisplay technology will be able to succeed in the expected $1.1billion microdisplay market in 2012.

eMagin Corporation
3006 Northup Way Suite 103
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 838-7942
Ihor Wacyk
AF 09-021      Awarded: 4/29/2010
Title:Ultrahigh Definition OLED Microdisplay (UDM)
Abstract:Development of an Ultrahigh definition (>5 megapixel) active matrix OLED microdisplay with high dynamic range and refresh rate, and which provides 20/20 acuity with a digital near-eye visualization system, has the potential to significantly increase warfighter effectiveness without requiring compromises between resolution, field of view and digital capability. Active matrix OLED has been proven to be a reliable technology for microdisplay applications ranging from night vision to situational awareness to a variety of commercial uses. The use of CMOS technology to build the underlying drive electronics on the same substrate is a key benefit of the emissive properties of OLED, and offers a high potential for the design of very high pitch displays. In Phase I we will define the requirements for a 4-micron monochrome OLED pixel driver circuit capable of high dynamic range and a 96 Hz refresh rate, evaluate one or more design concepts that meet these requirements, simulate the most promising designs, and assess the manufacturability of a 5 mega-pixel OLED microdisplay based on such a design. The project will define design parameters for the world’s highest resolution OLED with the highest dynamic range for use by the US Air Force and other demanding dual use applications. BENEFIT: The US Air Force has defined a need for a high-resolution microdisplay (5 Mpx threshold) combined with wide FOV optics for high visual acuity helmet mounted systems such as the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) as well as helmet mounted display (HMD) systems for pilots and dismounted soldiers throughout the Armed Services. In addition, there are strong opportunities for commercialization of the Ultrahigh definition microdisplay for a diverse array of applications ranging from first responders/security and medical imaging to personal communication devices and electronic gaming.

Kopin Corporation
200 John Hancock Rd
Taunton, MA 02780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 824-6696
Hong Choi
AF 09-021      Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title:Ultrahigh Definition Microdisplay (UDM)
Abstract:Kopin proposes to design and build an ultrahigh definition display suitable for head- mounted display applications in simulators and in aircraft. The display will have a resolution of minimum 2560 x 2048 pixels, with a goal of 3840 x 2048 pixels, within a 25- mm diagonal size to ensure the highest possible image quality. In Phase 1, Kopin will design and fabricate small pixel displays with a 640 x 480 (VGA) resolution to prove the feasibility of small pixels for ultrahigh definition displays. BENEFIT: The Department of Defense will develop the necessary technology base and establish a source of supply for an advanced display which will set a new standard in high-resolution display systems for pilot HMD. The display has potential uses in other DoD applications including solid- state image intensifiers and HMDs for simulation and training. The technology and manufacturing infrastructure will be established in the U.S. with a proven supplier of ruggedized display hardware for DoD programs. Kopin’s display manufacturing process has significant commonality with its commercial display business, benefiting the Government with Dual-Use technology improvements and economies of scale from the commercial sector.

Ostendo Technologies
6185 Paseo del Norte, Suite 200
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 710-3010
Hussein El-Ghoroury
AF 09-021      Awarded: 4/14/2010
Title:Ultrahigh Definition Microdisplay (UDM)
Abstract:Ostendo is pleased to propose the development of an emissive microdisplay that is based on a novel device called the Quantum Photonic Imager (QPI). The QPI is a highly innovative, highly disruptive optoelectronics technology; featuring high optical efficiency, high resolution, exceptional luminance and cost-effectiveness (see Figure 1). The QPI device 5ìm is estimated to be able to generate more than 70ìlm/pixel using less than 2ìW/pixel with parametric cost of less than $40 for a monochrome device having (3840x2048) pixels in high volume. A prototype monochrome QPI device having XGA (1024x768) pixels is currently being developed by Ostendo and, under funding from DARPA, is being incorporated into a 9.4 Mpx Emissive Micro-Display (EMD) to be used as a light modulator in a dynamic holography display. BENEFIT: Ostendo''s SBIR Phase I goal is to modify the current design of our monochrome QPI device currently being developed for DARPA EMD program, to reduce its pixel pitch from its current value of 10ìm to 5ìm and to increase its current XGA resolution of (1024x768) pixels to the required UDM resolution of (3840x2048) pixels. The current QPI design already meets the 12-bits dynamic range and up to 120 Hz frame rate. The Phase I Final Report will describe in detail the required QPI design modifications required to achieve this objective and will also describe the design provisions dictated by the opto-mechanical requirements of the UDM system. The QPI is a semiconductor device comprising a rectangular array of digitally addressable pixels. Each pixel would typically consist of a vertical stack of multiple solid state light (SSL) diodes, either laser diode (LD) or light emitting diode (LED), each of which generates light of a different color primary. Although the QPI device currently being developed and proposed as a baseline for this effort is monochrome, Ostendo is already working on the development of 10ìm pixel pitch RGB QPI device. Ostendo’s RGB plans can be viewed as a pre-planned product improvement (P3I) of the monochrome QPI device proposed for this SBIR effort.

Bennett Aerospace, LLC
2054 Kildaire Farm Road #181
Cary, NC 27518
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 859-5454
Douglas Bennett
AF 09-023      Awarded: 4/28/2010
Title:Kinetic Power for Dismounted Warriors
Abstract:Bennett Aerospace proposes to develop an innovative method of generating electrical power via soldier-worn systems. Our approach integrates energy harvesting structures into various locations on garments and equipment in order to collect kinetic energy. The structures are lightweight and flexible. BENEFIT: Benefits to this approach are numerous in that it provides a simple, though novel, method of direct transformation of kinetic energy into electrical. It is an ideal solution that meets the pressing need for charging batteries quickly and relatively effortlessly in the field.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Jeremiah Slade
AF 09-023      Awarded: 5/6/2010
Title:Kinetic Power Technologies for the Dismounted Warrior
Abstract:U.S. troops are increasingly being equipped with advanced electronics equipment and communications systems that significantly enhance their operational capabilities. Unfortunately, the energy needed to power this equipment has forced the Warfighter to carry more batteries to accommodate the increasing use of electronic assets. IST proposes to use EAPs to tap into the excess kinetic energy generated during movement to produce electrical energy. The Phase I program will result in a proof-mass prototype that will be wearable by the soldier. The prototype will consist of energy harvesting units, the BA-5590 battery and a power conversion circuit. The Phase II will result in the integration of multiple energy harvesting units in the soldier''s uniform. BENEFIT: The proposed energy harvesting system will allow for a lightened load for a soldier by decreasing the number of batteries that need to be carried. It will also prolong the time of missions by allowing a soldier''s equipment to function longer. The harvesting system can also be used for personal electronics of civilians such as cell phones and laptops.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2408
Cullen Jackson
AF 09-025      Awarded: 4/28/2010
Title:Agent Driven Visualizations for Increasing Collaboration Effectiveness (ADVICE)
Abstract:As the Air Force organizational structure grows more distributed, geographically separated team members will need a collaborative working space where they can generate shared understanding and synchronize collective C2 and ISR activities. Currently, there is no way to collaboratively visualize coordinated information from operations and intelligence sources across operational and planning functions. To address this need, Aptima will develop ADVICE (Agent-Driven Visualizations for Increased Collaboration Effectiveness)—an intelligent agent-driven visualization to support effective collaboration. This tool will allow users to view information across other C2ISR functions and enable them to more effectively and efficiently produce their own products. We will use knowledge of the multiple work domains and their connections to (1) design function-specific visualizations that increase collaboration efficiency and (2) design intelligent agents that monitor information and team interdependencies to facilitate the collaboration. These agents will automatically distribute desired information to individual team members through the shared decision-centric visualization to ensure that the team receives and collaborates over critical interdependent information. These collaborative, role-specific visualizations paired with agent- and human-driven information sharing will provide users with a tool that supports the entire strategy, planning, operations and assessment cycle across all domains and allows for efficient real-time replanning during execution. BENEFIT: ADVICE will provide distributed AOC warfighters with a capability to collaborate and share information through visualizations specific to their individual functions. The design of ADVICE will be guided by requirements from the operational community and basic principles of cognition and perception as well as information theory. Grounded in solid information, perceptual, and cognitive theory, ADVICE will not only address a critical need of the AOC, we anticipate that it will also have commercial viability in the Intelligence Collection and Analysis Domain (across DoD agencies), the Department of Homeland Security, as well as broader application within Operations Centers (e.g., Air and Space, Maritime, Tactical, etc.).

Lumir Research Institute, Inc.
301 East Fairmont Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 946-2171
Brian T. Schreiber
AF 09-025      Awarded: 4/20/2010
Title:Visualization of Cross-Domain C2ISR Operations
Abstract:Numerous studies indicate that existing C2ISR capabilities are not currently optimized. There is a need to modernize traditional C2ISR capabilities to promote agility in C2ISR processes by exposing data and visualizing data to make it accessible, visible and understandable throughout the AOC network. Currently the AOC is a system of systems that were designed individually, are not interoperable, and are best suited to support traditional full-scale wars. This is time and resource intensive, introduces avoidable data errors, and creates an environment where focus is on moving data rather than processing and using the data. Humans are capable of complex information processing. Humans receive, store, integrate, retrieve, and use information in unique and powerful ways. These specialized skills should be reserved for centrally important decision- making tasks, and not be wasted on menial tasks like manual data entry or routing manipulation of raw data. Lumir will propose innovative visual displays with flexible underlying engineering architecture to provide ready access to the information needed to promote individual and team situation awareness. This will enhance AOC planning and decision making capability by presenting the information at a level of abstraction and in a format aligned with human information processing needs. BENEFIT: This project will result in improved displays and visualizations for command and control applications. Data organization and data syntheses algorithms will be produced to better align with the higher level human information processing needs of command and control operations, thereby increasing situation awareness and decision making ability, particularly for AOC, MOC, and EOC organizations.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Jim McCracken
AF 09-025      Awarded: 5/4/2010
Title:Air Space Cyber & UDOP/COP (ASC&UC)
Abstract:The Design Knowledge Company, Inc. (TDKC) and our partner Teledyne CollaborX present this proposal titled Air, Space; Cyber & UDOP/COP (ASC&UC) . ASC&UC offers a logical, phased approach to satisfying the objectives of this 2009.3 SBIR topic. TDKC and CollaborX have the expertise in the technical, scientific, and research disciplines necessary for this effort. TDKC brings significant prior research and current resources and experience to bear, enabling us to hit the ground running during Phase I. CollaborX is the recognized leader in Air Operations Center (AOC) subject matter expertise. Our expertise will support ASC&UC’s central concept of defining and evaluating strategies that demonstrate how visualizations, data handling/design and operator aiding algorithms can support situation awareness and decision-making for distributed, coordinated cross- domain strategy, planning, execution and assessments - “at a glance.” The vision is for a seamless, cross-domain environment supporting situation awareness and decision- making for distributed, coordinated cross-domain strategy, planning, execution and assessments. BENEFIT: Visualization algorithms and methods for coordinated planning and execution of complex cross-domain Command and Control and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance missions. Software that can support of markets and domains with significant commercial potential.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Brad Rosenberg
AF 09-026      Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title:Informed Mission Management via PAiring Resources to Tasks (IMPART)
Abstract:Within Air Operations Centers (AOCs), teams of highly-experienced personnel rely heavily on their expertise to match available resources to requested tasks. However, as platforms and sensors begin to emerge with multi-role capabilities, new challenges arise for mission managers in finding the optimal allocation of resources to tasks. Automated resource allocation tools can help; however, current tools often arrive at solutions that do not “make sense” according to experienced personnel, failing to take into account the subtleties of expert planning. To improve the quality of planning systems, we need to capture planning experts’ experiential knowledge, encode it in a machine-useable form, and bootstrap automated algorithms to derive more suitable solutions to large-scale resource allocation problems. We propose to design and demonstrate a framework for Informed Mission Management via PAiring Resources to Tasks (IMPART), an intelligent, extensible mapping framework that supports AOC functional teams in the collaborative planning across the full-spectrum of air operations for superior resource utilization. Our approach includes the development of (1) a rich, extensible data representation to express air operations mission management elements; (2) a learning framework to capture experiential knowledge from expert planners; and (3) planning services to recommend appropriate resource-task pairings that leverage the captured knowledge. BENEFIT: The research performed under this effort will have immediate benefit to a number of military planning and execution systems including the AOC Weapon System, TBMCS, and DCGS-AF. Additionally, the standard data representation refined under IMPART will help provide a common representation for the Air Operations Community of Interest (AO COI). We seek to transition the data representation, learning framework, and collaborative planning tools to the C2IS and C2AOS programs currently spearheaded by the 350 ELSG at ESC. This research will also have direct application to enhance our commercial EAToolkit™ product, a software development kit for optimization using evolutionary algorithms.

Progeny Systems Corporation
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Tom Burns
AF 09-026      Awarded: 5/4/2010
Title:C2-ISR Capability-Need Pairing Framework to Support Resource-Task Pairing such as Sensing-Target Pairing and Weapon-Target Pairing
Abstract:Within the Air Operations Center (AOC) there are functional teams that focus on the aspects of planning and execution such as Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP) and Air Tasking Order (ATO) Production. As we acquire more multi-role aircraft, capturing domain-specific knowledge will enable teams of planners to collaboratively plan missions that span these domains, leveraging all the capabilities of available resources. Our approach to this problem is an Open Architecture (OA) Resource-Task Mapping Framework (RTMF) that can support the plan/re-plan of mission activity in which resources are mapped to tasks based on the "needs" associated with the type of task and the "capabilities" associated with the type of resource. The RTMF takes a generic approach to accommodate for various resource types. Leveraging existing technologies such as OWL and RDF to store relationships provides a solid basis for creating and maintaining relationships between resources, capabilities, tasks, and missions. Taking an open architecture approach to learning technologies leaves the RTMF open to employ any number of unique, diverse learning techniques. The RTMF provides a scalable, web- based collaborative display for mission planning as well as exposing services to make this resource-task pairing data available to external systems. BENEFIT: DoD market potential includes candidate tactical systems such as JADOCS and USW-DSS. There are many systems within the DoD that could benefit from an RTMF that coordinates prior knowledge with user input to generate suggested resource-task pairings. Many net- centric DoD systems are making a recent push for Service Oriented Architecture. The RTMF represents a set of SOA compliant services to be used for any type of generic resource-task pairing. The Department of Homeland Security could benefit greatly from a resource-task pairing system. Along the U.S. borders, many sensors exist to detect illegal immigration. RTMF could be used to pair sensors with ideal deployment locations depending on the kind of activity that typically takes place at those locations. For example, if a particular trail is known to be used for illegal immigration, seismic sensors can be used at that location. Additionally, if a particular part of a river is a hotbed for illegal activity, visual sensors may be ideal. The resource-task paradigm also fits into the first- responders market. For example, in an attempt to respond to natural disasters, FEMA may use this system to send the appropriate resources, such as trucks, vans, supplies, to the most appropriate locations. The commercial avenues for a resource-task pairing framework are truly abundant. Some of these include commercial first responders\ and education systems. First responders could use the RTMF in a similar manner as FEMA. Educational systems can use the system in several ways. It can pair students with particular needs with schools, educational resources or teachers that can satisfy those needs. Commercial translation is already growing by leaps and bounds.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariners Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 302-4532
Jeremy Ludwig
AF 09-026      Awarded: 4/29/2010
Title:Intelligent Pairing Assistant (IPA): A Learning-based Framework for Assisting Capability-Need Pairing
Abstract:Within an Air Operations Center, planners working in the Master Air Attack Plan cell make crucial decisions to create the air plan for any given day. They are expected to complete the plan in part by pairing targeting or collection tasks with the available platforms and weapons. Any assistance these planners can get to help create the plan in a timely manner would make the entire process more efficient and reliable. Three of the challenges planners face when making combat plans are: (1) understanding the specific needs associated with the targeting or collection tasks, (2) understanding the full range of capabilities offered by the variety of platforms / weapons available, and (3) making best use of available resources, such as combining strike and collection tasks when possible. This proposal outlines a learning-based framework for assisting capability-need pairing aimed at helping both deliberate and dynamic planners within the AOC. To this end, this research effort will seek to build descriptions of task needs and platform capabilities and to use this information to help capture the knowledge of experiences planners. This compiled expert knowledge will then be used to provide real-time pairing assistance to planners as they go about their daily activities. BENEFIT: The Intelligent Pairing Assistant framework developed from this effort is designed to be integrated into Air Operations Centers (AOCs). To do this, a significant amount of the research will be aimed at encoding knowledge from this specific domain and ensuring that the resulting system integrates effectively within the context of an AOC. With this in mind, the primary commercialization path is to purse Phase III funding within the US Air Force to transform the system at the end of Phase II into a fully deployed framework for assisting pairing at both the combat planning and combat operations levels. Additionally, the underlying technology develop in this proposal is not domain dependent. This means that the technology could be repurposed for use in Navy Maritime Operation Centers or Department of Homeland Security (in the case of disaster response) by encoding knowledge from, and integrating IPA with, the new domain. Another possible commercialization strategy would include integration this framework as a module in an existing program of record (e.g. ISPAN, JMPS, etc.), in which case we would team with the prime contraction (Lockheed Martin for ISPAN or BEA for JMPS) as part of this integration.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Jonathan Pfautz
AF 09-027      Awarded: 4/6/2010
Title:Simulation for Ubiquitous REd Flag Instruction and REadying (SUREFIRE)
Abstract:To participate in Red Flag exercises participants must be familiar with specific procedures, conditions, and training rules for range safety. Preparing non-US participants requires USAF personnel to travel to each participating country to provide this pre- exercise familiarization. This is expensive in money, time, and resources. A training environment deployable to the participant country prior to the exercise, and requiring no in-country participation by USAF personnel would provide considerable savings. To meet this need, we propose to design and demonstrate a Simulation for Ubiquitous REd Flag Instruction and REadying (SUREFIRE). Four core activities characterize our effort: One, we will design the integration of simulator, agent, and voice interaction enabling capabilities, and add custom training interfaces and feedback components. Two, we will define scenario creation requirements based on our subject matter expert’s expertise, past Red Flag exercises, the capabilities of Red Flag personnel, and analysis of participants specific training needs. Three, we will design a graphical scenario creator. Four, we will identify evaluation criteria by which effectiveness of training with SUREFIRE can be assessed. We will leverage our team’s expertise in agent based modeling, training support systems, and flight simulator integration to rapidly demonstrate these capabilities. BENEFIT: Voice enabled agents can play a role in wide variety of domains, from automated telephone receptionists (where they are frequently used currently) to personal assistants to video game adversaries. By integrating cutting edge speech processing and natural language processing capabilities into our user-friendly agent development environment, AgentWorks™, we can broaden its market. In addition, rapid scenario generation and agent customization capabilities can be applied to many training, simulation, and entertainment systems in a number of domains.

CHI Systems, Inc.
1035 Virginia Drive Suite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Benjamin Bell
AF 09-027      Awarded: 3/31/2010
Title:PREFLAG: Preparing Allied Forces for Red Flag with Desktop Simulation and Speech-Interactive Agents
Abstract:A typical Red Flag may involve 1,500 personnel and 100 aircraft representing four or five nations. Each event presents critical safety-of-flight and range considerations. Many participants are non-native speakers of English, in a context where technical, rapid, and information-rich communication can pose steep challenges even to native speakers; the potential for misunderstandings, miscommunications, and even mishaps, is thus even greater for participants for whom English is a second language. While the Air Force deploys squadrons to help participating nations prepare, this practice is expensive and demanding at a time when flying hours are a precious commodity. Needed is effective, pre-exercise orientation to the environment, range rules, safety-of-flight, communications protocols and local procedures and restrictions. Such training must provide realistic practice in spoken radio communication, in English, and must be easily distributed and readily updatable. To meet these complex challenges we will create an interactive desktop simulation called Preparing for Red Flag: Local, Air and Ground (PREFLAG). PREFLAG will allow users to arrive at Red Flag fully-prepared to follow the guidelines and instructions of the host units and qualified to communicate using FAA and USAF approved pilot-controller terminology, while reducing the need for USAF squadron deployments to assist participating nations. BENEFIT: Successful accomplishment of PREFLAG will represent a significant advance in how allied forces are prepared for Red Flag, resulting in safer, more effective exercises and improved coalition readiness. The benefits of this program though extend well beyond Red Flag. The technology developed under this program will provide student pilots, controllers, navigators and tactical crew with an indispensable tool for enriching their training with guided simulation focused on critical skills. The technology will enable automated tutors to provide anytime, on-demand training, performance assessment and remediation. Commercial applications can bring this same capability to aviation, maritime and land-based training for transportation, homeland security, law enforcement and other tactical team domains. A successful Phase I effort will facilitate future research and development in four areas: 1. Intelligent Tutoring – This work explores the use of intelligent tutoring in real-time simulations, explicitly as a virtual coach or implicitly as mentoring given by an agent in the scenario. Results from this work will help guide subsequent research and investment in the use of tutors and mentors in real-time dynamic, simulation-based training. 2. Synthetic Teammates – The use of synthetic agents as scenario participants is an area that is gaining increasing acceptance. The proposed effort will further the state of practice in this area, providing proof-of-concept demonstration of synthetic agents in Phase I and yielding data establishing the training benefits of this approach in Phase II. 2. Communications Training – The use of synthetic speech interaction is growing but remains limited, brittle and costly. The proposed effort will demonstrate techniques that show promise in overcoming these limitations for purposes of communications training, providing demonstrations in Phase I

Soar Technology, Inc.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 207-2237
Brian S. Stensrud
AF 09-027      Awarded: 4/7/2010
Title:Red Flag Referee (RedRef)
Abstract:Soar Technology, in partnership with Lumir Research, will bring to bear our extensive expertise in speech-enabled synthetic entities, simulation and training technology to build a training system for international Red Flag participants. This system, called RedRef (short for ‘Red Flag referee’), wil be a voice-interactive training environment with which foreign participants can practice representative Red Flag missions while following proper flight rules and procedures. Soar Technology brings three critical and unique technologies to bear on this proposed effort. TacAir-Soar, SoarTech’s synthetic fixed-wing aircraft behavior model, will drive synthetic aircraft in the system. AutoATC, SoarTech’s automated air-traffic controller behavior model, will enforce Red Flag rules and guidelines via doctrinal speech advisories and warnings. SoarSpeak, a tool suite which provides a text-to-speech and speech-to-text services to/from our agent models, will support verbal dialog between human operators/participants and both TacAir-Soar and AutoATC agents within the trainer. RedRef will feature AFRL’s XCITE (eXpert Common Immersive Theater Environment) tool as its constructive simulation backplane. XCITE supports distributed exercises via DIS and also integrates with X-Plane, a popular flight simulator program which we can use as the pilot’s interface to the system. BENEFIT: The prototype developed as a result of this effort is specifically targeted by the customer as a tool for multinational participants of Red Flag exercises. During a funded transition effort, Soar Technology will complete development and testing of the RedRef system for deployment. While the resultant system will be GFE and free for the government to distribute stateside, we plan to distribute RedRef to international customers for a modest licensing fee. In addition, we can support both the USAF and foreigh governments through additional service contracts, where we can provide system training or extend the capabilities tool with newly developed technologies and behavior models. Because of its embedded authoring tool, the RedRef system will also have the ability to support combat flight training exercises outside of the Red Flag realm. AFRL runs several exercises each year involving combat flight training research, such as the Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) research program, which could benefit from a pre-program trainer such as RedRef. Because of its portability, RedRef can easily be distributed to Air Force bases around the country for use as combat training practice environments that students can play on their personal laptop or desktop.

Sonalysts, Inc.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3902
Robert Kurzawa
AF 09-027      Awarded: 3/31/2010
Title:Voice-Interactive Training Environment for Tactical Exercise Familiarization
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to provide the Air Force with a high-fidelity, PC-based environment to familiarize allied exercise participants with USAF air traffic procedures, tactical airspace operations, communication standards, and rules of engagement of Red Flag exercises in advance of their participation. The objective of Phase I will be the development of a Red Flag training and rehearsal “proof-of-concept” that will demonstrate the feasibility of combining research with a fielded commercial game application to create a cost-effective, integrated, and dynamic simulated training environment for allied pilots. The Sonalysts research project team has pertinent experience in military operations, commercial gaming, and advanced training technologies. This research project will provide the U. S. Air Force with a new capability to familiarize allied student pilots prior to arrival in the U.S. and will reduce overall Total Ownership Cost (TOC). BENEFIT: This research project will provide the Air Force with the capability to prepare allies for Red Flag participation by eliminating the current travel costs inherent in face-to-face host country preparation. The ability to Reduce Total Ownership Costs (R-TOC) in this fashion will demonstrate a direct benefit to other Air Force and DoD foreign training and FMS venues. This technology also has a strong commercial transition potential for companies and/or corporations interested in training-related R-TOC as it relates to their respective business lines.

Kutta Technologies, Inc.
2075 W Pinnacle Peak Rd Ste 102
Phoenix, AZ 85027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 896-1976
Jeffrey A. Getzlaff
AF 09-028      Awarded: 4/28/2010
Title:Network-Centric Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
Abstract:This proposal addresses the significant need for the supervisory monitoring and control of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A methodology and process to design an Application Web Service, Mission Capability Package decision agent, and toolset with advanced reasoning and processing technologies is detailed. The Phase 1 Work Plan employs the Rational Unified Process (RUP) and DoD Architectural Framework to ensure a focus on user needs and system goals. Examples of innovative proposed functionality include: agent input mechanisms, smart pull of data based on a UAV’s region of interest, label semantics, neural networks, dynamic ontology, and heuristic filters. Cognitive tasks and demands of the problem domain are analyzed with respect to workload, filtering of network-centric data, and presentation of information. An initial software framework is rationalized at the Fargo 119th ANG for user inputs to the decision agent design. Kutta details and captures the rationalized software design in a system & software design document. At the end of Phase 1, results of the research of are presented coupled with a proof of concept demonstration for a multiple UAV ingress scenario. Military and civilian market segments are defined for commercialization, including the DCGS, multiple UAV control stations and knowledge centric ERP markets. BENEFIT: In phase I Kutta designs an Application Web Service (AWS) and Mission Capability Package (MCP) decision agent that contains a functional toolset for supervisory monitoring and control of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This product: 1) automates the process of supervisory monitoring and control of heterogeneous UAVs, (2) coordinates multiple UAVs for Course of Actions (COA), (3) processes, correlates, and filters network- centric data from the Global Information Grid (GIG) in relation to a specific UAV, 4) provides input mechanisms to an agent based system interfacing to the GIG for dynamic updates of relevant changes to the battlefield, and (4) addresses the needs of semantic agent-based technologies in both civilian and military markets. Multiple DoD agencies benefit from the incorporation of a common intelligent decision agent solution for network- centric information collection, processing, and UAV C2. Operational UAV systems such as the Predator or Global Hawk also benefit from supervisory control through the optimization of the air asset for ingress or egress to a theater of interest. The utilization of the AWS, MCP decision agent and Human-Computer Interface (HCI) toolset by a UAV Operation Center connected to the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) enables the portrayal of the “right information at the right time” to the Warfighter in an integrated agent based solution. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) benefits through the incorporation of supervisory multi-UAV control to assist in the persistent monitoring of America’s borders. In the civilian sector, a competitive advantage is obtained through the use of an multi-agent decision and semantic analysis system for market trends, creation of knowledge bases, and market forecasts for product development. Additionally, stovepipe legacy Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems can benefit from adoption

Perceptronics Solutions, Inc.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 788-4830
Amos Freedy
AF 09-028      Awarded: 3/31/2010
Title:Adaptive Interface Management System (AIMS) for Network-Centric Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
Abstract:This proposal is for an Adaptive Interface Management System (AIMS) for Netcentric Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Our objective is to enhance multi-UAV operator performance by extending capabilities and reducing workload through a toolset of task-oriented decision aids and intelligent agent assistants. By providing these tools, we will realize optimal efficiency in mission planning, allocation of mission responsibilities to resources, and continuous UAV decision and control tasks during mission execution. Our intent is to integrate the AIMS product with the USAF Vigilant Spirit Control Station (VSCS) to demonstrate AIMS operation and to confirm performance gains in achieving mission goals with reduced cognitive load. Three innovative elements are central to our approach: Adaptive Delegation Interface (ADI) methodology, a Broad Spectrum of Decision Aids, and Adjustable Autonomy. Our work plan in Phase I will focus on cognitive task analysis of the operator to identify specific applications for high impact decision aids for subsequent design and implementation. Specifically, we will study the architecture and functionality of the VSCS to establish a plan for integration of the AIMS intelligent aids. We will employ a modular design that can be easily transitioned to other systems. BENEFIT: We plan to develop AIMS for management and control of multiple, heterogeneous UAV platforms. Our system will include automated assistance for planning/re-planning, monitoring and controlling, coordinating with collaborating force elements and control agencies, and operating mission payload equipment to achieve a high level of efficiency and effectiveness in battlespace mission operations. To accomplish this, we will develop, demonstrate and evaluate the AIMS, first in a developmental setting, then in scenario-based AFRL Vigilant Spirit hosted human-in-the- loop evaluations. Finally, we will pursue specific dual use military and civilian UAV applications of the development products to leverage the capabilities of the operators of these systems. Our commercialization strategy will begin in Phase I. A key part of our core effort will be to define the application of the proposed system for commercial sale in defense, security and business markets and to establish an initial strategy for transfer, integration and full commercialization.

Opteos, Inc.
775 Technology Drive Suite 200
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 929-3333
Jack Thiesen
AF 09-029      Awarded: 5/5/2010
Title:Short Pulse Radio Frequency (RF) Field Measurement System
Abstract:Opteos Inc. is responding to an Air Force request to develop a rugged field-portable multi- channel measurement system with non-perturbing probes capable of measuring and displaying real time waveforms from RF pulses with frequency components from 3 kHz to 100 GHz and peak field strengths of 2 MV/m or 5 kA/m with pulse widths as short as 100 picoseconds. The proposed system will build upon Opteos expertise in real time electrooptic E-field measurement systems and can support up to 48 deployed probes and will be able measure electrics fields as low as 20V/m. We believe that this system represent a fundamental breakthrough in high-field strength measurement capabilities. BENEFIT: The proposed real-time field detection probe will have a number of applications in EMC/EMI measurement and high power microwave weapon assessment.

Srico, Inc.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Vincent Stenger
AF 09-029      Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title:Short Pulse Radio Frequency (RF) Field Measurement System
Abstract:Presently, there is a specific need for portable RF field strength meters for testing over the intensity range of a few hundred volts per meter to several million volts per meter and up to a frequency of 100 GHz to ensure personnel safety. To address these wide dynamic range and high frequency requirements, SRICO proposes the development of all- dielectric photonic sensor technologies. Dielectric-based electro-optical photonic electric field sensors are especially attractive since they can directly mate with optical fiber cables. For stand-off detection, a long length of optical fiber may be used to connect the sensor probe to a remote optoelectronics unit. The photonic sensor optically isolates the RF field from the measuring instrument to provide a safe and reliable measurement of high field strengths. All dielectric construction makes the candidate probe technologies inherently immune to RF heating effects. All of the candidate sensor technologies to be explored in this Phase I effort allow both instantaneous peak and RMS field strength measurements. The focus in Phase I will be on establishing practical sensor probe designs that can meet the design specifications in a compact form factor. Feasibility of the proposed measurement method will be experimentally demonstrated. BENEFIT: The compact nature of the field power sensor chip makes it suitable for high resolution field measurement over the volume of small objects. An array of sensors could be used to map gradients in near field. Sensitive, lightweight, remote sensors are needed for measuring electric field near high-voltage towers to ensure human-safety limits are never exceeded. A dosimeter would benefit electro-magnetic compliance (EMC) and electro-magnetic- interference (EMI) tests.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-1599
Zhiqing Cheng
AF 09-030      Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title:Automated Analysis and Classification of Anomalous 3-D Human Shapes and Hostile Actions
Abstract:Infoscitex proposes an innovative and robust solution to this topic, a software tool—HMM4D (Human Modeling and Monitoring in 4-Dimension) that can automatically identify and track a human subject, depict the true body shape, classify shape abnormalities, recognize human activities, and detect hostile actions. Using IST’s dynamic 3-D human shape modeling technology, we will extract a parameterized, dynamic 3-D shape model from 3-D sensor data. De-noising and de-clothing techniques will be implemented to get the ground-truth of body shape. The abnormalities of body shape will be identified and classified using advanced data mining technology. Combined with model- based human motion analysis and supported by dynamic human signatures databases, human activities will be decomposed and analyzed in an ontology framework. Dynamic Bayesian networks will be developed to recognize human behavior and predict human intentions. We have selected a talented team for this project consisting of experienced engineers from Infoscitex and two academic collaborators: Dr. James Davis and Dr. Mariofanna Milanova, who are experts and leading researchers in the areas of computer vision and computerized human modeling. We will perform a case study and develop a software demo to prove our concept and demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in Phase I. BENEFIT: Our technology will provide a creative yet robust solution to the Topic and will offer the following benefits: • HMM4D is designed to work with 3-D sensor data, but it can work with 2-D video imagery as well. This means that our technology can meet current needs as well as future demands from Air Force missions. • HMM4D constructs a parameterized, dynamic human model from multi-modality sensor data. The model not only depicts a human shape with high anthropometric fidelity but also provides a wealth of information about the kinematics and dynamics of human activities and actions. • HMM4D exploits human body shape and motion in four dimensions (three dimensional space plus time). This maximizes the potential uses of the information provided by sensor data, increases the discernment and detection capability, and enhances the robustness of the system so that it can function effectively and reliably in the presence of invalid inputs or stressful environment conditions. • The HMM4D is designed to have an open structure that is adaptable to the development of sensor technology. The interfacing with supporting database and the retrieval and fusion of information are designed to be scalable so that large datasets can be used when they become available. Anticipated Defense and Commercial Applications This technology will have very broad applications in both military and commercial sectors. • As a key technology for human-borne threat detection; • As a screening tool for the security surveillance of public facilities; • For war fighters to efficiently identify enemies from a crowd; • For human search and rescue; • For virtual reality creation; • For the entertainment industry to create vivid human figures and animation.

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8895
Vitaliy Khizhnichenko
AF 09-030      Awarded: 6/4/2010
Title:Automated Analysis and Classification of Anomalous 3-D Human Shapes and Hostile Actions
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for persistent surveillance means to detect terrorist activities both in populated urban environments and remote terrains, Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) proposes to develop a new “3D data based Anomalous Human Shapes and Actions Classification and Analysis Software Tool” (3D-AHSACAST). This proposed software tool is based on 1) a novel set of several proprietary behavior recognition algorithms using both “dynamic” (e.g. Hidden Markov Models) and “static” (e.g., Motion History Volumes) classification methods, 2) a unique combination of proprietary software modules providing for handling statistical learning and classification of large volumes of high-dimensional dynamic data based on calculating special 3D shape descriptors intrinsic in anomalous shapes and hostile actions. 3D-AHSACAST will ultimately offer real-time (or near real-time) interactive behavior classification and high reliability of anomalous 3D human shapes and hostile action recognition. In Phase I ISC will demonstrate the feasibility of 3D-AHSACAST by implementing a proof-of-concept software prototype based on the ISC’s technology and software concepts tailored to classification of anomalous human shapes and hostile actions. In Phase II ISC plans to develop all aspects of the technology into a fully functional software prototype including a user-friendly GUI and validate the software''s effectiveness through laboratory experiments. BENEFIT: The proposed 3D- AHSACAST technology will benefit both governmental and commercial sectors and will directly address the fast-growing video surveillance market. Commercial applications will include such fields as persistent unmanned monitoring in points of entry, checkpoints, and other critical security infrastructures as well as intelligent robots.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Mun Wai Lee
AF 09-030      Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title:Automated Analysis and Classification of Anomalous 3-D Human Shapes and Hostile Actions
Abstract:This project aims to develop algorithms and software tools for automated inference of human shape and pose, for anomalous shape and hostile actions identification. The problem is challenging owing to large variation in human body shapes, inaccurate 3D data acquisition techniques, non-observability of body parts, self-occlusion and concavities on body surfaces. We propose a robust solution based on fast and efficient data structures that iteratively estimate 3D shape of human targets using multiple input video streams. The 3D representation of human target is obtained as visual hull extracted using space carving. We augment these with medial axis and hierarchical image descriptors as visual cues for robust 3D pose initialization. We have created a statistical shape model using CAESAR dataset that models shape variations among different demographics including gender, age and race. This will be augmented with data of clothing and accessories. The shape model is used to detect anomalous shapes. We adopt learning based approach for action recognition and train temporal graphical models to recognize hostile actions. We will design a modular software architecture with clearly defined software interfaces, user friendly GUI, and open data formats to enhance interoperability and allow for future extensions with new data and actions. BENEFIT: The technology will provide intelligent video analytics to detect suspicious persons and hostile activities for counter-terrorism in military and law enforcement. The technology is also relevant to many areas in the private sectors, including business security, retail, marketing, healthcare, sports, and video games and entertainment. The technology has wide ranging applications: (1) In surveillance: Identify potential suicide bomber in hotels and around commercial landmarks. Identify hostile or abnormal behavior in and around office buildings, embassies, shopping malls, schools, and tourist districts. (2) Improved human computer interaction: The framework will facilitate development of more accurate vision based systems to recognize different gesture and motion in 3D. This has vast potential use in role-playing games where the estimated shape of the user can be used to create avatars and the movements of the user in the physical domain are translated into actions in the virtual environment. (3) Video monitoring in healthcare and fitness center: Detect people who have slipped, fallen, or are in need of other assistance, in health centers or nursing homes. Improved techniques for monitoring body fat and regions of body putting on weight. (4) Intelligent training systems for sporting activities: The analysis of sports- related movements often entails analyzing a variety of highly dynamic movements. Motion analysis provides the tools for the sports medicine and performance professionals to perform accurate functional evaluations/analysis for clinical and research oriented purposes. (5) Provide body shape data for estimating range of sizes and improved design of clothing, footwear and sporting equipment

Vecna Technologies Inc.
6404 Ivy Lane Suite 500
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 864-0636
Neal Checka
AF 09-030      Awarded: 4/29/2010
Title:Automated Analysis and Classification of Anomalous 3-D Human Shapes and Hostile Actions
Abstract:Detecting terrorist activities in urban environments and remote terrains is an important aspect of persistent surveillance. Normally, intelligence analysts examine video to detect suspicious activities. This approach to video analysis can be time- and manpower- intensive. To reduce the cognitive burden on the decision making operators, Vecna Technologies proposes a software solution that automatically classifies anomalous 3-D human shape and hostile actions from 3-D laser scans, 3-D camera images, volumetric data, and motion capture data. Traditional 3-D model-based shape classification frameworks suffer from the limitations of high-dimensional search when trying to deal with the wide variety of human poses and appearance, cluttered scenes, and variable lighting conditions. Our approach resolves these issues by efficiently combining global (nearest neighbor) and local (model fitting) techniques while maintaining multiple shape hypotheses. Given a temporal sequence of 3-D data, our software can identify anomalous behavior with a high level of accuracy using a novel discriminative probabilistic model. In addition, the software generates an anomaly map highlighting potential harmful objects like weapons or concealed explosives that a person might be carrying, allowing quick verification of hostile actions. Surveillance networks incorporating the proposed technology will enable persistent, unmanned monitoring of humans and automate reports of suspicious activities. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is applicable to a wide range of DoD and intelligence community areas including force protection, counter-terrorism, target recognition, human activity monitoring, and surveillance and tracking. We see significant potential for application of this tool to support a range of tactical and strategic systems, including shipboard Navy CIC centers, Army field C3I centers, or USAF theater airborne command posts. A number of programs sponsored by the Department of Defense (e.g. FCS, HumanID, CTS, VIVID) employ video- based monitoring systems capable of directly detecting and tracking humans, identifying threats, and notifying security personnel for further investigation and would benefit from the proposed system. Commercialization opportunities exist in a variety of sectors, including visual surveillance and mobile robotics. Initial analysis of these market segments reveal both unaddressed needs as well as vast potential for rapid adoption and growth.

361 Interactive, LLC
408 Sharts Drive Suite 7
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 743-0361
Michael J McCloskey
AF 09-031      Awarded: 5/6/2010
Title:A Cognitive Systems Approach to Supporting Air Force Intelligence Analysis
Abstract:United States intelligence analysts of today and tomorrow are faced with a paramount challenge of maintaining situation awareness in the midst of an ever-growing and changing capacity of available data. As the incoming data streams continue to expand, so do the expectations and requests placed on the analysts. Layered Sensing offers a promising solution to meeting the Intelligence, Reconnaissance, and Surveillance (ISR) requirements of this increasingly complex battlespace. This effort proposes a long- overdue cognitive systems approach to supporting Air Force intelligence analysts in achieving universal battlespace awareness by basing platform and sensor integration supports on the cognitive demands of the analysts’ tasks. Ecological interface and decision-centered design principles will guide the development of innovative user interfaces and decision supports, resulting in a powerful tool that will support optimal collaboration between the human analyst and technology assets. BENEFIT: The products of this effort will be tailored to the cognitive demands of Air Force intelligence analysts, resulting in signficantly improved accuracy and efficiency of their analysis tasks. The research findings and tool will be customizable to further support the analysis demands of other DoD intelligence analysis cells as well as those of emergency responders within FEMA and elsewhere.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Scott Potter
AF 09-031      Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title:INSTrumental Interfaces for Layered Sensing (INSTILS)
Abstract:Irregular warfare and the increased pace of operations have drastically reduced the time available for tactical responses, resulting in the shift of power to the tactical edge. As decision making responsibilities are pushed down the command chain, warfighters at every echelon require situational awareness so their decisions bring about the desired effects. The concept of Layered Sensing (LS) has been created in response to this need. To support LS, we propose to design and demonstrate INSTrumental Interfaces for Layered Sensing (INSTILS). Three core components will characterize our effort: One, we will apply Cognitive Systems Engineering methods to understand the tasks, tools, and information employed by decision makers in different roles and echelons. Two, we will use the results of the CSE effort to define and identify opportunities for tools to support decision makers across each of the four critical functions of intelligence analysis captured in the support function model. Three, we will design and demonstrate an integrated set of interfaces that enable LS across all of these functions. Four, we will design training methods and measures of effectiveness for these interfaces based on the cognitive tasks required of decision makers in LS. BENEFIT: Interfaces to support Layered Sensing and tailored to cognitive demands provide an important, and as yet unrealized, capability for warfighters not only in the Air Force, but in other services and in the Intelligence Community. In addition, the interfaces and capabilities developed in this effort can be applied to business intelligence efforts. Finally, we plan to use the additional visualization modules, enhanced tools for display customization, and data and system integration capabilities developed under this effort to enhance Charles River Analytics’ in- house rich application platform, Metronome™, thereby increasing its value in Government and commercial applications.

Resilient Cognitive Solutions
113 South 26th Street Suite 200
Pittsburgh, PA 15203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 904-1664
Martin Voshell
AF 09-031      Awarded: 5/11/2010
Title:Extended Perception: A Decision-Centered Approach to Layered Sensing Interfaces
Abstract:The “Layered Sensing” report (Bryant, et al. 2008) specifies the functional requirements necessary for exploiting new sensor technologies to deliver “tailored effects." This shift to layered sensing (LS) systems embodies the challenge of transitioning the capability of sensor systems into actionable information for the warfighter. Access to new sensor technologies and the ability to integrate diverse sensor feeds are providing the Air Force community with new opportunities and capabilities. However, with these new capabilities come new complexities such as data overload, managing automated agent technologies, and target fixation. In order for warfighters to overcome these complexities and achieve universal battlespace awareness, interfaces are needed which seamlessly and intuitively integrate the warfighter with their multi-sensor environment. RCS-OSU proposes a cognitive systems approach which differs from typical approaches to human-system interfaces by explicitly considering the interaction between human operator and layered sensing system as a perceptual exploration that will naturally map to human attentional processes and avoid data overload. This approach combines RCS’ cognitively grounded system development process with promising perspective control technologies being developed by OSU. This integrated approach combines the best of expert decision- making theory with perspective-taking technologies to deliver intuitive theory-driven, man- machine interface concepts for LS. BENEFIT: The effort will expand the research base and provide prototype technology and interfaces grounded in a cognitive decision- centered understanding for layered sensing environments. Effective perspective control interfaces developed in this effort will coordinate diverse data feeds into navigable integrated representations that allow problem-holders to explore information spaces and focus on what is interesting. It is expected that research advantages from this effort will result in technology applications suited for large scale DoD ISR/C2ISR programs.

SA Technologies, Inc.
3750 Palladian Village Drive Building 600
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 838-3748
Cheryl Bolstad
AF 09-031      Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title:Intuitive Interfaces for Layered Sensing
Abstract:Although advances in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) technology are enabling access to a greater variety of data sources, the deciding factor is how human operators will be able to capitalize on this enormous volume of available information to support their decision-making. As the Air Force becomes more ‘info-centric,’ this creates a critical need to help military decision-makers process and exploit the content of large masses of data, both organic (e.g., situation updates from other team members) and non-organic (e.g., various forms of sensor data). To address this important issue, the Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate proposed the Layered Sensing concept as a means by which to provide decision-makers with fused, multi- source, multi-spectral, multi-dimensional information to support their universal battlespace awareness and subsequent decision-making performance. Accordingly, the overall technical objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop the Layered-Sensing Situation Awareness Intuitive Displays (L-SAID) toolkit to guide the design of intuitive interfaces that address the essential attributes and key issues related to the Layered Sensing concept. Phase I research will focus on creating a prototype of the L-SAID toolkit as well as illustrating intuitive interface design concepts for a specific ISR position. BENEFIT: By optimizing information integration and presentation, our L-SAID toolkit will maximize the safety of ISR operations while minimizing the occurrence of errors in complex, dynamic, information-rich Layered Sensing environments. This will ensure U.S Air Force battlespace dominance across a broad range of missions. L-SAID will be a useful tool that simplifies the creation of ISR interfaces by helping system developers sort through multiple design guidelines and techniques to identify those that best support global SA. Our theoretically-based user-centered approach is expected to significantly expand the commercial appeal of L-SAID both within the Air Force and to external organizations such as the National Security Agency (NSA), NASA, and the FAA. Other military users and providers of information to the Layered Sensing architecture and information space, such as the Army’s Future Combat System, would also benefit from the products developed in this project. This product is applicable to any domain in which individuals must analyze, synthesize, and convey large amounts of data to perform cognitively demanding tasks while maintaining high levels of individual and team SA, including, for example, reconnaissance pilots, air traffic controllers, security analysis, Homeland Security experts and NASA controllers. With these teams, the quality of their SA is critical for successful performance outcomes. Decision-makers in these domains may perform different tasks, but the critical need for timely, relevant, accurate, and trusted information to achieve and maintain SA remains the same. The L-SAID tool can be easily adapted to suit this wide variety of domains and end users. If carried through to Phase II and III, our L-SAID toolkit will be capable of quickly and easily transitioning to any new domain following minimal modifications.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Terry Patten
AF 09-033      Awarded: 5/6/2010
Title:Applying MOEs to web Based Activity (AMOEBA)
Abstract:Effectively countering terrorist Web sites requires understanding how those Web sites attempt to influence their target audiences and how effective that influence is. This is difficult because the exact objectives and target audiences of those sites are not known and the available data is largely limited to the language of the Web sites and the responses to them. We therefore propose to exploit sociolinguistic register analysis to infer objectives and target audiences from the Web site language, and sentiments and attitudes from the responses. We note that sociolinguistic register analysis uses exactly the same statistical techniques as the fields of market segmentation analysis and sentiment analysis. BENEFIT: The ability to infer the objectives and target audiences of terrorist Web sites and to measure the effectiveness of those Web sites will provide a significant benefit to U.S. Government agencies trying to counter the influence of those Web sites. The proposed tools may also help U.S. Government agencies develop better influence operations of their own. Commercial tools based on this effort could also be used in commercial marketing and competitive analysis.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Andrew DeCarlo
AF 09-033      Awarded: 5/4/2010
Title:Countering Cyber Terrorism through Internet Media
Abstract:Terrorists use a variety of messages, as well as a variety of communications media, to sway impressionable people to their viewpoint. The internet is a very effective emerging medium by which terrorists can spread their ideology. The internet allows propaganda to be disseminated in the form of blog posts, open forums, and multimedia content such as videos. Although the communication models used in propaganda are well-studied, measures of effectiveness relating to the internet have yet to be fully explored. IST proposes an innovative tool for Measuring Online Use of Social Exchanges for Terrorist Recruiting and Action Propaganda (MOUSETRAP). MOUSETRAP integrates Middle Eastern cultural and communication models into social interaction analysis for measuring the effectiveness of terrorist recruiting and propaganda dissemination. The social network metrics are tailored for analyzing the activity on a blog or forum in order to identify roles of the participants, such as leaders, recruiters, and impressionable individuals. The metrics are calculated with respect to a given social context or corpus, such as religious doctrine, fear, or culture warfare, thus being able to integrate easily into culturally- specific communication models. BENEFIT: Our metrics are designed specifically for analyzing activity on forums and blogs, and are better-suited than metrics for peer-to- peer social networks. These metrics are part of an IST-proprietary network metric testbed, which is specially suited for identifying leadership roles in a network under a specific social context. The social contexts allow the network metrics to be calculated for a variety of communication models, based on cultural and propaganda content. This set of communications models is designed with several specific Middle Eastern cultures in mind, rather than Western assumptions about Middle Eastern cultures. Our interdisciplinary team has well-established expertise in mathematics, psychology, social network analysis, cultural modeling, terror prediction, and identifying militant activity via the internet. One key military application is a stand-alone application service for use by intelligence analysts and psyoppers in the DoD and across the intelligence community. The analysts can use MOUSETRAP to detect terrorist propaganda and identify cyber- recruiters, so that the propaganda dissemination can be disrupted and countered.. A related law enforcement application can identify leaders of criminal syndicates and detect illegal activity online. A potential commercial application is in target marketing, where an extension of MOUSETRAP can identify groups of individuals receptive to a good or service, as well as individuals who are specially-suited for word-of-mouth advertising.

Linguastat
784 Edgemar Ave
Pacifica, CA 94044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 324-9989
Mark H. Butler
AF 09-033      Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title:Countering Cyber Terrorism through Internet Media
Abstract:Linguastat, Inc. proposes to develop technology for Countering Cyber Terrorism through Internet Media by combining key components in a way that has not been done before: 1) Collecting a baseline data set of target terrorist group web sites as well as responses found on the open internet including blog comments, Twitter posts, and linking websites; 2) Using content analysis and linguistic processing to characterize the media mix and media messages used by terrorist groups as well as the statements made by respondents to build up a set of characteristic features found in terrorist internet media; 3) Using statistical language approaches to determine patterns of media messages, sentiments, and demographic cues found in the content; 4) Leveraging direct and indirect measures of effectiveness including blog comments, the link structure of the Web, and web traffic metrics; 5) Performing a regression analysis to correlate characteristic features with effectiveness and develop predictive models for determining the likelihood of influencing different types of behavior within respondents; 6) Designing a system to perform near real time content analysis terrorist group internet media campaigns and prediction of threat levels and likely behaviors. BENEFIT: Application is applicable to the intelligence, security i.e. psychological operations, influence operations, counter insurgency, cultural communications. Commercialization of this research is applicable to the Department of State, business intelligence and security programs, as well as the Department of Homeland Security. The marketing research models into the Islamic and Muslim communities could also provide insight into commercial advertising and marketing campaigns.

The Rendon Group
1875 Connecticut Ave., NW Suite 716
Washington, DC 20009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 745-4900
Lynn Johnson
AF 09-033      Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title:Countering Cyber Terrorism through Internet Media
Abstract:This Phase I Technical Approach will provide the Government with an approach to identify, assess, and monitor the manner in which terrorist websites influence target audiences. Our approach is unique in that it applies psychological and sociological approaches to understanding the information and narratives presented by terrorist websites. We will use this Phase I research as the foundation for further technological development in Phase II. BENEFIT: The Government will benefit from a more nuanced approach to monitoring terrorist websites and to better understand how websites can be predictors or indicators of future actions or events. The Commercial sector will benefit from this research and development by having access to a multi-lingual solution that will help identify ways to leverage websites to reach key target audiences and consumer groups and to understand how competitors and stakeholders are using websites to position products to gain market share.

FastVDO LLC
5840 Banneker Rd., #270
Columbia, MD 21044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 730-6922
Pankaj Topiwala
AF 09-034      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:SmartLink
Abstract:The doctrine of battlefield Information Dominance has led to a proliferation of imaging platforms, especially in UASs, leading to a deluge of image/video gathering capability. Yet burgeoning sensor data acquisition is dramatically outpacing downlink capability, which voids the utility of sensor data. Methods to improve the performance of existing data links to transfer sensor data would greatly enhance operational performance. FastVDO advances its SmartLink technology which blends state of the art modem, network, and advanced video coding methods implemented with low-power off-the-shelf components to deliver robust total downlink. BENEFIT: 10X greater throughput, low delay transmission, timely sensor data communication

Shared Spectrum Company
1595 Spring Hill Road Suite 110
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 761-2818
Mark McHenry
AF 09-034      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Innovative Methods for Increasing Data Link Capability
Abstract:Growth in ISR Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) missions and increasing demand for RF bandwidth are impacting current data link capabilities. The problem trends worse over the next few years as more bandwidth intensive and complex ISR systems are deployed to support the increasing mission of UAS. To ensure rapid transition to CDL and existing platforms already stretched for in-theater missions, a non-intrusive software approach is required that works within the existing framework. Shared Spectrum Company builds on our adaptive software used in DARPA XG program to adapt improve link budget, data throughput and reliability by adapting the waveform to the best frequency within existing allocation to ensure best data link budget for video and data service quality. To expedite transition to the field, SSC is teamed with L-3 Communications West. BENEFIT: The Cognitive UAS Data Link will provide significant capacity and reliability communication system improvements. This will greatly improve the military value of UAVs because of the increased data per UAV and because of the additional number of UAVs that can be supported within a certain amount of spectrum.

Silvus Communication Systems, Inc
10990 Wilshire Blvd Suite 440
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 479-3333
Phillip Duncan
AF 09-034      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:A Comprehensive MIMO Centric Solution for Improved Spectral Efficiency of Airborne Data Links
Abstract:The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have produced missions that have demonstrated the importance of unmanned ground and aerial assets in aiding the warfighter. In particular, the use of UAS in providing ISR data has grown significantly over the last 6 years. The ever increasing use of UAS assets coupled with improved quality and resolution of the ISR information being delivered has created a spectrum congestion that threatens to undermine the success of such missions. Leveraging the unique benefits of multi-antenna processing, we will incorporate five independent techniques that can be easily integrated into any one of the existing air-to-ground data links being used in UAS. The solutions can all be incorporated into a small multi-antenna MIMO (multi-input multi-output) enabled radio with aggressive SWaP, and can deliver 8x to 20x improvement in the overall spectral efficiency of a cluster of communicating parties. BENEFIT: Spectrally efficient air-to- ground links have applications in both the military as well as the commercial aviation arena. In the military, it is the communications of ISR data to troops on the ground and commanders/operators in CONUS. In the commercial realm it is the provision of high-speed internet access to passengers on commercial airlines. Should our work be successful under this SBIR we can not only help the commercial market place, but also due to our unique approach we can leverage many of the parts to produce more robust and cost effective solutions for the military. The development of a prototype system is the first point of entry for discussions with commercial vendors, thus further underscoring the importance of delivering a working prototype within the first half of a possible phase 2 effort.

5-D Systems Inc.
1 Chisholm Trail, Suite 3200
Round Rock, TX 78681
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 238-9840
Darren Johnson
AF 09-035      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:High Speed Digital Video on Legacy Aircraft Wiring
Abstract:5-D has developed an approach to add a modern high speed network to legacy aircraft using only existing aircraft wiring. With this design implementation, aircraft power lines, as well as control and/or signal wiring will become dual purpose (original use along with high bandwidth data) resulting in a cost-effective upgrade applicable to thousands of aircraft worldwide. 5-D will adapt HomePlug® AV (Audio/Video) technology, the leading standard for broadband-over-power line (BOPL) networking worldwide, to the aircraft environment to enable high bandwidth network communication via existing aircraft wiring. HomePlug AV devices are designed to use standard home Alternating Current (AC) power wiring as a high speed data network. Our approach will modify these devices for the aircraft application and expand the capability to include aircraft power wiring, and aircraft signal wiring. Leveraging this reliable technology, we can realize the design goal of implementing a high speed (network) interface for aircraft systems over (legacy) installed wiring while significantly reducing development risk as well as benefiting from future improvements to the base commercial technology BENEFIT: This program will develop a product and service to upgrade any existing aircraft with a new high-speed network suitable for video transport and other high bandwidth applications. Any aircraft that might need a video system or a boost in on-board network performance would be a candidate for this product and service. JHMCS is just one of many systems that levy high bandwidth requirements that can be met in a low cost and low impact way with our proposed offering. Our initial commercialization plan consists of a description of the planned offering, identification and sizing of our potential markets, and rough projections of when and how much we plan to sell into those markets. This technology can gain a real foothold in the aviation marketplace as a relatively low-cost/low-impact, highly configurable, and reliable upgrade to existing aircraft. 5-D plans to make this offering an easy upgrade decision for a significant percentage of aircraft systems worldwide. In addition, the technology is applicable to many other types of platforms that we have not yet assessed as markets including: ground vehicles including automobiles and tanks, naval applications, and industrial communications.

DataSoft Corp.
1475 N. Scottsdale Road #460
Scottsdale, AZ 85257
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 763-5777
Matt Spencer
AF 09-035      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:High Speed Digital Video on Legacy Aircraft Wiring
Abstract:The low data rate of the MIL-STD-1553B bus is limiting the capability and performance of current applications. These applications and others under development could be augmented by increasing the data rate under which these systems communicate. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) is one example of a system that could benefit from the increased data rate. The current 1553 protocol supports a maximum data rate of only 1Mbps per bus. This rate causes degradation in the JHMCS displayed video resulting in blanked lines, blanked frames, or possibly no display at all. DataSoft will provide a high speed dynamic communication link on the existing 1553 wiring that will adapt to the changing physical and electrical conditions inherent on the 1553 bus. The DataSoft approach will dynamically adjust the signal to the changing environment on the 1553 bus that will result in higher throughput. BENEFIT: Our approach will provide high speed data link that can be used for the JHMCS as well as other systems that require high speed data over MIL-STD-1553 wiring. The DataSoft solution reduces integration costs because it dynamically adapts to the physical and electrical changes of the 1553 bus. The DataSoft solution is scalable and will provide the capability of multiple sets of transceivers to operate on the same bus.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
Houman Ghajari
AF 09-035      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:High Speed Digital Video on Legacy Aircraft Wiring
Abstract:Currently the Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) connection to the aircraft is done via cable, generally called the Helmet Vehicle Interface (HVI). The current HVI systems have integration issues, human factor limitations, and safety concerns. A Wireless based HVI is needed to eliminate these shortcomings, bring enhanced capabilities to the warfighter, improve safety, and reduce cost. In this proposal we outline our approach in creating a wireless infrastructure that enhances the data, commands and signal transfer in an aircraft in terms of throughput, flexibility, ease of integration, and cost. Our proposed solution is a wireless infrastructure that utilizes the advantages of a V-band technology while addressing the challenges of the 60 GHz band. The development of the proposed technology will not only increase the airborne data bus throughput capability by 1000X but will also, allow for replacement of the wires for signal and data communication onboard a avionics platform; reducing risks resulting from the inflexibility of wired connections, the weight, the cost and the time of qualifying the wire-based architecture. This technology can directly benefit the JHMCS program in providing a high throughput Wireless HVI. BENEFIT: The benefit of our proposed technology for wireless connectivity inside of an aircraft extends beyond the HVI system for JHMCS. The proposed wireless high data rate cable replacement solution can be used in virtually all types military and commercial aircrafts. Each year tremendous amounts of resources is used resolving issues with aircraft wiring, such as hazardous insulation. Specific concerns with regards to a wiring include the old age of such aircrafts, which could lead to more wiring related hazards. Such hazards include autopilot malfunction, fuel tank explosions, and unintentional maneuvers by the aircraft. Such hazards and issues can be resolved with the introduction of A-ViFi on the aircraft. It would also save the military millions of dollars in aircraft redesign because A-ViFi makes the addition of new onboard equipment to be very easy.

Modelware, Inc.
10 Drs James Parker Blvd Ste 105
Red Bank, NJ 07701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 936-1808
Anthony Dalleggio
AF 09-035      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:High Speed Digital Video on Legacy Aircraft Wiring
Abstract:This proposal presents a solution to extend the bandwidth of existing aircraft wiring up to 100 Mbps and beyond. The proposed solution supports the coexistence of traditional signaling and high-speed signaling on the same medium. The underlying technology uses advanced signal processing techniques and a versatile protocol stack that supports high- speed video and data, high-speed MIL-STD-1553, and IP-based networking applications. This solution can be applied as a cost effective field upgrade to existing systems in military aircraft. BENEFIT: Enables modern applications such as high-resolution video on military aircraft by supporting higher data rates over existing wiring. This technology is easily deployed in the field avoiding costly rewiring of aircraft and avoiding downtime. In addition, this technology can be easily adapted for commercial applications to implement higher data rate communications over a variety of existing wiring.

Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Myra Torres
AF 09-036      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Automated Fiber Optic Interconnect Cleaning System
Abstract:Aircraft availability requirements demand quick and accurate repairs in order to meet mission needs. Impact Technologies LLC, in collaboration with American Fujikura Limited Noyes (AFL Noyes), propose a novel approach to fiber optic connector cleaning and inspection that reduces the cleaning time of termini from 30 minutes to the target of 5 minutes. This proposal identifies the issues that increase ambiguity in inspection, the challenges of fiber optic field maintenance, and identifies the technologies needed to optimize inspection and cleaning. Research and development will target a single insertion approach utilizing novel optics, computer vision and decision support reasoners that can distinguish a clean endface, from a degraded endface as well as one that needs cleaning. Cleaning mechanisms will be integrated into the single probe to reduce further contamination and excessive part count in field environments. Marketing studies have identified a potential commercial marketplace for a portable single insertion cleaning product, thus Impact Technologies and AFL Noyes are committed to commercializing a product based on the specification from this proposal. BENEFIT: The capability proposed by Impact Technologies and AFL Noyes will benefit the US Air Force, the DoD, and private industries in deploying an automated fiber optic connector cleaning and inspection system that removes technician subjectivity and enhances weapons, avionics, and telecommunications systems availability. The proposed system will reduce the need for fiber optic maintainer expertise, endface assessment and cleaning time, and mitigate human error. The benefit of developing a new fiber optic connector cleaning and inspection system directly contributes to improvement in productivity, safety, readiness, as well as a reduction of total cost of ownership. A product developed from this SBIR will be commercialized by Impact Technologies and AFL Noyes.

MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
11 Ward Street
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-8300
Craig Beal
AF 09-036      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Automated Fiber Optic Interconnect Cleaning and Inspection Involving Aerospace Platforms
Abstract:MagiQ Technologies presents its concept called AFTICS – Automated Flight Terminus Inspection and Cleaning System. AFTICS will integrate our automated fiber terminus inspection capability with an imaging system able to rapidly gather and analyze images from multiple termini within any MIL-STD circular connector without the need to disconnect or manually align the imager. Upon processing these images, our system submits each terminus’s health classification code to our guided cleaning tool so that they can receive proper cleaning treatment. BENEFIT: AFTICS is designed to accelerate the cleaning and inspection of high density military fiber optic connectors on aircraft systems. This system will also remove the human factor from the inspection of these critical interconnects. The small rugged form factor and rapid characterization are expected to find applications to fiber optic systems in other areas of the military. The final product will not be limited to only MIL-STD-38999 style circular connectors. It can be easily modified to automate the cleaning and inspection of any style high density fiber optic connector, including rectangular format, through the use of appropriate adapters. This will allow the AFTICS system to apply to a wide variety of civilian and military markets including: high- bandwidth civil communication networks, emerging passenger avionics architectures, embedded building networks, air traffic control network grids, and land based transportation network systems.

Physical Optics Corporation
Products and Engineering Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kang Lee
AF 09-036      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Efficient Fiber Optic Examination and Cleaning Tool
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for automated fiber optic interconnect cleaning/inspection, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Efficient Fiber Optic Examination and Cleaning Tool (EFFECT) that combines both the inspection and cleaning processes in an entirely self-contained, body-worn, hand-held device with intuitive operation. The EFFECT system integrates advanced optics, artificial intelligence, and automated cleaning and debris removal (solvent delivery, debris vacuum, and inert nitrogen gas drying) with a novel adaptor system to accommodate virtually all form factors of fiber optic interconnects. Body-worn solvent and inert gas reservoirs, a vacuum system, and battery packs allow for operation in tight, confined spaces where aircraft/vessel power is not readily available and the use of innovative quick-connect adaptors (QCAs) affords the ability to effectively restore functionality in under 1 minute to the various interconnect architectures exposed to contaminants when removing line- replaceable units (LRUs). In Phase I, POC will define the variables for inspecting and cleaning fiber optic interconnects and fabricate a technology readiness level (TRL)-3 prototype. In Phase II, a rugged prototype will be demonstrated to show its feasibility to perform terminus endface restoration in realistic military avionics connector environments at TRL-5. BENEFIT: The use of fiber optics for data transmission has tremendous applications in both military and commercial environments. With its many benefits over standard coaxial and copper lines, the use of optical transmission is growing exponentially, particularly in the telecommunication industry, which has invested a considerable amount of money in providing infrastructure directly to consumer households. Unfortunately the fragility and susceptibility to signal degradation requires continued maintenance that can be time consuming without proper equipment. EFFECT will greatly help reduce this maintenance burden with an effective system that is efficient and intuitively operated with negligible infrastructure needs.

Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Chris Lomont
AF 09-038      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Enabling End User Computing Environments
Abstract:The High Assurance Platform Workstation (HAPWS) offers affordable and easy-to- manage multi-level and cross-domain capabilities to end-users in a desktop or console form-factor. It allows the end-user to have multiple windows of entire operating systems running in different security domains. The HAPWS will keep pace with most technology advancements with low re-certification effort. HP and Dell will adopt the NSA-certified workstation platform architecture allowing the Air Force to access and process information from multiple security domains on the same physical workstation at the same time. The DoD’s challenge is to work the Information Assurance (IA) processes necessary to be an early adopter of the HAPWS technology applied to Web 2.0 applications mash-ups. To do this and demonstrate to the Air Force an ability to secure processes and protect and segregate multiple levels of classified and/or sensitive data on a unified open architecture/systems workstation, these technologies have to be applied to Air Force tactical environments and the technical risks must be removed. Technical risks addressed include: • Proving key performance, • Assuring platform stability, • Guaranteeing adequate functionality, • Compliance with DoD Open Architecture requirements, and • Demonstrating Information Assurance and high availability at the same time. BENEFIT: The core and central commercialization plan is to install and test the Government approved secure HAPWS browsing system on board one or more designated Air Force systems. In addition, this product is applicable to other environments where classified or sensitive data is processed at multiple levels of access. These areas include other services and agencies, commercial sectors such as financial services, health care, and critical infrastructure, and companies that protect their intellectual property closely. Because the systems are based on open standards, adoption by these segments will be relatively smooth. Cybernet has access to all of these markets through our Internet Security Division proposing this effort and through related activities include: • NetMAX Internet Security Product built by Cybernet for commercial and Government users • Cybernet Medical electronic patient record product that are HIPAA security compliant • Other contract IA services with Government and prime contraction development efforts The knowledge gained through prior commercialization activities has given Cybernet access to valuable perspectives as we worked through the design and commercialization of this product, which solves the many DoD need for enhanced collaborative secure applications over the Global Grid. Due to the successes we''ve achieved through prior secure IT efforts and because of the quality of resources available, we will roll out the resulting technology both commercially and elsewhere in the DoD.

Harmonia, Inc.
2020 Kraft Drive, Suite 1000
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Marc Abrams
AF 09-038      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:Architecture X: End User Computing with Shadow Environment in a Provably Assured Manner
Abstract:Given the volatility of the commercial markup tool market, with Microsoft and Google recently withdrawing products, and the fact that other mashup tools require mashup code and data to reside on public servers (e.g, Yahoo Pipes), we instead use a Harmonia- developed mashup tool called XpditeIt from past SBIR work that is specifically tailored to the SOA environment. We use Conforma from Harmonia’s past SBIR work to continuously audit security. Our work has two main thrusts. First, we facilitate the ability of end users of computing systems to control the way they use and aggregate content from service- oriented architecture services. We support services that include REST, RSS, SOAP, AJAX, XML, and more in a system called Architecture X. We interface with the DoD Metadata Registry (MDR), Global Combat Support System (GCSS), and/or Net Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) and we support a multiple security domain environment. Second, we use an approach that maximizes confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA). Architecture X segregates end users and their mashups. The segregation allows us to provide a provably assured approach, to evaluate risks of mashups that users create to CIA, and to predict threats to the assurance of DoD services prior to their utilization. BENEFIT: Our proposed solution, Architecture X, directly supports realization of a net-centric world in DoD Directive 8320.2, "Data Sharing in a Net-Centric Department of Defense.” It facilitates data interoperability in DoD, application of semantic information from meta-tagging on data made available in SOA services, and application of associated information assurance and security mechanisms surrounding use of services. Our own measurements of the effectiveness of our XpditeIt tool on benchmark problems show that the time required by a user to create mashups of data from SOA web services is 80 to 85% less compared to the time required for traditional construction of applications. This can cut the time to construct web service based applications to a range of minutes for trivial applications to under an hour for a complex application. In today’s environment of full-spectrum military operations where the Air Force is being called on to carry out operations across the globe from stability and support operations in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom to preparation for Major Combat Operations, Architecture X will bring an unprecedented ability for analysts to gain information superiority through a rapid and flexible means of aggregating content and pinpointing data relationships needed for decisions.

Modus Operandi, Inc.
709 South Harbor City Blvd., Suite 400
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 473-1420
Mark Heileman
AF 09-038      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:SMASHUP: A Formal Framework for Secure Mashups
Abstract:The recent development of mashup technologies now enables users to easily collect, integrate, and display data from a vast array of different information sources available on the Internet. The ability to harness and leverage information in this manner provides a powerful means for discovering links between information, and greatly enhances decision-making capabilities. The availability of such services in a Department of Defense (DoD) environment will provide tremendous advantages to the decision-makers engaged in analysis of critical situations, rapid-response, and long-term planning scenarios. However in the absence of mechanisms for managing the validity, provenance, integrity, and usage control over the manner in which mashups are performed, any mashup service in a DoD environment also opens up significant security vulnerabilities to insider threat and accidental leakage of confidential information, just to name a few. In this research project, we will develop a framework that will allow integration via mashups of content from various data sources in a secure manner. The framework will be based on mathematical logic by means of which data units will be wrapped in policies that will provide rules over the manner in which information is collected, aggregated, and rendered in different environments. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits resulting from this project to provide an end user computing environment that allows Warfighters to aggregate content from multiple DoD sources using Web 2.0 technologies in a provably assured manner are: (a) helps prevent security vulnerabilities such as insider threat and accidental leakage of confidential information; (b) overcomes obstacles to access of wider-ranging data sources and feeds; (c) extends the reach of legacy services (i.e., Net-Centric Data Strategy); and (d) helps users securely solve new problems “on the fly.” The potential to apply this work to commercial opportunities is easy to see. The framework is applicable in any end user computing environment where mashups are needed. Therefore much of our work in secure mashups should translate naturally to commercial settings.

Traverse Technologies
4 Meadow Sweet Rd
West Newbury, MA 01985
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(857) 362-8314
Miles Fidelman
AF 09-038      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Enabling End User Computing Environments
Abstract:This topic seeks to Develop an End User Computing Environment that allows warfighters to aggregate content from multiple Department of Defense (DoD) sources using Web 2.0 technologies in a provably assured manner. Traverse Technologies proposes to build on currently funded work to build a Web Interoperability Services (WISE) Toolbox for the Air Force - by adding security guard and labeling functionality - yielding mashups and RESTful web services for use in cross-domain environments. BENEFIT: This project will yield Web 2.0 tools and RESTful web services tailored for use in military, homeland security, and public safety applications - where high availability and security are of critical importance.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 612-2312
Benjamin Slocumb
AF 09-041      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Non-cooperative Target Detection/Identification (ID)
Abstract:To achieve desired levels of operational performance, airborne surveillance systems require a capability for identifying non-cooperative targets within the surveillance space. Effective non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR) systems reduce the time to engagement and also the incidence of fratricide. Advances in imaging sensor technologies such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), synthetic aperture ladar (SAL), and high range resolution (HRR) radar, offer enhanced target recognition capabilities at long distances. Sensor technology such as airborne MTI radar and ESM can also provide target recognition information at long range. This program seeks to develop a multi-sensor multi-platform NCTR system that fuses feature and classification data to produce a robust estimate of the target identity. A key capability of the proposed solution is the ability to fuse information from dissimilar sensors, and this will enable the coordination and cooperation of these sensors in the NCTR solution. Another important attribute in the proposed solution is the ability to account for ambiguities present in the NCTR problem. The ambiguity detection and management is achieved using a multiple hypothesis data association framework, with which Numerica has extensive experience and expertise. BENEFIT: Under various advanced sensing programs, such as the Advanced Laser Sensing program, the Air Force is actively pursuing advanced sensor capabilities to aid in the recognition of non-cooperative targets. The impact of these improvements can be multiplied by a system that fuses the information from dissimilar sensors into coherent target identification hypotheses. Moreover, the availability of the fusion products allows each sensor to leverage information from other sensors to improve its performance. Examples of this cross-cuing include improved detection, accuracy, and response time. Numerica’s multi-sensor fusion system for non-cooperative target recognition will include the ability to fuse both feature and classification data from dissimilar sensors into a coherent hypothesis of the target’s identity. The NCTR technology to be developed will use multi-hypothesis data association technology and ambiguity detection and management techniques to provide robust target identifications. These two features combine to provide an NCTR system that will perform well even in complex, highly ambiguous, scenarios and in particular will mitigate the occurrence of mis-identification decisions. Provided that the NCTR technology is successful, Numerica intends to pursue a transition path with the AWACS Program Office, the sponsor of the SBIR topic; Numerica is already working with the program office on a related fusion technology. Numerica also intends to work with Boeing, which has provided a letter of interest, on opportunities to transition the technology to AWACS and to relevant Unmanned Arial System (UAS) programs. The NCCT Program, with which Numerica is already working with, is another potential beneficiary of the NCTR technology, as there are needs for this capability within the NCCT system as well.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Craig S. Agate
AF 09-041      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Non-Cooperative Target Detection/Identification (ID)
Abstract:Engagement and sensing tasks require the ability to quickly and accurately identify friendly and enemy targets. This rapid and precise ID information is useful particularly in situations where immediate targeting of enemy aircraft is necessary. Since cooperative techniques such as IFF do not always distinguish to the extent needed, non-cooperative techniques for detecting and identifying friendly/neutral/enemy targets are necessary. In particular, ways of fusing information provided by multiple sensors can improve detection/identification capability. Toyon Research Corporation proposes to analyze multi- intelligent data sources and to research a dual layer solution for non-cooperative target identification. The primary layer uses a Multiple Hypothesis Tracker (MHT) in conjunction with a Bayesian network to model feature information and possible inferences garnered from this information in a way that promotes improved measurement-to-track association. Toyon’s Tracked Object Manager (TOM) will handle feature database management and use its databases to correlate on-the-fly information for input into the Bayesian network. Toyon will also design a test scenario in order to test these algorithms. BENEFIT: The algorithms developed on this effort will support a layered sensor architecture in which multi-sensor data is fused to detect and identify objects that move around within the sensor network. This information can then be used to provide a clear uncluttered description of targets in a single integrated picture. Such a system has wide applicability to a variety of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance and Security missions. Not only is it applicable to Air Force scenarios, it may also be applied to situations such as border security, using video surveillance systems which may use features such as those found by a scale-invariant feature transform algorithm.

