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434 Phase I Selections from the 10.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
Innovative Technology Applications Co., L. L. C.
PO Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 373-3311
Alan Cain
AF103-001      Awarded:12/16/2010
Title:Turret Integration Techniques for Transonic and Supersonic Flight Applications
Abstract:Use of an airborne platform for a directed energy system is currently severely limited by aero-optic aberrations arising from density variations in air flowing over the aircraft; the primary limitation is for aft pointing applications. Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), in collaboration with the University of Toledo (UT), is working to develop techniques of integrating flow control with a turret/adaptive fairing design that provides a large field of regard for propagation of a lethal beam from an airborne platform at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds. BENEFIT: The technology developed in the proposed work to improve field of regard for aircraft- mounted turrets will make these systems significantly more capable, both for the anti-missile and communications role. There are potential commercial applications for optical communications for transonic aircraft. Related applications may benefit other optical systems, such as vehicle-mounted cameras and telescopes.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 684-4100
Matthew R. Whiteley
AF103-001      Awarded:12/17/2010
Title:Turret Integration Techniques for Transonic and Supersonic Flight Applications
Abstract:MZA Associates Corporation, partnered with Kratos Digital Fusion, Inc. proposes the development of a comprehensive methodology for design, optimization, modeling, testing, and analysis of laser turrets integrated onto transonic and supersonic airframes. We will identify turret and flow control alternative configurations and consider them parametrically for the intended flight regimes, advancing the promising options to higher fidelity modeling. We will use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the turret configurations, considering both aero-mechanical and aero-optical properties of the flow and how these change with increasing Mach number and when flow-control modifications are included. From the CFD modeling we will conduct comprehensive beam control analysis considering jitter disturbances on optics and the influence of adaptive optics compensation, thereby quantifying the residual disturbance environment for laser operation, and potential synergies for flow control and beam control technologies. To facilitate future seamless integration of aerodynamic modeling and beam propagation modeling, we will develop a software design for incorporating an aero-optics propagator into WaveTrain models, allowing direct simulation of the full effects of aerodynamic disturbances on a tactical laser weapon system. Dr. Matthew Whiteley will be Principal Investigator for MZA and Dr. William Coirier will be lead for Kratos/DFI. BENEFIT: Integration of laser projection turrets onto transonic and hypersonic airframes is a new and challenging environment for laser directed energy weapons. Using the techniques developed in this program, a weapon system designer will be able to reliably assess the disturbance conditions which will be experienced during flight given the planned configuration on the aircraft. The simulation methods developed here bring together validated aerodynamics, opto-mechanics, and wave-optical modeling methods to provide realistic simulation of the aircraft turret in the design phase. Using these tools, a weapons engineer can identify potential barriers to laser operation on an airframe in flight regimes and for aircraft configurations that may be difficult or too costly to test. In addition to laser projection from aircraft, optical and opto-mechanical issues for turret-based sensor systems on aircraft can be evaluated. Aircraft-based surveillance and reconnaissance systems could be simulated and imaging resolution capability quantified. Design options for sensor systems on aircraft platforms can be thoroughly addressed, avoiding costly flaws which may hinder operations of a fielded system. Aircraft design companies could use these techniques to quickly prototype solutions for active or passive sensing, especially on UAV platforms, providing a competitive advantage for this growing market.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF103-001      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Development of transonic and supersonic turret design methods for improved optical and aerodynamic performance
Abstract:The development of airborne High-Energy Laser (HEL) systems is currently receiving a high level of research effort. There is growing evidence that spherical turrets are not ideal mounting platforms for HEL systems because they are highly susceptible to flows that produce strong optical aberrations such as shocks and separated-flow regions. The objective of the proposed research is to investigate innovative turret designs that mitigate or eliminate aero-optic effects over the maximum field of regard for the Mach number range 0.7 to 1.5. Subsonic turret design efforts will concentrate on methods to delay formation of shocks and separated flow regions around the exit pupil and will exploit Notre Dame’s past experience developing an aero-optic pod for the Navy. For supersonic Mach numbers, the investigation will begin by determining methods of anchoring the bow shock at a fixed location. All new turret concepts will be evaluated for susceptibility to aerodynamic jitter. New turret concepts will be analyzed using both Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind- tunnel testing; however, the primary emphasis of the Phase I effort will be on CFD. The analysis approach will make use of Notre Dame’s established knowledge of aero-optic flows to more efficiently direct the investigation. BENEFIT: The Phase I research is expected to produce methods of maximizing the critical Mach number in subsonic flow, and maximizing the field of regard that is free of separated flow regions. The research is also expected to produce concepts for supersonic turret designs that minimize the number of shock waves in the field of regard, and anchor the shock waves at fixed locations. Preliminary aerodynamic force data as a function of beam-pointing angle at critical turret orientations will also be produced for the purpose of evaluating the possibility of jitter. Commercial applications include but not limited to securing laser communication systems.

Gibbons Systems Inc.
650 Bair Island Road, #206
Redwood City, CA 94063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 365-2000
Gregory D. Gibbons
AF103-002      Awarded:12/14/2010
Title:Improved Station Keeping Equipment
Abstract:This program will apply a covert (LPI/LPD) RF technology to precision aircraft station keeping in which trail aircraft measure range and bearing to the lead based on reception of the lead's LPI signal; the signal has high bandwidth and very low duty cycle, leading to low energy, high processing gain reception with substntial TRANSEC (transmission security). All required SKE command / acknowledgement information will be encoded in the LPI signals, so no other communication system is required; the improved SKE is therefore protected from passive EW detection. This system operates in all weather, and can operate in GPS denied environments. BENEFIT: The most important benefit of this system is its elimination of SKE vulnerability to detection by passive EW, thereby denying enemies the opportunity to alert their air defenses many minutes before the force arrives at the DZ. Such alerting creates intolerable risk of loss of aircraft and personnel. Since active EW (radar) will alert the force to enemy detection, immunity to passive EW detection removes a significant threat of surprise. This system also provides simplified operation, increased range and precision, and increased capacity overall, with anticipated significant cost reduction. This will lead to improved airdrop and other related USAF capabilities, thus justifying integration of the advanced SKE on more aircraft. Future civilian applications may include very close in-trail formation flying for reduced fuel consumption; use of 'platooning' by air traffic control to allow handling flights of several aircraft as a single unit, thereby freeing up ATC resources and reducing airway congestion. Similarly, the technology could support 'platooning' of highway vehicles, as contemplated in some planning for future automated vehicle and highway systems.

Physics, Materials & Applied Math Research, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 903-2345
Kevin Kremeyer
AF103-002      Awarded:12/15/2010
Title:Improved Station Keeping Equipment
Abstract:Current station keeping equipment (SKE) relies on radio waves for formation flying. A significant limitation of conventional SKE signals is that they are detectable at long distances by adversaries. Passive detection schemes that employ infrared and thermal cameras, electro-optic and acoustic sensors are of interest for future SKE upgrades although they lack the capability to provide sufficiently accurate relative positioning over long ranges. To overcome these problems, we propose a terahertz (THz) relative positioning system to enable formation station keeping for large transport aircraft. In contrast with current generation SKE, our system will be essentially invisible to ground or air-based surveillance. This system will function in all weather conditions, including cloud cover and precipitation. Unlike GPS-based systems, our THz positioning system will be effectively impossible to spoof or jam. System accuracy will be more than sufficient to meet the stated requirement (500 feet longitudinal and 200 feet lateral). BENEFIT: Current military transports and station keeping equipment, covert navigation, aerial-to-aerial refueling, THz remote sensing, THz navigation systems and communications, formation flying of civilian and commercial airliners

Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Kristin Cable
AF103-003      Awarded:11/23/2010
Title:Rapid-Release Fasteners for Structural Components
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to design and demonstrate rapid- release fasteners, based on Veriflex®, for application in structural components. In this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to further development rapid-release fasteners by design for increased strength and durability for structural applications and designs compatible with aircraft system integration requirements. The project will culminate with preparation for a Phase II prototype demonstration in a representative airframe environment with fabrication of a concept demonstration prototype. BENEFIT: Operational Benefits: (1) Low force and rapid-release/replace fasteners, (2) cost/weight savings benefits of unitized structure design, and (3) reduces maintenance turn-around time and integration weight. Commercial Applications: (1) Commercial and civil aviation aircraft structural fasteners, (2) underwater or outdoor fasteners to replace metal, and (3) industrial fasteners for adaptable workspace.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8363
Andrew Enke
AF103-003      Awarded:12/15/2010
Title:Smart Latching Attachment Surface (SLAS)
Abstract:NextGen Aeronautics has teamed with Dr. Diann Brei and Dr. Jon Luntz of University of Michigan for this proposal entitled “Smart Latching Attachment Surface (SLAS),” in response to SBIR Solicitation No. AF103-003. The University of Michigan team has over twelve years of pioneering research experience in the area of smart attachments and in transitioning these to industry. The goal of this effort is to develop a low-weight, low part-count, inexpensive attachment concept which requires minimal tools for installation. Applications for this attachment structure include aircraft access panels and line replaceable unit (LRU) electronic systems, where this installation method would replace conventional fasteners. The attachment method will be capable of attaching to and detaching from a panel with articulating active geometry and with mating passive geometry, which holds with zero applied power. By the end of Phase I, NextGen will design, analyze, and fabricate a functional test attachment coupon. The basic functionality of the mechanism will be demonstrated with this article. The focus of a potential Phase II program will be to refine the design, provide a demonstration of the attachment mechanism on representative aircraft components, supported by detailed evaluation of mechanical strength, damage tolerance, and durability. BENEFIT: The Smart Latching Attachment Surface (SLAS) is a compact, inexpensive, lightweight attachment surface designed to provide a quick and easy-to-use, strong vibration-resistant means of fixing equipment such as LRU’s in place wherever the user desires.

Global Engineering and Materials, Inc.
11 Alscot Drive
East Lyme, CT 06333
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 356-5115
Jim Lua
AF103-005      Awarded:12/8/2010
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Materials/Structures for Sustainment Applications
Abstract:A software tool for residual strength and life prediction of advanced hybrid structures will be developed by enhancing and integrating an existing mesh independent 3D X-FEM solid element with a partially bonded cohesive interface element in Abaqus. The tool will be able to model arbitrary location, size of damage, and geometric configuration of fiber metal laminates with the coexistence of metal layer cracking and interface delamination. High computational efficiency and modeling fidelity is achieved via the level set description of crack geometry without remeshing, characterization of a curvilinear crack growth and the evolution of its nearby delamination zone without user intervention, and extraction of the crack growth driving force in the presence of its wake bridging. Global Engineering and Materials, Inc. (GEM) has secured strong commitments for technical support from Alcoa Technical Center, who will provide the use of their existing tool, supporting data, and expertise. In addition, Dr. Heinmann at Alcoa will provide GEM with his user experience and advice on desired functionalities of the final integrated Abaqus toolkit. The multi-faceted feasibility study consists of developing a method that will enable the prediction of multi-site, multi-mode damage initiation, propagation, and interaction in AHSs subjected to monotonic and fatigue loading. BENEFIT: The end product from this research will have significant benefits and commercial application in the Air Force, aerospace, DoD Labs, and commercial industries. It will result in: 1) a commercially viable, accurate, computationally efficient, and user-friendly residual strength and life assessment tool for tailoring and optimal design of advanced hybrid structures; and 2) a virtual testing tool to reduce current certification and qualification costs which are heavily driven by experimental testing under various design configurations and loading conditions. The tool can be used by government agencies and private industries as follows: 1) to accelerate residual strength and fatigue damage assessment, assist in decision making for effective maintenance and repairs, and design reliable AHSs to ensure airworthiness; 2) to specify fatigue performance limits and safety standards for structural certification and design agencies; and 3) to provide optimal designs through the effective use of new analysis tools, risk evaluation methods, and health management procedures for aircraft manufacturers.