Fetch Technologies
841 Apollo Street Suite 400
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-9849
Steven Minton
AF 09-042      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Persistent Queries for Evolving Situational Awareness of Organization Entities
Abstract:The ultimate aim of this project is to enable better entity-oriented situation awareness systems to be developed. Such systems should enable operators to rapidly “connect the dots” and allow them to track entities of interest. In this Phase I project we will design an approach for collecting information about entities from multiple heterogeneous sources, and for consolidating that information into entity profiles. We will also develop technology that will enable profiles to be monitored, so that alerts can be generated when significant changes occur. The project will explore the application of the technology, including an application to streamline the Market Research and Source Selection Phases of the Air Force’s acquisition cycle. BENEFIT: To achieve significant improvement in situation awareness applications, we need easy-to-use systems that enable information to be integrated and monitored, without necessitating a long, arduous, expensive programming project for each application that is created. The research described here will develop such an approach for collecting, integrating and monitoring information about entities. The work has a very targeted application for the military, which is to streamline the Market Research and Source Selection Phases of the Air Force’s acquisition cycle. In addition, there are important commercial markets for the technology. One market is the background screening industry. Currently, background checks on both companies and individuals tend to be a done sporadically, but in many situations, monitoring relevant information sources would be highly preferred. This technology improvements that we propose to investigate will enable such applications to be developed.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner''''s Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Terrance Goan
AF 09-042      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:Exploiting Crowdsourcing to Seed Organization Profile Scouting
Abstract:We propose a new approach to the automatic mining and validation of organizational data from available sources like the Web called organization profiling that will enable the generation of a persistent and up-to-date database of organizational attributes and relationships of interest to an analyst. Building on our existing core technologies in context-aware information retrieval and ontology-based information extraction, the Scout system will automatically retrieve source documents likely to contain desirable attribute information and extract those attributes from unstructured and semi-structured text. We will utilize an innovative crowdsourcing approach to quickly and efficiently seed Scout with a baseline snapshot-in-time database for system training, monitoring, and evolution. Cross-source validation techniques will determine the interpretation of extracted values relative to an evolving, consensus understanding of each attribute including a summary of its values through time. Both user-targeted and automatically detected attributes will be collected and packaged in a new data structure called an Organization Profile. Streamlined user workflows that minimize user involvement and maximize system utility will be developed to permit the targeting of attributes for extraction as well as the efficient review and validation of extracted data. Phase I will prove the feasibility of our overall approach via an end-to-end demonstration prototype. BENEFIT: The proposed Scout system will have a wide range of applications in areas where analysts face serious challenges in collecting and fusing data hidden in a sea of electronic text. Market Research and Business Intelligence are particularly attractive applications where we see the opportunity for Scout to dramatically improve the ability to plan product development and marketing strategies and monitor competitors.

Vision Systems & Technology, Inc
6021 University Blvd Suite 360
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-5555
Edward Swing
AF 09-042      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:The AcqKnowledge System
Abstract:The federal acquisition process requires acquisition professionals to investigate and correlate information on companies manually. To determine which companies meet the criteria for solicitations, they must blend metrics such as CMMI, company certifications, and a wide range of other criteria. This proposal describes a system to transform this labor-intensive process into an automated system for maintaining queries for various organizations according to a wide variety of criteria. Sources of data may range from structured databases to unstructured websites. VSTI answers the need for this system with the AcqKnowledge System. Since the sources of data vary in structure and quality, the system will incorporate a flexible automated reasoner framework along with data fusion technology. This reasoning framework allows developers to provide a range of reasoners that can harvest information from different data sources. Furthermore, to manage the wide range of potential queries, and information necessary to answer them, the system incorporates a flexible storage system that does not require a static schema. This design will enable the system to adapt to unforeseen queries that a new solicitation may require. Finally, the system will incorporate a persistence component to execute queries repeatedly, and alert acquisition specialists when a company''s information changes. BENEFIT: The AcqKnowledge System (AKS) offers several commercial and technical benefits. The AKS can easily be applied to other scenarios and application domains in both the military and civilian sectors. Within the military, the system could easily benefit supply chain management by enabling military supply officers in a forward- deployed unit to quickly identify potential sources of munitions and other goods. The AKS could also apply to intelligence analysis. By modifying the queries and sources of information, the system could monitor the organizational status of other types of organizations, including foreign governments or terrorist organizations. In the commercial sector, the AKS could naturally apply to financial institutions. The Federal Reserve could use the system to monitor the financial status of companies, receiving alerts or information about suspicious or fraudulent activity. Financial institutions could also use the system to monitor the financial health of companies for their investors. Finally, various companies could use the AKS to monitor their competitors, or identify potential partners.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Chien Chung Chen
AF 09-043      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Compact Multi-Access Lasercom
Abstract:Optical Physics Company (OPC) has been a technology solution provider in free space laser communications for almost a decade. The proposed SBIR project will investigate two key innovations for a cost effective lasercom terminal architecture that meets or exceeds all requirements for pointing and accuracy, data rate, acquisition time, reliability, radiation tolerance, and operating temperature range in a compact low weight, low power package. The first innovation is the three level filter tree that separates eight distinct receive and eight distinct transmit lines. The second innovation is the selection of materials for a wide operating temperature range in space. The main advantages are full bandwidth capability of each access lasercom link at 40Gbps, operational flexibility without any constraints on geometry, and development heritage to well proven designs. Phase I investigation will develop an analytic performance model (APM), formulate design options for the optical front end, and evaluate options for combining the wavelength division multiplexing with other channel multiplexing options. Trade studies will compare size, weight and power, risk, ruggedness, cost and performance, as well as scalability of various implementation options. Phase I effort will conclude with a design review of the wavelength selective filter planned for the Phase II prototype. BENEFIT: On this project, OPC is teamed with a prime contractor who is a key player in laser communications. There are two potential technology transition paths: One of these is to add laser communication channels to satellites developed and launched under the Wideband Global Satcom (WGS) and Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) communications satellite programs. Another option is evolving multiple small scale application specific systems rather than a large, monolithic system. This would serve the DOD and the intelligence community’s need of less complex, less risky systems that can be developed and deployed faster. The technology is a strong candidate for both options. Furthermore, besides military applications, lasercom can also be a commercial option in some limited environments.

Vescent Photonics
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver, CO 80216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 296-6766
Scott Davis
AF 09-043      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Multi-Access Optical Communications Modules as Enabled by Revolutionary EO Scanner Technology
Abstract:Vescent Photonics proposes to develop a new generation of ultra-compact, ultra low power free space optical (FSO) systems that will be suitable for deployment on a wide variety of military platforms, as required for new multi-access optical networks. These new devices are enabled by the combined development of revolutionary non-mechanical beamsteerers by Vescent, and state-of-the-art optical telecommunications technology. The proposed systems will be entirely electro-optic, provide unprecedented size weight and power, and be able to scan an entire wide angle (>90o) field of view (FOV) in less than a millisecond with analog resolution. This system will be designed to meet future persistent surveillance and situational awareness needs wherein high definition video capabilities are being extended to a greater number of mobile tactical platforms, e.g., MAVs, UAVs, etc., and relay this Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AISR) to a GEO satellite or other ground or flight platform. Our approach circumvents the challenges of opto-mechanical scanners by utilizing new EO scanner technology, which will transmit high bandwidth optical signals to a target; a low bandwidth RF signal can be used to lock the transmit scanner to the target, thereby maintaining data-link integrity as the platforms move relative to one another. BENEFIT: The ultra-compact steerable FSO concept and hardware developed in this program has a wide range of relatively near- term and potentially low-cost military (tactical, theater and strategic) and other (surveillance/homeland security) applications. Tactical and surveillance adaptations would be the largest potential near-term markets. We believe that the ultra-compact steerable FSO approach could be readily and cost effectively adapted to fielding of compact laser radars, coded covert (free-space-optics) line-of-sight communications capabilities and serve as high-accuracy optical trackers for engaging tactical (rockets, mortars and artillery-RAM) targets; RAMs are currently major threats to the US and its allies in the context of theater and urban warfare. Outside of the military deployment, our ultra- compact FSO system can be instrumental in last-mile telecommunications environments in urban setting, for field-deployable high-definition video systems for newscasters and sports casters (e.g., high-def coverage of golf tournaments is currently and outstanding challenge), and a variety reconfigurable, low-cost, commercial high-bandwidth data links.

Voxtel Inc.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Andrew Huntington
AF 09-043      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:High Sensitivity, High Bandwidth, Multi Access Optical Communication Receiver
Abstract:The capacity to integrate RF and free-space optical hybrid communications is now feasible given advances in adaptive optics and optical automated gain control. Proposed is a novel high-speed avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver, with over 5 GBPS data rates, and single-photon sensitivity. The APD receiver has a bit error rate (BER) several dB better than any other available, due to its low excess noise, low dead time, and high gain. The device has been radiation-tested for rigorous space environments and has passed lifetime testing. The device’s performance allows it single-photon sensitivity, which can be traded at the system level for reduced laser power, smaller optics, and reduced data overhead. Here, a novel array of these highly efficient APD elements will be fabricated, each configured to its own low-noise amplifier and with an individual pixel bias adjustment. Each pixel channel is amplified and buffered from the array, allowing for wavefront correction to occur in real time via adaptive optics. BENEFIT: Free-space optical communications is a cost-effective and high-bandwidth access technique, which has been receiving growing attention with recent commercialization successes. To date, the primary obstacle to commercial uptake of line-of-sight laser free-space optical communication through the air has been the limitations imposed by adverse weather, particularly fog, which restricts conventional near-infrared laser systems’ throughput in the air. In the optics community, there has been a debate as to whether a mid-infrared source really is a better physical layer solution than near-infrared light. Much of the debate hinges on the shortage of good data that presents systems side-by-side in a comparable way. Alternatively, turbulence-induced fading can be reduced, and error rate performance improved by deployment of an adaptive optics system adaptable to both NIR or MWIR spectral bands.

Corcoran Engineering, Inc.
48 Knollwood Dr.
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 894-1168
Christopher Corcoran
AF 09-044      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Coherent Diode Array for High Power Optical Transmitter
Abstract:The proposed project, in partnership with nLight, will demonstrate the feasibility to coherently combine a high-power monolithic array of diode lasers using a Self-Fourier cavity for use in satellite communication systems. The Phase I project will experimentally demonstrate the coherent coupling of a monolithic array of diode lasers emitting at the eyesafe wavelength of 1480 nm manufactured by nLight as well as develop a comprehensive model of operation. The results of the Phase I effort will be an understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms responsible for phase locking, a good understanding of the scaling issues, and a design for Phase II prototype. The Phase II effort will demonstrate a diffraction-limited diode laser source at a power level of more than 10W suitable for satellite communication. Development of this technology will also pave the way for a multi-kW diode laser arrays useful for many other military applications including pumps for high energy solid state laser systems as well as the High Energy Laser itself. BENEFIT: The coherent combination of the multiple outputs from a large monolithic diode laser array will result in greatly increased capabilities in the generation of high brightness laser outputs. This capability will find numerous applications in the commercial market such as fiber laser pumps, medical applications, environmental sensing, advanced LADAR systems, and metal cutting and welding for the automotive and shipbuilding industry.

Fibertek, Inc.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Frank Kimpel
AF 09-044      Awarded: 3/11/2010
Title:High Power Optical Transmitter for Satellite Communications
Abstract:Fibertek proposes an agile pulse- and modulation-format fiber-optic transmitter, that is compatible with free-space optical communication protocols, and is consistent with a space qualifiable roadmap. This leverages our recent and ongoing work on high power (Pavg > 10W) fiber-optic transmitters as well as WDM transmitters, to enable scaling to >10Gb/s links. Furthermore, careful choice of high-reliability and radiation tolerant fiber- optic component technologies will facilitate transition to a space qualifiable prototype. BENEFIT: (1) Ultrahigh bandwidth links via satellite between UAVs and ground control stations (2) Real-time links via LEO/GEO satellites for improved situational awareness (3) Alternative to existing RF satellite links for commercial customers

Freedom Photonics LLC
615 A State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 277-3031
Milan Mashanovitch
AF 09-044      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:High Power Optical Transmitter for Satellite Communications
Abstract:Freedom Photonics proposes in this SBIR Phase I to develop and evaluate a novel design for a high power optical transmitter suitable for low earth and geosynchronous orbit satellite environments. This design focuses on the key aspects of very high output power, reliability, and radiation hardness. BENEFIT: This high power technology will benefit not only inter-satellite communication links but also LADAR and other links in which it is desirable to omit an EDFA amplifier. Size, weight and power are minimized which makes it applicable to UAVs and other low power and size constricted platforms. Commercial applications include satellite-based and terrestrial-based optical free space terminals.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 781-7416
Dave Pechner
AF 09-044      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:High Power Optical Transmitter for Satellite Communications
Abstract:The need for higher bandwidth communications supporting video as well as data transmission to the warfighter is driving the development of satellite-based free space lasercom. However, the current state-of-the-art in laser transmitter technology is mainly directed at fiber optics systems which have been developed primarily for terrestrial applications, where radiation tolerance is not designed into the product. Given that the useful operating lifetime of communications satellites can exceed twenty years, the optical transmitter reliability is crucial to the effective development of satellite-based systems to support delivery of high bandwidth to the warfighter. Current terrestrial based systems are designed for high reliability and long life, as over the last 15 years billions of dollars have been spent on the development of fiber optic based sources, modulators, and amplifiers to support critical communications systems such as Emergency Response and 911 call centers. SA Photonics developed the SKYLIGHT laser transmitter for satellite based lasercom. SKYLIGHT incorporates a tunable laser source, a high performance modulation engine, and a high power Master Oscillator Power Amplifier to provide a system capable of up to 10Gb/s with over 10W of output power and a radiation tolerance capable of operating in LEO or GEO orbits BENEFIT: The primary benefit of the SKYLIGHT laser transmitter development program is to provide a high power space qualified radiation hardened laser transmitter platform to form the basis of a satellite lasercom terminal. The SKYLIGHT system will advance the state of the art in fiber based laser sources for space applications. Monolithic fiber based sources have an advantage over other laser sources due to the robust nature of the monolithic architecture, the small size, and low weight. A program dedicated to improving radiation tolerance, reliability, and power efficiency of fiber based laser sources will simplify the deployment of satellite-based laser communications.

Kigre, Inc
100 Marshland Road
Hilton Head, SC 29926
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 681-5800
John D. Myers
AF 09-045      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:High Power Optical Amplifier (HPOAs) for Free Space
Abstract:Kigre proposes to develop and integrate unique radiation hardened, athermal, 1.5um laser gain materials and pumping architectures into high performance optical laser amplifier devices for SATCOM applications. The approach employs long life radiation tolerant pump diodes configured for direct side pumping of large mode area laser glass gain elements. Traditional single mode fiber laser amplifier designs are limited in terms of pump power, stability, noise, gain and power. Direct side pumping circumvents traditional laser amplifier issues with simpler, smaller and more scaleable architectures. They may be made into radiation hardened high power laser devices that provide reliable, rugged, temperature insensitive solutions for stable, low noise operation. Er:Phosphate glass gain material is identified as ideal for use in laser amplifiers designed for satellite communications. This high gain laser glass provides numerous property advantages such as high gain, low heat fraction, high cross section, broad bandwidth, high solubility for rear-earth ions, insensitivity to concentration quenching, low upconversion losses, ability to self- compensate for induced strain/lensing due thermal loading, high energy storage and stable high gain laser amplifier performance in relatively short (compact) gain lengths. BENEFIT: Compact high efficiency radiation resistant HESP laser amplifiers would have potential commercial applications in free-space ground and satellite communications. Other commercial applications may include laser radar, collision avoidance, laser plasma spectroscopy, laser ignition and medicine. Military markets include satellite communications, LAser Detection And Ranging (LADAR), LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), tracking, atmospheric sensing, targeting, illumination Additional applications include directed energy, long range eye-safe laser terrain mapping and laser designation.

NP Photonics, Inc.
UA Science and Technology Park 9030 S. Rita Road, Suite #120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7437
Wenyan Tian
AF 09-045      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:High power wide band optical fiber amplifier for satellite communications
Abstract:NP Photonics has developed high power C-band fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers for telecommunications, Lidar, and sensing. We are developing new glass and fiber technology that is the basis for new family of very compact, high gain, and low noise fiber amplifier products. NP Photonics has applied this approach to achieve more than 20dB gain across the C-band from 8cm long active fiber. We have delivered our customers 10W 1550nm fiber laser products by using fiber amplifier system. Current commercial available S-band fiber amplifier is based on thulium-doped fluoride fiber, which has mechanical strength and chemical durability issues. Current state-of-art technologies in C-band fiber amplifiers have been developed primarily for terrestrial applications and lack of reliability and radiation assessments. Both of them can not provide all features to meet the requirement of solicitation. In this proposal, we propose a high reliability, radiation hardness, high efficiency, rugged, compact, 1W optical fiber amplifier covering 1450- 1560nm seamlessly by using new highly thulium and terbium co-doped tellurite fibers for S-band amplification and highly Er/Yb co-doped phosphate fibers for C-band amplification. A prototype will be delivered at the end of the Phase II of this SBIR effort. BENEFIT: The high power wide band optical fiber amplifier proposed here has the potential to be widely used in satellite communications. It can be used for coherent communication for airborne Lidars and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. It will also provide a wide range of opportunities in terrestrial-based communications, wavelength division multiplexed network, undersea free communications, sensing, scientific instrumentation, and R&D.

Photon-X, LLC
283 Great Valley Parkway
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(484) 888-2968
Aydin Yeniay
AF 09-045      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:High Power Optical Amplifier (HPOAs) for Free Space
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop innovative highly reliable High Power Optical Amplifier (HPOA) modules for optical satellite communications (SATCOM) operating over broad ranges of temperatures (i.e. from -40 to +80 0C) and of radiation environment (i.e. total dose of 300krads with a rate of 108rad/s), enabling 20-year full-duty cycle lifetime of Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) mission. The Phase I effort is focused on investigating the feasibility of manufacturing of such a HPOA by means of modeling and designing the HPOA for the desired optical specs as well as modeling and designing optic/electronic components and packaging for the required reliability specs. In the projected work, we will also manufacture and assembly key components of the HPOA as proof-of-concept studies. Photon-X has an extensive expertise on radiation hardened broadband fiber based optical amplifiers with state-of-the-art designs of optical and electronic layers as well as packaging, Fig. 1 [related patents in Section 4]. Our proposed design is based on two stage rare earth doped fiber amplifier. The first stage is a pre- amplifier with a low noise figure (i.e. 3dB) consisting of a small core area Erbium doped fiber (EDF) as means to increase dynamical range and lower overall noise figure (NF) of the HPOA. The second stage is a high power amplifier based on an Erbium Ytterbium doped fiber (EYDF) with single or/and double clad structures that would provide high output power (i.e. from 500mW to several Watts) in saturation when pumped with multimode pumps at 976nm (e.g. 1 to 6). The key element of the HPOA is the gain medium, where we employ our proprietary (i.e. patent pending) EYDF radiation hardening technique based on pre-exposure and annealing methods. In the proposed designs, besides radiation hardened EYDF, HPOA consists of all commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components that have been widely used in telecommunications with proven reliability (i.e. Telecordia standards) in terms of power handling and life time. In addition to Telecordia standards where the minimum operation temperature is 00C, pump lasers’ temperature controller (TEC) circuitry will be modified to accommodate an operation temperature down to -400C. For the pump lasers’ driving current and TEC controllers, we will use our patented ultralow power consumption circuitry designs as means to minimize required operation power and associated thermal management issue [1-2]. For accelerated radiation reliability testing, we utilize low dose (100rad/hr) Cs137 rod source (RWJU Radiation Research center, NJ) for Master Curve analysis to obtain lifetime prediction, and high energy linear accelerator source (St. Mary Radiation Research Center, IN) for high dose (62MeV, LET) radiation burst testing. In the proposed work, our main consultant is Dr. E. Long of Longhill Technologies who will provide expertise on GEO radiation environment modeling and radiation shielding material simulations. In addition, we will utilize thermal modeling tool, COSMOSM, to provide thermal management of DCs and TECs. The projected dimensions and weight of the proposed HPOAs are of 15x12x3cm3 and 1.8lb, respectively. BENEFIT: The intensity of growth in bandwidth demand with the

Black River Systems Company, Inc.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
William Copeland
AF 09-046      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Automated Adversarial Course of Action Model Generation and Reasoning for Satellite Protection (commercial/military)
Abstract:Black River Systems Company proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative simulation technology to dynamically reason and generate adversarial Space Course of Action (COA) models/playbooks and graphical node and link analysis of intended adversary counterspace actions. The proposed simulation technology, entitled “SimPath” was originally conceived by BAE Systems on the DARPA Deep Green project where it successfully generated “future situation graphs” at rates that were orders of magnitude greater than real-time. This proposed effort will apply SimPath to the counterspace domain where it will generate future adversarial (Red) Space COAs focused on the emerging challenge of defending DoD critical commercial (Gray) satellites from RF jamming and Laser dazzling. Feasibility will be demonstrated using a validated set of performance measures and analyst feedback for utility assessment. BENEFIT: Upon successful completion of this Phase I effort, “SimPath” will dynamically generate adversarial Space Course of Actions (COAs) that are not dependent on limited historical datasets but rather utilize qualitative envisionment of multiple COA trajectories, resulting in “future situation graphs” embodying a large number of branching factors and distinct outcomes. Selected COA trajectories will be readily extractable as a sequence of high-level events and indicators to stimulate high-level multi-INT fusion systems. Data contained within the “futures situation graphs” will enable integration of “SimPath” with legacy ground vehicle, satellite, and sensor simulation systems for analysis of of both commercial and DoD Space Situational Awareness (SSA) systems.

Distributed Infinity Inc
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 825-8709
Samuel N. Hamilton
AF 09-046      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Automated Adversarial Course of Action Model Generation and Reasoning for Satellite Protection (commercial/military)
Abstract:The United States has expended tremendous amounts of time and effort in maintaining the capability of our most critical space assets with a high degree of fidelity despite a wide range of possible occurrences. For the most part, however, the current threat model is largely natural. It has become increasingly important to improve our asset protection methodologies against malicious, intentional acts. These acts may be kinetic, cyber, or a combination, and may be timed to coincide with naturally occurring events that reduce our asset resiliency temporarily. We propose to design, develop, and deliver a ground breaking tool that will significantly aide analyst work in predicting and combating such threats. The Space Assessment Simulator (SAS) will include complex models of relevant naturally occurring events, as well as models of potential adversary resources including both kinetic and cyber capabilities. SAS will apply powerful game-theoretic algorithms to deduce a wide range of possible threats, ranging from most likely to most dangerous. It will include a sophisticated timing model to capture possibilities of adversaries launching attacks coordinated with natural events to disguise or confuse interpretation of their actions. These threat trees will be passed to the analysts for use in developing appropriate countermeasures. BENEFIT: The Space Assessment Simulator contains a library of possible actions, goals, and domains that are potentially applicable to either the defender of the space assets, or an adversary. Player models are then developed that contain a subset of these moves available to each player. Potential interactive natural events are also stored. The Space Assessment Engine can then examine millions of possibilities, and output rank ordered threats.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5001
Bruce Swett
AF 09-047      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Space Threat Automated Reasoning System (STARS)
Abstract:Public reports of the successful test of kinetic kill anti-satellite weapons, “off the shelf” radio frequency (RF) jammers, and high-powered lasers used to blind orbiters demonstrate that both nations and non-state actors have access to effective anti-satellite offensive warfare capabilities. Also, an increasing number of nations have obtained space capabilities – a fact that means space is not only becoming more crowded, but increasingly dangerous as well. To maintain an accurate operational picture of the space-related battlespace (SRB), DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation will develop a modeling system that includes uncertainty and that can handle noisy and missing data. Providing such a battlespace model for space-related threats will require overcoming our current inability to: 1. Automatically create a probabilistic model of all space assets, organizations (countries, corporations, terrorists, etc.) that can impact space assets, all threat types (environmental and man-made), and geopolitical alliances, goals and influences; 2. Dynamically update the SRB model, so that it evolves over time; 3. Create predictions (inferences on the SRB model to future time-points) of Red Force courses of action (COAs) and on Blue Force space assets; and 4. Automatically create projections of the damage that predicted attacks will have on Blue Force space assets (projected impact assessment). BENEFIT: The culmination of this Phase I SBIR effort will be a demonstration of a baseline Space Threat Automated Reasoning System (STARS) prototype that can: automatically generate a model of the elements of the space-related battlespace and their relationships as they change over time. Information on the timing and time courses of multiple adversarial threats will be included in the model, which will allow the JSpOC operator to predict threats, and to have projections of the impact that specific attacks will have on friendly space-related assets. The direct benefit of the STARS engine will be vastly improved situational awareness and predictive analysis capabilities for intelligence analysts. Our primary commercialization path will be to implement STARS as a service within the SAFIRE Dynamic Counterspace Threat Indication and Warning solution for deployment in the JSIP for use by JSPOC operators. A wide variety of other commercialization opportunities exist within both the military and civilian sectors in any domain that requires the representation and prediction of complex activities using large data streams of events.

Intelligent Software Solutions
5450 Tech Center Drive Suite 400
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 234-0778
Mark Gerken
AF 09-047      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Automated Tools for Adversarial Threat Characterization
Abstract:The space community has, over the course of the past several years, performed research into Space Situation Awareness (SSA). As SSA and reasoning technologies advance, SSA has become a central factor in identifying and responding to space threats. The ISS Team proposes to advance SSA capabilities through the development of predictive SSA technologies. The objective of the proposed Space Situation Awareness via Predictive Intelligent Reification of multi-INT Threat-models (SPIRIT) effort is to develop a collaborative SSA fusion capability that provides identification of and predictive insight into both deliberate hostile actions and environmental threats facing space assets. We propose a multi-stage fusion system in which the first stage monitors low-level data and relevant JMS feeds using threat and normalcy models. Activation of these models triggers stage two which leverages semantic web technologies to facilitate automated discovery of inter-entity relationships including spatiotemporal and contextual relationships from sources including structured, semi-structured, and unstructured text. Stage three leverages these semantically enriched products to perform predictive threat characterization using threat COA and impact assessment models. Partial evidence and uncertainty will be managed through fuzzy logic and probabilistic reasoning. Through this multi-stage process, SPIRIT’s predictive threat characterization will enable timely development of effective countermeasures. BENEFIT: SPIRIT will provide an extensible framework for supporting SSA in a net-centric environment that will be compatible with the upcoming Joint Space Operations Center Mission System (JMS) SOA architecture. Using a federation of normalcy, threat, and COA models, the multi-stage SPIRIT system will be able to rapidly identify and characterize threats, be they intentional or natural. Consuming streaming multi-INT data as well as open source text, the semantic enrichment capabilities of SPIRIT along with its multi-logic reasoning system will support predictive awareness of emerging threats from partial evidence, enabling timely threat identification and development of effective countermeasures. Although initially developed to support SSA, the SPIRIT framework could be adapted to support new domains given appropriate domain theories and models. The initial commercial applications of SPIRIT include SSA and DCS systems such as JMS.

Integrated Solutions for Systems
4970 Corporate Drive, Suite 100
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 426-7978
James Daniel
AF 09-048      Awarded: 3/1/2010
Title:Wi-Fi for Assured PNT and Integrity Verification
Abstract:It is quite common for a group of GPS users to operate in close proximity and in a denied or degraded GPS environment as typical in urban canyon and heavily forested environments. Using the traditional GPS receiver approach, individual or all users may be denied the ability to navigate in such an environment, even though each user may be intermittently receiving useful satellite signal information. Collectively, the network of GPS users may be able to receive sufficient satellite signals, augmented by intra-networked ranging measurements consisting of GPS and Wi-Fi signals integrated in a vector tracking loop scheme in order to form an integrated position determination. This Phase I research offers an opportunity to explore the potential benefits, driving issues, pitfalls, and integration challenges of Wi-Fi augmentation of GPS considering accuracy, security, and integrity in a meshed network of GPS receivers and Wi-Fi APs. BENEFIT: Potential benefits of the proposed research will be the integration of alternate sources such as Wi- Fi augmentation of GPS allowing continued operation in stressed and denied environments and in added integrity monitoring capabilities offered by additional meaasurement sources.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5269
Babak Azimi-Sadjadi
AF 09-048      Awarded: 3/11/2010
Title:Opportunistic Positioning Using Network of Wi-Fi enabled GPS
Abstract:Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes to develop a network of Wi-Fi enabled GPS (WiFiGPS) in which connected nodes share raw observables and Wi-Fi based inter-node ranges to locate each network node with high reliability. Such a system will enable GPS- based positioning, even when GPS reception is unavailable or severely degraded in one or more localized areas. By fusing land-based RF ranges with traditional GPS ranging techniques, we will augment traditional COTS GPS receivers with significantly improved positioning capabilities, resulting in more robust positioning. Furthermore, the proposed WiFiGPS system will support GPS/INS integration, so that individual GPS nodes may be coupled with an IMU for improved performance. This innovative and powerful networked positioning technology offers several benefits including: • Continuous positioning for WiFiGPS nodes, including nodes that are in GPS-degraded areas. • Improving overall positioning accuracy, even for nodes with good satellite visibility. • Providing localization capabilities to nodes that have no access to satellite signals. • Providing position solutions on an ad hoc wireless network. • Allowing additional GPS sensor aiding (e.g. GPS/INS integration) for improved positioning performance on a per-node and per- network basis. GPS/INS integration provides short-term mitigation against temporary satellite signal loss. BENEFIT: There has been a great need for positioning technology in GPS degraded or GPS denied area. This demand has been reflected in the numerous requests for proposals and requests for information in the last few years. In military applications there is an increasing need for accurate/reliable/seamless positioning for indoor and outdoor environment. Car industry is focusing on real time telemetry with continuous monitoring of vehicles in all condition (Similar to OnStar) which includes urban GPS degraded areas. Currently, there is no accurate way to locate first responders at the scene of fires, explosions, subterranean environments, and other disasters and lead them to safety. These needs has been the driving force on a big push for providing position solution in GPS denied area. To address these need our proposed system provides GPS-based sub-meter positioning over large areas, allows for positioning when no single node can compute a position using only local GPS observables, and allows other complementary sensor aiding technologies to be integrated (e.g. IMU, ZUPS, etc). Intelligent Automation has adopted a three-fold approach to commercialization. We successfully develop/prototype technology in our SBIR programs and then: • Transition this technology to programs of record for DOD (such as OneTESS and Automatic Aerial Fueling) or other government agencies (e.g., NASA), where IAI’s technology is a key element of those efforts. For this approach, IAI is often in the role of a sub-contractor to large scale system integrator leads. • Transition to larger DOD 6.2, 6.3 research efforts such as BAAs and NRAs most often as a prime or, in some cases, as a subcontractor • Develop commercial products

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Triveni Upadhyay
AF 09-048      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:A Robust Collaborative GPS Navigation System (RC-GNS)
Abstract:The military GPS users operating in urban, indoor and forest environments experience a multitude of problems including intentional/unintentional jamming, multipath and signal blockage resulting in degraded or denied navigation. In this Phase I program, Mayflower proposes to perform a feasibility study of an innovative Robust Collaborative GPS Navigation (RC-GNS) System to provide reliable navigation to the military/commercial GPS users in the above-mentioned adverse signal conditions. RC-GNS is a hardware/software enhancement to the GPS receiver that makes use of the aiding data available from signals of opportunity (namely Wi-Fi). The benefits of Wi-Fi augmentation of GPS can be demonstrated on the Mayflower NavAssure™ SAASM P(Y) Code GPS Receiver in the Phase II of the program. BENEFIT: This study addresses the need for augmentation to the military GPS receivers operating in indoor, urban canyon and forested areas using signals of opportunity. The enhancements are equally applicable to First Responders using commercial GPS receivers.

3 Sigma Research, Inc.
503 S. River Oaks Dr.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 674-9267
Michael Winburn
AF 09-049      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Self-Shielding Systems and Attack-Surface Mutation
Abstract:3 Sigma Research investigates an advanced concept, called the Mutating Attack-Surface Investigation (MASI), to increase network protection by continuously modifying and dynamically mutating the network profile. This approach addresses the attacker’s tactic of network mapping and the assumption of a static network target. The architecture implementation uses virtual machine hypervisor technology to test and evaluate scenarios based on clearly defined metrics. While network nodes can be individual physical machines, our VM approach provides an architecture implementation that allows easy creation of different test configurations, such as multiple virtual network cards, virtual switch connections, varying operating system configurations. The results of the Phase I effort provide sufficient detail to demonstrate proof-of-concept and validate the feasibility of the envisioned system. BENEFIT: The agent-based attack-surface mutating network described in this proposal has very broad applicability. Many government and commercial organizations recognize the threat from network attacks. Since many of these attacks rely on profiling networks to discover services, this technology has the potential to protect vital networked assets through continual, dynamic mutation. Current architectures that implement static network configurations provide an easy and reliably fixed target of opportunity for the attacker. Areas such as military command and control networks, agencies involved in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance, scientific research, medical organizations, government contractors, and commercial companies are examples of organizations that can benefit from this technology.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4251
Justin Yackoski
AF 09-049      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:A Self-shielding Network Architecture Integrating Mutation Paradigms
Abstract:The current static nature of systems and networks allows attackers to gather intelligence, perform planning, and then execute attacks at will. If instead we remove this underlying static nature and make the network dynamic, many classes of attacks can be prevented by making them too difficult to carry out without detection as well as by reducing their probability and level of success. To address this critical need, IAI, along with our collaborator Lockheed Martin MS2 Tactical Systems, proposes a novel network architecture to induce and manage dynamics in the network. By creating a System-level Dynamic Network Architecture (SDNA) that allows the use of multiple techniques in a complementary manner, the system can more effectively prevent and respond to attacks. Dynamically mutating various network components such as access control, routing, addressing, applications, etc. in a coordinated way forces attackers to expend significant effort when conducting attacks. SDNA also allows static parts of the network to be presented as dynamic to users and attackers, while limiting the modifications needed to end users and applications by acting transparently and automatically. BENEFIT: The market addressed by the propose work includes all systems with security and survivability concerns. A wide range of DoD and commercial systems suffer from the need for a stronger operation posture against attacks and can potentially be enhanced by the proposed work. Complex systems such as the Global Information Grid (GIG) must be secure, survivable, and maintain an operational posture with maximum transparency through cyber attacks. Enterprise systems require security to allow sensitive financial, industrial, and personal information to be transmitted across computer networks. Countless time and money is spent as system administrators constantly work to stay ahead of potential attackers, effort which the proposed approach will help automate. This work also directly complements the Air Force Software Protection Initiative (SPI) program, providing network and system security.

Pikewerks Corporation
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Daniel Hallenbeck
AF 09-049      Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:Attack Surface Mutation
Abstract:When attackers decide they are going to try to attack a network, the first task they set out to do is research. They research and gather information about the network and its structure for possible inclusion in a future attack. All of the research and information gathered will still be valid if the network structure remains static. The proposed Service Distributor (SerDis) will provide a framework to allow for the dynamic mutation of the network structure by relocating network services on the fly. The SerDis framework will allow for plug-ins to detect, mitigate, and respond to network scans and attacks automatically. Further, the same plug-in architecture will allow for the SerDis framework to be extended and protect against new and evolving future threats. With SerDis, a network can break free from its previous static nature and create a barrier to an attacker by creating a moving target. BENEFIT: With SerDis’s ability to relocate key services within a network, the Global Information Grid’s security, survivability, and adaptability will be greatly enhanced. Critical services will be moved to different machines in a timed fashion or as old machines are taken offline or compromised. In addition, the active network defense mechanisms built in to the SerDis framework will provide for the network’s automated mutation and response and allow network administrators to better react to growing threats.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mike Farry
AF 09-050      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:A COA Analysis, Recommendation, and Development System (CARDS) to support Space C2
Abstract:Current planning for Space C2 in the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is mostly a manual process. Since COA development and analysis includes a large amount of information and many potential options, aspects of both red and blue COAs that may go unconsidered, suggesting that a mixed-initiative tool blending human analysis with automated planning tools could add efficiency and improved rigor to the analysis process. To address the need for a mixed-initiative tool to support the generation and analysis of space COAs, we propose to design and demonstrate a COA Analysis, Recommendation, and Development System (CARDS). Five core components characterize our approach. First, we will conduct a requirements analysis to identify the requirements for the tool. Second, we will design and demonstrate a COA Repository to capture space COAs. Third, we will design and demonstrate a COA Wargaming component to simulate COA results. Fourth, we will design and demonstrate a COA Suggestion component to enable the operator to explore additional potential COAs and options. Fifth, we will design and demonstrate user interfaces to enable operators to create, edit, review, and adapt COAs, and provide feedback to the wargaming and recommendation components. BENEFIT: We see considerable promise in the transition of the CARDS system and/or its components (including COA Wargaming and Suggestion capabilities) into planning systems for space operations and other domains. In addition, we plan to transition specific evolutionary algorithm (EA) enhancements to our EAToolkit™ suite of products as we increasingly target vertical markets.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5087
David Lee
AF 09-050      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Course of Action (COA) Analysis, Comparison and Selection for Effects Based Space Operations
Abstract:A critical capability associated with space C2 is the ability to develop and analyze alternative courses of action (COAs) based on SSA and other intelligence sources and clearly define the cost and benefit associated with each option. However, the current COAs are primarily static or template driven responses and are adequate for day-to-day operations, but are insufficient in dealing with new situations that are evolving rapidly. The goal of this SBIR topic, therefore, is to develop a software capability to enable operators to develop and analyze COAs and select best approach for creating/maintaining desired space effects supporting on-going or planned operations. In order to accomplish this goals, the Decisive Analytics Corporation proposes to develop a decision support tool based on the advanced ‘Integer Programming’ mathematical models. The proposed mathematical technique should provide a significant benefit for space C2, since it is well suited for near real-time handling of decision problems with the large number of threats and with many possible alternative threat responses. The proposed decision support tool will provide the following capabilities: 1) Optimization of Blue force responses, 2) Automated iterative mechanism for the use of threat response preferences, and 3) Ability to manage a space threat response database. BENEFIT: This research effort will provide 1) high level of fusion method based on the advanced ‘Integer Programming’ techniques for developing, analyzing, and selecting the best COAs, and 2) the conceptual design of the GUI software for space threat response decision support system. This proposed decision support system’s operational benefits are 1) real time aid for space control decision makers through provision of a set of alternative COAs, 2) obtain optimization outputs with different operators’ threat response preferences, and comprehensive insights, and 3) efficient storage and modification of database and different threat responses.

21st Century Technologies Inc.
4515 Seton Center Parkway Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Thayne Coffman
AF 09-051      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Heuristic-Aware Anomaly Detection (HAAD)
Abstract:Cyber Network Operations is a critical new battlefield that holds asymmetric threats to U.S. military, technological, and economic dominance. 21CT’s Heuristic-Aware Anomaly Detection (HAAD) approach develops new behavioral threat detection algorithms that provide fast, effective, flexible, and adaptive defense. Many existing techniques rely on hardcoded signatures, making them brittle, expensive to update, and prone to fighting “yesterday’s war.” Existing anomaly detection techniques lack the ability to detect subtle changes in communication structure or leverage expert knowledge. HAAD leverages two mature network activity anomaly detection and context-aware anomaly detection approaches. HAAD provides flexible and effective defense by extending clustering, dimensionality reduction, and anomaly detection to incorporate heuristic knowledge. Unlike hardcoded signatures, heuristics guide detection without lowering sensitivity to previously unseen attacks. Heuristics can come from expert input, automated conversion of policies, or anecdotal examples of good and bad behavior. This novel approach enables richer and more adaptive behavioral models that improve detection, reduce false positives, and let the system tune itself with minimal intervention. Phase 1 conducts quantitative experiments to demonstrate feasibility and recommends a deployment architecture. The work leverages our long history of developing novel behavior analysis algorithms and detailed knowledge of USAF cyber infrastructure gained under ongoing operational efforts. BENEFIT: The Phase 1 technical effort will address core technical challenges and generate early prototypes, paving the way for full implementation in Phase 2. This provides technical innovation and state-of-the-art research at reduced technical risk. Phase 1 will provide a clear determination of feasibility, along with quantitative evidence to support it. HAAD performance will be quantitatively compared to a non- heuristic-aware baseline on representative test data, using industry-standard performance metrics. Each element of our approach provides important benefits over existing technology, starting with the underlying representations. Graphs are a natural fit for modeling network structure and activity, and they enable the use of both strong theoretic analysis and efficient algorithms. Combining graphs with pattern classification by using Social Network Analysis (SNA) metrics lets HAAD detect subtle activity changes that are not detectable with traditional network metrics. Soft heuristics guide the search without limiting it. Anomaly detection reduces the system’s reliance on large pattern libraries, lowering both the workload and cost of a deployed system and improving adaptation to future needs. Novel extensions of clustering, dimensionality reduction, and anomaly detection, when combined with novel representations, allow the re-interpretation of the same activity in the context of different heuristics. This incorporates expert knowledge without relying on cumbersome knowledge engineering processes. Ultimately, these technical benefits will bring tangible operational benefits to the warfighter. 21CT has achieved this in earlier work by transitioning SBIR-funded technical advances into

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5215
Yi Cheng
AF 09-051      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:Integrated Agent-based Cyber Behavior Anomaly Detection and Analysis Approach for Enterprise Networks and Workstations
Abstract:Cyber behavior anomaly detection has been a critical issue in today’s computer networks. As the business operations and assets are under more and more multiple points of attacks from both inside and outside, protecting data, software and hardware from malwares, fraud and/or malicious activities is, now more than ever, a “need” and not just a “concern” for the enterprise networks. Existing security devices like firewalls are largely ineffective against the insider threats. Traditional intrusion detection systems require prior knowledge of attacks, have high false alarm rates, and need ongoing maintenance of databases, hence lose effectiveness in today’s high-speed networks. To address this problem, in this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc., in collaboration with Lockheed Martin Corporation, proposes an integrated agent-based Cyber-Behavior Anomaly Detection and analysis approach (C-BAD) for enterprise networks and workstations to detect and analyze cyber behavior anomalies in both network and host levels. The significant advantage of the proposed system is 1) reliable and high accurate detection, 2) scalable to high-speed networks, 3) allows aggregate detection over multiple routers/gateways, and 4) reduced false alarms. BENEFIT: Essentially, the proposed C- BAD is an integrated cyber behavior anomaly detection and analysis approach. It integrates recent advances on network and host level detecting techniques, as well as signature-based and statistics-based detecting techniques. If our approach is proven successful, the potential market size is very large. In addition, our industry partner, Lockheed Martin can transition these technologies. One direct product of this research will be an integrated cyber behavior anomaly detection software tool. We expect that this tool can support different attack scenarios and various network sizes. It can detect various types of user behavior and network anomalies with high efficiency and reliability. More importantly, the tool is very efficient for detecting unknown threats and attacks. The developed tool can be applied as an independent component for protection of enterprise- level networks as well as military information networks.

mZeal Communications
166 Boulder Drive, Suite 108
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 665-0281
Rajini Anachi
AF 09-051      Awarded: 3/1/2010
Title:Security Architecture through Cognitive Behavior Analysis (SACBA)
Abstract:The challenge faced by Cyber-security is an evolving challenge. Attack vectors are not static and threat techniques evolve faster than defenses can be constructed or counterattacks launched against them. Though the network and nodes may display anomalous behaviors under use, those anomalies are rarely, analyzed before an attack occurs. The objective of the Security Architecture via Cognitive Behavior Analysis (SACBA) project is to demonstrate the feasibility of combining Behavioral Analysis with a Learning System. By analyzing the behavior of its parts, SACBA will have the ability to spot emerging behaviors that do not match static patterns. By learning its environment, SACBA will protect against new threats by determining levels of trust and define morphing patterns of Good vs. Bad behavior. This protection will be without reliance on static attack signatures and fixed patterns of behavior. The result will be a new Security Architecture positioned to address the new and evolving threats both inside and external to Cyber Infrastructures. BENEFIT: SACBA is a security architecture that combines behavioral analysis and learning (cognition) to counter current, evolving, and new threats and attacks to Cyber infrastructures. This is done in real and near-real time, with minimal impact to the infrastructure. With the properties of both an in-line and hierarchical structure, SACBA is applicable to any network. SACBA may be deployed in commercial and non-military government systems. Critical applications involving financial infrastructures, health services, information systems, transportation, navigation, flight systems and others will benefit from SACB. How is SACBA deployed in real-life situations? Under current architectures, new forms of attack and unseen signatures remain undetected until an attack is underway or completed. SACBA can protect these infrastructures by analyzing their behavior and identifying levels of trust. This capability, combined with learning its environment allows new patterns to be detected and classification of good versus bad to be determined and appropriate measures applied. Regardless of the infrastructure in which it is deployed, SACBA will provide the real and near-real time performance and agility needed in today’s evolving government, financial, manufacturing and service infrastructures.

Clear Hat Consulting, Inc.
1207 Cole Rd.
Orlando, FL 32803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 896-7010
Sherri Sparks
AF 09-053      Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:Automatic Artificial Diversity for Virtual Machines
Abstract:We propose to apply viral metamorphic transformation techniques to increase code diversification in homogenous virtualized environments. The idea of metamorphic transformation is borrowed from the computer virus world. By applying semantics preserving transformations to its own code, a metamorphic virus aims to create different versions of itself that escape detection by anti-viral software. Ironically, the metamorphic virus shares many of the characteristics that we have identified as desirable for increasing the diversification and resilience of legitimate software against automated attack. Like the virus, we want to reduce the number of identifiable patterns in the system. This is so that we can prevent an attacker’s exploit code from using hardcoded offsets or patterns to locate, call, or subvert critical Operating System functions. Also like the virus, we seek to increase the difficulty of program analysis. By applying metamorphic transformations to system code, we can increase the burden on the attacker by requiring advanced capabilities like disassemblers that are impractical or unlikely to fit within most exploit payloads. Finally, because metamorphic transformations can be applied to binary code without affecting its underlying functionality, we anticipate being able to achieve maximum transparancy and interoperability with other, higher level diversification approaches. BENEFIT: A platform for automated diversification will be valuable to the government, especially in the defense sector to improve the resiliency and survivability among homogenous virtualized systems. Defense applications are likely to include peripheral network nodes in command and control centers and high performance computing centers that are exposed to unpredictable hostile threats over the internet. These systems will benefit from technologies designed to reduce susceptibility to automated attacks including viruses, trojans, worms, and botnets. These technologies will also be valuable in the commercial sector. By reducing susceptibility to attacks our solution will help minimize system downtime and translate to increased efficiency and reduced cost for businesses.

Cybernet Systems Corporation
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Chris Lomont
AF 09-053      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Automatic Artificial Diversity for Virtual Machines
Abstract:Large scale adoption of homogeneous computing environments presents serious risk of automated attacks due to the unified nature of the computing environments. Botnet and computer virus attacks are successful due to widespread unification of computing systems, presenting a uniform attack surface so an attack devised for one machine can be replicated to millions of machines. A method available in computing systems not possible for living systems is to change the "DNA" on each individual machine in a cryptographically secure manner, that is, using instruction set randomization. We propose to design and implement an instruction randomization environment suitable for virtual machine deployment. This design will address compiling new code and translating existing binaries to the per machine instruction set, securely selecting instruction sets, implementation issues for the resulting tool chain, virtual machine behavior, and performance issues relating to the interaction of the translated binaries and virtual machine. With this design we will identify diversification opportunities, estimate security gains and possible weaknesses, and detail how the system will function in a production environment BENEFIT: The proposed technology will increase the security of virtual machine platforms, by removing some of the homogeneity through randomization. This randomization makes it harder for automated attacks to have widespread effects such desktops, such as the Federal Desktop Computer Configuration (FDCC). Commercial applications include licensing the technology into current virtualization companies (Microsoft and VMWare) and security companies (McAfee, Cisco, Symantec) as well as offering a product to sell directly to companies needing secure virtualization.

GrammaTech, Inc
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
David Melski
AF 09-053      Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:Automatic Artificial Diversity for Virtual Machines
Abstract:We propose to introduce artificial diversity to each installation of a standard platform by running the system using a combination of hardware virtualization and software dynamic translation. Automatic, transparent diversification offers powerful protection for systems that would otherwise remain homogenous. Code exploits are usually highly dependent on the details of the software and the vulnerability they target. Diversification ensures that those details change from one instance to the next, thereby requiring that a customized exploit be developed for each machine — frequently an insurmountable challenge for the attacker. Diversification is also attractive because it offers some protection against unknown attack vectors and methodologies. BENEFIT: Standardization of computer platforms is an important tool for improving security. Up to 80% of the vulnerabilities that are exploited during penetration testing of government networks result from misconfigured software. Standardized platforms allow security experts to ensure that these vulnerabilities are closed. Unfortunately, wide distribution of a standard platform also means wide distribution of any vulnerability in that platform. While adoption of a standard platform may be the only hope an enterprise has of managing and avoiding known vulnerabilities, it also dramatically increases the potential damage from exploits of newly discovered vulnerabilities: a novel attack may subvert or disable all standardized machines. Our approach to artificial diversity will enable the security benefits of a standardized computing platform without the coincident standardization of security vulnerabilities.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4812
Michael Lee
AF 09-054      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:MSPECS: Mobile Storage Protection & Efficient Communication Security
Abstract:Mobile devices can provide many benefits to the warfighter, from health monitoring to navigation assistance. Since these uses will involve critical data in transit and at rest on the mobile device, securing the device is imperative. Existing techniques require too much overhead for mobile devices. This project proposes to build MSPECS, Mobile Storage Protection & Efficient Communication Security, upon CFDRC’s existing data integrity technology to add new low-overhead encryption methods to mobile devices. In addition to protecting both the communication and storage of the devices, this project will protect the data on a mobile device from theft. In Phase I, a preliminary version of the system will be developed and tested based on the resource requirements of a mobile device. To show feasibility, several security engineers will perform information assurance attacks against a protected mobile device. A complete performance evaluation of the system will also be conducted during Phase I to demonstrate its applicability to mobile devices based on resource limitations. During Phase II, new communication protections will be added to the system and a complete external security review will be performed by an independent company. BENEFIT: The mobile device security solution developed under this project, called MSPECS, will be greatly beneficial to the DoD as they move to more personal area- based networks. MSPECS’s low-overhead encryption techniques for protecting both data in transit and at rest will provide needed protection to the critical data contained in a warfighter’s equipment. The MSPECS protection against stolen devices, rendering the data contained on them useless, will also be of value to the DoD by providing an anti- tamper method of protecting critical data from enemies that might capture a device. During Phase III, CFDRC will help the DoD incorporate the MSPECS technology into their mobile devices. In addition to incorporating MSPECS on military devices, CFDRC will also deploy the technology to medical device manufacturers. During Phase II, CFDRC will provide an end-to-end demonstration showing how MSPECS can protect critical data sent from the sensor to the mobile device and on to a remote server. CFDRC will use the end-to-end demonstration to market the MSPECS technology to device manufacturers. One such manufacturer already showing interest is Halo Monitoring, a small business providing a philological medial sensor. During Phase III, CFDRC will work with Halo Monitoring and other health manufacturing companies to incorporate the MSPECS technology onto their mobile devices and sensors.

METRONOME SOFTWARE, LLC
3 CORPORATE PARK, SUITE 260
IRVINE, CA 92606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 336-7707
CHIEU NGUYEN
AF 09-054      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Securing personal mobile devices for use as digital proxies
Abstract:Metronome Software proposes the development of a secure, software and IP-based, mobile platform that will integrate and co-exist with commercial products and existing applications. This preserves the familiarity end-users (both civilian and military) have for commercial mobile devices, without impacting the features that make such devices ubiquitous, such as portability and usability. Metronome is targeting the Open Handset Alliance’s Android operating system as the base platform to integrate security features with, modifying and developing new software to address the following technology areas: Secure Boot, Log-in, and Authentication, Secure Data-at-Rest and Data-in-Transit, Secure Voice and Video, and provide essential compromise deterrents. Software Cryptography as the Root-of-Trust provides the backbone for Information Assurance within this secure mobile platform. The underlying software architecture is designed in such a way that it does not prohibit the platform from addressing deployments that have more strict requirements, such as the Armed Services. The success of this software suite will enable all end-users to feel confident that commercial, Internet- enabled, mobile devices they are already using can achieve reasonable levels of communications security and Information Assurance. BENEFIT: There is an emerging corporate and civilian need for confidential communications and protection of information stored on mobile, Internet-enabled devices in the event of loss or theft. In tandem, there is an emerging trend for government and military end-users to use these same commercial devices they are familiar with, in their work and/or deployments. As these trends grow, it becomes clear that an integrated security solution is needed. Metronome’s secure, mobile platform provides security without compromising the benefits that come with today’s mobile devices, i.e. portability and usability. This software architecture is a solution that does not impact a device’s size/weight profile and power requirements, while providing the basis for meeting the needs for various types of end-users and applications, both private and government. This not only allows end-users in the military to use commercial devices, thereby minimizing the time and costs associated with training and learning a new device or application, it also mitigates the effects of Information and Identify Theft in the corporate and commercial world, thereby making the product highly desirable and marketable.

Physical Optics Corporation
Products and Engineering Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kevin Degrood
AF 09-054      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Secure Wireless Digital Proxy
Abstract:In response to the Air Force’s need for securing personal mobile devices for use as digital proxies, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new power security authentication (PSA)-centric Wireless Energy-Centric Secure Network (WEXNET) system. The WEXNET system is a Local Area Network (LAN) of WEX-Digital-Proxy (WEX DP for short) devices, combining MID computing capability and complete security/authentication with Blackberry-like compactness and maximized run-time (up to several years). The WEX approach is based on the minimal addition of security hardware, in the form of the external WEX tag, added to each WEX-DP, and embedded security software inside the WEX-DP. If the device has been stolen, the hostile party will have extreme difficulty breaking the system (decrypting the internal memory data), because the key, used once only, must be broken before it expires. In Phase I, POC will conduct a feasibility demonstration of the WEXNET design along with a demonstration of the performance against established parameters of current digital proxy technology such as communication protection, and compatibility, computational load, battery life, and size/weight. In Phase II, POC will implement device hardware, firmware, and software as well as security and networking for a full prototype system demonstration in a realistic environment. BENEFIT: The advantages of the proposed highly secure wireless personal mobile device working as a digital proxy are multifold in the current situation of highly intensive and very comprehensive cyberattacks in both the military and commercial sectors; thus, a robust security system such as WEXNET would be of value to corporate, government, and military consumers, including such commercial applications as banking, medical records, next-generation smart credit cards, police records, highly secure antitampering systems, advanced cryptographic systems, etc. WEXNET can support various products, including WEX tags applicable not only to digital proxies but to other secure computing systems, WEX secure digital proxies, highly secure WEX antitampering systems, and many others. In general, the WEX tag concept opens a new arena of highly secure electronic devices, both wireless and wired.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Catherine Call
AF 09-055      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Multi-Agent Distributed Continuous and Asynchronous Planning (MADCAP)
Abstract:Human adversaries, rapidly evolving malware and pandemics, large scale natural disasters, and disruptions to the national infrastructure all require complex, dynamic defensive responses. While our ability to communicate has increased, our response remains sequential: our plans are based on a priori knowledge and assumptions, and our execution follows our plans. Additionally, we do not take advantage of the information available from first responders: namely, detailed knowledge of the situation; current and anticipated response needs; and the effectiveness of current response tactics. While some response tasks can be implemented by machines, complete automation is impractical for large-scale crises where an effective response requires diverse knowledge and skills not resident in one place. Here, planners and responders alike would benefit from a means to continuously assess, collaborate, and replan defenses to efficiently use the resources available. To address this need, we propose to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a Multi-Agent Distributed, Continuous, and Asynchronous Planning (MADCAP) architecture for the cyber-defense domain. MADCAP enables human and computer agents to perform cyber attack response planning by creating a distributed plan workspace, employing a partial-order plan representation, and using a novel approach to plan filtering and selection using multi-objective optimization. BENEFIT: A MADCAP-based planning system will have immediate and tangible benefit for military and government-sponsored cyber security defense and planning programs. MADCAP incorporates up-to-the-minute information about the precise nature of a cyber attack and remediation success to enable responders and planners alike to collaboratively and continuously replan in a rapidly evolving and distributed work environment. Such a system will benefit not only cyber defenders but those in other domains where plans must be continuously and efficiently adapted.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5278
Wei Chen
AF 09-055      Awarded: 3/1/2010
Title:We-Plan: A Mixed-Initiative, Distributed, Simultaneous Planning Framework
Abstract:The two main issues presented in this topic include the selection/generation of a suitable plan representation and the subsequent mixed-imitative distributed simultaneous planning and extended problem solving capabilities in network-centric environments. Our proposed solution is an innovative framework, We-Plan: a mixed-initiative, distributed, simultaneous planning framework employing web of expertise in net-centric environments. We-Plan includes: (1) an integrated architecture employing various inter-connected constituent components, e.g., problem specification, situational assessment, problem decomposition, sub-problem distribution, planning, resource allocation, scheduling, execution monitoring, and validation, (2) an investigation of the crosscutting technologies (e.g., mixed-initiative, plan representation) for the underlying algorithms, the information flow and control flow, and the communication interface and protocols among the components, and (3) the design of a suitable scenario for We-Plan to demonstrate proof-of-feasibility of key enabling concepts in reasonable simulations/experiments with suitable performance criteria and metrics. We will explore the connection of We-Plan with the funding agency’s existing technologies/programs to achieve the openness, generality and interoperability of the proposed technology. BENEFIT: The anticipated Phase I results will provide a suitable plan representation, an innovative We-Plan (a mixed-initiative, distributed, simultaneous planning framework employing web of expertise in net-centric environments) framework and the associated algorithms/mechanisms. This project addresses a huge market with the following characteristics: distributed simultaneous collaborative problem solving (planning) involving multiple agents (humans and machines) in time critical response processes. The functionalities of We-Plan could be componentized, possibly as plug-ins, and ported to many various domains and existing systems. We have identified initial transition paths for Phase I, II and further stages. The immediate (human) users of We- Plan could be commanders, military planners, and IT personnel. The immediate customers may include AFRL Cyber defense, DARPA Deep Green and Coordinators and Army Tactical Operation Center, whose ongoing programs could employ We-Plan or selected functionalities as a subcomponent. A broader customer base includes the government agencies, e.g., AFRL DMOs, Navy MIOs, and MDA C2BMC of BMDS. Potential customers in commercial domains may include IT Emergency Management Service, Air traffic control, civilian planning for police and fire activities, homeland security, FEMA emergency/disaster response and management.

Smart Information Flow Technologies, d/b/a SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 384-3454
Robert P. Goldman
AF 09-055      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:HyDRA: Highly Distributed Real-time Agents
Abstract:SIFT, LLC, proposes to develop HyDRA, a network-centric, mixed-initiative, distributed planning system that will provide real-time response to complex situations evolving at different time scales and in different locations. SIFT will draw on experience with three key technologies: partial centralization, the Cooperative Intelligent Real-time Control Architecture (CIRCA), and Playbook(TM)-based mixed initiative systems. Each of these techniques involves specialized plan representations, and a key component of HyDRA development will be to fuse the different representations into a comprehensive plan representation meeting the needs of complex, distributed, mixed-initiative planning under time pressure. BENEFIT: HyDRA will dramatically improve the state of the art in distributed, mixed-initiative planning systems, in particular allowing improved speed of reaction, better human supervision, and improved information flow.

Applied Optimization, Inc.
714 E Monument Ave Ste 204
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-5100
Anil Chaudhary
AF 09-056      Awarded: 4/27/2010
Title:Spectral Imaging of Space Objects
Abstract:Applied Optimization, Inc. proposes to demonstrate feasibility of spectral imaging using a stationary filter micro-array in an existing, operational SSA system. It will make use of the excess capacity of the existing camera, without altering the optical path of the incoming light for metrics and panchromatic SOI data collection. The spectral imaging will not impact the high observational efficiency of the existing SSA system. It will have flexibility to match its spectral bands with other sensors in the SSN, allow collection of high signal-to- noise spectral imaging data over minimum time scales, and add the capability for spectral imaging SOI. Draft CONOPS will be developed to supplement the current CONOPS at an existing SSA system with spectral imaging SOI. They will be demonstrated by fabricating a filter micro-array in the Johnson BVRI spectral bands, and emulating the SSA system operation on an optical testbed that comprises COTS telescope and CCD equipment. The benefits of spectral imaging SOI will be demonstrated by collecting and analyzing data for binary stars, and for GEO satellites that have been mistagged in the past, and comparing it with panchromatic SOI. BENEFIT: Benefit: [1] Significantly improved ability for mistag resolution and differentiation of closely spaced objects using an existing SSA system with no compromise in its observational efficiency. [2] Ability to emulate CONOPS of existing SSA system using COTS for small telescope augmentation of SSA. Application: Low-cost spectral imaging using COTS systems

ASE Optics
2489 Brighton Henrietta Town Line Rd.
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 303-1574
Christopher Cotton
AF 09-056      Awarded: 3/26/2010
Title:Multi-Object Spectrometer for Space Object Identification
Abstract:Approximately 19,000 resident space objects (RSOs) larger than 10 cm are known to be orbiting Earth.[1] These objects range from active payloads, such as satellites, to "space junk."[2] Currently these objects are tracked using Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS). There is a growing need for hyperspectral Space Situational Awareness (SSA) to detect and classify RSOs. Such capabilities would enable the identification of new satellites and the observation of distant, spatially unresolved targets. The purpose of this project is to advance the design of a digital micromirror device multi-object spectrometer (DMDMOS-II). ASE Optics has previously partnered with the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and Geospatial Systems, Inc. (formerly Pixel Physics) to develop a DMD-based Multi-Object Spectrometer (DMDMOS). This technology has been proven for use in the MK spectral classification of individual stars within a star cluster. ASE Optics proposes to reconfigure the existing DMDMOS technology into a new sensor, DMDMOS-II, which will enable the sensor to cover the spectral range of 450-1800 nm with a lager field-of-view and a higher collection efficiency to meet the specific needs of spectrally classifying RSOs for improved SSA. BENEFIT: The advanced Digital Micromirror Device Multi-object Spectrometer (DMDMOS-II) that will be developed during Phase I of this project will enable improved Space Situational Awareness of resident space objects (RSOs). We also expect significant applications for the DMDMOS-II in the areas of perimeter surveillance, and homeland defense. The instrument enables rapid, high-resolution classification of objects in the field of view, and can adapt to a changing scene in real-time. Over the past 10 years, hyperspectral technology has also been adopted for many commercial applications such as food inspection and safety, quality control of flat-panel screens and increasing pharmaceutical production yields. The next wave of adoption is currently under way in biotechnology, life sciences and medicine.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Ihor Berezhnyy
AF 09-056      Awarded: 3/26/2010
Title:Wideband Hyperspectral Optical Satellite Identifier
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for spectral imaging of space objects, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Wideband Hyperspectral Optical Satellite Identifier (WHOSAID). This proposed device is based on parallel hyperspectral imaging spectrometry for spectral signature acquisition, and derivative spectroscopy for spectral signature processing. A novel use of POC’s proprietary Volume Phase Grating and use of a novel contrast enhancement scheme from derivative spectroscopy will enable the WHOSAID to acquire hyperspectral images in a parallel process and to acquire an entire satellite spectral signature as a single frame. As a result, this technology sharpens the accuracy and specificity of the acquired data and delivers superior capability for satellite spectral signature discrimination and characterization, which directly addresses the USAF requirements for comprehensive identification of Resident Space Objects. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of WHOSAID by assembling and testing a single spatial pixel proof-of-concept prototype. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a GEODSS compatible prototype to show how the approach solves the problem. BENEFIT: Military applications of the WHOSAID design will include various target identification and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) systems. WHOSAID can be implemented in a range of existing Air Force SSA systems (such as GEODSS, MOSS, etc.) for system performance improvement, particularly vis-a-vis their limitations on the observational time needed for achieving an adequate satellite spectral signature. The POC design substantially reduces spectral signature distortion by providing parallel hyperspectral image acquisition, and substantially minimizes misinterpreting spectral signatures by providing an entire spectrum analysis via employing derivative spectroscopy routines. The major commercial markets for WHOSAID technology include: remote sensing (e.g., crop evaluation), sensing of civil system satellites, border patrol, security, surveillance, process control in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and product inspection.

Solid State Scientific Corporation
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
James Murguia
AF 09-056      Awarded: 3/25/2010
Title:Spectral Imaging of Space Objects
Abstract:Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) is pleased to propose a Phase I SBIR program to develop a unique spectral imaging sensor prototype based on micro-optics with a COTS astronomical camera. The micro-optic separates the image into spectral views of the image that are spatially and temporally registered. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on a telescope to simultaneously image space objects at multiple spectra without the need for atmospheric compensation. The micro-optical component is approximately 1 cubic inch in size and is coupled to a large telescope using a conventional optic. BENEFIT: An imaging system that supports spectral imaging and super-resolution algorithms without the need for atmospheric compensation is anticipated to have a variety of ISR imaging applications including high altitude fixed wing, and unmanned aircraft. Other potential platforms include earth imaging satellites. The prototype system will also feed the development of spectral fusion algorithms for the characterization of space objects by their spectral reflectance.

NorthWest Research Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 3027
Bellevue, WA 98009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 582-4905
L.J. Nickisch
AF 09-057      Awarded: 3/23/2010
Title:High Frequency (HF) Over the Horizon Radar (OTHR) Metric Accuracy
Abstract:Over-the-Horizon radar (OTHR) uses ionospheric reflection to propagate HF transmissions to long range (~ 500 to 5000 km). The ionosphere is a dynamic “mirror” that varies diurnally, seasonally, and with the solar cycle. Geolocation of targets observed by OTHR, (Coordinate Registration; CR), requires accurate real-time ionospheric modeling and HF propagation calculations to convert radar-measured target signal delays and beam steers to geographical position. Our team at NWRA is the developer of what is arguably the most sophisticated CR capability currently in existence, CREDO (Coordinate Registration Enhancement by Dynamic Optimization). CREDO uses OTHR vertical and oblique backscatter soundings to model the ionosphere by applying Tikhonov’s methodology for solving ill-posed problems (extended to multidimensional nonlinear inverse problems and optimized for fast numerical solution). This produces the smoothest ionosphere that agrees with input data within measurement error. More recently we developed a Tikhonov-based ionospheric data assimilation capability called GPSII (GPS Ionospheric Inversion; pronounced “gypsy”). GPSII is capable of ingesting data from GPS and LEO satellite beacons, in situ electron density (e.g., DMSP or CHAMP satellites), JASON altimeter, DORIS, and vertical incidence sounders. We propose to merge the CREDO and GPSII capabilities into a state-of-the-art OTHR CR capability and demonstrate resulting metric accuracy improvement. BENEFIT: The incorporation of additional ionospheric data beyond conventional OTHR vertical and oblique backscatter soundings is expected to improve the fidelity of real-time ionosphere models, resulting in improved OTHR Coordinate Registration metric accuracy. The Next Generation OTH Radar (NGOTHR) is expected to have the additional benefit of elevation information in its backscatter soundings, and this can be incorporated in our solution method for additional fidelity. Furthermore, because GPSII uses a non-radar-centric coordinate system, a single self-consistent ionosphere model can be developed for multiple OTH radars in the same region. This will result in consistent CR of targets in overlapping coverage areas and ensure smooth track continuity as targets move from one radar’s coverage to another. Improved CR metric accuracy will enhance the applicability of OTHR as a wide area surveillance asset for Air Force and Homeland Security applications with dramatic cost savings over alternative microwave radar solutions.

Q-Track Corporation
3414 Governors Drive SW Suite Q
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-0075
Eric Richards
AF 09-057      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Improved Ionospheric Modeling for Reduced OTH Range Errors
Abstract:This proposed effort will develop an innovative technique to increase the accuracy of over the horizon radar (OTHR). Q-Track proposes to exploit thousands of amateur and military radio links (such as the ALE network) to observe drift in ionosphere conditions. These observations will provide real-time updates to ionospheric computer models resulting in increased geo-location accuracy. Coupled with dual frequency GPS measurements, this method promises to provide real time ionospheric monitoring (RTIM) across the globe and support Global Assimilative Ionospheric Models (GAIMs). Q-Track Corporation proposes (1) to distill useful information such as total electron content, attenuation, and critical frequency from this network, (2) integrate these data with other existing RTIM systems such as dual-frequency GPS, and (3) create a semi-analytic model that will provide sufficient accuracy to reduce HF radar range errors to better than 10 km. The ionospheric model that will be used for this Phase I effort with be USU-GAIM. Furthermore, if successful in Phase I, we will extend our analysis in Phase II to include MIMO data processing from ultra-wide band signals with an OTHR prototype being developed by Q-Track under Air Force contract FA8718-09-C-0024. BENEFIT: The intended beneficiary is the American warfighter by improving the geo-location accuracy of OTHR. The beneficiaries, however, extend beyond the DOD C3I community to the numerous instances where the shifting ionosphere impacts human activities. This includes all skywave radio frequency transmissions below about 2 GHz whether communications, navigation, or surveillance. In particular, work completed under this effort could improve commercial ionospheric modeling programs used extensively by the GPS and amateur radio communities.

Intelligent Software Solutions
5450 Tech Center Drive Suite 400
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 234-0725
David Rodvold
AF 09-058      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Distributed Satellite Resource Management for Mission Operations
Abstract:AFRL has performed basic research in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) for many years. With the successful execution of multiple programs during the past few years, AFRL has become the de facto center of mass in the SSA development community. As the technologies continue to advance, SSA becomes a critical factor in responding to space threats. The ISS Team proposes to continue development of these net-centric technologies in order to aid in AFRL’s ongoing efforts to provide net-centric resource management to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The Continuous Anomalous Orbital Situational Discriminator (CAOS-D) system being proposed by the ISS Team will aid the SSN in optimizing sensor collection tasking. CAOS-D will address the new SSN sensors coming by being able to operate in an online mode by making use of streaming catalog updates. CAOS-D will then provide a set of satellites it recommends be closely monitored because of their involvement in possible conjunction or proximity events. BENEFIT: CAOS-D will provide an extensible online platform for performing conjunction and proximity analysis in a net-centric environment that will be compatible with forthcoming Joint Space Operations Center Mission System (JMS) SOA architecture. CAOS-D will move operators away from the manual/batch-run conjunction analysis process and towards a system that provides a more accurate and up to date space picture. Furthermore, with the new streaming sensors being brought online, CAOS-D will stand ready to consume the new cadence of data. Commercial applications of CAOS-D include currently envisioned SSA and DCS systems such as JMS.

Smart Information Flow Technologies, d/b/a SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 325-9314
David Musliner
AF 09-058      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:DTACSS: Decision-Theoretic Automation for Coordinated Space Surveillance
Abstract:While the United States is increasingly reliant on space-based technologies, our satellite assets are increasingly vulnerable to attacks and collisions with debris or other satellites. Current space surveillance systems are stovepiped and unresponsive; when possible collisions ("orbital conjunctions") are detected in advance, additional tracking data can only be acquired through complex human interactions and requests among different organizations. Key challenges include managing uncertainty and utility with scarce resources, enforcing real-time response to near-term threats, and coordinating distributed teams of humans and autonomous systems. SIFT proposes to design DTACSS to meet the challenges of dynamic uncertainty management and active space surveillance control. In the DTACSS concept, intelligent agents will coordinate the activities of each element of the future space surveillance and response network (i.e., an evolution of the current Air Force Satellite Control Network). DTACSS agents will operate in both mixed-initiative and fully-autonomous modes, reasoning about threat probabilities and possible outcomes, collaborating with human operators to define appropriate mission priorities and a-priori response plans, and autonomously executing responses to long-term and real-time threats. BENEFIT: DTACSS will dramatically improve the effectiveness and survivability of military satellites by providing the following benefits: dynamic tasking of surveillance assets to explicitly manage uncertainty and risk, real-time response to threats, and coordinated command and control. There are a wide variety of potential military and civilian applications of the DTACSS concept, helping teams of humans and autonomous systems coordinate their functions in the face of uncertainty and limited resources.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
James McCracken
AF 09-058      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Advanced Distributed Visualization-based Satellite Resource Management Tool (ADVISR)
Abstract:TDKC’s Advanced Distributed Visualization-based Satellite Resource Management Tool (ADVISR) includes a requirements analysis, cognitive task analysis, technology evaluation, concept prototyping, commercialization planning, and real-world scenario derivation in order to derive an operationally-focused solution that is cost effective, demonstrable and most of all operationally practical. As part of this SBIR, TDKC will integrate new critical collaboration, shared space, decision aiding, and automated tasking/dissemination features to existing Air Force space situation awareness software to create an enhanced tactical space picture and automated services framework to enable advanced satellite resource management capability. To ensure a low-risk, results- oriented program our ADVISR team has the requisite SSA experience, operator experience, software development personnel, and resources to fully execute the Phase I program and deliver a Phase I prototype that substantiates our technical approach. BENEFIT: Ability to rapidly support decision making related to satellite resource management. Key collaboration, operator aiding, data fusion support and other automation features to support satellite operations.

Honeybee Robotics
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(646) 459-7809
Kiel Davis
AF 09-059      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Long-Life, High Accuracy Gyro-Stabilized Antenna Pointing System
Abstract:Satellite Communication (SATCOM) is a precious warfighter resource. SATCOM often provides the only information medium capable of delivering required voice, imaging, and video information to military assets in deployed locations. Modern broadband SATCOM satellites, such as AEHF, include small high-gain steerable spot beams to deliver flexible coverage where needed in theater. Such spot-beam systems require antenna assemblies to be precision pointed to optimize system performance. The ability of the spacecraft bus and subsystems to provide stable antenna pointing therefore becomes of increasingly important. Next generation steerable spot beam antenna systems will need to operate for longer periods of time at higher frequencies (gains) and therefore will have increasingly narrow half-power beamwidth (HPBW) and very tight pointing accuracy requirements. To meet this need, advanced Gimbaled Dish Antennas (GDA) with increased pointing accuracy and improved reliability (longer life) will be required. Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a two-axis active gyrostabilized gimbal system for long-life (> 20 year), high accuracy (total error < 0.005°) RF antenna pointing applications. The proposed effort will initially focus on developing a compact, cost- effective rate gyroscope that out performs comparable state-of-the-art gyros by an order of magnitude in accuracy and lifetime. The rate gyroscope is considered a key to success. BENEFIT: The benefit of the proposed development to the warfighter will be high reliability, high data rate broadband communications in remote regions not covered by fixed RF antenna assets. Commercial applications of the proposed development and its derivative products include commercial, military and intelligence broadband satellite, aircraft and other mobile high-gain antenna pointing applications.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Farzin Lalezari
AF 09-061      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Variable Coverage Wide Field of View Satellite Antenna
Abstract:The FIRST RF approach to the variable-coverage antenna for this Phase I program uses an offset reflector antenna and an innovative feed. At the heart of FIRST RF’s proposed approach is an entirely new – but strikingly simple – method of selectively illuminating a reflector aperture over a continuum from narrow to wide. The advantage of the proposed architecture is its simplicity, which achieves the desired Earth-coverage and narrow beam patterns with a minimum of complexity and cost. The proposed approach is a scalable design concept suitable for implementation over any band from 8 to 50 GHz. As the first part of this study, a survey will be conducted to determine the best frequency range for this application, with the objective of achieving the best antenna implementation in terms of performance, utility, and cost. The simple but elegant design can be incrementally improved to get additional capabilities such as pattern shaping or active nulling. After the best choice of operating bands is determined by evaluating predicted performance at each band, a detailed design will be produced suitable for hardware implementation in Phase II. BENEFIT: The ability to achieve variable beamwidths in an Earth-coverage GEO antenna for Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance, that can also support narrow-beam SATCOM communications is a benefit to anti-terrorism operations and warfighter support. Variable earth coverage satellite antennas would enhance the effectiveness with which satellite communications support both beyond line of sight (BLOS) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) AISR and Communications on the Move (COTM) missions. The proposed FIRST RF approach is simple and low-risk, and can be incrementally upgraded ot include pattern synthesis and anti-jam protection.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Bradley Davis
AF 09-061      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:Variable Field-of-View Apertures for Satellite and Conformal UAV Applications
Abstract:In this Phase I project, NanoSonic would perform trade studies for multiple antenna systems meeting the wide field-of-view and multiple beam aperture set forth in this solicitation. An initial design for a phased array and reflectarray would be performed; in this task NanoSonic would work with a major US defense prime with a long history in the military satellite industry. In establishing performance, NanoSonic would leverage current work in the development of a state-of-the-art computational electromagnetics code which is orders of magnitude fast than current simulation software; it will soon be enhanced with capabilities for modular full-wave simulation through unique algorithms. With performance parameters established, NanoSonic would examine the array configuration, beamforming, available and possibly unique materials, manufacturability, cost, launch and station-keeping requirements. With the trade study complete, NanoSonic would then construct sample antenna components using unique in-house materials. Metal Rubber™ technology provides lightweight, and mechanically robust deformable materials that are ideal for space applications of reflectarray and array antennas. If deformed by stowing, unexpected impact, stretching or bending, it will recover to its original shape and perform as designed. These efforts would be combined into an efficient and robust production method compatible with and eventually implemented through roll-to-roll processing. BENEFIT: The materials and processes developed and applied in this program may be used to form a variety of high performance microwave materials and devices integrated directly into lightweight polymer structural components. Such low-cost processing will allow the manufacturing of cost-competitive aerospace, electronic, optoelectronic, sensor and actuator materials, devices and integrated function structures. Conformal or free- standing, flexible RF antennas are of importance for both military and commercial applications. Lightweight antennas, low profile antennas have numerous applications for mobile and particularly the airborne and space-based communication industry; the automotive consumer market would have large potential applications. Textile antennas would find widespread application in the wearable technology sector as well. Additionally, these antennas would address DoD and law enforcement needs for communication and surveillance with reduced probability of detection. In commercial use, such antennas could be integrated into vehicle or building structures.

SensorMetriX
10211 Pacific Mesa Blvd., Suite 408
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 625-4458
Anthony Starr
AF 09-061      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Variable Coverage Wide Field of View Anti-jam Metamaterial Antenna System
Abstract:It is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative metamaterial-based system to provide advanced beamforming capabilities to communications and other types of antenna systems. In particular, this project will seek to develop a metamaterial-based system specifically for spaced-based communications where performance, weight, and the space environment are important factors in assessing the viability. BENEFIT: Advancements in space-based antenna systems will provide improved satellite communications capabilities for commercial systems.

SI2 Technologies
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5300
Patanjali Parimi
AF 09-061      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Variable Coverage Wide Field of View Metamaterial Antenna for Satellite Communications (1000-136)
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes an innovative solution to the Air Force need for a variable coverage wide field of view satellite antenna operating from Ku and Ka bands, to support intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance missions as well as communications on the move. SI2''s integrated antenna and metamaterial system will provide the satellite with a broad and narrow field of view coverage, and robust communications link to increase mission effectiveness. Further, SI2’s proposed approach of implementing an integrated metamaterial for the antenna system will result in several benefits, such as light weight, wide bandwidth and very low profile when compared to the conventional antenna systems. During Phase I, the low profile antenna concept will be refined using high fidelity numerical modeling and simulation tools. The performance of the antenna system will be simulated and validated through the manufacture and testing of a coupon level hardware demonstrator. A full scale prototype will be fabricated in the follow-on Phase II program. The prototype will be tested on a representative platform structure to demonstrate the antenna RF performance. BENEFIT: Applications of the proposed antenna array include Air Force''s SATCOM program, satellite communication links, electronic and signal intelligence (ELINT/SIGINT), space radar warning receiver applications, manned and unmanned air, surface and sea vehicles, and a number of other DoD platforms, such as multi-mission warfighter. Commercial applications of SI2’s technology are numerous and include aircraft, satellite and wireless base station applications.

LoadPath, LLC
5555 Zuni Road SE Suitte 20-342
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 270-1915
Gregory Sanford
AF 09-064      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Canisterized Satellite Development for Operationally Responsive Space
Abstract:Improving access to space is of particular importance to the Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office as it strives to quickly fulfill the needs of the warfighter. Typically, each spacecraft launch is treated as a unique mission requiring in-depth analyses, design, manufacturing, and integration, none of which answer the call for responsive space. While spacecraft are generally complex, unique systems designed for a multitude of tasks, the time and cost for integration and launch of these systems can be improved significantly by considering them not as unique payloads, rather as standardized payloads that can be readily launched on multiple launch vehicles. To make an immediate and significant impact on responsive space, small satellite launch systems can be modeled after the proven CubeSat approach. Fundamental concepts of the CubeSat program such as standardization, canisters, modularity, and expandability yield great benefits that fold nicely into the ORS desires of launching small spacecraft quickly and affordably. The current CubeSat standards, however, have proven too restrictive and do not meet sufficient critical mission requirements. This proposal will outline the approach and feasibility of developing both an expanded version of the CubeSat concept and the necessary launch accommodations. BENEFIT: ORS will realize multiple benefits from the proposed research and development program. This effort will enable rapid access to space on multiple launch vehicles, provide increased mass and volume capacity as compared to the current CubeSat standards, maintain and expand the existing CubeSat Standards, and reduce cost and integration time to launch critical ORS small satellites. We anticipate that with successful Phase I and II completion, Phase III commercialization of the proposed canister and multiple canister adapter will occur within one year of the Phase II conclusion. If funded, this program will align well with the ever-expanding CubeSat community, and the technology will be quickly transferred and applied to the Air Force, broader defense market, and existing commercial markets with limited additional internal investment.

Planetary Systems Corporation
2303 Kansas Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 495-0737
Walter Holemans
AF 09-064      Awarded: 2/2/2010
Title:Canisterized Satellite Development for Operationally Responsive Space
Abstract:An standardized canister and satellite for 6 to 25 Kg satellites is presented. The baseline size is 6U (6 Kg, 30 x 30 x 10 cm). The baseline is expandable to 9U and 2U. An Engineering Design Unit (EDU) that clearly demonstrates the feasibility for the proposed satellite canister concept is outlined. Innovation sufficiently preload the satellite to the canister are shown. A thermal design to beneficially insulate the satellite from extreme temperatures is presented. A standardizing means to fix the dynamic response of the payload is presented. An outline of a standard interface for satellites and and launch veicles is presented. BENEFIT: An inexpensive, broadly useful standard for canisterized satellites to be flown as secondary payloads on a wide range of manned and unmanned launch vehicles. A standard larger and more capable than the existing 3U satellite (3 Kg, 30 x 10 x 10 cm) used on canistera like P-POD and substantially smaller than an ESPA class secondary payload (181 Kg, 61 x 61 x 96 cm)

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Wen Lu
AF 09-065      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Nanomaterial Technologies for Long-Life Li-ion Batteries
Abstract:Lithium-ion batteries have become the industry standard for use as rechargeable secondary batteries in space vehicles. Although substantial advancements have made in this class of batteries of late, substantial limitations still exist in: energy and power densities, operational temperature limits, safety, and most importantly lifecycle and lifetime performance. To address this need, ADA Technologies, Inc. proposes the development of advanced lithium-ion batteries for space vehicle applications comprising nanocomposite electrode technologies and low-loss, ionic-liquid-incorporated gel polymer electrolytes. BENEFIT: The proposed project will result in improved energy and power densities, wider operation temperature ranges, inherently safer operation and excellent storage/cycle-life as compared to current lithium-ion batteries. The results of the proposed program will allow for significant improvements in operational performance of military satellites. Furthermore, the developments undertaken will substantially improve the state-of-the-art of energy storage devices. Thus if successful, the resulting technology could have substantial commercial impact as the overall market for battery technologies is estimated to be in excess of $6B per year. Spin-off applications include hybrid electric vehicles, utility grid applications, personal electronics and medical devices

Chemat Technology, Inc.
9036 Winnetka Avenue
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Yuhong Huang
AF 09-065      Awarded: 3/23/2010
Title:Advanced Li-ion Battery Cathode
Abstract:The goal of this technology development is to design, develop and test an advanced cathode for Li-ion battery cells with long cyclic life. LMO2 type of cathode materials are considered promising candidates for lithium ion battery due to their large theoretical capacity and relatively good rate capability, low self-discharge and relatively good capacity retention. However, their cyclic life is still far from satisfying DOD’s needs for space application as stated above. Main challenges for current cathode materials include considerable deterioration of the cycle stability due to structural changes, dissolution of transition metal and oxygen; formation of passive layer from decomposition of electrolyte, impedance growth; and thermal instability of cathode material. In this proposed research, we will develop advanced cathode material by modifying the surface of the powders. By direct integration of experimental data with computation modeling in this work, we may define a desired microstructure for developing advanced cathode material with long cyclic life. The results of both experimental and computation modeling will provide a very good base and direction for further development in Phase II towards the goal of fabrication of Li-ion battery with extremely long life. BENEFIT: Li-ion battery with high energy density and long cyclic life is essential for military and civilian space application, especially for low earth orbiting satellites. High energy density and long cyclic life are also highly demanded for daily life application, such as battery for lab-top computer and other portable equipments, such as medical devices--X-ray machine, ultrasound system etc.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5051
David Ofer
AF 09-065      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Long Cycle Life, High Energy Lithium-Ion Cathode Material
Abstract:TIAX proposes to utilize a series of insights regarding surface properties of coated cathode materials to develop a novel, coated cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with exceptional cycle life and energy content. The goal of this program is to apply a gradient coating uniformly at the surface of the cathode particles that is durably adhered, does not impede cathode discharge capacity and yet increases the cycle life sufficiently for satellite applications. BENEFIT: Cathodes with a low inherent rate of capacity fade will enable a combination of attractive design objectives such as reducing battery weight for a given design life or significantly extending battery/satellite service life. Longer cycle life cathodes in rechargeable batteries will have immediate impact in the automotive sector where cost and service life are key design parameters. Such cathodes will increase the commercial viability and market penetration of electric drive vehicles such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Increasing electrification of vehicles will reduce the nation’s dependence on imported petroleum, will reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and air pollution, and will conserve petrochemical feedstocks. Potential public benefits include reducing adverse health impacts from pollution, reducing adverse environmental and economic impacts of global warming, and reducing economic impacts of limited world petroleum supply.

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
152 E Garry Av.
Santa Ana, CA 92707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
Ivan Tomov
AF 09-066      Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title:Optical cueing for countermeasure system (OCCS)
Abstract:This proposal discusses development of an innovative laser-based system to support protection of the space-based assets (SBA). The proposed concept enables steady tracking and high pointing accuracy and is capable of selecting and cueing protection countermeasures against adversary space objects (ASO) or a cluster of ASOs. Considering space deployment of the systems with a small form-factor have higher priority for this solicitation as the technology developed under this effort is intended for both ground and space deployment. Thus the system should work autonomously and operate at a long range for space applications. During Phase I of this program we will develop the conceptual system design of the space- based system intended for SBA protection, and determine its expected performance and operating bounds. After using initial modeling for proof-of-principle validation we will define an experimental plan to demonstrate its field applicability and a technology roadmap to facilitate transition to acquisition programs. During Phase II, we will extend the performance capabilities of the proposed system, design and build a breadboard for verifying and optimizing the predicted system performance, demonstrate and refine laboratory operation, and estimate the working envelope. BENEFIT: The technology developed under this effort can be used to counter ground-based or space-based surveillance systems or as a component of the anti-missile defense system. Some of the commercial applications of the product developed under this program can be detection/deterring of unauthorized photography, surveillance and long-range object tracking for security application as well as free-space telecommunication.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF 09-066      Awarded: 3/26/2010
Title:Innovative Laser-based Cueing Technology for Space Protection Countermeasures
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose the FALCON space situational awareness system (SSA). The system combines high sensitivity passive sensors with a high performance compact LIDAR. The combination allows long range detection of ASOs along with precision object range and range rate determination. The FALCON also incorporates SA Photonics advanced optical beamsteering that enables micro-radian pointing on millisecond time scales. The FALCON effort leverages SA Photonics Phase II and Phase III programs in LIDAR systems, precision beam steering, and advanced fiber laser sources to result in a small form factor solution. BENEFIT: FALCON will provide a compact form factor solution for the detection of ASOs. This will drive the acceptance of SSA/cueing systems onto DoD satellites. The FALCON architecture allows a high degree of flexibility enabling a large degree of "future proofing" as characteristics of objects of interest change.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Scott Miller
AF 09-067      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Data Mining Development for OCS/DCS SSA Operations
Abstract:Numerica proposes to develop a prototype system for co-orbital anti-satellite (ASAT) threat assessment, intended ultimately to be integrated into a larger data mining / data fusion Space Situation Awareness (SSA) environment. This system will mine the available satellite kinematic track data for indications of potential co-orbital threats, analyze the ability of the potential threat to reach and destroy targets of interest, and combine the result with prior information on the likelihoods of various targets, producing probabilities of damage to each of the targets. The threat assessments will be displayed graphically as a decision aid for a human operator, though the results can also be forwarded directly to other systems in the SSA environment for automatic planning of defensive action. BENEFIT: Numerica''s proposed co-orbital threat assessment system will provide a key component to Defensive Counter-Space (DCS) SSA operations, working autonomously to alert an operator or planning agent of an impending threat to valuable resources from other satellites already in orbit. The risk of such attacks is growing as space-based systems play an increasingly critical role in U.S. civilian life and national defense, and as the proliferation of microsatellite technology makes vehicles capable of co-orbital ASAT easier to deploy and harder to detect. The same threat assessment system can be triggered in the event of a collision or other event that produces new objects in space, to determine which assets may need to be repositioned to avoid the debris field. Beyond these SSA applications, the reachability analysis at the heart of this system can be applied to problems concerning robustness or safety analysis of nonlinear systems such as aircraft conflict detection and avoidance, or safety-critical nuclear or chemical processes. Reachable sets can also be employed in time-optimal control problems with bounded uncertainties, such as routing of autonomous vehicles for pursuit of enemy targets.

Omitron, Incorporated
7051 Muirkirk Meadows Dv.; Suite A
Greenbelt, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 277-4458
Jon Kolb
AF 09-067      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Data Mining Development for OCS/DCS SSA Operations
Abstract:In the space domain, operators are faced with unmanageably large amounts of ambiguous data. The challenge, given manpower and time constraints, is using this data for situational awareness, space Command and Control (C2) and Courses of Action (COAs) development for Defensive and Offensive Counter Space (DCS/OCS). We will provide operational space expertise to tailor a co-orbital Anti-Satellite scenario for input into an existing data mining tool set. We will tailor inputs to the tool set, execute a mission thread focused on data mining, and provide outputs. Existing data mining algorithms feature rule induction, pattern matching, network analysis, belief networks and link analysis. Innovative technology includes: demonstrating a processing thread that orchestrates data mining, data fusion, and planning; combining the best of data mining and link analysis algorithms; and computing a new metric: adversary node importance under uncertainty. The demonstration will show the integration of an operational use case into a data mining tool. Operational relevancy will be examined iteratively. The tool will be tuned and evaluated for flexibility and utility. At the completion of the effort, AFRL will have data mining results upon which a Phase II decision can be made. BENEFIT: Commercialization Strategy 1. The data mining tool will be matured in Phases II & III to a Technology Readiness Level 6. The goal is to transition the tool to a JSpOC Mission System (JMS) application, within a library of tools, for analyzing large sets of heterogeneous data in support of the DCS and SSA missions. 2. Commercial and Foreign Entities (CFE). Recent events such as Fengyun 1C and Iridium clearly demonstrate that the military space mission cannot be accomplished in a vacuum. There is an ever increasing amount of data being distributed by the JSpOC as well as other commercial and foreign space users. The data mining tool can be tailored in the future to “mine” and analyze data sets that are important to these users. The potential exists for adapting the data mining tool to assist them in making timely and cost effective decisions regarding their satellites and constellations. 3. NASA/Johnson Spaceflight Center. NASA/JSC receives and processes data from the JSpOC to ensure the crews of the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle are warned of and protected from potential collisions with other space objects. NASA uses its own internal data in concert with data from other sources to develop and execute COAs to protect their astronauts. The data mining tool could easily be adapted to support this mission using SSA data from the JSpOC in addition to its own internal data sets. 4. NASA/Goddard Mission. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently uses SSA data from the JSpOC to monitor several constellations of interest to ensure timely actions are taken in the event of a potential collision. The data mining tool could readily be modified to provide GSFC leadership with the capability to analyze data from multiple heterogeneous sources to protect the assets they monitor. 5. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). The NRO has a vested interest in protecting its space assets in the accomplishment of its mission. The data mining tool could be

Princeton Satellite Systems
6 Market St. Suite 926
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-9606
Stephanie Thomas
AF 09-067      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Data Mining Development for OCS/DCS SSA Operations
Abstract:We propose developing model-based data mining tools that incorporate orbital dynamics with available data to assess the vulnerability of tactical satellites. We are proposing enhancement to predictive algorithms we developed for AFRL''s SAFIRE testbed under a FY07 SBIR. These tools take available data on the orbital catalog and missile models and propagate into the future to determine vulnerability windows of satellites to either a direct ascent launch or a satellite from another orbit; they are promising but additional data mining tools are required to fully populate their inputs. In the case of delta-V mapping, the estimated delta-V capability of a specific satellite is required to compute windows of opportunity from a map of delta-V over time. We propose an Unscented Kalman Filter as a ground tool to estimate satellite mass and maneuvers from ground observations, leading to better estimates of delta-V capability. The current direct ascent algorithms require knowledge of the launch site and a specific missile model. We propose developing a running forecast of possible threats considering a database of missile models and sites and additional and real-time dynamic analysis for discrimination between a benign launch and an attack. BENEFIT: All current and future DoD space missions could benefit from this technology. Using all available data to predict the vulnerability of our assets is a critical part of situation assessment. In this case we are providing both static predictions based on the satellite catalog and potential launches, and dynamic prediction for actual direct ascent launches. This technology is applicable to commercial missions from a safety point of view, although we are likely limited to US markets due to ITAR restrictions. The DAV tools can be used to assess risk from planned launches. The DV Mapping can be used for predicting collision risks or for assigning satellites from a service constellation to a particular rendezvous.

PnP Innovations, Inc
2017 Yale SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 503-1563
Kenneth Center
AF 09-068      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Utilizing xTEDS to Automate the Bus and Payload Checkout Process
Abstract:The process of readying a satellite for its operational service role once deployed from the launch vehicle can be an extremely time consuming process when employing traditional approaches – particularly for complex imaging sensors that require the manipulation of many controls to converge on the ability to acquire data products of sufficient quality to be militarily useful. The types of ground-directed checkout sequences that are traditionally applied to spacecraft have long latencies because of the availability of the space-ground link and the delays inherent in human-in-the-loop processes. PnP Innovations proposes to address this barrier by leveraging certain aspects of the Space Plug&play Avionics (SPA) data standards to create an automated checkout framework that can adapt to the inventory of spacecraft bus support components and mission sensors that comprise a mission. The resulting solution will be scalable and extensible to include a wide range of tactical missions of high value to AFRL and the Operationally Responsive Space office. Central to the architecture is a reasoning framework that can be progressively built upon to provide the “intelligence” required to autonomously traverse the highly non-linear calibration space of complex mission sensors. BENEFIT: The immediate application of the proposed architecture, techniques, and software is as an onboard system for tactical DoD satellites. We envision the technology as being utilized to foster greater tactical payoff to the DoD for SSA and for warfighter utility by reducing the time from deployment to fully functional operational service using satellite-resident decision making to speed the checkout and calibration process. The approach also has direct relevance to other space initiatives in the science and exploration including NASA’s technology qualification platforms, observation platforms, and interplanetary missions. The core technology of SOARS is applicable to many non-space applications. Military applications include command and control, air strike and mission planning, autonomous vehicle control and route planning, automated weapon platform subsystems control (e.g. submarines and B-2 bombers), transportation and supply planning and management, air traffic routing and air space management, spare parts allocation and distribution management, and numerous other wartime and peacetime applications. Commercial applications include industrial plant management, production line planning and control (especially robotic or automated production), control of large industrial facilities such as power plants and refineries, as well as many others. We also foresee that the Testbench infrastructure we are developing will be of significant value to mission developers who wish to begin the process of developing autonomy capabilities for their programs well in advance of the satellite’s assembly. The tools and the supporting infrastructure are intended to be cost effective so that they are affordable by a variety of commercial interests (including universities) while offering a direct path to a flight system.

Star Technologies Corportation
731 Walker Road Suite G1
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 994-0207
Tom Mann
AF 09-068      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:On-orbit Check-out Automation
Abstract:Using Star Technologies’ Spacecraft Design Tool (SDT) and SRA''s SCL’s rules engine to develop on-orbit checkout automation for EO/IR sensors will allow flight ready algorithms to be verified in simulation. As the algorithms mature and excess time is driven from the timeline, the analysis tool can track the maturity of the algorithms. BENEFIT: The SDT-SCL merged simulation and development platform provides a flexible, powerful platform to develop and verify on orbit flight software. Other companies in the flight software business will be interested in acquiring this for their own development. The automated checkout procedures will become standard deliverables from payload sensor vendors.

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 434-5012
Frederick A. Slane
AF 09-068      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Automation of Satellite On-orbit Check-out
Abstract:TSC proposes to capture essential requirements analysis and systems engineering in Modeling Languages, and integrate the result with a real time network-to-processor level integrated development environment application, specifically for spacecraft On-Orbit Checkout (OOC). Through a standards based approach, models, modeled systems and process flow can be compared and controlled in real time, thereby significantly reducing the cost and time required for the OOC of future AFRL Space Systems. This application space encompasses bus and payload OOC. AFRL expressed a specific objective to explore the boundary between intelligent software design and the point at which fundamental sensor design changes are needed for a representative set of sensors, which would include Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR). TSC proposes fundamental changes in sensor calibration processes in lieu of sensor design changes, thus freeing the sensor designer from some current sensor design constraints. BENEFIT: Our forecast of potential and targeted application(s) of the tools for spacecraft OOC and associated products and services relative to AFRL needs, other Government agencies and commercial markets include the following: • Cutting edge automated software proposed by TSC will make it possible to integrate new mission assurance standards, such as the AIAA S-102 Mission Assurance standard series as part of an automated data sharing. Applicable to single-project, uncoupled, loosely coupled and tightly-coupled programs. • Today, state of the art spacecraft concepts include software updates while on orbit. While connectivity through sIDEreal enables real time comparison of engineering design parameters with data through the OOC process, there are further interesting applications of this suite of tools. While retaining linkage to AFRL’s need for requirement mapping for qualification tests along with verification and validation functions extension to in-flight, on- orbit lifecycle or mission phases. TSC and sysRAND foresee a point where the tools developed under this SBIR in Phase I and Phase II will allow new missions to be assigned to existing spacecraft using a remote version of sIDEreal to significantly change mission software. • The development of specific tools for OOC (e.g., coupled vicarious calibration techniques to satisfy complex systems validation) by sysRAND on an open architecture will create re-usable software products and support services. • We believe there is a potential market for non-space platforms for this tool combination.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Bruce Pote
AF 09-070      Awarded: 1/6/2010
Title:Compact Low Mass Propulsion for Responsive Space
Abstract:The Hall thruster propulsion system consists of the thruster, cathode, propellant management system and the power processing electronics. The power processing unit (PPU) represents largest fraction of the system dry mass. In addition, the delivery time and cost of radiation hard electronics and issues regarding long-term pre-launch fuel storage make it difficult for electric propulsion systems to meet the operational needs of responsive space missions. In response to the Air Force need for satellites that are both operationally responsive to a launch command and operationally responsive to the warfighter on-orbit, Busek is purposing a paradigm shift from the traditional architecture of electric propulsion systems. The proposed system leverages our flight qualified low power Hall thruster technology. We propose to power the propulsion system using a single multifunctional power converter that has the potential to significantly reduce the PPU cost, mass, volume. We will also investigate the technical feasibility of a non-toxic iodine fueled thruster as a means of reducing the stored propellant tankage mass and volume. Iodine would be stored as a solid allowing pre-fueled long term storage of the propulsion system until a responsive space need arises. In Phase I we will conduct a comprehensive system design and mass optimization study supported by an experimental demonstration using a single multifunctional power converter to power the cathode and thruster. In Phase II we will design and build engineering prototypes of each subsystem and conduct a TRL 6 integrated system demonstration. At the conclusion of the program the integrated system will be delivered to AFRL for extended duration testing in facilities. BENEFIT: The AFRL IHPRPT Program is investing in the development of long life low power HET systems. A key technology identified in the Beyond IHPRPT study is an extremely long life, low mass variant of the BHT-200 and BHT-600 HET systems. The multi-functional converter concept is attractive for its reduction in overall propulsion system mass complexity and cost. Hall thrusters have also been identified as a key technology for NASA’s vision of space exploration. NASA missions beyond Earth orbit can be enabled by the wide throttle range and broad Isp-thrust operation of Hall thrusters. A study conducted by the SMD ISPT Project in 2004 confirmed the significant potential of EP for space science missions, including orbiters about Pluto, Neptune, and Uranus; rendezvous/return with Kuiper Belt Objects and primitive bodies in the outer Solar System; and extensive surveys of major asteroid groups. Commercial satellite manufacturers; SS/L, Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Orbital Sciences have all shown a strong interest in low power HET systems for primary propulsion on LEO spacecraft and station keeping on GEOSats.

IntelliTech Microsystems, Inc.
4931 Tesla Drive Suite B
Bowie, MD 20715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 860-0825
George Sebestyen
AF 09-070      Awarded: 1/21/2010
Title:Precision Miniature Attitude Determination and Control System
Abstract:A self contained Precision Attitude Determination and Control System (PADACS) for CubeSats and Nanosats is proposed. The PADACS enables future CubeSat missions with precision fine pointing (0.1„a) and dynamic slewing as will be required for imaging operations of ground targets. The PADACS incorporates a flight control computer, 2 Star Trackers, 3 axis reaction wheels and 3 axis electromagnets in a 4" x 4" x 3" (3/4U) CubeSat sized module which is compatible with the P-POD launch dispenser. The system is based on the highly successful IMI-100 miniADACS and extends its performance capability to the 0.1deg range by incorporation of 2 star cameras and attitude determination software. The system is thus responsive to the solicitation requirement of novel modification endeavors to existing COTS components. A program for development of the cameras, electronics, and processing software is outlined. The technology is significant because it extends the capability of current low cost Nanosats to tactical imaging and other missions requiring fine pointing and dynamic retargeting, missions hitherto restricted to $100M spacecraft. The new PADACS will facilitate rapid development of low cost satellites by providing a turnkey system which would be capable of determining and controlling spacecraft attitude automatically; speeding integration and simplifying operations. BENEFIT: We developed the IMI-100 miniature ADACS for CubeSats as a DARPA SBIR. This system has enabled a number of nanosatellite applications not previously possible including the NRO requirement Colony I. The performance of the IMI-100 is currently limited by the Sun sensor and magnetometer attitude determination which gives end-to-end accuracy of >1deg, limited to periods of Sun visibility. Addition of the star trackers will yield day/night accuracy of 0.1 deg which will enable many new nanosatellite applications requiring the next level of precision fine pointing such as tactical Earth imaging and Sun, planetary and deep space science. We have been very successful in commercializing the small ADACS by having sold more than 18 systems in less than one year. Improvement of system performance by an order of magnitude will open many new DoD and commercial markets.

IntelliTech Microsystems, Inc.
4931 Tesla Drive Suite B
Bowie, MD 20715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 860-0825
George Sebestyen
AF 09-070      Awarded: 1/21/2010
Title:High Gain Nanosatellite Deployable Antenna
Abstract:Small stowed volume, deployable, steerable, momentum and CG compensated antennas for miniature satellites, from 3 kg Cubesats and Nanosats to 10 kg spacecraft provide significant, mission-enabling benefits to military and commercial users. By increasing antenna gain from a typical earth coverage 4 dB to 17dB or more, downlink data rates can be increased more than 20 fold or alternatively, ground antenna gains can be reduced by 13 dB. For example, a tactical imaging satellite with 10 watt transmitter requires a 4 meter command post dish to receive images at 1 mbps. With a 17 dB spacecraft antenna, the ground antenna can be reduced to a man portable 90 cm, enabling the warfighter to receive imagery directly without the necessity to relay data through a command post. Deployable antennas from trainable end fire arrays to dishes are considered. Because the satellites are small, the antenna must be momentum compensated so that steering should not affect spacecraft attitude, this is a technical challenge in a small size. Phase I will explore the types of deployable antennas that are suitable for Cubesats and larger miniature spacecraft, and will build mechanical working models of selected designs as proof of concept. BENEFIT: Deployable, steerable, momentum and center of gravity compensated spacecraft antennas for Nanosatellites would enable Cubesats and other small Nanosats to overcome one of their present, main limitations, that of not being able to transmit from low power spacecraft transmitters to ground users at high bit rates or to transmit to small ground station antennas. Availability of high gain spacecraft antenna gains would make imaging applications of Nanosatellites very practical, whether for commercial or military purposes. This Company developed (on DARPA funding) very small 3-axis attitude control systems for Nanosatellites, already resulting in initiation of a number of Nanosatellite programs that could not have been possible without a 3-axis precise attitude control system. In the same way, we believe that deployable high gain antennas for Nanosatellites will open up another host of new Nanosatellite applications.. This Company was very successful in commercializing the small ADACS by having sold about 18 systems in less than one year. We believe that the deployable spacecraft antenna for Nanosatellites has similar, large commercialization potential.

Space Micro Inc.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0702
David J. Strobel
AF 09-070      Awarded: 12/31/2009
Title:Proton XBox Avionics for Responsive Space Missions
Abstract:Space Micro, teamed with Redefine Technologies, proposes to develop a low power avionics suite of cards, called Proton XBox, to support DoD smallsat, nanosat, and even potentially Cubesat missions. This card suite can also be integrated into the TREADS space platform being developed by Redefine as a space test platform for demonstrating and qualifying new technologies. BENEFIT: DoD will immediately benefit from having an entire avionics suite in small form factor and with radiation tolerance for ORS type missions. This hardware can then migrate to larger national space programs such as AEHF, MILSATCOM, and GPS follow ons, plus evolutions of TSAT such as LTD. Both NASA and commercial space imaging and telcom platforms may also benefit and use this lower cost rad hard space electroncis.

Space Micro Inc.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
David Czajkowski
AF 09-070      Awarded: 12/31/2009
Title:Miniaturized Satellite Development for Responsive Space Missions
Abstract:Space Micro''s combined Phase I and II effort is targeted at demonstrating a finished and tested μSDR demonstration system. Circuit cards will be designed in detail, manufactured and integrated. In place of an operational ORS satellite waveform, Space Micro proposes to use similar waveforms, perhaps either a simple BPSK data stream and/or a QPSK data stream. This will make an affordable demonstration in Phase II (and perhaps even Phase III). In Phase II, we will propose to integrate all the key elements of the μSDR system, including the reconfiguration elements for RF, filters and digital. BENEFIT: While Space Micro plans to integrate and test this reconfigurable, lightweight, HEO capable radio to support our ground forces, the same multi-frequency/multi- waveform technologies will support other space radios such as a super compact SGLS/USB band radios for USAF which can be re-configured as NASA STDN band radios with software changes. Thus, the market can be segmented into the following segments, each with a standard off the shelf baseline unit that can be programmed to use in any desired bands within its design limits: Sector Application Size Space Satellites Space vehicle mounted (with radiation mitigation) Space Ground/Ship Stations Stationary mounted Military/ Army/Navy/Marines Vehicle/craft mounted Civilian * Planes, Trucks/Car fleets Vehicle/craft mounted Military/ Theaters of operation Man-pack (portable) Civilian * Mobile sites Man/Mobile pack (portable)

Vulcan Wireless Inc.
5937 Darwin Court Suite 105
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 602-0606
Kevin Lynaugh
AF 09-070      Awarded: 12/31/2009
Title:Miniaturized Satellite Development for Responsive Space Missions
Abstract:Payloads with military utility are needed to enhance the mission performance of CubeSats. High performance RF payloads are needed to expand the capabilities of CubeSats. High performance ISR payloads such as SIGINT systems can benefit from the space vantage point and cover vast areas rapidly. This project will package a SIGINT payload into a CubeSat form factor. BENEFIT: High performance RF payloads can be translated directly into commercial communications satellite applications. High capacity commercial payloads require high performance RF systems as well as digital signal processing.

Applied Material Systems Engineering Inc. (AMSENG)
2309 Pennsbury Ct.
Schaumburg, IL 60194
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 372-9650
Mukund Deshpande.
AF 09-071      Awarded: 3/16/2010
Title:Adaptive Thermal Control Coating for Radiation Hardening of Spacecraft
Abstract:The purpose of this SBIR phase I proposal is to design and demonstrate the feasibility of processing the adaptive thermal control material system (TCMS) that is radiation hardened. Through this proposal the engineered TCMS for the space craft protection is envisioned for the needed survivability and better protection of the space assets and the investments. The goal here is to develop an adaptive TCMS that will protect spacecraft structures and payload electronics from high flux radiation doses from the natural solar storm induced events and possible manmade nuclear threats in a given orbit. The new TCMS designs as well as the processing approaches can provide the usual TCMS functions in reliable and space stable manner, plus a charge storage coating to meet the desired goal, where one can adapt to accommodate high dose of electron flux by storing and dissipating the charges per the designed time constants chosen for the material design. Under this new suggested approach, the adaptive TCMS and ESD capable thermal control material system is allowed to accumulate as much charge as possible through a designed storage mechanism with the goal of maintaining surface voltage to acceptable small values (< 10 volts say), and with possible elimination of the dielectric breakdowns, and the electrical discharges. To fulfill this goal of the solicitation, a TCMS design shall provide good passive thermal control performance by providing: low space stable Solar Absorbtance, & high thermal emittance, good adhesion to various technologically important substrates and thermal cycling resistance for the needed operational temperature limits set by the mission orbital needs, along with needed good electrical properties to assure low acceptable surface charging using currently available second surface mirror technology in conjunction with the suggested transparent space stable multilayer ceramic capacitor stack for the charge storage. Finally, the suggested material design can meet reliability needs of the space environment for a typical ten year mission lifetime and conform to the mission space qualification requirements including high vacuum, microgravity, radiation, atomic oxygen, low out gassing, and high launch loads, because most of the suggested material components are chosen from the materials that have been either already qualified as space materials or have been flown on some missions for other intent. BENEFIT: MILITARY APPLICATION: Military satellites are required to survive natural radiation that affects their operation. This work will enhance the capabilities of future satellites to meet this requirement. COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Commercial satellites must be capable of surviving natural radiation that exists in the space environment. This work will enhance the ability of commercial satellites to survive natural radiation.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-2513
Adam Goff
AF 09-071      Awarded: 9/17/2010
Title:Advanced Electrically Conductive Thermal Control Coating for Spacecraft
Abstract:The space environment poses two significant challenges to spacecraft that have been historically mitigated by coating systems: electrostatic discharge (ESD) and thermal threats. The ESD spacecraft threat is a result of high radiation flux from both solar storms and potential nuclear threats that can cause charge build-up on exterior spacecraft surfaces. While spacecraft systems referenced to structure ground are not affected by a uniformly charged spacecraft, spacecraft materials and surfaces are not uniform, however, and material properties vary. Current ESD thermal control coatings are a satisfactory compromise between excellent thermal control and excellent ESD performance. A variety of conductive organic and inorganic thermal control coatings have been developed, however none of them exhibit the necessary electrical conductivity required to provide the desired levels of high radiation hardening. To address the dual need for thermal control coatings that exhibit much higher electrical conductivity coupled with good thermal control performance, Luna proposes to modify industry standard and space-qualified thermal control coatings with highly conductive nanomaterials to impart electrical conductivity levels several orders of magnitude higher than existing ESD- protective coatings. Through strategic processing and additive manipulation, thermal performance properties will be maintained resulting in a multifunctional, electrically conductive thermal control coating. BENEFIT: The push for thermal control coatings having higher radiation hardening capability is being driven by the use of more sensitive and mission-critical electronics on satellites and other spacecraft. In addition, more and more satellites are being manufactured in the U.S. for a variety of defense and communications applications both within the military and commercial sectors. Successful completion of this Phase I program will result in multiple opportunities that span a range of military and commercial markets that require spacecraft (i.e. satellites) to operate with more stringent radiation hardening requirements coupled with increased thermal control needs. The new conductive thermal control coating will find use on a host of various military and commercial spacecraft structures that require unprecedented levels of electrical and thermal protection.

Pixelligent Technologies LLC
387 Technology Drive Suite 3122
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-9284
Zhiyun Chen
AF 09-071      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Adaptive Thermal Control Coating for Radiation Hardening of Spacecraft
Abstract:This proposed SBIR Phase I project will develop a dual-use, adaptive thermal control coating for radiation hardening of spacecraft. The specific approach is to develop a nanocomposite having high dielectric constant and high thermal conductivity, low absorptivity, high emissivity, and high electrical conductivity. The nanocomposite will include nanocrystals mixtures dispersed into a binder with one part of the nanocrystal mixture providing high dielectric constant and high thermal stability of the dielectric constant with low residual charge while another part of the mixture provide the high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as the low absorptivity/emissivity ratio. The de- coupling of the functionalities allows us to optimize the electrical and thermal properties separately. In this project, a candidate nanocrystal material with different sizes, ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm in diameter will be tested. We expect to observe increased dielectric constant with increasing loading of the nanocrystals, more stable dielectric constant over wide temperature range with appropriate structure, and enhanced thermal conductivity. A successful project will produce a coating with a relative dielectric constant of 100, less than 30% variation of the dielectric constant in the required temperature range, and a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the core material. BENEFIT: The proposed thermal control/ESD coating has broad applications. It can protect the spacecraft against severe electron radiation, and can also be used for other applications requiring an ESD protection yet a metallic coating is not sufficient or cost effective, such as airborne remote sensor, radar, communications systems, as well as land-based telescope at high altitude, and oil storage tanks. The technology platform developed here can even be applied to other fields such as high density capacitors and motor-vehicle batteries.

Ayers Group, LLC
910 Route 27, Princeton-Kingston Rd
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 735-5655
William Ayers
AF 09-072      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Lithium Ion Battery and Ultracapacitors Hybrid for Satellite Power
Abstract:This proposal develops an integrated lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor power system for satellite and other space applications. Such a novel integrated system could extend battery lifetime and provide a larger pulsed power source than conventional battery systems. In Phase I, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the hybrid lithium battery and ultracapacitor transient response for pulse constant current and constant power discharges. The model will assist in sizing the battery and ultracapacitor components to optimize pulsed and steady state operation of the system. A preliminary manufacturing/assembly process for constructing the system is also provided. BENEFIT: Greatly extends satellite and spacecraft lihium-ion battery lifetime. Provides increased pulsed power discharges for spacecraft thruster and ordnance applications. Commercial applications include HEV and PHEV electric vehicles, electric carts, and portable power applications.

Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0530
Robert C. McDonald, Ph.D.
AF 09-072      Awarded: 3/22/2010
Title:Integrated High Voltage Lithium Ion Battery - Ultracapacitor Hybrid
Abstract:Satellite batteries used to store and deliver pulse power for low-earth and geosynchronous orbital missions must function over many years. As power demands increase with expanded functionality, ultracapacitors must be coupled with the batteries to store and deliver the power necessary in short pulses. Giner, Inc. will integrate the two power devices in order to maintain high specific power and specific energy without adding multiple electronic components needed for separate sets of batteries and capacitors. We will develop the electrochemical material processing and composition to produce small integrated pulse-power supplies and explore the relationships between pulse width, duty cycle and specific power and energy. BENEFIT: This Phase I will provide the proof of concept for a power supply capable of expanding the capabilities of the current generation of lithium-ion batteries used in cell phones and portable tools, which demand high power pulses. Short power surges needed in electric vehicles during acceleration will also require combinations of ultracapacitors and rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

Yardney Technical Products, Inc.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Joseph Gnanaraj
AF 09-072      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Lithium Ion Battery and Ultracapacitors Hybrid for Satellite Power
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a UCAP/Li-ion hybrid system for space power use. Long term space missions utilizing battery based electrical power subsystems often undergo thousands of charge/discharge cycles and short high rate discharge cycles over the length of the mission. During Phase I of this program Yardney in collaboration with Maxwell Technologies propose to develop a hybrid system consisting of high energy Li-ion, high power ultracapacitor (UCAP) and the electronic interface control module. The hybrid system to be developed in this program will maximize end of life Li-ion battery performance in space power applications. BENEFIT: Air Force Application: The target application for this Li/UCAP hybrid system for space power Air Force applications where long life safety, longer cycle life, and long-term stability are required. This new technology will have superior electrochemical performance even at high rate discharge and long term cycle life due to UCAP interface and the electronic control unit module. Non Military Application: Li-ion/UCAP hybrid systems with high power and long life will benefit all DoD, National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) spacecraft applications, military and commercial communication satellite and even Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
William Hafer
AF 09-074      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:Dimensionally Stable Satellite Structure with Embedded Thermal Features
Abstract:A number of present and planned military satellite payloads simultaneously require significant waste heat mitigation, and high pointing accuracy. The challenge posed by these requirements stems from Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)-induced changes in the size or geometry of the support structure under thermal load, which deflect the payload from its required orientation. To address this challenge, Infoscitex proposes to develop the Near-zero-CTE Structure with Peltier Assisted Conduction (NSPAC). NSPAC utilizes near-zero-CTE composite fibers to achieve a baseline composite panel structure with an extremely low cumulative CTE. Additional thermal control is provided by the embedment of Peltier-assisted conduction (PAC) nodes into the composite panel, which overcome low facesheet thermal conductivity in the thickness direction and provide increased panel isothermality. With this combination of passive and active thermal control features, NSPAC addresses the pointing and thermal management needs of present and future high-precision space systems. Bench-level prototyping will be performed in Phase I, to validate the design of a fully featured Phase II demonstrator panel. BENEFIT: The thermally stable panel developed in this program will be relevant to a number of space missions requiring optical and RF payloads. Markets will exist across a wide range of space activities including: military (strategic, tactical and responsive spacecraft); scientific space missions; and commercial satellites.

Metal Matrix Cast Composites, LLC (dba MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
James A. Cornie
AF 09-074      Awarded: 3/23/2010
Title:High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Reinforced Al Composites for Thermally Stable Structural Panels and Frame with Passive Thermal Control Features for
Abstract:Pressure infiltration cast graphite fiber and platelet reinforced Al materials are proposed. Structural materials that have high stiffness, low thermal expansion, very high thermal conductivity and low density will be developed for use as a satellite structural frame. The same composite preform architecture used in the frame will be applied to satellite panels so as to produce zero difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the frame and the attached panels. With >600 W/mK thermal conductivity and less than 4 ppm/K thermal expansion, the frame/panel structure will be thermally stable as the beta angle associated with low earth orbit changes and the mission thermal load varies. Hot spot remediation is provided along with local CTE control at electronic mounting sites so that the panels also serve as a passive thermal management system. High heat capacity attachments, strategically located near the electronic/sensor heat source will provide for a low mass passive thermal leveler to prevent extreme temperature variation during complex duty cycles. The structure will have twice the stiffness, three times the thermal transport capacity and 15% of the thermal expansion of an Al structure. BENEFIT: Passive thermal management will permit greater flexibility in payload instrumentation design and denser electronics. Passive thermal leveling will eliminate temperature extremes and enable greater reliability and life. Lower mass associated with higher stiffness structures enables increased instrumentation in the payload. The technologies developed will have applications in electronic chassis as well as for main-frame and server center thermal management.

Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-8988
Walter Zimbeck
AF 09-074      Awarded: 3/23/2010
Title:Stable Panels Incorporating a Network of Distortion Lowering Evaporators
Abstract:This proposal describes a novel idea to achieve a thermally stable panel (TSP) through the coupled use of: (1) a two dimensional evaporator array hybrid loop heat pipe system, which enables component or environment power transients to be spatially leveled via evaporator heat load sharing; (2) use of sheet metal forming technology, which enables a complex evaporator flow network to be formed into a thin, bondable, hermetically-sealed layers instead of using tubing for transport lines and headers; and (3) low thermal expansion composite isogrid panels, which provides a low stress/low distortion foundation for payload mounting. The Phase I project will design, fabricate and test a breadboard system consisting of a four evaporator sheet network and a condenser. The breadboard system will be analytically modeled and the results compared to experimental testing. BENEFIT: The approach is a low cost solution to achieving lightweight, low distortion panels for mounting satellite sensors. The concept may be adaptable to providing thermal stabilization of precision optical mirrors.

Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-6580
Mark Montesano
AF 09-074      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:Thermal Control Spacecraft Panel
Abstract:The thermal environment for satellites operating in low Earth orbit varies significantly through the course of a single orbit and throughout its lifetime as the beta angle varies over time. In addition, the operation of many satellite payloads in LEO is highly transient. The combination of environmental extremes and payload duty cycle frequently results in time varying thermal distortions, which can result in degraded performance or complete mission failure in the worst case. k Technology proposes a technology development of a material panel concept combining two innovative technologies: encapsulated annealed pyrolytic (APG); and a thermally enhanced phase change material (TEPCM). Aluminum encapsulated APG is a composite material with five times the conductivity of aluminum. The thermally enhanced TEPCM is an innovative PCM composite using APG platelets as the reinforcement phase. The combination of these two technologies will enable both the thermal management of the steady state heat load conditions as well as the transient peak loads as defined above. This thermally stable panel design for highly transient spacecraft payloads will permit the reliable operation of radar and similar space systems in the challenging space environment. BENEFIT: The high conductance and temperature leveling capability of the material to be demonstrated under this program would have immediate applications in AF systems, as well as other military, NASA, and commercial uses. Key potential post application relies heavily on the successful verification and certification of the proposed materials’ performance. With increasing acceptance, the technology will be attractive to automotive and power supply manufactures. Enabling technologies will allow the increase of production and the realization of the economies of scale. At this level, one can only estimate the potential impact on the personal computer and other high volume heat sensitive products.

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
152 E Garry Av.
Santa Ana, CA 92707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
G. Tartakovski
AF 09-075      Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title:Space-Based Integrated Multi-Sensor System for CSO Discrimination and Identification (SBIMSS for CSODI)
Abstract:This Phase I proposal identifies the key system requirements for an integrated space based multi-sensor space surveillance system capable of mission critical target tracking, discrimination, and identification (TDI) against closely spaced objects (CSO). In the proposed concept a set of visible and IR sensors track CSOs and provides a prioritized location map for an active laser tracking unit, which is then used to interrogate CSO and extract information for their discrimination and detection of threat cloud (threat/ non- threat). Multi-mode/modality images and data of CSO can be presented at various signal levels to simulate a typical engagement timeline. Active detection technology enables system to operate in both day and night and for “dark pass” tracking of satellites through the Earth’s shadow, adding means for optical signal gating, which can greatly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in an acquired data. During Phase I we will design and integrate the proof of concept testbed to demonstrate TDI feasibility on targets that imitate CSO. During Phase II, we will extend the performance capabilities of the proposed system, design and build a breadboard for verifying and optimizing the predicted system performance, demonstrate and refine laboratory operation, and estimate the working envelope. BENEFIT: An important benefit of the proposed concept is to leverage the capability of existing and advanced sensors by integrating the data produced by all of them to improve significantly the image information content beyond that produced by any one of them. The most immediate application is to surveillance systems that employ multiple sensors. The technologies developed under this effort can be applied to various air and space surveillance systems against fast moving, closely-spaced airplanes, missiles and space objects. In commercial sector this technology can be applied to air security and air-traffic control, astronomy, navigation systems and other areas where concurrent detection and discrimination of multiple objects is essential. Likewise, the methods should be extendable to commercial inspection systems that employ multiple sensors.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF 09-075      Awarded: 3/25/2010
Title:Discrimination and Identification of Closely-Spaced Objects (CSO)
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose the SENTRY closely spaced object (CS0) space situational awareness system. THe SENTRY system leverages SA Photonics'' technology in LIDAR, LIVAR, and free space optical communincation by employing: SA Photonics'' innovative light source technology, the Acu-Point beam pointing, advanced optical design, high sensitivity photo detection and the BeamDirector beam steering unit. The result is unparalleled resolution at distance >1500km in packages with very low size, weight and power (SWaP). BENEFIT: SENTRY is able to resolve and track objects of interest that are less than 8cm at ranges that are greater than 1500km providing a revolutionary new capability in space situational awareness.

Azimuth Corporation
4134 Linden Ave Suite 300
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 256-8571
John Dickman
AF 09-076      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Mask Verification System for Space Microelectronics
Abstract:As critical military and commercial applications grow more dependent on semiconductor devices fabricated overseas often at untrusted foundries, the United States is becoming vulnerable to attack at a basic level. There are a number of techniques to alter a chip’s design during manufacturing available to agents determined to sabotage or steal critical information using the electronics built into our own systems. While the functions of field programmable gate arrays are to a large extent defined by the user, sections of the device are configured during fabrication and a not fully visible to the user. It is possible for foreign agents or terrorists to alter the design of the chip before or during manufacturing introducing functions that could sabotage the operation of the device or create a backdoor that enables an agent to take control of the operation of the device. Alterations made without the knowledge of the US manufacturer who sells the devices or the user could result in the loss of our aircraft because a smart bomb blew up prematurely or an ATM machine giving thieves passwords and account numbers. Our proposed technique will alert the manufacturer and end user to any alterations in the design. BENEFIT: The ability to verify a trusted reticle or mask sets and to detect alterations to a reticle or mask has numerous applications in both the government and industry. As more and more electronics are manufactured off-shore at untrusted foundries, the United States is placed in greater danger of sabotage and back door control by agents of foreign powers or clever thieves. Semiconductor devices have reached the level of complexity that it is impossible to fully characterize each chip. Even for FPGAs, there are functions fabricated into the chip that are hidden from the manufacturer and end users. Any technique that can alert the user to changes in design greatly increases the trust of the electronics on which we depend for the security of our country. The commercial applications include reducing the risks from foreign or domestic agents to our financial security, vital communication infrastructure, and basic infrastructure of the country.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Kevin Urish
AF 09-076      Awarded: 5/21/2010
Title:Space Microelectronics Security Verification
Abstract:The necessity of Trust has been pressed upon the United States Department of Defense as a consequence of the globalization of microelectronics development and manufacturing. Many of the microelectronic devices used in DOD systems and much of the software used in the design of such systems are either manufactured overseas or otherwise have foreign influence on their development. The urgent question is thus raised: how does the DOD trust the increasingly more complex microelectronic devices fielded in critical systems? Given the massive scale of the global shift to non-U.S. microelectronics development, it is prohibitively expensive for DOD to solve this trend exclusively through the use of Trusted Foundries and U.S.-only design and manufacturing facilities. Luna Innovations Incorporated has an arsenal of proven tools that provide trust in the development tools and manufacturing chain of microelectronic devices. Luna Innovations’ Secure Computing Group (SCG) produces world-class Trust Technologies. The SCG has been involved in Trust research for over five years as a prime contractor on both Trust-related SBIRs as well as the ongoing DARPA Trust BAA. Luna’s demonstrated leadership and capabilities will be applied to this SBIR program to ensure a successful Space Microelectronics Security Verification solution. BENEFIT: A Trust solution will provide broad benefits by improving the microelectronics verification and validation capabilities of the following commercial sectors: • Safety-critical microelectronic systems • Medical microelectronic systems • Law enforcement devices

ATA Engineering, Inc
11995 El Camino Real Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 480-2019
Matthew Kaplan
AF 09-077      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Rapid, Accurate, Satellite Structural Dynamic Modeling Methods for Responsive Space Needs
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of a software tool that can quickly and accurately predict the structural dynamic response of satellites to meet the needs of Responsive Space. This tool will be particularly applicable for structures which are assemblies of off-the-shelf or standardized components, but which cannot be test- verified because of cost, schedule, or physical limitations of the structure. This Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate that system verification can be done using probabilistic methods to propagate uncertainties associated with major components and with the joints that attach them. A detailed design specification document will be created to ensure that all of the requirements of the solicitation are met. An easy-to-use, GUI-driven tool will be created that incorporates the design specifications. Risks associated with the development of the full-scale prototype tool will be identified and risk reduction plans defined for Phase II. BENEFIT: The system dynamic response tool that will be developed under this SBIR will provide a means for satellite systems to be flight qualified without test verification. The tool will be efficient, robust, and easy-to-use so that an analyst will be able to meet the schedule requirements of Responsive Space. Once the path for verifying space hardware without test has been established, the tool will be in demand for traditional satellites or other space payloads on programs that cannot otherwise test- verify the fully assembled system due to a lack of facilities, schedule, or funding. The methods developed here will also have broader application to the rapid evaluation of proposed new product configurations during product development in a wide number of industries including automotive, power generation, commercial aircraft, and industrial machinery.

Quartus Engineering Incorporated
10251 Vista Sorrento Pkwy Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(571) 266-5302
Andrew Kostuch
AF 09-077      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Rapid, Accurate, Satellite Structural Dynamic Modeling Methods for Responsive Space Needs
Abstract:The current paradigm for structural dynamic verification of complex satellite systems is expensive, prone to error, and cannot keep pace with the objectives driving spacecraft development. The modular architecture of the Operationally Responsive Space initiative offers an opportunity to develop and validate methods for dynamic verification based on correlated component models only. The paradigm shift away from system level testing will allow a much more responsive dynamic verification processes. However, an accurate and reliable software tool is needed to 1) automate the analytical component model integration process including accurate propagation of component level uncertainties to the assembled spacecraft level and 2) systematically quantify and minimize uncertainties at structural joints inherent to component level only testing and model correlation. In this proposal Quartus Engineering details how it will clear the major technical hurdles required to implement an accurate component based verification paradigm as well as puts in place the framework on which a commercially viable verification and response prediction software tool can be built. BENEFIT: If successfully implemented, the methodology and software tools developed in this activity will eliminate the need for spacecraft system level testing of complicated structures. Component level only testing has the potential to greatly reduce the cost to fully verify a spacecraft system. Furthermore, eliminating the need for system level testing allows for much quicker dynamic verification timelines which facilitates more responsive spacecraft development overall.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner''''s Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Richard Stottler
AF 09-078      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:A Distributed AFSCN Scheduling/Deconfliction/Automated Negotiation System with user extensible constraints, rules and decision processes (DASDAN)
Abstract:The ultimate goal is to develop a distributed, intelligent AFSCN Scheduling, Deconfliction, and Automated Negotiation System with user extensible constraints and graphically modifiable rules and decision processes. This will require SOC-based intelligent software that allows graphical editing and management of rules and decision processes as well as an extensible constraint model for use by SOC personnel to maintain and manage the rules, constraints, and decision processes associated with their constellations and individual satellites. This software must be able to negotiate resolution of conflicts with the central 22 SOPS AFSCN intelligent scheduling system. The central system must also allow for the end-user creation of rules, constraints, and decision processes. Such a distributed, intelligent communications resource scheduling capability will provide better quality schedules; faster scheduling; handling larger, more complex sets of requests; and handling additional communication system capabilities. The Phase I goals are to understand the current and future satellite communications resource scheduling domain including SOC and 22 SOPS user requirements, investigate integration requirements, elaborate the heuristics, algorithms and techniques for distributed scheduling, analyze them as to their feasibility in several dimensions, further prove the feasibility of the techniques through prototype development, and develop the Phase II system design. BENEFIT: The most direct target for the results of this effort is the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). By both demonstrating significantly improved performance during Phase II and ensuring that the ultimate results can be integrated into the operational scheduling system, the Air Force will have a strong incentive to operationalize the Phase II development of the proposed Scheduler. We are already marketing Aurora, our general intelligent planning and scheduling framework, and customizing it for a variety of domains. The additional capabilities developed for communication scheduling can be synergistically marketed to the same clients. We anticipate that this effort will result in additional scheduling algorithms that we will be able to incorporate into our existing scheduling products, thus increasing the benefits they provide and their value.

Vcrsoft LLC
2310 Bamboo Drive STE J303
Arlington, TX 76006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 213-6184
VC Ramesh
AF 09-078      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Agent-Based Collaborative Scheduling for AFSCN
Abstract:Next-gen AFSCN scheduling software will need to incorporate two aspects that are missing from existing solutions. One is the need to incorporate fuzzy time constraints and dynamic priorities. The other aspect is the need to provide support to the manual negotiations that currently take place between the NOC schedulers and the SOC users for resolving conflicts. To address the first aspect, we propose a multi-objective optimization formulation that is able to incorporate nonlinear fuzzy constraints and priorities. To address the second aspect, we propose an intelligent agent based automated negotiation technique. The resulting agent-based collaborative scheduling approach is well-suited to the next-gen AFSCN enterprise software upgrade. BENEFIT: The next-gen AFSCN upgrade is the first candidate for technology transition. Decentralized collaborative scheduling using agents has applications in many other optimization and scheduling applications in DOD and in the private sector. Scheduling satellite usage in the commercial world is an obvious target. Both the military and the commercial satellite industries will benefit from the proposed technology.

Analytical Services, Inc.
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-2191
Joe Sims
AF 09-079      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Qu Tubes for High Temperature Heat Rejection
Abstract:In our proposed effort, we intend to perform high temperature (100-200 Deg C) characterization of an ultra-advanced heat pipe to determine feasibility of using it in high temperature space radiators. In previous work, we have shown that the so-called "Qu Tube" achieves exceptionally high thermal transport rates at lower temperatures. BENEFIT: Our innovation will significantly reduce the size of radiators used on spacecraft and satellites, thereby reducing their mass and their cost. It can also be applied in many industrial heat exachanger designs.

CUBE Technology
2987 W. Elliot Rd.
Chandler, AZ 85224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 497-8400
Daniel S. Marshall
AF 09-079      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:High Temperature Heat Pipes and Passive Two-Phase Cooling Systems
Abstract:This program is expected to result in a high-temperature heat pipe passive cooling system for space-borne phased array antennas. The innovative approach chosen for this project will result in a reliable g-force independent cooling system that is robust against launch and vibration forces as well as the zero-g environment of space. The system is lightweight, inexpensive, and efficient, and has the potential to significantly reduce the payload weight of satellites by enabling high-temperature components to dissipate effectively through higher temperature radiators. BENEFIT: The cooling system resulting from this effort is expected to be significantly smaller and lighter-weight than current ammonia heat pipes used for thermal management in satellite systems. This device will directly address the needs of the space market but will be applicable to several other markets including airborne flight hardware. This system has potential commercial application both military and commercial aircraft and can be applied to high-end servers for more effective chip cooling. Beyond passive cooling, this technology can be modified to become a microclimate refrigeration system with application to Firefighters, police, and HAZMAT teams, as well as military personnel.

Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-3435
Steven Seghi
AF 09-079      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:LHP Architecture and Advanced Wicks for Freeze Tolerance
Abstract:This proposal describes a freeze-tolerant water loop heat pipe (LHP) as the solution to the spacecraft high temperature electronics thermal removal and transportation problem when operating between 100°C-200°C. Water LHPs -- owing to their many favorable system attributes that include high conductance, passive operation, operating temperature applicability, compactness, heat load/transport length scalability, integration flexibility, low mass, no-moving-part reliability, low cost, benign nature, and dual-use potential -- are uniquely suited to meeting the high temperature electronics thermal management system technology objectives. Water is a desirable choice of working fluid not only because of its excellent thermal properties but it is a fluid that is accepted from a safety perspective which would allow it to be used in a wide variety of applications, including commercial electronics. Unfortunately, despite the promise of water LHPs, their freeze-tolerance remains a critical problem that must be solved to ensure long-life operation in warm/cold environments. The technology proposed herein will result in a freeze-tolerant water loop heat pipe. BENEFIT: In addition to the solicitation topic of cooling for spacecraft high temperature electronics, additional post applications for the freeze-tolerant water LHP technology include, but are not limited to, the following ground/space applications: (1) commercial PC cooling (CPU, video cards, etc); (2) industrial electronics (3) Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) component cooling; (4) commercial aircraft electronics cooling; (5) avionics cooling in military aircraft; (6) military hybrid vehicle cooling; and (7) others.

Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 519-3140
Kevin L. Wert
AF 09-079      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:High Temperature Heat Pipes and Passive Two-Phase Cooling Systems
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to identify a technical development path that will yield a heat pipe with the following characteristics: • be passive, requiring no power input other than the heat to be transported; • provide equal or superior heat transport performance in the temperature range from 80°C to 200°C relative to aluminum/ammonia heat pipes operating in the temperature range between 0°C and 80°C; • achieve this performance with equal or lesser mass; and • survive exposure to temperatures as low as -60°C. Two paths will be considered in parallel. The first path pursues optimization of established constant conductance heat pipe designs, using water as the working fluid. The second path will investigate an innovative hybrid heat pipe design. In addition to offering a potential solution to the problem identified in this topic, development of the hybrid heat pipe may also lead to a low-cost loop heat pipe. At the conclusion of Phase I, one of these paths will be chosen for further development in Phase II. BENEFIT: High temperature heat pipes are a key enabler for advanced high temperature electronics space applications, such as the GaN phased array antenna, which is being developed to support future AF communications requirements. The development of high temperature heat pipes to replace aluminum/ammonia heat pipes will allow the evolution of GaN payloads to be used at significantly higher temperatures than today''s GaAs payloads or early implementations of GaN. By running GaN phased arrays hotter one will be able to save significant thermal radiator mass with slight drop off in GaN efficiency with increased temperature. The overall system trades show than not only will the radiators get smaller and less massive but the overall mass will also be reduced.

Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 344-7300
Hulya Demiryont
AF 09-080      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Transparent Conductor for Ultra High Efficiency Solar Cells for Space Applications
Abstract:Eclipse Energy Systems proposes to optimize its visibly transparent metal-like self- structured conductor with plasmonic waveguide effect (VisTEC™) technology as a such a superior, low cost conductor for solar cells. The Eclipse visible transparent conductor is tailor-able for most types of PV, providing enhanced efficiency through a variety of properties. The Eclipse transparent conductor is a self structured nanomaterial with plasmonic waveguide nano-wires providing increased surface area and has metal-like conductance while maintaining dielectric like transparency. We feel that our VisTEC™ technology will give multi-junction solar cell efficiency improvement over metal based and indium-tin based conductors and help achieve the >37% target. The core technology has been flown in space where it showed excellent wear characteristics while deployed in the space vacuum environment. As a transparency window the coating can be optimized for most any type of PV cell thus Eclipse believes that this comprehensive program not only addresses the immediate goals of this solicitation but the overall Air Force goal to introduce a new generation of lighter and more powerful solar cell arrays by 2010. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the program objectives will result in the development of a family of easily processed, VisTEC covered photovoltaic cells displaying high photovoltaic efficiency at low cost. The VisTEC layer can be tuned for absorption and operation at UV, visible and infrared wavelengths as the surface plasmon effect increases the local electromagnetic field and affects the center frequency and efficiency of electron –hole generation. The photovoltaics will be used to meet individual Soldier energy requirements, communications, building and facility energy requirements and space-based electric power systems. The nanostructured surface Plasmon based TEC added to III-V photovoltaics will be brought to market through the establishment of strategic alliances with DoD prime contractors and commercial alternative energy firms. In particular, the defense- and space-related uses of the technology will be addressed with contractors concerned reducing logistics burdens in troop and equipment deployment. Space-based systems will be brought to market through contractual arrangements with firms working with the Department of Energy, Department of Defense and NASA.

Epitaxial Laboratory, Inc.
25 Tiana Place
Dix Hills, NY 11746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 508-0060
Jie Piao
AF 09-080      Awarded: 4/2/2010
Title:Ultra High Efficiency Multi Junction Solar Cells for Space Applications
Abstract:Anticipated future space-based mission capabilities will include high-powered platforms supporting high-bandwidth communication. To supply power to these missions higher efficiency solar cells can reduce the mass, area, stowed volume and the cost of the solar arrays. ELI propose to develop Ultra high efficiency multi junction solar cells for >37% AM0 efficiency using novel design and growth approaches. In phase I, we will demonstrate single junction lattice matched device. Phase I work will establish base for >37% AM0 efficiency that will be realized in follow on Phase II work. We propose both Monolithic and Hybrid approach to achieve the proposed results. BENEFIT: High performance, cost effective solar cells and modules have many applications in both military and commercial sectors. These applications include but are not limited to space craft, satellites, submarines, electrical vehicles, residential cogenerators, and many remote field units. Many U.S. companies are interested in high performance, cost effective solar cells and modules, including aerospace industries, utility firms, auto makers, defense industries, and many others.

Magnolia Solar Inc.
52-B Cummings Park Suite 311
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 497-2900
Roger E. Welser
AF 09-080      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Thin, Flexible, Quantum-Structured Solar Cells
Abstract:The epitaxial liftoff of multi-junction structures provides a means to build photovoltaic devices that are flexible, light weight, and highly efficient. However, current approaches to increasing the AM0 efficiency of multi-junction structures are reaching practical limitations due to the complexity of the device design. The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop and validate innovative designs based upon third generation photovoltaic device concepts. By combining wide and narrow band gap material in one p- n junction, quantum structured solar cells can increase the current and the voltage output of each of the subcells within a multi-junction solar cell. The short-term focus of this SBIR project will be on using quantum structures to enhance the performance of InGaP-based solar cells typically used as the top subcell in multi-junction structures. Ultimately our approach promises to provide a pathway for obtaining, thin, flexible, single-junction solar cells with AM0 efficiency approaching 40%. BENEFIT: Light weight and highly efficient solar cells are needed to maximize the power generating capability of space platforms. Ground-based defense applications can also require photovoltaic power arrays capable of operating over a wide range of temperature and solar spectrum conditions. Conventional multijunction solar cells can provide high conversion efficiencies, but only under limited environmental conditions. The objective of this SBIR program is to develop a flexible yet ultra-high efficient solar cell that can approach 40% efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. The technology developed during this program is expected to have immediate market opportunities for defense applications The SBIR project described here is also part of a larger effort to realize the ultimate objective of third generation photovoltaics, namely ultra-high conversion efficiency at low costs. The wider operating conditions enabled by single-junction quantum solar cells could substantially enhance the overall performance of terrestrial concentrator photovoltaic systems. This technology could thus accelerate the adoption of photovoltaics into the renewable energy market to address the world’s growing energy needs without degrading the environment. In addition to its potential commercial value and social benefits, this SBIR program will enhance the technical understanding of quantum well devices.

Advanced Science and Novel Technology
27 Via Porto Grande
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 377-6029
Vladimir Bratov
AF 09-081      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Rapid Radiation Hardened Prototyping of Obsolescent Military Satellite Microelectronics
Abstract:Innovative methodologies for rapid design, fabrication, characterization, and qualification of radiation hardened (RH) space microelectronics are required to minimize disruption of satellite programs by obsolete parts. The replacement parts must be pin-to-pin and functionally compatible with the obsolete components. Full-custom components satisfy those requirements, but must be individually qualified which drastically increases cost, development time, and requires experienced engineering resources. To address the outlined requirements, we propose to develop a novel methodology for rapid replacement of obsolete components based on a pre-qualified RH library that includes 1.8V CMOS standard logic cells and functional blocks, as well as unique self-adaptable high-voltage IOs and efficient signal voltage level converters. All components utilize proprietary annular field-effect transistors designed in a commercial technology. This combination provides a universal interface to CMOS circuits with supply voltages from 1.8V to 5V while supporting data rates up to 1Gb/s within the temperature range of -40ºC to +125ºC and delivering a complete elimination of latch-up conditions and TID tolerance in excess of 2MRad. A possibility of the metal-programmable gate array design approach based on the proposed library will be investigated. A test circuit of medium complexity will be synthesized to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology. BENEFIT: A fully qualified RH library operating at the wide temperature range with self-adaptable high- voltage IOs proved in fabrication of test chips will allow for a rapid replacement of obsolete components in space-oriented and ground-based electronic equipment. The design period of replacement parts can be reduced to several weeks and even days depending on the required chip complexity, while the time-consuming qualification procedures will be also replaced by simple functionality tests. The gate array design approach may further speed-up the development process due to the utilization of pre- fabricated front-end-of-line structures. The developed techniques will also significantly speed-up the development of new components for both military and commercial space applications.

AET, Inc.
1900 S. Harbor City Blvd. Suite 225
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 727-0328
Glenn T. Hess
AF 09-081      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Rapid Radiation Hardened Prototyping of Obsolescent Military Satellite Microelectronics
Abstract:In this program AET, Inc. will perform research and development with the objective of developing the capability to rapidly fabricate substitutes of radiation hardened microcircuits for use in future military satellites that may become obsolete during the acquisition cycle. The object is to develop a methodology for rapid prototyping of these obsolescent radiation hardened military microelectronics. We call this the Rapid Rad-Hard Prototyping Methodology. The outcome of this proposed SBIR program will be to minimize the impact of cost and schedule disruptions from obsolete parts. Special attention is being given to ensuring the part will work within the power supply range of the obsolete part, and will meet the input/output voltage and current requirements of circuits with which it communicates. Attention is also being given to speed compatibility with the obsolete and qualification of the replacement part. AET, Inc. is uniquely qualified to perform this work because of the long experience that its engineers and consultants have in military integrated circuit design and development with emphasis on radiation effects. In addition, AET, Inc. has developed a relationship with Texas Instruments to be both an engineering resource and silicon foundry for both Phase I and Phase II of this project. BENEFIT: The Phase I program proposed by AET, Inc. will produce an initial methodology for designing replacement parts for obsolete radiation hardened IC’s. This will have obvious benefits for commercial applications which also face the issue of obsolescence of electronic parts.