VEXTEC Corporation
750 Old Hickory Blvd Bldg. 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Animesh Dey
AF103-005      Awarded:11/23/2010
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Materials/Structures for Sustainment Applications
Abstract:The United States Air Force (USAF) operates one of the world’s largest fleets with an average age approaching 26 years. As the USAF transport fleet continues to age, costs of inspections, structural repairs, and component replacements will continue increasing. Given this large number of aircraft approaching their life limit, USAF engineers are considering alternative strategies for its airframe fleet. Fiber Metal Laminate (FML) GLARE (glass- reinforced aluminum laminate) is one such innovation considered to reduce weight and increase safety. To utilize the benefits of the FML concept for design of aerospace structures and keep testing at a minimum, programs are needed to develop analytical prediction methods that capture all relevant failure criteria. Phase I will develop a probabilistic structural analysis framework incorporating mechanistic computational models to predict fatigue reliability of FML structural components. Phase I will develop probabilistic computational methology for predicting crack initiation in the metal layer and subsequent delamination growth in the composite layer. VEXTEC will demonstrate feasibility by comparing preliminary modeling results against published experimental data. VEXTEC intends to develop and commercialize an open set of tools for FML design within our existing Virtual Life Management (VLM) technology product line. BENEFIT: Scheduled, airframe and special inspections together account for 37% of USAF aircraft maintenance man-hours. New means to predict crack initiation and growth in component- metal structures will help to reduce inspection requirements

Weidlinger Associates, Inc.
375 Hudson St FL 12
New York, NY 10014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 367-3074
Najib Abboud
AF103-005      Awarded:11/24/2010
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Materials/Structures for Sustainment Applications
Abstract:In Phase I, we propose to develop, assess and demonstrate the feasibility of a finite element- based computational simulation of multi-constituent material FMLs, appropriate for capturing delamination and crack interaction. Two separate approaches will be investigated: one based on individual constituent/lamina modeling in a multiscale context and in conjunction with an XFEM technique for tracking crack growth and direction; and one based on a homogenized effective shell incorporating enrichment functions based on the TU Delft analytic solutions for typical FML configurations. Accuracy, fidelity, computational practicality and other pertinent issues will be assessed by exercising these approaches against existing experimental data at TU Delft as well as analytical solutions previously derived for standard configurations. Non-traditional configurations will be simulated, primarily to aid in the development of a testing and validation plan for Phase II and to refine the software module development plans for ready incorporation into an appropriate commercial FEM software such as Abaqus for example. BENEFIT: Analysis tool for Design and certification of hybrid components and FMLs for veteran aircraft sustainment and design of new aircrafts

3TEX, Inc.
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 481-2500
Alexander Bogdanovich
AF103-006      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:Unitized Composite Airframe Structures with Three Dimensional (3-D) Preforms for Elevated Temperature Applications
Abstract:A novel method of manufacturing complex unitized composite structures reinforced with 3D non-crimp orthogonal woven fabric (serving as self-sustained single-ply skin preform) and 3D braided fabrics (serving as self-sustained unitary preforms for stiffeners, Pi-joints or other similar elements) is proposed. The method uses two consecutive steps: high temperature cure resin infusion and room temperature cure resin infusion into the same skin preform via high temperature and room temperature VARTM processes respectively. The 3D braided preforms are attached to the skin preform and co-infused in vacuum bag at room temperature. The skin preform can be a hybrid of PAN-based and pitch-based carbon fibers; the former type fiber is used for the inner part and the latter type faces elevated temperatures. Special attention is paid to the interface between two distinct matrix materials occupying different parts of the skin and to the interfaces between skin and stiffener (Pi-joint). Special methods of interface strength enhancement using sprayed carbon nanotubes and creating porous regions will be studied. Non-destructive evaluation and initial mechanical testing will be conducted. BENEFIT: The proposed out-of-autoclave manufacturing approach will enable production of complex unitary composite structures suitable for future supersonic transport applications. This will be achieved by a relatively simple process and equipment, with minimal labor involvement and at significantly reduced manufacturing cost. The use of thick self-sustained integrally woven and braided 3D fabric preforms is a key: it will completely eliminate the steps of stitching multiple layers of thin fabrics for the skin and stiffeners, Pi-joints, frames, etc. By use of different carbon fiber types and combining high temperature and room temperature cure resins in the same preform, it will become possible to optimize the whole complex of thermo- mechanical properties of this new type of unitary composite structures.

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
2711 Lance Drive
Moraine, OH 45409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-3713
David B. Curliss
AF103-006      Awarded:12/20/2010
Title:Unitized Composite Airframe Structures with Three Dimensional (3-D) Preforms for Elevated Temperature Applications
Abstract:Three-dimensional textile preforms have shown tremendous advantages in the integration of load-bearing composite structures to traditional laminated composites and fastened structures due to improved delamination and damage tolerances. Hindrances occur when the composites are subjected to elevated temperature gradients in the field of their application. This SBIR program is set to develop a methodology to incorporate two or more co-curable polyimide and ceramic matrices into a three-dimensional textile preform to protect against varied thermal gradients typically found in high-performance applications. The technique will utilize simple resin film infusion methods with varied processing conditions to optimize the resin infusion depth based on the properties required. BENEFIT: Co-cured composite stiffeners eliminate the need for expensive and heavy mechanically fastened stiffeners. The development of a co-curable, complex composite fabrication methodology incorporating two or more high temperature resins will greatly impact the high- performance composite market. The process could be utilized for a wide variety of applications, primarily fighter and supersonic long range missile skins, requiring high- temperature gradient sustainability.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Alec J. Bateman
AF103-007      Awarded:1/4/2011
Title:Predicting Aircraft Intent in the Terminal Area using ATC Operations Knowledge and Run-time Information
Abstract:A key barrier to expanding the missions performed by UASs is ensuring safe interoperation with other manned and unmanned vehicles. In critical avoidance scenarios, UASs in autonomous flight do not currently employ the same level of situational awareness and decision-making offered by a human pilot in a manned aircraft. A number of research groups have been working to develop sensors and algorithms to provide UASs with an autonomous sense and avoid (SAA) capability. Many of these approaches are based on extrapolating trajectories of nearby vehicles from current and recent state measurements. An opportunity exists to enhance the effectiveness of current SAA technologies in the terminal area by leveraging knowledge from sources such as published procedures, current conditions, and ATC instructions, in addition to the current trajectories of nearby aircraft. Barron Associates proposes a Phase I research effort to develop intent analysis algorithms that combine run- time observations with prior models of expected behavior based on detailed knowledge of standard terminal area operating procedures. The proposed approach will use statistically rigorous methods to detect when aircraft are violating the rules, so that intent predictions can be revised accordingly. The result will be reliable detection of conflicts with low false alarm rates. BENEFIT: The proposed intent prediction methods represent a key enabling technology for integrating UASs into terminal area operations both in the national airspace and in war zones. Safely integrating UASs in airspace with manned vehicles as well as other unmanned craft will greatly expand the missions that can be performed by UASs, both for military and non-military operators. The greater autonomy afforded by the technology will also reduce operator workload, allowing an operator to manage more vehicles and/or perform higher level tasks such as analyzing data collected by an UAS. The potential market for the technology is quite large. As of 2008, the Department of Defense was reported to have nearly 6,000 UASs in its inventory and the number continues to increase. Any of these vehicles that operate from airfields potentially shared with other air vehicles (most medium and large UASs, and some small vehicles) will benefit from the technology.

Soar Technology, Inc.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Randolph Jones
AF103-007      Awarded:12/23/2010
Title:ESPRIT: Schemas for Intent Recognition
Abstract:The potential for force multiplication in Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) rises with the degree to which they can be “neglected” by human controllers and operators. There is currently a great deal of human cognitive attention required to manage UAS assets safely and effectively, particularly in cluttered environments such as the terminal area of operations (TAO). To improve UAS autonomy, SoarTech, with support from the University of Michigan (UM), will design and implement a system for Explanation, Schemas, and Prediction for Recognition of Intent in the TAO (ESPRIT). ESPRIT provides an intelligent situational understanding capability for UASs that uses knowledge and reasoning techniques to infer the intent of other aircraft. At the core of ESPRIT’s executable system will be the Soar cognitive architecture, providing efficient implementation of memory management, pattern matching, and goal-based reasoning. ESPRIT will incorporate cognitive capabilities for situation understanding, exception and conflict handling, and task interleaving, as well capabilities for plan monitoring and plan recognition using a Soar-based “Schema Engine”. ESPRIT will also incorporate a cognitive explanation mechanism to generate potential explanations of track behavior in those anomalous situations where the system’s other mechanisms provide only partial explanations of observed behaviors. BENEFIT: ESPRIT provides an intelligent situational understanding capability for UASs that uses knowledge and reasoning techniques to infer the intent and future actions of aircraft in the TAO. This will lead to cheaper, safer, and more autonomous future UAS systems. In addition, the capability will enhance future UAS operator and ATC user interfaces, improving overall mission effectiveness and reducing errors and conflicts. There are three primary classes of application that the current research and development will benefit: on-board decision-support systems (for direct control of UASs and assistance for piloted aircraft), decision-support and improved visualization for UAS operators, and decision-support and improved visualization for ATCs. In addition, the ESPRIT capabilities will enhance the capabilities of computer-generated forces for DOD simulations for experimentation, acquisition, and training, improving the quality and ratio of CGF populations for human operators.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Richard Stottler
AF103-007      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:Intelligent Pilot Intent Analysis System using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Abstract:Determining pilot intent is very complex. Human pilots rely on a myriad of information that includes radio communications, aircraft location and trajectory, airport information (standard landing/departure patterns, noise abatement procedures, etc.), weather, the capabilities of different aircraft (e.g. take-off/landing speeds, max climb rate, etc.), instrument and visual flight rules, etc. Given this complexity, no simple algorithm will suffice. Human pilots routinely perform this activity, suggesting that what is required is a system based on the way those pilots reason. Stottler Henke has studied and automated this kind of human decision making for over 20 years and we have already developed techniques in intent recognition that are applicable to this effort. Our Intelligent Pilot Intent Analysis System (IPIAS) would represent and execute expert pilot reasoning processes to infer other pilots’ intents in the same way human pilots currently do. The goals of the Phase I research are to understand the current and future terminal area of operations environment, elicit the cognitive processes currently used by human pilots to understand each others’ intent, elaborate the heuristics, algorithms, and techniques for automatic recognition of pilot intent, prove the feasibility of the techniques through prototype development, and develop the Phase II system design. BENEFIT: The direct target for this effort is UASs operating in the terminal area of operations (TAO). The primary commercialization plan for IPIAS relative to this domain will be to demonstrate a significant potential for automatic, intelligent pilot intent recognition, thus improving safety related to UASs in the TAO with reduced manning in Phase II. This will allow us to acquire Phase III funding to transition IPIAS to operational use. The realization of this capability will create a demand for similar systems for other agencies (i.e. the Army, Navy, and Marines) since they all have UASs. Additionally, the Department of Homeland Security and the Drug Enforcement Agency have the similar problem of a growing number of UASs and the desire to operate them in the TAO. Furthermore many of the pilot intent analysis techniques described are also applicable for determining illegal intent and are therefore directly applicable to finding terrorists and smugglers.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Joseph Jackson
AF103-008      Awarded:12/15/2010
Title:Veracity Evaluation of non-Redundant Information in Flight sYstems (VERIFY)
Abstract:Advanced Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are composed of complex systems and payloads, whose components can be generally classified as flight critical systems, mission critical systems, and auxiliary systems. Flight critical systems are often designed with redundancy, since failure could prove catastrophic. However, the size, weight, and power constraints preclude all systems from being redundant. Mixed-criticality UAV systems benefit from software components which can evaluate the likelihood that the non-redundant systems are functioning properly. We propose to develop VERIFY Evaluation of non-Redundant Information in Flight Systems (VERIFY) which produces confidence measures and warnings for non-redundant data sources with no means to directly determine when the data has been degraded. For Phase I, we will apply VERIFY methods to height-above-ground rangefinder sensing. VERIFY begins with statistical hypothesis testing, developing statistical models from data and assuring that observed trends continue. The secondary level fuses data from critical system states and the mission definition (which both can are assumed accurate) to observe data correlation, yielding higher fidelity confidence measures. The highest tier which could be implemented for some missions (and in future Phases) closes the loop with VERIFY and the critical systems to allow system excitation for failure detection and identification. BENEFIT: The benefits of a modular integrity management system such as VERIFY are tremendous, since unmanned systems are taking a greater role in Air Force and military mission plans. Autonomous systems such as UAVs, USVs and UGVs will likely utilize new data sources that are mission critical, and they must be capable of decision-making, self-determination and self-assessment. For non-redundant systems, the ramifications of degraded performance or failure do not justify the additional weight or design cost in increasing the subsystem redundancy and robustness. Autonomous systems could use VERIFY to determine the failure status of non-redundant data systems, and integrate them to highly critical and redundant flight control systems. Mixed-criticality UAV systems benefit from software components which can evaluate the likelihood that the non-redundant systems are functioning properly. VERIFY produces confidence measures and warnings for non-redundant data sources that do not have means to directly determine when the data has been degraded. In addition to military applications, automobile industry can hugely benefit from such technology. Future automobiles will be equipped with sensors that provide situational awareness to drivers such as front and rear collision sensors. Such capabilities typically require single thread sensing elements that are utilized as input to a critical system such as