American Semiconductor, Inc.
3100 S. Vista Ave., Suite 230
Boise, ID 83705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 336-2773
David A. Roberts
AF 09-082      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Ultra Low Power, High Performance Microprocessor Core for Military and Space Applications
Abstract:For Phase I, an ultra low power, high performance microprocessor core using a combination of double-gated and independent double-gated Flexfet™ SOI CMOS technology from American Semiconductor will be designed to address the requirements of military and space communication systems. High integration feasibility using Flexfet technologies followed by confirmation of the power and performance improvements are the goals of the research. An ultra low power microprocessor core with high performance will demonstrate the high levels of integration necessary for growing complexity of communication systems. For these electronic systems, the energy requirements define their size, weight and endurance which limit mission capabilities. For minimum energy consumption, digital logic and memories must operate efficiently with lower supply voltage. American Semiconductor’s Flexfet process is ideally suited for the design of ultra low power devices. Flexfet transistors provide a wide range of dynamic threshold voltage adjustment which can reduce power by allowing selection of the optimum supply and threshold voltage combination to meet the performance goals of the system. The Flexfet technology provides an innovative solution for superior environmental characteristics to meet temperature and radiation tolerance requirements with ability to fine tune the power and performance for high levels of integration like a microprocessor. BENEFIT: The need for dramatic breakthroughs in the area of ultra low power electronics is crucial for continued advancement in functionality, cost, and efficiency across the spectrum of commercial, medical, space and military applications. The need for lower power, higher performance, and more environmentally friendly microelectronics is applicable in virtually every electronic product. American Semiconductor’s independently double-gated SOI CMOS fabrication process can provide breakthrough advancement in ultra low power microelectronic designs. These advancements enable the development of future commercial, medical, space, and military products that will save and improve lives in all private and public sectors. One of the key challenges facing highly integrated electronics is the reduction of power consumption in state-of-the-art CMOS processes. Minimum energy operation is an important requirement for a wide variety of critical systems including communications, sensors, and portable applications. Unfortunately, achieving ultra low power electronics with high performance in state-of- the-art single gate CMOS technologies is becoming increasingly difficult. Barriers to this goal include subthreshold slope, transistor leakage, and process variation. American Semiconductor’s Flexfet™ double-gated (optimal subthreshold slope of 60mV/dec) and independently double-gated (dynamic Vt adjustment) technology directly addresses these barriers and allows a step function improvement in low power design of highly integrated digital logic and memory circuits. Any new ultra low power electronics technology must be successfully commercialized to insure technology availability to defense programs, provide a stable supply base, and benefit from on-going development to sustain the

ODIS
Three Corporate Drive
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Jianhong Cai
AF 09-082      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:An Optoelectronic Ultra Low Power RAM
Abstract:The digital signal processing and static memory is currently dominated exclusively by CMOS technology with the 6-T cell implementing all static memory. CMOS is the only VLSI technology. However, CMOS is near the end of its scaling potential and it has a severe liability for space applications due to a weakness to radiation. Further, the 6T cell is relatively area and power consumptive and falls well short of the requirements for next generation satellites. ODIS proposes an optoelectronic solution based upon a monolithic technology platform for O and E devices. A key element in the device group is the thyristor which has both laser and detector functions. The thyristor has a very low power storage mode that enables a single device memory cell that may be dynamic or a static memory cell. The dynamic version offers the lowest possible power of any known semiconductor memory. Both the read and write operations are performed optically with on-chip light sources enabling very high speed and high density memory arrays. In addition to the ultra-low power memory , the thyristor also enables a low power logic gate. In this SBIR, ODIS will demonstrate the first integrated low power dynamic ram and logic cell BENEFIT: The digital processor market is several billion dollars with steady growth potential based upon an expending PC industry. As CMOS is constrained by power and speed , the opportunity for GaAs based circuits is significant. The wireless industry is already using all of the GaAs amplifiers that are produced. One can therefore expect a market opportunity for GaAs based memory products with large up-side potential. Digital products can now be added to a growing number of markets addressed by integrated optoelectronics including AD converters, imager products, parallel optical data links, optical interface circuits, phased array receivers and other markets currently dominated by Si.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Todd Grimes
AF 09-082      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Ultra Low Power - Rad-Hard SRAM
Abstract:Affordable satellite communications support for tomorrow’s warfighter is of utmost importance. As a result, the payloads for military communication satellite are likely to grow in size, weight, and complexity with greater levels of power compensation. Therefore, the Air Force is interested in the exploration of more power efficient communications processing microelectronics with enhanced performance, while remaining within the space and weight (lift) limits of a Medium Launch Vehicle. Therefore, the Air Force is interested in the development of power efficient, reliable, high speed, Single Event Effect (SEE) immune memory and/or logic devices capable of operating with a supply voltage of 2.5 volts or less to reduce power requirements and to withstand a variety of harsh environmental effects from long term Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO), along with a variety of additional requirements.. As result, we are planning to demonstrate an Ultra Low Power (ULP) SRAM architecture integrated with an innovative radiation hardening techniques in the Phase I program. The ULP SRAM will be designed to support both high performance and ULP modes of operation. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of our innovative ULP/Rad-Hard SRAM architecture. In Phase II, we will optimize the designs developed in Phase I and then fabricate “prototype” devices, which will be thoroughly evaluated for meeting the ULP and rad-hard performance requirements. Development of a ULP/Rad-Hard SRAM device is paramount to fulfill military (and other agencies) needs in support of communication satellites, avionics, and ground terminals, which can also be applied to equivalent commercial applications.

Clever Fellows Innovation Consortium
302 10th St.
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 272-3565
Phil Spoor
AF 09-083      Awarded: 3/21/2010
Title:Improved Cryogenic Cooling Technology: Low Jitter, Low Mass on Gimbal
Abstract:We propose an extension of our patented Flexibly-Attached Remote (FAR) acoustic- Stirling coldhead technology to multi-stage, multi-point cooling of gimbal-mounted electro- optical space payloads. Acoustic-Stirling (sometimes called Stirling ''pulse-tube'') is sealed, valveless, and oilless for extreme robustness. CFIC-Qdrive has developed means to practically separate the coldhead (zero moving parts) from the more massive (and vibrating) driver by up to 2 meters of flexible line, to one or more heads on a common driver, with little or no efficiency penalty. We have demonstrated 77K capacities in terrestrial FAR coolers sized from 10W to over 600W (3 parallel 200W heads). An experimental 2-stage head on our balanced twin-motor driver has reached 13K. In this proposal, we will simulate, design, and evaluate 2-stage FAR acoustic-Stirling coolers for both 2W@40K+20W@85K and 12W@110K+20W@170K; to determine the optimal configurations, evaluate the on-gimbal mass reduction and the total system mass; measure net vibration forces in present terrestrial implementations as a baseline for space versions; and produce recommendations for prototype development and measures of performance and residual jitter-causing vibrations, on selected sensor platform in Phase II. BENEFIT: Cooling with zero moving parts on gimbal; reduced jitter and on-gimbal mass; Higher cooling capacity (by adaptation of scalable Qdrive cooler architecture to space EO loads); Expanded applicability of reliable Qdrive FAR coolers to lower temperatures via 2-stage development (useful for MRI, HTS power, and SQUID instruments).

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Jeffrey J. Breedlove
AF 09-083      Awarded: 6/9/2010
Title:A 10-20 K Cryocooler for Cooling Electro-Optical Payloads
Abstract:Advanced space-borne infrared detectors require cooling at temperatures of 10 to 20 K. Cooling loads for these detectors will range from 0.25 W to 1.0 W at the primary load site, with additional loads at higher temperatures. A multistage cooler, capable of cooling multiple loads, will offer large potential gains in system efficiency and weight. Turbomachine-based Brayton cryocoolers are ideal candidates for these missions because they are highly efficient, lightweight, vibration-free, adaptable to multiple stages, and have long maintenance-free lifetimes. State-of-the-art technology exists or is under development for all primary cryocooler components. During this program, we propose to build and test a two-stage 10 to 20 K cryocooler that demonstrates the performance benefits of the technology. During the Phase I project, we plan to obtain key operational and performance data for one of the primary cryocooler components. During the Phase II project, we plan to configure and test the cryocooler at cold load temperatures as low as 10 K. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this program will result in the demonstration of a two-stage turbo-Brayton cryocooler at 10 K. This type of cryocooler is ideal for cooling applications in space-based surveillance and missile-defense systems. Government-funded scientific applications include space-based infrared telescopes. Commercial applications include communication satellites, superconducting instruments, hypercomputers, and Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs).

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mark V. Zagarola
AF 09-083      Awarded: 3/19/2010
Title:A High-Performance, High Capacity Turboalternator for Cooling Electro-Optical Payloads
Abstract:Future Department of Defense (DoD) space-borne electro-optical payloads will require reliable, efficient, and lightweight cryocoolers for sensor cooling. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are ideal candidates for these payloads. The technology is reliable and space proven with one unit having provided over 6 years of successful operations on the Hubble Space Telescope without any change in performance. Recent advances in component technologies have dramatically reduced the mass and increased the efficiency of turbo-Brayton cryocoolers. Current turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are comparable in mass and efficiency with competing cryocooler technologies at modest loads and higher, and they have the inherent integration benefits of negligible vibration emittance and the ability to cool distributed loads and loads distant from the heat rejection site with minimal performance penalties. During this program, we will develop a high performance turboalternator, a critical cryocooler component that will enable landmark reductions in cryocooler input power and overall payload mass. BENEFIT: The result of this program will be an advanced component for turbo-Brayton cryocoolers. The resulting cryocooler addresses the near-term needs for the Space Tracking and Surveillance System and the Third Generation Infrared Surveillance programs and will be applicable to future space-based surveillance and missile-defense systems. Scientific applications include space-based infrared telescopes. Commercial applications include communication satellites and high-temperature superconducting devices.

Iris Technology Corporation
PO Box 5838
Irvine, CA 92616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 975-8410
Carl Kirkconnell
AF 09-083      Awarded: 3/19/2010
Title:Improved Cryogenic Cooling Technology
Abstract:This activity will significantly reduce the complexity and recurring costs of modular electronics used to operate cryocoolers and other servomechanism drive systems for space applications. With this approach, flight schedules can be compressed due to the availability of appropriate modular hardware. This study will further yield a complete, quantitative understanding of how requirements drive cryocooler electronics cost, which will facilitate proper requirements tailoring to provide best value for future acquisitions. BENEFIT: Significant benefits will accrue to any DoD program office using cryocoolers for space-based infrared sensor payloads. The propose activity will immediately enable the long life, low cost Raytheon Dual Use Cryocooler System. In general, the developed cryocooler electronics will provide best value for any cryocooler system. The focus on cost and complexity is particularly supportive of Responsive Space in that both cost and schedule reductions are strongly enabled. In addition to the Raytheon and cryocooler applications, commercialization will extend to the telemetry and drive subsystems independently.

Microelectronics Research Development Corporation
4775 Centennial Boulevard, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 294-1962
John Bailey
AF 09-084      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Low Power, Radiation Hardened Embedded Memory Compiler
Abstract:Micro-RDC will develop a low power, radiation hardened memory compiler suitable for use in current and future satellite missions. The memory compiler will generate embedded memory blocks hardened against Total Ionizing Dose effects, Single Event Upsets, Single Event Latch-up, and Single Event Transients. The memory compiler supports a variety of different attributes including word length, aspect ratio, and memory types for several foundry processes and feature sizes to meet various application and radiation requirements. The IBM 90nm 9SF and 9LP (Low Power) CMOS processes are supported to provide a MegaRAD level Radiation Hardened-By-Design solution in a standard commercial foundry. The memory compiler provides the flexibility to lower Total Ionizing Dose tolerance of the design to gain higher performance with smaller area penalties in these processes. These embedded SRAM blocks have been fabricated and verified to meet the radiation hardened levels of this solicitation. The IBM 45nm 12SOI process is also supported to provide an advanced deep sub-micron SOI commercial foundry solution. For a hardened by process solution the memory compiler supports the BAE Systems Radiation Hardened RH15 CMOS process. The Micro-RDC compiler will supply all of the Computer Aided Design (CAD) files required to integrate with standard ASIC design flows. BENEFIT: High performance ASICs are expected to provide most of the processing functions in advanced satellite systems. These devices require large amounts of on-chip memory to prevent memory bandwidth limitations from stalling the processors. In the commercial realm, memory compilers are used to quickly and automatically design embedded memory blocks with a variety of different attributes including word size, aspect ratio, memory type, access time, and power dissipation. ASICs for space applications are not supported by standard commercial memory compilers. This is due to the complications associated with developing compilers to incorporate the unique aspects of space electronics such as radiation hardness, low power, and reliability. The Low Power, Radiation Hardened Memory Compiler developed under this effort provides a cost effective means for system designers to develop Radiation Hardened ASICs for space systems. Micro-RDC will enhance and maintain the Radiation Hardened Embedded Memory Compiler as fabrication technologies advance funding these activities out of commercial sales. This will provide an up-to-date compiler independent of fabrication facility that keeps to date with cost-effective volume of scale manufacturing for Radiation Hardened Embedded Memory.

Aeronix Inc
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd. Suite 200
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-1671
Jeff Fisher
AF 09-086      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Compact Type 1 Space Encryption Hardware
Abstract:Historically, military strategic satellite systems have been large in physical size and designed for lifetimes of up 10 years or more. To prevent unauthorized access to these systems their communication links are typically protected by Communications security (COMSEC) equipment. These box level security components are referred to as encryption control units (ECUs) or End Crypto Units (ECUs). Even the smallest and simplest of these ECU’s tend to be expensive ($50,000 to $100,000 plus), somewhat large in size (50 to 100 cubic inches), support data rates of 100’s of Mbps and consume significant power (multiple watts). Additionally, these ECU’s must meet very stringent Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) numbers (500,000 to 1,000,000 hours) and radiation environment numbers- due to the long mission life and the various orbits they may enter. As a new class of satellites (SmallSat, CubeSat, NanoSat, etc.) has emerged over the last several years, the COMSEC equipment required to provide this essential protection function has not kept pace with the corresponding the size weight and power (SWAP) reduction of this new class of satellites. This SBIR will address the unique requirements associated with this class of satellites. By tailoring the ECU to the specific environments that these satellites are exposed to and account for their shorter lifetime and radiation exposure it is possible to incorporate innovative design and development concepts that can provide small size, lightweight, low power, and low cost security solutions. BENEFIT: The space crypto technology developed under this SBIR benefits the emerging class of smaller satellites in the commercial community as well as the needs of the DoD operationally responsive space intitiative.

Innoflight, Inc.
5850 Oberlin Dr., Suite 340
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 638-1580
Jonathan Wolff
AF 09-086      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:The Innoflight Encryption ASIM
Abstract:The proposed effort will develop the architecture for a miniature encryption unit that can be used for multiple small satellite applications. First, the encryption unit can be used to provide Type-1-certified communications between a spacecraft bus and external entities such as ground stations or other spacecraft. For this application, the unit can be used as a HAIPE IS compliant router for providing secure IP connectivity between the ground segment and a network of on-orbit spacecraft. Second, the unit can be used to provide secure communications within a plug-and-play spacecraft avionics system. In this capacity, the encryption unit can serve either as a standalone appliqué sensor interface module (ASIM), or it can be form the core of an ASIM that includes additional functionality as required for specific spacecraft applications. The encryption unit designed in this effort will be smaller, lighter, and require less electrical power than other existing encryption products. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits include: 1) Provide a smaller, lighter, lower power, and lower cost encryption unit than currently available for small spacecraft 2) Provide a turnkey encryption solution for spacecraft external communications 3) Provide a turnkey encryption solution for internal spacecraft communications within a plug-and-play architecture 4) Reduce small spacecraft integration time and cost by supporting the SPA plug-and-play architecture 5) Enable the use of established IP networks for lower cost operations. Commercial applications include: 1) Standalone secure encryption unit or ASIM for use on a small spacecraft bus 2) Digital electronics core hardware and software for use within a custom ASIM 3) FPGA IP core for use within a custom ASIM 4) DoD Operationally Responsive Space and CubeSat missions

The Athena Group, Inc.
408 West University Avenue Suite 306
Gainesville, FL 32601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Jonathon D. Mellott
AF 09-086      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Compact Type 1 Space Encryption Hardware
Abstract:Space systems routinely employ cryptographic protection of their communications links. This is necessary, not only to protect the confidentiality and integrity of information transmitted by or via a spacecraft, but also to protect command and control functions for the spacecraft. Cryptographic services in a spacecraft are generally provided by dedicated box-level encryption control units (ECUs). ECUs currently employed suffer from excessive size, weight, and power consumption, which presents a significant integration obstacle for small spacecraft. This Phase I project will apply a platform-based design methodology for the development of an advanced high-performance, low-power, small form factor plug-and-play ECU suitable for employment on space vehicles ranging from tactical satellites down to CubeSats. The size, weight, and power benefits provided by this ECU will conserve resources that may be used to improve payload functionality, mission lifetime, or other objectives, while plug-and-play will enable dramatically shorter and less expensive system integration. BENEFIT: Athena will market the ECU product and technology to military and commercial satellite producers. Applications for this technology range from large multi-payload satellites to the smallest experimental space vehicles, and even interplanetary science missions. The ECU technology may also be adapted for terrestrial secure communications applications.

Vulcan Wireless Inc.
5937 Darwin Court Suite 105
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 602-0606
Kevin Lynaugh
AF 09-086      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Compact Type 1 Space Encryption Hardware
Abstract:This project proposes a small, lightweight, low power type 1 encryption/decryption module that supports NSA Suite B (includes AES), and is designed to allow a cryptographically secure networking with multiple encrypted channels. BENEFIT: Some of the encryption code and hardware developed under this program can be applied to a FIPS140-2 certified commercial encryption module. Additionally, cryptographic capabilities are a key enabling feature in order to sell more software defined radio communications solutions.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Richard Adams
AF 09-087      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Hybrid Threat and Anomaly Diagnostics for Spacecraft Autonomy
Abstract:Barron Associates Incorporated proposes development of a hybrid satellite threat and anomaly diagnostics system that leverages the advantages of constraint-based inference engines as well as specialized quantitative model-based and process history-based techniques. The hybrid methodology incorporates the output of tailored sensor classification and fault isolation routines as “smart monitors,” providing accuracy for critical subsystems. These monitors feed a general inference engine that fuses the information with behavioral representations of other components in a hierarchical, scalable model. We propose applying this approach to a near-term flight demonstration on an Air Force satellite. In Phase I, we will make modifications to the inference engine necessary to incorporate the smart monitors. At the same time, we will develop tailored diagnostics and behavioral models for the mission. This initial effort will enable software implementation and on-orbit testing in Phase II. BENEFIT: Barron Associates will pursue commercialization of the proposed technology through a three-pronged approach. First, the effort will open consulting services and contract R&D opportunities for providing satellite manufacturers with tailored diagnostics. Second, by enabling “smart monitors” to be integrated into a general inference engine, the program will make our neural network software and FDI tools accessible to a broader customer base and a wider range of applications. Finally, we will pursue direct opportunities to commercialize advanced diagnostics hardware in spin-off ventures that leverage the algorithms developed in the proposed program.

Data Fusion & Neural Networks, LLC
1643 Hemlock Wy
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 824-3131
Derek Surka
AF 09-087      Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title:Autonomous Space Systems
Abstract:On-orbit assets are essential for current and future mission success; however there are numerous types of attack that threaten their safety. To protect these assets and ensure their continued operation, these threats must be detected as quickly as possible so that appropriate responses can be taken. The objective of the proposed work is to develop a prototype event detection system that demonstrates complete autonomous onboard threat detection and situation assessment. The goal is to make sense of all the different sources of information available, from raw state of health data and dedicated sensor outputs to ground inputs and the output results of other detection systems. The proposed system will combine higher-level fusion and situation assessment software with automated threat signature discovery and learning techniques to provide the level of real- time event detection and situation assessment that is necessary to protect on-orbit assets. A modular design will enable the system to be re-used on multiple assets with various input data sources. The ultimate objective is to integrate the system into the AFRL Autonomous Mission Manager for future on-orbit demonstration. BENEFIT: The modularity of the threat detection and situation assessment software enables it to be marketed to all satellite developers and end-users who are interested in protecting their assets from external threats, both natural and man-made. Additionally, since the software will be integrated into the Autonomous Mission Manager, a complete protection system can be offered to these customers. This increases the probability of commercialization success. The primary markets for the threat detection system are military and national security space since their assets are obvious targets for attack. Commercial and civil space customers could also benefit from the system for space weather event detection. Additionally, as the Department of Defense makes greater use of commercial satellites for communications and imagery, these satellites will become targets for offensive counterspace actions. The proposed system can help protect these assets as well.

Princeton Satellite Systems
6 Market St. Suite 926
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-9606
Stephanie Thomas
AF 09-087      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Autonomous Threat Detection for Space Systems
Abstract:The Air Force requires autonomous flight software threat and anomaly detection and isolation algorithms to support the process of on-board event detection, planning, and task execution in order to enhance satellite responsiveness. We propose developing a sensor suite and estimation algorithms for autonomously detecting and tracking an orbital threat onboard a tactical satellite. The algorithms will make use of a hemispherical field of view multi-spectral telescope using large format APS sensors and a laser for target illumination. This will provide sensing in all lighting conditions. The proposed sensor would be on an articulated base allowing for on-orbit calibration and tracking of moving targets without rotating the spacecraft. The algorithms would integrate these measurements with measurements from other sources such as on-board radar, ground based radar and telescopes. The package would include Unscented Kalman Filters for state estimation and detection filters for maneuver detection. BENEFIT: This proposal is addressing Space Superiority and Responsive Space missions. The initial target customer for this technology is the Space Superiority Office of SMC. The anticipated benefit is specific recommendations and sensor requirements for improved space situational awareness and rapid threat detection. A conceptual design of a new hemispherical multispectral sensor will be completed. Threat state estimates are a necessary input to any evasive maneuvering in the event of an impending collision. Therefore this innovation makes an autonomous onboard collision avoidance system feasible for a range of spacecraft. The associated technologies would be applicable to many NASA missions particularly those that are in deep space where bandwidth limitations are inhibitors to responsiveness. The sensors proposed provide excellent space situational awareness for multivehicle manned or robotics missions, for instance satellite servicing and docking.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
11118 Quail Pass
San Antonio, TX 78249
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 834-3475
Geoff Crowley
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Modular Cubesat Architectures and Components
Abstract:This Phase-I proposal applies Plug-and-Play concepts to the development of a radically new instrument, the so-called CubeSat-Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) that will acquire 135.6 nm nightglow measurements with optical design, thermal management, and power control systems specifically constrained for a nadir-oriented 3U CubeSat bus. Phase-I deliverables will be payload designs that transition the CTIP design to be compatible with the current standard practices and interfaces established by the Plug-n- Play community, while still maintaining its small size and power. Specifically, we will: 1. Develop a CTIP proto-flight board conceptual design with hardware and software architectures that are mutually consistent with the Plug-n-Play communication interface standards and the established CubeSat mass, fit/form, and power resources; 2. Explore host computer selection and specifications for a CubeSat satellite bus that are compatible with the Plug-n-Play standards; 3. Explore optical and photometer design enhancements that will provide greater flexibility and modularity in the use of CTIP on CubeSats. The proposal team includes recognized experts in each relevant domain who have worked successfully together on various projects for many years. Phase-II will result in a nearly launch-ready instrument and satellite bus. The instrument has immediate operational mission capabilities in the domain of Space Situational Awareness. BENEFIT: As a community, we are at a Tipping Point, where the needs and capabilities of different players have become aligned. The new field of Space Plug-and-play Avionics (SPA) has developed in concert with Operationally Responsive Space, and this proposal describes an opportunity to apply some of the PnP concepts to an existing Cubesat-rated instrument so that it becomes relevant for an Operationally Responsive Space mission to measure global ionospheric electron densities that can be used for ionospheric specification. The instrument has immediate operational mission capabilities in the domain of Space Situational Awareness. It is also suitable for scientific missions by various government agencies including NASA and NSF.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Thomas Roy
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/16/2010
Title:Self-Powered 1 mN Thruster for CubeSats
Abstract:CubeSats are becoming more appealing for military applications due to continuing miniaturization of electronics, providing opportunities for distributed space assets and increased security through redundancy. In order for CubeSats to firmly establish relevance, however, they must be able to perform the same tasks as their larger counterparts, while keeping costs and deployment time low. Electrospray propulsion is a form of electric propulsion that uniquely suited for CubeSat operation due to the low power, high specific impulse, high efficiency, and low-pressure of the liquid propellant. These characteristics translate into exceptionally high dekta-V capabilities, enabling game-changing maneuverability and mobility. Busek will deliver a self-powered 1mN electrospray thruster that can deliver 200m/s delta-V to a 3kg CubeSat. Because of the heritage of this technology, the Phase I effort will focus on miniaturization of durable, reliable electronics as well as the propellant management system. Phase II funding would enable a space-qualified propulsion system. The resulting package can enable CubeSats to undertake a new class of mission: formation flying, plane changes, orbit changes, de- orbit and drag makeup. The flight unit will consume approximately 10W and 1.25U volume. BENEFIT: The result of additional funding will be a fully functional, self-powered electrospray thruster that fits within a 1.25U volume envelope. This power / propulsion module will impose no power burden on the host CubeSat, and can supply additional power to the main CubeSat bus. A larger prototype of this technology without electronics is being delivered to a government customer. Other initial customers are expected to be the AFRL and NRO. The near-future (end of 2009) is expected to witness the launch of the Colony program, the NRO effort to launch multiple CubeSats (~3L at 3kg) to reduce platform cost and gain heritage. If this vision is successful, CubeSats will be used increasingly by the warfighter in order to provide intelligence rapidly, effectively, and at a significantly reduced cost. A self-powered high delta-V propulsion module would enable these CubeSats to expand in versatility and relevance by enabling them to undertake new missions, ranging from formation flying, plane and altitude changes. Deorbiting space assets in a controlled manner, for example, is an increasing concern for space agencies. The propulsion system developed under this effort is small enough to be integrated into such a 3U CubeSat, and can effectively deorbit a CubeSat in an 800km circular orbit to an elliptical orbit with a 200km perigee in 57 days. This electrospray package is the only known technology that promises to make this possible in a controlled, reliable manner. Although deorbiting maneuvers are critical to sustainable operations in space, the high delta-V package enables other missions for these CubeSats. For example, CubeSat observation missions using a CCD can improve resolution for a given optics package by reducing the distance to the object being observed. To maintain a 300km circular orbit, such a propulsion system operated during 15% of the orbit could maintain orbit for at least 46 days. Further, the electrospray thruster can enable a 1.5 degree plane change in a

Honeybee Robotics
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(646) 459-7809
Kiel Davis
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Modular CMG Steering Logic Controller for CubeSats
Abstract:Small spacecraft, particularly CubeSat nanosatellites, are gaining increasing attention as a potential cost-effective platforms for rapid validation of new technologies, work force development and even missions of military or intelligence utility if a higher degree of agility can be achieved. To increase CubeSat agility, Honeybee is seeking to develop a modular miniature control moment gyroscope (CMG) technology. The proposed effort focuses on developing a flexible, PnP-compatible CMG Steering Law Controller (SLC). BENEFIT: According to recent studies, improving CubeSat agility will significantly increase their utility by enhancing data collection, power collection and communication. The proposed new technology will benefit CubeSat users seeking to validate new technology, educate and train personnel or students and even execute missions of science and military utility.

Microcosm, Incorporated
4940 W. 147th St.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 219-2700
Tom Bauer
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:CubeSat Deorbit Module
Abstract:Microcosm, with consultants HRP Systems and CrossTrac Engineering, proposes to develop a plug-and-play (PnP), low-cost CubeSat deorbit module for end-of-life CubeSat disposal. This type of system is essential if NanoSat capabilities are to be leveraged effectively without increasing the danger from space debris. The baseline will be a 1U cube for deorbit of a 3U CubeSat, which will include a solid rocket for the deorbit burn, along with a magnetometer, optional coarse Sun sensor and torque coils to enable spin- up and deorbit phasing. Reliance on PnP standards will allow for the use of dedicated components or sharing of the primary CubeSat avionics. The initial focus will be on low- cost with modest autonomy and an emphasis on PnP. Computations for angular momentum steering and deorbit phasing will be assumed to be ground-based. However, integrated solutions with additional autonomy for CubeSats with on-board GN&C capability as well as scaling to larger CubeSats will also be explored. Phase I will focus on the system design and simulations to determine feasibility and performance. Phase II work will be expanded to include fabrication and ground-based testing of a prototype deorbit module and fabrication of a flight demonstration unit for integration with missions of opportunity. BENEFIT: The proposed low-cost, PnP deorbit module would have applicability to many future Air Force NanoSat and CubeSat related missions. Numerous missions utilizing single or multiple CubeSats/NanoSats are being contemplated for science, tech-demo and operational applications. Additionally, the deorbit module has great potential for application to other government and commercial CubeSat/NanoSat missions operating in LEO. Availability of a low-cost, robust, and operationally straightforward solution to the deorbit problem will be key to significant growth in the CubeSat/NanoSat market for both government and commercial systems.

MMA Design LLC
PO Box 7804
Loveland , CO 80537
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 258-7365
Thomas Jeff Harvey
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:CubeSat Advanced Power and De-orbit Module
Abstract:MMA Design proposes to develop a low cost, multifunctional Advanced Power and De- orbit System (APDM) for a 3U CubeSat. Current CubeSats have limited power generating capabilities, often with an Average Orbital Power (AOP) of 5 watts. State of the art CubeSat solar arrays presently produce 21 watts peak power. For 3U CubeSats to provide operational utility in support of the AFRL missions, more power is needed. The proposed two wing system has a peak power of 36 watts and an AOP of 22 watts, more than a 300% improvement in AOP. The proposed system functions as a solar array during its operational life and can be configured for up to 72 watts peak power in a four wing configuration. At the end of life the integral gimbal drive orients the solar array wings into a de-orbit aerobrake mode to meet DoD’s 25 year de-orbit requirement for orbits up to 700 km. The APDM has two deployable wings and a gimbal that mount to three of the six 6.5 mm external face volumes of a 3U CubeSat, complying with Cal Poly’s CubeSat Design Specification. The APDM is capable of supporting all solar cell technologies. BENEFIT: The proposed APDM will dramatically increase the orbital average power available to a 3U CubeSat payload, increasing the mission utility of CubeSats to the AFRL and other custoemrs. Additionally, it will serve to de-orbit the CubeSat at end of life to greatly improve management of space assets. The APDM can become the new CubeSat industry power standard. 1. Sun tracking allows the S/C to maintain high continuous power while simultaneously freeing the mission instruments to track an AOI, thus improving mission utility. 2. Intelligence capability and value can increase with increases in power capabilities and performance. 3. Maximizing the utility of the available volume by combining the functions of solar power and de-orbiting into one robust deployable system. 4. Rapid development and maturation of innovative power technologies leading to low cost solutions that is adaptable and scalable to other AFRL applications. 5. Advancement of key deployable and steerable solar array technologies to overcome current S/C and mission limitations. 6. A modular and scalable system design that is multi-functional. 7. A low mass and volume system to maximize the mass/volume available for payloads. 8. De-orbit capability ensures reduction in future space debris and available orbital slots. 9. The combined MMA and HBR team offer the AFRL a strong team with high innovative content for revolutionizing CubeSat technologies with high risk/reward payoffs. The AFRL can leverage our small company performance advantages in technical, schedule, and cost.

PnP Innovations, Inc
2017 Yale SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 503-1563
Donald Fronterhouse
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:SPA-S Cubesat Bus
Abstract:New smallsat concepts are gaining acceptance as viable space systems capable of providing useful, cost effective scientific and military data. These small satellites (NanoSats) range from 4 kg Cubesats to 50 kg smallsats. NanoSats have the potential to be deployed to provide a relevant capability that is greater than expected from both a capabilities and cost perspective. This proposal offers to develop a novel Cubesat bus leveraging on-going programs in plug and play avionics that can support militarily useful payloads with capabilities ranging from a full 3-axis precision stabilized bus to simpler, cheaper active and passive busses. In Phase I we will lay the foundation with hardware and software prototype demonstrations leading to a full implementation in Phase II. BENEFIT: The SPA-compliant technologies, payloads, and supporting tools that we are developing, and propose to mature and extend in capability through this SBIR possibility, are largely tailored toward the space application domain. Within the space community, we feel that the scalability and extensibility characteristics of the standards allow all of the byproducts of development to traverse a broad spectrum of missions and classes. SPA was originally conceived in response to military space needs according to a responsive space mandate. The standard addresses “pinch-points” in the development process that hinder rapid design, prototyping, and assembly of the small satellite class. As such, tactical missions flown by the Air Force, ORS, and other DoD agencies stand to gain immensely from acceptance and application of this research. NASA of course also flies small satellites in an even broader context than the U.S. military. Planetary exploration missions provide an opportunity to challenge SPA in ways that the ISR and Comm roles presented to date have not. Of course many of NASA’s needs for the near future are excellent applications for SPA-based satellites; Technology demonstrator/qualification flights in a variety of Earth orbits, earth observing missions, and space weather gathering platforms are all examples of cases where ease of integration and testing could provide significant benefit. Universities and educational affiliates clearly stand to gain from these technologies – particularly in the area of reduced cost. If the push toward more readily available low-cost solutions to avionics is successful, education will be much more capable of conducting research and contributing to the pool of technology from which AFRL can utilize.

scientific solutions inc
55 Middlesex street Unit 210
Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 251-4554
Steven Watchorn
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:A Space Plug-and-Play Spectrometer (SPNPS)
Abstract:This proposal describes the Space Plug-and-Play Spectrometer (SPNPS), a spectrometer built in support of the development of rapid-response CubeSat payloads. The goal is to have payloads which can be made to order in days or even hours, through the use of Space Plug-and-Play Avionics (SPA). The SPNPS instrument augments that goal by providing a spectrometer as plug-and-play as any electronic or mechanical component, a spectrometer which can be snapped into place and interchanged with other equivalent- size spectrometers at various wavelengths nearly as efficiently as changing boards in a computer. The spectrometer chosen for this development is the monolithic Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer, a Fourier transform interferometer requiring no moving parts, and no alignment beyond its initial laboratory assembly. A stock of monolithic SHS units for various wavelengths will be constructed, able to be pulled off the shelf at a moment''s notice, clamped, and inserted in the prospective CubeSat payload. The SPNPS is proposed for rocket exhaust plume detection, but has myriad potential uses. BENEFIT: Small size and low operating power enable the SPNPS “SpinUps” sensor to fly on any spacecraft from the smallest (CubeSat) to the largest. Because SPNPS is a relatively simple instrument, it could obtain useful data from almost any Low Earth Orbit (LEO) mission, ranging from three-axis stabilized to spinning. This versatility makes it attractive to a number of different agencies with different missions and needs, including the US Air Force (the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program), The US Navy (the Colony-I concept), NASA and NSF. The potential for CubeSat fleets and robust SPNPS units to be included on Solar System survey missions, and Mission to Planet Earth, is immense. And the NSF has recently begun CubeSat programs of its own. The SPNPS would also have use outside CubeSats, for any satellites seeking lightweight, felxible, directly constructed systems. In the private sector, three top-tier markets for SPNPS application are: (1) oil and gas exploration, (2) mineral exploration, and (3) agriculture. These markets have been selected based on relative application maturity, potential market size, and the number of existing users of multi-spectral imaging in these markets likely to expand their capabilities. Potential partners include Headwall photonics, and Telops.

Vulcan Wireless Inc.
5937 Darwin Court Suite 105
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 602-0606
Kevin Lynaugh
AF 09-088      Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title:Modular Cubesat Architectures and Components
Abstract:Due to extreme power limitations on CubeSat vehicles there is a demand for very low power footprint radios that are also flexible. This project develops a software defined radio with orbital average power below 50mW. BENEFIT: As stated in the description of this topic, CubeSats are generally viewed as being incapable of conducting serious missions of military utility. This view also applies the commercial sector. CubeSats have the potential to replace large heavy satellites, both in the military and commercial sectors, but have yet to demonstrate that capability. Any development of low power radios for a military CubeSat would be directly applicable to a commercial CubeSat. While the frequency assignment and protocol for a commercial radio would obviously be different from a military radio, the SWaP requirements would be similar.

Kigre, Inc
100 Marshland Road
Hilton Head, SC 29926
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 681-5800
John D. Myers
AF 09-089      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Component and Subsystem Development for Compact, Efficient LADAR Ranging
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of compact, efficient, radiation hardened laser technology for LADAR detection, ranging and range-gated imaging applications. Traditional laser designs exhibit modest wall plug efficiencies. They are limited in scalability, tough to miniaturize and often intolerant of space radiation. Conventional diode pumped laser designs rely heavily on coupling optics to properly transfer the pump energy into the gain element. Standard architectures such as diode end pump, diode radial array pump and fiber lasers result in numerous trade-offs in laser energy, peak power, average power, beam quality, size, weight and wall plug efficiency. High Efficiency Side Pump (HESP) Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) lasers replace elaborate and expensive systems with simpler, smaller and more straightforward designs. For example, when compared to the US Army’s Miniature Eye-safe Laser Infrared Observation Set (MELIOS) rangefinder, a comparable HESP laser occupies a about 1/8th the volume, uses an estimated 1/80th of the energy, is capable of 10x the power at half the cost. Kigre proposes to develop and integrate unique radiation hardened, athermal, 1.5um eye-safer laser gain materials and pumping architectures into compact highly efficient laser devices. BENEFIT: Direct diode side pumping of laser glass gain material reduces the need for launch and conditioning optics and the gain materials exhibit broad efficient absorption bands that provide for stable operation against pump diode wavelength shift with temperature. This allows for compact HESP laser designs that are readily scaleable in energy and average power. Compact high efficiency radiation resistant HESP laser transmitters would have potential commercial applications for use in collision avoidance, laser plasma spectroscopy, laser ignition and medicine. Military markets may include LAser Detection And Ranging (LADAR), LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), tracking, atmospheric sensing, targeting, illumination, free-space communications and laser radar. Additional applications include directed energy, long range eye-safe laser terrain mapping and laser designation.

PolarOnyx, Inc
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 245-9588
Jian Liu
AF 09-089      Awarded: 3/24/2010
Title:Efficient Broadband Fiber Laser for LADAR Ranging
Abstract:Based on our success in developing a variety of the world first commercial high power and high energy fiber laser systems and our leading technology development in pulsed fiber laser and nonlinear fiber optics, PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, a compact all fiber based high power broadband laser source covering from VIS to LWIR to meet with the requirement of the Air Force solicitation AF 09-089. A tabletop experiment will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame for proof of the concept. A compact and efficient (>20% wall plug efficiency) hardware will be delivered in Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed high power fiber laser and broadband source can be used in many applications, such as countermeasures, metrology, sensing, spectroscopy and space, aircraft, and satellite applications of LADAR systems and communications, laser weapons, and target designation and illumination. With successful development of the laser, the technology proposed by PolarOnyx will provide a vital tool to solve the existing and potential issues and merge with the huge markets including • Material processing. This includes (1) all types of metal processing such as welding, cutting, annealing, and drilling; (2)semiconductor and microelectronics manufacturing such as lithography, inspection, control, defect analysis and repair, and via drilling; (3) marking of all materials including plastic, metals, and silicon; (4) other materials processing such as rapid prototyping, desk top manufacturing, micromachining, photofinishing, embossed holograms, and grating manufacturing. • Medical equipment and biomedical instrumentation. The high power amplifier/laser can be applied to ophthalmology, refractive surgery, photocoagulation, general surgery, therapeutic, imaging, and cosmetic applications. Biomedical instruments include those involved in cells or proteins, cytometry, and DNA sequencing; laser Raman spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, and ablation; and laser based microscopes.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 927-4774
Thomas Murdock
AF 09-090      Awarded: 3/19/2010
Title:Responsive, Pre-launch and On-orbit, Electro-Optical Sensor Characterization and Calibration
Abstract:The On-Orbit calibration process for space-based electro-optical (E-O) sensors historically has required durations much longer than the 24 hours typically needed to meet Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) mission requirements. We can dramatically shorten the on-orbit calibration timelines by developing models that incorporate per-pixel response compensation models with empirically derived coefficients to correct the sensor response over the span of likely operational conditions in which the sensor will be expected to perform. We will use ground test data to empirically develop these models and the coefficients used by them to correct the sensor response as a demonstration of this approach so that the warfighter would receive calibrated data with its expected uncertainty directly from the sensor or its proximate ground station. We will verify the practicality and the utility of these models with data that was not used in the generation of the model coefficients from a prototype instrument. We will identify modifications to the standard ground testing approach of measuring response at a few (usually two or three) temperature levels or other operational parameters that are within the ‘best’ operational regime so that we have the data to extend the useful operational envelope. BENEFIT: The results of this work will be directly applicable to any sensing program that has either quick reaction timelines or undergoes changes in the sensor operating conditions during operation that are large enough to cause deviations in the calibrated data that are larger than the system performance requirements for accuracy. This work will provide the methodology to generate response correction models, a methodology for constructing these models, and a proof-of-concept demonstration that this technique is valid using actual sensor data that has been collected during ground testing.

Nova Research, Inc. DBA Nova Sensors
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mark A. Massie
AF 09-090      Awarded: 3/19/2010
Title:Programmable Infrared Scene Projector for On-Payload Sensor Characterization, Calibration and Testing
Abstract:Over the last two years, Nova Sensors has developed the next generation of Read-In Integrated Circuits (RIICs) for the Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) infrared scene projection (IRSP) community. The RIICs provide very high power to each pixel and offer higher frame rates than are currently available by any supplier. Nova Sensors proposes the use of such a device in an on-orbit assembly that provides a means for digitally stimulating the complete video signal chain for an infrared space-based infrared imaging system; the resulting system may be used for on-orbit radiometric and pointing calibration and provides an unprecedented means for providing “ground truth” data on orbit for autonomous algorithm check-out. The high power capability of the RIIC is the key. It overcomes thermal losses to atmosphere and substrate (for ground testing) and is thus able to project in ambient air. No vacuum dewar or suspended bridge structure is required. Nova has completed a 256x256 (NOVA-012) version and the 512x512 design is currently in fabrication. A 1024x1024 device is starting fabrication as well. This proposal reviews the devices and means by which such an on-payload IRSP subsystem may be incorporated into the optical system of a space-based infrared imaging system. BENEFIT: Operational testing and calibration of a complete space-based infrared imaging system is difficult and time consuming, requiring many labor intensive hours of ground support; making sense of space-based operation of the system adds complication. Nova’s approach of incorporating an actual digitally-addressable infrared scene projection device will revolutionize the means by which complex imaging systems are characterized, both on the ground and on orbit.

Space Computer Corporation
12121 Wilshire Boulevard Suite 910
Los Angeles , CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
Alan Stocker
AF 09-090      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Responsive, Pre-launch and On-orbit, Electro-Optical Sensor Characterization and Calibration
Abstract:Space Computer Corporation (SCC) proposes to address two challenging problems that arise in the operation of space-based electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor systems: (a) On-orbit refinement and maintenance of sensor calibration, and (b) Accurate geo-location of terrestrial imagery acquired from a space platform. Our proposed approach will address both key areas identified in the SBIR topic solicitation by leveraging novel scene-based algorithms and operational concepts that have been previously demonstrated for ground-based and airborne imaging systems, and have the potential to be automated in on-board processor hardware. Successful development of these methods for space-based remote sensing applications would significantly reduce the timescales required to provide high-fidelity, precisely located image products from sensors deployed for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. As the provider of the on-board sensor processor software for the recently launched TACSAT-3 ARTEMIS payload, SCC is in a unique position to address these critical issues based on our experience with real-world EO imagery acquired from a spacecraft platform, plus our first-hand knowledge of on-board data processing capabilities and constraints. BENEFIT: Successful development of these methods for space-based remote sensing applications would significantly reduce the timescales required to provide high-fidelity, precisely located image products from sensors deployed for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. Automated methods for precision pointing and geo-location calibrations is also directly applicable to existing sensor systems, such as SPIRITT, HYCAS, and COMPASS, as well as those under development, such as ACES-HY. Scene-based radiometric calibration would also apply to these and other sensors. In addition to addressing pressing needs for DoD applications, commercial use of space-based imagery for GIS applications would also present a transition opportunity for the technology developed under this SBIR program.

DR Technologies, Inc.
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 444-1864
Austin Reid
AF 09-092      Awarded: 5/4/2010
Title:Flexible Covershield for Thin Film Solar Arrays (PDRT09-031)
Abstract:DR Technologies, Inc. will begin development of a flexible covershield material capable of protecting thin film solar cells from space environments including ionizing radiation, atomic oxygen, humidity, and high voltage discharge. The covershield will be designed to maximize EOL power output after 5 years in LEO and 15 years in GEO. Phase I work will focus on two specific technology advancements that will enable a reduction in quantity and thickness of covershield layers, increasing BOL and EOL transmittance. The two technologies are transparent conductive bulk silicone and radiation hardened silicone. The conductive silicone will be developed using existing, proven materials while optimizing for spectral transmittance. The silicone will be radiation hardened using two approaches, each of which has been demonstrated previously, but can be optimized for a flexible covershield. All of the new technologies will be exposed to ionizing radiation to characterize their performance in a relevant environment. Additionally, a summarizing matrix will be created that lists critical properties of each coverglass material, allowing quick assessment of the tradeoffs of each technology. This matrix will streamline the selection of future configurations and experiments and ultimately allow rapid, informed selection of coverglass material appropriate to specific mission requirements. BENEFIT: There is an urgent need for the supply of space solar arrays with improved cost, reliability, stowability, and high specific power. A successful Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of improved covershield materials that will make such arrays possible, enabling a reduction in mass and an increase in power on orbit. As a solar array integrator and developer of flexible solar array blankets, DR Technologies is ideally positioned to quickly implement advances in coverglass technology into a space flight.

Hybrid Plastics
55 W. L. Runnels Industrial Dr.
Hattiesburg, MS 39401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(601) 544-3466
Joseph D. Lichtenhan
AF 09-092      Awarded: 3/22/2010
Title:Space and Operational Environmental Protection for Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:The recent development of colorless, transparent polyimides provides a break-out solution for the operational and environmental protection of thin multijunction solar cells. The incorporation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes into the polyimide backbone renders these systems radiation hard toward proton, electron and atomic oxygen degradation. The POSS polyimides also exhibit 5x improved impact and tear resistance relative to conventional imides. The incorporation of POSS also enables the spray application of a fully imidized coating and eliminates the post-bake procedures for conventional imide coatings. BENEFIT: Terrestrial solar cell encapsulation, encapsulants for quantum dot arrays, durable computer and pda screen coatings.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Lebzy Gonzalez
AF 09-092      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Flexible Radiation-Resistant Coatings for Space Solar Cells
Abstract:The recent development of high-efficiency photovoltaic cells that are thin enough to be rolled up has the potential to revolutionize power sources for satellites. For this potential to be realized, similarly flexible materials which serve the protective and efficiency- enhancing functions of the solar cell stack (radiation protection, thermal management, discharge protection, and anti-reflection) must be developed. Infoscitex proposes to develop a thin, flexible version of a material with high transmittance previously shown to be stable under high-energy electron and gamma ray exposure. The novel material has outstanding thermal stability, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and near-zero outgassing. BENEFIT: A thin, flexible coating that will protect IMM solar cells from the space environment.

Oxazogen, Inc.
1910 West St. Andrews Road
Midland, MI 48640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5590
Claire Hartmann-Thompson
AF 09-092      Awarded: 4/5/2010
Title:Radiation Resistant and Conformable Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Protective Coatings for Flexible Space Solar Cells
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I program will develop a flexible space solar cell coating that will lose less than 5% transmittance from 350 nm to 2000 nm after 15 years in geosynchronous orbit or 5 years in low earth orbit. The current standard space solar cell sealing material, DC-93-500, is vulnerable to proton and atomic oxygen attack, and current solar cells require rigid multilayer stacks in order to function. Oxazogen’s coatings are based upon novel patented polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) hyperbranched elastomers where the resistance of POSS to atomic oxygen attack is well-known, and where Oxazogen materials have already been demonstrated to have excellent resistance to proton, electron and UV radiation, thermal cycling, humidity, and out-gassing in space adhesive applications. The coating formulation is inexpensive, simple to apply, and has a long shelf life. Oxazogen has an established commercial partnership with EMCORE Photovoltaics, Inc., a solar cell manufacturer holding half of the global market share in space solar cells. During Phase I, Oxazogen will develop conformable POSS-hyperbranched polymer coatings formulations with excellent transmittance, thermal and mechanical properties, and EMCORE will perform radiation resistance testing. During Phase II, the coating formulations will be optimized, further qualified, and commercialized in collaboration with EMCORE. BENEFIT: The coatings developed in this Phase I SBIR will generate revenues through materials sales and patent licensing. With the increasing focus on space applications by the military and increasing emphasis by NASA on space exploration, the market for flexible multi-junction space solar cells will continue to assume increasing importance, and the growth of the market is expected to accelerate in the years to come. The market is driven by an ever-increasing demand for lower weight, higher efficiency and higher specific power across a wider range of wavelengths, and better durability and end-of-life (EOL) performance. This technology has dual-use in military satellites, and in civilian communications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting and global positioning systems (GPS) satellites in low earth, medium earth or geosynchronous orbits. It also has the potential to protect telescope sun shields in low earth orbit, terrestrial solar concentrator systems and terrestrial organic photovoltaic systems from UV radiation, and to protect terrestrial electrical components (e.g., power supplies, relays, cable connectors) and electronics (e.g., assemblies and circuit boards) from temperature extremes, high humidity, thermal shock and radiation.

HalStor Inc.
20 Major Hale Drive
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 877-4306
Seweryn Mokryn
AF 09-095      Awarded: 6/3/2010
Title:High Performance High Reliability Weapon Bus Switch
Abstract:Over the last few years, HalStor Inc. has developed the Fibre Channel Core and supporting tools for Xilinx''s FPGAs with embedded hard processors. The proposed project would replace existing bulky, slow, expensive and inefficient Fibre Channel switches by single-chip, highly intelligent and efficient solution suitable for high mission load outs of a new class of smart small, micro-munitions and/or stores. Such solution can be efficiently duplicated to create redundant, highly reliable and still cost effective switching system. BENEFIT: The commercial market for existing Fibre Channel switches includes medium sized and large computer centers, in addition to specialized applications like this project. Incorporation of highly intelligent, single chip switches will significantly enhance the capabilities of the Storage Area Networks. Moreover, the technology developed is applicable in other switching applications, like evolving FCOE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet). This project, due to its inherent commercial scale, has the ability to provide employment to many engineers, technician and supporting personnel in the US.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mike Usberghi
AF 09-095      Awarded: 6/4/2010
Title:High Performance, High Reliability Weapons Bus Switch
Abstract:This proposal seeks to determine the best approach for the design of a high performance, high reliability Fibre Channel switch for use in weapons systems. Most military avionics systems use a standard called MIL-STD-1760E for transferring data between smart stores and weapon payloads/munitions. Existing Fibre Channel systems in use are bulky, slow, and expensive. Fibre Channel is an older spec (finalized in 1994) which was abandoned for a newer technology called InfiniBand in the commercial world. It is the Air Force’s goal to determine the best approach to design and manufacture a fast, reliable, and small Fibre Channel switch using current technology. Luna will perform a survey of currently available, state-of-the-art technology regarding Fibre Channel switches along with investigating some innovative approaches involving adding Quality of Service (QoS) to the existing Fibre Channel transport protocol. We will also explore providing the end user the ability to monitor network performance with statistics using an out-of-band management channel. BENEFIT: Any commercial or military system currently using the Fibre Channel system would benefit from Luna’s research to develop a fast, high reliability, high throughput, inexpensive, fibre channel switch. The Air Force has a current need for such a device. We anticipate developing and refining our approach of adding Quality of Service (QoS) to the existing Fibre Channel transport protocol, as well as exploring the ability of providing the end user the ability to monitor network performance with statistics using an out-of-band management channel. Successful integration would immediately add much needed functionality and speed to current Fibre Channel systems. This would benefits current Fibre Channel users from a cost and functionality perspective by extending the serviceability of currently fielded systems.

WINTEC, Incorporated
220 Eglin Parkway SE Suite 4
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 664-6203
Fred Benedick
AF 09-095      Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title:High Performance High Reliability Weapon Bus Switch
Abstract:The maximum data rates through store interfaces based on MIL-STD-1760 or other interface standards have been previously limited by older technology data bus standards used with these interfaces. This has limited or precluded the ability to conduct efficient and timely transfers of some types of data such as large map or image files, target templates, digitized video, etc. between platforms and weapons, consequently limiting weapon effectiveness and operational flexibility in many instances. With the recent incorporation of a Fibre Channel based alternative data path into existing and evolving store interface standards, the potential exists to overcome these previous limitations. Further work needs to be accomplished, however, to adapt commercial networking and device (such as network switches and terminals) technology to the weapon interface application, taking account of the functional, physical, and environmental requirements associated with weapons (including evolving small weapons) and platforms (including unmanned platforms). The Phase I effort proposed here would analyze the networking functional requirements and implementation considerations associated with airborne weapon carriage and employment, and develop a flexible Fibre Channel network architecture which would satisfy the applicable requirements. Fibre Channel device technology to implement compliant networks would also be assessed, and any deficiencies and plans for resolving them would be documented. BENEFIT: The technology to be developed by this effort will facilitate improved mission effectiveness and operational flexibility for certain projected weapon types. It also has potential commercial application in sensor integration on air and ground platforms.

Bennett Aerospace, LLC
2054 Kildaire Farm Road #181
Cary, NC 27518
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 859-5454
Douglas Bennett
AF 09-096      Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title:Innovative Techniques for Defeating HDBT/UGF
Abstract:Bennett Aerospace proposes to develop an innovative system that will neutralize hard and deeply buried targets (HDBTs). The system would incorporate a novel technologies and advance materials to gain access to the target for intended missions. BENEFIT: This approach will expand upon existing technologies that will be adapted for this application. The benefits of Bennett Aerospace’s modified-COTS approach include an efficient system that has the potential to significantly increase HDBT defeats.

DE Technologies Inc.
100 Queens Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 337-2800
William J. Flis
AF 09-096      Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title:Two-Material Penetrator Nose for Penetrating Both Sand and Concrete
Abstract:We propose to improve earth-penetrator performance against layered targets including soils and concrete by determining appropriate materials for a first-stage sand penetrating nose, and optimizing nose geometry for sand penetration. An analytical and/or computational study will narrow the options for each approach, and limited small scale tests will be conducted to verify material behavior under laboratory conditions. Once candidate materials have been identified, we will develop means for implementing the novel nose materials into a removable nose on a steel penetrator. BENEFIT: This program will enhance the capability of penetrating weapons that are under development by increasing the probability that the weapons will reach their intended targets. These technologies will also enable greater success for data-gathering space probes that are designed as planetary penetrators.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Wen Lu
AF 09-098      Awarded: 6/14/2010
Title:Multi-Functional High Energy, High Power Lithium-Polymer Batteries for MAVs
Abstract:Micro air vehicles (MAV) are envisioned to play a substantial role in carrying out critical missions for the Nation’s future military force. However due to their small size, deficiencies in critical technologies may limit the operational performance of future MAVs. Arguably, on-board power may be the most mission-limiting issue facing future MAVs. To address this need, ADA Technologies, Inc. proposes the development of a novel, multifunctional power source that combines the functionality of a high energy device (e.g., fuel cells or high energy Li-ion battery) with a high power device (e.g., high power Li-ion battery or ultracapacitor). The hybrid-power device proposed here is essentially an advanced Lithium-polymer battery design that is capable of operating in both high-power or high-energy modes with great efficiency, thus eliminating the need for separate devices (e.g., battery and ultracapacitor). BENEFIT: The increased energy and power density provided by the proposed technology will enable greater on-board power for MAVs as well as allowing for more payload capacity thereby broadening the mission profile for next generation MAVs. Furthermore, the developments undertaken will substantially improve the state-of-the-art of energy storage devices. Thus if successful, the resulting technology could have substantial commercial impact as the overall market for battery technologies is estimated to be in excess of $6B per year. Spin-off applications include hybrid electric vehicles, utility grid applications, personal electronics and medical devices.

CUBE Technology
2987 W. Elliot Rd.
Chandler, AZ 85224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 497-8400
Daniel S. Marshall
AF 09-098      Awarded: 7/1/2010
Title:High Density or Multi-Functional Compact Power Source
Abstract:This program is expected to result in a compact, high energy density, silent propulsion system for small unmanned autonomous systems (SUAS). The innovative approach chosen for this project will substantially increase both range and time aloft of miniature unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), while using far less electricity. This will leave more available electricity for sensors and communications resulting in more eyes on more targets for longer times. BENEFIT: This propulsion system is a significant advancement in the area of small to micro-UAVs. It substantially reduces the weight of UAV propulsion system while remaining quiet and enabling much longer missions and higher battery payload for increased UAV effectiveness. The system will be lightweight, inexpensive, and efficient, enabling it to replace conventional electric propeller systems on numerous platforms. It can address the needs of many market segments beyond the military, including Homeland Security, agriculture, and geologic mapping.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-0159
Michael Danilich
AF 09-098      Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title:Zinc Hybrid, Energy Dense, Biological Fuel Cell
Abstract:Luna Innovations will determine the feasibility of developing a light weight energy dense Zn-hybrid biological fuel cell that is capable of powering small unmanned systems (UAS’s) and small UAS’s in the field. The proposed Zn-hybrid biological fuel cell will provide significant improvements in power generation, stability, and life time over current Li-ion battery technologies, resulting in an environmentally friendly, sustainable fuel cell technology. During Phase I Luna will demonstrate the performance of a Zn-hybrid biological fuel cell consisting of a Zn anode and an enzymatic cathode that will be evaluated and tested. Phase II will focus on optimizing the fuel cell design in order to maximize the specific power and cell lifetime without increasing the device weight, and investigating the possibility of recharging or recycling the spent anode material. Concurrently, Luna will be working to integrate the fuel cell technology with multiple types of UAS’s and SUAS’s to meet the market demand for power systems for small mobile electronic devices. BENEFIT: The proposed Zn-hybrid biological fuel cell, which is scalable from 20-500g and capable of specific power of 200-400 Wh/kg, could be used to power many types of small mobile electronic devices. The proposed fuel cell design is composed of a sacrificial Zn anode and oxygen reducing enzymatic cathode in order to maximize energy density without increasing device weight. The proposed Zn-hybrid biological fuel cell will be applicable not only to UAS’s manufactured directly for the DoD (including Air Force, Navy, and Army), but also to other autonomous robotic systems, small mobile electronic devices, implantable electronic devices, medical devices, and unattended ground sensors.

Aerius Photonics, LLC.
2223 Eastman Ave., Suite B
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Daniel Klemer
AF 09-100      Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title:Compact, wearable IFF laser beacon with enhanced data transmission capability
Abstract:Aerius Photonics will address the need for an effective, secure, long-range wearable identification friend-or-foe (IFF) device with enhanced data transmission capability by developing a compact, portable, battery-powered beacon that employs state-of-the-art mid-wave IR (MWIR) and/or long-wave IR (LWIR) and near IR (NIR) laser technology to emit an eyesafe signal that is easily detected by presently deployed targeting pods. Furthermore, the proposed device would have a directional NATO Code Compliant laser operating at 1064nm that when sighted to a friendly receiver will securely send information via line-of-sight (LOS) transmission. Phase I will demonstrate, evaluate and deliver a prototype battery operated, hand held laser beacon with a range of 10 nautical miles. The initial effort will focus on determining the design space available for miniaturization, packaging and cost reduction of laser devices with proven performance to meet the needs of the application. Feasibility will be established for further miniaturizing the unit to less than a 120 cm3 volume. In Phase I, a long-range field test will also be conducted on the prototype unit at Northrop Grumman using their Litening targeting pod. The Phase II effort will focus on completing a ruggedized product design and proving out reliability and performance. BENEFIT: The Aerius IFF beacon will address a critical need for missions support personnel to readily discriminate between friendly and unfriendly troops at continuously increasing distances from the center of activity by providing a wearable module with enhanced capability for communicating identifying information. Moreover, it will enable a solider to establish a direct, secure communications link to incoming aircraft to provide brief, albeit mission critical, information to assure victory in a dynamically-changing battlefield environment. At the successful completion of the Phase I and Phase II program, Aerius’ IFF beacon will have immediate utility for current military operations, and since it is designed to work with current targeting pods, Aerius’ beacon can be deployed as soon as production begins. Therefore, a key objective for the combined Phase I and Phase II effort will be to finalize a beacon design that is ready for production by the end of the program. Moreover, this product would have broad appeal across all branches of the military, and therefore, the commercial volume potential is substantial.

Diffraction, Ltd
186 Mad River Park
Waitsfield, VT 05673
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 496-6640
Marc Hammond
AF 09-100      Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title:Laser Beacon for Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) and Combat Identification
Abstract:The proposed multi-spectral IFF beacon will use 40 to 50 % effient high power laser diodes at 863, 1064, and 1550 nm wavelengths. Thermal emitters including diamond-like carbon thin films, photonic crystals, and quantum cascade lasers will be characterized and compared. Finally a model to predict the detection range of IFF beacons will be developed using proprietary emitter power and atmospheric tranmission models coupled with various Night Vision & Electronic Systems Directorate range performance models. BENEFIT: High power, high efficiency, compact, multi-spectral beacons will greatly enhance the safety of joint tactical air controllers and other operators on the ground.

IISI Corporation
19 Sterling Road P.O. Box 349 Unit 7
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 670-5293
Andrew Brownlee
AF 09-100      Awarded: 7/8/2010
Title:Laser Beacon for Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) and Combat Identification
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of a Laser Beacon system concept that initially provides dual high-power emission at 1064 nm and 4.6 microns. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) 1064-nm laser diodes will be tailored to provide the optical output intensity required for detection by targeting pods. Quantum cascade laser technology will be utilized to provide emission in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectral band at 4.6 microns. Size reduction of the current laser design will be investigated for development of a small MWIR emitter. The optical emitters will be integrated with an onboard programmable microprocessor that controls the emission modulation. An initial packaging and electrical design will be developed for use as a handheld lightweight unit. The expected detection performance as a function of range will be modeled for operational targeting pods and sensors. A draft functional specification for the Laser Beacon system will be developed based on the trade-off study between size, weight, and operating parameters. A system concept design will be provided at the end of this effort. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of the proposed approach for this project will provide the development of a unique IFF and CID handheld device. The proposed device could be modified for targeting applications where the MWIR emission would provide a visual verification of the target and the 1064 nm emission would provide guidance for the ordinance. Potential commercialization applications would be for outdoor hiking safety. The beacon would provide a visual locating system for airborne search and rescue platforms for personnel in distress. The beacons would also provide a visual tracking device for search and rescue teams if communications via radio were not available.

Maxion Technologies, Inc.
5000 College Avenue, Suite 3121
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-1090
John L. Bradshaw
AF 09-100      Awarded: 7/22/2010
Title:Quantum Cascade Laser Beacon for IFF Applications
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR effort is to demonstrate high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) MWIR and LWIR Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) to enable a small, lightweight, and inexpensive battery-powered multi-spectral laser beacon for field use in identification, friend-or-foe determination, Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) operations, and small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) for close air support missions. We will design, grow, fabricate and test a new QCL design optimized for high WPE based on incorporating recent performance advancements and new design methodologies. We will also provide MWIR and LWIR QCLs to the Air Force for use in field tests of prototype laser beacons. Based on real test data and the design of a battery power pulsed laser driver, we will develop a performance model for operation of a multi-spectral laser beacon as a function of pulse width, duty-cycle and temperature of operation. We will use the performance model to formulate laboratory and field tests and metrics that will account for the targeting pod and sensor sensitivities in close support and long-range sensing scenarios. BENEFIT: The successful realization of high-efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) will enable military and commercial Benefits. For example, hand-held field instruments such as MWIR/LWIR laser beacons and flashlights will be significant extensions of the state-of-the-art and enable enhanced capabilities and new synergies with MWIR/LWIR night vision technologies and enhanced covert operations capability. Commercially, high- efficiency QCLs enable numerous application such as sensitive, hand-held and portable chemical sensors for field use and long lifetime, low power footprint free-space optics modules.

Photodigm, Inc.
1155 E. Collins Blvd. Suite 200
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 235-7584
Jason K. O''Daniel
AF 09-100      Awarded: 7/8/2010
Title:Multispectral Photonic Beacon for Indentification, Friend or Foe
Abstract:This Phase I proposal work will develop needed components and knowledge for a light weight, low cost multispectral photonic beacon for identification of armed forces. The work will focus on the wavelengths of 1064nm and 852nm, with additional effort focused in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR). Photodigm is a semiconductor laser and systems manufacturer that has a current laser product line including both 1064nm and 852nm. Previous development of high peak power wavelength-stabilized sources at 1064nm for an identification, friend or foe (IFF) beacon prototype has shown that a single semiconductor laser is capable of producing powers that can be tracked and identified using current targeting pods at several kilometers. This SBIR funding would provide the capability to package and drive multiple lasers in series to extend both the range and the solid angle capability of the Photodigm’s next generation IFF prototype, as well as study the possibility of a much more compact, cost effective, and powerful alternative technology. Further, concepts for more robust and compact designs integrating 852nm, 1064nm, and MWIR sources will be carried out. An engineering study will be performed to evaluate the most battery efficient MWIR source and electronics configuration meeting the size and operational requirements. BENEFIT: A field worthy multispectral photonic beacon for Indentification, Friend or Foe (IFF) is critical in identification of ground forces to other ground forces and air support, thus mitigating incidence of friendly fire in the field. Beyond being used as IFF beacons, these units may also be uses as light weight, short range laser designators or markers for urban combat or use on unmanned aerial vehicles. An IFF unit that meets the program goals set forth could conceivably be standard issue for every ground soldier and vehicle. For commercial application, individual components of the beacon may be used for visual identification and tracking of airplanes and helicopters near airports and ships coming in and out of port.

CG2, Inc., a Quantum3D Company
5400 Hellyer Avenue
San Jose, CA 95138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 600-2517
Todd Nordland
AF 09-101      Awarded: 7/14/2010
Title:Hyperspectral and Persistent Sensor Signal Processing Platform and Algorithms
Abstract:CG2’s goal on this SBIR will be to provide greater capacity for on-board, localized sensor data processing on remote platforms such as UAVs. For this SBIR, CG2 will develop an “embedded avionic HPC” (EA-HPC) system that will include on-board GPU accelerated sensor processing tracking algorithms on an embedded hardware platform derived from COTS HPC components. The EA-HPC will be developed using a multi-stage approach from Phase I proof of concept (TRL 3), through in-lab validation of the prototype (TRL 4 & 5), ground-based in-field utiliza-tion (TRL 6) and finally on-board in-flight utilization (TRL 7). This will allow the Air Force to establish and utilize the benefits of this system at multiple points in the development cycle; first to the range, and ultimately to the battlefield. For this SBIR, CG2 will team with Numerica Corp, (Juan Vasquez, Ph.D) to integrate multi-target tracking algorithms on the EA-HPC. The embedded hardware platform will be derived from COTS HPC components provided by CG2’s parent company, Quantum3D. BENEFIT: The performance boost gained by the EA-HPC will deliver substantial improvements to solu-tions of hyperspectral and persistent surveillance tracking problems. The increase in perfor-mance provided by the EA-HPC on-board system will result in superior utility and translation of the collected sensor input. This will provide many benefits by improving the warfighters’ ability to track and maintain “chain of custody” of multiple moving targets across sensors, spec-tra, weather conditions, time, and from operator to analyst, to decision maker, to intelligence analyst or post-action analyst, as required in the field.

Crossfield Technology LLC
4505 Spicewood Springs Road Suite 360
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 795-0220
Gary McMillian
AF 09-101      Awarded: 6/29/2010
Title:Hyperspectral and Persistent Sensor Signal Processing Platform and Algorithms
Abstract:Crossfield Technology proposes a Hyperspectral Sensor Signal Processor (HSSP) with a configurable wide bandwidth sensor interface, a multi-core processor with FPGA and GPU coprocessors, and 10-40 Gbps network interface. Crossfield proposes to demonstrate the HSSP technology during the Phase I Program by implementing a sensor analysis algorithm in OpenCL (Open Computing Language) with digital signal processing on a CPU and GPU while a dedicated FPGA accelerator operates on simulated sensor data. Stateof- the-art GPUs deliver a TFLOP of computational performance at <200 W power dissipation. State-of-the-art FPGAs provide tremendous I/O bandwidth and digital signal processing performance, and can be dynamically reconfigured to address a wide range of applications. OpenCL is a new open and royalty-free programming standard for general-purpose computations on heterogeneous processors. BENEFIT: The hyperspectral signal processor delivers exceptional signal processing and sensor fusion performance in a small size, low weight and low power per FLOP. The distributed processing architecture places the processor at the sensor for embedded applications, reducing the potential for noise and EMI to corrupt analog signals out of the the sensor over long cable runs. Commercial applications of this technology include medical diagnostics and imaging, hardware-in-the-loop simulation and weather radar.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 286-7580
Juan Vasquez
AF 09-101      Awarded: 7/8/2010
Title:Persistent Hyperspectral Tracking and Fusion
Abstract:Recent employment of persistent surveillance systems by the Department of Defense has provided a significant force multiplier to both combat and asymmetric threat operations. Furthermore, the use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) is proving effective as semi- autonomous ISR platforms. These systems require automated exploitation capabilities such as multi-target detection, track, and ID. These capabilities generate a significant challenge when attempting to track hundreds of moving ground targets while maintaining “chain of custody” for high valued targets. The fusion of various sensor modes such as EO, IR, radar, and hyperspectral imagers can assist in mitigating these challenges through a combination of wide area coverage kinematic target information aided with high fidelity features. Specific solutions that exploit this fusion are the use of multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) coupled with target features or classification to resolve the data association problem. Numerica will leverage prior experience with employing our tracking technology on operational systems to formulate a complete system solution for real-time implementation in Phase II and III. BENEFIT: Under the proposed Phase II program, Numerica would develop and build a system that is capable of live hardware demonstration of our tracking algorithms with unmanned systems. The project will focus on these components through a combination of innovative algorithm development and effective hardware engineering. Our ongoing relationship with Lockheed Martin and Boeing on SBIR efforts related to unmanned systems will provide an avenue for commercialization. It is anticipated that the algorithms developed and results obtained by Numerica under both Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR will be incorporated by in their continued enhancements of defense systems. Direct support of this goal is being provided by Lockheed Martin through their offer to provide Numerica with access, free of charge, to the Lockheed Martin MS2 Technology Collaboration Centers. Numerica and Boeing are teamed with Ball Aerospace to support the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) for the exploitation and development of technology that utilizes hyperspectral data.

QEDLabs
1265 Hanchett Ave
San Jose, CA 95126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 472-3202
Alan Commike
AF 09-101      Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title:Hyperspectral and Persistent Sensor Signal Processing Platform and Algorithms
Abstract:Sensors are ubiquitous, providing autonomous and manned systems in the air, ground and sea the ability to “understand” their surroundings and relay that information to the end users and decision makers. The computational complexity associated with processing data from these sensors has grown to extraordinary levels as a result of new generations of high capability sensors and the fusion of multiple sensors together to provide a single operating picture of the surroundings. QEDLabs and Black River Systems Company propose the development of a novel high performance embedded computing (HPEC) platform incorporating a heterogeneous processing architecture of CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs with complex algorithmic sensor processing software. The proposed system aims to improve fidelity, quality, and response rate for real-time advanced sensor processing algorithms in Radio Frequency (RF), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), broad area Infrared (IR) and Electro-Optic (EO) Imaging, allowing tracking, target detection, and identification of real-time and persistent surveillance data. BENEFIT: When commercialized, the platform will enable more advanced sensor processing algorithms in a smaller size, weight, and power envelope than available today. This will lead to better decision making and in the end save lives. We expect our commercial system to be deployed in mid- to high-end UAV systems either as technology insertion are as built-in capability for new systems. We also expect variants to be incorporated into smaller UAVs, ground, underwater, and surface unmanned vehicles, and in manned systems.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Prabhat Acharya
AF 09-101      Awarded: 7/31/2010
Title:Parallel Processor-Based Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation of Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:Airborne down-looking hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is promising for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). HSI systems use numerous spectral bands to distinguish materials, and thus provide target identification and discrimination against background clutter. Down-looking HSI sensors are severely compromised by atmospheric effects such as clouds and aerosols. Spectral Sciences, Inc (SSI) proposes to dramatically increase the speed of atmospheric compensation for ISR. Accordingly, the goal of the proposed effort is a factor 10 to 20 speed-up of VIS/SWIR atmospheric compensation, by modifying the SSI-developed code Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) for implementation on GPU-based hardware. A two-pronged strategy is proposed for the necessary FLAASH speed-up. First is to use a much faster version of the radiation transport code MODTRAN, dubbed kURT (correlated-k-based Ultrafast Radiative Transfer) currently under final stages of development at SSI. Second is to implement both kURT and FLAASH on a GPU (Graphical Processing Unit). This will make FLAASH fast enough to exploit radiosonde data so that atmospheric correction will also be more accurate. The enhanced atmospheric compensation system will be called FLAASH-Parallel kURT (FLAASH-PK). BENEFIT: The anticipated results from successful completion of this project will be parallelization hardware and software to address the difficult problem real-time hyperspectral image enhancement for the remote tracking and assessment of targets. The new FLAASH-PK system will be applied to DoD HSI-based ISR missions from air and space platforms. Subtracting atmospheric effects from hyperspectral data will also enhance HSI, LADAR, and RADAR sensor fusion. Because of the flexibility of the algorithms, lightweight and powerful GPU hardware, and the high information content afforded by hyperspectral imaging, there are commercialization opportunities in remote sensing (such as environmental monitoring, mineral exploration and precision farming), process control (such as in the chemical, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries), public safety, and homeland security.

Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc.
135 E. Ortega Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-3331
Barton Goldstein
AF 09-102      Awarded: 7/7/2010
Title:Microladar collision avoidance and target detection technology
Abstract:The development of a very small LIDAR that takes a 3-dimensional image is proposed for small, unmanned airplanes. It will help remote pilots navigate in urban environments and be useful for target detection, terrain following, collision avoidance and landing assistance. The LIDAR will be less than 1/8 cubic foot in size, weigh about 2 pounds and acquire 20 images per second over a field of view encompassing almost the entire sky and ground. This LIDAR has a high probability of successful development since it is a straightforward modification of an existing Flash LIDAR. A path to a much smaller instrument with the same capabilities is discussed. BENEFIT: The development of the miniature, eyesafe, very efficient, high power laser in this effort will be useful to put 3D cameras aboard robots, seacraft and remotely and autonomously piloted vehicles. This technology would greatly enhance the air safety of military tactical reconnaissance. Many civilian (state-owned, such as police or forest service applications as well as private, such as electronic news gathering) applications will use this type of system.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 770-6028
Joseph Triscari
AF 09-102      Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title:Coded Pixel LADAR: A Novel Approach to Low SWaP, Non-Mechanical micro-LADAR
Abstract:Arete proposes to develop an innovative approach to micro-LADAR that requires low SWaP and is completely non-mechanical. Arete will use coded illumination in an entirely novel way to create a system that is suitable for both reconnaissance and sense-and- avoid on small UAVs. Arete will be bring its substantial experience with the proposed technologies to bear on this problem. Arete will develop a benchtop demonstrator in Phase I using capital equipment and produce a design for a scalable Phase II prototype. BENEFIT: The Arete approach is completely different from any approach currently being attempted in LADAR. This solution has the potential of revolutionizing LADAR for UAVs and interceptors. Arete also believes that the technology would serve well in commercial applications. An inexpensive instrument that can quickly generate 3D scene data at real- time frame rates would be a popular device in the entertainment industry to support 3D model generation. In addition, micro-LADAR could find a market in commercial surveying application (e.g., remotely identify topography for commercial engineering of land development).

Vescent Photonics
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver, CO 80216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 296-6766
Scott Davis
AF 09-102      Awarded: 7/12/2010
Title:Low Cost, Low SWAP Micro-LADAR as Enabled by Revolutionary EO Scanner Technology
Abstract:Vescent Photonics proposes to develop, design and build new scanning based micro- ladar sensors with unprecedented cost and size, weight, and power (SWAP), thereby enabling ladar deployment on previously inaccessible platforms (SUAS, micro-munitions, etc.). This tremendous reduction in SWAP will be accomplished via: i) replacing heavy and power consumptive mechanics with Vescent’s revolutionary chip-scale non- mechanical laser scanner, and ii) replacing high power laser transceivers with VCSEL/VCSOA and/or other micro-ladar transceivers. Notably, the Vescent EO scanner provides previously unrealizable performance such as sub-millisecond scanning, full 2-D operation with only three control electrodes, and a remarkably wide field of view (270 degrees demonstrated). By combining this EO scanner with miniature ladar lasers and electronics we will be circumventing the two foremost impediments to ladar SWAP and cost reduction: the mechanical scanners and the high power lasers. In this phase I we will demonstrate larger aperture EO scanning, which will enable utilizing the EO scanner for the return optical path, voltage tunable lens structures, and demonstrate micro-LADAR operation at 1550 nm. BENEFIT: The ultra-compact steerable LADAR concept and hardware developed in this program has a wide range of relatively near-term and potentially low-cost military (tactical, theater and strategic) and other (surveillance/homeland security) applications. Tactical and surveillance adaptations would be the largest potential near-term markets. We believe that the ultra-compact steerable laser rangefinder approach could be readily and cost effectively adapted to fielding of compact laser radars, coded covert (free-space-optics) line-of-sight communications capabilities and serve as high-accuracy optical trackers for engaging tactical (rockets, mortars and artillery-RAM) targets; RAMs are currently major threats to the US and its allies in the context of theater and urban warfare. Outside of the military deployment, our ultra-compact SAA LADAR system can be instrumental in future Autonomous (Adaptive) Cruise Control systems for the automobile industry. Robotic, autonomous disaster zone LADAR mapping and navigation could also directly benefit from this development research effort. Ad-hoc free-space optical communication networks are also another potential application.

Energetic Materials & Products, Inc.
1413 Brandi Lane
Round Rock, TX 78681
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 380-1992
Dennis Wilson
AF 09-103      Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title:Microscale Ordnance Technologies for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)
Abstract:The proposed research describes two novel concepts and an experimental study to demonstrate the feasibility of developing extremely reduced scale (1cm3 to 10 cm3) energetic ordnance packages. The damage mechanisms will be assessed against electronic hardware, specifically a hardened laptop computer and against ballistic gel, specifically Permagel contained in a soft shell. The first concept involves a high-velocity, high-temperature metal-vapor jet or torch, designed to focus its energy into a concentrated region or distribute the energy into a prescribed pattern depending upon the target characteristics. The energetic materials will be selected from groups that have low activation energies, very high volumetric energy densities and very high adiabatic flame temperatures. A suitable class of materials would be thermites, nanothermites or hybrid thermites, which would be designed to produce sustained combustion for subsequent “fire start” and produce corrosive combustion products. The second concept is similar but would address targets that are not in close contact with the microscale ordnance device. The basic idea is a small, self propelled “pyrophoric” missile with a range on the order of a few meters and a volume on the order of 10 cm3. BENEFIT: The microscale ordnance technology has direct applications to developing more efficient energetic tools and devices for down-hole operations in the oil exploration and production industry. EMPI is uniquely positioned to advance this commercialization because of its relationship with an energy services company for the oil industry.

Ktech Corporation
1300 Eubank Blvd. SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-4923
James Garrity
AF 09-103      Awarded: 8/2/2010
Title:Microscale Ordnance Technologies for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)
Abstract:Our recent developmental efforts have successfully produced the design for a chip slapper with a reduction in the average size (miniaturization), weight and cost of these particular chip slappers. The processes that we have established in the production of this chip slapper have reduced the number of assembly stages for this particular assembly configuration and/or application. Production of this style chip slapper has also been modified with the reduction of manufacturing stages and more stringent quality controls during the manufacturing, providing a more robust cost effective and smaller component. We propose to reduce the standard size chip slapper by approx. 84% with acceptable industry standard practices. The following is a review of standard industry manufacturing techniques for the production of the chip slappers. We have included our proposal for a smaller chip relative to the process design we have come up with. We believe that we have also increased yield and not compromised the quality of these components but have in fact improved the performance. There are several unique practices which we feel have improved our production, miniaturization, and cost reduction all of the following technical details are proprietary. BENEFIT: Improved guidance and navigation has given us the ability to deliver precision effects, and has allowed us to reduce our ordnance payloads and, thereby, reduce collateral effects. This trend toward ever smaller munitions is being driven by our need to conduct military operations in urban terrain and to severely control collateral effects. The goal in this effort is to further miniaturize ordnance components (damage mechanisms, energetic, fusing) for delivery by micro air vehicles. Damage mechanisms other than blast/fragmentation may be proposed.

Mound Laser & Photonics Center, Inc.
P.O. Box 223
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4429
Carl Druffner
AF 09-103      Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title:Mega-G-Force Diamond Accelerometer with Integrated Nano Waveguide
Abstract:We propose an innovative solution to the problem of developing an extreme-g, integrated accelerometer for microscale ordnance fuzing. The proposed solution exploits an integrated optical sensing technique and an all-diamond microfabricated structure to overcome the key technical barriers that have hampered previous technologies. The end result will be a robust, micro-scale sensor, capable of surviving high shock environments, while maintaining sufficient dynamic range to measure flight dynamics of munitions. The Phase I effort will design, model, analyze, fabricate and test a Mega-g diamond accelerometer that can measure flight dynamics across a wide dynamic range while having the ability to survive munitions launches and penetration of multiple reinforced barriers. The main body of the sensor will be fabricated by laser micromachining techniques out of single crystal diamond. The technical risk of this project is lowered by leveraging a separately funded proof-of-concept demonstration performed at Eglin Air Force Base in August 2009. In this demonstration, some of the key technical steps to the technology have already been shown feasible. BENEFIT: The technology will benefit the Air Force by pushing the state of the art in fuze technology by operating in the Mega-g range while increasing the dynamic range. These two benefits will directly enable improved guidance and navigation towards the ability to deliver precision effects. Furthermore the technology addresses key technical issues on the roadmap towards fuze-on-a-chip technology for use on micro-air vehicles.

Nuvotronics LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 341-2333
Jean-Marc Rollin
AF 09-103      Awarded: 7/22/2010
Title:Conformal Sub-mmWave Antenna Components
Abstract:In this Phase I project, Nuvotronics proposes to extend and apply our PolyStrataTM metal micromachining technology to provide solutions for multifunction and conformal antenna designs in the sub-millimeter wave region of the spectrum. In multifunction antennas, high amounts of isolation are generally required between each function of the antenna. The high isolation that is intrinsic to the PolyStrata fabrication process is well suited to allow multiple antenna functions to exist with minimal interference in the same aperture. In conformal antenna design, the feed network is a challenge to design and fabricate based on the small footprint that is often necessary and the cost of phase matching, connectorizing, and routing cables in a confined space. The ability to batch fabricate flexible miniature recta-coax transmission lines on single six-inch wafer presents many possible ways of addressing this challenge. The basis of this work will be to modify the base PolyStrata technology to create high-performance and high functionality cabling and interconnections for micro air vehicle conformal antennas. BENEFIT: The products resulting from this development will find applications in DOD and commercial radar and communication systems.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Roman Ostroumov
AF 09-103      Awarded: 7/19/2010
Title:Nanosilicon Explosive Device for Micro Air Vehicles
Abstract:To address the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate need for microscale technologies for ultra-small, low collateral damage ordnance packages to be used in Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Nanosilicon Explosive Device for Micro Air Vehicles (NOVEL). This proposed device is based on porous silicon structures filled with oxidizer. Porous Si serves as a reagent and packaging material simultaneously. The innovation in the design and fabrication of such nanostructures, utilizing silicon-compatible proprietary processing, will enable the engineering of efficient micro-explosive devices that can serve a dual role as micro- ordnance as well as building blocks for MAV onboard electronics, thus maximizing payload. NOVEL will enable the fabrication of inexpensive micro-ordnance that can be seamlessly integrated into MAVs, which directly addresses the AFRL/RW need to conduct military operations in urban terrain and effectively limit collateral effects. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach by the analysis, fabrication, and proof-of-concept testing of prototype NOVEL devices. In Phase II, POC plans to develop an optimized NOVEL prototype to demonstrate its advanced performance and compatibility with Air Force platforms. BENEFIT: The proposed NOVEL technology would allow actualizing micro-ordnance devices. The proposed advanced nanoscale silicon based explosive devices are expected to find applications in such fields as military operations in urban terrain, anti-tamper devices, industrial processes, airbag fuses, as well as Homeland Security operations and law enforcement operations requiring low collateral damage or the protection of sensitive data. Due to the unique performance at low cost expected from the proposed materials and devices, all these markets can be potentially addressable with the proposed technology. The proposed technology will greatly benefit the American public by increasing security and safety, as well as saving taxpayers money due to the inexpensive design.

REYNOLDS SYSTEMS, INC.
PO BOX 1229 18649 HWY 175
MIDDLETOWN, CA 95461
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 928-5244
Christopher Nance
AF 09-103      Awarded: 6/29/2010
Title:Microscale Ordnance Technologies for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)
Abstract:As urban warfare tactics become increasingly discriminatory, the need for highly miniaturized and accurate weapon delivery systems has increased. Smaller warheads delivered on target using smaller delivery vehicles with little or no collateral damage are becoming increasingly important to the war fighter. The main objective of this phase I effort is to create two versions of a micro miniature warhead approximately the diameter of a dime, weighing less than 5 grams. The first micro-warhead will have shaped charge effects and the second will have fragmentation effects. These micro miniature warheads would enclose in a single housing both the initiator and the warhead technologies. In parallel with the warhead development, modeling and simulation capabilities will be improved which will enhance the ability to design future micro-warheads. The improved simulation and test methods will minimize design cycle time and development costs while improving effects and lethality. RSI is a leader in LEEFI detonator technology, and the combined Glumac/Stewart Groups at the University of Illinois in the Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois create a strong team that can take full advantage this research opportunity to develop novel micro-warheads. BENEFIT: This research is expected to provide funding for engineering and research to design, simulate, build and test two versions of the micro-miniature warhead for effects, lethality and collateral damage. These early steps will demonstrate that a micro-miniature warhead, as small as several grams in weight, can have a significant impact on target with little or no collateral damage. This research will also provide a path forward showing many possible tailored effects approaches for the micro-miniature warhead. It is expected that a fairly wide variety of effects including shaped charge, fragments and thermal will be possible using the LEEFI plastic encapsulated platform.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4997
Robert Harris
AF 09-104      Awarded: 6/13/2010
Title:Adaptive Cartesian/Immersed Interface Methodology for Micro Air Vehicle Flow Control with Electro-Hydrodynamic Forces
Abstract:The design of future Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) requires detailed understanding of unsteady flows around flexible lifting surfaces with strong interactions between separation and transition at low Reynolds numbers. Since flexure often involves large deformations exceeding the Kolmogorov scale by orders-of-magnitude, methods employing moving and deforming computational grids may require excessive re-meshing to prevent unacceptable grid distortion. The goal of this project is to develop a computational capability that combines the benefits of Cartesian mesh with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) and Immersed Interface Method (IIM) for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of separation and transition over flexible moving surfaces avoiding prohibitively expensive re-meshing. This new hybrid AMR-IIM approach will enable dynamic grid adaptation to flow physics down to the Kolmogorov scale. In Phase I, the feasibility of the AMR-IIM approach will be demonstrated for hovering wings with prescribed flexure. Initial studies of flow control concepts combining wing flexibility with electro-hydrodynamic forces will be performed. Phase II efforts will focus on adding a Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) capability for modeling aeroelastic effects, developing plasma flow control capabilities and code parallelization for large scale simulations. Innovative concepts of flow control over flexible flapping wings with electro-hydrodynamic forces and plasmas will be tested and demonstrated. BENEFIT: The computational tool developed in this project will be used to understand flow features and analyze innovative flow control concepts for Micro Air Vehicles with flapping wings. It will be useful to better understand the physics of insect flight, molecular motors designed by nature, and future smart nanomachines. Other applications include a wide range of aerospace, defense and biomedical applications where moving surfaces and the resolution of fine flow features and boundary layer flows is important. These include, aircraft maneuvering and store separation, missile maneuvering (moving fins), heart valves and many other biomedical applications.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4824
H. Q. Yang
AF 09-104      Awarded: 5/26/2010
Title:Fully Coupled DNS Simulation of Flow Separation Control over MAV with Flexible Lifting Surfaces
Abstract:Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) are being considered for a wide range of roles from search- and-rescue in urban environments, military surveillance and reconnaissance, to planetary exploration. To accomplish these complex missions, a good understanding of complex flow physics involved in the flow separation and transition around the flexible lifting surface of MAV is crucial. In Phase I, an in-house, advanced simulation tool with coupled fluid-structure interaction, moving and deforming grid and high-fidelity Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) capability will be leveraged and demonstrated. The adapted tool will be able to accurately capture the strong coupling of structure dynamics of flexible lifting surface and the surrounding flow, and to predict the flow behavior of unsteady aerodynamics, including boundary layer separation, lift and drag, turbulence transition from low to transition Reynolds number range flights, and the stress and structural deformation of the flexible wing of MAV. High-fidelity simulation of MAV with flexible deforming lifting surfaces under condition of potential resonance of first few structure modes will be carried out using first principle based DNS. In Phase II, the developed model will be used to conduct investigation of the flow physics of flexible lifting surfaces and to study various means of controlling the flow separation. This simulation environment will ultimately lead to the development of a comprehensive stability and control model for practical MAVs. BENEFIT: A capability to accurately predict and control the flow separation over a flexible lift surface of MAV can lead to many potential commercial applications of MAV. The designed MAV can be used in an urban warfare environment to conduct reconnaissance in areas not accessible to larger aircraft, such as areas within buildings, to identify and segregate military targets versus areas having high civilian concentrations. It can also be used in environmental monitoring, traffic monitoring, counter-drug operations, accident assessment, and wildlife/land management. Other applications include inspecting high monuments, monitoring risk of first fires, or more generally for interventions in narrow and hazardous environments, where it would be dangerous to send a human agent.

Metacomp Technologies, Inc.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-4880
Sukumar Chakravarthy
AF 09-104      Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title:Boundary layer control of flow separation for Micro Air Vehicles
Abstract:Metacomp Technologies proposes to use a near-body fine mesh DNS sub-domain, coupled to a hybrid URANS/LES-type grid in the rest of the flowfield. Statistically-steady solutions will first be computed over a domain large enough to tolerate the imposition of ambient or freestream conditions at infinity. These solutions can be achieved rapidly, using conventional turbulence closures (possibly on a different mesh to that subsequently used for the transient simulation). A restricted sub-domain will then be created either by cutting or by a complete re-meshing of the region of interest, with the sub-domain mesh much more refined and with a strong emphasis on element isotropy as required by DNS. The truncated outer surfaces of the sub-domain mesh will be treated using special boundary conditions, which include self-tuning, far-field absorbing layer boundary conditions. There will also be the option of stochastically reconstructing any given statistical inlet information, in particular turbulent fluctuations which are obtained as a spatially-varying set of second-moments and length/time correlations from the given a priori URANS solution. The flexible wings of the MAV will be tightly coupled to an FSI tool, providing a robust grid deformation methodology which deforms the CFD mesh based on the deformation of the CSD grid. BENEFIT: Both military and civil applications are foreseeable: 1. Military application: Micro Aerial Vehicles, 2. Commercial application: Homeland security, law enforcement, and similar agencies where Micro Air Vehicles could be used for surveillance purposes.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Bradley Walls
AF 09-107      Awarded: 7/14/2010
Title:Micro Seeker Technology
Abstract:Micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are among the newest class of UAVs that have been added for deployment at the squadron level, these systems typically have a less than one pound payload and are remotely controlled through a joystick, a hobbyist style RC controller, or simple computer interface. In addition to a direct piloting mode most systems provide the capability for waypoint navigation thru GPS. In either case these systems can provide a continuous stream of video to a hand held device enabling the soldier to see “over the hill” and “around the building” allowing informed tactical planning. The popularity, portability, and ease of use of modern MAVs has made them powerful tools for the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission. Much work is being done to advance MAVs in the ISR area; however, providing the soldier with a new weapon for precision engagement delivering desired effects would supply “Force Multiplication” of these MAV assets. Areté will develop a seeker for MAVs based on the integration of contemporary guidance law and sensing technologies. Core design components consist of a proportional guidance algorithm, an optical flow processing architecture, a tracker, and a state of the art optical design for achieving hemispherical FOR. BENEFIT: This technology brings a new mission scenario to MAVs and a new capability to the modern warfighter; using Areté’s micro-Seeker System allows US Armed Forces to provide precision engagement of enemies at extreme standoff distances.

Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC)
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Bradley Sallee
AF 09-107      Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title:Micro Seeker LADAR (MSL)
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a micro LADAR for Micro Sized Unmanned Aircraft Systems for collision avoidance, targeting and tracking. The 2 in³ LADAR is an extension of the SPEC LADAR family, operating at 850nm class 1M eye- safe, allowing minimal size, power and cost. The system uses a miniaturized 0.304 in³ spinning prism style scanner and 0.196 in³ receive optics. The receiver uses an existing 1x2 inch MCM-L board with pipeline processing. It detects the first three objects in range, with range accuracy to 3mm at close range and a 2 Mega pixel per second acquisition rate. The receiver has a s/n ratio of 6/1 on single photon detects, using a SiPMT sensor. The transmitter laser is integrated with collimator and beam former. The LADAR has day night operation 320m range in weather to heavy thunder storm (0.1 reflectivity target). The LADAR has 48 FOV scan and a 2 steradian FOR. LADAR image is pipelined processed through two FPGAs, processing raw 14.5Gb data stream to a calibrated, X,Y,Z, amplitude image with first or last pixel processing. The image is strap down stabilized by the IMU. BENEFIT: The Micro Seeker LADAR allows MUAS to operate at low altitude avoiding obstacles at significant range. It allows target discrimination even under heavy foliage or camouflage and precision guidance and tracking in a weapons delivery mode. Other uses of the unit are for collision avoidance, landing assistance, wire detection and unmanned object guidance for a variety of ground vehicles. The LADAR can also be used for sensitive facility monitoring as it sees through camouflage and heavy grass.

Calspan Corporation
4455 Genesee St P.O. Box 400
Buffalo, NY 14225
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 631-4161
Jay Nowakowski
AF 09-108      Awarded: 7/22/2010
Title:Technology for Dynamic Characterization of Micro-scale Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:This program will apply Calspan’s background and experience to create a 6 Degree of Freedom motion apparatus and associated technologies for investigating flight mechanics, structural-aerodynamic interactions and flight controls of micro-scale aerial vehicles. This apparatus will be utilized to better understand the physics of these vehicles and assist researchers and developers by subjecting them to realistic and controlled conditions. This phase 1 program will conduct a detailed literature survey and perform discussions with the AFRL sponsor and MAV researchers and developers creating a set of detailed requirements for a support and measurement system. A design for the support and measurement system will be created. In addition this program will develop alternative concepts, prioritize the concepts and develop a final motion apparatus design to achieve the objectives of the program. BENEFIT: The 6 Degree of Freedom motion apparatus and associated technologies developed in this program will allow researchers to quantify the characteristics of micro-scale aerial vehicles necessary for design, simulation and development critical to maximizing their performance and minimizing structural weight. Enhanced levels of insight will also occur, allowing researchers to develop and validate models of the characteristics of new designs as missions and applications are developed. Commercial application by Calspan would include the development and installation of this apparatus in Calspan’s Low Speed tunnel and making this facility available for MAV developers and researchers in a similar (by the hour) cost model to that used in our Transonic Wind Tunnel. Commercial applications also include productizing the motion apparatus to allow its use in multiple research wind tunnel locations as well as in laboratories where controlled airflow is not required and only hovering characteristics are required.

Orbital Research Inc
4415 Euclid Avenue Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Zak Sowle
AF 09-108      Awarded: 6/14/2010
Title:Force Learning Robotic System for Dynamic Characterization of Micro-Scale Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:The design process for Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAVs) requires specialized tools, which is particularly true for biologically inspired MAV concepts. Some of the positive features of a MAV, including light weight, novel modes of propulsion and non-traditional flight control methodologies, can also present challenges in the design, and testing of the final system. The interactions of a flexible structure and non-linear aerodynamics can result in biologically inspired MAV designs that have unexpected behaviors that must be understood to develop successful control methods for free flight. Unique computational tools have been developed that incorporate higher order effects as compared to the computational tools used in traditional aerospace design tools. Experimental facilities, which are used for validating the computational tools and preparing empirical models, require the same level of higher order investigation. The Orbital team proposes to create an innovative empirical measurement system that explores the higher order aerodynamic, structural and aeroelastic interactions of MAVs. A combination of mechanical robotic design and force learning software algorithms will be used to accomplish the measurement of the high frequency, highly complex behaviors of MAVs in free flight. The resulting system will act as a robotic free flight tether which allows for investigation of near real flight dynamics and behaviors. BENEFIT: Orbital Research’s role in commercialization will be the identification, design, and development of the enabling robotic system for dynamic characterization of micro-scale aerial vehicles. The availability of such a motion apparatus would be of great interest to universities and organizations which study micro-scale air vehicles. Applications of the robotic system may also extend directly to delicate medical procedures, robotic manipulation of fragile objects and delicate assembly, and even sensitive operations such as remote disarming of IEDs.

RE2, Inc.
32 Thirty-Ninth St.
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-6382
Patrick Rowe
AF 09-108      Awarded: 6/13/2010
Title:A 6-DOF Motion Test Apparatus (MTA) for Characterizing the Dynamic Properties of Micro Air Vehicles
Abstract:The challenges in the operations of small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) in terms of required agility and benign flying qualities require a superior understanding of their basic flight mechanics and vehicle dynamics. Flight test data for MAVs are sparse, and wind tunnel unsteady aerodynamic data of MAVs with flexible wing structures are non-existent. Although progress has been made in the last decade, reliable MAV characterization requires the validation and support of experimental testing. The core component of the proposed project is the design of the robotic arm for accurate six degree-of-freedom (DOF) motions of a MAV in a wind tunnel with position and force/moment feedback. The proposed six-DOF apparatus will give the research community the possibility to explore new experimental boundaries; support ongoing numerical modeling on low speed aerodynamics, unsteady flight dynamics, and bio- inspired flight techniques; develop innovative control systems for highly flexible and articulated flying structures, and validate novel navigation algorithms. The resulting experimental apparatus will be especially beneficial to strengthening the relationship between the University of Florida REEF-RE2 team, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the AFRL by presenting dedicated instrumentation to be jointly used by researchers from the different organizations. BENEFIT: The proposed six-DOF motion test apparatus will give to the research community the possibility to explore new experimental boundaries in supporting ongoing numerical modeling for low-speed aerodynamics, unsteady flight dynamics, bio-inspired flight techniques, innovative control systems for highly flexible and articulated flying structures, and for validating novel navigation algorithms. The proposed test apparatus addresses important strategic needs from the Department of Defense in miniature autonomous air vehicle basic research and experimental capabilities. Other potential applications for the six-DOF device are wind tunnel simulation tests of wing load separation, highly dynamic motions, guidance and control research on biological specimens (e.g. hawkmoths, bees and dragonflies), and dynamics effects on propulsion systems (rotors, propellers and flapping wings). The civilian research community will also extract benefits from the proposed research on flight dynamics and aerodynamic unsteadiness and related experimental techniques. In particular the following applications are envisioned: • Experiments on the interaction between unsteady flow and the flexibility of miniature structures could improve the design of micro-disposable fliers for agricultural applications (artificial pollination). • High-DOF simulations can help research on high speed reentry dynamics for space missions. • The six-DOF device could be used to improve the level of flight capabilities and safety of educational flight simulators and scientific toys.

Crosslink
950 Bolger Ct.
St. Louis, MO 63026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 349-0050
Patrick J. Kinlen
AF 09-110      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Advanced Conductive-Polymer Based Antistatic Coating for Aircraft Canopy and Window Transparencies
Abstract:Crosslink proposes to develop a two-layer protective coating system for the protection of aircraft canopies and transparencies that meets the Air Force requirements for electrical and optical performance, durability, adhesion, and light transmission. The Crosslink system will utilize an organic polymer composition for each layer – an approach that promotes good adhesion, thermal stability, mechanical strength, and toughness. Crosslink’s technological innovation involves the use of conductive, transparent coatings based on newly-developed ICP materials and processing methods, and Crosslink will build upon its existing expertise in the development, manufacture, and sale of ICP-based transparent coatings for electronics and avionics applications. The outer coating layer, which affords abrasion resistance and chemical resistance, will be designed for ultraviolet (UV) curing so that high temperature processing is not required. The inner, or bottom, coating layer will serve as a grounding plane to prevent excessive electrostatic charge from accumulating on the canopy surface as a result of precipitation static. This approach is expected to enable the fabrication of low cost, easy-to-apply, transparent conductive coatings that are also compatible with field repair processes. BENEFIT: Crosslink presents a novel approach for the fabrication of durable, antistatic coatings as a solution for precipitation static which limits the life of current canopy coatings. Crosslink’s technological innovation involves the use of conductive, transparent coatings based on newly-developed ICP materials and processing methods, and Crosslink will build upon its existing expertise in the development, manufacture, and sale of ICP-based transparent coatings for electronics and avionics applications. The Crosslink program is expected to yield a prototype protective coating system suitable for optimization into a product for use on both military and commercial aircraft transparency structures. Crosslink has a successful, 10 year history as a developer and manufacturer of highly functional, thin-film conductive polymer materials for electroluminescent displays, ESD coatings, energy storage devices and sensors. The components of the new protective coating system are also expected to find applications in these products, for example, as anti-scratch and anti-static coatings for display surfaces and photovoltaic devices. Accordingly, Crosslink plans to derive and commercialize coating products for device applications from the technology developed here after completion of the program.

Eikos, Inc.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Paul Glatkowski
AF 09-110      Awarded: 1/19/2010
Title:Canopy/Transparency Advanced Coating Technology
Abstract:Eikos proposes to provide electrical conductivity to proven surface coating formulations to enable a complete solution to protect polymeric aircraft transparencies. Resultant nanocomposite coatings will provide the full range of protection to environmental and operational conditions by combining advanced rain erosion polymers with carbon nanotube conductors to form a highly durable transparent and conductive shield. The overall goal is to extend coating and canopy operational life by overcoming present issues with delamination, pinholes caused by static discharge and poor interfacial adhesion. The proposed approach allows deposition by common atmospheric processing methods that are scalable to coat large areas and complex curvature. Invisicon® nanotube technology will be used to form the conductive web across the surface that eliminates charge build up and the potential for electrical breakdown, thereby eliminating the primary mechanism of failure and greatly extending the lifetime of proven protective coatings. In this project Eikos will formulate, coat, and conduct a wide range of tests to demonstrate that enhanced protective coatings are capable of extraordinary operational lifetimes. BENEFIT: The worldwide transparency market is roughly 300M$/yr. This included all commercial aviation and military markets. US production of transparencies is <100M$/year and is dominated by commercial aerospace purchases that do not require p-static protection. The military market is difficult to measure but is likely between 20-40 M$/year most of that being cost associated with the windows structure and not the coating. Given the niche of a niche market potential for transparency protective coatings we can only estimate the potential market value of the p-static layer at a few 100K$/year. This however does not diminish the value brought by solving this problem since the entire transparency system fails when the coating fails, and very valuable assets become unavailable. Never the less, given the nature of this market Eikos intends to license IP and know-how to canopy producers and utilize any applicable technology advance develop during the project to pursue commercial applications.

Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-8988
Todd Heil
AF 09-110      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Self-Assembling Precipitation Static Coating for Aircraft Canopies
Abstract:Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc. (TA&T), with subcontractor Cima Nanotech (St. Paul, MN) and technical support from Texstars, Inc. (Grand Prarie, TX), propose an inexpensive, durable integrated coating system for aircraft canopies which possesses radio signature, erosion resistant, and electrostatic discharge (ESD) functionalities. The integrated coating will utilize Cima Nanotech’s transparent, self-assembling cellular SANTE film technology as the highly conductive radar signature film, and TA&T will develop UV- curable, nanoparticle-filled oligomer coatings with erosion resistance and ESD properties. Coatings on test coupons will be evaluated at the University of Dayton Research Institute and Texstars, Inc. BENEFIT: These multifunctional coatings could also be used on commercial aircraft canopies, as well as on electronics where electromagnetic interference shielding and/or antistatic properties of abrasion resistant transparent coatings are needed, such as touch-screen displays.

Indiana Microelectronics Company
5134 Brookstone Ct.
Indianapolis, IN 46268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 430-9269
Eric E. Hoppenjans
AF 09-111      Awarded: 1/21/2010
Title:Lead-free Solder Alternative Interconnect Material
Abstract:The purpose of this work is to characterize the environmental performance of a novel anisotropic conductive adhesive for the assembly of electronic components for military and aerospace markets. Electronic components that are attached to printed circuit board substrates using the anisotropic conductive adhesive will be subjected to thermally induced stress as well as steady state high temperature and humidity conditions. Results of these tests will be compared to the environmental performance of devices attached to an identical printed circuit board substrate using eutectic solder. The outcome of the study will provide a direct comparison of the environmental performance results of the novel epoxy attachment to the performance of a standard eutectic solder attachment. BENEFIT: The anticipated benifits of the study are the development and characterization of a low cost, novel, tin and lead free solder replacement. The material has the potential to be a suitable replacement for lead based solder formulations in many applications in the military, commercial, medical and aerospace industries.

Ormet Circuits, Inc.
10080 Willow Creek Road
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 831-0010
Catherine Shearer
AF 09-111      Awarded: 1/12/2010
Title:Lead-free Solder Alternative Interconnect Material
Abstract:The elimination of lead from most electronic assembly applications has had a number of repercussions. The low temperature alternatives suffer from detrimental performance and cost limitations. The high tin alloys have high process temperatures and a tendency to form tin whiskers, both of which have an impact on the reliability of the product. Low process temperature conductive adhesives have been developed, but do not offer the mechanical strength, thermal conductivity or electrical conductivity of metallurgically alloyed joints. Proposers offer an innovative approach that combines the low process temperature of conductive adhesives with the reliability and performance of solder. In the proposed approach, particles of copper and tin-based alloys are dispersed in an adhesive-flux binder to form a paste. The particles microsolder at standard tin-lead processing temperatures to form an alloyed metallic mesh encased in polymer adhesive. The alloy particles also form metallurgical bonds to the leads and pads. The encasing adhesive reinforces the matrix and acts as a stress sink. The hybrid approach consumes most of the tin in the composition into intermetallic structures, thus substantially reducing the potential for whisker formation. A fully alloyed matrix may thus be obtained at process temperatures below 200C. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the proposed effort will result in a hybrid solder-conductive adhesive material that can be used in applications requiring long-term reliability and for components that cannot withstand the high reflow temperatures of the high tin alloys. Markets for such materials would include military and aerospace due to the long life cycles of these devices as well as the long redesign cycles associated with these applications. Other market opportunities for these materials include low-end, high volume circuits such as RFID tags in which the substrate materials may not withstand the reflow environment. The nature of the the proposed materials also makes them ideal candidates for step soldering operations and for assembly of LED arrays to preserve the lifespan of the components.

TPF Enterprises LLC
2771 W Lake Rd
Wilson, NY 14172
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 791-1084
Alan Rae
AF 09-111      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:Lead-free Solder Alternative Interconnect Material
Abstract:Nano silver-coated copper pastes will be prepared and evaluated as an economic alternative to tin-lead or tin-silver copper paste for improved processability, properties and reliability combined with compatibitibility with legacy components and solder systems. BENEFIT: Compared with current lead-free solder systems these nano silver coated copper pastes will provide a lower processing temperature equivalent to tin-lead solder, acceptable economics, compliant and lightweight joints and compatibility with legacy and anticipated components and boards. The joints do not contain low-melting alloys subject to creep constraints at equipment operating temperatures, contain abundant metals and will be field processable with existing production and rework equipment.

ARC Technologies
11 Chestnut Street
Amesbury, MA 01913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 388-2993
Joeseph Rapuano
AF 09-112      Awarded: 3/16/2010
Title:Innovative Methods to Reduce Aircraft Outer Mold Line (OML) Repair Cycle Time
Abstract:Repair cycle time reduction is the most significant factor in this effort. Material development and all material candidates will be evaluated for cure and set times, post cure time conditions, material prep and handling time. The technical objectives are to develop concepts and provide polymeric material alternatives that will meet the desired electrical, mechanical and thermal performance of the aircraft to be repaired while significantly reducing overall down time for the aircraft. This new material(s) would not lose electrical performance during service life and would last a predictable amount of time. A key factor in material design is the benefit of being able to use the current application and cure tools available for the current methods. The current removal and application methods are restricted to plastic tooling, where no metal or sparking tools are allowed, and a combination of heat lamps, heat guns and heat blankets for any cures that need thermal energy to complete the repair are manual intensive with excessive cycle times. A combination of new materials, removal and prep techniques as well as application means will be reviewed to reduce overall repair cycle time and with the addition of new materials extend the current life expectancy. BENEFIT: Upon successful development of the fast cure repair materials, ARC could offer this same material to other branches of the Military as an alternative to current repair materials and methods. RAM repair is also useful on other Military vehicles such as Naval ships and periscope assemblies, other types of fixed wing and rotor aircraft and unmanned air vehicles. ARC could also offer these same materials as new products so that they would be used as the original installation on vehicles, extending service life from the start.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-2505
James Garrett
AF 09-112      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Cure On Demand Conductive Sealant for Rapid OML Repair
Abstract:The use of sealants in aircraft assembly and repair is extensive. Sealants are used to wet install fasteners, for sealing overlapping surfaces, for butt joints between panels, and for seam sealing. Aerospace sealants are typically two component polysulfide or polythioether compositions that can cure by oxidation, for example with MnO2, or by cross linking with epoxy resins. In order to engineer a sealant with rapid cure, the open time must be extremenly short. Premixed and frozen sealants have improved storage and application, but there is still room for enhancement. In this Phase I program, Luna proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating cure on demand functionality into a conductive aerospace adhesive. The resulting product would be one that does not need to be premixed, is stable at room temperature, has a long open time, and cures quickly when desired. In the Phase I program, Luna will develop the cure on demand resin chemistry, formulate a conductive sealant, and demonstrate application and performance properties. BENEFIT: The development of the cure on demand resin technology will be applicable to a range of sealants and adhesives for commercial and military aerospace applications. The cure on demand sealant will save costs and increase efficiency by avoiding critical mixing steps. Waste will also be significantly reduced because only the sealant that is used is cured. Unlike standard two component selants, unused Luna sealant will remain uncured and can be used later.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Shilpa Pradhan
AF 09-112      Awarded: 12/18/2009
Title:Flexible Infrared Curing System
Abstract:The growing use of composites in military aircraft and the corresponding rise in repair complexity, particularly in low-visibility fighter and bomber aircraft material, necessitates advances in curing technology, in particular, the development of a method that targets cure time reduction and thus allows aircraft maintenance crew to accelerate the repair cycle of aircraft outer mold line (OML). To address this Air Force need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Flexible Infrared Curing (FIRC) system. This proposed device is based on novel integration of an array of high-intensity infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and POC’s patented light-shaping diffusers to provide high-power IR heating source for curing. These innovations enable the low observable coating being heated from the inside out without heating the air as in a conventional oven. Combined with its flexible structure, the FIRC system provides user the capability of fast and effective curing even on cured surfaces and accelerates the repair cycle for current stealth B-2 and F-22 materials. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of FIRC by developing a proof-of-concept prototype to demonstrate repair cycle time reduction. In Phase II, we plan to develop a fully functional prototype FIRC and conduct field tests. BENEFIT: Military applications of the FIRC system will include reduced repair cycle time for material stack-ups that decrease maintenance time and increase the pace of flying the aircraft as frequently as required. The FIRC system can be incorporated by the U.S. Air Force into the next generation fighter and bomber aircraft for in-field repair, which will benefit from FIRC technology. The proposed FIRC system can be incorporated by all commercial planes, automobiles, and boats to shorten cure time during manufacturing and repair.

Illionix, LLC
3015 206th Way NE
Sammamish, WA 98074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 501-2151
Yanqing Du
AF 09-113      Awarded: 1/13/2010
Title:Non-Destructive Measurements of Multi-Layer Coatings Using Spatially Modulated Dielectrometry
Abstract:Existing field-compatible coating thickness measurement systems are not capable of advanced material coating characterization. With rapidly rising percentages of advanced composite materials used in manufacturing military and civil aircraft, many of these systems, including magnetic and simple capacitance meters, are becoming obsolete. Illionix, LLC proposes to develop an advanced coating evaluation system based on spatially modulated dielectrometry. The expected outcome of this project is a highly versatile hand-held instrument capable of non-contact in-process evaluation of advanced multi-layer coating systems. Information provided by spatially modulated dielectrometry sensors for each individual layer in a coating stack-up will include layer thickness, degree of cure, and an estimate of post-cure complex dielectric permittivity. In Phase I, the effort will be aimed at evaluating the sensor system using laboratory-prepared two-layer coating system samples of various thicknesses and degrees of cure consisting of polyurethane primer (BMS 10-72) and topcoat (MIL-C-85285C) spray-painted onto a composite substrate (BSM 8-276). In Phase II, a hand-held prototype will be developed with a property estimation algorithm that will be further expanded to cover an arbitrary number of layers and a range of sample temperatures. Calibration curves for a range of military and commercial aircraft coating materials and substrates will be developed. BENEFIT: The main benefit of developing and integrating the proposed spatially modulated dielectrometry coating evaluation system into the initial and refurbishment aircraft coating processes is the added capability to measure the coating system properties in-process, while the coatings are not completely cured. This capability will help to avoid the very laborious, expensive, and environmentally damaging process of coating stripping and subsequent repainting. The proposed sensor system has a number of potential commercial applications outside of the aerospace industry. Some of the identified applications include sensor automation of the painting process of naval ship hulls, industrial painting quality control systems for automotive industry, and a number of possible applications that would benefit from the proposed sensor’s ability to monitor the curing process as well as spatial profiles of dielectric properties non-invasively.

JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Yanko Sheiretov
AF 09-113      Awarded: 12/23/2009
Title:Characterization of Multilayer Coatings Using Shaped Field Electromagnetic Sensor Arrays
Abstract:In this program we will develop the capability to rapidly characterize, over large areas, the properties of multi-layer coatings used in specialized aircraft for electrostatic and electromagnetic integrity. The measured coating properties will be the thickness of the conducting layer, the conductivity and/or magnetic permeability of the conducting layer, and the thickness of the nonconducting transition and topcoat layers. At the core of the proposed approach are JENTEK’s MWM-Arrays, which are inductive, eddy-current-based sensors, fabricated on conformable flexible substrates, and JENTEK’s multivariate inverse methods, used to obtain simultaneous and independent estimates of multiple unknown material properties from MWM-Array measurements. This proposed technology has several substantial advantages over existing inspection methods: (1) the MWM- Arrays are operated in scanning mode, producing spatially registered, two-dimensional (C-scan) digital images of coating properties over large areas in real time; (2) no reference standards are required; (3) information is provided on multiple material properties in a single pass. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) will support JENTEK in the performance of this proposed Phase I program. BENEFIT: If this program is successful, the Air Force would be provided with a tool to detect and image the thickness of individual layers of a multi-layer coating stack and the electromagnetic properties of the conducting layer. This would reduce maintenance costs and improve fleet readiness and mission capability. The commercial market for characterization of multi-layered coatings is substantial, including commercial aerospace, spacecrafts, and corrosion protection systems.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 743-1110
David J. Cook
AF 09-113      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:THz Multi-layer Coating Thickness Sensor
Abstract:PSI proposes to develop a multi-layer coating thickness sensor to be used for aircraft maintenance. This sensor will use time domain THz technology to determine the thickness of coatings above an electrically conductive coating based on the timing of reflected pulses from the interfaces between the coatings. In the Phase I effort, we will characterize the THz absorption and index of refraction of the coatings and determine the best strategy for measuring the thicknesses of the two coatings above the conductive layer. This characterization effort will be followed with a laboratory demonstration of a multi-layer coating thickness measurement. Signal processing strategies for extraction of the coating thickness will also be pursued. Finally, a preliminary design of the Phase II prototype will be completed, and vendors for critical components will be identified. The proposed research is poised to take advantage of PSI’s previous efforts to develop a real-time paint thickness sensor for marine paints. In the Phase II program, a prototype sensor optimized specifically for the inspection needs of the Air Force will be constructed and the performance of this sensor will be evaluated. BENEFIT: This program will generate a sensor capable of measuring coating thicknesses in multi-layer aircraft coatings. This sensor will be used to calibrate tools that are used to inspect the integrity of conductive coatings used on aircraft. This sensor will enable Air Force personnel to reliably inspect conductive aircraft coatings. We anticipate commercial applications to include a variety of NDE (non-destructive evaluation) requirements in coated items.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
J. H. Lalli
AF 09-114      Awarded: 12/9/2009
Title:Permanently Tacky, Repositionable, Enduring Adhesives for Reduced Outer Mold Line Maintenance
Abstract:NanoSonic specializes in the design and synthesis of non-commodity, wide service temperature range (-120C to > 350C), polar poly(organosiloxanes) pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). NanoSonic has demonstrated that the mole fraction of polar sidechain units dictates the adhesive peel strength; and the mole fraction of crosslink sites, or crosslink density, controls the adhesive failure mode. For this program, repositionable, permanently tacky PSAs with adhesive peel strength of ≥ 2 lbf/in. (per ASTM D 903) and adhesive failure (at the adhesive-substrate interface, rather than within the adhesive bondline) are offered. The advanced PSAs with in-situ ultra-hydrophobic nanostructured modifiers are expected to result in decreased outer mold line maintenance, leave no residue or damage upon removal, and significantly improve long-term durability in hot-wet environments (≥ 95% humidity). Together, the advanced PSA and primer are expected to significantly reduce the Direct Maintenance Man Hours per Flight Hour (DMMH/FH). TRLs of 5 and 7 would be achieved completion of the Phase I and Phase II programs via demonstration of joining extruded polymer parts to military aircraft panels in a wind tunnel alongside current-off-the-shelf PSAs. TRL 9 would be reached via successful flight testing and PSA integration onto legacy and future military and civil aircraft. BENEFIT: The PSAs with in-situ nanostructured hydrophobic primers shall be developed as long term durability adhesives for bonding polymer extruded parts to military aircraft panels. Additional applications for the ultra-hydrophobic, nanostructured, modifiers and high performance, halogenated, POSS-copolymers include moisture/corrosion mitigating structural aerospace adhesives, anti-ice conformal coatings and gamma radiation resistant composites. At the systems level, the moisture resistant, environmentally tunable adhesive systems would prevent the spontaneous bond dissociation associated with water wicking at the metal-epoxy interface of bonded joints. In humid environments, diffusion through the bulk epoxy adhesive on composite- composite bonded joints would be mitigated via a reduction in the free volume of the water permeable epoxy. The universal nanostructured modifiers could therefore support composite or metal aircraft substructures. Of importance to manufacturability and dual- use commercialization, the novel modifying agents are inert, inorganic-organic hybrid, halogenated copolymers, and can therefore be used with virtually any adhesive, paint or environmental aerospace materials systems.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Jason Dieffenbacher
AF 09-114      Awarded: 1/12/2010
Title:Advanced Pressure Sensitive Adhesive for Low Observable Outer Mold Line Repair (1001-445)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc addresses the Air Force¡¦s need to develop a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) which can dramatically reduce the time to repair damage to low observable structures on the outer mold line (OML) of aircraft. The PSA will provide a continuous service temperature from -65oF to 250„aF, support -3G to +9G maneuver loads, and resist jet fuel, hydraulic fluids, lube oils, and de-ice fluid. Based on the molecular design and the fundamental chemistry, Triton¡¦s team will formulate its new PSA meeting the Air Force¡¦s PSA requirements. BENEFIT: Repairing Low Observable coverings on the F-22 is extremely time consuming. Reducing the time to repair the outer mold line structures with an easy-to-use pressure sensitive adhesive can result in dramatic cost savings, as well as improving the tooth-to-tail ratio of this platform. This may be carried over directly to other military platforms such as the F-35 JSF, and may have indirect applications for commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.

CeraNova Corporation
P. O. Box 278
Hopkinton, MA 01748
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 460-0300
Mark V. Parish
AF 09-115      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Conformal Infrared Window with Structural and Distributed Aperture Capability for Airborne Platforms
Abstract:Future air vehicles (both military and commercial) will benefit from sensor windows that conform to the shape of the airframe. A critical factor limiting the placement of infrared transparencies in airborne platforms is the structural limitations that current window materials possess. Conformal windows made from materials with higher toughness and durability would have improved structural performance enabling placement in highly stressed, load bearing locations on airborne platforms. The challenge in selecting and processing these materials is to increase the fracture toughness, and hence the durability, with minimal effect on optical properties – high transmission and reduced scatter must be maintained. CeraNova’s proposed approach involves the development and evaluation of ceramic oxide composites. We propose two composite systems: 1) alumina + spinel, and 2) alumina + diamond. Appropriate processing of nanopowders will result in composites with nanograined microstructures having high strength, high toughness, high transmission, and low scatter. CeraNova will build on its accumulated expertise in the areas of processing, shaping, evaluating and fabricating transparent polycrystalline ceramic oxides and composites to address the objectives of this program. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this program will result in new ceramic oxide nanocomposites possessing high strength and toughness, along with high transmission and low scattering in the MWIR. In addition, the knowledge and experience gained on powder processing, shape forming and testing of composite systems will help to broaden the application of transparent ceramics in load-bearing applications such as conformal windows on aircraft.

Surmet Corporation
31 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-4091
Nagendra Nag
AF 09-115      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Structurally Reinforced Omni-Functional Near Net Geometry Windows
Abstract:RF signature requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal window for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of current windows and window assemblies. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metal with transparent ceramic) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet’s demonstrated ability to produce novel ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce load bearing windows, in conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate metal structures into ceramic windows also holds out the promise of creating Omni-functional windows which might include RF antennas in addition to providing IR transparency. This approach is the basis for the current proposal entitled Structurally Reinforced OmNi-functional Geometric (STRONG) windows. Surmet is uniquely qualified to perform this development effort, given our demonstrated competence in ALON and spinel processing. Surmet proposes to develop full sized ALON or Spinel windows toughened with energy-absorbing reinforcements (metallic, polymer or elastomer). The reinforcement properties, dimensions, spacing can be well controlled to simultaneously provide desired transmission (>80%) and structural properties viz strength of >500 MPa and fracture toughness of ~5 MPa.m1/2. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this program will result in a fabrication of structural and optically transparent ceramics with OmNi-functional capabilities. The commercial opportunity for this technology may extend to the fabrication of other specific applications for transparent ceramics, such as for smart windows, sensors, specialized equipment for chemical processing equipment, etc.

Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-1656
Keith Rozenburg
AF 09-115      Awarded: 1/21/2010
Title:Conformal Infrared Window with Structural and Distributed Aperture Capability for Airborne Platforms
Abstract:Technology Assessment and Transfer, Inc. of Millersville, MD proposes an innovative technique for creating a high strength, high toughness mid-wave infrared transparent material based on their highly successful spinel product. This material is being designed for use in the distributed aperture systems found on platforms such as the F-35 Lightning II. The proposed material will take advantage nano-scale strengthening mechanisms. BENEFIT: If successful, this material would be ground breaking not only in the fields of infrared optics but also ultralight transparent armor. This innovation would also lower the cost and improve the quality of consumer products such as tactile displays.

Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Richard Hreha
AF 09-116      Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:All-Polymer Conductive Gap Filler through Liquid Crystal Templating
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes the further development of conductive liquid crystalline elastomer materials and to demonstrate improved performance of this system as an enabling technology for conductive gap filler in aircraft outer mold line. CRG has already demonstrated the feasibility of conductive liquid crystalline elastomer in prior work and further research will improve the performance of this material system and capitalize on knowledge obtained in previous DoD effort. The proposed conductive elastomers provide the means to enhance performance and increase service life of conductive gap filler through high elasticity, durability, chemical resistance, and low weight, thereby reducing the need for maintenance, increasing mission readiness, and reducing cost. BENEFIT: Operational Benefits: (1) Enhanced durability and conductivity over conventional filled elastomers (2) Reduced weight of conductive elastomer and reduced operating cost, and (3) Processable into final products by conventional molding and injection. Commercial Applications: (1) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding for wiring and electronics, (2) Electrostatic dissipation of packaging and structural materials, and (3) Flexible electronics.

Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Rock Rushing
AF 09-116      Awarded: 3/16/2010
Title:Material Approaches to Mitigate Gap Filler Cracking
Abstract:Development of crack resistant conductive gap-fillers fits within the Air Force’s goal of investing in low observable maintenance improvements that will decrease sustainment costs and reduce aircraft downtime. Commercially available gap-fillers are initially effective, but performance degrades under thermal and mechanical fatigue resulting in microcracks within the matrix. Mitigation of cracking will be approached by the development of high endurance elastomeric resins capable of infusing into existing treated gaps in situ. While mitigation of cracking with currently approved gap-fillers is a prudent step in solving the problem, development of new elastomeric matrix resins is also needed to prevent the need for mitigation. A parallel approach will involve the development more durable elastomeric matrix resins capable of delivering the required conductivity and fatigue resistance. The combination of mechanical and thermal fatigue generates the most aggressive stresses for gap-fillers on aircraft, where temperatures within the range of -65oF to 250oF are experienced. These stresses occur as a result of differential thermal expansion and modulus changes in the gap-filler material. Experiments will be conducted to replicate these stresses in the laboratory in order to determine the effect of crack mitigation techniques on extended durability. The project team assembled includes a major gap-filler producer and airframe manufacturers. BENEFIT: Mitigation of cracking within gap-fillers will benefit many modern fighter/bomber platforms by reducing maintenance costs and downtimes. Commercial aircraft could potentially benefit as well from the development of high endurance sealant matrix materials.

Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation
2545 Farmers Drive Suite 200
Columbus, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 451-8322
Wei-Tsu Wu
AF 09-117      Awarded: 12/24/2009
Title:Integrated Processing and Probabilistic Lifing Models for Superalloy Turbine Disks
Abstract:Integrating process modeling capabilities with probabilistic lifing methods will greatly help the jet engine industry in improving fatigue life predictions and risk assessment of jet engine disk components. Fatigue life of a nickel based superalloy disk component is greatly influenced by the bulk residual stresses resulting from prior thermo-mechanical processing, service conditions, microstructural features and material anomalies such as inclusions and pores. Using the integrated process modeling system DEFORM, it is possible to predict the evolution of critical life limiting factors during thermo-mechanical processing (cogging, forging, heat treatment and machining processes) of a jet engine disk component. Currently there is no capability available where the detailed manufacturing process modeling results can be directly used in probabilistic lifing analysis. Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation is teaming with Southwest Research Institute® in this project to develop a framework to link the process modeling system, DEFORM with the probabilistic lifing modeling system DARWIN®. At the end of phase I, we intend to demonstrate a proof of concept model for linking DEFORM and DARWIN, specifically studying the effects of residual stress predictions from DEFORM under thermo-mechanical processing conditions on probabilistic lifing predictions of DARWIN for a generic jet engine disk. We will investigate a modeling framework for process optimization in DEFORM to effectively link process modeling results with probabilistic lifing method predictions. We propose to define an infrastructure in DEFORM to include sensitivity analysis and probabilistic models, specifically to address uncertainties in processing conditions, material data and boundary conditions. Our team will work closely with all the major jet engine OEMs to develop an implementation plan so as to maximize the benefits of linking processing models with probabilistic lifing methods. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that a proposed link between process modeling results of DEFORM and DARWIN will enhance the accuracy of fatigue life and risk assessment of jet engine components, thus greatly benefiting the jet engine industry. Integrating process modeling with probabilistic lifing will provide more accurate predictions of rotor fatigue life and its variability by including location-specific descriptions of residual stress evolution resulting from prior thermo-mechanical processes as well as the service conditions along with microstructural characteristics, and material anomaly size and orientation. Building a link between manufacturing processing models and probabilistic lifing analysis will facilitate a genuine Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) methodology in analyzing the design and manufacture of a jet engine component. This would make it possible to optimize the design process and improve component performance by directly incorporating material and manufacturing variables into the assessment of component lifing and reliability. This link will also provide an improved understanding of interaction of microstructural features and residual stresses on mechanical property response under service conditions. It is expected that this link will help in understanding and optimizing the

VEXTEC Corporation
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Robert Tryon
AF 09-117      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Integrated Processing and Probabilistic Lifing Models for Superalloy Turbine Disks
Abstract:There is a critical need for integrated material prediction tools to assure the United States future competitiveness and national security. Extensive libraries of integrated computational tools are available for structures, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, electronics and manufacturing. These tools have radically reduced the time required to optimize new products for decreased cost and increased performance. However, analogous computational tools are not widely used in materials engineering. As a result, the product design and development cycle now outpaces the materials development cycle, leading to a considerable mismatch. The object of this SBIR is to develop techniques to link validated processing models that predict the following: (a) location-specific microstructure, (b) location-specific size distribution of life-limiting microstructural features resulting from variations in process parameters, and (c) complete distribution of the bulk residual stresses, with probabilistic microstructure-sensitive component life prediction codes. The work plan is based on VEXTEC’s core competency in developing multidisciplinary probabilistic frameworks that integrate computational deterministic models for each of several disciplines to create stochastic system simulations. The techniques allows for uncertainty at each discipline to be tracked within the system model. Thus the sensitivities of the modeling parameters that drive the low life component are quantified. BENEFIT: New materials insertion into a new designs takes 10 to 20 years. New computational materials engineering tools integrated with existing product development processes will not only assure our nation security needs but reinforce the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers. These tools promise to shorten the materials development by up to 80%.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Benjamin Beck
AF 09-118      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Robust, Rapid Cure Structural Film Adhesive for On-Aircraft Repair
Abstract:On-aircraft repair of systems with sensitive equipment require adhesives that possess mild curing conditions/temperatures and that rapidly achieve a lap shear strength of 2500 psi or greater as these materials will have to bear considerable loads. It is necessary to develop an adhesive that cures at less than 300°F yet maintains high structural strength up to 350°F under hot, wet conditions. Luna Innovations has developed a reactive hot melt adhesive based on polyurethanes which are applied at temperatures below 100°C (<210°F) upon full cure have a Tg greater than 200°C (> 400°F) Using thiol functional endgroups, Luna will improve upon the moisture cured polyurethane to provide a robust, rapidly curing RHM adhesive. The novel polyurethane adhesive system will be comprised entirely of commercially available monomers, and will possess similar storage, handling and processing properties of traditional film adhesives. BENEFIT: The proposed reactive hot melt adhesive based on thiol-ene functional polyurethanes will be a profound example of combining industrially relevant know-how with the cutting edge of synthetic organic chemistry to produce novel materials with exciting new properties and applications. In academia, thiol-ene and other click chemistries have been ever becoming more popular approaches to achieve complex molecular architectures through efficient reactions. Researchers at Luna Innovations Incorporated make it a high priority to transfer these breakthroughs into useful, commercial applications both to solve the needs of the Air Force and to provide better living through chemistry.

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
2711 Lance Drive
Moraine, OH 45409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-3713
Jason E. Lincoln
AF 09-118      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Novel Structural Adhesives for On-Aircraft Repair
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovative Research Program will develop and demonstrate a novel class of high performance structural adhesives with exceptional adhesive strength, toughness, environmental durability, and processing characteristics engineered for on-aircraft repair of advanced composites. Advanced aircraft structures utilize composite materials for weight reduction, improved corrosion resistance and fatigue durability over metallic alloys, but are prone to damage during service. In order to repair damaged elements, structural adhesive bonding is employed to enable load transfer and return the damaged component to acceptable performance requirements. For component maintainability, safety, design limitations, cost, and Warfighter readiness, on-aircraft repair of damaged composite structures is the preferred or, in some cases, required, means of aircraft maintenance. Existing structural adhesives were designed for autoclave processes, not for the limited processing restrictions of on-aircraft repair. Under this Phase I SBIR effort, combining P2SI’s adhesives technology with input from our industrial partners, the P2SI Team will develop and demonstrate a novel class of hybrid adhesives that meet the performance and processing objectives of this SBIR solicitation: namely, a vacuum bag only, volatile-free, structural film adhesive with 177°C hot/wet shear strength of at least 17.2 MPa. BENEFIT: The proposed adhesives have potential for on- aircraft repair of military and commercial aircraft, as well as improved performance over existing state of the art adhesives for structural bonding applications. Legacy as well as new commercial and military systems will benefit from this technology.

AlphaSense, Inc.
28 Hillstream Road
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 294-0116
Pengcheng Lv
AF 09-120      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:A Novel Automated and Controlled Dual Laser Ablation System for Selective Removal of Thermal Barrier Coatings
Abstract:Thermal barrier coatings have been widely used to provide thermal protection to superalloy components in gas turbine engines. After certain amount of service time, the coating experiences a reduction in thickness by processes such as wear, erosion and foreign/domestic object damage. When the thickness decreases below a critical value, the thermal barrier effect provided by the coating is no longer adequate, resulting in premature component failure. Repair and rework of such coatings typically require complete removal of the TBC. Currently, the TBC removal is done via a combination of autoclave, caustic and acidic solutions, and grit blast. Such a method is not selective and can not be easily controlled. In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. (AI) and the University of Michigan (UM) detail the development of a novel automated and controlled dual laser ablation system for selective TBC removal. With our approach, the merits of the proposed system has the following merits: a) Fast materials removal rate, b) Virtually no collateral damage to the bond coat and substrate, c) Capable of avoiding the cooling holes, d) Fully automatic process, and e) Suitable for a wide variety of coatings and substrates. BENEFIT: The most straightforward military application is to remove the thermal barrier coatings on the turbine engines for maintenance and repair. Since it allows fast materials removal and virtually no collateral damage to the bond coat and substrate, it can also be used to produce precise and superior quality cooling holes in the coating. Such a dual laser ablation system can also be used by commercial turbine engine manufacturers for similar purposes. Other than thermal barrier coatings, the final product can also be used in other materials and coating system, including primer, adhesive materials and paint. Furthermore, the fs- LIBS spectroscopy to be developed under the current program can reveal materials chemical compositions, and provide a virtually non- invasive method for chemical analysis. Therefore, it can be used in wide areas spanning from airport security and border security application(explosive, biological agent, illicit drug and landmine detection), environmental monitoring (soil contaminations, air or water quality surveillance), industrial processing by materials analysis (mineral resources, impurities, quality control, sorting), biomedical studies (teeth and bones), and art works analysis. The potential market for our proposed system is huge. We estimate that the potential market for the above- mentioned market sectors can easily exceed $100M.

Mound Laser & Photonics Center, Inc.
P.O. Box 223
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4429
Carl Druffner
AF 09-120      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Innovative Methods for Automated Controlled Removal of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) and Bondcoats from Turbine Airfoils for Rework and Repair
Abstract:MLPC will develop a laser ablation method for precise removal of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) from aircraft engine parts. Worn TBC eventually needs to be stripped and replaced from airfoils. Current industry practice is to remove the TBC by grit blast or chemical techniques that lack precision, are labor and waste intensive, and risk part damage. The laser stripping method will use laser ablation, guided by spectroscopic feedback that monitors the composition of the ablation plume, to allow for precise depth removal. The laser method will allow stripping of TBC while leaving the bond layer intact or removal of the bond layer as well without damaging the base metal casting. Additionally, spectroscopy guided laser drilling will be used to demonstrate a method of TBC thickness mapping based on depth measurement of very small pilot holes. The technology will result in process step reduction, elimination of chemical waste, reduction of damage to turbine blades, improved success of reapplication of TBC and reduced need to sacrifice parts to verify quality of replaced TBC. This program has strong collaborative support from an Air Force prime contractor that is providing materials to support the development effort and guidance toward military and commercial transition. BENEFIT: Laser stripping and thickness mapping of TBCs will replace current grit blast and chemical processes. It will increase the precision of removal, eliminate chemical waste, reduce labor input, and improve worker safety. Part damage will be reduced and the need for destructive evaluation of expensive sacrificial parts will be eliminated. The likelihood of infant failure of new TBC coatings will be reduced. All of this, along with enhance the life of engine parts and attendant reduction of life cycle costs for engines and minimization of the down time of platforms during engine overhaul or repair will result in large cost savings for the military with respect to aircraft engines.

PhotoMachining, Inc.
4 Industrial Park Drive, Unit #40
Pelham, NH 03076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 882-9944
Ronald D. Schaeffer
AF 09-120      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Innovative Methods for Automated Controlled Removal of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) and Bondcoats from Turbine Airfoils for Rework and Repair
Abstract:This proposal uses commercially available products in a new and unique way to deliver multiple laser beams to the target simultaneously in order to increase processing efficiency. We will demonstrate the idea using mostly low power lasers available to us, but it can be scaled up using larger lasers. In addition, we will investigate methods of process monitoring to determine when the metal layer has been reached. We hope to demonstrate cycle times of less than 10 minutes per part and compare our data with other available methods. The method should address TCB thickness variations (0.005" - 0.020"), end point detection, no damage to underlying layers and zero recast. BENEFIT: Anticipated results will be applicable to not only removal of TBC coatings, but should also have application in other areas such as high speed hole drilling. The proposed Phase I work will determine the fundamental laser parameters required to controllably remove TBC coatings at high speed. This includes the optical set up and controlled feedback loops. Variations on the optical set up and choice of laser could be used in a variety of other areas, but in the aerospace/defense arena as well as the commercial manufacturing arena.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
David B. Kynor
AF 09-121      Awarded: 1/29/2010
Title:Small Hole Measurement System
Abstract:The efficient, effective measurement of small drilled holes continues to be a challenge for key aerospace applications. While manufacturing methods for fabricating holes have improved significantly over the last ten years, measurement and metrology methods have not advanced at the same pace. Modern jet engine parts may contain tens of thousands of holes along with the requirement that the aggregate air flow rate through the part be controlled to within 10%. In order to assure that these specifications are met, parts must be periodically removed from the production machine and evaluated using air flow testing, which is a very time-consuming process. The goal of this project is development of a method of measuring small holes that overcomes the primary shortcomings of existing methods, specifically: (1) the need to interrupt the production process to make periodic air flow measurements, (2) the limited accuracy of current hole measurement techniques—especially when used on very small, angled holes, and (3) the inability to correct for inconsistencies in the fabrication process. BENEFIT: The technology developed on this project will provide a new methodology for real time characterization of small holes in precision engine parts. Use of technology is expected to reduce part to part variability and dramatically reduce production time and cost.

Scientific Applications & Research Assoc., Inc.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Sy Hamadani
AF 09-121      Awarded: 1/13/2010
Title:Measurement of Small Holes by Confocal Microscopy
Abstract:Drilling of cooling holes in the manufacture of modern jet engine components makes use of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), Laser and Waterjet technologies. Quality control of the size of the holes and the resultant coolant air flow is a time consuming step usually carried out by labor intensive manual pin-gage testing. While novel Automated Vision Inspection (AVI) systems has been developed that can optically acquire hole size information, analyze the data individually, statistically or collectively, and interface with the laser drilling workstation in a rapid, on-line fashion. Based on the proprietary feedback software, the system is capable of altering the laser drilling program in such a way as to change the size of the next holes to be drilled, keeping the overall quality requirements within specified limits and bringing the drilling process into control in real time. This procedure allows for the inspection and quality control operations to occur automatically without human intervention, and shortens the overall cycle time considerably. The system can automatically process holes of arbitrary shape for straight thru, angled or blind holes. BENEFIT: The benefits of our proposed approach are numerous and both technical and economical in nature. From the technical point of view, automated inspection of holes and feedback to the drilling station allows the system to directly alter the drilling parameters on-the-fly, and keep final flow within the desired range. This automated feedback loop replaces lengthy manual operator interventions, increases accuracy, speed and repeatability. We aim at reducing cycle times by a factor of two, and flow variability from +/- 10 % to +/- 2.5%. In addition, we cam achieve higher accuracy of individual hole measurements 0f ~0.1 µm. This is more than two orders of magnitudes smaller than the present pin gage measurement capability of 0.001” (25 µm). Financially, the approach presents a realistic potential for reducing the cost of the JSF program (primary market) by ~$200M. When combined with the potential applications in commercial avionics, electronics and medical hole drilling applications (secondary markets) the potential cost savings are estimated at ~$2B over the next thirty years.

SURVICE Engineering Company
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 273-7722
Greg Robinson
AF 09-121      Awarded: 1/20/2010
Title:Small-Hole Measurement Techniques
Abstract:The proposed research and development effort integrates the latest in high-performance non-contact metrology technology with a focus on streamlining the measurement-to- analysis capabilities for small holes machined in engine turbine blades. The effort couples an interactive point data collection and retrieval system with high fidelity image scanning tools to measure geometric aspects of engine turbine blade cooling holes. In addition, it establishes the methodology necessary to create a 3D spatial model of the turbine blade with the as machined holes to support CAD model mapping and cooling film effectiveness modeling. The result is the framework for a comprehensive inspection tool that provides a means to evaluate the cooling effects provided by the machined holes, while establishing an immediate method to capture basic geometric data, such as hole diameter and eccentricity, that can be used to compare with specific design data. BENEFIT: The benefits of the proposed solution not only meets the immediate need/requirement for accurately measuring the fine details of small holes, but also supports the larger aspect of supporting as-built engineering analysis and disposition process through modern analytical tools.

Acree Technologies Incorporated
1980 Olivera Ave Suite D
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Mike McFarland
AF 09-124      Awarded: 1/19/2010
Title:Passive, Wireless Sensors for Turbine Engine Airfoils
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a nanoparticle inkjet process to fabricate wireless temperature and pressure sensors on turbine engine airfoils for Integrated System Health Management. The approach will use a circuit constructed of passive components that will readout the temperature or pressure. The state of the sensor circuit will be determined by the resonant response from an outside transmitter/receiver. The sensors will be constructed from proven high-temperature materials that meet the project goal of stable material properties up to 650° C (1200° F). BENEFIT: The development of low cost, robust, high temperature sensors will allow: 1) For measuring the operating parameters in extremely hot environments such as the compressor and turbine sections to validate computer modeling codes, 2) Allow active control of pressure surges in turbine engines, 3) Allow the ability to diagnose turbine engine system health and estimate component capability for future missions, thereby reducing the cost of ownership 4) And help reduce the significant costs of testing and qualifying turbine engines.

Environetix Technologies Corporation
20 Godfrey Drive
Orono, ME 04473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 866-6500
George Harris
AF 09-124      Awarded: 12/24/2009
Title:Passive, Wireless Sensors for Turbine Engine Airfoils
Abstract:This project will demonstrate the performance of prototype wireless, passive microwave acoustic temperature sensors in a high temperature lab environment, including demonstration of stable operation at 650oC (1200oF) for more than 250 hours. The proposed sensor technology is based on patented technology developed at the University of Maine, consisting of microwave acoustic devices fabricated using stable high temperature films and substrates, and licensed to Environetix Technologies Corporation for further product development and commercialization. The tasks performed during this Phase I effort will focus on (i) development of a wireless interrogation system and investigations of the associated antenna; (ii) comprehensive testing of the reliability, resolution, and accuracy of sensor prototypes; and (iii) maturation of strategies for sensor attachment and adhesion to turbine blade materials. The technology is being developed to target in situ monitoring directly on rotating turbine blades and at other strategic locations within a turbine engine in high temperature and high pressure environments. The proposed product is expected to respond to DoD needs, and be incorporated in future jet engine tests leading to routine application in ground-and-flight operations. BENEFIT: Advancing the technology readiness level (TRL) of Environetix’s proposed wireless, passive high temperature sensor technology will lead to future demonstration and deployment of multisensor arrays within turbine engines for on-ground and in-flight Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM). Environetix’s roadmap for development towards commercialization includes sensor technology demonstrations in jet engines in collaboration with potential partners including the Air National Guard, Vextec Inc., Pratt & Whitney, Rolls Royce, and General Electric. The technology also has potential applications in a variety of hypersonic vehicle, hot structures, power generation, automotive, and industrial process control environments.

ALPHA STAR
5199 E. PACIFIC COAST HWY SUITE # 410
LONG BEACH, CA 90804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 985-1100
FRANK ABDI
AF 09-125      Awarded: 1/6/2010
Title:Physics-based Life Prediction Model Incorporating Environmental Effects for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract:Continuous fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC ceramics matrix composite (CMC) material is being considered in an advanced gas turbine engine intended for an aircraft or an industrial power generation system, for high temperature capability, possibly with added protection from environmental or thermal barrier coating. CMC engine parts in military/commercial vehicles allow engines to operate at higher temperatures than what a typical superalloy with or without a barrier coating can withstand, and it also significantly reduce engine weight. A successful insertion of CMC’s, particularly in Air Force’s aircraft engines, will also need to sustain aggressive corrosive environment due to “salt” attack on top of considerable damage caused by oxygen and moisture in the combustor fuel. Multidisciplinary physics-based analytical modeling proposed here deals with microstructural damages occurring due to environmental effects, such as, oxidation, recession etc., and it could be an important tool for designing and continually monitoring the health of these critical components in service. Demonstration of such a life prediction tool, which will correlate actual thermochemical and micromechanical damage processes with mechanical response, will shorten the mechanical design and analysis process of CMC components, thereby lowering cost and leading to higher reliability. These benefits will also be relevant for other NASA, DOE and DOD supported CMC application programs for power generation industries where higher temperature and lesser quality fuel will cause these damages to become more severe. BENEFIT: The application of CMC engine parts in military war fighters allows engines to operate in higher temperatures and will reduce the engine weight significantly. Analytical modeling strategy in CMC gas turbine engine design and application is an important complement to test investigation, which reduces test costs and shortens the design-to-production cycle of CMC engines. The proposed development of the micromechanical modeling technique and structural analytical tool will enable its transition to JSF and other military aircraft propulsion systems. Future use may involve hypersonic aircraft and the J-UCAS propulsion systems for weight reduction and enhanced life expectancy. Ceramic matrix composites also leverage large economic and social benefits in commercial application. Catalytic converters alone in the power generation industry enable a $38 billion pollution control business each year and have reduced air pollution by 1.5 billion tons since 1975. Demonstration of commercially available GENOA software, that can successfully predict the composite thermo-chemically-oxidization behavior, will provide the military, the aerospace industry and power generation plants with a verified analytic/design tool. Successful demonstration/verification of a life prediction analytical methodology for engine composites under service environment would reduce future certification costs of an advanced engine structure fabricated with CMC material database for future engine components.

Materials Research & Design
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-9000
Guido Teti
AF 09-125      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:Life Prediction Model Incorporating Environmental Effects for S300 Sylramic-iBN/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract:MR&D’s objective in the proposed research will be to execute a Technical effort to study existing data and to develop the appropriate representative S300 CMC material samples, test samples and test types, and to do the appropriated oxidation and mechanical test studies. Establish oxidation rates as a function of time, temperature and stress level for S300 CMC. Test will include tension at room temperature after oxidizing environments at selected pesting temperatures to get degraded and un-degraded elastic constants and strengths. Tensile creep and creep rupture above and below the matrix cracking strength at elevated temperature to get degraded and non degraded life time do to oxidation. Demonstrate through mathematical composite materials analysis the ability to predict degraded CMC thermo-elastic constants and residual material strengths for the most typical defects. Then use those properties locally in finite element modeling thus incorporating the NDE data into the structural models to predict the CMC component thermo-structural response under required loads. MR&D will provide a life prediction tool that will integrate with CLIP or Ansys. BENEFIT: Commercialization consists of incorporating CMC components in commercial jet engines and land based turbines. CMCs will allow the jet engines and power turbines to run at higher temperatures and thus higher efficiency with the added benefit of reduced emissions.

Multiscale Design Systems, LLC
280 Park Ave South
New York, NY 10010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 496-0173
Zheng Yuan
AF 09-125      Awarded: 1/6/2010
Title:Physics-based Life Prediction Model Incorporating Environmental Effects for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract:To successfully address the complexities of predicting the performance of SiC/SiC material system, Dr. Fish and Dr. Yuan from MDS, LLC with expertise and record of accomplishments in developing integrated multiscale design software for composite materials have teamed up with Prof. Greg Morscher from the University of Akron (formerly at NASA Glenn), who compliments our modeling and simulation expertise with extensive experience and record of accomplishments in accelerated testing of CMC materials subjected to extreme environments and with Dr. Cook from Rolls-Royce Aerospace who will provide us access to its material database valued at $250,000. Multiscale Design Systems, LLC in collaboration with the domain expert and the Original Equipment Manufacturer will develop integrated multiscale design software for SiC/SiC materials, hereafter to be referred as MDS-C. The key functionalities of the MDS-C to be developed are: 1. Deterministic multiscale multiphysics thermo-mechano-oxidation capabilities; 2. Automated design cycle for SiC/SiC materials including integration of experiments and simulation; 3. Seamless commercial software user interface; and 4. Intuitive, workable, user-friendly GUI. While environmental degradation mechanisms for PMCs and CMCs are substantially different, portions of the software architecture and graphical user interface developed under Phase I award (topic AF083-074) for HTPMC materials will be leveraged for the current effort. BENEFIT: The primary role envisaged for non-oxide ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), such as those based on the SiC/SiC system, is in the hottest sections of advanced aircraft engines and land turbines, such as combustor liners and jet-exhaust vanes. By obtaining a better understanding of the oxidation kinetics of carbon fibers in a ceramic matrix, the best approaches for protecting against oxidation will be determined depending on the application conditions, such as environment, temperature, stresses and required component lives. Such a predictive capability will be developed and housed in the Multiscale Design System product line (MDS-C) and will be of immediate use where conventional design procedures for SiC/SiC components lacked predictability. The MDS-C will provide not only a customizable environment for research into CMC materials, but also an integrated engineering design platform for high temperature components. The thermo-mechano-oxidation capabilities will become part of our MDS-C product line and will continue to be enhanced to meet more general needs. The two collaborators (Dr. Greg Morscher formerly at NASA Glenn and Dr. Cook from Rolls-Royce Aerospace) are indicative that the proposed life prediction methodology and advanced design tools for CMC components will be readily marketable to commercial aircraft.