SySense Corporation
1960 E Grand Ave STE 1070
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 322-7973
Gregory J. Glenn
AF103-008      Awarded:12/9/2010
Title:Real-Time Error Budget Analysis for Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems
Abstract:SySense, Inc. proposes to adapt fault detection methodologies developed for the Data Acquisition and Error Budget Analysis Tools (DAEBAT) SBIR effort to the integrity management of Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems (UAVS). In Phase I, a set of integrity monitors will be developed to detect measurement faults in individual sensors and when redundant data is available, parity checks will be performed to detect faults between sources. A trade study will be conducted to develop the architecture of a model-based fault detection and isolation filter for a specific UAVS application such as Sense and Avoid. In a Phase II effort, the sensor monitors developed in Phase I will be implemented as Simulink real-time nodes capable of running on flight hardware. In addition, the model-based fault detection filter studied in Phase I will be developed, integrated, and validated through simulation BENEFIT: This software has applications to many safety critical processes such as those in the automotive, aerospace, and automation industries. Integrity monitors could be installed in automobile stability control systems to monitor for defective sensors. Future applications of an automated highway would require such safety features to ensure passenger safety. The applications within the aerospace industry are large and include engine monitoring, navigation systems assurance, and health monitoring for formation flight clusters.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
ANURAG GANGULI
AF103-008      Awarded:12/17/2010
Title:Hybrid Reconfigurable Fault Control System for Mixed Critical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems (UAVS)
Abstract:UAVS are successfully being used in a number of military applications. The use of UAVS is continuously increasing in military as well as civilian domain for applications such as border patrol, surveillance, fire-fighting, agriculture and so on. This increase in the growth of UAVS requires technologies that make them safer to use and robust to failures. The number of redundant system on board the UAVS is restricted due to their limited payload capacity. So, enabling technologies for the integrity management of mixed critical unmanned aerial vehicle systems is desired. UC proposes a two-tiered knowledge-based and model-based architecture for fault detection and diagnosis of the on-board sensors. To reduce the false alarm rates, the system is also tied to the mission objective. Finally, the algorithms developed will be demonstrated for an intruder collision detection and avoidance application. BENEFIT: UtopiaCompression’s (UC) system will greatly benefit the Department of Defense (DoD) by enabling UAS, especially small UAS, to operate in a wider region of the airspace as well as take on more challenging missions. Wider access to the airspace is needed for training, security and surveillance and in general to execute missions efficiently. Looking beyond the DoD market, the Department of Homeland Security will also benefit from this technology. They now use the Certificates of Authorization (COA) process to get limited airspace access, but this is not viewed as operationally sustainable, especially as DHS deploys UAS assets to more challenging venues such as the southwest border. There is a critical and immediate need for UC’s proposed technology in the broader commercial markets. All military and intelligence divisions within the government will immediately benefit from UC’s technology, as they increase automation efforts and integrate UAVs into their avionics programs. In reflection of this trend, the avionics systems sector is slated to grow significantly in the next few years. The military avionics market is slated to grow approximately 2.9% annually, according to market research analysts, Frost and Sullivan. This is expected to account for more than $10.9 billion in expenditures, more than half of which will be devoted to upgrades related to transitioning the vehicles into automated information platforms [J05] which will need to be proven airworthy. The technology proposed by UC also enables critical automation capabilities needed by agencies including the FAA, DHS, Border Patrol, NASA and others to meet their missions. In the past year almost a million flights were delayed in the US [CP07]. Within the next 8 years the increasing congestion of the commercial airports will cost the American economy $22 billion a year [CP07]. UC’s proposed technology could be applied to both manned and unmanned control systems to enable 4D trajectory prediction which would decrease congestion and increase commercial TAO safety and efficiency. In particular, UC’s technology will be of applicability to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) planned by the FAA. Approximately $44 billion are expected to be spent on this system [CP07]. In addition a boom in civil aviation communications and automation spending is expected by the end of this

Physics, Materials & Applied Math Research, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 903-2345
Kevin Kremeyer
AF103-009      Awarded:1/12/2011
Title:Laser/Microwave Energy Deposition to Improve Control/Performance of High Speed Vehicles
Abstract:In this effort, we will couple the energy of focused microwave bursts into the air and onto surfaces by first forming a laser plasma. The presence of the laser plasma allows much lower microwave intensities to couple their energy to the laser-pre-ionized surface or air- volume, allowing more efficient energy-transfer and the use of lower-power microwave systems to achieve the desired effect. We will use a variety of laser pulses, including ultrashort laser pulses, which can achieve the intensities required to seed surfaces and air, even with very little energy per pulse. This is a direct result of their short pulse width, and will allow very low average laser-power as the seed, relying on the more cost-effective microwave source for the bulk of the energy deposition. In this effort, our team will define energetically favorable high speed conditions, under which to implement laser-microwave discharges. We will also determine the test parameters required to test a slewing laser- microwave system that produces sculpted surface-volumetric discharges in quiescent and flowing air. Lastly, we will identify the plans for Phase II, to develop and demonstrate a laser- microwave system. BENEFIT: The benefits of this technology will increase control and performance on high speed air platforms, including military and civilian aircraft, as well as unmanned systems (including missiles and re-entry vehicles), and space access and re-entry craft. The potential absence of moving parts in the resulting control effectors stand to dramatically improve cost, risk, performance, and longevity.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(837) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF103-009      Awarded:1/2/2011
Title:Microwave Energy Deposition and Control Using Ultrafast Lasers for Improving the Performance of High Speed Vehicles
Abstract:The objective of this research is to determine if microwave energy deposition can be localized by laser or other means such that significant levels of power/energy can be delivered to off body locations for flow control applications. Preliminary work has shown that very low energy short pulse laser beams can localize microwave energy deposition. Many research questions remain, however, including the efficiency of that energy deposition, the length of time the deposition region remains stable, the potential for simultaneous or sequential multi point energy addition with the extrapolation to the designation of shaped regions for energy addition. During Phase I, Spectral Energies, LLC and Princeton University research team will establish laser pulse energy levels, pulse length and wavelength required for strong microwave coupling and the potential for shaped energy addition. Scaling of the coupling with microwave wavelength will be addressed theoretically based on the laboratory results using the high power sources in the 3 GHz regime. Extrapolation to 94 GHz will be of particular interest due to the availability of high power sources at that frequency and the ability to focus the microwave beam to high intensity due to the short wavelength. This research is of particular interest for the deposition of energy in front of bow shocks for maneuvering hypersonic vehicles and the creation of localized thermal regions for flow deflection. BENEFIT: The development of off surface energy addition is expected to lead to future research in flow control and will be of particular interest for the deposition of energy in front of bow shocks for maneuvering hypersonic vehicles and the creation of localized thermal regions for flow deflection. The interaction of microwaves with laser generated plasmas will also lead to methods for the guiding of microwaves over long distances. Military applications include long-range bombers, fighters, and unmanned aerial vehicles. Potential commercial applications include but not limited to high speed civil transport, space launch and reentry systems.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
J. H. Lalli
AF103-013      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Rad Hard Thoraeus Rubber ™ Filters as Durable Shielding for Munitions Electronics
Abstract:NanoSonic has developed Shape Memory Metal Rubber™ (SM-MR) skins that exhibit reconfigurable and durable RF properties and can be repeatedly and severely morphed without loss of EMI shielding (-88dB). Recently, it was found that SM-MR exhibits greater gamma ray attenuation relative to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radiation shielding materials, and does not emit harmful secondary radiation under a 137Cs source. SM-MR offers 2.2% gamma ray attenuation ([gm/cm2]/layer), and demonstrates a 370% weight improvement over COTS shielding materials. It is hypothesized that our Thoraeus Rubber™ filters shall also exhibit durable radiation resistance upon severe mechanical/vibrational conditions; a property that few, if any, flexible materials exhibit. Structural, high temperature, Thoraeus-like shielding nanocomposites having unique dielectric, optical and multiple controlled electromagnetic properties are realized via NanoSonic’s elegant layer-by-layer nanostructured. MR™ materials are offered as a cost effective, lightweight coating for hardening critical circuitry to ensure protection of guidance and control components against high power radio frequency (HPRF) energy threats. During Phase I and II, Thoraeus Rubber™ coatings would be evaluated on representative U.S. precision guided munitions (PGM) to increase the current TRL from 4 to 7. TRL 9 would be reached upon demonstration of HPRF protection as specified in MIL-STD-464. BENEFIT: NanoSonic would produce Rad Hard Thoraeus Rubber™ shielding materials as non- invasive, lightweight, protective coatings for aerospace platforms. Thoraeus Rubber™ filters will be primarily transitioned onto U.S. precision guided munitions (PGM) circuitry to ensure protection of guidance and control components against high power radio frequency (HPRF) energy threats as specified in MIL-STD-464. Additional military applications for various forms of the Metal Rubber™ nanocomposites include biomimetric systems, thermal control system materials, actuators, lightning strike protection, RF shielding for large area structures and sensors. Dual-use civil applications include low modulus conducting electrodes for high strain mechanical actuator and sensor devices, such as in medical prostheses or implanted bio-electronic devices, lightweight mechanical, electrical and thermal interconnection of electronic components on conventional circuit boards, and lightweight electronic flex circuits, flexible displays and smart electronic fabrics, and mechanically flexible coatings for systems requiring physically-robust electromagnetic shielding, ground planes or electrical interconnection.

NumerEx
2309 Renard Place SE Suite 220
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 842-0074
John J. Watrous
AF103-014      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:High-Power Microwave Arrays Based on Phase Locked Magnetrons
Abstract:Narrowband high-power microwave sources are under development for possible military applications. Defeating improvised explosive devices (anti-IED) and non-lethal anti- personnel effects are both of interest. The possible success of meeting the requirements of these applications can be increased by combining, in a coherent manner, the output of several microwave tubes. Magnetrons, being the most compact, most robust, and most efficient source of high-power microwaves are the obvious choice for development in this direction. Coherent combining of power requires control over the operational phase of the tube. In the proposed work, we will explore the feasibility of using a low-amplitude injected control signal to control the phase of a magnetron. This work will be performed in a computational and theoretical framework in Phase I. Demonstration of feasibility will lead to experimental investigations of phase locking two magnetrons in Phase II. BENEFIT: The primary benefit we anticipate from a successful Phase I/Phase II program is an approach for using commercially available magnetrons in arrays that allow high-power to be applied to applications such as anti-IED and active denial effects such as microwave hearing. A very long range application would be within the framework of an integrated electronics warfare system, such as the replacement for the Aegis Combat System. Commercial benefits include increasing production rates in engineered wood manufacturing.