Brimrose Technology Corporation
P.O. Box 616
Sparks, MD 21152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 472-0700
Sudhir B. Trivedi
AF 09-126      Awarded: 1/22/2010
Title:Development Of CdMgTe and CdMgSe For Optical Switching Applications
Abstract:Presently, there is an increase in the need for materials that exhibit strong nonlinear absorption materials for various military applications. In addition to the non-linear optical properties, materials with the following characteristics are desired: variable bandgap, a cut-on wavelength of 0.4 through 1.4um, and a linear transmission greater than 98 percent from the visible (0.4um) through the NIR/SWIR (0.65 through 3um). CdTe is a material with wide range of applications due to its broad transmission range extending from the near IR to the long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. Its ternary modification Cd1-xMgxTe has a bandgap that extends into the visible range, thereby increasing its range of applications. Recently, in collaboration with researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, we have successfully fabricated high quality single crystals of Cd0.65Mg0.35Te. We completely characterized the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the newly developed material. It has also been shown that the CdSe system can also be utilized for its non-linear optical properties. We propose to investigate the Cd1-xMgxTe and Cd1-xMgxSe material systems for their usefulness in optical switching applications. The objective of this work will be to develop crystals of very high crystallographic quality that exhibit high transmission and a straight band edge. We will perform an intensive investigation and optimization of material purification and crystal growth BENEFIT: Presently, numerous military and commercial system utilize the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectral region for target detection. Unfortunately, a significant amount of spectral information is oftentimes lost because of weather or other environmental conditions. As a result, many systems are utilizing the visible (VIS) to the shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions. This has lead to an increase in the need for materials that can provide filtering across multiple broad wavelength regions and have the ability to filter out unwanted information. The materials proposed in this research can be engineered to meet these requirements. Applications include optical limiting, eye and sensor protection, optical pulse shaping, information processing, and laser mode locking.

General Opto Solutions, LLC
1366 Ridge Master Drive
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-5982
Claire Luo
AF 09-126      Awarded: 1/12/2010
Title:Extremely broadband (visible-IR) all optical switches based on active photonic metamaterials
Abstract:The primary objective of this proposed research effort is to develop an innovative active photonic metamaterials, which will have extraordinarily large equivalent nonlinear transmission behavior (i.e., the stronger the incoming the light, the larger the attenuation coefficient will be). Thus, a novel all-optical (or called passive) optical switch that has unprecedented performance can be achieved, which offers the following unique capabilities: (1) extremely broadband operation (e.g., 0.4 – 3.0 microns), (2) polarization independent operation, (3) a high blocking rate (OD 3 or better), (4) a high linear transmission (better than 50%) over a broad bandwidth (0.4 – 3.0 microns), and (5) a fast response time (~ ns). A proof-of-concept feasibility study will be conducted at the Phase I stage, which includes (1) synthesizing the proposed active photonic metamaterials with an aperture size (1 square millimeter or larger), and (2) fabricating a proof-of-concept all-optical switch using the synthesized metamaterials, (3) testing and evaluating the performances of the switching (including the bandwidth, the switching speed, the extinction ratio, et al). At the Phase II stage, we will develop the production- scalable process to fabricate the ready-to-use prototype of the proposed optical switch device based on the accomplishments of the Phase I effort. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this proposed research effort represents a major technology breakthrough in the area of optical switches because it can offer such an extremely broadband operation from visible to infrared (IR). It will have a great impact on both the military applications (such as adaptive optics, laser communications, optical/spatial image filtration, et al) and civilian applications (such as telecommunications, biological imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, et al).

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Xiaowei Xia
AF 09-126      Awarded: 1/15/2010
Title:Nanoparticles-Doped Isotropic Liquid Crystal Optical Switch
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for a novel high-speed, multiple-notch broadband passive optical switch to selectively discriminate bands of electromagnetic radiation in intelligence, surveillance, or reconnaissance systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Nanoparticles-doped Isotropic Liquid Crystal Optical Switch (NILCOS) based on a new material possessing giant optical Kerr effect, fast response (~1ns), and high linear transmission (> 98%, 650-3000 nm). The NILCOS device with great uniformity and scalability provides new multiple-notch broadband optical switching with flexible bandgaps to notch-cut undesired wavelengths from 400–1400 nm. The NILCOS will enable new capabilities of situational awareness, recognition, and identification systems for day/night applications under all-weather conditions. In Phase I, POC will identify and evaluate this new material that has uniformity, scalability, linear transmission, and strong nonlinear properties, and design a breadboard prototype and test it to prove the feasibility of the NILCOS technology. The processing scheme, applicability, and fabrication issues of NILCOS will be demonstrated prior to Phase II. In Phase II, POC will develop a fully packaged NILCOS module to demonstrate multiple-notch broadband switching with high extinction ratio, fast speed, and low insertion loss. BENEFIT: The proposed NILCOS development will benefit the nation in both the government and commercial sectors. The NILCOS module will have numerous military applications, including incorporation by the Air Force into sensors and electronics for situational awareness, recognition, and identification. The NILCOS device will also have significant commercial applications in telecommunications, optical networks, high temperature manufacturing processes, agricultural raw material cleaning and sorting, biological imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Steve Arzberger
AF 09-127      Awarded: 12/11/2009
Title:Improved Performance of Morphing Shape Memory Polymer Skins
Abstract:Morphing air vehicles are characterized by an ability to dramatically alter their airfoil characteristics to maintain optimal aerodynamic efficiency over a broad flight regime thereby broadening their mission profile over an equivalent fixed-wing vehicle. Essential to enabling these vehicles is a wing skin that is highly compliant in-plane for wing morphing while being highly stiff out-of-plane to carry aerodynamic loads. Shape memory polymers show substantial promise in meeting these conflicting requirements by allowing for dramatic changes in the material’s elastic modulus through the use of heat. However, critical to their application for morphing wing skins is efficient heat transfer enabling actuation of the wing skin within a timeframe that is consistent with vehicle flight control needs. Unfortunately, resistive heating methods traditionally used for shape memory polymers have thus far proven unable to meet this actuation rate requirement. As a result, the United States Air Force has significant interest in developing material for morphing wing skins that meets this actuation rate requirement. To address this need, ADA Technologies, Inc. proposes a multidisciplinary program that will result in novel means to achieve volumetric heating of the SMP morphing wing skin through electromagnetic induction. BENEFIT: The proposed program will result in shape memory polymer morphing skins that are characterized by unprecedented improvements in heating rate and magnitude, with triggering hardware that is lightweight and low in volume. The results of the proposed program will allow for novel flight control as well as broadening the mission profile of future air vehicles. Furthermore, the developments undertaken will substantially improve the state-of-the-art of adaptive materials. Thus if successful, the resulting technology could have substantial commercial impact as the overall market for unmanned air systems (UASs) is estimated to be in excess of billions per year. Spin-off applications include commercial applications of morphing wing skins for UASs such as gun and/or hand-launched unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) that range in size from 10 to 5000 lbs.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
J. H. Lalli
AF 09-127      Awarded: 12/9/2009
Title:Materials for Morphing Shape-Memory Polymer (SMP) Skins
Abstract:NanoSonic has developed Shape Memory-Metal Rubber™ (SM-MR), a highly electrically conductive, mechanically adaptive, thermoresponsive skins for morphing unmanned air systems (UAS). Extremely durable SM-MR skins exhibit high DC and RF conductivity, up to -88 dB EMI SE upon repeated, severe disparate shape configurations. While the conductivity is high enough for morphing without the need for embedded wires, a novel ultra-lightweight materials solution is offered to increase the efficiency of the triggering method. SM-MR is produced via an elegant, continuous self-assembly manufacturing method that allows for multiple controlled constitutive electromagnetic properties within all axes of the nanocomposite over macroscale areas. NanoSonic shall demonstrate enhanced skin responsivity in the laboratory, a wind tunnel and low altitude flight testing to increase the TRL to 6. TRLs 8 and 9 would be achieved upon demonstration of SM-MR (Tg = 125C) with <10 second, repeatable, in-flight reconfigurations on a UAS approved by Air Logistics Centers. BENEFIT: NanoSonic would produce highly flexible, electrically conductive, durable, corrosion-resistant morphing skins as multifunctional adaptive and protective shielding materials, and as unique interconnecting skins for aerospace, microelectronic, and biomedical systems. SM-MR will be primarily transitioned onto morphing aircraft to ensure efficient wing morphing and electromagnetic stability during disparate vehicle configurations. Additional military applications for various forms of the Metal Rubber™ nanocomposites include biomimetric systems, thermal control system materials, actuators, lightning strike protection, RF shielding for large area structures and sensors. Dual-use civil applications include low modulus conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, such as in medical prostheses or implanted bio-electronic devices, lightweight mechanical, electrical and thermal interconnection of electronic components on conventional circuit boards, and lightweight electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics, and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Shi-Hau Own
AF 09-128      Awarded: 12/11/2009
Title:Fluids for Dielectric Switch
Abstract:Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes novel additives, base stocks and lubricant formulations to reduce jitter of dielectric fluids in high repetition rate dielectric switch application. Dielectric fluids will be synthesized or modified to reduce the gassing tendency. Alkylated naphthalenes, partially hydrogenated naphthalene, multiply alkylated cyclopentane (MAC) and blends of these hydrocarbons with polyalphaolefin are proposed as the working fluids for these switches. Thermally stable dielectric fluids with low pour points will be developed. These fluids are compatible with the hydraulic airframe system. Pressurized test cell will be fabricated to study the effect of pressure on the dielectric breakdown of lubricants under high voltage. Unformulated polyalphaolefin will be used as the baseline fluid for comparison. Dynamic TGA and isothermal TGA will also be used to characterize the stability of the dielectric fluid before and after the dielectric breakdown. Thermally stable perfluoropolyether and polysiloxane fluids will be included in the evaluation too. BENEFIT: This proposed research is part of an overall advanced fuel, lubricants and energy system development program at Luna. This lubricant developed can be used in modulators for high peak power electrical systems for high speed rail traction, utility power distribution substations, power modulators for particle accelerators and uninterruptible power supplies.

METSS Corporation
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Richard S. Sapienza
AF 09-128      Awarded: 12/9/2009
Title:Fluids for Dielectric Switch Applications
Abstract:The Air Force has developed a fluid-filled high power dielectric switch for pulsed power applications. For optimum operation, a switch should have a nearly constant breakdown voltage or low jitter. Many factors affect the jitter, and much effort has gone into switch design to eliminate vortices and static regions in the fluid. The best fill fluid was found to be MIL-PRF-87252 polyalphaolefin (PAO) coolant. When the discharge or shot occurs; the PAO fluid breaks down into carbon and hydrogen. Reducing moisture in the fluid has been found to have a strong influence on jitter, as dramatic improvements in dielectric breakdown voltage and standard deviation happen when the fluid is sparged with dry nitrogen. Infrared analysis of used fluid that had seen 2 million shots revealed oxidation products in the C=O region, 1752.5 cm-1, and the fluid had a corresponding reduction in dielectric strength. METSS proposes to develop an improved fluid that exhibits reduced jitter based upon the mechanisms of dielectric breakdown. New materials and longer life through the incorporation of chemical additives are key approaches. The proposed program will also address additional issues related to material compatibility, personnel safety, environmental impact and use costs. BENEFIT: The development of new, successful, switch fluids will have both military and commercial uses. Military applications include modulators for high peak power electrical systems for manned and unmanned air vehicles, military radar drive circuits, directed energy systems. Commercial applications include modulators for high peak power electrical systems for high-speed rail traction, utility power distribution substations, power modulators for particle accelerators, and uninterruptible power supplies. METSS has identified potential partners to support the SBIR program development work and commercialization activities.

Surmet Corporation
31 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(951) 894-6009
Richard Twedt
AF 09-129      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Accelerated Development of Edge Bonded ALON® Reconnaissance (Recce) Windows
Abstract:Requirements for future reconnaissance (Recce) systems are driving the need for very large (~32x32-in), very high quality windows. At the present, the only window material available in the size and quality demanded by these applications is Cleartran or hot isostatic pressed (HIPped) ZnS. While it is available, this material is relatively weak and very soft. This requires large Cleartran windows to be made in substantial thicknesses (~1-in thick), making them very heavy. Furthermore, these very heavy and expensive windows are extremely susceptible to damage from environmental loading (i.e., rain and sand erosion) in the flight environment. For these reasons, the Air Force has long been interested in stronger, more durable, and lighter alternatives. High quality ALON® windows have been produced in sizes up to 17x30-in in size. The most rapid, and economical means to achieve much larger sizes is through the edge bonding of ALON blanks into larger blanks. During the proposed Phase I effort, the feasibility of such an approach will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this program will result in availability of high quality, Edge Bonded ALON ® windows for high end reconnaissance applications

Third Wave Systems, Inc.
7900 West 78th St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55439
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 832-5515
Troy Marusich
AF 09-129      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title: Accelerated Reconnaissance Window Development
Abstract:Grinding is used to satisfy figure and finish requirements for optics, removing successive layers of material to ensure alleviation of any damage created from the prior operation. Consequently, fabrication times are slow and expensive. The optics manufacturing industry currently lacks physics-based models needed to understand the impact of process and material variables on final part quality and costs. As a result, there exists a limited ability to improve these material removal processes. Our goal is to provide high throughput, low cost grinding processes enabled by physics-based modeling for accelerated development of reconnaissance windows. We will advance the physics- based machining models to simulate grinding in ceramics. Our AdvantEdge FEM software will provide the baseline technology to be enhanced for grinding process modeling. Technical objectives include: (1) advancing physics-based machining modeling for grinding of AlON, (2) validating physics-based model and (3) demonstrating process improvements for AlON via simulations. Anticipated results will demonstrate physics- based models to: (1) reduce per part lead times and grinding costs of optical windows by 50%, (2) enable high rate, low cost manufacture of optics, (3) eliminate expensive, time consuming trial-and-error process development, and (4) accelerate the insertion of new optical materials via significant reductions in process development time. BENEFIT: Selection of fabrication method for constructing aerial reconnaissance and airborne sensor windows are tightly coupled with the choice of the materials, the sizes of the optics and desired costs. Considerable resources are spent in making material choices, performing trial-and-error tests, and developing specialized equipment for proving out the product and process design. Insertion of new optical materials is frustrated by the slow pace of process development, thwarting their ability to achieve full potential. In optics manufacturing, the need for better figure and finish for the final surface – along with reduced subsurface damage and per-part costs – imparts special challenges on the grinding process design. Difficulty in observing material removal mechanisms during grinding makes it difficult to understand and control process factors that influence the final part quality. The goal of this project is to develop a first-principles, physics-based modeling approach that will allow for the identification of high-opportunity process operating envelopes and new tooling innovations, which would otherwise not be achieved without expensive, time-consuming trial-and-error approaches. Anticipated long-term benefits of the proposed research will improve the cost and performance of optical systems through improved understanding of material behavior under grinding and reduced process development costs. Commercial and societal benefits of this proposal include increased product performance and reduced manufacturing and maintenance costs for a variety of military and civilian optical systems. Benefits will be realized through: • Reduced component lead times and grinding costs of optical windows via high throughput grinding process • Elimination of expensive, time consuming trial-and-error

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
HeeDong Lee
AF 09-129      Awarded: 1/20/2010
Title: Accelerated Reconnaissance Window Development
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program UES will develop an economic fabrication process to produce high optical quality infrared (IR) windows for reconnaissance window applications. The state-of-the art reconnaissance window are lacking in optical quality and/or durability to withstand operational environments for extended periods of time. Also, the availability of such advanced window materials in large sizes seems questionable due to technical challenge as well as expensive production cost. Current material alternatives are limited in strength or IR waveband transmission. An innovative new process is needed to address these current issues. An optically transparent ceramic YAG is considered as a promising alternative. However, producing a large size ceramic YAG window with a high IR transmission is of a great challenge. During the Phase I period, we propose to use a patented innovative process to produce a high quality YAG powder that can readily be sintered fully dense to a ceramic YAG window with a high IR transmittance as well as a high strength. In Phase II, we will fabricate a large-sized ceramic YAG window (>12" planar) that is mechanically very strong and tough, and shows an outstanding optical quality that can minimize a loss of the needed optical properties. BENEFIT: The successful completion of the Phase I program will be the production of a cost-effective, strong and IR transparent ceramic YAG. In addition, the robust production of large quantities of YAG powder will be developed. Examples of potential applications in military applications are reconnaissance windows, missile domes, seeker lenses, and high power laser host material and laser windows. Commercial application arises from the potential to make commercial laser gain product from these results.

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
2711 Lance Drive
Moraine, OH 45409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-3713
David Curliss
AF 09-130      Awarded: 12/10/2009
Title:Innovative Approach for High Strength, High Thermal Conductivity Composite Materials
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will demonstrate improved strength and transverse thermal conductivity in continuous pitch carbon fiber epoxy composite materials through engineering of an optimized fiber-matrix interphase. A novel low temperature ultraviolet- ozone (UVO) surface treatment coupled with a compliant reactive interphase will enable the pitch fiber strength translation to the composite while simultaneously reducing fracture initiation and propagation. Composite specimens will be fabicated from continuous pitch fiber tow and their mechanical and thermal properties characterized and related to the process variables in order to develop fundamental structure-property-processing relationships that will enable optimization of the approach. BENEFIT: Pitch carbon fiber composite materials with improved mechanical and thermal properties will have many applications in commercial aerospace and electronics thermal management applications. Passive thermal management and multi-functional thermal structural applications will benefit from the improved performance of pitch fiber composites. Development and demonstration of the proposed technology will enable it to compete with exotic thermal management materials such as metal matrix composites. This technology will offer lower cost, lighter weight, improved mechanical properties, lower thermal stresses, and improved thermal performance as compared to state of the art materials. Benefits such as these will drive the commercialization of the technology.

Pixelligent Technologies LLC
387 Technology Drive Suite 3122
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-9107
Jun Xu
AF 09-130      Awarded: 12/15/2009
Title:Development of a Structural and Thermally Conductive Composite
Abstract:This proposal will explore the feasibility of improving the thermal and mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF)/polymer composites. We will improve the Z-directional (out-of-plane direction) thermal conductivity as well as the mechanical properties of the composites by introducing direct heat conduction pathways along the z-direction between the carbon filaments and between the plies. Different forms of zinc oxide will be used as thermal conductive filler for this purpose. We aim to demonstrate significantly improved out-of-plane thermal conductivity to around 20 W/m•K without affecting the structural integrity of the carbon fiber reinforced composites. BENEFIT: Through the successful completion of the SBIR phase I and phase II project, Pixelligent will be able to offer carbon fiber reinforced composites with structural and process characteristics of IM7/977-3 and the thermal conductivity around 50 W/m•K on all directions. These materials will find places in the finished carbon fiber composite parts market which is expected to reach $9.9 billion in 2010. They will also have the potential to tap into the market of aluminum which generated $87 Billion revenue in 2007.

Sommer Materials Research, Inc.
587 North Main Street
North Salt Lake, UT 84054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 397-2000
Jared L. Sommer
AF 09-130      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Novel Approach for Producing Thermally Conductive Composites
Abstract:Composite materials utilizing graphite fibers can exhibit high axial thermal conductivities. However, thermal conduction perpendicular to the fiber direction in the composite is extremely low due to the acoustical mismatch between the carbon fiber and epoxy. Sommer Materials Research, Inc. proposes to increase phonon transfer through the epoxy/carbon fiber interfaces by modifying the composite material. In Phase I, feasibility of the proposed method will be demonstrated using thermal conductivity measurements. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the proposed composite modification will produce higher through thickness conductivity, allowing a reduction in weight of radiators, electronic and structural components in satellite and aircraft applications.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
William J. Kessler
AF 09-131      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Innovative Air-Deliverable Tunnel Detection Sensor Suite
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to combine multiple air-deliverable sensor modalities for the detection of buried targets, including caves, tunnels and bunkers. The sensor suite will enable remote identification, verification and post mission assessment of targets without the need for boots on the ground, reducing personnel risk and resource expenditures. The mission dependent CONOPS may include an initial aerial survey of the region of interest, identifying suspected openings in the earth and disturbed earth detection indicating potential human activity. Additional assessment of target locations may be undertaken with air-dropped sensors verifying the presence of the underground structure and human/machine activity. PSI will leverage field proven techniques for standoff detection of tunnel ingress/egress and ventilation ports. The innovative approach proposed by PSI will provide the Air Force with a robust set of detection tools that may be used separately or as a suite of sensors. During the Phase I program PSI will perform feasibility experiments, develop preliminary detection algorithms, specify sensor subcomponents and develop notional air-deliverable sensor package designs. During the Phase II program PSI will fabricate and field test the sensor suite in collaboration with the Air Force. BENEFIT: The proposed research will provide the Air Force with a suite of air-deliverable sensors that will enable covert, remote detection and characterization of buried targets, including caves, tunnels and bunkers. The successful completion of the development program will enable the Air Force to limit or eliminate risk to soldiers that would otherwise have to identify underground targets through ground operations. The sensor suite will also enable more efficient use of resources especially when targets are located in remote geographic regions, far from bases. The sensor suite may also fulfill tunnel detection needs of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security for border patrol and security. Finally, a subset of the sensor suite detectors may also find application in the commercial marketplace for monitoring underground assets such as water, natural gas and petroleum pipelines. Intrusion detection from either malicious activities or normal construction activities is becoming important as more utilities are placed underground.

QUASAR Federal Systems, Inc.
5754 Pacific Center Blvd. Suite 203
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 412-1720
Yongming Zhang
AF 09-131      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Air-Deliverable Geologic Sensors for Tunnel Detection Applications
Abstract:Under this program QUASAR Federal Systems (QFS) will team with Dr. David Hull’s EM Sensing Group at the Army Research Lab (ARL) to integrate a state-of-the-art QFS induction sensor with a COTS piezo-electric sensor and a low power DAQ in a compact, air-droppable package. The sensor will be based on the QFS 6” long 3-axis induction sensor, reconfigured to fit in a “smart bomb” shape package. The sensor package will be capable of detecting and monitoring electrical, mechanical, and human activity in and around underground facilities. The package to be developed under this program will have the following features. It will be air deployable, offer state-of-the-art sensitivity, offer user selection for data collection modes, transmit processed data to the user via a wireless link, incorporate an intelligent data fusion algorithm, and be low enough cost to be considered disposable. Phase I will focus on establishing the feasibility of making the package air-deliverable, and Phase II will develop and prototype and collect experimental data to define its performance characteristics. BENEFIT: The primary customer for the first product will be the Department of Defense. The device to be developed under this project will offer the DoD a sensing solution that can be easily deployed by air, improving personnel safety and allowing use in difficult terrain. Commercial applications include resource exploration, geophysical science, and space applications.

Sheet Dynamics, Limited
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Stu Shelley
AF 09-131      Awarded: 3/11/2010
Title:Airborne Seismic Vibrometry Array System for Rapid Detection of Clandestine Tunnels
Abstract:Sheet Dynamics Ltd., proposes to develop a 2D airborne seismic vibrometry array sensor that will enable both passive and active seismic tunnel detection surveys to be conducted with unprecedented speed and effectiveness. Techniques to deal with ground cover, seismic excitation requirements and to take advantage of the large-array seismic data set make possible by this sensor sill be developed. BENEFIT: The proposed technology has the ability to scan large geographic areas quickly looking for underground tunnels at a large standoff distance. Both active and passive detection methods are described.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 885-2251
Scott Dobson
AF 09-132      Awarded: 1/15/2010
Title:Wide Area Unresolved Target Detection and Tracking
Abstract:Evolving threats of modern warfare have placed new demands on the development and delivery of robust intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) solutions. As such, recent development has focused on sensor systems that provide wide field of view persistent surveillance (WFVPS) technologies. Areté Associates proposes to leverage its demonstrated expertise in real-time, physics-based image processing and statistical approach to faint target tracking to develop a suite of automatic algorithms designed to improve detection and tracking of low contrast, pixel size targets in multi-frame nighttime infrared imagery. Central to our proposed solution is the application of a unique Bayesian field approach to faint target detection and tracking. BENEFIT: A successful phase I/II will allow Areté to develop advanced software libraries that can be tailored to a variety of sensor systems for enhanced detection and tracking missions. Several current and future ISR&T systems could be enhanced by Areté algorithms such as ARGUS-IR and Tailwind are current DoD programs that desire beyond state of the art detection and tracking. Homeland Security and local law enforcement would greatly benefit from a wide area day/night sensor that can detect dismounts in difficult environmental and cultural conditions. The Department of Homeland Security could use the algorithms developed here to enhance the nation’s saftey by detecting illegal border crossings over large areas.

Metron, Inc.
1818 Library Street Suite 600
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 326-2897
Greg Godfrey
AF 09-132      Awarded: 1/12/2010
Title:Video Utility for Likelihood-based Change ANalysis (VULCAN)
Abstract:Metron proposes to design, develop, test and demonstrate algorithms for automatically detecting and tracking human activity from low contrast, monochrome imagery, such as from airborne mid-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, in which the human objects of interest may be as small as a single pixel. There are three principle components: (1) image rectification and registration algorithms to align consecutive frames from a moving camera, (2) algorithms for extracting contacts consistent with humans from the imagery, and (3) detection and tracking algorithms that fuse these contacts over time to produce tracks. These algorithms have the potential to provide dramatic improvements in speed and size of problem (both geographic area and number of active tracks) with respect to detecting and tracking dismounted humans. BENEFIT: There are a number of potential commercial, military and government opportunities for technology that can detect and track humans given low resolution, low contrast mid-wave infrared imagery. In theater, this can be used to provide force protection inside and around the Forward Operating Bases, and to augment the analyses of social networks and relationships between and within insurgent organizations. For Homeland Security, this technology could also play an essential role in border security where the area to be covered far exceeds the available manpower and resources to patrol it. For commercial use, this technology could help to augment security at a large industrial facility, such as a set of buildings and factories on a large compound.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 286-7580
Juan Vasquez
AF 09-132      Awarded: 1/12/2010
Title:Persistent IR Detection and Tracking
Abstract:Recent employment of airborne persistent surveillance systems by the Department of Defense has provided a significant force multiplier to military operations. These systems are capable of providing real-time imagery from airborne sensor systems to a ground station in order to provide situational awareness to the warfighter. However, limited ground sample distance results in dismount targets that are subpixel or no more than 3- by-3 pixels in size, leading to difficulties with both image registration and noise suppression. Furthermore, low contrast images are typically encountered making it difficult to detect targets in scenes with clutter. Numerica''s expertise in multi-target tracking and target detection will enable the development of a software suite capable of real-time automatic detection and tracking of dismounts in MWIR imagery. Track-before- detect methods will be necessary to manage the low contrast imagery with point sized targets. In addition, robust tracking methods designed to handle multiple targets will be required. Specifically, multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) provides deferred decision- making for the data association problem that is central to multi-target tracking and automated track initiation. The primary focus of this proposed research is to develop and implement a multi-target tracking system incorporating innovative track-before-detect methods tightly integrated with a mature MHT. BENEFIT: The developmental sections of the software developed under this effort can be readily translated into a real-time system for direct use by the military and civilian reconnaissance communities. Specific civil application areas include border patrol, urban surveillance and search and rescue. The solutions to these problems are of direct interest to the U.S. armed forces as well as the Department of Homeland Security. The recent incorporation of large format MWIR sensors on airborne platforms will be appropriate for homeland defense applications that require semi-autonomous sensor coverage along with high-confidence tracking solutions. Our ongoing relationship with Lockheed Martin and Boeing on efforts related to tracking system development will provide an avenue for commercialization. It is anticipated that the algorithms developed and results obtained by Numerica under this SBIR will be incorporated by in their continued enhancements of defense systems. Direct support of this goal is being provided by Lockheed Martin through their offer to provide Numerica with access, free of charge, to the Lockheed Martin MS2 Technology Collaboration Centers. Numerica and Boeing are teamed with Ball Aerospace to support the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) for the exploitation and development of technology that utilizes persistent sensor data.

Colorado Engineering Inc.
1310 United Heights Suite 105
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Larry Scally
AF 09-133      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:SAA Targeted Advanced Radar Technology (START)
Abstract:Colorado Engineering Inc. (CEI), with its teammate, Ball Aerospace, proposes to leverage its collective expertise with phased array antenna design, advanced processing architectures, and radar signal processing algorithms to research, identify, and mature technologies that will improve the cost, size, weight, and power consumption of radar systems supporting Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems. This effort will help accelerate the realization of a scalable air-to-air radar sensor solution supporting SAA functionality on a variety of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), both large and small. The CEI team offers a unique perspective on SAA radar technology that will benefit the program described by this SBIR topic. CEI and Ball Aerospace are currently developing a radar supporting the SAA mission for Global Hawk under an AFRL-sponsored program called USTAR: Unmanned Sense, Track, and Avoid Radar. The team will draw from its experiences with this system to help identify and guide research into areas of component technology and alternative antenna and signal processing architectures which hold the most promise for enhancing the SWaP and performance of SAA radar designs. BENEFIT: CEI has developed software and hardware technologies for a variety of government programs, and the team has transitioned over 37 products to production for use in DoD and Government systems. CEI also has experience commercializing technology developed under Government-funded programs. Products are packaged as COTS items, listed on a catalog price sheet, supported with technical application notes and marketing materials, and made available for sale to both the commercial and Government markets. CEI will promote technologies developed under this effort as part of its standard commercial product marketing and sales activities. The technology enhancements anticipated under this program will reduce cost, size, weight, and power requirements and while increasing system performance. Enabling SAA radars to operate in smaller SWaP footprints will expand the applications and market for these technologies to a wider range of commercial and Government aircraft, both manned and unmanned. The ability to enhance commercial manned aircraft with robust non-cooperative collision avoidance capability would enhance air traffic safety. Advanced SAA radar technologies would help make commercial applications of unmanned aircraft a reality for applications such as overnight freight transport. The SAA radar technology would also have maritime applicability.

Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.
101 Bleecker Street
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-0101
Walter E. Szczepanski
AF 09-133      Awarded: 1/25/2010
Title:Sense and Avoid (SAA) Radar Improvements
Abstract:Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. and SRC, Inc. will identify, investigate, and mature technologies that will improve cost, size, weight and power limitations and performance of sense and avoid (SAA) radar capabilities. We will perform a trade study to examine component technology and architecture alternatives, and we will develop system performance requirements. Our plan includes a comprehensive examination of potential multiple radar architectures, dual band operation, frequency scanned elevation search, and precision angular measurement techniques. Since the angular rate of change for near collision threats at long ranges is small, making it difficult to achieve an adequate degree of target state estimation using antenna measurements alone, we will investigate antenna angular measurement techniques augmented with a precision Doppler frequency method of collision threat declaration. Air-to-air waveform design will be pursued to ensure optimum detection performance during low altitude take off and landing, as well as during higher altitude flight. We will use the Global Hawk as a point of departure, although most of the techniques are directly applicable to smaller aircraft such as Predator sized UAS. The proposed solution will meet FAA regulation 7610.4 and derived requirements from published DoD/FAA documents. BENEFIT: The military and commercial opportunities for research, development and integration are numerous. Future efforts offer the opportunity for continued research and development, integration and validation of sense and avoid radars for a wide variety of current and future unmanned air vehicles. In addition, modification of existing radars to include a sense and avoid function may be a feasible option for many operational radars. Commercial applications might include high value commercial aircraft that would benefit from a non-cooperative collision avoidance sensor. If the technology can be produced in a cost effective manner, then any number of applications for smaller manned aircraft appear to be feasible as well.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5254
Arvind Bhat
AF 09-133      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Reconfigurable Micro-Electronic-Scan Radar Sensor for Airborne Hazard See-and-Avoid
Abstract:Sense-and-Avoid operation capabilities are critical to future UAVs in national airspace. Developing a radar sensor having potential to meet the size, weight and power (SWaP) and detection/tracking requirements is a real challenge. Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) and its partner, the University of Oklahoma, have been working on this issue since 2004, and have developed a suite of technologies from ultra-wideband waveform sensing, multi-sensor synchronization, detection and discrimination under severe weather (IMC) condition, to the transponder-based primary radar sensing. Based on the existing experience and technology innovations, we propose to build a new reconfigurable, integrated, electronic scanning radar platform. The new sensor will operate on dual- frequency bands (S band and C-band) with Doppler analysis capability. We propose to use a Reconfigurable Digital Radar Transceiver (RDRT), which provides flexibility in mission specific radar waveform design, without hardware modifications, and on-board digital signal processing capability to analyze radar returns. The RDRT designed by IAI is capable of simultaneously synthesizing/ processing 32 digital channels with 10’s of MHz bandwidth in each channel, making it ideal for fast scanning array radar and Digital beam Forming (DBF). BENEFIT: The proposed Sense-and-Avoid radar will facilitate the commercial operations of UAS systems for agriculture, fire fighting, and security monitoring as well as transit of military UAS through the NAS without restrictive limitations as currently imposed by the FAA. The proposed technology is built upon the radar design and communications expertise of IAI and our sub-contractors at OU. The most promising commercial applications outside of DoD are: • Weather surveillance • Commercial aircraft collision avoidance and safety

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Joseph Salzman
AF 09-133      Awarded: 2/2/2010
Title:Sense and Avoid (SAA) Radar Improvements
Abstract:The burgeoning use of UASs in all classes of airspace may cause situations where other aircraft, whose paths and missions are independent, intrude on each other’s airspace. This situation resulted in the requirement for a sense-and-avoid (SAA) sensor that will satisfy FAA’s due regard and see-and-avoid guidelines for piloted craft. To address this need, the Air Force has developed electro-optical SAA systems. However night and inclement weather limitations inherent in these systems, coupled with their inability to measure range reliably necessitated a multi-sensor approach, requiring the employment of a radar system to aid in performing this function. TSC is offering an innovative solution, denoted Airborne SAA Radar (ASAAR), which exploits recent advances in such areas as MMICs, ADCs, and FPGAs. The resulting dual-frequency design that is a very lightweight, small form radar that has no moving parts, yet can provide full visibility over the SAA FOR, and is capable of range, Doppler, and angle detection and track at high data rate. TSC will demonstrate the feasibility of this design in Phase I, culminating with a preliminary design of a prototype for Phase II demonstration testing and commercialization. BENEFIT: The technology developed in this project will facilitate the implementation of a SAA radar for UAS and other military aircraft. Since the technology can also be applied to other airborne radar functions (e.g., AMTI and NCTR), additional potential applications are envisioned. Although the primary application of this technology will benefit military functions by providing a collision avoidance capability for UASs and other aircraft as, the commercial/dual use of this technology may also include collision avoidance capability for civilian aircraft.

Azure Summit Technology, Inc.
12587 Fair Lakes Circle #342
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 268-6192
Mark Sullivan
AF 09-134      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:Adaptive Control of Digital Channelized Receivers
Abstract:One of the difficulties encountered in EW is the amount of spectrum available to target emitters. Effective surveillance of such wide bandwidths requires one or more EW receivers with high instantaneous bandwidths. The outputs of these receivers are usually channelized to facilitate signal detection and characterization. Current channelizers based on FFT filter banks provide channels equally spaced in frequency with identical bandwidths. Some channelizers provide a limited capability to change the spacing and bandwidth, but the change is applied uniformly to all channels. Our approach is based on the use of under-decimated filter banks to implement a dynamic flexible channelizer where each output is independently configured for a desired center frequency and bandwidth. We will also use statistical signal processing algorithms to detect and characterize the electromagnetic environment. This analysis will then be used to dynamically reconfigure the channelizer to track changes in the environment. BENEFIT: This research will develop new techniques for adaptive flexible channelization, which apply to both commercial and military applications for emerging cognitive radio, and cognitive EW. Azure Summit understands the importance of transitioning this Air Force SBIR funded research into usable commercial and/or DoD product technologies. In Phase I, we will begin to develop our commercialization plan, ensuring that the research is goal- oriented from the beginning. Azure will work with the Air Force to ensure that the technologies to be developed in this SBIR are targeting appropriate transition programs.

Research Associates of Syracuse
6780 Northern Blvd Ste 100
East Syracuse, NY 13057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 339-4800
Stan Driggs
AF 09-134      Awarded: 2/4/2010
Title:Adaptive Control of Digital Channelized Receivers
Abstract:This effort investigates techniques for adaptive control, dynamic allocation and reconfiguration of digital channelized receivers for signal detection and characterization of widely varying signals. Several approaches to detect and estimate the signal instantaneous modulation bandwidth are considered to enable signals to be dynamically allocated to digital measurement receivers with sub-band tuning, bandwidth, sample rate and demodulation parameters specified. One potential approach uses a polyphase implementation with multiple channelization stages and arbitration. A second employs entropy based detection processes to localize signal extent. The third, employing dyadic Wavelet decomposition to channelize in a structured fashion, is included for its potential efficiency in covering large time-frequency signal space while providing finer grain bins in either time or frequency to address narrow pulses and narrowband signals respectively. A final approach, the Fractional Fourier Transform(FrFT) is considered for its potential to detect and characterize signals in a maximally compact fractional domain. Previous MATLAB and FPGA code for feature extraction, polyphase channelizer, entropy-based signal detection and FrFT are leveraged. An existing digitized signal library (real world and synthetic) are proposed for testing. The effort defines an initial implementation and assesses feasibility for use in COTS VME FPGA boards (e.g. Annapolis Microsystems WILDSTARTM 5). BENEFIT: Key benefits and findings developed during this effort are applicable to any ES or ELINT application where signals must be detected and characterized rapidly. They will be able to be easily applied to other DoD COMINT or MASINT systems. Key benefits of the proposed approach include: 1) Novel approaches for initial detection and modulation bandwidth estimation maximizes SNR and resource allocation for subsequent signal characterization 2) Adaptable– sample rate, center frequency, bandwidth, filters and demodulation processes can be tailored to: a. Address the estimated signal bandwidth and time extent b. Utilize a priori knowledge for specific signals of interest for ELINT and/or ISR applications 3) Reconfigurable -Utilizes COTS NDI hardware with state-of-the-art FPGAs 4) Maximizes Re-use – a. Leverages significant research and development for AFRL on entropic processing, complex IMOP characterization, and stressing FMCW and very narrow pulse processing waveform detection on projects such as “Automatic Processing for Wideband” b. Leverages several MATLAB models and FPGA designs as building blocks c. Utilizes FPGA cores from the NAVSEA ES-PFEP Phase II SBIR, Phase III for NAVAIR PMA-265 and ARMY CESAD-SET Proof of concept (polyphase channelizer with precision digital set-on receivers). The processing enhancements proposed herein have numerous military and commercial applications. Potential ELINT applications include systems such as the RIVET JOINT Manual Station and multiple UAV programs where the two card COTS ELINT package provide a significant benefit whereby adaptable and reconfigurable algorithms and processing would enable the payload to be tailored to the theater and/or mission. A

V Corp Technologies, Inc.
12526 High Bluff Drive Suite 120
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 240-2500
Scott R. Velazquez
AF 09-134      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:Adaptive Digital Receiver
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a wideband, wide dynamic range, adaptively controlled digital receiver architecture that is dynamically reconfigurable to optimize the performance for the current signal environment. The architecture takes advantage of several, proprietary, high-performance digital signal processing techniques to trade off bandwidth, resolution (SFDR and/or SNR), and power. These techniques can be changed on-the-fly for different operating modes or as signal conditions change. One technique, called Adaptive Parallel Combining (APC), uses a parallel array of high-speed, high-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with adaptive signal combining to dramatically improve resolution (both SNR and SFDR) of the digitization while maintaining very high sample rate. A complementary technique, called Advanced Filter Bank (AFB) also uses an array of ADCs, but it greatly improves the bandwidth of the digitization while maintaining high resolution (e.g., four converters can be used to quadruple the bandwidth). Additional techniques include: linearity compensation to improve SFDR and increase analog input bandwidth; averaging of multiple ADCs to improve SNR; channel extraction to zoom in on a desired narrowband; channel matching to digitize multiple channels (e.g., antenna elements) with finely- matched gain and phase; and accurate I/Q demodulation. Using heuristic analysis techniques, this architecture dynamically activates the appropriate DSP techniques to provide optimal performance for the current mode of operation (e.g., for very wideband spectrum monitoring, the AFB and linearity compensation techniques can be used; alternatively, for zooming in on narrowband channels, the APC, averaging, and channel extraction techniques can be used to provide extremely high-resolution). This approach also supports simultaneous outputs (e.g., a wideband, lower-resolution signal for detection and a simultaneous narrowband, high-resolution signal for data analysis, both sharing the same exact same ADC hardware but simultaneously employing different DSP functions). The V Corp proprietary techniques have been proven to provide the highest speed, highest resolution analog-to-digital conversion available currently or in the foreseeable future (similar techniques have already been customized for and implemented in several next-generation communications receivers, RADAR systems, and SIGINT receivers). During Phase I, V Corp will demonstrate the capabilities and functionality of the wide dynamic range digital receiver architecture with adaptive control using data from state-of-the-art ADC chips using V Corp’s advanced DSP techniques to show beyond state-of-the-art performance (e.g., doubling or quadrupling the bandwidth of state-of-the- art digitization, improving the SNR and SFDR by 24 dB with linearity compensation and adaptive parallel combining). During Phase II, a real-time hardware prototype will be implemented. BENEFIT: This dynamically reconfigurable approach overcomes the critical digitization bottleneck which limits performance of state-of-the-art radio frequency transceiver systems. Many high-performance modern electronic systems will benefit from

Defense Research Associates, Inc.
3915 Germany Lane Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Mike Deschenes
AF 09-136      Awarded: 1/7/2010
Title:Laser Technologies Adapted for UAS Sense and Avoid (SAA) Applications
Abstract:Without the capability to sense and avoid other air traffic, UAS flights are limited to flight operations within restricted and warning areas unless the proponent obtains a Certificate of Authorization (COA) from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). FAA Order 7610.4 states that remotely operated aircraft must have an equivalent level of safety, comparable to see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft, to fly in the national air space. DRA’s SAA system uses passive electro-optic (EO) sensors and associated processing to detect, track and alert on those aircraft that appear to be on a collision course. The EO system does not provide accurate range information on approaching aircraft. Without accurate range, the UAS may maneuver earlier or more aggressively than necessary. Range provides the benefit of performing less aggressive maneuvers. In addition, in the presence of multiple aircraft in the local air traffic, range allows the SAA system to prioritize the intruding aircraft, and aid in the selection of the most appropriate maneuver. This project will explore the feasibility of adding laser radar (LADAR) capability to the existing EO-based system as an alternative to the significant Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) constraints associated with the traditional method of ranging, radar. BENEFIT: Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development The Phase I SBIR results will show the feasibility of adding a LADAR capability to the existing SAA system. These benefits include, range and closing rate information, as well as confirmation of aircraft presence (or rejection of false alarms). This capability will be further developed and demonstrated on a prototype under Phase II.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 680
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Joseph Yadegar
AF 09-136      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Sense and Avoid Ladar for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) across the services need the capability to operate in civil airspace. Currently, the lack of Sense and Avoid (SAA) technology is the largest obstacle to this capability. The SAA problem is all the more challenging when dealing with non-cooperative traffic. For this problem, it is increasingly becoming clear that a suite of sensors is the solution. Electro-optical (EO) sensors are attractive because of their size, weight and power (SWaP) characteristics. However, range estimation using EO sensors has, in general, some degree of inaccuracy associated with it. Radars can be used to complement them but they may not meet the SWaP constraints of smaller UAS. A well- designed ladar has the potential to efficiently complement EO SAA technologies. In this proposal, UtopiaCompression, in collaboration with SAIC and University of Dayton, is proposing a novel ladar technology solution for UAS which will be optimized to work with passive EO sensors. Apart from providing accurate range estimates to intruder aircraft, the solution will also have fewer false alarms as compared to the passive only solution. The technology will be developed in such a way so as to be compatible with Air Force Research Laboratory’s existing SAA simulation facilities. BENEFIT: UtopiaCompression’s (UC) system will greatly benefit the Air Force and in general the Department of Defense (DoD) by enabling UAS to operate in a wider region of the airspace as well as take on more challenging missions. Wider access to the airspace is needed for training, security and surveillance and in general to execute missions efficiently. Looking beyond the DoD market, the Department of Homeland Security will also benefit from this technology. They now use the Certificates of Authorization (COA) process to get limited airspace access, but this is not viewed as operationally sustainable, especially as DHS deploys UAS assets to more challenging venues such as the southwest border. As its effectiveness in avoiding collisions is demonstrated, UC anticipates a move in the commercial aviation industry to adopt the technology as a pilot advisory system. This is similar to what happened with T-CAS (Traffic – Collision Avoidance System), a cooperative system for avoiding collisions based on exchanging data through transponder signals. T-CAS was conceived as an autonomous technology, but eventually adopted as an advisory system because the pilot in command is ultimately responsible for seeing and avoiding traffic as he executes maneuvers. All revenue traffic (airliners etc) now carry T-CAS. Similarly, SAA technology, which can detect non-cooperative traffic over a much larger volume of sky than a human and is never distracted, will improve pilot situation awareness and therefore flight safely. As economies of scale bring the price down to the T-CAS range and test data begin to demonstrate flight safety improvements, it seems reasonable to expect the FAA and commercial aviation entities will adopt technology. SAIC will support the transition effort for SAA Ladar technology. SAIC is well-positioned to bring the ladar technology to a level of maturity where it will be of interest to UAS program offices and prime contractors. Additionally, as UC has formal business relationship and collaborative

Applied Radar, Inc.
210 Airport Street Quonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
William H. Weedon
AF 09-138      Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title:Multi-Band Airborne SAR/GMTI System Development
Abstract:A multi-band airborne synthetic aperture radar and ground moving-target indicating (SAR/GMTI) radar system will be designed and developed that will utilize multiple frequency bands to improve the radar imaging and target detection performance in various clutter environments. Applied Radar’s existing wideband digital receiver/exciter (DREX) hardware is inherently capable of supporting radar applications from HF through Ka-bands. Switching in various transmit/receive (T/R) front ends will allow the DREX hardware to be used in various discrete radar bands such as UHF, S, L, C or X-band, with a common digital back-end. A wideband common-aperture antenna is needed to support these various frequency bands, and will be a focal point of this research and development. Existing Applied Radar Vivaldi antenna designs currently support ~10:1 bandwidth, which would cover for example S-band through X-band. We are looking to extend this coverage down to UHF so that the developed system would cover UHF through X-band. In Phase I, requirements and specifications for the multi-band SAR/GMTI system will be developed, which will be implemented in a rooftop system in Phase II. In Phase III, the airborne radar will be flown on Applied Radar’s corporate aircraft testbed. BENEFIT: The proposed airborne SAR/GMTI system has application for both military and commercial applications including homeland security border patrol, search and rescue, and environmental/geographic sensing. While other airborne SAR/GMTI systems currently exist, the proposed effort will attempt to extend the frequency coverage over existing systems to cover multiple frequency bands, and will also reduce system cost by focusing on a lightweight system that can eventually be implemented on a medium-sized UAV such as a Predator drone.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Farzin Lalezari
AF 09-138      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Improvements in Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Detection Through Multi-band Imaging
Abstract:Dual-Band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging provides all-weather, day and night ISR capability with the ability to image through foliage. The proposed system is a UHF / X-Band system which uses a modified Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) radar built by Artemis, with an innovative antenna design by FIRST RF. The radar system itself has been specifically tuned for use aboard smaller UAVs, at a weight of only 20 lbs and power consumption of only 150 W. This radar has enjoyed legacy success in a number of other programs and systems, and so Phase I radar development will focus on modifying the hardware to support UHF / X-Band operation, versus the existing L-Band / X-Band system. Concurrently, FIRST RF will develop novel single aperture, dual-band UHF / X-Band antenna to interface to the radar. The UHF antenna is based on existing wide- band SAR antenna hardware proven through programs such as DARPA and Army’s TRACER programs. It will be modified to support the simultaneous operation of an X-Band array. The X-Band array consists of gimbaled high-gain transmit/receive apertures. The antenna system supports the most challenging goal of designing for the smallest UAV platform available. BENEFIT: Immediate benefits of this lightweight Synthetic Aperture Radar technology include support for operations in the Middle East to detect buried IEDs and tunnels. The system has been specifically designed to operate aboard the smallest UAVs in DoD’s fleet, including the ubiquitous Shadow 200. This air-vehicle has gained widespread use across the services, with additional systems, modules and capabilities continually being fielded for this vehicle. FIRST RF is well positioned with our support JIEDDO-related activities, and so a clear commercialization potential and marketing path exist for this technology. Extended benefits include border security and Homeland Defense, in terms of a wide-area change detection surveillance system. This system provides day and night all weather operation, and can be flown aboard relatively quiet and low-observable airframes to support a low-probability of detection ISR system for border protection.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
John Gwynne
AF 09-138      Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Improvements in Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Detection Through Multi-band Imaging
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to develop an enhanced Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR) capability through the development of a dual-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and a single aperture. Advancements in sensor technology have lead to increases in both quality and quantity of SAR and detection and ranging systems. Working at different wavelengths, each system has unique attributes to apply to various ISR applications. In particular, SAR systems allow for efficient scanning of large regions in nearly all weather conditions. And, if lower frequency SAR systems are used, i.e. VHF or UHF, these systems can provide modest ground penetration capabilities. On the other hand, the high frequencies wide bandwidth systems (L/C/X) provide fine resolution as well as range information. In addition, combining temporal information through change detection (CD) allows for further improvements in performance. The goal of this effort is to develop a sensor that can combine the advantages and strength of two distinct frequency bands to produce high valued intelligence that augments the capability of any one single sensor application. In this topic the research of interest is to combine the foliage penetration capability of a low-band (HF/UHF/VHF) and the High resolution imaging higher frequency bands (L/C/X). BENEFIT: Enhanced image formation/performance though advantages of unique band characteristics. Sensor size, weight, power, and cost mitigation for limited space on an air vehicle. This includes the real-estate savings with a single common aperture for low-band and high-band operation.

Gitam Technologies Inc
9782 Country Creek Way
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 885-9767
William S. McCormick
AF 09-139      Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Integrated SAR and LiDAR Change Detection Techniques for Small Object Detection
Abstract:There is a current Air Force need to research, develop and implement advanced algorithms for detecting small inserted objects by integrating SAR and LiDAR data. SAR and LiDAR are complementary sensor technologies with non-overlapping strengths. Both SAR and LIDAR are active sensors and both have capabilities for characterizing 2-D and 3-D features on in natural terrains. The UHF band in SAR is particularly useful for this project because of its foliage penetration capability and, although limited, it also has proven ground penetration capability. On the other hand, LIDAR systems can provide both elevation and intensity records for each laser return leading to creation of high- resolution 3-D representation of objects on the terrain under surveillance. The primary goal of this project is combine, integrate and exploit the respective strengths of these two different classes of sensors to identify small emplaced objects that can cause harm to our combat troops and innocent civilians. Advanced Change detection and Anomaly Detection algorithms will be employed for precise localization of specific terrain changes in multiple and single passes. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research will result in the development of a robust collaborative trip-wire and small Detect/ID, Change Detection and Sensor-Registration algorithms and associated system architecture capable of being integrated on an operational platform such as small UAVs. The system will communicate with ground forces in Counter-Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C-ISR) and Counter Airborne Improvised Explosive Device (C-AIED) missions. The proposed framework will be capable of providing early alarms to military personnel in the line of duty to precise location of harmful objects placements by the enemy. This capability will be of great interest to current and future military deployments in urban areas that require highly accurate force protection capabilities in urban conflicts. We expect there are two approaches to commercializing the development of this technology. First, there is the direct military application of trip-wire and small Detect/ID/ algorithms that will be critical force protection for the Air Force and the other services. We plan to first develop the technology to maturity under Phase I and Phase II SBIR efforts. Once this has been done, we plan to market the technology to military programs, operations analysts, and large systems integrators who build systems that require a rapid trip-wire and small object Detect/ID capability, as required in some recent conflicts. The marketing presentation will make use of the algorithms and performance trade-off analysis conducted under these SBIR efforts. A part of this strategy is to have the matured capability inserted in a simulation exercise, such as those performed at Joint Forces Command, so that the potential of the proposed study can be demonstrated to many of the decision-makers that witness these exercises. The second approach to commercializing this technology is to apply it to other applications in the military world or in the civilian marketplace. Potential civilian applications include drug enforcement, and border control. Military applications include surveillance of the battle space in Counter-

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Bill Pierson
AF 09-139      Awarded: 1/15/2010
Title:Integrated SAR and LiDAR Change Detection Techniques for Small Object Detection
Abstract:Different sensor modalities have different strengths and weaknesses for a given application. For example, low frequency synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) have been suggested for detecting improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Low frequency SAR allows for fast wide area search as well as ground penetration; however, does not provide fine resolution. LiDAR provides excellent resolution but is not suited for quick wide area search or ground penetration. Since IED detection requires fast search, ground penetration, and fine resolution, combining low frequency SAR and LiDAR is a natural choice. In this effort we examine combining the two sensor modalities for IED detection. In particular we examine how low frequency SAR can quickly provide regions of interest (ROIs) that are further examined using the fine resolution of LiDAR. In addition, the system uses existing surveillance data (SAR and/or LiDAR) allowing for the use of change detection, thus reducing false alarms. BENEFIT: This research shows the effectiveness of low frequency SAR, LiDAR, and change detection for the IED detection problem. It also shows the added benefit (i.e. increased sensitivity for a given false alarm rate) for combining any or all of the technologies thereby allowing for a cost/benefit analysis for developing a system using various combinations of sensors and technologies.

Sky Research, Inc
445 Dead Indian Memorial Rd
Ashland, OR 97520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 552-5177
Douglas Howard
AF 09-139      Awarded: 3/1/2010
Title:Combining SAR and LiDAR for Advanced IED Detection and ISR Applications
Abstract:Sky Research, Inc. proposes to advance present capabilities for Improvised Explosive Device (IED) detection and other Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR) detection needs though the explicit integration of Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technologies. LiDAR and SAR bring separate and compatible detection capabilities to IED detection applications that can be used together to enhance overall capability. The proposed approach uses SAR as the primary detection sensor and LIDAR as a support sensor providing micro-topographic and vegetation context. SAR in the UHF band is a mature and well-tested technology. The SkySAR UHF radar has been demonstrated to have several highly useful capabilities for ISR objectives including vehicle target detection, facility mapping, and thin wire detection. Meanwhile, LiDAR is particularly useful at distinguishing very small features in micro- topography, which provides a strong support tool in the corroboration of target information extracted from SAR. The integration of SAR and LIDAR will provide the Air Force the following specific benefits: increased Probability of detection and decreased False Alarm Rate of IED targets; decreased complexity of the image exploitation process and decreased time to actionable data; and increased range of applicability of UHF SAR detection applications. BENEFIT: Sky Research proposes to integrate SAR and LiDAR technologies to exploit extensive and existing sensor, platform, processing, and exploitation capabilities to quickly produce tangible, significant and enhanced capabilities to the warfighter.This approach is based on the strong track record of SkySAR to detect thin wires, surface IEDs and shallow buried IEDs. This robust radar technology is ideally suited for many IED target detection applications. LIDAR will be used to augment direct detection for targets where topographic relief is present. However, the main use of LiDAR is to provide the contextual backdrop for SkySAR, as LIDAR can readily produce high-resolution, geo-referenced digital terrain surfaces, bare earth model, and vegetation models. These LIDAR products support and extend SAR detection rates, reduce false alarm rates, and simplify and accelerate the data exploitation process. Therefore, it is anticipated that the proposed research will advance airborne target detection for various IED threats and other intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) applications in open areas, urban areas, under foliage, day or night, within and along roadways. Specific features of the proposed integrated technology include: enhanced target detection and false alarm rejection; decreased time to targets; improved coherent change detection and integrated image processing methods; area reduction through cued interrogation and high resolution terrain and structure modeling; improved digital terrain models and urban scene generation; and improved SAR imagery assisted by LiDAR- derived, high-fidelity digital elevation models.

ePack, Inc.
1929 Plymout Rd. #5025
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 709-3837
Sang Woo Lee
AF 09-140      Awarded: 2/23/2010
Title:Inertial Reference Corrective Approaches to Complementary Antenna Pedestal Gyro Units
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project provides a feasibility study for achieving a new low size, weight and power (SWAP) gyroscope technology with <1 degree, 3 sigma, attitude accuracy over a 24 hour mission, over a -55 to 85 degree Celsius temperature range. This device is comprised of a resonant gyroscope technology housed in an environmental resistant package (ERP). The gyroscope alone meets all of the necessary technical specification for antenna pointing and navigation performance except for the bias drift stability which is strongly temperature dependent. The ERP technology allows for the temperature of this gyroscope to be held at a constant temperature by holding it on an isolation platform and housing them in a vacuum environment. During operation the gyroscope temperature will be held at 95 degrees Celsius using <50 mW oven control over a -55 to 85 degree outside temperature range. Holding the gyroscope to a temperature stability of 0.041 degrees Celsius to 3 sigma should enable the above mentioned application. The key technical challenge in this project will be to develop proportional integral derivative (PID) control algorithms and other techniques for achieving this high level of temperature stability across a wide temperature range. BENEFIT: The benefits/potential commercial applications of this project will be to bring a new low size, weight and power (SWAP) gyroscope technology to market for tactical and navigation grade applications. This device will be nearly 100 times smaller and lower power and will cost as much as 10 times less then conventional technologies such as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRG). Its main application will be in closed loop antenna pointing applications for broadband battlefield communications and its extremely small size will allow for placement of the sensor at the phase center of these antennas enabling highly precise attitude accuracy. Its very low cost will enable the use of these antennas in a broader range of aircraft and ground vehicles. This gyroscope technology will also be applicable in existing and emerging markets including missile and satellite attitude control, attitude control of vehicles and hulls on tanks, Jeeps and Humvees, and miniaturized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Furthermore, the environmental resistant package (ERP), one of the enabling pieces of this technology, can be applied for temperature control and shock protection of other types of sensors including low power oven controlled oscillators for high precision clock references and highly shock resistant accelerometers and gyroscopes.

Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 565-9004
Behzad Moslehi
AF 09-140      Awarded: 2/8/2010
Title:Low Cost Inertial Rate Sensors with Long Term Stability
Abstract:The Air Force is seeking rate sensors that can provide long term stability for augmenting antenna pedestal gyro units and replacing overly expensive devices used to overcome attitude limitations in existing inertial navigators. IFOS proposes to develop an innovative fiber-optic gyro (FOG) with excellent long-term stability features from a light-weight, compact and low-cost device. The proposed device will be designed to also counteract vibration environments typically encountered in inertial navigation platforms, which could have frequency contents as high as 1 kilohertz. Phase I proposes to demonstrate a proof- of-concept two-axis open -loop FOG prototype comprising a polarization maintaining coiled fiber, a specially designed phase modulator an ultra-efficient optical source, and packaging designed to minimize size and weight. Preliminary experiments will be undertaken to establish feasibility of achieving the requisite stability and attitude accuracy over a period of several hours. IFOS has also initiated a collaborative effort with a prime contractor to incorporate the proposed FOG into a demonstration IMUs that can provide high-resolution Line-of-Sight (LOS) stabilization, with better than 1-deg attitude accuracy over the requisite temperature range. This effort is expected to culminate in Phase II designs and test protocols for a FOG-based IMU functioning as a complete navigation grade unit. BENEFIT: proposed IFOS FOGs for IMUs will have significantly enhanced stability, lighter weight and ruggedized components designed to meet specifications for inertial navigation systems. Such high performance, robust and cost-effective gyroscopes will also have significant impact on LOS stabilization systems for radiometry, isolated space platforms and many other DOD applications including for MDA’s ballistic missile defense systems. Non-DoD applications include active suspension systems, large 6-degrees-of-freeedom (DOF) vibration test systems, manufacturing robotic control sensors, stabilization for apertures or antennas used for pointing, tracking, surveillance and communications as well as commercial aircraft inertial navigation systems (INS).

Milli Sensor Systems & Actuators
93 Border Street
West Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-4872
Donato (Dan) Cardarelli
AF 09-140      Awarded: 2/8/2010
Title:Drift-Free MEMS IMU Antenna Stabilization
Abstract:Antenna stabilization without the use of external references requires sensors that are more stable than the level of stability specified, otherwise the sensor instability is reflected in apparent antenna instability. We propose a Stabilized MEMS IMU based on MSSA’s IMU Sensor Chip that integrates three gyros and six accelerometers on the same chip. Stabilization algorithms are introduced to remove bias instability from the gyro and accelerometer signals and to continuously measure scale factor. The result is improved precision and accuracy for dependable day-to-day autonomous antenna stabilization. The stabilization algorithms essentially elevate the long-term drift performance of the MEMS sensors to that of much larger instruments. Because of their small size and low cost they enable advanced operation at an affordable price. BENEFIT: IMUs built from MSSA’s embeddable single-chip MEMS IMU sensor will be substantially smaller and less expensive, and will facilitate more highly-integrated applications, including stabilized versions, than is possible with other MEMS IMUs. Commercial applications include: IMUs for GN&C of small UAVs and UUVs (and stabilization of their sensors, seekers and cameras), for border patrol, search & rescue, fire-fighting and police operations; IMUs for air, land and water vehicle navigation, with or without GPS-aiding; IMUs for integration into GPS/Dead Reckoning Systems for “first responders”, (i.e. “Personal Navigation” or "Personnel Locators"); Robotic stabilization, especially for small, versatile robots; Precision motion tracking for portable and wearable systems, such as high-end virtual reality headsets, and heavy-duty stabilization for surveying, precision pointing and tracking of antennas and telescopes.

Research Support Instruments
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 329-3700
John F Kline
AF 09-140      Awarded: 2/18/2010
Title:Gyroscopic Inertial Micro-Balance Attitude Locator (GIMBAL)
Abstract:Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes the Gyroscopic Inertial Micro-Balance Attitude Locator (GIMBAL), a MEMS gyro concept presented at the SENSIAC Joint Precision Azimuth Sensing Symposium, to address the problem of rate gyroscope drift, a particular issue for antenna pedestals. While macro-size gyroscopes, including fiber ring gyros, have achieved navigation-grade performance, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyros have been limited to rate-grade performance, particularly in long-term bias drift. GIMBAL is particularly suited to addressing this, since it does not rely on the vibratory structure common in MEMS gyros. Instead, it uses a true spinning wheel for the proof mass, which will not have any mechanical linkages between axes, causing a bias drift much smaller than encountered in current MEMS-sized gyros. The Phase I program will involve design, fabrication, and test of the key encapsulated micro-gyro technology; system design of the complete rate gyro sensor including identification of risks and study of concept feasibility/other technologies; and characterization of key technology performance. In Phase II, a complete gyro sensor will be designed and built, and detailed tests and demonstrations will resolve design issues for the final design. The result will be a rate gyro that will address a critical need in antenna pedestal platforms. BENEFIT: This project will prove the concept of embedding a gyro rotor in a micro-cavity as a new spinning-wheel-based rate gyro unit for an antenna pedestal platform. Accelerometers have long held the lead in commercialized MEMS sensors, and MEMS inertial sensors in general have similar market potential. Other than guidance for antenna pedestals, general navigation will be the first larger-scale market, where the high performance will be required and a higher initial unit cost will be acceptable. Once unit costs reduce due to large production quantities, the automotive markets will become a viable target; these involve the purchase of millions of IMU’s each year In addition to antenna pedestal applications, the GIMBAL gyros will be applicable to DOD applications ranging from personnel tracking to munitions guidance. The target U.S. government markets will be the US Air Force, Army, and Navy (for use in antenna tracking and navigation), as well as DOD components (SOCOM, for example) that need more specialized tracking capabilities.

SA Photonics
650 5th Street Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF 09-140      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:Inertial Reference Corrective Approaches to Complementary Antenna Pedestal Gyro Units
Abstract:Gyros are commonly used to measure the rotation of antenna pedestal platforms to enable very accurate antenna pointing. These gyros need to have very good angular stability and work over uncontrolled platform environment. But gyros currently deployed in this application space lack the needed long term stability and are therefore coupled with expensive inertial navigation system (INS) antenna reference units to compensate. The INS adds complexity and cost to the overall system. SA Photonics is pleased to propose the development of a standalone, low cost, high stability navigation-grade Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG). This gyro is well suited for sensing an antenna’s pointing direction, and it does not rely on other navigation systems to provide signal referencing. We use our low Angular Random Walk (ARW) and low bias drift technologies to achieve outstanding long- term angular stability. BENEFIT: SA Photonics will use technical solutions developed at SA Photonics to produce a standalone, low cost, high stability navigation-grade Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) for both defense and commercial applications. For defense applications, these systems can be used for measuring the rotation of antenna pedestal platforms, for Missile interceptor programs such as THAAD, Multiple Kill Vehicle and Kinetic Energy Interceptor and for ground vehicle navigation, UAV navigation and control, shipboard applications. For commercial applications, these systems can be used for commercial and private aircraft and ship navigation. With these technologies, the FOG will have the following performance: • High Stability: Angular stability < 1°, 3, in 24 hours • Wide Temperature Range: -50°C to 85°C • High Angular Rate: > 100°/sec • Low cost relative to other gyros with similar performance

ARCON Corporation
260 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-3330
Aditya Kamal
AF 09-141      Awarded: 12/18/2009
Title:Airborne Detection of Spoofed ADS-B Reports (Physical-Layer Enhanced Information Fusion)
Abstract:The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative physical layer enhanced information fusion approach for real-time detection of air-to-air and ground-to-air spoofed ADS-B reports. The main components of our innovative system include: (1) physical layer based ADS-B spoofing detection; (2) onboard sensors based ADS-B spoofing detection; (3) ground ADS-B spoofing detection; (4) information fusion of multiple ADS-B spoofing detectors. Physical layer based ADS-B spoofing detection and Dempster-Shafer fusion are two core components of our proposed technique. Our algorithm is applicable to all airspaces no matter they are covered by radars/Multilateration or not. The physical layer based method can detect not only the spoofing attack in the air (spoof ADS-B report of aircraft), but also spoofing attack on the ground (spoof the ground station broadcasting). Our physical layer enhanced information fusion system for airborne ADS-B spoofing detection has wide military and commercial applications. BENEFIT: This innovative physical layer enhanced information fusion approach for detection of air-to-air and ground-to-air spoofed ADS-B reports has large potential applications for military and commercial platforms. The primary DoD applications include manned military aircraft, unmanned military aircraft, and helicopter. Our ADS-B spoofing detection technique can protect DOD aircraft from denial of aircraft access attacks via spoofed ADS-B reports. Commercial applications include civil aircraft and UAVs. It can be used directly in the Next Generation Air Transportation Systems (NextGen) to improve the safety, capacity, and efficiency of commercial flights.

KalScott Engineering, Inc.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 979-1113
Tom Sherwood
AF 09-141      Awarded: 12/18/2009
Title:Airborne Detection of Spoofed ADS-B Reports
Abstract:The need for detection of spoofind of ADS-B messages in real-time in an organic manner is discussed. Details of previous experiments demonstrating such spoofing are presented. A novel method to detect such spoofing detection capability from an airborne platform, in real time are presented. The proposed Phase I effort includes modeling, and development of proof-of-concept hardware and software. Phase II involves further development and testing on aerial platforms. BENEFIT: Improved security of the ADS-B system, which currently, can be spoofed. The hardware developed here can be expanded to detect spoofing of other signals of interest.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Jayesh Amin
AF 09-141      Awarded: 12/18/2009
Title:ADS-B Signal Transmission Authenticity Reckoner (ASTAR)
Abstract:Civil Aviation Authorities around the world are incrementally converting the existing ground based radar airspace surveillance systems to airborne Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) systems. Being global in scope, ADS-B incorporates openly published standards and allows for readily available COTS equipment. Open standards preclude typical authentication mechanisms involving encryption keys and digital signatures that can be deployed to prevent unauthorized and malicious usage. ADS-B can thus be anonymously spoofed to deny airspace to other aircraft including those on DoD missions. Under this effort, we propose to develop a novel approach that exploits the physical characteristics of the ADS-B transmission signal to determine its validity and may even be able to localize the source under certain conditions. We will leverage our proven transmitter localization algorithms along with multi-target tracking filters to develop a ADS-B message authentication system. Phase I effort will evaluate and compare the various feasible approaches using metrics such as detection latencies and false positive and negative alarm rates. Phase II effort will implement a retrofit prototype system in collaboration with Raytheon that will be used to demonstrate performance of the proposed algorithms using the above defined metrics under real-time actual air-traffic conditions and injected spoofed ADS-B messages. BENEFIT: The proposed ADS-B authentication system has both military as well as commercial applications. DoD will certainly benefit by having a robust countermeasure against potential malicious denial of airspace. Besides being able to flag the spoofed ADS-B messages, under certain conditions, the proposed system may be able to provide a localization solution that could be used to suppress the spoof attack source from generating further attacks. Commercial applications may involve working with the standards groups and avionics manufacturers to incorporate the proposed authentication system either within the Minimum Operations Performance Standards (MPS) for ADS-B or be offered as a standard capability of the transponder equipment and will provide an independent check for bad data that may be generated due to system malfunctions on the transmitting or receiving system (which may be an airborne or a ground receiver).

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Magnús Snorrason
AF 09-143      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Metric for Analyzing Radar Image Effectiveness (MARIE)
Abstract:The challenge is to develop an image quality metric and prediction model for SAR imagery that addresses exploitation by automated tools (i.e., ATR) and trained imagery analysts. Our approach rests on a deep understanding and experience with the Radar National Imagery Interpretability Ratings Scale (Radar NIIRS) and the previous development of the General Image Quality Equations (GIQE) for other modalities, while incorporating experience in ATR characterization and performance modeling. Phase 1 establishes the theoretical baseline by addressing three fundamental issues. We will clarify the relationship between human perception of image quality (i.e., NIIRS) and machine-centric measures of image quality (i.e., ATR performance). The modeling and analysis will identify the key factors (sensor and acquisition parameters) that affect image quality for ATR. Lastly, we will assess the effects of diverse background clutter environments and their role in the formulation of a prediction model. By developing a clear understanding of these three issues in Phase 1, the Phase 2 effort can focus on the rigorous, quantitative analysis necessary to produce a robust image quality metric and prediction model. BENEFIT: We expect the MARIE technology to have immediate and tangible benefit for a number of military sensor and image exploitation systems. In particular, MARIE will help the ATR community develop ATRs with well-defined performance characteristics as a function of SAR sensor characteristics. Likewise, the SAR sensor development community will benefit from the ability to conduct design and trade studies using both an image quality prediction model and an image quality metric which have proven correlation with ATR performance. This will clearly be relevant to the various Performance Driven Sensing initiatives in the Air Force, as well as missile seeker design programs and persistent ISR programs across all branches of the military.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Carl Frost
AF 09-143      Awarded: 12/21/2009
Title:Cross-Platform SAR Image Quality Metric for ATR
Abstract:The intelligence community uses the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) to quantify the information that an image analyst can extract from a visible image; NIIRS ratings are numbers relating quality of an image to interpretation tasks for which it may be used. The General Image Quality Equation (GIQE) is used to predict NIIRS ratings for visible images from parameters such as image resolution, sharpness, and signal-to-noise ratio. There is considerable interest in developing NIIRS image ratings for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A new NIIRS prediction equation (SAR GIQE) would take into account both the amplitude and phase of the SAR data, and would be applicable to advanced SAR modes utilized by image analysts in exploitation of SAR data. This new SAR GIQE would represent multiple SAR products generated from complex, full polarization, and/or multi-pass imagery; advanced modes utilizing these data types include detection and recognition, coherent/non-coherent change detection, interferometric and bistatic imaging, super-resolution and ATR processing. SSCI proposes to develop a new SAR GIQE that predicts NIIRS ratings for SAR imagery. BENEFIT: he development of a NIIRS prediction for synthetic aperture radar using a SAR General Image Quality Equation (GIQE) will provide SAR system designers with a tool for predicting the performance of various SAR modes (detection and tracking, coherent change detection, super-resolution and ATR processing, interferometric imaging, etc.) prior to actually building the SAR. The effect of this SAR GIQE will be the ability to predict functional performance of a SAR design across both employment and scenario, thereby allowing design and procurement decisions guided by the functions the SAR supports; it will also reveal the capabilities, limitations, and sensitivities critical to determining the best use of sensor resources.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 490-4710
Majid Nayeri
AF 09-143      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Develop Cross-Platform Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image quality metric for automatic target recognition (ATR)
Abstract:In this proposal we address the problem of developing a GIQE for ATR in SAR. We do employ image features such as IPR mainlobe width, IPR sidelobe peak, Integrated sidelobe ratio (ISLR) in the context of MNR (multiplicative noise ratio), system noise, grazing angle, etc., to capture the system variability, collection geometry, scene selection, and mode of operation. SET will perform statistical regression analysis to identify the linear or non- linear functional dependencies of the ATR scores (mimicking NIIRS) to each feature where prudent order selection and mean-square weight training are exercised. Finally, residual analysis will be performed which examines the correlation between the regression (prediction) error and the value of the predictor variables. BENEFIT: This research effort will • Determine the influence of features on SAR image quality • Provide a significant progress in realizing the Performance Driven Sensing • Produce a Phase II plan to verify/validate the dependencies of image quality NIIRS to some features.

Sheet Dynamics, Limited
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Adam Nolan
AF 09-143      Awarded: 1/20/2010
Title:Performance estimation of SAR imagery using NIIRS techniques
Abstract:We propose a windowed General Image Quality Equation that incorporates automatic target recognition specific features. Because the metric adapts to local clutter statistics, we expect it to better represent the non-uniform characteristics of the imagery. The feature weights are determined via linear programming techniques constrained to be monotonic. BENEFIT: Defining exploitation specific image quality is a key challenge to multiple disciplines including non-destructive evaluation of airframes and biomedical imaging. We have been developing and marketing tools for these purposes that will be able to leverage the results of this effort.

Integrated Adaptive Applications, Inc
2506 NW 19th Way
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 480-9617
Luzhou Xu
AF 09-145      Awarded: 1/5/2010
Title:Enhanced Ultrahigh Frequency SAR Imaging via Geometric Exploitation
Abstract:Geometric or angular diversity can be exploited to significantly enhance ultrahigh frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging performance, to capture target glints, to exploit highly directional specular returns, to achieve enhanced resolutions in both planar dimensions without increasing the radio frequency (RF) bandwidth, and to form three-dimensional (3-D) images using a large aperture and a steep grazing angle. These improvements are especially important for urban target detection and surveillance in cluttered environments. Several key technical challenges, however, must be overcome to reap the benefits afforded by the geometric diversity. The first objective of this program is to develop effective and efficient high resolution UHF SAR imaging algorithms by exploiting the geometric diversity offered by the wide angle concept. The second objective of this program is to evaluate and test the performance of our algorithms using simulated and measured data available to us. The goal of these investigations is to determine the merits and limitations of the algorithms and to establish tradeoffs between coverage, resolution and target detection performance. We will identify promising ideas and algorithms for further investigations during Phase II. BENEFIT: The technologies we develop can be applied to many civilian radar applications, including better air traffic control and monitoring, improved domestic counter-terrorism, enhanced boarder security, and more reliable drug trafficking monitoring.

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 490-4702
Leah Bischoff
AF 09-145      Awarded: 1/12/2010
Title:Exploitation of Geometric Diversity for High Resolution Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging
Abstract:The SET Team proposes to develop advanced 3-D SAR image formation techniques using Ultra High Frequency Radar that effectively exploit a circular collect imaging scenario. The SAR system orbits a fixed region of interest and collects spot-mode radar data with a sweep in elevation. The SET design will use (1) compressive sensing imaging approaches to reduce sidelobes, mitigate spurious RFI responses in the 3-D SAR imagery, and enhance resolution - all artifacts of UHF sensing-, and (2) wide-angle SAR imaging techniques to exploit the circular collect azimuth sweep for improving image resolution. SET will use the pre-existing circle collected spotlight mode UHF SAR US Army TRACER dataset to support Phase 1 research. The SET design will reflect the need for near real- time, surface-penetrating 3D visualization in warfare scenarios by performing a feasibility and sensitivity study for two collection CONOPS for a 3D building mapping via exterior RF probing application: (1) the feasibility of a single-pass 3-D imaging capability utilizing a flight path that sweeps in azimuth while gradually varying elevation, and, comparatively, (2) the expected resolution gain that can be achieved by multi-pass collections. BENEFIT: The capability to detect buried IEDs, perform 3D building mapping by exterior RF probing, or through foliage target detection in day/night conditions is critically needed in the modern warfare scenario. All these examples require surface penetrating sensing, an attribute of UHF radar, and a 3D imaging capability that allows for the resolution of multiple height scatterers in a resolution bin, an attribute of 3D tomography.

Sky Research, Inc
445 Dead Indian Memorial Rd
Ashland, OR 97520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 552-5142
Arlen Schmidt
AF 09-145      Awarded: 1/28/2010
Title:Exploitation of Geometric Diversity for High Resolution Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging
Abstract:Sky Research, Inc. proposes to investigate the application of geometric diversity to Ultra- High Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (UHF SAR) and to analyze the effects on coverage, resolution, and detection performance. Geometric diversity can be realized with curved, circular, or spiral flight paths, or by combining multiple straight or curved flight paths into a single coherent data set. The project will include an in-depth analysis of the image characteristics associated with geometric diversity, as well as evaluation of the idea of trading geometric diversity for bandwidth. The costs and benefits of these various flight path geometries will be evaluated and will include all of the aspects that are related to SAR image quality, such as resolution, sidelobe levels, and artifacts, and operational aspects such as coverage rate. Because the primary objective of many SAR systems is to detect targets, the evaluation of the effects of geometric diversity on target detection performance will be emphasized. The analysis will be verified by applying the techniques to actual UHF SAR data and then evaluating the effect on target detection performance in those data. BENEFIT: The application of geometric diversity to Ultra-High Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (UHF SAR) has several potential benefits over using non-straight flight paths. Some of the benefits of using non-straight flight paths, such as curved, circular, and multiple flight paths may lead to new application areas. These benefits include: following curved roads with curved flight paths; finding highly directive targets, such as wires, with circular flight paths; forming three dimensional images with multiple parallel flight paths; and improving image resolution and target detection performance with the geometric diversity provided by non-straight flight paths. The project will include an in-depth analysis of the image characteristics associated with geometric diversity, as well as evaluation of the idea of trading geometric diversity for bandwidth. The analysis will be verified by applying the techniques to actual UHF SAR data and then evaluating the effect on target detection performance in those data.

Technology Service Corporation
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 601-8306
Steven Jaroszewski
AF 09-145      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Exploitation of Geometric Diversity for High Resolution Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging
Abstract:Under this effort TSC will structure a circular-orbit UHF SAR backprojection algorithm to operate in real-time and provide fully polarimetric imagery that is orthorectified and geo- registered. The algorithm re-quirements will be determined for operation on a massively- parallel computer system (such as are currently used for GREP), a FPGA-based processor and/or a GPU-based processor. TSC will extend the backprojection algorithm structure to accommodate both coherent and noncoherent tomographic processing to achieve increased angular diversity when performing persistent SAR surveillance by using flight geometries such as concentric circles, vertically stacked circles, spiral and helical flight paths. TSC will demonstrate additional enhanced circular UHF SAR image synthesis techniques to include: 1) coherent, non-coherent and polarimetric change detection, 2) creating stereo images and DEMs (including the interiors of structures), and 3) polarimetric image segmentation. TSC will apply the above capabilities to a concept for through-the-roof imaging of structures and will assess the quality of interior mapping and target detection that can be achieved. BENEFIT: The TSC program will provide the Air Force with an advanced UHF SAR signal processing techniques that is complementary the microwave circular SAR capability being developed under the GREP program, and to other persistent surveillance systems such as the full motion video Angel Fire EO system. The technolo-gies that TSC will develop will support Air Force operations in forest, urban and open environments, and in particular can enhance the knowledge of the interiors of structures.

Linearizer Technology, inc.
3 Nami Lane, Unit C-9
Hamilton, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-8424
John MacDonald
AF 09-146      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Broadband, Ultra-linear, Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Abstract:Power amplifiers that provide both high linearity and high efficiency are essential for the transmission of high data rate bandwidth efficient digital signals used in modern MILSATCOM communications. Achieving this objective at millimeter-wave frequencies is particularly challenging. Linearizer Technology, Inc. (LTI) in conjunction with L-3 Communications Corporation, Electron Devices Division (L-3 EDD) is proposing to develop a TWTA based transmitter including an up-converter covering the frequency from 43.5 to 45.5 GHz with a linear output power > 50 watts and associated efficiency > 30%. This transmitter will have a weight < 15 lbs and a volume < 0.5 cu. ft. when housed in an air-cooled, weather resistant package suitable for antenna mounting. Transmitter linear performance will be based on supporting Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). A transmitter goal will be an amplitude modulation/phase modulation (AM/PM) of less than 1.5 °/dB from small signal up to saturated input power across the band. This work will be based on L3-EDD’s success in producing Q-band microwave power modules (MPMs) and LTI’s experience in producing linearizers for the Q-band frequency range. BENEFIT: Modern communications systems use complex modulation as QAM, in which the peak to average power ratio is high, and result in a non-constant envelope. Power amplifiers made for these modulations must be highly linear in order to minimize distortion that can negatively affect adjacent channel signals and signal quality. To achieve the required level of linearity, it is common practice to operate amplifiers at reduced power. The consequences of this approach are a very low efficiency, over-sized and heavy transmitters/amplifiers and power supplies, extra unnecessary heat generation, and higher costs. At millimeter-wave these factors can make a communication system impractical to implement, particularly for power-consumption-sensitive applications such as SATCOM and mobile communications. The proposed project will improve the efficiency of compact linear Q-band power amplifiers/transmitters resulting in reduced size, weight, cost and required prime power. The combining of an improved linearizer with a new higher power and efficiency miniature TWT and techniques that enhance amplifier efficiency with QAM modulation could provide an additional 25 to 50% reduction in power consumption. This technology also has value for both space borne as well as ground-based systems. The resulting transmitter will be of great value in virtually all bandwidth efficient Q-band/millimeter-wave communication systems where power consumption is of concern. Portable, mobile and airborne communications systems will be prime candidates for integration of this technology.

Triton Services, Inc.
17001 Science Drive Suite 100
Bowie, MD 20715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 252-7331
Frank Francisco
AF 09-146      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Broadband, Ultra-linear, Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Abstract:Achieving high power, efficiency, and linearity in airborne amplifiers in the microwave and millimeter wave frequency bands is important to the future of many Air Force programs, particularly for communications applications. RF power levels required for these high frequency, high data rate link budgets have not been effectively satisfied by the use of solid state amplifiers. The Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) due to its simultaneous frequency- bandwidth-power characteristics has been the answer to many military and commercial data link requirements. As military and commercial data links become more sophisticated, complex modulations (such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QAM and others) are desired for a variety of reasons. The amplification of these modulated signals demands that the amplifier be operated in a highly linear fashion in order to preserve phase and amplitude content without distortion, an increase in Bit Error Rate (BER) and/or adjacent channel interference. A Typical TWT has 6 dB gain compression and about 40 degrees of phase change at saturated power out. Thus, in order to operate in a fully linear fashion, a TWT would have to be operated at or near the small signal region. An output power back off (OPBO) from saturation of 6 dB would not be uncommon. This is a huge disadvantage in term of device efficiency and link power. The most recent answer to this dilemma has been to create linearized TWT Amplifiers (TWTAs). Linearization can be accomplished by several methods, both internal and external to the TWT. Triton’s preferred method is to utilize a pre-distortion linearizer as a pre-amplifier to the TWT. The linearizer is constructed with gain and phase distortion complementary to the distortion of the TWT. The combined performance effectively increases the linear operating range of the amplifier. One successful Ku Band amplifier was able to increase the linear operating range to within 2 dB of saturation, a 2½ times increase in usable (linear) power. Distortion levels of AM/PM ≤ 2º/dB and AM/AM ≤1.2 dB/dB were obtained at 70 watts of output power and below. Up until now there have been few, if any, highly linear amplifiers in the range of 43.5 to 45.5 GHz and at this medium power level. The three major thrusts of this proposal are directed at answering that need. • The development of a basic TWT-type vacuum device which is capable of producing 50 watts at 43.5 to 45.5 GHz. • A method to overcome the inevitable linearity deficits of the TWT. • A Power Supply and associated support elements required to create a workable ultra-linear TWTA. Triton Services Inc. has had over 40 years of experience in manufacturing TWTs, TWTAs, MPMs, and other related sub-systems. Based on our many decades of experience and previous millimeter-wave developments, we propose to create an ultra- linear EHF TWTA combining a pre-distortion linearizer, a specially designed TWT using advanced fabrication techniques and a custom power conditioner which feeds the active components. During the Phase I, we will design and demonstrate the design elements necessary to produce the ultra-linear EHF TWTA. Preliminary calculations based on TWT theory and various design codes will be employed to determine optimum design

InnoSys
2900 South Main Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 975-7399
Larry Sadwick
AF 09-147      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Highly Linear E-Band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Abstract:The Air Force has identified a need for an advanced traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) that supports future generations of broad bandwidth, efficient and linear military satellite communication. To address this need, InnoSys proposes to develop innovative solutions for advanced TWTAs that operate from 81 to 86 GHz, deliver high efficiency greater than 30% with a relatively high saturated gain greater than 32.5 dB, have high linear and saturated output powers greater than 30 and 180 Watts, respectively, have excellent linearity specifically to support quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) operation over a very high peak to average power ratio of 6dB, with amplitude modulation/phase modulation (AM/PM) less than 4.5 degrees/dB, capable of operating temperature range of -40 to +80 degrees and capable of radiation total dose tolerance of >1Mrad (Si) and single event effect (SEE) immunity of >60 MeV. In particular, InnoSys proposes to further develop its solid state vacuum device (SSVD) coupled with a high voltage power supply for a compact, lightweight, high performance E-band TWTA. SSVD technology applies the very same techniques that enable the low cost, mass-production of semiconductors to be used for the design and fabrication of high performance millimeter-wave TWTAs. BENEFIT: The high power extremely high frequency regime has a number of potential applications. New technology in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum will directly benefit communications on the battlefield such as military “comms on the move,” personal and portable active denial systems, and other systems. Immediate application potential ranges broadly to include space, radar, biological and chemical agent detection, atmospheric environment sensing, near object detection, and material imaging. The dual ability to have both very high data transmission rates and very high bandwidths, makes the this E-band SBIR program, especially with the 5 GHz bandwidth, a key building block for both military and commercial uses. Areas of commercial market interest include the RF-based commercial satellite communications programs (e.g. Iridium™, Globalstar™ and Spaceway™), and commercial SATCOM broadcast programs including XM™ radio, Sirius™ Radio and DirectTV™. Future commercial applications for these source products also include monitoring and detection systems for all-weather, day-and-night operations (i.e., mm-wave imaging, airport surveillance, intrusion detection, and harbor traffic monitoring), fusion plasma research and thermal interactions and processing of materials, and a host of other fundamental scientific, academic, and research applications.

Linearizer Technology, inc.
3 Nami Lane, Unit C-9
Hamilton, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-8424
John MacDonald
AF 09-147      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Highly Linear E-Band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Abstract:Linearizer Technology, Inc. (LTI) in association with L-3 Communications Corporation, Electron Devices Division (L-3 EDD) proposes to develop a linearized E-band TWTA. The goal of this program is to develop, fabricate, and test a compact linear E-band microwave power module (MPM) providing a minimum linear output power of 45 W with an efficiency of 30% from 81 to 86 GHz. Linear performance will be based on supporting Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). A goal will be an amplitude modulation/phase modulation (AM/PM) of less than 2 °/dB from small signal up to saturated power across the band. It is projected that to achieving 45 W of linear output power will require a TWT producing a saturated output power of about 90 W across the frequency band. The realization of this TWT will be leveraged on work presently underway at L-3 EDD, under internal funding, in W-band. LTI will development the E-band pre-distortion linearizer required to achieve the required linear performance. This work will make use of LTI’s experience in producing linearizers for the Ka and Q-band frequency ranges. BENEFIT: Efficient linear power amplifiers are needed for satellite communication (SATCOM) in the newly allocated E-band (81-86 GHz) to support the transmission of Airborne Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AISR) data. These transmissions utilize complex digital modulation as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) in which the peak to average power ratio is high, and result in a non-constant envelope. Power amplifiers made for these modulations must be highly linear in order to minimize distortion that can negatively affect adjacent channel signals and signal quality (bit error rate) [1,2]. To achieve the required level of linearity, it is common practice to operate amplifiers at reduced power, a high level of output power backoff (OPBO). The consequences of this approach are a very low efficiency, over-sized and heavy transmitters/amplifiers and power supplies, extra unnecessary heat generation, and higher costs. A millimeter- wave these factors can make a communication system impractical to implement, particularly for power-consumption-sensitive applications such as SATCOM.. At millimeter-wave the most efficient form of amplification is normally a TWT. However TWTs are not the most linear devices. For this project it proposed to develop a compact linear TWTA for E-band in the form of a linearized microwave power module (MPM). L-3 Communications Electron Devices Division (L-3 EDD) builds a variety of MPMs for military SATCOM and data link applications. The compact package and high efficiency of the MPM makes it an ideal amplifier for military mobile communication applications

Nuvotronics LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Road
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 341-2333
Jean-Marc Rollin
AF 09-148      Awarded: 1/20/2010
Title:V-Band Solid State Power Amplifier
Abstract:Nuvotronics has created a unique Polystrata™ metal micromachining process, used to create suspended recta-coax lines, high performance MMIC sockets, and millimeter-wave (MMW) interconnection circuits with low loss, small size/high density, and durability. Nuvotronics and their collaborators are proposing to develop high power, high efficiency V-band Solid State Amplifiers for future Military Satellite Communication Systems. The significance of the innovation primarily lies in two areas: state of the art GaN MMICs amplifiers combined with extremely low loss / high efficiency corporate power combiners and spatial combiners realized using Polystrata™ technology. BENEFIT: High power solid state power amplifiers will find widespread application in DOD and commercial communication systems.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
James Schellenberg
AF 09-148      Awarded: 12/21/2009
Title:V-Band Solid State Power Amplifier with Integrated Power Combiner
Abstract:This proposal is aimed at the development of SSPAs in the 71-76 GHz band with output power>40 W, Gain>20 dB, power added efficiency >35%, and linearity (ACPR <-40 dBc) consistent with 16 QAM modulation bandwidth>60MHz. To achieve the high power output and high efficiency, we will first develop 1W power amplifier MMICs based on GaN/SiC HEMT device technology with push-pull amplifier configuration operated in class E switching mode operation. A pair of these MMIC devices are mounted into a small HPA module with 1.8W output as a building block. The HPA modules will be integrated by means of a 24 way low loss TE01 radial combiner to generate 40W power output preserving the MMIC high efficiency. To achieve the linearity, an envelope tracking digital pre-distortion linearization technique will be employed. These various approaches have been demonstrated individually at lower microwave frequencies. This program will result in a unique combination of these techniques at millimeter-wave frequencies, specifically at 71-76 GHz, to significantly raise the output power level, efficiency, and linearity of the SSPAs for future SATCOM, AISR system applications where a large volume of channels and high data rate transmission capabilities are required. BENEFIT: The high power, high efficiency, linear SSPA in the 71-76 GHz band will enable the development of future SATCOM/AISR communication systems that require very large volume of high data rate communications. It can also be used for telemetry links in deep space missions. The technology will also be applicable to many commercial communication systems that are being development or planned using V-, E-, and W-bands.

TiaLinx, Inc.
1100 Quail Street, Suite 205
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 285-6255
Fred Mohamadi
AF 09-148      Awarded: 1/6/2010
Title:V-Band Solid State Power Amplifier with Integrated Power Combiner
Abstract:In this phase I SBIR proposal, power combining has been proposed as a viable approach to design of an array of amplifier with effective output power of >30 W at 71-76 GHz. Switching power amplifiers with efficiency of >45% at 76 GHz have also been proposed to reduce the array size. The entire SSPA array is monolithic and its implementation has been elaborated in the proposal. BENEFIT: The market for optical components used in telecom and datacom networks is expected to grow from $1.5 billion ($ US) this year to over $6.6 billion ($ US) in 2011. This market is served currently by optical pipelines of 10 Gbps and 40 Gbps. Current IEEE802.15 S3C proposal addressed by TiaLinx is intended to extend the application of RF beamforming as physical layer for UWB point-to-point and point-to-multi-point access nodes. V-band and E-band UWB wireless link technology is similar to terrestrial fiber in terms of speed and reliability for deployment in extended Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). However, it has a substantial advantage over terrestrial fiber because it costs less to deploy resulting in a lower cost of ownership and, the company''s virtual fiber links can be deployed in a day. Terrestrial fiber can take many months, even a year, to deploy and also require significant regulatory and environmental approvals prior to deployment. The proposed high power transmitter module has a significant value proposition to replace the fiber for short distance point-to- point wireless communication links.

Kernco, Inc
28 Harbor Street
Danvers, MA 01923
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 777-1956
Cameron Everson
AF 09-149      Awarded: 2/23/2010
Title:Passive Hydrogen Maser for Space Applications
Abstract:Research and development programs on the passive hydrogen maser (PHM) have been undertaken in a number of firms, government agencies, and university laboratories. In the first years of development, the PHM was cumbersome and very difficult to transport. The new generation of PHM, which is comparable in size, weight and power to the commercially available cesium standards exhibit excellent frequency stability and timekeeping ability. The frequency stability of a passive hydrogen maser is essential and exceedingly suitable as a space-based atomic clock. The objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to develop a system design for a Passive Hydrogen Maser and to demonstrate its feasibility through computer models and simulations and hardware demonstrations. BENEFIT: The Passive Hydrogen Maser is an obvious choice directly traceable to existing, spaceflight-worthy clocks while exploiting the unique advantages of a hydrogen maser. This Phase I SBIR effort is intended to produce the baseline design of a Passive Hydrogen Maser (PHM) for space applications with short-term frequency stability performance of 1x10-12 per root tau. This Phase I conceptual design and proof- of-concept program will form the baseline for Phase II program to complete the design, fabrication and testing of a prototype PHM unit with a flicker of <2 x 10 -15.

Kernco, Inc
28 Harbor Street
Danvers, MA 01923
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 777-1956
Cameron Everson
AF 09-150      Awarded: 2/12/2010
Title:High Performance Pulsed Rubidium Clock for Space Applications
Abstract:Precision navigation and timing requirements continually push for improved atomic clock performance. With the recent developments in Advanced Technology Frequency Standards (ATAFS) it has been shown that the limits in stability performance have yet to be reached. Fractional frequency stability requirements in the order of 1x10-12 per root tau with a flicker floor of < 1x10-14 is a formidable goal for spaceborne atomic clocks. However, it is necessary to maintain sub-nanosecond timing accuracy. Kernco proposes a logical follow-on to the ATAFS program by adapting the current CPT MASER to operate in the pulsed mode. Through the incorporation of hardware upgrades to the current CPT MASER, the resultant Pulsed Rubidium Atomic Clock (PRAC) is expected to provide the frequency stability of 1x10-12 per root tau with a flicker floor of <1x10-14. BENEFIT: Technology developed through this SBIR effort is intended to produce a state-of-the-art Pulsed Optically Pumped (POP) Rubidium Maser Atomic Clock. This clock, with its reduced size, weight, power and cost, coupled with its potential for performance improvements over existing space flight clocks, has a wide range of applications over a broad customer base.

GIRD Systems, Inc.
310 Terrace Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 281-2900
Mark Arlinghaus
AF 09-152      Awarded: 1/12/2010
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) Time Aiding Using WWV/WWVB
Abstract:Time to first fix (TTFF), i.e., the initial acquisition of GPS signals can be quite large when the GPS UE has a degraded timing solution or during a cold-start, when the UE has absolutely no knowledge of time or initial position. In addition, the Coarse Acquisition (C/A) code may not always be available due to interference. In these cases direct acquisition of GPS Precision Code or P(Y) and GPS Military code or M-code may not be possible without providing the GPS UE with accurate timing information from other sources. In this proposal GIRD Systems proposes to use RF timing signals such as the WWV low-frequency radio stations broadcast by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide relatively accurate timing signals to GPS UE as time aid during C/A degradation and/or during a cold start. Hardware prototype design consideration will also be given during Phase I for subsequent Phase II implementation. BENEFIT: This SBIR program aims to develop into a potential product that supplies military GPS receivers with external time aid information for C/A stressed application or for a cold start with only P(Y) code signals. Such additional information may also be used for civilian GPS services to speed up TTFF.

NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown
AF 09-152      Awarded: 1/22/2010
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) Time Aiding Using WWV/WWVB
Abstract:The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in military operations at home and abroad. As the military dependence GPS technology increases, the success of the mission can be tied to the soldier’s ability to navigate in GPS degraded or denied areas. Direct acquisition of GPS P(Y) code is desirable to military users as it has a higher tolerance to jamming and spoofing when compared to the C/A-code. An augmentation system is needed that can reduce the amount of time it takes for a GPS receiver to acquire the P(Y)-code signal in GPS denied or degraded operating environments. The objective of this Phase I SBIR effort is to design, develop, and demonstrate GPS User Equipment (UE) time aiding using a Differential WWV, (DWWV) system. WWV is the call sign of The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) shortwave radio station located in Fort Collins, Colorado. The NAVSYS DWWV GPS aiding system allows GPS UE direct acquisition of GPS Precision Code. They NAVSYS system also provides alternative timing solutions if C/A code is unavailable due to interference. Under the Phase I base effort we shall develop a design for Phase II prototype where the WWV algorithms could be implemented in a form factor suitable for testing with the Defense Advance GPS Receiver (DAGR) and Force 22E SAASM GPS receivers. The system will provide to the GPS UE an external timing signal to improve the TTFF for direct acquisition of the GPS Precision coded, and a timing solution to GPS UE in a GPS denied or signal degraded environment. BENEFIT: The NAVSYS DWWV module will provide the timing signals necessary to perform time transfer and direct P(Y) code acquisition. Application of the DWWV technology to our ground forces in urban canyons will also save lives by reducing the GPS signal acquisition time in navigation and targeting applications. Time solution aiding with the NAVSYS DWWV module can benefit commercial equipment by providing highly accurate time estimates in GPS degraded or denied environments.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Roger J. Helkey
AF 09-152      Awarded: 1/20/2010
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) Time Aiding Using WWV/WWVB
Abstract:Toyon proposes to design, develop and build a GPS system that uses external RF signals for timing estimation in order to acquire Precise Positioning Service (P/Y/M-code) signals under jamming conditions where the GPS C/A-code cannot be used. The RF signals will be selected to provide sub-second timing accuracy in order to limit the substantial computation involved in acquiring PPS signals in low signal-to-noise ratio environments. Toyon will develop a highly efficient PPS signal acquisition unit and integrate it into our GPS receiver, targeting PPS acquisition of a given satellite in fewer than 10 sec from availability of the timing reference. The RF timing reference developed under this program can also be used as a synchronization signal to allow PPS signal acquisition in other GPS receivers. BENEFIT: The C/A-code is easily jammed due to its known modulation code. PPS (P/Y/M-code) signals for accurate navigation are difficult to acquire without use of the C/A-code signals for a timing reference. The GPS receiver technology developed under this program will allow hand-held GPS receivers, which must be shut down to conserve battery power, to acquire PPS signals in a jamming environment.

Bedford Signals Corporation
27 Burlington Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(339) 223-2861
Kenneth A. Falcone
AF 09-153      Awarded: 2/6/2010
Title:Integrated Interference Location Module
Abstract:The Air Force is looking to enable detection, characterization, and geo-location of GPS jammers using integration with Electronic Support algorithms with Electronic Protection and GPS receivers. What is needed is an Electronic Support process that can be implemented in a reasonably sized (1 Watt) application specific integrated circuit and integrated with GPS signal processing. Bedford Signals proposes to solve this problem by developing a process for detecting, characterizing, direction finding, and geo-locating GPS jammers using measurements from a null steering antenna array combined with the platform motion. The proposed algorithms can be developed in simulation and tested on our existing DSP board using our multi-source multi-element GPS Jammer Simulator. BENEFIT: This research will result in the development and demonstration of an Electronic Support process for detecting, characterizing, and geo-locating GPS jammers. The process will be ported to an application specific integrated circuit, for ease of integration with Electronic Protection and GPS receivers. The potential end uses of this product include the identification and location of intentional jammers and unintentional interference for military and civilian applications.

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Triveni N. Upadhyay
AF 09-153      Awarded: 2/3/2010
Title:Navigation Warfare Electronic Support (ES) Technology Development and Miniaturization
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR program is to develop an integrated NAVWAR ES/EP system for use in future generations of SWAP-C (size, weight, power and cost) constrained weapon systems. Mayflower proposes to leverage its expertise in developing SWAP-C optimized GPS Receiver and Anti-Jam systems and in developing ASICs to meet the program objective. Mayflower’s focus in the Phase I program is to focus on the feasibility analyses of the ES (Electronic Support) technology using an innovative technique for jammer detection and geo-location, that can interface with EP (Electronic Protection) and EA (Electronic Attack) components seamlessly. In Phase II Mayflower will demonstrate the technology on an FPGA-based prototype platform. An ASIC integrating all the components of NAVWAR ES/EP will be developed in Phase III program. BENEFIT: The proposed technology development will result in highly SWAP-C optimized NAVWAR system that can be deployed in the future weapon systems and small UAVs. The commercial GPS users (namely, airlines) will also benefit from this technology development.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Roger J. Helkey
AF 09-153      Awarded: 2/8/2010
Title:Navigation Warfare Algorithm Development and Hardware Integration
Abstract:Navigation Warfare (NAVWAR) Electronic Support (ES) requires sophisticated algorithms and considerable hardware for jammer detection, characterization and geo-location. Unfortunately, unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) have highly constrained Size, Weight and Power (SWAP) requirements and yet need access to the same sophisticated NAVWAR algorithms and hardware that protect larger air vehicles. Furthermore, most military navigation systems including UAVs rely on GPS which is inherently susceptible to intentional and unintentional sources of electromagnetic interference. Electronic protection (EP) of GPS traditionally requires a large antenna array, adaptive processing or Space- Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) techniques. There is therefore a need to combine GPS EP with ES capabilities in a small form-factor while ensuring that the system is not susceptible to blue-force Electronic Attack (EA). Toyon has developed several key technologies needed for the successful fusion of these NAVWAR functions, including an antenna array with STAP processing, highly effective anti-spoof and multipath-mitigating processing techniques, GPS angle-of-arrival measurements for precise platform attitude determination, and jammer angle of arrival detection algorithms for jammer geolocation. During this effort Toyon will develop algorithms to combine these key GPS technologies, and integrate them in an FPGA or ASIC utilizing less than one watt of power. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of this program include the development of a robust anti-jam navigation system that is efficiently integrated into a low-power integrated circuit that simultaneously provides precise direction-finding and attitude-determination capabilities and which enable the geolocation of jammers, jammer-aided navigation, home-on-jam, and GPS spoof detection. In particular, such a small form-factor system will provide significant new protections for small platforms while extending their operational envelope.

Coherent Logix, Incorporated
1120 South Capital of Texas Highway Building 3, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 382-8957
Nirali Patel
AF 09-154      Awarded: 3/1/2010
Title:Smart Adaptive GPS Equipment (SAGE)
Abstract:Ground, vehicle and airborne-based GPS receivers are subject to a variety of natural and man-made interference. Environmental impairments such as reduced signal strength due to heavy foliage, multipath reflections due to obstacles such as tall buildings and mountains are more pronounced in ground-based systems. Airborne platforms are more susceptible to jamming from a variety of sources. Interference rejection electronics for GPS receivers have been developed and successfully deployed on vehicles, aircraft, and large munitions. However, military GPS solutions today are based on rigid architectures and stove-pipe product lines unique to each manufacturer that prevents user equipment interoperability and stifles innovation towards development of advanced receiver technology such as cognitive and adaptive reception. The program proposes to develop a Smart Adaptive GPS Equipment (SAGE) System based on a modular and open software defined radio (SDR) platform built around Coherent Logix’s ultra-low power, extremely- high performance, reconfigurable (on-the-fly) HyperX processor. This real-time reconfigurable low-power processor for signal processing provides SAGE the flexibility to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of advanced algorithms for GPS processing, anti- jam, multipath suppression, receiver sensitivity improvements and power conservation. BENEFIT: The development of the SAGE will enable the DoD to provide every soldier with a power-efficient and cost-effective adaptive interference mitigation solution for robust, military-code GPS receivers. The adaptive reprogrammability make it suitable for applications in small UAVs, small robotic vehicles, and small guided munitions. Exploiting Coherent Logix’s ultra low-power, extremely high-performance HyperX processor will provide the Warfighter with a cognitive and adaptive GPS plus Interference Mitigation solution that will optimize GPS performance parameters such as position accuracy, receiver sensitivity and power dissipation across a wide range of reception conditions. Last, the resulting technology facilitates an open system and promotes an industry friendly eco-system to facilitate innovation and value added product solutions that are critical to the upcoming Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) program supporting the Common GPS Module (CGM) concepts.

Echo Ridge, LLC
11127 Elmview Place
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(571) 748-4892
Joseph Kennedy
AF 09-154      Awarded: 2/23/2010
Title:User Equipment (UE) Cognitive Functions
Abstract:Echo Ridge and partner Argon ST, propose to apply cognitive radio technology (CRT) to MGUE to improved performance including with respect to PNT estimation, TTFF reduction, jamming/spoofing resistance and power consumption efficiency. Our approach follows the process used on prior projects where we applied CRT to other applications, including decomposing the traditional “linear functionality” of a MGUE into functional layers, then applying the well known learning feedback loop to best use cognitive concepts to achieve MGUE goals. We continually test the decomposition and loop application with real world examples to validate the functional model. We propose to show quantitative improve in performance (“through cognitive acting”) in the context of the surrounding environment (“through cognitive sensing”) for two common environmental challenges: interference (including jamming) and multipath. Our team will use novel and unique signal processing algorithms with respect to both sensing and acting, developed on recent ESM, cognitive technology and robust navigation contracts. Our developmental testing approach will use an open architecture/open platform SDR-based receiving function that allows the cognitive process to be fully exploited at every layer. We will produce Phase I outputs including fundamental cognitive navigation definitions, functional models, physical platform definitions, and real world performance examples. BENEFIT: In both the military and commercial market places, there is an ever expanding use of radio-based navigation devices. Though they generally perform satisfactorily, in virtually every application there are instances where degraded accuracy or non-availability create dangerous situations. For military applications, degraded positional accuracy due to jamming can affect the precision of a guided weapon. For commercial applications, the non-availability of GPS service inside a building can delay the arrival of emergency personnel to a 911 caller in distress. Historically much research has been done to improve the performance of GPS user equipment, yielding great gains in positional accuracy and availability. These activities have principally focused on improving the traditional functions in user equipment such as receiver sensitivity, reference oscillator stability, correlator speed, and signal processing algorithm performance. To create opportunities for future large gains in performance, new approaches and algorithms will need to be applied to user equipment including aiding using other RF signals of opportunity, and cognitive radio technology. Therefore, this research activity represents a means to provide large gains in user equipment performance vs. diminishing incremental benefits from traditional GPS user equipment research topics. These gains can benefit the growing markets and applications in both the military and commercial sectors.

mZeal Communications
166 Boulder Drive, Suite 108
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 665-0281
Rajini Anachi
AF 09-154      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Situation Aware Intelligent Geopositioning Equipment (SAIGE)
Abstract:The Global Positioning System (GPS) has rapidly become an indispensable technology in both the military and civilian worlds, but its limitations are well-known to every GPS-guided driver who has ever gotten lost in an urban canyon, and its universality makes it a likely target of both simple and sophisticated electronic attacks in military operations. We describe a number of novel techniques for the design and implementation of GPS User Equipment (UE) that will improve the performance of the GPS receiver in weak-signal or other challenged environments. The foundation of this proposal is the technology of Cognitive Radio, extending the technology of Software-Defined Radio. A Cognitive Radio (CR) is a radio that can sense its operating environment and modify its behavior to accomplish its goals. Software-Defined Radio provides the capabilities to sense the RF signal environment and to modify the radio''s operation. A Cognitive Engine mediates between sensing and acting, applying defined rules and heuristics to determine appropriate responses to various challenges. We also describe a novel open-loop architecture for the GPS receiver that provides robust acquisition of weak and intermittent signals and a design that integrates the receiver with an Inertial Navigation module for tracking in very low Carrier/Noise regimes. BENEFIT: Accurate Position, Navigation, and Time information is indispensable to the contemporary warfighter, but current GPS equipment is vulnerable to unintentional and intentional jamming, spoofing, errors due to multipath effects, and difficulty acquiring and tracking signals in urban canyons and in valleys with obstructed sky visibility. Modern irregular warfare increasingly takes place in exactly the urban settings or mountainous terrain that present the greatest challenges to GPS effectiveness. An innovative receiver architecture and advanced signal-processing techniques can detect and counter those challenges. Software-Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio technologies provide the framework for identifying challenges and selecting the countering techniques that will best serve the warfighter and the mission. In addition, a system built in software can be upgraded, resized, and integrated with other tools. The ultimate goal of the SAIGE project is to create a family of Military GPS User Equipment in a range of form factors, from individual handheld to vehicle-mounted, that can be deployed to warfighters at realistic cost, that overcome the limitations of current GPS equipment in urban and mountain warfare without requiring special training, and that can operate in a crowded RF environment and detect and avoid jamming and spoofing.

NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown
AF 09-154      Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title:User Equipment (UE) Cognitive Functions
Abstract:merging Cognitive Radio (CR) technologies are allowing the development of radios that can “observe,” “orient,” “plan,” “decide,” “learn,” and “act” to adapt the performance of a Software Defined Radio in response to stimuli in the external environment. By applying these CR technologies to enhancing Position, Navigation and Timing (PNT) performance, a cognitive GPS UE can be designed that would be aware of its surrounding radio frequency (RF) environment, and could adapt its functionality to optimize its PNT solution. Under this SBIR effort we propose to develop a GPS Spectrum Sensing Cognitive Radio (SSCR) that will include adaptive GPS services for enhanced performance in the presence of jamming, and spoofing, multi-path and signal fading environments (such as urban operations). Intelligent software algorithms that dynamically adjust location accuracy vs. power based on the current mission needs will also be included. The SSCR will be developed leveraging existing software GPS receiver components and integrated with a sophisticated Cognitive Engine Architecture to support automated decision making. An SSCR test-bed will be designed that can be used in Phase II to demonstrate the operational improvements that could benefit future generations of Military User Equipment by adopting the SSCR architecture to be developed under this effort. BENEFIT: The NAVSYS Cognitive GPS UE will enable the military to deploy GPS UE with the ability to adapt to optimize performance in different environments. This improved positioning and navigation capability will shorten battles and save lives. The same technology can be applied to benefit civilian public protectors who will be able to execute their tasks more efficiently.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 682-1514
Douglas Ratay
AF 09-156      Awarded: 2/8/2010
Title:Adaptation of the Stuff Algorithm to Realistic Measurement Scenarios
Abstract:Identifying non-cooperative and potentially hostile vehicles is of the utmost importance to the operators of manned and un-manned surveillance aircraft. Utilizing ISAR imagery has been one method for performing target identification by many organizations. However, the complicated motions of the target vehicle and ISAR platform often prevent a clear 2D image from being recovered. Over the course of the previous 10 years, methods have been developed to utilize the complicated target motions to convert 1D range data into a 3D image of the target. The methods, however, have thus far not been able to stand up to application of real data. The presence of scatterers not attached to the rigid target body and scatterers which are not visible for wide view angles both cause difficulties for these methods. The DAC-MTRI team proposes new algorithms and systems which will begin to handle these issues. The approach will create a step forward in creating a continuous link between ISAR measurements, advanced imaging techniques, and target recognition systems. BENEFIT: As the need for automatic target recognition systems increases, the ability to produce reasonable images of target objects increases as well. This work will expand on the methods developed over the previous 10 years which produce 3D images based on 1D ISAR range data. The ability to handle noisy data with non-persistent scatterers is a significant obstacle in the development of these methods. With the systems presented in this work, we plan to overcome many of these difficulties.

AdValue Photonics Inc
4585 S. Palo Verde, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-5468
Shibin Jiang
AF 09-158      Awarded: 12/14/2009
Title:High Power 2-micron Fiber Laser Components
Abstract:High power fiber lasers have made significant progress in last several years. Fiber laser operating in the 1.9-2.1micron wavelength regimes have achieved operating powers approaching 1kW. Such fiber lasers have great potential in the areas of laser radar, remote sensing, medicine, and infrared (IR) countermeasures. However, further development of these technologies is hindered by a lack of commercial availability of several basic optical components. For example, there is no high quality fiber isolator near 2 micron. For the moment, free-space isolator has to be used. In this proposal, we propose to develop an all-fiber isolator for 2 micron high power fiber lasers and amplifiers. An all-fiber isolator with hundreds throughput power level will be demonstrated and delivered. Successful development of this proposed all-fiber isolator will enable many new applications of high power fiber lasers, and revolutionize high power fiber laser and amplifier developments. BENEFIT: This proposed all-fiber isolator can be used for current DoD high power 2 micron fiber lasers and amplifiers programs. It can also be used for industrial and medical high power 2 micron fiber lasers. The development of this proposed all-fiber isolator can extend the life of many fiber lasers and amplifiers, further improve the reliability of fiber lasers, and enable coherent beam combining.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Alex Mazurenko
AF 09-158      Awarded: 12/8/2009
Title:High Optical Power Fiberoptic Components for 2 µm Fiber Laser
Abstract:The proposed innovative in-fiber beam expansion technology and the all inorganic micro- optic fiberoptic device designs intrinsically have advantages in power handling, speed, insertion loss, reliability, and potentially cost as compared with other approaches. Our approaches overcome all the major hurdles in high power 2m fiberoptic device fabrications without trading-off of optical performance as well as size and weight. By using thermally matched materials, our high power 2m fiberoptic devices are designed to be operated in harsh aerospace environments with exceptional longevity. As a technical demonstration, fiber pigtailed isolator and modulator will be fabricated in this program to withstand up to 200W CW at 2m with excellent optical performance. The program leverages on Agiltron extensive commercial high power fiber optic component manufacturing expertise and seeks to realize attributes that are beyond what having been possible. The developments are in close collaboration with Lockheed Martin for early defense application insertions. BENEFIT: This program addresses the lack of commercial high power fiberoptic components operated at 2m. The availability of these components enables the realization of highly desirable high-power, high-efficiency infrared fiber lasers for various military applications, including missile countermeasures, high-resolution, long-range target identification, and remote sensing of biological or chemical agents to develop devices. They have the capability of adding tremendous value to land and air directed energy platforms for both attack and protection. For commercial applications, high power fiber lasers are also the sources of material processing in the automotive, aircraft, free space communication system, laser machining.

NP Photonics, Inc.
UA Science and Technology Park 9030 S. Rita Road, Suite #120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7498
Jianfeng Wu
AF 09-158      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Compact all-fiber 2 micron isolator and pump combiner
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of new all-fiber based isolator and side pump combiner for use with high-power fiber lasers operating at 2 micron wavelength. Although the current 2 micron fiber lasers are approaching 1 KW level, the developments of 2 micron fiber-based passive components are far lag behind. NP photonics proposes an all-fiber based Rare-earth doped phosphate glass fiber isolator and a high power side pump combiner that can be used for further power scaling up of 2 micron fiber laser system, which can be used in laser radar, remote sensing, medicine, material processing, direct energy weapon, and infrared (IR) countermeasures. The proposed Faraday rotation fiber offers high Verdet constant, short working distance, low insertion loss, low propagation loss, and all-fiber solution. It also eliminates free space cavity alignment, bulky size, complicated thermal management, and large loss that are common with free space optical isolator. All-fiber optical isolator/Faraday rotation fiber device can be widely used in various laser system, such as single frequency fiber laser, high power/energy fiber laser, fiber amplifier, electric/magnetic field fiber sensors etc. BENEFIT: The successful completion of the proposed compact all-fiber isolator and pump combiner can bring immediate commercial applications. It can be integrated into DOD’s KW level 2 micron fiber laser system used for various military applications such as, infrared missile countermeasures, high resolution, long-range target identification, direction energy weapon, and remote sensing of biological or chemical agents. Their compact size, all-fiber structure, environmental stability, low insertion loss, good heat dissipation, and high power/intensity damage threshold will make it readily be adopted to various commercial markets such as telecommunications, single frequency fiber laser, high power CW laser, high energy pulse fiber laser, and fiber amplifier.

Camgian Microsystems Corporation
1 Research Boulevard, Suite 200 Suite 200
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 320-1015
George Ansel
AF 09-159      Awarded: 1/14/2010
Title:Ultra Low Power Electronics for Autonomous Micro-Sensor Applications
Abstract:This program aims to develop an ultra low power System-on-a-Chip (SoC) technology that will enable >10x improvements in size and endurance over current generation wireless micro-sensor networks. This will be achieved through the integration of advanced circuit and architectural design methods targeted to improve wireless micro-sensor node performance in four critical performance parameters: (1) digital circuit design methodologies that enable the energy consumption of the chip to be dynamically matched to the performance needs of the system;(2) digital circuit design styles that minimize crosstalk noise to radio-frequency (RF) and other analog circuits;(3) advanced power and voltage gating and scaling techniques that reduce idle (leakage) energy consumption; and (4) System on Chip (SoC) design architectures optimizing energy, cost, and size. These elements will be integrated with a unique RF circuit architecture which has improvements in RF switches for signal steering to antennas, power amplifiers for transmitter output, direct digital synthesis, and high-frequency mixers for carrier modulation and received signal down-conversion. While the technical approaches to intelligent, adaptive, ultra-low power, low-noise circuits will be generic and broadly applicable to DoD systems a specific hardware architecture will be developed based on an intelligent wireless micro-sensor node. BENEFIT: The successful program will lead to improvements in the cost, size, weight, and power (CSWAP) metric of wireless sensors. The CSWAP reduction is achieved partially through dramatic reduction of the electronics power and energy consumption which leads directly to smaller power source requirements and higher integration capability. A further driver of CSWAP reduction is the use of NCL clockless logic which gives lower noise crosstalk from the digital processing circuitry to the critical RF and analog circuits. An additional benefit of the program which drives CSWAP improvement is the integration of NCL digital processing circuits with an innovative new RF circuit architecture which has improvements in critical performance areas. The initial products targeted for deployment will be wireless micro-sensor systems such as are used for border security, military intelligence, military battlefield surveillance, and SmartGrid power system monitoring.

Kairos Microsystems Corporation
5620 NE 248th TER
MELROSE, FL 32666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 475-1480
Joe E Brewer
AF 09-159      Awarded: 1/22/2010
Title:Ultra Low Power Electronics for Autonomous Micro-Sensor Applications
Abstract:Kairos Microsystems proposes a rugged ultra-low power postage stamp sized wireless micro-sensor node capable of 20m node to node and 1km node to base station communication with an operating life greater than of one year. The small physical structure (20x15x4 mm) is visually non-obvious and the spread spectrum signal is difficult to detect. It may be used as a point sensor or as an array of sensors that report observations to a base station (which may be a UAV), or as a wireless link that replaces wiring. The proposed design incorporates a novel low power receiver that has low suseptibility to interference and wide tolerance for frequency offsets. With a volume price potential of about $2, it can be deployed as a disposable item and used to monitor large areas affordably. BENEFIT: Kairos micro-sensors are suitable for covert military uses, on-soldier medical monitoring, equipment monitoring, perimeter monitoring, and urban warfare building clearance monitoring. Alternate packaging of the micro-sensor will allow dispensing from a UAV into hostile territories.

Nu-Trek
17150 Via Del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 547-0076
Wais Ali
AF 09-159      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Ultra Low Power Electronics for Autonomous Micro-Sensor Applications
Abstract:Micro-sensors are remote detection system composed of one or more sensors, a data converter, a micro-controller equipped with memory, a transceiver for two way wireless communication, and a power source such as a battery. These small self contained micro- sensor systems can be used in a variety of applications. They can measure an environmental metric and report it to a base station. They can also communicate with each other. This could be useful in forming a wireless network in which information is communicated over a long distance by a relay of micro-sensors. If micro-sensors can be designed to consume significantly less power the variety of practical applications increases. They can be placed in more remote locations and require less frequent servicing for battery replacement. This proposal deals with significantly reducing the power consumption of the RF transceiver without compromising performance. The modeling of transistors in sub-threshold will be studied to correct model deficiencies and remove risk from RF sub-threshold design. A variety of new circuit topologies are introduced which are better suited for sub-threshold operation. Also, circuit topologies are introduced that save significant power through merging functions in a single transistor. The total of all the power saving innovations should lead to a significant power savings in the overall transceiver. BENEFIT: Next generation micro-sensor systems can, in part, be enabled by an ultra low power system, which would extend the usable life of a node. It would also enable the placement of nodes in a greater variety of locations since most of the size and weight of the electronics can be due to the battery. By employing ultra low power micro-sensors, the overall system will be substantially lower in cost, simpler to maintain, and more rugged (if using node redundancy) than present day sensor systems. In response to this challenge, Nu-Trek is proposing to substantially reduce the power dissipation of micro-sensor RF transceiver circuitry. Solving this problem is critical to the eventual goal of reducing the overall micro-sensor power by a factor of 10 since the transceiver circuitry is the most sensitive and power intensive circuitry in the micro- sensor system.

Sciperio, Inc.
PO Box 15127 6421 S Air Depot, Suite B
Oklahoma City, OK 73135
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 622-9200
Robert M. Taylor
AF 09-159      Awarded: 12/9/2009
Title:Ultra Low Power Electronics for Autonomous Micro-Sensor Applications
Abstract:There are a number of sensors capable of detecting valuable information. However these sensors are many times only valuable if they are in a strategic location. To place the sensor in a strategic location it potentially requires some type of concealment and would also be remote. One of the biggest issues we struggle with power to drive the remote sensors. This can be solved using one of two approaches, 1) put in more power or batteries or 2) reduce the power required by the sensor. Our approach is to make a very low power sensor and in many cases a passive sensor that can communicate the sensed information at several miles. BENEFIT: A successful Phase I and II would develop a remote access option which allows most sensors to be connected to a very small device that can be read from a significant distance. The remote access would require very little to no power to access.

Sperient, Inc
1813 Rutan Drive
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 548-5555
E. Tom Rosenbury
AF 09-159      Awarded: 1/13/2010
Title:Ultra Low Power Electronics for Autonomous Micro-Sensor Applications
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is to provide a Micro-Sensor network that would enable a smart sensing environment capable of supporting multiple missions with wide ranging applications for communication, radar, and electronic warfare (EW). Based on ultra-short micro-burst transmission and by sharing the radio communication transmit pulse energy with the sensors, extremely low-power operation is expected. A future scenario is to provide wireless sensor network that could gather information (video, voice, radar signal) including node-to-node communication and transfer the data to a base station for processing. To realize smart Micro-Sensors data communications present several unique challenges not currently addressed by off-the-shelf solutions. Sperient is developing a technology that may solve these unique challenges, called “Gigaband.” Gigaband technology is an extremely low-power radio solution with built-in LPD/LPI characteristics and high data-rate capability. Extremely short pulses (< 100 ps) are utilized to save energy while simultaneously hiding the signal from detection. There are several ongoing efforts that parallel this proposed effort that could directly contribute to increased success and could provide leverage. For example, a microchip Phase II development effort is currently ongoing that could help lead to a single-chip solution to Micro-Sensor wireless data transmission, saving size/weight/power on a final product solution. We envision a Micro-Sensor no larger than 2mm x 2mm that meets all requirements. Sperient has developed a novel Micro-Sensor technology with a minimum of 10X improvement in power consumption and extended the operational lifetime by 5X. However, novel device technology, new system architecture, and circuit design methodology will need to be explored to minimize receiver susceptibility to interference. Other technical challenges to explore are a stable / low power reference circuit for the system, high efficiency antenna including energy harvesting capability, and high system integration. The development of new sensors shall optimize on cost, size, weight, and power (CSWAP) to provide real time information collection for the war fighter. BENEFIT: Our approach is unique and based on our proprietary technology for generating and receiving Micro-Pulses. Wireless communications and data would allow for more maneuverability that translates into enhanced survivability, as well as lighter weight payload and lower failure rates due to the absence of cabling. Sperient’s Micro-Sensor technology will enable a smart sensing environment capable of supporting multiple missions with wide ranging applications for communication, radar, and electronic warfare (EW). We believe that further development of our approach will provide the following innovations: • Fully USB II compliant (480 Mbps) - More bandwidth than needed for future use (intra-squad, etc.) and for design flexibility. - Reduces interface cost/complexity/power. - Fully FCC compliant easing Joint Spectrum Center (JSC) approval process. - Fully compatible with standard encryption techniques (meeting LPI requirements). - Operating Range: 1 Km, (extendable) • Our radiated waveforms are

Intrinsix
100 Campus Drive
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 340-2352
Gene Petilli
AF 09-160      Awarded: 12/16/2009
Title:Readout Integrated Circuit (IC) Technology for Strained Layer Superlattice Photodetectors
Abstract:Intrinsix proposes a modular Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) based on a uniquely architected overlapping serpentine read path that enables the use of high dynamic range sigma-delta modulator based analog-to-digital converters (ADC) for imaging applications. We have coined the project as “SnakeEye”. The primary objective of this effort is to provide the specifications and architectural details for the design of a low cost ROIC optimized for use with Strained Layer Superlattice Photo-detectors for Un-Manned Air Vehicle(UAV) applications that increases the dynamic range of the ROIC 4 to 16 times, and enables rapid deployment of new sensor technology for UAV applications. SnakeEye’s benefits are accomplished by leveraging several innovations: programmable SDM data converter design, overlapping serpentine ROIC read pattern, and fault-tolerant configuration of SDM-ADCs. BENEFIT: The three key benefits are: 1) High dynamic range enabled by Sigma-Delta Modulator (SDM) based serpentine read channel a. Fault & single event tolerance using redundant ADCs b. High SNR and reduced fixed pattern noise by digitally combined and compensated ADCs 2) Rapid lower cost deployment of new sensors while improving on SWaP of high end instruments. a. Utilizes industry standard, low power high-speed serial interfaces to simplify interchange of instruments b. Customized analog interface coupled to common signal acquisition block enables rapid deployment of new sensors, regardless of configuration or manufacturer 3) Performance of modern (sub 100nm CMOS) technology a. Column pitch down to 5um b. High throughput using multiple ADCs c. Enables integration of signal processing and information compression

Nu-Trek
17150 Via Del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 624-6720
Rob Gregoire
AF 09-160      Awarded: 12/22/2009
Title:Readout Integrated Circuit (IC) Technology for Strained Layer Superlattice Photodetectors
Abstract:The proposed program is a collaboration between Nu-Trek and Teledyne Imaging Sensors. In the proposed work we will develop a highly flexible ROIC designed for SLS detectors. The ROIC features include a state-of-the-art capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA), snapshot integration, programmable gain, outstanding linearity, and in-cell correlated double sampling (CDS). Both n-on-p and p-on-n SLS devices will be accommodated, while a per-unit cell sample-and-hold (S/H) stage will enable high- efficiency imaging through integrate-while-read operation. A dual wavelength option will also be provided. An active-passive level shifting technique (APL) was invented to meet application requirements. It enables the CTIA to have low noise, high linearity, and low power consumption. The APLS will meet the challenging requirements of the SLS application while consuming 1/6th the power of conventional CTIA circuits. ROIC will also have on-chip data conversion using the ultra low power analog to digital converter under development at Nu-Trek. The reduced power consumption is enabling in field applications, such as unmanned vehicles and aircraft. In Phase I the unit cell will be designed, In Phase II the ROIC will be fabricated, hybridized to a Teledyne SLS detector and tested. BENEFIT: SLS detectors hold great promise, because of reduced Auger currents, which theoretically should lead to lower dark currents. Unfortunately, SLS has yet to live up to its potential. A key issue hampering progress is use of commercial ROICs designed for other (non-SLS) detectors. As a result, researchers have been struggling to accurately characterize SLS detector quantum efficiency and dark current – key parameters affecting FPA performance. The availability of a flexible, high end ROIC designed specifically for SLS detectors would facilitate progress. In the proposed work a highly flexible ROIC will be designed specifically for SLS detectors. With such a ROIC researchers are likely to make much faster progress. The ROIC is also very low power and has on-chip data conversion, make for a simpler FPA, which is enabling to applications such as unmanned vehicles and aircraft.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Todd Grimes
AF 09-160      Awarded: 12/17/2009
Title:Advanced ROICTechnology for Strained Layer Superlattice Photodetectors
Abstract:The objective of his topic is to develop an optimized SLS-based Infrared FPA for high temperature operation with considerations for lower cost, size, weight, and power (C- SWAP). Infrared imaging systems in use today come at a high cost, require large amounts of space, are heavy, and consume large amounts of power. To reduce noise and improve responsitivity, such detectors are cryogenically cooled to below -200„aC, which in combination with C-SWAP requirements greatly limit their applicability for integration into aircraft. Detector structures composed of SLS material have demonstrated the potential to achieve high temperature operation MWIR and LWIR, responsivity similar to HgCdTe detectors, and reduced dark currents. The focus of this SBIR is to develop SLS-based detectors hybridized with ROICs specifically optimized for use with such detectors. The full benefits of a SLS-based detector cannot be realized without the development of a ROIC that is ¡§optimized¡¨ to exploit the beneficial characteristics of the SLS detector. As a result, we are exploring the development of a SLS-based active pixel sensor (APS) FPA with advanced ROIC optimized to bring the benefits of SLS to the forefront. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach for the development of a SLS-based FPA, composed of SLS type II superlattice detector array hybridized with an optimized ROIC, with superior capabilities in terms of high temperature operation, responsivity similar to HgCdTe, and reduced dark currents, suitable for insertion into both MWIR and LWIR imaging systems on multiple surveillance, threat warning, and situational awareness platforms. Additional benefits will include the reduction of CSWAP. In Phase II, a fully operational prototype of our SLS-based FPA will have been constructed and tested. It is anticipated that the SLS FPA technology will have applicability in locating and tracking individual targets, maintaining track through obcurants, simultaneous targets, and navigation tasks, in both government and commercial sectors, thus providing a ¡§dual use¡¨.

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Ponnuthurai Gokulakrishnan
AF 09-162      Awarded: 3/23/2010
Title:Efficiency Methodologies for Chemical Reactions of JP-8
Abstract:As maintaining a stable combustion process is a major challenge associated with augmentor design and operation, numerical simulations are necessary to understand the combustion process and develop control strategies. Thus, it is essential to have reliable reduced kinetic models that are capable of predicting transient combustion phenomena such as ignition and extinction under augmentor operating conditions. Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop a robust computationally efficient reduced kinetic modeling tool for aviation jet fuels that can be coupled with unsteady flow models such as LES to simulate static stability limits in augmentors. CSE will develop computational tools to develop varying sizes of reduced kinetic models using lumped- parameterization as well as time-scale based dimensional reduction methods. These approaches will be coupled with in Situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT) scheme to accelerate the computational speed of CFD simulation of practical devices such as augmenters with reliable combustion chemistry. BENEFIT: The ultimate result of this research will be the development of a modeling tool that will be useful for engineers to design combustors, augmenters and other flameholding devices in practical applications. This will provide a design tool for predicting static stability limits and flame propagation in afterburner combustion systems. The market for this product will include gas turbine designers and manufacturers for both military and civilian aircraft. The use of this tool will significantly reduce development costs by eliminating some design iterations and hardware testing, which is quite expensive and time-consuming.

Reaction Engineering International
77 West 200 South, Suite 210
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 364-6925
Christopher J. Montgomery
AF 09-162      Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title:An Efficient Methodology for Chemical Reactions of JP-8
Abstract:The proposed project will leverage REI’s experience creating and applying reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for JP-8 with source-term speed-up techniques such as in- situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop techniques for speeding evaluation of JP-8 kinetics in gas turbine combustor simulations. During Phase I, pre-trained ANN models using reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms will be combined with an existing ISAT code. The ANN models will be trained using a Linear Eddy Model (LEM) code to generate a range of thermochemical states similar to those found in combustion simulations. The combined ANN-ISAT model will be benchmarked against direct integration, again using an LEM code and a Partially-Stirred Reactor (PaSR) code. Efforts will initially focus on simple fuels such as hydrogen and methane, then advance to JP-8 reduced mechanisms created from previous R&D projects. Phase I work will also investigate the benefits of combining multiple reduced mechanisms into a single source term subroutine with the sub-mechanisms carefully selected for high accuracy and low stiffness over a specified range of conditions. Phase II work will focus on implementation/demonstration of the Phase I techniques into the FLUENT CFD code to simulate gas turbine combustors. BENEFIT: Requirements for high performance gas turbine engines have continued to push the state-of-the-art in combustion technology. CFD tools have the potential for assessing performance, stability, and durability in gas turbine engine combustors because simulations can model conditions that can’t be easily duplicated experimentally and can provide information on quantities that are difficult to measure. CFD simulations can thus reduce the length and cost of the design cycle and test innovative concepts quickly and inexpensively compared to building and testing prototypes. However, useful CFD simulations of gas turbine combustors and augmentors require accurate and efficient models of hydrocarbon chemistry and turbulence interaction of the reacting flows. This project will provide the DoD and contractor personnel with a robust, accurate, validated, computationally efficient modeling capability for JP-8 that can be integrated into chemical kinetic solvers and CFD packages used for gas turbine combustor modeling. The models will be based on the best available reaction kinetics descriptions. The combustion modeling capability provided by this project will allow engineers and scientists to more accurately assess gas turbine engine designs and provide better guidance for ground and flight tests. While this software will focus initially on Air Force gas turbine applications, other areas will benefit from the technology as well. These include: (1) Support of U.S. government gas turbine development programs such as VAATE (Versatile, Affordable, Advanced Turbine Engine) and military programs that support VAATE, such as ADVENT (Adaptive Versatile Engine Technology); (2) Support of commercial companies that work in gas turbine engine production and R&D such as General Electric, Honeywell, Rolls-Royce North America, UTRC / Pratt & Whitney, Williams International and Teledyne Continental Motors and to companies that provide

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4817
Paul Dahlstrand
AF 09-163      Awarded: 4/2/2010
Title:Optimized Silent SUAS Propeller Design
Abstract:Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation (Aurora) asserts that SUAS propellers can be made significantly harder to detect with improved aerodynamic performance using proven aerodynamic and acoustic propeller design codes. The novel aspect of this proposal is that Aurora can build existing acoustic, aerodynamic, and stress codes into a single propeller design software code that iterates on propeller geometry, or some other SUAS variable such as propeller speed, until an optimum aero-acoustic design is achieved. All prior propeller design had been done manually individually alternating back and forth with these codes until a solution was found, which was almost certainly not optimal. Aurora will purchase three COTS SUAS propellers, predict their acoustic signature, acoustic test each propeller, and then perform an acoustic optimization of each propeller to show the improvement potential at a given flight condition. Commercialization of this technology will be further developed. BENEFIT: The benefits that will be achieved by this SBIR are 1) the development of a true propeller aero-acoustic design optimization tool that will provide much greater protection and safety for US DoD SUAVs and 2) creation of a new technology-based business to serve not only the US military market but also the commercial market as well as the international aircraft commercial industry. We believe that the primary customers for this technology will include SUAV users as well as UAV manufacturers. This business also offers dual-use opportunities, including the radio controlled and ultralight aircraft markets both domestically and internationally.

Kord Technologies, Inc.
701 Pratt Avenue
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 527-9148
Robert Tramel
AF 09-163      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:Efficient and Quiet Propeller Design for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS)
Abstract:Propellers have received little R&D emphasis over the past 50 years especially for small propellers. There has been a rapid increase in the use of small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS) for military and commercial uses. This sudden demand has created a technology gap for small propellers. Radio-controlled (RC) propellers with basic airfoil sections and design practices are not optimized for the flight regime and mission of SUAS. These offer mediocre performance and high acoustic signatures due to the higher revolutions per minute (RPM) levels associated with internal combustion engines (ICE) thus allowing enemy forces to easily detect the presence of SUASs. With the recent push towards electric motors and quieter ICE technologies, there is a need for quieter propeller designs for military and commercial operations. This proposal aims to facilitate the development of innovative propeller designs for SUAS with less than 50 hp. The proposed solution will exploit the use of advanced parametric modeling, noise prediction algorithms and evolutionary airfoil sections to yield quieter propeller designs. This methodical approach combined with real experience designing and testing propellers and SUAS flight vehicles will result in achievement of the program’s acoustic and performance goals and thus improved SUAS mission endurance and survivability. BENEFIT: Commercialization of efficient and quiet propeller design technologies include licensing to numerous existing and future SUAS contractors. There are a number of contractors developing high endurance, ISR-focused SUASs for AFSOC, USSOCOM, and the AFRL’s Tube-Launched Expendable UAS (TLEU) program that require stealthy operation and need quiet propellers. Also the Navy’s Small Tier II UAS and the Army’s next version of Shadow (RQ-7C) will benefit from efficient and quiet propeller technologies. Commercial organizations need quieter propeller technology to operate in National Airspace for law enforcement, Homeland Security, emergency services, search and rescue, and disaster relief missions.

Cascade Technologies Incorporated
1330 Charleston Road
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 691-6067
Shoreh Hajiloo
AF 09-164      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Efficient Implementation of Models for Improved Prediction of Gas Turbine Combustor and Augmentor Robustness
Abstract:Sophisticated models will be developed for accurate simulation of gas turbine combustion occurring in the augmentor regions of modern military aircraft engines. The focus will be on the formulation of these combustion models in a large eddy simulation (LES) setting. A sub-filter combustion model covering all the three regimes (premixed, non-premixed and the auto-ignition) of the so-called combustion regime index will be formulated and validated against experimental data. This model will be extended to multi-feed systems that is usually the case in an augmentor environment due to the presence of an additional stream of vitiated air, apart from the usual oxidizer (pure air) and the fuel streams. It essentially means that an approach based on two mixture fractions instead of one will be followed in the development of the combustion models. Finally in phase I, the applicability, feasibility and benefits of a discrete Galerkin (DG) method as a compressible scheme for augmentor flows will be tested. Phase II will include continued development of the combustion models (especially for the multi-feed case) and extensive validation studies against real-life augmentor experiments. BENEFIT: It is envisioned that the successful completion of the entire project will lead to a better augmentor design tool that is founded on detailed chemistry, first-principles based combustion models, the large-eddy simulation turbulence modeling technique, and a highly scalable parallel solver. On the specifics, the project will lead to development of the auto-ignition models in partially premixed combustion, extension and application of the combustion models in compressible LES formulations, and the extension of the models for multi-feed systems. It will further lead to a validated tool that incorporates all these developments, and which will be available for licensing. The models will be formulated such that they can also be incorporated into other CFD codes. Aircraft engine manufacturers and designers will be directly benefited by this project. Any company involved in reacting flows should be potentially interested. The sophistication that will be added to our LES code should create ample opportunities for commercial licensing. The knowledge and exposure gained from this project will enable us to do consulting for the industry.

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 883-1905
William Calhoon
AF 09-164      Awarded: 3/11/2010
Title:Efficient Implementation of Models for Improved Prediction of Gas Turbine Combustor and Augmentor Robustness
Abstract:The technical objective of this program is to develop a fast running, subgrid scale turbulence-chemistry interaction model for large-eddy simulation (LES) of aircraft combustors and augmentors that can accurately capture critical phenomena such as extinction and re-ignition effects. To accurately capture these phenomena, this model will be based upon a parameterization of the linear-eddy model (LEM). The LEM is a comprehensive mixing model that separately treats molecular diffusion, small scale turbulent stirring and finite-rate kinetics. Because the model resolves the microscale flame structure, extinction and re-ignition may be accurately captured. Under this program, statistics from this mixing model will be parameterized to form a computationally inexpensive run time model. This parameterization will be accomplished through a unique application of the LEM to a flow configuration designed to capture mean or resolved scale strain effects on the subgrid statistics. The parameterized statistics from this formulation will then be stored either via a look-up table or using the artificial neural network (ANN) data modeling technique, depending on the number of input parameters. The resulting computational model will be a fast running subroutine to provide closure for the LES filtered transport equations that is portable to any CFD flow solver BENEFIT: At the conclusion of this program, CRAFT Tech will have completed the development of an advanced turbulent combustion subgrid model for LES of reacting flows. This effort involves the development of a generalized software tool kit for the generation of user defined functions or subroutine modules for specified combustion problems. These user defined functions may be easily implemented within any CFD flow solver for LES applications. The software tool kit will also be able to generate RANS flow solver user defined functions with only minor changes in the input parameters. Combustion models generated by the tool kit will be applicable to a wide range of military and commercial combustion applications. These applications include gas turbines, power generation systems, furnaces, incinerators, internal combustion engines, etc. The commercial opportunities for this software tool kit are enormous. CRAFT Tech will market this tool kit for license to commercial customers as well as to other CFD flow solver development companies. Since the user defined functions generated by the tool kit will be flow solver independent and completely portable, customers of other CFD flow solver development companies may use the tool kit for their applications. This fact greatly expands the commercial opportunities of the software tool kit.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Darin A. Knaus, Ph.D.
AF 09-165      Awarded: 4/5/2010
Title:Novel Tools for Augmentor Ignition Modeling and Analysis
Abstract:Reliable ignition is critical to the operational performance of augmented military jet engines. Augmentors must reliably ignite when thrust is needed or the system (and pilot) safety could be compromised. Augmentor ignition is particularly challenging because the igniter must function over a range of operating conditions. In particular, high-altitude, low- pressure conditions are known to confound ignition performance. Augmentor ignition is truly a multi-scale/multi-physics problem, involving electro-magnetism, chemical kinetics, heat transfer, fluid flow, and flame propagation. In this research program, we propose to develop a series of tools that can be used to study the critical processes of the overall ignition process. These include: spark discharge, kernel ignition, and propagation. The ultimate objective of this program will be to exploit these tools to design improved ignition systems for augmentors. In Phase I, we will experimentally characterize the delivered energy of an existing augmentor ignition system. We will then develop a multi-physics simulation tool to reproduce the delivered energy behavior of this igniter, and use the delivered energy data to characterize the ignition performance of the igniter at reduced pressures. In Phase II, we will extend tool development and design and build and test an improved ignition system for augmentors. BENEFIT: Technology derived from this research program will lead to the development of improved ignition systems for augmentors. This technology will enhance the performance and operational reliability of augmented jet engines. Ignition systems are particularly well suited for retro-fit, and could be used for future and legacy systems. In the commercial sector, technology developed under this research program could be applied to any combustion system involving spark ignition, most notably internal combustion engines.

Knite Inc.
501 Forrestal Rd Suite 119
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 258-9550
Karl Zaininger
AF 09-165      Awarded: 3/9/2010
Title:Robust Spark and Plasma Ignition Systems for Gas Turbine Main Combustors and Augmentors
Abstract:The DoD has identified a series of potential problems created by the capability limits of present ignition technology. These limits are most pronounced at high altitude where low pressure and vitiated air with low oxygen produce an ignition limited condition. Kinetic Spark Ignition is a transformational ignition technology. KSI has demonstrated, on advanced piston engines through 3rd party testing, fuel efficiency gains of 5% - 30%, greenhouse gas reduction (including CO2) of 5% - 30%, reduction of harmful pollutants such as smog forming NOx of up to 80%. Recent testing success on non-piston applications suggests KSI has significant potential to address the increased need of turbine and augmentor applications. Knite proposes to adjust its computational models and optimize KSI for the desired parameters, with bench test verification in Phase I, then gather actual combustion data with varying plasma parameters in order to support the creation of an accurate CFD model and KSI based ignition product in Phase II. Based on the scope of work and with the expressed industry support, meeting or exceeding TRL-5 for a readily producible/practical ignition product in Phase II of the project is likely. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits from the KSI ignition system in piston engines applications include improved fuel efficiency gains of 5% - 30%, reduction in greenhouse gases (including CO2) of 5% - 30%, and a reduction in harmful pollutants such as smog forming NOx of up to 80%. These benefits have been confirmed through 3rd party testing on piston type engines. The turbine engines product lines from this research and development work should be applicable to other DoD turbine applications and if the need is present can be engine qualified for retrofit in product lines. Additionally, an improved ignition source has significant commercial market potential due to KSI potential increased ignition capability, turbine relight capability may be improved. For industrial turbine applications, KSI may improve lean burn,in natural gas and multi fuel operations.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF 09-167      Awarded: 3/10/2010
Title:High Bandwidth Plasma Sensor Instrumentation for the Measurements of Turbine Inlet Conditions
Abstract:Spectral Energies, LLC and The University of Notre Dame propose to develop weakly- ionized plasma devices for the measurement of flow conditions in gas turbine inlets. The design of these devices is based on the work of Matlis and Corke who developed a.c. plasma sensors for measurement of mass-flux at high Mach numbers and for measurement of unsteady pressure in gas turbine compressors. The experience gained with these plasma devices will be used to develop sensors, based on a plasma that can measure the unsteady flow conditions leading into the turbine. The advantages of these sensors are that they are robust, can survive high heat loading, have frequency responses in excess of 1 MHz, and can transmit wirelessly. The Phase I effort will consists of designing sensors for mean and fluctuating pressure, temperature, and a single gas species such as CO2. These sensors will be tested in the Gas Dynamics and Propulsion Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati at conditions of 5 atm and 2000oF to verify performance. This work will also involve facilities in the Notre Dame Institute for Flow Physics and Control (FlowPAC). This work grows from our combined experience in developing the plasma anemometer, but will be applied to the unique flow physics that exists in gas turbine inlets. BENEFIT: Research performed during the Phase I and Phase II study will provide a suite of rugged sensors that are optimized to measure multiple parameters, such as pressure, temperature and a single gas species such as CO2. These sensors will have all of the native advantages provided by the plasma approach including extremely high frequency response greater than 1 MHz, high sensitivity, excellent noise rejection, robust architecture to withstand high loads and temperatures, and wireless transmission.

Directed Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Balvinder Gogia
AF 09-168      Awarded: 2/26/2010
Title:Electron Beam/Physical Vapor Deposition (EB/PVD) Coating Process Mapping for Complex Shapes
Abstract:Thermal barrier coating are currently employed to thermally protect gas turbine engine components from high gas inlet temperatures to moderately improve the performance (fuel efficiency and thrust) of these engines. Enhanced benefits are envisioned in future TBC systems provided TBC durability can be reliably improved. One approach achieve more reliable TBCs is the development of non destructive methodologies to determine processing / structure / property relationships for electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in both an ex-situ and in-situ manner. This would enable the creation of comprehensive process maps that could be used along with real time feedback during manufacturing to greatly enhance the capabilities of an EB-PVD system to reliably produce high quality TBC coatings. To achieve this, Directed Vapor Technologies International (DVTI) and ReliaCoat Technologies (RCT) will investigate the use of a curvature measurement technique to non-destructively determine critical, design related mechanical properties of EB-PVD deposited coatings and link these properties to processing parameters and coating performance. In Phase I, the apparatus and relevant analysis will be addressed. In Phase II, the applicability of the approach for in-situ measurements will be explored along with a utility of the apparatus in process development and optimization. BENEFIT: This research is anticipated to establish advanced process maps for EB-PVD based TBC processing techniques which can be used in conjunction with novel ex-situ and in-situ curvature measurement techniques to enable improved TBC properties to establish more optimal conditions for EB-PVD processing which could be applied with tighter lifetime distributions. These developments significantly increase the potential for TBC coatings to become prime reliant which would result in much greater gas turbine engine performance. This would help enable the realization of advanced gas turbine engine designs while leading to several percent thrust improvement or specific fuel consumption reduction for current turbine engines. These advances will not only benefit military engines, but also commercial and industrial gas turbines. In addition, the innovative approach proposed here will reduce the time and expense for refurbishing and repairing blades during engine overhauls, thus improving military readiness and reducing the cost of maintaining commercial aircraft.

Cyber Materials LLC
166 Melrose St.
Auburndale, MA 02446
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 358-3778
Dennis Radgowski
AF 09-169      Awarded: 3/15/2010
Title:Improving the Predictability of Thermal Spray Coating Process Outcome
Abstract:This proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of developing a control system for the plasma spray process that will compensate for the plasma spray variations as well as enable achieving a desired set of coating properties. Our control strategy is to directly control the particle sub-distributions that most directly determine the coatings structure and thus the related coating properties. Essential to developing such a system is identifying a set of particle-plume based measurements that are tightly correlated to the desired coating characteristics. Once the critical set of sensor measurements are identified as appropriate control objectives, the input-output coupling will be experimentally determined, providing the basis for developing a multiple degree of freedom control system that is robust for typical torch variations and operating conditions. In Phase I, the feasibility of our control approach will be determined based on experimental performance evaluation from both laboratory experiments and based on observations from production booth measurements. To ensure that our system is effective under production conditions and would be accepted by industry, this project will be conducted in collaboration with a leading turbine OEM, coating manufacturing company, and a plasma equipment company. BENEFIT: This research will lead to the development of a system that more directly provides the ability to engineer plasma sprayed coating structures as well as reducing coating variation. Such a system will not only benefit the manufacture of aircraft turbines, but also the broader plasma spray coating process used in industrial gas turbines, electronic manufacturing systems, and other industrial applications including pumps and large scale rollers. Development of such a control system will also benefit the plasma sensor market since it provides a basis for increasing the value for industry to incorporate sensors into their production booths.