TechFlow, Inc.
2155 Louisiana Blvd., NE Suite 2300
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 453-0206
Wheaton (Tony) Byers
AF103-014      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Phase Locked Magnetrons
Abstract:A research effort is described that will develop high fidelity design tools and, in Phase II, the implementation of a reliable phase-locked magnetron pair based on the California Tube Laboratory (CTL) CWM-75/100L magnetron. Two approaches to phase locking will be examined and modeled in this Phase I effort; i) phase locking via an anode-side cavity field probe, and ii) phase locking via a grid-cathode design. The two approaches examined in this work will be compared relative to i) the reliability of phase locking, ii) the interval to lock, and iii) the ultimate output power produced by the tube. The design tools are expected to be built on two Electro-Magnetic (EM) modeling tools; a Maxwell solver for impedance and coupling analysis (CST), and a particle-in-cell solver to demonstrate phase locking (ICEPIC). The Phase I products will be the engineering modeling tools as well as the mechanical specifications for an augmented CWM-75/100L using the superior phase locking approach. BENEFIT: This research effort is anticipated to provide the following benefits: 1. A conclusive high-fidelity model of the required modifications to a commercial L-band magnetron that will yield positive phase locking control in a master-slave mode. This is an essential development if the phase-locked magnetron transmitter is to mature to the reliability level required for military applications. 2. A phase locking design solution that does not depend on fine-tuned feedback in the output and combining manifold and waveguides of a multi-magnetron transmitter. Removing this requirement eases design constraints on the transmitter and allows fully matched systems to be built, increasing power output to the antenna and target. 3. With the ability to firmly control the phase of an individual magnetron, pairs of magnetrons can also be run asynchronously, creating the beat effect, or hearing effect that might prove useful in Active Denial (AD) applications, also demonstrable in Phase II. 4. In Phase II, a proof of concept demonstration that will enable utilization of phase locking in high reliability military applications. There are a number of military applications, mostly in the area of counter-electronics that would be enabled by a robust solution, fundamentally derived from high fidelity modeling, to the phase locking of magnetrons. At the current state of understanding of these systems the applications are still at the laboratory stage of development. Some laboratory systems are known to the authors to represent the best current solution to the most urgent current military counter-electronics and counter-IED technical challenges. All advances to the state of the art in reliability and design certainty of these systems present a commercial opportunity for the development of defensive military tools. Additionally there are commercial opportunities

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Yuanxin Shou
AF103-015      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Highly Reliable PM High Power Pump Combiner
Abstract:Based on our commercial high power fiber laser component manufacturing know-how, in this program, we propose to develop several critical improvements in high power combiner fabrication, including glass capillary encapsulation and mode adaptive matching techniques that holds the promise of substantially reduce the system mismatching scattering loss, leading to a new class of high power combiner of unprecedented power handling capability and robustness. Our approaches overcome all the major hurdles in high power pump combiner with high brightness and high efficiency improvement. Agiltron proposes to realize a reliably manufacturing process for high power fiber laser combiner reaching 5KW of CW laser power pumping level. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the low loss and high beam quality pump combiner In Phase II we will produce prototype with having high power scalability and high reliability as well as adaptability with various laser fibers, including PM LMA-DC fibers and photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to cover a wide operation wavelength range from 1 to 2 microns. BENEFIT: High power pump combiners are critical components in a new class of fiber lasers for Air Force laser weapons. High power fiber lasers are also applicable in many other military and commercial systems including laser radar, free space communication systems, laser materials processing, laser marking, laser welding, solar panel fabrication, and laser surgery.

EOTRON LLC
1644 Ord Way
Oceanside, CA 92056
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 429-7117
Gerald Kim
AF103-015      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:KW Fiber Pump Combiner with Polarization Maintaining Feed Through
Abstract:High power laser systems are limited in their ability to scale up laser power, increase compactness, maintain stability, and lengthen product lifetime due to the need to manage heat-loading. In particular, current laser diode packaging technology severely constrains improvements its size, weight, performance and robustness of laser systems. Eotron has developed a novel laser diode packaging technology using a silicon material and MEMS process to deliver three times better laser diode cooling efficiency when compared against copper micro-channel laser diode technology. Eotron's technology increases the wall plug efficiency of the laser system significantly and also reduces the diode bar ‘smile’ problem associated with high power laser diode systems. Using a precision registration and stress- free mounting technology for laser diode packaging, the fiber coupling efficiency of laser diode stack is improved. The improvement of fiber coupling efficiency can reduce the laser system's size and weight and increase the overall compactness. BENEFIT: The introduction of high fiber-coupling efficiency of the new silicon laser diode packaging technology will bring a disruptive change in the photonics industry's manufacturing processes. The new silicon laser diode packaging will bring high quality and high performance to fiber coupled laser diode products using the well-established semiconductor manufacturing process to lower the cost of high power laser systems in the welding, cutting, soldering, brazing, hardening, and military markets.

SUB-MICRON ENGINEERING CORP
P.O. BOX 509
MARLBORO, NJ 07746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 881-4211
Eric Mies
AF103-015      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:KW Fiber Pump Combiner with Polarization Maintaining Feed Through
Abstract:In this Phase I effort we plan to research and develop new methods, fixtures and processes for the fabrication of fused fiber components for high power fiber laser systems. We will initially focus on investigating, designing and testing new heat sources that provide a significant improvement in process control and are scalable to very large fiber bundles and very high pump powers. We will build sample 7:1 pump combiner using the newly developed heat sources, and test these combiners at pump power levels greater than 1kW to ensure the cleanliness of the fusion process. We will propose and model novel 6+1:1 feed-though combiner designs and fabrication processes that are applicable for high-power co- and counter-pumped configurations, including compatibility with polarization-maintaining (PM) large mode area (LMA) and photonic crystal (PCF) fibers operating at Yb or Tm wavelengths. BENEFIT: The completion of Phase I will provide the foundation for a Phase II effort that will lead to the development of novel glass processing equipment for the fabrication of very high-power optical fiber components and systems. This equipment will then be used in the research and development of bi-directional feed-through pump combiners for multi-kW fiber laser systems. There is a great potential military and commercial market for high power fiber lasers. Additionally, there is a smaller market potential for the fabrication equipment and components necessary to build these fiber laser systems.

Applied Technology Associates
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1200
Glen Smith
AF103-016      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Tactical Optical Inertial Reference Unit (OIRU)
Abstract:The Air Force is exploring and developing several aircraft mounted high energy laser (HEL) systems for precision strike and self- defense missions such as the Air Force’s new HEL demonstration program, Electric Laser on a Large Aircraft (ELLA). All HEL systems require accurate pointing and precise stabilization of the laser beam to be effective. Laser systems hosted on aircraft platforms pose an additional challenge to beam stabilization efforts due to the harsh vibration environment inherent in such platforms. A key element of the stabilization system in all these systems is the optical inertial reference unit (OIRU). Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes a Tactical Optical Inertial Reference Unit (TIRU) that directly addresses what the Air Force itself has acknowledged, in the ELLA Briefing for Industry, as “the most significant technical risk” on a future airborne laser program — Total System Jitter. ATA’s TIRU provides a stabilized optical reference for accurate beam pointing even in the harsh aircraft vibration environments by combining innovations in the following areas: 1. Advanced physical architecture / packaging configuration 2. Unique compact, low-noise, and linear-vibration insensitive ARS-15 sensors 3. Innovative compact electromagnetic actuation and control 4. Robust design specific to the harsh airborne environmental conditions BENEFIT: The addition of the ATA-designed TIRU will help reduce jitter on the propagated HEL, thereby reducing any collateral damage that could occur in precision strike missions. Successful completion of this development could be an important risk reduction effort for ELLA and various Navy programs. As such it could benefit several regions of the country. ATA’s proposed design provides multiple benefits to the AFRL: • ATA offers a novel device in a compact footprint that enables a whole new class of applications. • This innovation combines multiple advances in sensors, actuators, packaging and controls. The aerospace primes who are pursuing ELLA are obvious potential early adopters, though the jitter requirements of that application may require modifications to the design to reduce jitter. This would require additional Phase II enhancement funding, either from the primes or the Air Force. This could also have applications, as is, to Navy HEL programs (e.g., Laser Phalanx and Maritime Laser Demonstration programs) and other tactical aircraft HEL programs.

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 759-4048
William Dickson
AF103-016      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Tactical Optical Inertial Reference Unit (OIRU)
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose our FALCON Tactical Optical Inertial Reference Unit (OIRU) for use on aircraft-based, tactical, high-energy laser (HEL) systems. The harsh vibrational environment inherent to aircraft poses a significant challenge to beam stabilization of aircraft-hosted laser systems. The inertially stabilized Optical Reference Beam (ORB) provided by an OIRU serves as a “virtual star” and is a key element in the jitter control system of aircraft-hosted optical systems. The low-frequency band of the IMU signals used to stabilize the ORB can also serve as an angle reference during target acquisition slews. Present state-of-the-art OIRUs are too large for tactical use, and are susceptible to linear vibrations. The FALCON OIRU, based on SA Photonics fiber optic gyro (FOG) technology, addresses the size and vibration issues of the aircraft-hosted tactical HEL application. The FALCON OIRU can be packaged in a 3 inch cube to be mounted on the primary mirror of the HEL system, and provides high sensitivity and low errors required for dual use as a jitter control virtual star and as a low-frequency IMU angle reference. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits to the Air Force offered by the proposed FALCON Optical Inertial Reference Unit (OIRU) are the capabilities for an inertially stabilized Optical Reference Beam (ORB) for jitter control of aircraft-hosted tactical high-energy laser (HEL) systems, and the availability of IMU outputs from the OIRU for steering the HEL beam director open- loop over large angles. The surging growth in the use of lasercom, LADAR/LIDAR, and high-resolution cameras on aircraft and ground units in the military and commercial sectors creates a significant market for a small optical inertial reference unit such as the FALCON. SA Photonics has been very successful in transitioning SBIR technology to commercial product sales, in part due to its strong history of working with its customers and prime contractors. We will leverage our existing relationships with these companies to transition the FALCON OIRU into military and commercial markets.

Hart Scientific Consulting International LLC
5434 E. Burns St.
Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 907-1857
E. Keith Hege
AF103-017      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Advanced Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution for Imaging in Daylight and Strong Turbulence Conditions
Abstract:We will develop new computational techniques to extend the reach of large ground-based optical systems, enabling high resolution imaging of satellites under daylight conditions. Current state-of-the-art systems, such as the 3.6 m AEOS telescope, dramatically underperform in such conditions because of strong turbulence generated by solar heating. Our approach will exploit a priori physical constraints on the imaging process that have hitherto not been incorporated or not fully exploited in MFBD algorithms. The new algorithm, which may be used with seeing-limited data or as an adjunct to partial compensation with adaptive optics, will restore imaging to the diffraction limit even under the extreme conditions of daylight observing. We will develop a numerical simulation to explore the added value of the following constraints: * Exploitation of temporal coherence in high-cadence images through an extension to a multi-layer frozen flow turbulence model. * Inclusion of simultaneous wave-front sensor information. * Constraints imposed by ratios of image spectra and by observed “zeros” in the moduli of spectra of the object and point-spread functions. * Constraints imposed through polarization and wavelength diversity imaging, and the use of multiple telescopes. In addition, we will where possible assess the performance of each constraint by evaluating the Cramér-Rao lower bounds on the variance of estimated parameters. BENEFIT: Benefits to the government are the ability to make high resolution images of satellites from ground-based optical surveillance facilities even in daylight conditions. This dramatically reduces the typical wait time to acquire an observation of a particular satellite since it relieves the requirement to wait for a particular geometrical configuration with respect to the sun. Commercial applications include: * Extending the sensitivity and range of airborne EO/IR ISR systems. * Post-processing of astronomical images taken with partial compensation using adaptive optics, thus allowing higher resolution observations at shorter wavelengths. * Image sharpening in the movie and TV industry.