ReliaCoat Technologies, LLC
25 Health Sciences Drive. Box 324 Long Island Hi-Tech Incubator
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 721-5305
Wanhuk Brian Choi
AF 09-169      Awarded: 3/17/2010
Title:Progressive Feedback Control Strategies for Thermal Spray Processes: Particle Injection, Process Maps, and In-situ Sensing Properties
Abstract:ReliaCoat Technologies, LLC, a Stony Brook University based spin-off company, in conjunction with program advisors GE, Sulzer Metco, PTI and Chromalloy proposes to design, develop and commercialize an advanced process control strategy for thermal spray along with user-friendly analysis and decision software. The innovation is based on a progressive control strategy from feedstock-to-coating, incorporating feedback gates within each operational sub-domain of the process while simultaneously considering integrated effects. A product (coating) based process-control strategy is envisaged to address the core issues of reliability and performance. Critical parameters under consideration include thermal spray system variables, particle injection, comprehensive assessment of particle states through maps, deposit formation dynamics and advanced coating properties. The program will be aided by emerging capabilities in thermal spray process maps, robust integration of diagnostics information as well as novel in situ measurement of design relevant coating properties. The principle focus of the work will be advanced thermal barrier coatings, with potential for expansion into other materials and thermal spray processes. In concert with program partner Sulzer Metco, integration of advanced concepts and software to existing and new process controllers will be considered along with field demonstration at production sites such as Tinker Air Force Base. BENEFIT: Thermal spray coatings are crucial to economic, safe and reliable operation of gas turbine engines used for propulsion and energy generation. Both US military and commercial turbine industry uses a vast array of thermal spray coatings both in original equipment manufacture and in overhaul and repair and represents a multi-billion dollar industry. Thermal spray processes as they are applied in many sites around the country and the world have a number of issues with process reliability and control which affect the performance and durability of this important class of coatings. Enhancements in process understanding and control through science derived strategies will be of great benefit to both military and civilian applications of thermal spray coatings. Not withstanding performance and durability benefits, process enhancements can pay for itself through cost savings associated with reduced rework, increased efficiency and productivity.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Bruce R. Pilvelait
AF 09-170      Awarded: 3/25/2010
Title:Improving the Performance of High Temperature Power Electronic Devices
Abstract:Power conversion Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) used on advanced tactical aircraft use liquid cooling and complex packaging geometries to provide adequate thermal management. Typical LRUs could have cooling loops operating at 70 deg C inlet temperatures, enclosures which dissipate hundreds of watts of electrical power, and which have silicon based semiconductors rated for operation at a maximum temperature of 125 deg C. These packages have evolved over many years and many creative ideas have enabled that performance. However, these tactical platforms are continually being challenged to increase performance, and new, innovative advances are required. We will use a two-prong approach to attack this problem by evaluating (1) alternative electronic device technologies and (2) thermal management strategies which allow operation at higher coolant temperatures. During Phase I we will develop innovative electronic topologies and thermal management systems to allow these advances. We will evaluate the expected improvement in performance of our concepts by developing an aggregate electrical/thermal analytical model for an advanced LRU thermal management system. During Phase II we will fabricate and evaluate performance of a prototype system, comparing actual results to the model predictions. BENEFIT: Our advanced electronics and thermal management systems will improve LRUs required for advanced tactical platforms. Applications include power conversion units such as Nonlinear Inverters (NLI) and Inverter-Converter-Controllers (ICCs). These concepts will have broad application to military and commercial equipment such as hybrid electric vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-8988
Walter Zimbeck
AF 09-170      Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title:Advanced Thermal Packaging for Power Converters
Abstract:Technology Assessment & Transfer (TA&T) proposes to apply advanced cooling and packaging technology to substantially reduce thermal resistance between the heat producing components in aircraft power converter units and the polyalpha olefin (PAO) or fuel coolant. The proposal addresses the thermal packaging design of the primary heat sources in aircraft power converters: 1) power switching modules (i.e., IGBT and diode modules); 2) magnetic core inductors; 3) control electronics; and 4) capacitors. Reduced thermal resistance between these heat sources and the coolant will allow increased coolant inlet temperatures from nominally 35 °C to 65 °C and higher depending on the converter design. Higher coolant inlet temperature reduces the requirements of the aircrafts’ thermal management system, the design of which is driven by the lowest temperature power component in the system. This presents opportunity for size reduction of cooling system’s refrigeration components and heat exchangers. In order to fully realize the benefits of the proposed concepts, TA&T will collaborate with Honeywell Aerospace, a power and cooling system prime contractor for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. In Phase I a Honeywell power converter will be selected and proposed thermal packaging improvements will be analyzed to quantify thermal and weight reduction benefits. BENEFIT: As the DoD moves toward the More Electric Aircraft power converter units will increase in number. The packaging improvements developed here will provide significant weight savings for each converter unit and reduce the requirments of the aircraft thermal management systems.

APS Materials, Inc.
4011 Riverside Drive
Dayton, OH 45405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 278-6547
Robert M. Willson
AF 09-171      Awarded: 3/17/2010
Title:Development of Multifunctional Damping Coating Systems for Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I program will bring together both thermal spray and PVD coating technologies to create a multilayer damping coating system capable of enhancing the reliability of components in the harsh environment of advanced turbine engines. The proposed research effort will utilize a novel thermal spray coating method for producing high damping coatings. A dense, fine grain structure is obtained by the plasma spray process. With the incorporation of viscoelastic polymer infiltrates and/or vitreous enamel additives, the coating structure has been shown to effectively improve the damping properties of the optimized coating systems over a wide range of operating temperatures. The development of a dense superalloy bond coat using vaccum plasma spray and a thin surface coating using physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods will significantly improve the corrosion, oxidation, and erosion resistance of the damping coating system. The concept of the multilayer coating damping system will provide a mulitfunctional coating that will increase the durability of airfoils in advanced turbine engines. BENEFIT: The technology developed will be applicable to both military and commercial aircraft and land based turbine engines. Potential applications in the commercial area include both land based and aircraft turbine engine rotors and stators, and other rotating laboratory, diagnostics, and other industrial equipment.

Directed Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Derek Hass
AF 09-171      Awarded: 3/17/2010
Title:Development of Multifunctional Damping Coating Systems for Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of modifying the composition and microstructure of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to enable enhanced damping capacity while retaining or improving overall system performance. The rotating components, used in gas turbine engines typically operate in severe operating conditions which include high temperatures, loads, vibrations and oxidizing conditions. TBC systems are often used to provide thermal, oxidation and hot corrosion protection to the surface of these components. However, state-of-the-art TBC systems are not currently optimized for damping vibrations stresses which can lead to inefficient engine operation and high cycle fatigue failures. Multiple damping mechanisms exist which could enhance the high temperature damping efficiency of these systems through modifications to their composition, microstructure and architecture. In this work, novel TBC bond coat compositions along with structurally (on the nano-, micro- and macro-scale) modified TBC top coats will be employed to enable multi-functional, damping enhanced TBC systems that are envisioned for use on the low pressure turbine components of gas turbine engines. Such coatings will be deposited using a physical vapor deposition based processing approach which enables enhanced control of the composition and microstructural of TBC layers and a means to apply them onto complex components. BENEFIT: This research is anticipated to result in multifunctional damping coating systems that can reduce vibrational stresses at high temperatures while still providing the required thermal and environmental protection to engine components. The resulting coatings will provide engine designers an additional means to eliminate harmful vibrational stresses, thus, expanding their ability to optimize engine designs for maximized performance. Currently, engine designers of turbine components must assure that there are no resonant frequencies that match the operating points of the airfoil, putting significant constraints on turbine designs operating across a spectrum of speeds and with several different excitations per revolution. The reduction of the vibrational stresses would therefore enable more aerodynamically advanced airfoil designs that may otherwise not be feasible. As a result, damping technologies that can be applied to high cycle fatigue critical components would have a significant impact of engine performance and affordability. These advances will not only benefit military engines which require improvements in engine efficiency and performance, but also commercial and industrial gas turbines. The innovative approach proposed here will also reduce the time and expense for refurbishing and repairing blades during engine overhauls, thus improving military readiness and reducing the cost of maintaining commercial aircraft.

TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4440
Lew Bragg
AF 09-172      Awarded: 3/11/2010
Title:Wide Temperature, High-Frequency Capacitors for Aerospace Power Conditioning Applications
Abstract:Thermally stable, high frequency capacitors are necessary for development of more compact, high power electronics for use in high performance weapons systems. Mechanically and thermally robust capacitors are needed to increase the temperature range and reduce thermal management issues in compact aerospace power conditioning applications. Capacitors can occupy up to 30 percent of the volume in power systems and have been identified as limiting components in high temperature and/or high frequency applications. New dielectric materials and capacitor designs are desired that provide high specific capacitance, high frequency and wide operating temperature capabilities. TPL will develop a novel nanocomposite dielectric film and capacitor technology that is compact, fault-tolerant, and operates at the high temperatures and frequencies needed for aerospace power conversion. TPL has extensive experience in the development of nanocomposite material systems for advanced dielectric properties and associated high performance capacitors. The proposed capacitor is projected to have a packaged specific capacitance of 3 – 6 uF/cc, operating temperature range of -55 to +300 degree C and operational capability up to 100 kHz. The film and capacitor designs will use largely industry standard production methods to facilitate transitions to manufacturing and help control product costs. BENEFIT: The success of this development program will enable the miniaturization of power conditioning modules for advanced aerospace weapons systems. Related DoD benefits can also be realized for power conversion in future Navy all-electric vessels. Commercially, hybrid electric vehicle applications are expected to benefit through higher operating temperature capability, as compared to current capacitor technologies. An additional commercial application will be high power converters for the utility industry, where operating temperature and size are also key concerns. Commercial hybrid electric vehicles are anticipated to represent the greatest commercial opportunity, given the rapid market expansion forecasts and need for high efficiency at elevated temperatures. The global market for hybrid electric cars is presently projected to grow from 0.5 million units in 2008 to more than 11 million units in 2020*. In addition, many heavy-duty truck and bus fleets are being systematically upgraded to hybrid electric drives. Each of these commercial hybrid units will benefit for more compact, higher performance DC filter capacitors. * http://www.autonews.com/article/20090527/ANA05/905279972/1186

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Hiroyuki Kosai
AF 09-172      Awarded: 2/19/2010
Title:Wide Temperature, High-Frequency Capacitors for Aerospace Power Conditioning Applications
Abstract:The military electrical systems have continually evolved into higher power, more compact architectures. This trend has generated the need for capacitors with high voltage breakdown strength and high insulation resistance to condition, insulate, and distribute power throughout the weapon system. Furthermore, there is a need to develop capacitors that can operate in a stable manner with continuous cycling over a temperature range from -55°C to 300°C and at frequencies up to 1 MHz. These design constraints have increased the demand for the capacitors with improved designs and materials. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing wide temperature capacitors which are able to operate up to high frequency range (1MHz) without sacrificing capacitance. In order to achieve this goal, ESL and ESR must be reduced, and heat removal efficiency must be optimized. For this proposal, modeling and simulation are proposed to develop improved capacitor geometry and structure leading to increased breakdown voltage, energy density, operating temperature range and operating frequency of the capacitors. New dielectric materials will also be integrated into a two-dielectric design. In Phase 1, all capacitor design parameters for the capacitor with two dielectric materials will be investigated thoroughly. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits of this project will be to manufacture the high energy density, high voltage and wide temperature capacitors, which can operate at high frequency in severe temperature environments with other wide temperature electrical parts.

PC Krause and Associates, Inc.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Jason Wells
AF 09-173      Awarded: 3/11/2010
Title:Dual Mode Electrical Accumulator Unit (DMEAU)
Abstract:The move towards more-electric aircraft continues to increase the complexity of electrical power systems (EPS) on modern airborne platforms. In addition to ever expanding peak and regenerative power demands, the flight criticality of the EPS also continues to increase as more systems become electric, thereby requiring more stringent power continuity during mode transitions in the EPS. The dual-mode electrical accumulator unit (DMEAU) proposed under this SBIR will significantly improve both power capability and quality of the EPS with minimal additional system weight (as compared to traditional emergency power batteries). Additionally, it is expected that the control algorithms of the proposed DMEAU will achieve these benefits without requiring significant modification to the controls of other subsystems thereby simplifying the specification of the EPS. The primary objective of this Phase I proposal is to design a DMEAU with the capabilities and benefits outlined in the SBIR solicitation. Modeling, simulation, and analysis will be utilized to demonstrate that the proposed design is capable of meeting the relevant requirements from MIL-STD-704, MIL-STD-461, the SBIR solicitation, and the additional performance objectives identified at the beginning of the project. If successful, developed technologies will ultimately transition to DoD programs under a Phase III contract. BENEFIT: Dual-mode electrical accumulator unit (DMEAU) technology offers several benefits in military airborne applications, the first commercialization opportunity which this SBIR will target, including: „« Expanded peak-power and regenerator power capabilities in the electrical power system „« Improved the power capability utilization of high-performance batteries on the aircraft „« Improved power quality during mode transitions in the electrical power system „« Improved over-current protection mechanisms used to prevent battery failures „« Improved PHM at both a system and battery level „« Improved turbo-machinery starting performance In addition to the direct benefit to military applications, there is potential for application in commercial aircraft, terrestrial vehicles, and marine vehicles. Finally, the DMEAU technology under investigation in this SBIR may be applicable to renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind or solar power) that do not provide a predictable output power capability. In these applications, the power capabilities of the primary source would be monitored by the DMEAU and the DMEAU would supplement or detract from the source output to ensure that a predictable power flow was maintained to/from the electrical grid thereby enabling more efficient dispatch at the regional transmission operator (RTO) level.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Hiroyuki Kosai
AF 09-173      Awarded: 3/15/2010
Title:Dual Mode Electrical Accumulator Unit (DMEAU)
Abstract:Electrical motors are rapidly replacing hydraulic motors in flight actuators for military/civil aircraft applications. In hydraulic systems, accumulators are used to store regenerative energy from the hydraulic actuators as well as to supply peak energy demands of these actuators in response to demands of the flight control system. No electrical analog (Electrical Accumulator Unit) exists in production although some prototype hardware has been demonstrated to store/supply transient electric energy (~100 Kwatt spikes). Advanced EAU designs merge the emergency power function (battery energy storage) with the transient electrical energy function. This latter design also includes the battery charging function. At the same time, military aircraft use Inverter/Converter/Control (ICC) units to supply power to electrical machines for engine starting and to supply 270 VDC power to the aircraft when the engines are running. For this proposal, a feasibility study/preliminary design effort will be undertaken to merge the advanced EAU with the ICC , both electrically and physically. The resultant Dual Mode EAU (DMEAU) will have the following functions: emergency power, transient energy supply/storage, battery charging, engine starting and 270 VDC aircraft power generation. The DMEAU will fit into the current space of the ICC and utilized the current ICC cooling. BENEFIT: This feasibility study/preliminary design will clearly show the viability of combining the functions which are now housed in the separate EAU and ICC Units. The savings will be space/weight/cost (parts count reduction). The Dual Mode Electrical Accumulator Unit could be applied to several thousand high performance aircraft.

Embedded Systems LLC
22 Salisbury Way
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 269-8148
Bhal Tulpule
AF 09-174      Awarded: 3/16/2010
Title:Improved Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) System
Abstract:The continuing demand for improving the capabilities of Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) systems while reducing their size, weight and cooling requirements has led to investigations of alternate architectures and electronic devices for the next generation of advanced propulsion systems. The feasibility of using available Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology devices that can operate in high temperature environments for the development of intelligent nodes in a distributed architecture FADEC system that does not require cooling has been established. The miniaturization of SOI technology devices into a System On a Chip (SOC) is the essential and next logical step for the transition of this technology into production ready components and building blocks for the benefit of all FADEC system developers and users. The proposed SOC for FADEC is a high temperature capable, modular, scalable and flexible SOI device that can be reconfigured in software and used for implementing an intelligent node for interfacing with most classes of sensors found in FADEC systems. The device can also be scaled up for use in a FADEC computer for interfacing with multiple sensors and actuators. The SOC is therefore the key enabling device for the realization of advanced FADEC systems or aerospace applications with demanding requirements for size, weight and thermal cooling. BENEFIT: The successful development of the high temperature capable SOC solution for FADEC is anticipated to significantly reduce the size, weight and cooling requirement for the next generation of distributed as well as centralized FADEC systems. The flexibility and scalability of the SOC device should lead to significant potential commercial applications in the military, commercial engine and aerospace applications as well as the oil exploration and stationery power markets.

Orbital Research Inc
4415 Euclid Avenue Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Mike Willett
AF 09-174      Awarded: 3/17/2010
Title:Improved Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) System
Abstract:Current Full Authority Digital Engine Controls (FADECs) and Electronic Engine Controls (EECs) perform their tasks by using multiple IC chips and several printed circuit boards. Tasks performed by these chips include power regulation, communications, actuator drive, sensor monitoring, processing capable of number crunching, prognostic health management, and fault detection and isolation. Implementations of these FADEC functions on a system-on-a-chip (SOC) will improve performance and reduce the size, weight, and thermal footprint of FADEC systems on traditional turbine engines.

Orbital Research Inc. proposes to develop a high temperature SOC for aircraft engine FADECs and EECs using discrete and custom high temperature (200oC - 220oC) components. This SOC will provide the interfaces to most inputs and outputs on existing and next generation turbine engine EECs, and will provide the state-of-the-art prognostic and diagnostic functions.

In order to accomplish the Phase I goal of demonstrating design and fabrication techniques that meet the requirements called out in the solicitation Orbital will adapt its existing high-temperature ASICs as follows:
  1. Modify design rules for synthesis, emulation, simulation and layout for use in the manufacturing process.
  2. Incorporated necessary layout rules.
  3. Compare the simulation results to compute improvement in area, power consumption, and bandwidth.
BENEFIT: During Phases I and II of this project Orbital Research Inc will design, develop, and test a prototype system-on-a-chip (SOC) implementation of FADEC functions to improve performance and reduce the size, weight, and thermal footprint of FADEC systems on traditional turbine engines. The temperature tolerance of the SOC developed herein opens numerous applications for the military market, including advanced engine and flight controls, unmanned aerial vehicles, directed energy systems, military control units, actuators, and more-electric systems. Projected applications for the developed SOC temperature-tolerant control technology in the civilian sector are equally attractive and include commercial aircraft, automotive, ground-based power generation, oil industry, and harsh industrial processing applications. In addition to significant high temperature intelligent interface needs for commercial aircraft (a high-temperature distributed control system reduces the wiring harness complexity by a factor of 10 or more while saving weight), significant automotive and oil/gas drilling markets exist.

Scientific Monitoring, Inc.
8777 E.Via de Ventura Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 328-5832
Walter Merrill
AF 09-174      Awarded: 3/17/2010
Title:High Temperature Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) System
Abstract:Scientific Monitoring, Inc. (SMI) is developing reliable, high temperature capable, full- authority, digital engine controls technology. Specifically, SMI is developing an innovative system on chip (SoC) capability that will accomplish two major objectives. First, for engines with modest control requirements, for example those with less than six (6) controlled variables, SMI’s approach will provide a SoC, high temperature capable, “mini- FADEC” solution. Second, for larger engines, i.e. those with as many as 17 controlled variables, SMI’s approach will provide a high temperature, distributed system solution. SMI’s distributed system incorporates time-triggered fault tolerant communications with multiple high temperature SoC processors acting as “concentrators.” The proposed technology is thus both flexible and powerful and can be configured to meet the control requirements of varying complexity. This FADEC technology will be applicable to both future propulsion systems in the VAATE perspective, for UAV’s and for legacy and helicopter engines. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of the proposed technology include a substantial reduction in the size, weight and volume of electronic turbine engine controls. The proposed technology will also work in 235C environments significantly reducing or eliminating the need for fuel cooling. The distributed architecture enables cost reduction through the use of modular components and "plug and play" compatibility.

Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6061
William Anderson
AF 09-175      Awarded: 3/11/2010
Title:FADEC Thermal Management
Abstract:The Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) controls engine operation. The FADEC case must be maintained below 63°C, while the environment can be as hot as 170°C. The current design uses fuel to cool the FADEC, however, this often limits the allowable ground or flight idle time before the fuel is too hot to cool the FADEC. This SBIR Phase I project will develop a thermal management system for the FADEC that includes four components: 1. Active cooling to reject the FADEC waste heat to higher temperature heat sinks, 2. Heat pipes and other devices to reduce the temperature gradients inside the FADEC box, 3. Insulation to reduce the heat in-leak from the environment into the box, and 4. Thermal storage, to store heat at times when it cannot be rejected. The use of heat pipes and insulation will increase the heat rejection temperature for the FADEC from the current 63°C (145°F) to 87°C (189°F). This can be further increased with active cooling. The benefits include an increase in the allowable fuel temperature, increasing idle time. The goal of the Phase II program will be to design, fabricate, and test a full scale thermal management system for cooling the FADEC. BENEFIT: The thermal management system has direct application to cooling the FADEC on current and future fighter aircraft platforms. Heat will be rejected to either a remote sink, or to the fuel at a significantly higher temperature than currently. Even without active cooling, a redesign of the FADEC box internal heat spreading and insulation increases the heat rejection temperature from the current 63°C (145°F) to 87°C (189°F). For some near-term applications, this might be sufficient. Future FADEC boxes will have higher power, likely requiring active cooling. ACT plans to work with Hamilton Sundstrand Aerospace during the Phase I, II, and III programs to rapidly transition this cooling system from a concept to a product. In addition to the FADEC, there are a number of additional electronics boxes with maximum allowable temperatures only a few degrees above the FADEC. The cooling system developed here can also be applied to these electronics boxes.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael G. Izenson
AF 09-175      Awarded: 3/25/2010
Title:Innovative Cooling Technologies for FADEC Electronics
Abstract:Gas turbine engines rely on internal controllers to achieve efficient operation over a wide range of operating conditions. These Full Authority Digital Engine Controls (FADEC) are located within the engines in an environment characterized by high temperature and high vibration. Cooling the electronic components inside the FADEC is a tremendous challenge. We propose to apply innovative thermal management technologies to control the temperature of FADEC electronics. In Phase I we will prove feasibility by developing a thermal model for an advanced FADEC cooling system and designing an optimal thermal management system. BENEFIT: Our thermal management system will improve FADEC and aircraft reliability. Applications include FADEC units for advanced gas turbine engines as well as thermal management systems for high power electronics used in commercial jet engines and electric vehicles.

Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 519-3136
John Thayer
AF 09-175      Awarded: 3/18/2010
Title:Innovative Thermal Management Technologies for Dissipating Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) Electronics Heat
Abstract:Overheating of FADEC electronics has become a limiting factor in their capabilities. Current cooling schemes depend on rejecting the waste heat to a flow of fuel, but fuel is not an infinite heat sink. During ground idle operation on a hot day, or late in a flight when most of the fuel has been consumed, fuel temperature can climb to the point where it offers insufficient capacity for continued FADEC cooling. This SBIR proposal offers an alternative scheme, wherein a loop heat pipe in conjunction with thermal electric cooling devices are used to provide cooling to the FADEC package. Loop heat pipes have the capability of moving hundreds of watts of heat distances of 2 meters or longer, with a thermal resistance of 0.03 C/W or less. Thus a loop heat pipe could be configured to transport heat from the FADEC unit to an air cooled heat sink, either at the engine inlet or on the airframe. When combined with TEC’s, significant subcooling can be provided so that potentially the FADEC heat sink interface could operate at subambient temperatures. With this design, FADEC cooling can be disassociated from fuel circulation, to give greater cooling potential and remove critical operational limitations. BENEFIT: Improved cooling of the FADEC module via a loop heat pipe will lead to higher reliability of the FADEC as well as higher reliability of the cooling system. Additionally eliminating dependence on fuel cooling will result in greater operational flexibility. Currently LHP’s are built in low volumes at high costs, primarily for satellite applications. Employing loop heat pipes for FADEC cooling would result in high volume production of LHP''s, with subsequent reduction of unit costs.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 927-4774
Chris Cooper
AF 09-176      Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title:Predicting Faults and Determining Life of Electro-Mechanical Actuation (EMA) System for Engine and Aerospace Applications
Abstract:Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) will develop and demonstrate an architecture and conceptual design for an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) prognostic system that will provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL) and predict faults at least two mission profiles prior to failure. FTI will apply proven gas turbine and rocket engine health management approaches to EMAs to detect abnormal conditions, high stress, and precursors of future failures. The system developed in support of this topic will be based on the principles of fusion prognostics that combine data-derived technology for real-time performance analysis with physics-based models that support the computation of RUL. The system will create and adapt statistical system performance models to detect abnormalities, degradations and precursors of future failures, isolate and identify the failure, compute and RUL and as appropriate recommend or cause initiation of remedial action. The prognostic system will be designed to operate on-board in real-time or off- board as part of a ground-based support system. It will rely on sensors currently in place and will be extensible to multiple EMA configurations and applications. This Phase I effort extends FTI’s research into predictive analysis, fault isolation and RUL computation for electronic and electro-mechanical systems. BENEFIT: The innovation resulting from this research will have direct impact on any enterprise that is dependent on and needs to improve the operation of EMAs. Implementation of new maintenance strategies such as CBM requires the ability to determine the condition of the EMA, predict degrading or failing conditions and determine RUL. The technology will provide the ability to incorporate diagnostic and fault predictions into actuation systems to improve safety, maintainability, and serviceability while reducing cost. Because the system uses existing system data to provide the models used for analysis of system states and RUL it is easily extended to variety of EMAs and applications. The ultimate result is optimum use of the EMA while minimizing unplanned failures and reducing impact on mission or business success. FTI has identified the following areas as being immediate application targets for this technology: fixed-wing aircraft (military and commercial), rotorcraft, energy production, and manufacturing.

Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Carl S. Byington
AF 09-176      Awarded: 4/22/2010
Title:A Hybrid Approach to EMA Prognostics (EMAP) for Engine and Aerospace Applications
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with our OEM partners, proposes to develop a hybrid approach for real-time prognostics of electromechanical actuators (EMAs) that will advance the state-of-the-art in prognostics technologies and help enable the use of EMAs in high power applications. The overall approach will feature a high fidelity dynamic model of various subsystems to virtually sense parameters that can be used to detect degradation, isolate probable root cause, and assess severity. In addition, data-driven techniques will also complement the model-based approach, including approaches related to command-response error analysis and dynamic features. A system level reasoner, featuring advanced diagnostics, prognostics, and knowledge fusion algorithms, will then be implemented within a probabilistic framework. Model order reduction and uncertainty management will also be addressed in future phases to facilitate use within an embedded, on-board implementation. The effort will strive to use the existing sensors that are already available on the aircraft for control, thus limiting the complexity, cost, and weight associated with fielding the system. Experimental validation efforts will be performed within the available Impact and OEM facilitates. This automated, prognostic package will significantly enhance the ability to safely operate aircraft, schedule maintenance activities, optimize operational life cycles, and reduce support costs. BENEFIT: Improvements to the current state-of-the-art in actuator diagnostics is needed to reap the benefits of EMA technologies for high power (>10 kilowatts) applications and avoid “cannot duplicate” failure notifications and improve maintainability. With the successful developments and implementation of this effort, it is strongly anticipated that the prototype algorithms and software module will fulfill this need and be of significant benefit to the F- 35 and other DoD applications. Availability improvements will be realized through the reduction of recurring and nonrecurring PHM actions on actuator systems. The realization of such an automated, prognostic reasoning package will significantly enhance the maintainer’s ability to schedule maintenance activities, optimize operational life cycles, and reduce the overall logistics footprint. Better diagnosis of actuation systems and more accurate time-to-failure predictions will reduce the risk of safety-related system failures and decrease costly inspection routines as well as premature component replacements by using a risk-based, maintenance optimization technique. This development is applicable to civilian aviation applications (passenger aircraft, cargo transports, business jets, private aircraft, etc.). The developed approach and design products could be adapted for a variety of other commercial applications, including: land and marine propulsion systems, industrial actuation systems, fluid power transmission, robotic applications, weapon systems, and air vehicles operating in sustained supersonic cruise.

Hyper-Therm High-Temperature Composites, Inc.
18411 Gothard Street Unit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Todd Engel
AF 09-177      Awarded: 4/25/2010
Title:High-Temperature, Full-Field Strain Mapping of Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aero-Engine Components
Abstract:Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramics are an emerging class of materials that offer considerable potential for increasing weight-specific performance while reducing fuel consumption and enhancing the durability of advanced aero-turbine engines. The need for high-temperature, low-density materials is critical to the successful design and manufacture of innovative engine components that result in improved system performance while reducing cost of manufacture. Due to the anisotropic behavior of CMC materials, the distribution of strains induced from applied thermo-mechanical loads within the body of a CMC structural component is exceedingly difficult to quantify. The successful implementation of CMCs for selected components in turbine engines is reliant upon the ability to accurately resolve these strain fields in order to both calibrate and validate predictive models used in their analytical design. This proposed effort will demonstrate an innovative technique for measuring full-field strains on geometrically complex CMC components at elevated temperatures. The Phase I program will address the benefits and limitations of the technique by performing full-field strain measurements on CMC test coupons at ambient temperature. A Phase II program would further demonstrate the ability to perform full-field strain measurements on CMC test coupons and representative structural components at elevated temperatures. BENEFIT: The development of CMC components for turbine engines will allow for higher operating temperatures and increased performance. The successful implementation of full-field high-temperature strain measurement capabilities will promote a more comprehensive understanding of CMC material behaviors, allowing for more intelligent, robust, and predictable design of components and promoting more confident acceptance and implementation of CMCs by turbine engine OEMs

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alexander Naumov
AF 09-177      Awarded: 4/12/2010
Title:Thermoshearographic Methodology for Strain Mapping
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a methodology to accurately map strain distributions in hot composite structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new ThermoShearographic methodology for Strain Mapping (TSSM) based on dynamic monitoring of in-plane strain variation and temperature distribution over the anisotropic specimen surface. Innovative use of a shearographic module with switchable wavelength and its combination with an IR camera for thermal mapping of composite structures meet all requirements in the solicitation. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the TSSM methodology by assembling and testing the prototype TSSM system that is its core, to enable accuracy in measuring strain distribution on coupon surfaces at moderate mechanical and thermal loads. The results of measurements will be used by Materials Research & Design, Inc. in their prediction model to simulate surface strain versus temperature and loads in coupons of composite materials. The results of modeling will help to understand observed properties of testing coupons. In Phase II, POC plans to fully develop the TSSM methodology with a full-scale TSSM system prototype, allowing accurate mapping of strain distribution and resolution of high spatial strain gradients in a hot, mechanically loaded composite structure. BENEFIT: Beyond quality assurance and quality control of composite structures for military aircraft, where the benefits of the proposed methodology are obvious, it will offer benefits in inspection of composite materials and parts in land-based propulsion and power generation systems, particularly in the automotive and boating industries.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5232
George Zhao
AF 09-179      Awarded: 4/5/2010
Title:Built-In Damage State Detection and Localization Capabilities for Composite Engine Structures
Abstract:Fiber reinforced polymer composites are finding increased applications in the aircraft and aerospace industries due to their superior mechanical properties and light weight. However, composite materials are subject to damage during fatigue, mechanical impact, and aging in a service environment. Early detection of these failure process and hazards is desired for improving structure safety and increase fleet readiness. We propose to develop a networked high temperature ultrasonic sensor system with a “virtual inspection” simulation tool to monitoring and inspect the condition of composite material. The proposed work is built upon our extensive experience in wave mechanics simulation and health monitoring sensor network for composites. The expected applications of such a system are quite promising. BENEFIT: Inspection simulation is becoming important issue as more and more structures are getting old and many new structures need to be designed. “virtual inspection” can save cost and time spent on looking for proper methods for inspection, and experiment on coupons/parts for demonstration. Aviation safety is one area of application of such tool for simulating NDE approaches on aircraft and space structures. It is very important to develop low cost and reliable nondestructive inspection and monitoring technique to detect the onset of failures so that necessary precautions can be taken to prevent hazards. Our proposed sensor network with the design from simulation will be able to detect and localize growing defect in composite, thus achieves reliable detection, improves safety of the structure, and saves costs in maintenance. NDE and structural health monitoring is important for many military and commercial systems such as aircraft, automobiles, trains, home appliances, nuclear reactors, etc. We expect the commercial potential of the proposed system is very good.

Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Russell Austin
AF 09-179      Awarded: 5/5/2010
Title:Built-In Damage State Detection and Localization Capabilities for Composite Engine Structures
Abstract:Organic matrix and ceramic matrix composite (OMC and CMC) structures used in critical areas such as around engine inlets and exhaust wash structures are known to fail through both hygrothermal and oxidative degradation. Without a reliable means of monitoring the health of these high-temperature composites, degradation can seriously impact an aircraft’s state of readiness. At the same time, time-based maintenance in which parts are replaced on a schedule whether they need it or not is prohibitively expensive, with some structures seeing an expected service life of 100 hours or less. TRI/Austin proposes to develop a structural health monitoring (SHM) solution capable of monitoring the health of these high temperature composites in-situ. In Phase I a prototype SHM system will be built and sample OMCs will be subjected to a damage. The prototype SHM will be used to monitor the samples and its ability to gauge the health and remaining useful life (RUL) will be assessed. BENEFIT: The proposed system permits a shift from conventional time-based maintenance to the more cost-effective condition-based maintenance in which a part is retired only as required. This in turn may extend the service life of composite parts used around engine inlets, exhaust wash structures, and other critical areas. The ruggedization and miniaturization of an embedded health monitor for high temperature applications could be used by fixed wing and rotor wing aircraft, large land vehicles, power generation turbines, and the chemical process industry.

NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road 99,984
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown
AF 09-180      Awarded: 3/29/2010
Title:Extend Operational Use of Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) via Operational Techniques and Enhanced Energy Devices
Abstract:Current generation military GPS User Equipment use significantly more power than a commercial GPS unit. There is a desire to develop operational techniques and lower power devices to increase operational use of hand-held military GPS devices. A lower power alternative to continuously running a SAASM receiver is to use a hybrid solution where the SAASM is only periodically turned on and used to update an alternative navigation system which is running continuously. We propose to develop a Hybrid solution under this SBIR that extends the operational use of military hand-held GPS receivers by periodically shutting off the SAASM functions and using a low-power dead reckoning solution between SAASM fixes. This Hybrid solution architecture is based on commercial components integrated with existing SAASM modules which can result in a low power, handheld solution which maintains the anti-jam and anti-spoof protection provided by military GPS User Equipment. Under this contract we shall document the proposed Hybrid system design and simulate the expected performance under representative operating conditions. A design for a Phase II test-bed will be included in the final report with a test plan to demonstrate the anti-spoof and anti-jam and intelligent power saving features under the Phase II project. BENEFIT: The current battery lifetime on military GPS handheld receivers is significantly higher than that of commercial GPS receivers. For this reason, many operational military users are using C/A code commercial GPS receivers rather than the approved SAASM user equipment in theater. This places them at risk of spoofing which could have disastrous effect on military operations. The proposed solution will provide a low power handheld solution with commercial GPS features while allowing military users to maintain the anti-spoof protection that is provided through the SAASM user equipment.

Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories LLC
2212 Harton Blvd
Tullahoma, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 393-7217
Gary Flandro
AF 09-182      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Unsteady Scramjet Heat Load
Abstract:To ensure the success of mid-scale scramjet development efforts, it will be essential to include the effects of chamber pressure oscillations (i.e. instability) on the engine heat load. This will require the inclusion of both the oscillatory heat load that accompanies the pressure oscillations and the impact of nonlinear combustion instability effects on the heat load. This can be accomplished using UCDS process, which allows a quantitative assessment of the impact of chamber pressure oscillations on the scramjet thermal environment and allow developers to include sufficient thermal margin in the design to deal with oscillations in test or operation. In the Phase I effort, GTL will demonstrate the calculation of all three components of the heat load, including the quasi-steady heat load, the oscillatory heat load, and the increased “DC shift” heat load from the nonlinear effects. When these results are integrated with a thermal management code, it will be possible to accurately predict the heat flux and the thermal balance point of a vehicle. Using the sensitivity analysis capability of UCDS, it will also be possible to accurately determine the uncertainty and sensitivity of the scramjet thermal environment. BENEFIT: UCDS Process provides an effective and reliable means to predict the oscillation characteristics of a combustion device. Not only does UCDS answer the question of whether a system is stable or not, UCDS provides detailed insight into the oscillatory characteristics of the device. For example, UCDS can be used to calculate the wall heat load in a scramjet or other propulsion device. This insight is critical to the development process, since it allows engineers to assess the physical implications of the oscillations and make any design changes needed to ensure success. Since UCDS is built from a general formulation, it can be used to analyze practically any combustion device, including rockets (liquid, solid, hybrid), turbojets (combustors, augmentors), ramjets, scramjets, combined cycle engines and so on. Therefore, potential customers for UCDS services include government agencies, such as Air Force, MDA, NASA, Army, Navy, and DARPA, and propulsion system developers, such as ATK, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce, and many others.

GoHypersonic Inc.
714 E. Monument Ave Suite 119
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Lance S Jacobsen
AF 09-182      Awarded: 3/2/2010
Title:Flight-Capable Self-Starting Scramjet Inlets
Abstract:The proposed Phase I SBIR seeks to develop passive self-starting inlet technologies and extend inlet operability to a range of at least 3 Mach numbers. This development will be completed using GHI’s design and optimization tools and will be validated with the experimental testing of a self-starting inlet in GHI’s supersonic wind tunnel facility. Additionally, the program seeks to develop structural topologies and meshes for use with FEA thermal and structural solvers. Coupled fluid-thermal analysis will be demonstrated during Phase I taking into account advanced refractory composite material properties and manufacturing processes paving the way to coupled fluid-thermal and structural optimization during Phase II. Additionally, these tools will allow the survivability of hot- structure inlets to be determined along a prescribed flight trajectory. Following the success of the Phase I program objectives, GHI will develop a Phase II plan which will enable the goal of manufacturing and testing a near-flight-weight 1x-to-5x scale inlet. Based on our previous work experience and our current computational and experimental capabilities, the goals set forth in this proposal are well within our abilities. More importantly, this work will be of great benefit to the Air Force and to the future of scramjet-powered flight as a whole. BENEFIT: At the end of a successful Phase I and Phase II program, the GHI and C-CAT team will possess integrated aerodynamic, structural, and thermal design, optimization, and manufacturing capabilities for large scale hot-structure scramjet inlets. These capabilities will be directly extendible to include other major scramjet components such as combustors, nozzles, fuselages, and control surfaces. These tools will combine efficient CFD solvers, sensitivity solvers, grid and surface generators, thermal and structural solvers, and optimization algorithms into one very advanced high-fidelity design tool. In addition, the Phase I and Phase II program will generate a much broader understanding of the self-starting inlet technology and robust inlet operability, which we believe is crucial to the future of scramjet flight as a whole. Furthermore, the incorporation of coated Carbon-Carbon manufacturing techniques and processes into the design cycle will reduce both initial design costs and final production costs, and streamline the overall design-to-flight process from start to finish.

Systima Technologies, Inc.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Jerry Berg
AF 09-182      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Hypersonic Propulsion: Enhancing Robustness in Mid-Scale Scramjets
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a simple, lightweight and reliable Scramjet Cold-Start Gas Generator (SCS-GG) for hydrocarbon fueled, supersonic combustion systems. A SCS-GG would allow repeatable cold-start ignition for missile and aircraft systems promoting access to space and prompt strike/reconnaissance. Systima Technologies, Inc. proposes a cold-start gas generator that establishes preconditions suitable for hydrocarbon scramjet cold-startup in a flight-weight, compact and durable system. The speed of fluids through a supersonic scramjet combustor allows only milliseconds to permit adequate mixing of the fuel air mixture, ignite the fuel air mixture and sustain combustion. Systems for ignition of scramjets apply an aerodynamic or physical restriction to the supersonic flow, raise the temperature/pressure, and establish a shock train in the combustor. These restrictions can be physical, fluidic, or heat-release backpressure systems. Systima proposes the development of a solid propellant gas generator as a lighter, more compact and reliable scramjet cold start system to provide the pre-combustion shock train for the ignition of cold JP fuel in the scramjet combustor. Systima intends to focus on existing propellants and propellant mixtures to keep the solid propellant gas generator an affordable solution that can be handled within existing handling and safety processes. BENEFIT: This method of enabling the cold-start of a supersonic combustion engine will have direct applicability to missile and vehicle systems utilizing hypersonic airbreathing propulsion. These engine systems have applicability in global strike weapons, high speed transports, and access to space technologies. This is an area of interest for the U.S. Government, both the military and NASA, and the prime contractors that are working on the research and development to supply the U.S. Government with these systems including: Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Systima has ongoing relationships with these customers and prime contractors and will endeavor to put forward this technology in conjunction with our other hypersonic vehicle technologies in our product line. We are well positioned with our Rocketdyne partner, a world leader in hypersonic combustion engines, and high speed vehicle integrators to market and promote the use of this technology in weapons and exploration vehicles. Systima is currently an active supplier of energetic material systems for weapons systems, space system actuators, and other development concepts and has the necessary expertise and capability to carry this product from concept, through development to production. Our personnel have decades of experience in this industry with energetic materials from simple double base powder propellants, custom grain fabrication, and through linear shaped charge. We are an established supplier of hypersonic vehicle shroud components and submunition ejection systems.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8364
Naida Lacevic
AF 09-183      Awarded: 3/3/2010
Title:Development of Reactive Molecular Dynamics (RMD) Simulation Software
Abstract:Phase I investigation will result in accurate parameterization of reactive molecular dynamics (MD) force fields for application to model hydrocarbon and catalyst systems with small amounts of promoters under high pressure. The Nextgen/Texas A&M team will obtain parameters using approaches developed in Prof. Cagin’s laboratory for test system generation, high fidelity quantum chemistry modeling of test systems, and optimization of appropriate reactive MD potential parameters for these systems using high dimensionality optimization techniques such as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Later phases may address automation of parameter optimization procedures and broader applicability. Commercialization strategies will focus on distribution and support of automated tools for parameter development. Optimized potential parameters for reactive molecular dynamics simulations will be made available to the Air Force for further research and evaluation. BENEFIT: Our approach includes the following benefits: (1) predictive capability with desired accuracy for e.g. heat of formation and barrier height for transition states as a function of hydrocarbon structure and composition and catalyst; (2) generality to a broad range of hydrocarbon and catalyst formulations including novel catalytic materials; (3) straightforward implementation and testing of reactive molecular dynamics force field parameters using current codes with reactive potentials. Our solution will provide the ability to evaluate novel catalyst systems including those containing alkali and transition metals. Also, computational exploration of fuel/catalyst system performance is intrinsically safer and less expensive compared to experiments.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF 09-183      Awarded: 2/12/2010
Title:Development and validation of a ReaxFF potential for hydrocarbon cracking reactions on Co and Fe-doped aluminosilicate catalysts
Abstract:The objective of this Phase-I research effort is to develop a force field (FF) based reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation program to understand hydrocarbon cracking catalysis on well-defined aluminosilicate systems and on Fe- and Co-doped catalysts. Full dynamical description of the catalyst/fuel interface requires a computational method that is a number of magnitudes faster than the quantum mechanical (QM) based approach but retains the quality of QM-results for reaction energies and reaction barriers. Force field (FF) based approaches can provide the computational speed required to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on systems sizes sufficiently large to describe the full chemistry of the catalyst/fuel interface. The research effort invested in Phase-I will establish and validate ReaxFF parameters for the aluminosilicate and Co- and Fe-doped aluminosilicate systems and their interactions with a hydrocarbon feedstock. These validated parameters will then be used during Phase-II research effort for an extensive MD-based study to map out the mechanisms and rates of the cracking reaction for (a) various pressures and temperatures, (b) different composition of the hydrocarbon feedstock, and (c) varying dopant concentration and location. BENEFIT: The development of a force field (FF) based reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation program to understand hydrocarbon cracking catalysis for high- heat sink fuels will play a key role in the research and development of scramjet engines. The proposed software will be capable of performing nanosecond-scale MD-simulations on large (>>1000 atoms), and the development of parallel ReaxFF will enable application to systems >1,000,000 atoms. Hence, the development of this software will enable researchers in educational, industry, and DoD research facilities to study the full complexity of a dynamic catalyst/fuel interface for a range of applications from propulsion/energy to materials. Groups that have an interest in ReaxFF include Exxon (fuel chemistry and catalysis), Lockheed Martin (carbon nanotube enforced polymers), CFDRC (catalyzed canbon nanotube growth), Intel (catalyzed carbon nanotube growth), Seiko-Epson (SiO2/Si interfaces), and Nissan (diamond-like carbon materials). Spectral Energies will work with our partners at Penn State and the Air Force Research Laboratory to ensure that the results of this work enable the development of advanced engine technology, as described in the work for Phase II, as well as follow-on Phase III activities.

Alphabet Energy, Inc.
3301 Kempton Avenue
Oakland, CA 94611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(917) 575-8724
Matthew Scullin
AF 09-184      Awarded: 4/14/2010
Title:Low Cost Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting for Efficient Power Generation
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will address the technological risks in bringing silicon-based nanostructured thermoelectric materials from a proven laboratory concept to a scalable prototype device. Thermoelectric materials offer great promise for energy efficiency through waste heat recovery in military aircraft applications. They are compact, lightweight, highly reliable and virtually maintenance free. Implementation to date has been precluded by the high cost per watt and the low design temperature of existing thermoelectric materials. Alphabet Energy’s silicon nanowire thermoelectric materials, a breakthrough from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, use low-grade silicon as a raw material and a manufacturing process that utilizes standard semiconductor fabrication tools and facilities. This leads to a device cost in the order of 20¢/Watt, 50- 100 times cheaper than existing thermoelectrics. Silicon nanowire thermoelectric materials have been tested at temperatures up to 600C without loss of performance and we project that they will continue to perform at temperatures up to 1000C. The currently measured ZT of above 1 at 400-600C temperature gradient provides an ~10% efficient device. We have an established pathway through optimization of the roughness and morphology of the nanowires to raise ZT above 2 and achieve much higher efficiencies of 20% or more. BENEFIT: Beyond applications in aircraft energy harvesting and other military applications, Alphabet Energy''s technology will open up the $200 billion potential world market for civilian waste heat recovery. Up to 17% of the US''s electricity needs could be provided by power generated from heat in exhaust streams from power plants, heavy manufacturing and transportation, thus eliminating 430 million tonnes of US carbon dioxide emissions.

Crystal Genesis, LLC
23 Wilson Drive
Sparta, NJ 07871
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 512-4848
Michael P. Scripsick
AF 09-184      Awarded: 4/14/2010
Title:Energy Harvesting for Efficient Power Generation
Abstract:Recent examples of very efficient thermal to electrical energy conversion over small temperature ranges near room temperature suggest that pyroelectric/thermodielectric energy conversion has the potential to far exceed any other alternative energy scavenging approach. Efficient pyroelectric/thermodielectric energy conversion could be made practical if materials with the appropriate properties were identified, produced, characterized, and deployed in thermodynamic energy harvesting cycles that were matched to these specific material properties in order to optimize conversion efficiency. In particular, the highly nonlinear behavior of the pyroelectric and dielectric properties as a function of temperature near the Curie temperature of a ferroelectric material offers the potential for much more efficient energy harvesting in this temperature region. As such, realization of efficient pyroelectric/thermodielectric energy conversion requires a series of ferroelectric materials with Curie temperatures that span the temperature region of interest. This proposed research effort will grow single crystal materials with Curie temperatures that lie within the 700 °C – 1000 °C range and characterize their pyroelectric and dielectric properties at temperatures near the Curie temperature with high electric fields and low frequencies consistent with potential efficient energy harvesting thermodynamic cycles. BENEFIT: The significance of alternative energy strategies has become increasingly apparent in recent years due to extreme volatility in traditional energy markets. While the economic and geopolitical turmoil that results from global reliance on limited energy resources has peaked and receded several times in the past century, the now commonly accepted realization that our hydrocarbon based energy threatens catastrophic climate change makes the development of alternative energy strategies critical. Compared with other alternative energy strategies, pyroelectric power generation has several distinct advantages including high efficiency, environmentally friendly, broad applicability, low cost, low maintenance, and easily scalable. The pyroelectric effect can convert heat from any source to electrical power. As such, it can be used to efficiently convert energy from zero greenhouse gas sources such as geothermal, ocean thermal, solar, or nuclear power. Pyroelectric energy conversion can also be used to increase the efficiency of traditional power plants by scavenging waste heat discharged through flue stacks and cooling towers. In addition to clean and/or more efficient power generation at the source, pyroelectric energy conversion can be used at the point of power consumption to recapture heat generated from nearly any industrial process and convert it back into electrical power thereby improving net energy efficiency of end users. Due to the projected low cost of manufacture, ease of use, low maintenance requirements, and scalability, pyroelectric energy conversion can be used throughout the electrical power continuum from large scale producers to industrial and residential customers to small scale personal electronics.

Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-8988
Walter Zimbeck
AF 09-184      Awarded: 3/29/2010
Title:kW Level Thermoelectric Generators for Turbine Engines
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will development of a novel hot side heat exchanger, which, combined with innovations in high temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG) materials under parallel programs, will provide a path to achieving TEG efficiency of 20%. The focus of this SBIR effort will be TEG device development that is scalable to kW power levels using the exhaust gas stream from turbine engines. In order to achieve this efficiency target, the hot side of the TEG must acquire heat at temperatures approaching 1,000 °C, and survive repeated cycling between the high operational temperature and sub-freezing idle temperatures (-40 °C). The heat exchanger’s composition, configuration, fabrication, and physical integration with the TEG subsystem components will require an advanced design. The Phase I work will evaluate heat exchanger designs both analytically and experimentally to demonstrate feasibility. Simulation of the TEG performance will also be conducted in Phase I and provide a quantitative assessment of efficiency using the proposed heat exchanger and state-of-the-art TEG devices. BENEFIT: The development of high power, high temperature thermoelectric generators for turbine engines will provide power for More Electric Aircraft initiatives and provide substantial weight savings compared to expanding capacity of conventional electric generators.

Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc.
3 Carlyle Ct. PO Box 3659
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 716-0200
Frederick J. Passman
AF 09-185      Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title:Elimination of Microbial Contamination in Aviation Fuels
Abstract:Uncontrolled microbial contamination in fuels can cause both fuel and equipment biodeterioration. Common symptoms of fuel biodeterioration include but are not limited to increased corrosivity, decreased oxidative stability and decreased energy value. In order to prevent microbial contamination from developing inside aircraft tanks, the treatment system must reduce the bioburden to below the threshold population size. The two primary strategies for killing microbes are chemical and physical. Chemical treatment entails the use of a microbicidal additive. The USAF is reluctant to use microbicides due to their toxicity. The alternative is physical treatment. The objective of the proposed research program will be to develop a non-additive based technology to eliminate microbial contamination from aviation fuels located in different segments of the fuel delivery and storage process. The system will be designed primarily as a final stage fuel treatment apparatus that can be mounted at fueling hydrants to ensure that microbes present in delivered kerosene-grade fuel are below the threshold population size. The system will be designed to be scalable in order to be usable at different stages of the fuel transportation infrastructure from pipeline to aircraft. BENEFIT: Uncontrolled microbial contamination in fuel systems costs an estimated $4 billion as microbially influenced corrosion damage to infrastructure and product degradation. Commercial airline operators estimate that remediating contaminated aircraft wing tanks combined lost revenues while aircraft are out of service for decontamination costs > $2 million per event. Other high- value, purturbence-sensitive fuel systems include diesel and gas turbine power generation systems. The commercialized version of the proposed disinfection system, installed at military and commercial airports, and power generation facilities will eliminate the need for toxic microbicidal chemicals and substantially reduce the adverse costs of uncontrolled microbial contamination in fuels and fuel systems.

Seldon Technologies, Inc.
31 Depot Avenue PO Box 710
Windsor, VT 05089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 674-2444
Vardhan Bajpai
AF 09-185      Awarded: 4/14/2010
Title:Elimination of Microbial Contamination in Kerosene and Kerosene Based Aviation Fuels by Filtration Approach Utilizing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Med
Abstract:Microbial contamination in kerosene based aviation fuels has been a problem for the USAF since the 1960’s. Antimicrobial effect of earlier used fuel system icing inhibitor (FSII) became an initial solution to this problem, but later, such fuel additives were banned due to their extreme toxicity towards humans. Newer FSIIs, being more eco-friendly, do not possess the antimicrobial properties of their predecessors. Moreover, in the absence of any biocidal additive, the persistence and tenacity of the problem of microbial presence in kerosene based aviation fuels aviation fuel is ever-growing. Microbial contamination in fuel leads to filters clogging, fuel degradation, and accelerated corrosion. The damage caused along with the increase in maintenance cost because of this is unacceptable. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hold great promise for solving filtration issues for this application, through their unique properties of small-diameter, high-surface-area, high adsorption, strength, stability in fuel and antimicrobial effects. The successful completion of Phase 1 of this project will provide a multi-walled carbon nanotube based filtration media which will show complete microbial removal, as well as, extraordinary biofilm inhibition properties when compared to a conventional filter media, while delivering similar or lower operating pressure drops. Also, such a filter media is expected to last much longer than a conventional filter media. BENEFIT: The societal benefits include cleaner fuels, longer injector/ filter/ engine life, better combustion of aviation fuel, lower maintenance costs, new jobs, new products for export, and much more. The anticipated market size for such a product is greater than $500M in a current total fuel filtration market of greater than $2B annually. The USAF is expected to be a major customer for the type of products obtained through this research and development. Likely customers, other than US military are large oil and gas companies, commercial aviation industries, and fuel storage/ transportation/ distribution agencies. Such a product would find application at various places in the supply chain network of aviation fuel, in particular and other fuels, in general. Also, the research proposed here would also lead to future research in removing microbial contamination in fuels other than kerosene based ones, e.g. biodiesel and ultralow sulfur diesel fuel.

Beck Engineering
1490 Lumsden Road
Port Orchard, WA 98367
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 876-9710
Douglas S. Beck
AF 09-186      Awarded: 12/15/2010
Title:Low Cost Valve Technology
Abstract:The Air Force needs highly reliable, reusable, low-cost engine valves for reusable liquid rocket booster engines. We propose to develop a Frictionless Ball Valve (FBV) to meet Air Force needs. Our FBV uses friction-free hydrostatic bearings to maintain tight clearance seals and eliminate wear, which makes our FBV highly reliable and reusable. The friction-free operation reduces requirements for actuator torque by a factor of two, which permits the use of small lightweight actuators and, therefore, reduces engine weight and costs. In addition, a low count of long-life parts further reduces costs. In Phase I, we will design, model, simulate, build, and demonstrate throttling and sealing with a reduced-scale breadboard FBV. In Phase II, we will optimize our FBV design to maximize performance and reliability and minimize costs, and we will build and test an optimized FBV. In Phase III, we will sell our FBV for many applications in the government and private sector. BENEFIT: The friction-free operation of our FBV reduces requirements for actuator torque by a factor of two, which permits the use of small lightweight actuators for reusable liquid rocket booster engines and, therefore, reduces engine weight and costs. In addition, a low count of long-life parts further reduces costs. Our FBV will benefit liquid propellant rocket engines for the Air Force and NASA. Our FBV will benefit large-scale ground- based cryogen handling for NASA. Our FBV will benefit flow-control applications for the following industries: cryogenic air separation; LNG storage, distribution, and transportation; aerospace; oil and gas; automotive; chemical; water-treatment; power; food and beverage; cosmetic; and pharmaceutical.

Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories LLC
2212 Harton Blvd
Tullahoma, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 393-5108
Paul Gloyer
AF 09-186      Awarded: 12/15/2010
Title:Valve Dynamics Simulation
Abstract:A large portion of the non-recurring cost of throttling type valves is associated with the effort to evaluate the dynamics of the flow through the valve. Not only do these flow dynamics affect the structural and mechanical design of the valve, they have been shown to have an effect on the combustion stability of the rocket engine. Without a means to evaluate the valve dynamics, valve developers are forced to go through several design iterations before converging on a final configuration that provides the desired dynamic characteristics. GTL proposes to address this issue by developing a new Valve Dynamics Simulation™ (VDS™) process to evaluate the flow dynamics of throttling valves. This will be accomplished by applying the same methodology and analytical approach used to create the Universal Combustion Devices Stability™ (UCDS™) process. While UCDS is focused on evaluating the dynamic stability of a combustion chamber, the same principles can be applied to address the effects of rapidly changing complex geometry in a throttling valve. By providing a rapid and efficient simulation of the flow dynamics in a throttling valve, VDS represents an opportunity to reduce the non-recurring cost by eliminating the need to for stability related design iterations. BENEFIT: UCDS and VDS provide an efficient means to predict the oscillation characteristics of propulsion devices. This capability will allow developers to reduce the amount of testing and design iterations needed to meet their mission requirements, which will greatly reduce non-recurring cost. Since UCDS and VDS are built from a general formulation, they can be used to analyze the components of practically any combustion related device, including rockets (liquid, solid, hybrid), turbojets (combustors, augmentors), ramjets, scramjets, combined cycle engines and so on. Therefore, potential customers for UCDS services include government agencies, such as Air Force, MDA, NASA, Army, Navy, and DARPA, and propulsion system developers, such as ATK, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls- Royce, and many others, while customers for VDS include valve developers such as VACCO and Moog.

MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Thomas Jenkins
AF 09-187      Awarded: 12/15/2010
Title:Laser-Induced Emission Sensor for Health Monitoring of Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines
Abstract:A non-intrusive sensor will be developed for detecting metals in the plume of a liquid hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engine for monitoring engine health. Conventional passive emission sensors have proven to be useful in the detection of metal combinations that uniquely identify a failing component in the engine. However, hydrocarbon-fueled rockets emit gaseous and particulate carbonaceous products whose spectra interfere with conventional plume monitoring methods. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) can overcome these interferences by dissociating the carbonaceous species into their elements so they no longer interfere. The LIBS technique employs a simple design that can be made robust and compact by employing fiber-optic light delivery and collection, possibly leading to an in-flight sensor. The proposed Phase I effort will explore some key technical questions regarding the feasibility of a LIBS health monitoring sensor for hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines. BENEFIT: The technology to be investigated in the proposed effort will be useful to companies and organizations involved in the development and testing of rocket and turbine engines. Air Force programs that could especially benefit are those involving the development of hydrocarbon-fueled rockets, including the Hydrocarbon Boost Technology Demonstrator Program and the Third Generation Reusable Boost Program. The proposed sensor system should enable substantial cost savings during engine development by alerting test engineers of impending catastrophic failures before they occur. An on-board sensor may allow even more cost savings since it would avoid the need for extensive testing and examination of an engine during the turn-around period of a reusable launch vehicle. We will market our product to the Air Force, NASA, and companies developing rocket and aircraft engines. The primary market will initially be research organizations, but will expand into commercial online engine sensors after further development.

Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Nahum Gat
AF 09-187      Awarded: 12/16/2010
Title:Spectral Measurement System for Health Monitoring of Liquid Rocket Engines
Abstract:OKSI proposes to demonstrate the ability to detect metallic species in a hydrocarbon fueled liquid rocket engine (LRE) using high resolution emission spectroscopy. The detection of metallic species is an indication of engine wear and an early precursor to a catastrophic failure. During Phase-I, OKSI will conduct exhaust plume measurements of a sub-scale GOX/RP-1 rocket engine. Metallic contaminants will be added to the fuel prior to combustion. Two high resolution UV/VIS spectrometers will be fielded. A third MWIR spectrometer (which measures primary combustion products) will be fielded to assist in accurate modeling of the rocket engine. During Phase-II OKSI will conduct more extensive measurements using the same spectrometers. The measurements may be enhanced using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). High fidelity modeling and simulation will be performed using enhanced versions of the JANNAF engine/plume codes and other specialized signature codes. The Phase-II effort will culminate with the design, development, and demonstration of a ruggedized, high resolution spectrometer and data analysis system optimized for hydrocarbon fueled engine health monitoring. BENEFIT: The next generation military and commercial space lift systems will utilize reusable, fly- back first stage boosters to reduce cost. These systems must be quickly turned around for subsequent missions. Reliable, nonintrusive exhaust plume health monitoring is desirable to support this need. The technology developed under this project will enable the detection of metallic species, which is an indication that the engine may need maintenance. As such, the system developed under this program will have direct benefit to commercial space launch vehicles by improving the safety and reliability of the engines. The technology also has direct applications to commercial (and military) turbojet aircraft. The engine health monitoring system technology developed could be used as part of the engine check-out procedure, and once the system proves reliable, it could actually be utilized to reduce the required scheduled maintenance (downtime) for aircraft. Thus, in addition to increasing safety, an aircraft engine health monitoring system could also reduce operating costs. These abilities have the potential to prevent catastrophic failures at launch and save hundreds of millions of dollars when expensive payloads are lost. Failures also cripples the US operational ability when unique payloads are lost.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Michael Bortner
AF 09-188      Awarded: 12/16/2010
Title:Ultra-High Strength, Lightweight, Manufacturable CNT Nanocomposites
Abstract:The objective of this Air Force SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate methodologies that facilitate manufacturing of carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced structural nanocomposites. NanoSonic will integrate its novel molecularly tailored CNT dispersants with supercritical CO2 dispersing agents to uniformly disperse nanoparticulates into multiple matrix materials, and demonstrate significant bulk mechanical property enhancements combined with significant weight reductions. NanoSonic will also integrate its high performance water ingress minimization materials to ensure long term composite viability. The proposed materials and manufacturing processes are inherently low cost, environmentally friendly, and extremely effective for large scale manufacturing of extremely uniform, well-dispersed nanocomposites for use in numerous engineered structures. Additionally, the proposed materials and processes offer methods to fully realize the benefits of nanomaterial integration, resulting in significant enhancements in composite performance, weight and cost reduction, and multifunctional integration, all of which are crucial for Air Force and DoD vehicle and structure sustainability. During the Phase I effort, NanoSonic will work closely with multiple defense primes for design oversight and platform considerations. BENEFIT: Potential DoD applications are nearly limitless with the proposed materials and manufacturing technologies. Structural applications will benefit via significantly enhanced strength and weight reductions. Thermally conductive composites may be manufactured with higher performance and reduced cost. Well-dispersed electrically conductive CNTs provide low cost shielding and direct conductive pathway integration. Water repellency provides minimized water ingress, which is a significant problem in nearly all applications where composites are used for metal replacement. For metallic materials, the proposed materials will minimize corrosion, reducing maintenance and concerns of potential structural integrity damage resulting from corrosion. Because of the dynamic applicability of NanoSonic’s nanocomposites, the potential market spans from military to civilian, opening the door to endless possibilities in multiple industries. Higher performance, stronger, and lighter weight materials may be produced with a process that is directly insertable into current manufacturing operations, potentially reducing cost via higher throughput and significant performance enhancements. Thermally insulating nanocomposites could be fabricated for applications such as automotive firewalls or high performance insulations. Electrically conductive nanocomposites can provide EMI shielding for cellular telephones and other portable communications devices. Water repellency provides corrosion protection and potential frictional drag reduction for higher performance, cost and energy saving commercial aircraft and automobiles.

Utility Development Corporation
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Harry S. Katz
AF 09-188      Awarded: 1/4/2011
Title:Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Based Material for Rocket Propulsion or Tether Applications
Abstract:The objective will be to develop and demonstrate CNT based composites that will prove the feasibility for utilizing the new high performance ultra-lightweight and high strength materials for Liquid Rocket Engine nozzle extensions and Solid Rocket Motor exit cones. These new composites will be tested during this Phase I program, including tests for physical properties at 800oF in oxygen rich environment and resistance to aggressive chemicals. Another objective of this program will be to prove the feasibility of providing a high strength and continuous length tether for space applications that will be based upon very high strength filaments with a synergistic matrix that contains short fiber/filler reinforcements. At the end of Phase I, UDC will provide a detailed report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate. BENEFIT: The proposed program will make a significant contribution towards the development and optimization of CNT reinforced composites. Department of Defense application will include ballistic missile, space launch, and space transport applications. These composites will also be used in commercial aerospace as well as NASA space launch/transport applications.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4944
Debasis Sengupta
AF 09-189      Awarded: 12/6/2010
Title:High Fidelity Simulation Tools for Green Monopropellant Catalytic Thruster Degradation Mitigation and Performance Improvement
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is developing a catalytic thruster for advanced high density-specific impulse green monopropellants. The temperature and pressure generated in a green monopropellant thruster is much higher than with conventional hydrazine monopropellant, resulting in degradation of the catalyst. Therefore, developing and applying a model for predicting catalyst degradation and thruster performance will significantly reduce the cost of development of green monopropellant thrusters. Under this SBIR program, we will develop a transient computational model with fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and chemical reactions, and incorporate the effect of catalyst pellets (size, shape and internal diffusion) within the framework of a porous medium representation of the catalyst bed. This model will include various mechanisms that lead to degradation of the catalyst. The degradation mechanism will be validated and refined against the experimental results including transient pressure and temperature. In Phase II, the computational model will be extended to a two phase system allowing breakage of the pellet via over-pressurization to be modeled. At the end of this program, the physics-based computational tools will be used for monopropellant thruster design. BENEFIT: Development of the proposed technology will significantly help to achieve the IHPRPT Phase III objectives. The requirements of IHPRPT Materials working group (IMWG) include revolutionary materials and process technologies for advanced solid rocket motors, rockets used for boost and orbit transfer, spacecraft propulsion, and liquid boost and orbit transfer missions. Since the proposed technology is an integral part of these programs, its success will significantly benefit IMWG, and help achieve IHPRPT Phase III objectives. The members of the IHPRPT program, particularly DoD, NASA, Ultramet, Boeing Rocketdyne, ATK-Thiokol, Aerojet, and Pratt & Whitney Space Propulsion will benefit from the proposed technology. Some specific applications are: enhancement of the performance of space vehicles (NASA), and strategic, tactical and missile defense technologies of DoD. Potential commercial applications of the developed methodology include analysis and improvement of catalytic systems for pollution mitigation.

Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Arthur J. Fortini
AF 09-189      Awarded: 12/6/2010
Title:Modeling the Decomposition of HAN-Based Monopropellant and Associated Catalysts
Abstract:The decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants is a complex process that involves numerous unimolecular and bimolecular reaction steps. During the decomposition sequence, numerous intermediate reaction products form and are then later consumed. Chemical reactions between the catalyst and these species, the unreacted propellant ingredients, and the final combustion products can all have a profound impact on the life of the catalyst. In addition to the chemical effects on the catalytically active material, thermal effects are also important. Numerous investigators have attempted to model the decomposition of HAN-based monopropellants, but very few have attempted to understand the fundamental reaction sequences. In this project, Ultramet will apply rigorous mass, energy, and momentum balances to experimental data and combine the results with known heat capacities and heats of reaction. The results, which will enable the extents of the individual reactions to be calculated, will be incorporated into a one-dimensional model of a catalyst bed in a thruster. The net result will be a model capable of predicting both the temperature and the chemical composition of the partially decomposed propellant at any axial location within the catalyst bed. With known temperatures and compositions throughout the catalyst bed, the recession rate of iridium, the catalytically active material, will then be modeled. The resulting temperature profile in the bed can also be used to model the sintering behavior of the catalyst support. BENEFIT: Being able to predict the temperature and chemical composition of HAN-based monopropellant decomposition products at any location in a thruster will enable catalysts, combustion chambers, and bed plates to all be designed more rigorously and rely less on empiricism. This will greatly accelerate the implementation of HAN-based thrusters in both military and commercial applications. Military applications include reaction control systems for launch vehicles, attitude control systems and main engines for satellites, and divert and attitude control systems for missiles and missile defense systems. Commercial applications include similar launch vehicle and satellite applications, as well as main engines and attitude control systems for interplanetary spacecraft and sample return missions.

IllinoisRocstar LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 766-2567
Mark D. Brandyberry
AF 09-190      Awarded: 12/16/2010
Title:A Modeling/Experimental Program for Nano-Energetic Particles
Abstract:An engineering computational model is proposed to investigate ignition, combustion and performance of nano-energetic particles in a variety of oxidizing environments, including those found in rockets and air breathing propulsion devices. The computational model will include appropriate models for the bulk, oxide, and gas-phase, include phase changes in the oxide layer with subsequent changes in diffusivity, and will take into account various other physics, such as alloying, coating, and oxide layer treatments. An experimental program will be carried out to aid in model development and for model validation. Validation experiments will be conducted at the University of Illinois shock tube facility, and will be carried out under relevant conditions for the application, including at elevated pressures, elevated ambient temperatures, appropriate levels of particle loading, and environment relevant gases. The commercialization target is the development of a computational model to predict the combustion characteristics of nano-energetic particles in various oxidizing environments. These include those commonly found in rocket propulsion chambers and in air-breathing propulsion devices using traditional fuels such as JP-8 and RP-1. BENEFIT: We plan pathways to two commercial products: software and engineering services. A validated code will be available, derived from this work. We anticipate a commercial quality code providing great flexibility in modeling due to its modular, multiple-physics module structure. Several DoD mission agencies have interest in nano-particles as fuel additives (e.g., Army, NASA and Air Force). U.S. industry and government agencies will benefit from the capabilities of a flexible, validated modeling package. Analytical and consulting services will be available based on the validated capabilities at the end of Phase II. These services are needed by the DoD components and others designing fuels with nano-energetic particles.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF 09-190      Awarded: 12/22/2010
Title:Mechanism and Model-based Improvement of Energetic Aluminum Nanoparticles
Abstract:The current proposal addresses the need for development of an accurate and complete mechanism for the reaction of nanoparticles (using Al as a test case), formulation of mathematical models describing all the chemical, mechanical, and physical processes, predictions for the improvement of Al nanoparticle reactivity, and development of diagnostic approaches and experiments that can critically assess the validity of the reaction mechanisms and suggested improvements. The work will include (1)critical comparison of the existing reaction mechanisms for Al nanoparticles, including analyses of the main consequences and the accuracy of current predictions, (2) extension of the melt-dispersion mechanism with conceptual models to capture more detailed features than previously achieved. An initial multiphysics finite element model will serve as a platform for incorporating these advanced features, (3) formulation of the means to compare theoretical predictions with experiments that would allow determination of the actual reaction mechanism and controlling parameters, and (4) review and feasibility testing of diagnostic approaches that will enable multiscale model validation, including critical analysis of both microscopic and macroscopic performance parameters. BENEFIT: The uniqueness of the proposed research program lies in the development of a new model that can capture realistic reaction rates that have previously eluded conventional diffusive models. This work expands upon pioneering theoretical work and will include a more sophisticated and detailed physical description of the mechano-chemical processes that contribute to the melt dispersion mechanism. This work will include the effects of premelting and kinetics of melting on transformational expansion of the core and shell as a function of heating rate, surface energy between the core and shell, thermo-mechanical properties, and geometrical parameters. A finite element model, to be developed starting in Phase I, will be used to capture the interplay of these phenomena as well as three- dimensional features of non-spherical geometry and shell fracture. This approach has already shown great promise in predicting anomalous size-dependent nanoparticle behavior, and when coupled with advanced experimental techniques offers a unique opportunity for a critical breakthrough in understanding and predicting nanoenergetic particle performance. The proposed research will pave the way for detailed coupling of experimental, theoretical and numerical studies leading to the mechanism- and model- based improvement of the reactivity of Al and other nanoparticles. This has tremendous implications for improvement of propulsion systems, including rockets as well as gas- turbine engines with additized fuels.

Clark-MXR, Inc.
7300 Huron River Drive
Dexter, MI 48130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 426-2803
Larry Walker
AF 09-191      Awarded: 4/7/2010
Title:Non-Intrusive Direct Part Marking
Abstract:DoD policy requires a 2-dimensional data matrix machine-readable, item unique identification (IUID) as defined in MIL-STD-130 on expensive and critical aircraft components such as jet engine parts. Laser marking is ideal because it requires no special fixture, it can be done from an angle on complex surfaces, the size of the mark can be adjusted to fit the available space, and the beam doesn’t wear out. But marking with traditional, long pulse lasers (with pulses of duration longer than 1 picosecond) creates a heat-affected zone (HAZ) from which cracks can initiate and result in catastrophic failure. This program will demonstrate the use of a femtosecond pulse duration laser to mark high value, heat-sensitive aircraft components. In addition to the above mentioned benefits, marking with femtosecond pulses of light will eliminate HAZ and structural changes to the base material, making possible the use of laser marking of fatigue-critical rotating engine components. The process is highly deterministic and highly repeatable, thus ensuring that the mark itself is reliably produced on the material. Phase I of this program will identify an efficacious machine-readable dot geometry and the protocol needed to produce a UIUD mark with a femtosecond laser. BENEFIT: The marking of high-value components during manufacture and repair history would be useful in military and commercial jet engines and in industrial gas turbine that generate electricity. Especially useful is the possibility of marking the thermal barrier coating (TBC) on jet engine blades without inducing spalling or delamination from the underlying superalloy. More broadly, the ability to mark components with an extremely small 2-D data matrix IUID that is nearly invisible to the naked eye would be useful in ballistic identification of munitions as a means of monitoring their degradation over time and/or the illegal trafficking in these items around the globe.

Physics, Materials & Applied Math Research, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 903-2345
Kevin Kremeyer
AF 09-191      Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title:Ultrashort Pulse Laser Direct Part Marking
Abstract:We will present options for direct marking of parts using ultrashort pulse lasers, that do not compromise the integrity of said parts. BENEFIT: This approach will reduce risk in applying new marking requirements, and represents a market both in commercial and defense aerospace, not to mention ground-based turbines for power-generation.

Anautics, Inc.
25 South Oklahoma Avenue Suite 300
Oklahoma City, OK 73104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 228-4985
Mike Johnson
AF 09-193      Awarded: 4/27/2010
Title:Multi-Attribute Reliability and Maintainability Engineering Assessment Methodology
Abstract:The ability of humans to make complex decisions is one of the most interesting aspects of human intelligence, especially when judgemental, ambiguous, absense, or erratic knowledge is concerned. This project focuses on the development of a methodology to classify multi-attribute alternatives into evidence blocks for evaluation in automated decision support processes. Anautics developed approach combines both fuzzy set theory and grey system to provide knowledge units to decision makers and systems in the most complex supply system environments. BENEFIT: The developed methodology will be ideal for any organization who has the need for automating processes of their decision methodology using uncertain and dispersed information. As industries including automobile, aerospace and medical progress toward standardized rule-based decision systems, requirements and specifications must be configured from imperfect knowledge. Anautics methodology would insure that availability and performance attributes are available to support systems engineers in the ultimate goal of product improvement.

Cognition LLC
1250 Connecticutt Ave NW Suite 200
Washington, DC 20036
Ph