Pacific Defense Solutions, LLC
1300 N. Holopono St Suite 116
Kihei, HI 96753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 268-0985
Bobby Hunt
AF103-017      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Algorithms for Daylight and Strong Turbulence Imaging
Abstract:National intelligence requirements for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) are hindered by the lack of a reliable capability to image satellites during the daytime hours with optical sensors. Presently, most optical SSA observations are conducted during terminator conditions – i.e., morning or evening twilight when the sun illuminates the satellite, but not the observatory. There are two fundamental issues that make daytime imaging more technically challenging than terminator imaging: atmospheric seeing is generally worse during the day than during terminator; and high levels of background radiation due to scattered sunlight significantly lower the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measurements. This project proposes to build on previous MFBD algorithm experience and on current research being performed by PDS for daytime imaging systems in order to develop the mathematical basis for new MFBD approaches and constraints that are tailored to daylight imaging in the presence of strong turbulence. BENEFIT: Facility security and battlespace management rely heavily video surveillance systems. In daylight these systems are limited by the stron turbulance encountered over long path lengths. MFBD operating in such conditions can bring huge improvements to such applications. The market is estimated to be in billions of dollars. The development of the new MFBD methods proposed herein offers the potential to contribute to better ultrasound imaging and other applications in the medical imaging field.

G A Tyler Assoc. Inc. dba the Optical Sciences Co.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Matthew Britton
AF103-018      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Integrated Adaptive Optics System
Abstract:An integrated, inexpensive, compact adaptive optics system suited for use in surveillance, reconnaissance, and laser applications is proposed. The proposal provides a specific hardware implementation that utilizes cutting edge technologies, including a 32x32 actuator deformable mirror and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on a high performance visible CMOS camera. A PCI Express card hosting a Virtex 6 FPGA will be developed under this project to implement wavefront sensing and control algorithms at frame rates in excess of 20 kiloframes per second. The adaptive optics system has a 0.5 cubic meter size envelope and weighs approximately 50 kg. A server provides overall control of the system via a user-friendly graphical user interface. The ROM hardware cost to replicate this system is $250,000. This reduction in size, weight and cost will permit incorporation of the proposed adaptive optics system into a variety of platforms such as manned and unmanned aerial vehicles and satellites. BENEFIT: The proposed adaptive optics system will provide a revolutionary advance in applications of surveillance, reconnaissance and laser communication from aerial vehicles and satellites.

Nutronics, Inc.
4665 Nautilus Ct. S. STE 500
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-2002
Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF103-018      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Modular Integrated Adaptive Optics System
Abstract:Military-class Adaptive Optical (AO) system technology remains highly specialized and typically must be tailored to the application of interest. This leads to high cost systems and a slow development cycle. Nutronics, Inc. proposes to develop a design for a Modular Integrated Adaptive Optics System (MINTAOS) based on an existing high performance design for a UAV-based AO transceiver assembly that will be integrated and tested in Q1 2010. The existing design has been analyzed for robustness to large changes in temperature and a UAV vibration environment, with end to end performance evaluation to be completed in the temperature and vibration environment of interest in Q1 2010. The modified design will enable changing the wavefront sensor to support multiple applications. Nutronics, Inc.’s design process for the MINTAOS will define key trades associated with matching customer applications of interest to capabilities that can be provided by the MINTAOS. The design study will include investigation of multiple options for the phase correction device as well, including examination of the potential benefits of piston-tip-tilt segmented deformable mirrors. The resultant design will define a potential Phase 2 effort to develop and deliver a MINTAOS tailored for one or more applications. BENEFIT: The proposed effort has numerous potential benefits and commercial applications, including (but not limited to): laser communication, space situational awareness, astronomical ground based imaging, laser radar, laser rangefinding, aircraft self defense (both commercial and military), air-base defense, ship self-defense, and tactical precision strike.

Battlespace Simulations, Inc
26525 Harmony Hills
San Antonio, TX 78258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 857-9672
Gary DeYoung
AF103-023      Awarded:3/15/2011
Title:Rapid Reprogramming Technologies for Electronic Warfare Training
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current simulations are limited in their ability to simulate complex systems, not only from a capabilities perspective, but from a rational agents perspective as well. In order to "rapidly and accurately represent agile, reactive, and adaptable threats" significant improvements are required in the development and application of rational agents. BSI proposes to develop a rapidly-reprogrammable cognitive architecture for use in distributed simulations, in which a wide array of tactically relevant variables (including threat data, behavioral tendencies and environmental factors) are dynamically evaluated and a logical response posture is suggested. BSI will design and prototype the Common Cognitive Decision Architecture (C2DA), which will serve as the foundation for this new capability. At a high level, the C2DA should be capable of evaluating Decision Factors (DFs) and formulating a Decision Response (DR) at the entity level. The power to define exactly how these DFs are weighed by the C2DA must be put in the user's hands; thus the C2DA must be rapidly reprogrammable by the non-programmer user. In Phase I, BSI will research and develop an initial set of Decision Factors and Decision Responses, design a prototype graphical user interface (GUI) for the C2DA and a Run-Time Interface (RTI) for interoperability. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research will result in the innovative application of rational agents to distributed mission simulation. The C2DA has the potential to bring a revolutionary improvement in the behaviors and responses of computer generated forces (CGFs), thus improving the overall efficacy of distributed mission training as used throughout the DoD and by our allies. BSI intends to take an architectural approach that is problem-domain agnostic, meaning that the C2DA could be adapted to non-military distributed (or stand-alone) simulations in the future. The potential applications of the C2DA are literally countless, as it could be used to externalize and expand any simulation that uses (or should use) rational agents to process decision logic.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Sean Guarino
AF103-023      Awarded:3/15/2011
Title:Framework of Reprogrammable Agents for Changing EW Threats (REACT)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Electronic Warfare (EW) continues to evolve as a critical operational threat, leading to information loss and corruption. EW adversaries rapidly change their behaviors, which are responsive to the electronic protections (EPs) used by defenders. Furthermore, adversaries employ wartime reserve modes (WARMs) that adapt behaviors to differ extensively from previously established approaches. Current adversary models used for training are not dynamic or reactive enough to provide realistic electronic attacks (EAs) and become obsolete overnight as WARMs surface. We propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of a Framework of Reprogrammable Agents for Changing EW Threats (REACT), supporting the rapid adaptation, construction, validation, and deployment of adversary EW behavior models. REACT will focus on three key components. First, the Adversary Model Suite will provide dynamic and adaptable models that capture the behaviors describing how adversaries use EAs, incorporating details underlying that behavior (e.g., physics and EP interactions) as needed. Second, the Model Reprogramming Toolkit provides tools to domain experts with novice-level modeling experience to construct behavior models of emerging WARMs. These include user-focused model editing tools and automated guidance tools to drive editing. Third, the Agent-based Deployment System integrates adversary models into high-fidelity simulation environments to provide robust EW training. BENEFIT: We expect the full-scope REACT framework, and particularly the Model Reprogramming Toolkit, to have immediate and tangible benefits to military defenders in electronic warfare (EW) environments, providing dynamic and reprogrammable EW adversary models that produce more realistic behaviors for training purposes. While REACT is designed to support adversary construction for EW training, the underlying model reprogramming technology can be generalized to provide dynamic and reprogrammable adversaries for a wide range of training settings, including (but not limited to): cyber warfare, air-to-air combat, anti-submarine warfare, and counterinsurgency. Commercially, we will explore licensing REACT to generate robust and reprogrammable adversaries for the gaming industry, and we will incorporate REACT capabilities into our graphical agent development environment, AgentWorks™, providing a model management system, more intuitive modeling tools, and a range of guidance tools for model editing.

GBL Systems Corporation
760 Paseo Camarillo Suite 401
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 987-4345
James Dark
AF103-023      Awarded:3/15/2011
Title:Rapid Reprogramming Technologies for Electronic Warfare Training
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SBIR Topic # AF103-023 research will define an Agile, Reactive, Adaptive, Threat Simulation (ARATS) environment to dynamically determine the interaction of collaborative / integrated EW systems and accommodate degraded / disrupted network communication in the support of robust tactical operations. The ARATS research and development effort will focus on the technologies required to support accurate (reactive) threat depiction at the EW asset training sites. The ARATS modeling simulation and analysis framework will utilize a common EW ontology that supports system effectiveness assessment based on dynamic threat operational capabilities that support response to weapons deployment (i.e. non-kinetic as well as kinetic weapons). The common EW ontology used in the ARATS will support agile mission modeling based on tailored ontology refinement that includes weapon capabilities and limitations as well as alternative reactive threat functionality (i.e. as intelligence information evolves, the EW ontology will be iteratively revised to support ARATS reactions without requiring changes to the core software). The common EW ontology used in the ARATS will enable enable Electronic Warfare (EW) asset training that reflects the evolving responsive, interactive, dynamic threat characteristics and capabilities. BENEFIT: The Agile, Reactive, Adaptive, Threat Simulation (ARATS) research and development effort will focus on networking methodologies and data utilization algorithms in support of near real-time automated decision support logic for platform and data routing/re-routing related to distributed sensor and electronic attack resource management. The ARATS modeling simulation and analysis framework will utilize a common EW ontology that supports system effectiveness assessment based on perceived dynamic threat operating capabilities and supports automated system compensation due to randomly or purposely disrupted communication of networked EW assets. The common EW ontology used in the ARATS will enable modification of data routing through policy negotiation and the utilization of inference- derived data to support alternative mission modeling defined to minimize loss of tactical performance due to network disruption. It should be noted that the conceptual ARATS resides within an existing Electronic Warfare Training Environment and that it will interface with existing EW Platform Simulations including any associated threat emulation assets (e.g. AMES III threat environment generator etc.). It is also assumed that the EW Training Environment will be networked with a LVC Synthetic Battle-space Environment (SBE) via a wide area network (WAN) and that the SBE will share training scenario Threat Database, any Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED), and Mission Plan components required to synchronize the EW Training Assets with the network centric training environment. For the ARATS to successfully collaborate with external tactical entities in a meaningful mission thread, those entities must support interoperable communication such as provided by

Lavender Industries, Inc.
22647 Ventura Blvd. #1020
Woodland Hills, CA 91364
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 464-5049
Susan D. McCall
AF103-023      Awarded:3/15/2011
Title:Rapid Reprogramming Technologies for Electronic Warfare Training
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In order to ensure current competency among pilots (for both manned and remotely piloted vehicles), there is a critical need to provide the student with training environments that train against the most current electronic threats. This proposal will address these needs by developing a process and capability for rapid integration and validation of Electronic Warfare models and supporting data that will allow training systems and supporting simulations to maintain valid, concurrent representations of evolving and reprogrammable hostile threats. Lavender Industries proposes a SysML developed process and architecture coupled with a government provided threat environment to address this problem. It is anticipated that this product will be demonstrated on the F-16C fighter aircraft flight simulator with a generic solution for multiple platforms. The results from Phase I will allow system demonstration as part of a Phase II effort. BENEFIT: A primary feature of our approach is that the process and algorithms can be used in conjunction with government assets, hence minimizing the hardware expense. This project has direct benefit for military applications by providing the ability to rapidly reprogram training simulators and supporting counter-threat training while maintaining correlation with actual threat characteristics. Technologies developed under this program can also support commercial applications (disaster response and commercial aviation simulations) by providing a similar process for training environment rapid reprogramming.

Data Research & Analysis Corp.
1555 King St. #300
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(709) 299-0700
Francis Bausch
AF103-024      Awarded:3/18/2011
Title:Modeling and Simulation Technologies to Support Physics Based Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar Models in Training Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: DRAC proposes to design simulation components that model Active Electronically Scanned (AESA) radars and the countermeasures including jamming to which they may be exposed. These components will be designed to interoperate with other simulations via standard distributed simulations protocols; implementations of these protocols will be updated to provide support for representing the complex, dynamic AESA radar beam patterns. These high-performance simulation components will operate at interactive framerates to support training. DRAC also proposes to develop a prototype implementation and to present test results of that implementation in the Phase I effort. All these efforts will leverage an existing and proven government-owned distributed simulation framework, so that the majority of effort is concentrated on developing the advanced capabilities required. The proposed effort is innovative in leveraging the high-performance multi-threading capabilities of the framework to support the complex requirements of the AESA model, and in using capabilities of the various simulation protocols in innovative ways to represent dynamic beam patterns without requiring high network bandwidth. BENEFIT: The primary benefit to the proposed solution is its low-cost and flexible implementation using a government-owned framework for distributed simulation. The capability to simulate AESA radars will have wide application in military training and acquisition as well as in training for commercial aviation.

DAVIS Sciences Corporation
15515 Copperfield Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 304-6853
Lemuel J. Davis
AF103-024      Awarded:3/17/2011
Title:Modeling and Simulation Technologies to Support Physics Based Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar Models in Training Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radars are capable of being electronically steered throughout their entire Field of Regard nearly instantaneously. This provides the radars with the capability to track and prosecute multiple targets while simultaneously maintaining surveillance fences, cueing other sensors/shooters, supporting communications, and executing electronic and signals intelligence tasks. In order to maximize the tactical effectiveness of these types sensors, the aforementioned capabilities require enhanced automated and operator coordinated resource management strategies. In fact, the operator coordination of the sensor can be viewed as a tasking overlay on the sensors automated resource management responsibilities which seek to balance the duty and occupancy of the sensor. Operators require training to maximize the effective employment of the sensor in various engagement scenarios. Effective training in the use of and testing of AESA radar systems and tactics requires a platform that enables the modeling of real-world effects on the sensor in various tactical scenarios. Broadening the test and evaluation envelop will enable the United States to field AESA systems with greater effectiveness at lower costs. BENEFIT: Broadening the test and evaluation envelop will enable the United States to field laser guided weapon systems with greater effectiveness at lower costs.

Information Systems Laboratories, Inc.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 269-3620
Jameson Bergin
AF103-024      Awarded:3/15/2011
Title:Modeling and Simulation Technologies to Support Physics Based Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar Models in Training Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Live, virtual, constructive (LVC) threat simulation in electronic warfare (EW) training systems has allowed pilots to train against dense realistic threat arrays. For example, training simulations provide radar warning receiver (RWR) in-flight training against passive threats such as air surveillance and tracking radars. Recent advances in DRFM technology has increased interest in training pilots against active threats such as repeater jamming. These threats require models of a radar and antenna system. Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA) are replacing the mechanically-steered antennas and are becoming the primary radar antenna architecture and thus are the desired antenna technology for use in the LVC simulations. AESA antennas offer a significant advantage over mechanically- steered antennas including fast beam steering angle changes (beam agility), and formation of multiple beams. AESA antennas are subject to advanced electronic attack (EA) threats like digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) jammers, and can participate in performing EA operations. These capabilities make them more challenging to simulate than traditional mechanically scanned antennas. Under this effort ISL will develop a high-fidelity AESA antenna model for use in LVC simulation environments. BENEFIT: The primary commercialization path for the technology developed under the proposed effort is with Department of Defense program offices that work with or require models of advanced AESA radar systems. Other service branches that have aircraft (both fixed-wing and rotary- wing) training systems that include radars would benefit from the high-fidelity airborne AESA radar modeling and simulation system developed under the proposed effort. The high-fidelity AESA modeling and radar simulation tools developed under the effort are applicable to systems in addition to the airborne AESA radar systems including both ship and ground- based radars.

Research Associates of Syracuse
111 Dart Circle
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 339-4800
Mike Swiercz
AF103-024      Awarded:3/15/2011
Title:Modeling and Simulation Technologies to Support Physics Based Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar Models in Training Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR will develop and demonstrate an innovative modeling solution, STADIUM, to accurately represent Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA) and related radar techniques (Track-While-Scan, multiple antenna beams, interleaved multiple modes, and RF and/or PRF agility) and their interaction with advanced jammer technologies such as DRFMs in Distributed and networked Training Simulations. This solution includes Waveform Interactive Model and Platform Utilization models and timelines to handle the interactions between various platforms and within systems on a single platform. It includes the capability to address non-radar like functions in an AESA such as i) passive detection for Electronic Support Measures, ii) active Electronic Attack and iii) high gain, narrow beam communication links. Specific objectives of Phase I are to identify an innovative approach to model AESA radars and their complex interactions with DRFM jammers in distributed simulations. An initial concept for a generic AESA constructive simulation for interactive demonstration will be developed. Prototype interactive standards for these simulations will be identified. In the Phase II effort, a prototype system is developed and demonstrated to proof the concept of the generic AESA functionality coupled with several instantiations of DRFM jammers and targets to fully exercise the models in a multiple target environment. BENEFIT: The key benefits this integrated multiple ASEA and the DRFM jammer model interactive simulation approach provides to the government are 1) Minimized traffic on simulation networks by filtering Electronic Emission (EE) PDUs, or similar messages, generated by agile emitters and advanced jammers. 2) Minimized performance impacts on traditional simulators by eliminating the need to process and evaluate all EE PDUs unless they are emissions of interest. 3) An electromagnetic emissions simulation environment – a Waveform Interaction Manager (WIM) - to manage the distribution, interaction, and evaluation of electromagnetic emissions between local agile emitter and advanced jammer simulators and external simulation systems as they adapt and change over time a. Dynamically applies effectiveness models of different fidelity levels between electromagnetic emissions of emitters and jammers to determine the success or failure of specific jamming techniques. b. Can be extended by third-party effectiveness models that can be selectively or dynamically applied to certain emitter-jammer interactions. c. Has the ability to model additional real-world effects including but not limited to occlusion, multi-path, propagation losses, or spectral warping. 4) Generic capability and architecture to model AESA radars, active phased array radars, and other agile scanning radars, and DRFM and other advanced radar jamming systems whose technical parametrics, performance data, attributes, and signal parameters are user-

Coherent Logix, Incorporated
1120 South Capital of Texas Highway Building 3, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 382-8947
Michael B. Doerr
AF103-026      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:eXtreme wrist computer (Xwatch)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The eXtreme wrist computer (Xwatch) Program leverages significant previous and on-going investment in processor, RF, rapid product development, integration and miniaturization efforts by Coherent Logix, Incorporated. The proposed Xwatch program has been structured to work closely with industry to create the military version of an iPhone, but with ubiquitous communication, position, navigation, and computer capability in the form factor of a watch with an expandable display. The Phase I program will begin with working with industry on product requirements, using the requirements to develop a preliminary design specification, and create and demonstrate the hardware development platform to facilitate immediate SW development by customers. The Phase II program is anticipated to proceed with detailed design of the form factor reference platform which results in demonstrating clear visibility that the resulting system can transition into a viable product. Beyond Phase II, the reference platform will be brought to production by partners and/or 3rd party OEMs. BENEFIT: Systems with multiple capabilities integrated into a single device, for example, a radio with a voice and data capability, biometrics, data storage, position location, compass, range finder, etc. to achieve better communications range/performance in urban and complex terrain, and better interoperability and compatibility with our brethren in the other services in a compact lower power device is the most important capability to enable Situational Awareness (SA) and a Common Operating Picture (COP) to the dismounted Soldier as a System (SaaS) concept in the Network-Centric battlefield of the 21st century. The commercial applications include use by first responders, health patients, etc. – applications are endless.

Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Myra Torres
AF103-026      Awarded:3/14/2011
Title:Pilot’s Wrist Computer System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Impact Technologies, proposes a Wrist Computer System for use by pilots before, during and after flight missions. The proposed system will serve to increase pilot’s productivity by displaying concise information through seamless integration with surrounding electronics. The current state of the art in wrist computing systems is cumbersome, bulky and difficult to use along with limited capabilities. Impact Technologies will incorporate state of the art technologies to reduce a currently implemented low power computing platform to a 3x2” wearable form factor that has future capability for a single package solution. Proposed is a low power open architecture computing platform with OLED display and multiple wireless communication protocols for synergistic capabilities in support of currently used head mounted display units as well as adaptable to various sensor suites. Most importantly, the system will provide multiple means of control, from voice activation, touch interface, to control through wirelessly linked electronics. Key tasks of this Phase I effort include: 1) Develop detailed use case descriptions to determine modes of operation for the PWCS; 2.) Development of SWEPPI roadmap to set foundation for successful prototyping; 3.) A proof of concept demonstration utilizing development boards. BENEFIT: Immediate benefits to the Air Force will be recognized in the form of increased pilot productivity through the use of readily available information at wrist. Pre-flight routines and checklists, flight mission tasks, and information collected and stored on the PWCS all help the pilot during his daily routines by displaying specific, directed information on a need based approach. The proposed approach to a wrist computer allows the pilot to easily access information through integration with nearby sensor suites and cockpit electronics. There is significant commercialization potential for this technology in the military and commercial arenas. The largest potential would be development of a system for use in military operations to provide vital information to the pilot in real time. The developed technology could also be used as a standard issue item for industries where a small, wearable computing system is needed. These sectors include industrial maintenance and commercial aviation. Maintenance personnel can utilize the PWCS through connectivity to mesh networked sensors, collecting equipment health data through the wearable device while the maintainer completes their daily activities. This will alert of potential failures to expedite the maintenance process and reduce equipment downtime. Furthermore, the commercial aviation sector can utilize the PWCS to achieve the same benefits as the military aviation pilots do.

VoiceLever, Inc.
7349 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 864-7676
Stephen Rondel
AF103-026      Awarded:3/3/2011
Title:Pilot Wrist Computer System (PWCS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Extremely small, portable, lightweight, and ruggedized PC with open standards, secure operation and networking - not handheld - but worn and operated by touch, and/or hands free by voice command and speech response. Designed for personnel on the move. Ready and immediate access to a high resolution, visual display on the wrist/forearm. Software, hardware, and enclosures support an extensive range of standard attachments, from radios to cameras to location and physio sensors and their data. Marking and proximity alerts to wearer. Designed for Broad team visibility. Power, light, and noise signature management. BENEFIT: Situational Awareness Force Multiplier. Rapidly Selectable Wide-area and individual views on a wrist display. Track and see what aerial, dismounted troops, and vehicle cameras are available, select, and see. Common operating picture of team member locations and individual visual perspectives. Rapid access to any available field of view, and individual sensored data (physio and logistical). Open Platform for support of legacy systems, operable on the move - no "handheld" components - designed for hands-and-eyes-free operation for hands-and-eyes-busy personnel. Architected for Multimodal input and output, secure video, sound, and sensor data collection and distribution. Military: Pilot, warfighter, support and command personnel. Police. Border Patrol. Medical. Search and Rescue. Emergency Response. Homeland Security. Fire. Enterprise mobile data collection and data entry. On- the-fly, paper and keyboardless, hands-free digitization of observations. Digital advantages from security to integration of data/visualizations.

Bennett Aerospace, Inc.
2054 Kildaire Farm Road #181
Cary, NC 27518
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 859-5454
Brandon Conover
AF103-027      Awarded:3/25/2011
Title:See-through Transparent Displays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Bennett Aerospace proposes to develop a curved, transparent, binocular, full-color holographic optical waveguide display for head-mounted displays, helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), and other transparent application areas such as visors and windshields where curved displays are desired for on-surface/near-to-surface integration. The Bennett Aerospace approach will be lightweight, capable of displaying synthetic imagery, providing focus at infinity, can be designed with varying degrees of curvature, and provides a relatively large field of view (FOV). BENEFIT: When the displays are fully developed, users will have a significantly increased situational awareness for improved safety and effectiveness.

SBG Labs Inc.
1288 Hammerwood Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 793-2695
Jonathan Waldern
AF103-027      Awarded:4/4/2011
Title:See-through Transparent Displays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The ideal see-through display would be one that preserves situational awareness by offering a panoramic view of the surroundings with overlaid high-resolution color imagery. Such a system should also be unobtrusive; that is, compact, light-weight, and comfortable, where comfort comes from having an adequate exit pupil, generous eye relief, ergonomic center of mass, and focus at infinity. Conventional refractive optics cannot satisfy this suite of demanding requirements. Even after years of highly competitive development, head-mounted displays (HMDs) exhibit limited field of view and are anything but compact, light-weight, and comfortable. SGB Labs is pleased to announce that it has proven the feasibility a game- changing solution to this challenging problem by successfully demonstrating an ultra-wide field-of-view see-through display. Significantly, the pixel count can be scaled to support Snellen 20/20 visual acuity over the field of view. Although to date only monochrome displays have been demonstrated, the methodology has matured to the point where the added complexity associated with introducing additional wavelengths can finally be addressed. That is, having overcome the technical barriers of limited field of view and limited pixel resolution, the goal of the proposed Phase-I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of extending our technology to embrace full color. BENEFIT: A see-through display focused at infinity must satisfy a suite of very challenging requirements; including wide field of view, high resolution, full color, good luminance, adequate dynamic grayscale, and minimal power consumption. To date, no waveguide technology has been able to satisfy these critical requirements, the most important being wide field of view. SBG Labs’ technology enables the first waveguide-based display with the ability to meet all requirements. The benefit to the warfighter will be vastly improved situational awareness and comfort. The technology is especially suitable for applications involving augmented reality and virtual reality. A wide-field-of-view see-through display is a dual-use product. SBG Labs hopes to leverage the proposed development into OEM components for consumer HMDs. The channel to market will be the same as SBG Labs’ other products: major consumer electronics companies. In the short term, since military devices will support a higher price point than commercial ones and entail lower production volumes, having the DoD as its first customer will enable SBG Labs to gradually ramp up its manufacturing infrastructure and engineer out the cost. In the long term, commercial demand will far outstrip defense demand, driving down cost to the DoD and spurring further technical development.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Jeremiah Slade
AF103-029      Awarded:2/22/2011
Title:Digital Flight Gloves
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The working environment of pilots and flight engineers is saturated with displays, switches, buttons, and annunciator panels. Productivity could be greatly enhanced through the implementation of a digital glove which permits the Warfighter to operate equipment virtually. IST is proposing to leverage its experience with advanced tracking systems, electronic- textiles, wearable electronics, and military garments to develop a digital flight glove that will replace conventional switches and panels in the cockpit. This glove will track gross hand movements with unprecedented accuracy using IST’s proprietary Biomimetic Orientation and Tracking (BOT) system. Our BOT system will provide low-latency five dimensional coordinate inputs in a form factor that is small, robust, and has low power requirements. Fine motor control, such as that required for data entry and manipulation of virtual switches, will be achieved using sensors located at the fingertips. All of these features will be incorporated into flight gloves that posses the required tactile acuity, durability, and FR rating. BENEFIT: The proposed system will allow the pilots and crew of aircraft to greatly enhance productivity by offering a simple, intuitive interface for multiple platforms. The proposed system would not be limited to military aircraft use, but could also be transitioned to civilian aircraft and would be a viable option for almost any task that requires interfacing with large numbers of instrument panels, displays, etc. The glove could also be used as a generic interface for computers or gaming systems.

Norconnect Inc
P. O. Box 515
Ogdensburg, NY 13669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 262-0520
Michael Linderman
AF103-029      Awarded:2/28/2011
Title:Digital Flight Glove Electronic System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Norconnect, Inc. proposes to develop a unique digital flight glove electronic system which will i) record electromyographic (EMG) signals generated by hand muscles of a pilot or a flight engineer when they move their fingers or hands in the air, ii) recognize recorded EMG signals with accuracy of 99%, and finally, iii) translate recognized signals into computer commands for real-time switch activation, typing of reports, annotation of geo-registered icons, etc. In Phase I of the project, we will utilize our laboratory setup available at Norconnect to develop recognition algorithms for the proposed digital glove electronic system. We will identify and optimize the number of sensors and other system parameters that will assure recognition accuracy of 99%. In Phase II of the project we will develop miniature electronics to be embedded into currently manufactured flight gloves without any essential modification of military specification MIL-G- 181188B. We will also fabricate prototype systems and completely optimize their parameters. We expect that, in addition to applications by airline and general aviation pilots, police, border security personnel, road warriors and computer gamers, the proposed digital glove technology will find numerous applications in bio-medical systems that interface human bioelectric activity to external devices. EMG signal recognition, digital flight gloves, gesture control, real-world annotation, hand- wear computer input devices BENEFIT: In addition to applications by airline and general aviation pilots, police, border security personnel, road warriors and computer gamers, the proposed digital glove technology will find numerous applications in bio-medical systems that interface human bioelectric activity to external devices

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Michael Browne
AF103-029      Awarded:3/4/2011
Title:Digital Flight Gloves
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SA Photonics has developed an innovative Digital Flight Glove system that has the following advantages over data glove technologies: Multi user Smart Glove mesh networks that can share gesture and sensor information wirelessly with each other, multiple sensor technologies including flexion, pressure, and Electromyography (EMG) for increased gesture and tracking ability, GPS along with MEMs based accelerometer/gyroscope for tracking, wireless communication, and tactile feedback for gesture and status feedback. This Digital Smart Glove system will also allow advanced features such as: Information sharing between users in an operating environment, auto Login of a user to a system through personally keyed data flight gloves, uploading/downloading of mission data, and remote login of gloves to another user display or HMD. The SA Photonics Digital Smart Glove system will reduce the need for annunicator panel switches and buttons as well as alarm status feedback in warfighters. The sensor suite will allow accurate gesture recognition needed for complex tasks such as virtual typing. Response times and user reactions can also be monitored in case studies. The SA Photonics Digital Smart Glove System will be the digital flight glove system for the warfighter of the future. BENEFIT: There are multiple benefits to the Air Force in having a Digital Flight Glove system. These benefits include: 1) Decreased reaction times of pilots due to status/alarm conditions being physically interfaced to the users hands. 2) Decreased reaction times due to less physical movement involved when activating switches and buttons on annunicator panels. 3) Improved portability when needing to write reports. 4) Increased ground to air communication with geo-tagging of mission critical information showing friend/foe targets. 5) Increased focus on activities happening outside of the cockpit. 6)Analysis possible of reaction times and pilot hand/finger movement during training and mission flights. 7) Better pilot performance through “pre-cueing”. In the commercial sector, the digital glove system could be used to study reaction times of users engaging in complex tasks, physical therapy, or gaming applications. A digital glove would also be beneficial for sign language training and translation and could be used in high end simulation systems as well.

Wolf Technical Services, Inc.
9855 Crosspoint Blvd, Suite 126
Indianapolis, IN 46256
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 842-6075
Paul Thogersen
AF103-029      Awarded:3/1/2011
Title:Digital Flight Gloves
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This program will develop lightweight, comfortable, instrumented flight gloves which enable the wearer to communicate via electronic messages that capture and represent gestures and actions made using the hands and arms. This capability allows for typing reports, issuing commands, and conveying other information by moving the fingers and arms in the air. Gestures can be used to produce symbols representing communications on a flight deck, or symbols which annotate the real world by creating geo-registered icons. Hand motions can be used to actuate equipment controls, replacing currently used keys, switches and buttons. BENEFIT: The digital gloves will enable people to communicate naturally using the hands and arms. Gestures and commands will be translated into electronic format and transmitted to a computer or communication network. As a general purpose interface, it can be used to communicate in environments with high noise levels or obscured sight lines, control computer systems or equipment, and allow finger or hand pointing to generate an input to digital systems.

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Michael Graul
AF103-030      Awarded:4/13/2011
Title:High Output Training With INtegrated Gaming Support (HOTWINGS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force utilizes live, virtual and constructive (LVC) training systems to train personnel. Many of these systems are larger full-scale simulation systems, but many are also lighter-weight, game-based systems. Two common protocols are in use for networking larger training systems (as well as many live systems): Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA). However, there are no equivalent standards for smaller, game-based systems. Game-based systems, however, often have APIs or object export capabilities. These game-based objects can, in principle, be used to integrate the games with each other and with other systems. However, an easy-to-use, easy-to-configure, easy-to-maintain way to integrate lighter game-based systems, with full-scale DIS- or HLA- based simulation systems does not presently exist. Knowledge Based Systems, Incorporated (KBSI) proposes to research and construct HOTWINGS (High Output Training With INtegrated Gaming Support), a Shareable Game-Based Objects Gateway for DIS and HLA Integration, in response to Air Force solicitation AF 103-030. The objective of the solicitation is: “Develop a gateway that permits game-based objects to be integrated with Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High-Level Architecture (HLA) environments”. BENEFIT: The primary benefits to the Air Force from HOTWINGS will provide additional utility and additional efficiency in training systems: It is expected that the ability to integrate different training systems will result in a “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts” phenomenon, creating additional training capabilities – with HOTWINGS, games-based training systems can be networked together with each other or with larger systems to form a web of live, virtual and constructive models. Furthermore, there will be added efficiency because the additional flexibility created by networking training systems will allow existing systems to be utilized in ways allowing instructors and students greater use of existing equipment.

Technology Solutions Experts Inc.
209 West Central Street Suite 300
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-2232
Daniel Rice
AF103-030      Awarded:4/12/2011
Title:Shareable Game-Based Objects Gateway for DIS and HLA Integration
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To make optimal use of current and future investment in simulation and gaming technology, integration of independent applications must be accomplished while minimizing time and resource demands. The proposed research and development will remove barriers to successful data sharing between games and military simulations using an extensible networked gateway approach. With effective tools and an understanding of the relationship between gaming and simulation technologies, options for training solutions will be expanded without significant investment in additional resources. BENEFIT: TSE’s commercialization strategy will take advantage of the narrowing gap between gaming and military simulation technologies. With a clear path toward integration with military simulations, games are able to serve dual purposes as entertainment and effective training, analysis, or testing tools. This broadening of the market and expansion of value will create opportunities not only in game development, but in development tools and technical services for both private and government customers.

AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
410 Jan Davis Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Conrad Housand
AF103-031      Awarded:4/18/2011
Title:Nanomaterial Safety Assessment Platform
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Nanomaterials promise to bring critical advancements to technologies and products affecting multiple DoD mission areas. A major obstacle to realizing the strategic benefits of nanomaterials is the absence of computational risk assessment tools that allow nanomaterial developers to integrate and translate dose-response data and hazard rankings across in vitro and in vivo systems, between species and dose-routes, to assure the safety of nanomaterials in the work place and in their application. The overarching goal of this SBIR is to overcome these key barriers by developing the Nanomaterial Safety Assessment Platform (NSAP), an integrated quantitative pharmacokinetic and dose-response platform for determining the human exposure levels equivalent to those showing no toxicity in in vitro or in vivo assays, enabling rapid assessment of potential hazards posed by selected nanomaterials. The utility of the software will be demonstrated by predicting hazard rankings and human no effect levels for gold and silica nanomaterials using existing experimental data. In Phase II, capabilities for sensitivity analysis/variability analysis, conducting quantitative property-toxicity relationship analysis and derivation of dose-response models for transcriptional regulatory pathways will be developed, added, and extended to other nanomaterials. BENEFIT: AEgis Technologies expects this SBIR program to produce the first computational framework for rapidly deriving human safe exposure levels to nanomaterials through a novel integration of dose-response models, in vitro and in vivo data, and exiting in vivo/in vitro pharmacokinetic models. By enabling more rapid, more accurate nanomaterial safety assessments, the software will permit safer, more cost effective development and deployment of nanomaterial based materials supporting DoD missions.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4839
Vineet Rakesh
AF103-031      Awarded:6/17/2011
Title:Multiscale Modeling of Nano Effects on Major Human Organs in the Body
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Although nanomaterials have demonstrated potential for widespread applications, toxicology of these materials has not been thoroughly evaluated under different exposure scenarios. We propose to develop a comprehensive software tool integrating multidisciplinary physiology and systems biology approaches for modeling nanomaterial uptake, disposition, transport within the body and toxicity incorporating phenomena at different scales to address this challenge. Uptake and deposition will be simulated using actual 3D representation of target organs. The high fidelity models will be integrated to compartmental models representing other organs using systemic vascular and lymphatic system generated via novel wire models. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the tool for nanoparticle inhalation. The cellular toxicity model for the lung will be constructed using gene expression data of nanoparticle exposed tissue and the output from the physiological model. A detailed cellular-scale model of the biological pathways and a minimal model of this pathway will be developed to identify critical interactions, map the activation patterns of the output nodes and determine their cellular localization. The dosage of nanoparticles accumulated within the cell and transported out will be determined and communicated to the physiological model for transport calculations. This novel framework will yield the level of exposure to organ under consideration. BENEFIT: The predictive software tool will enable knowledge-based understanding of nanotoxicity, thereby leading to development of nanomaterial exposure rules, and design and deployment of effective practices and countermeasures to mitigate adverse effects. The proposed software tool has tremendous market potential that includes nanomaterials based manufacturers, pharmaceutical companies and inhalational device manufacturers.

NanoSafe Inc.
2200 Kraft Drive Suite 1200 I
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 449-3388
Matthew Hull
AF103-031      Awarded:4/14/2011
Title:3DPT™—3D Periodic Table for Predicting Human Health Risks of Nanoparticles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: NANOSAFE INC. proposes the development and demonstration of the nanoparticle 3DPT™—3D Periodic Table— which is an advanced database and software modeling tool for predicting nanoparticle toxicity, bioavailability, persistence, biological fate/transport, and life cycle risks from 1) quantitative structural properties used to characterize nanoscale particles (e.g., chemical composition, size, surface chemistry/reactivity, dissolution kinetics), 2) the media in which nanoparticles may be dispersed (e.g., serum, saliva, lung fluid, buffers), and 3) the assays used to quantify toxicological effects in vitro and in vivo, as well as acellularly (i.e., chemical methods). Results of Phase I development will yield a flexible electronic database that can be queried by end users to link, for example, physico-chemical properties of nanoscale materials with environmental outcomes predicted by nano-specific quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs). The beta-version of the 3DPT™ will be populated with experimentally-derived data parameters for a limited set of nanoscale materials with demonstrated significance to emerging defense applications of nanotechnologies. BENEFIT: The proposed research offers the potential to significantly enhance Air Force ability to accurately identify and manage nanotechnology human health risks, with strong potential for extrapolation to general use by the greater research community. In particular, the proposed electronic database will integrate into a single location, information on basic properties of nanoscale materials (such as size, surface area, etc.) and their reported toxicological effects and fate/transport as measured in vitro and in vivo. This will facilitate efforts already underway at Air Force research laboratories to develop assays and characterization approaches suitable for assessing the human health risks of nanoscale materials. Ultimately, this work will contribute substantially to DOD efforts to improve military operations through applications of nanotechnology while simultaneously ensuring the safety and sustainability of these operations.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Michael DeVore
AF103-032      Awarded:3/9/2011
Title:Framework for Real-Time, Multi-Camera Feature\\Recognition, Dissemination, Selection, and Visualization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Barron Associates, Inc. proposes to develop a foundational capability for unifying distributed heterogeneous surveillance data sources, producing and delivering highly refined results contextualized across the entire battlespace in real time. This project will result in a framework that supports information extraction, tagging, dissemination, discovery, and operator notification from multiple cameras in real-time. It will include an operator interface that allows analysts to maintain an awareness of the data streams that are available, their geographic relationships, a general picture of the information contained in those streams, and an ability to ``drill down'' through multiple levels of detail. Additionally, it will allow analysts to formulate and issue ad hoc queries against the entire spectrum of available information, and to request and receive notification when needed data become available or when events of interest occur. The framework will be designed around an open service oriented architecture to support technology from multiple vendors, and it will be extensible to ensure support for both existing and future data streams. BENEFIT: The US military has been tremendously successful in its efforts to develop and deploy remote sensing capabilities and has the ability to provide around-the-clock coverage of large geographical regions from multiple perspectives and over large portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These efforts have been so successful that analysts are faced with a deluge of sensor and other data so voluminous that they cannot make use of it all. The proposed effort will develop a software framework that allows analysts to quickly identify and assimilate the most important information from these massive amounts of data. This will allow a faster and more complete operational picture to develop and result in higher confidence reporting from analysts to their customers. This in turn will lead to increased shared situational awareness and, ultimately, increased mission effectiveness. Technology developed through this project is expected to be valuable to Air Force operations and in numerous other contexts, including other military services, civilian and military intelligence agencies, law enforcement, and private security firms.

EOIR Technologies, Inc.
P.O.Box 1240
Spotsylvania, VA 22553
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(571) 339-1709
Bruce Swett
AF103-032      Awarded:2/8/2011
Title:Multi-Camera Real-Time Feature Recognition, Extraction & Tagging Automation (McFRETA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: With the proliferation of video sensors in the battle space, Intelligence Analysts are inundated with massive amounts of data, a small proportion of which may contain items of operational significance. EOIR Technologies, Inc. (EOIR) is proposing to develop and deliver a prototype open source, real-time video event detection, metadata tagging and video display system, with search capabilities. This integrated system will leverage an existing video processing and exploitation framework and user interface developed by EOIR, to reduce technical risk. The Phase I research effort will involve: extending the video processing framework for real-time multiple-camera data ingestion; integration of an anomalous event detection algorithm into the framework; adaptation of a metadata standard for event representation; and user interface extension for real-time, multiple-camera data display and rules-based metadata queries. The Phase I product will include the prototype system, as well as the test and evaluation results of both the components and integrated system. BENEFIT: The EOIR solution will provide Intelligence Analysts with a real-time video event processing system based on a tested, open-source video framework, with multiple camera video ingestion, as well as the ability to produce and search standardized metadata tags of anomalous events. Technologies developed under this SBIR are applicable to DoD, Intelligence, and the Department of Homeland Security missions, as well as to commercialization in the private security sector.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4762
Mun Wai Lee
AF103-032      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:McFRETA: Multi-camera real-time Feature Recognition, Extraction & Tagging Automation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes an open and scalable framework for Multi-camera real-time Feature Recognition, Extraction & Tagging Automation (McFRETA). Our approach has the following key innovations: (1) A real-time moving targets detection and tracking based on planar motion parallax analysis and scene contextual information. (2) Design of an open metadata schema, based on Web Ontology Language (OWL), (3) Develop an open processing architecture that support correlation and fusion of multiple video streams and support rule-based inference and alert notification, and (4) a geo-browser visualization tool for displaying extracted metadata with corresponding video, as well as support searching and querying of visual features and metadata. BENEFIT: The proposed framework will enable real-time automated feature extraction and parsing of multiple video streams, and the generation of metadata representing visual features and detected entities. The framework will assist analysts to examine large amount of video imagery, and provide capabilities for querying and finding objects in the scene.

Primordial, Inc.
1021 Bandana Boulevard East Suite 225
Saint Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 395-6201
Randy L. Milbert
AF103-032      Awarded:3/7/2011
Title:Tentacle™: Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Primordial, Panoptic, and intuVision propose the development of Tentacle—a multi-camera immersive surveillance system that synthesizes information from hundreds of video streams into an intuitive 3D representation. Team Primordial will start with our existing state-of-the- art baseline components—Panoptic C-Thru, intuVision Panoptes, and intuVision Video Recall—which already fully meet 6 and partially meet 7 of the topic’s 13 requirements. Fully met requirements include automatically extracting metadata for tracked entities, scaling to hundreds of sensors, enabling real-time queries, supporting customizable event notification, and enabling diverse sensor integration. Partially met requirements include supporting adaptive multi-spectral sensor fusion, dynamically moving multiple cameras, and combining feeds into a single representation. From this baseline, Team Primordial will develop Tentacle to fully meet 100% of the topic’s requirements. In phase I, we will update Panoptes to support geolocating entities and transmitting reduced-bandwidth streams. We will also prototype the Panoptic C-Thru 3D surveillance display, conduct a demonstration, and deliver a final report. Upon phase I’s completion, Tentacle will fully meet 9 of the requirements. In phase II, we will update Panoptes to support moving cameras, sensor fusion, and detecting construction activities. Upon phase II’s completion, Tentacle will fully meet all 13 of the topic’s requirements. BENEFIT: By fusing hundreds of video streams into a single synthesized 3D display and automatically flagging potential security events, Team Primordial anticipates that Tentacle will 1) increase an analyst’s event detection probability, 2) reduce response time, 3) decrease the analyst to sensor ratio, 4) reduce fatigue, 5) increase job satisfaction, and 6) reduce turnover. Tentacle will benefit large surveillance systems such as those found at airports, military bases, hotels, casinos, entertainment venues, federal buildings, hospitals, and large retail operations. Northrop Grumman has expressed an interest in deploying Tentacle to 114 United States embassies under an existing State Department contract. Raytheon has expressed an interest in deploying Tentacle to airports under an existing contract with the Chile Ministry of Defense and Administration.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2412
Jean MacMillan
AF103-033      Awarded:4/8/2011
Title:HMD-Compatible Mission Performance Measurement System and Tools
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS), developed for 5th generation Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F-35 aircrafts, is a state-of-the-art helmet which virtually displays avionics and sensor data to the pilot through the helmet visor, thus eliminating the need for these data to be displayed separately in the HUD and flat panels in the cockpit. While the JSF HMDS is the most advanced and capable helmet to date, the interaction of the pilot with the helmet has not been thoroughly explored. Our proposed solution is to develop an HMD-Compatible Mission Performance Measurement System that gathers detailed operator data (e.g., interactions and actions; neurophysiological and physiological signals of attention alertness, engagement, stress; communications) and uses context information (e.g., expected operator interactions and actions, the mission, and, if used in the simulation training, the information about the simulation state) to evaluate pilot interactions with HMDS and identify the implications for mission effectiveness. BENEFIT: Our proposed HMD-Compatible Mission Performance Measurement System will allow for real time F-35 fighter pilot performance assessment, as well as for comprehensive after action reviews. In addition, it will benefit training by allowing instructors to identify training gaps and, potentially, to adapt training design to trainee’s individual learning needs. Finally, it will benefit system designers by allowing them to thoroughly evaluate the effectiveness of the system. We anticipate that it will also have commercial viability in a variety of current military and commercial simulators. For example, the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to be deployed with F/A-18, F-15E, and F-16 aircraft; or the HMD-enabled 3D games and entertainment applications.

Design Interactive, Inc.
1221 E. Broadway, Suite 110
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 706-0977
Meredith Carroll
AF103-033      Awarded:4/21/2011
Title:HMD-Compatible Mission Performance Measurement System and Tools
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) will soon replace the Heads-Up Displays (HUDs) found in many tactical combat aircraft, beginning with the F-35, the first 5th generation combat aircraft to exclusively use HMDs as the primary instrument and sensor display. Currently, it is difficult to objectively measure operator performance and to capture the interaction between the human operator and the HMD, such as what information is being attended to. Thus, there is an opportunity to utilize advances in physiological performance monitoring technologies to develop practical assessment tools with associated instrumentation to better quantify real-time assessment and performance monitoring of pilot performance and improve feedback via real-time intervention and enhanced after action reviews (AARs)/debriefings for more effective training and assessments of pilot proficiency. The proposed HMD ASSESS system will incorporate a suite of measurement tools, including cognitive state (EEG), behavioral metrics (eye tracking), and system metrics to diagnose root cause(s) of operator performance deficiencies/inefficiencies and provide individualized, targeted feedback. HMD ASSESS will provide revolutionary performance monitoring capabilities to optimize assessments of pilot proficiency and training effectiveness and efficiency by providing next- generation neurophysiology-driven, individualized understanding pilot interactions within a cockpit using an HMD. BENEFIT: The proposed HMD ASSESS system will incorporate brain-based and physiological sensor technology with traditional behavioral and system-collected metrics to better understand what information is presented in the HMD, and how a pilot interacts with presented data including reactions and actions taken based on the data provided. This comprehensive, objective understanding of pilot interactions will be used to measure and diagnose pilot deficiencies/inefficiencies in real-time, and can be used dynamically monitor pilot performance, provide training evaluations and assessments of pilot proficiency, and populate targeted AARs/debriefings to enhance understanding of pilot errors and related root cause(s). Such an innovative measurement and diagnostic solution will substantially improve pilot performance assessment and initial and sustainment training by quantitatively evaluating visual scan and search tasks via HMD-presented information and information gained from out the window views. Such innovative metrics will peer into the ‘mind of the pilots’, thereby providing the capability to monitor traditionally ‘unobservable’ performance related to perceptual and cognitive aspects of piloting. HMD ASSESS will be one of the first real-time, closed-loop assessment systems that incorporates considerate adaptations as well as AAR feedback driven by effectively diagnosed training deficiencies/inefficiencies and root cause analysis of error patterns. Build on individual results, HMD ASSESS will provide targeted feedback in real-time to optimize performance and/or training opportunities.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4750
Bob Pokorny
AF103-033      Awarded:4/18/2011
Title:Capturing Experts' Policies to Measure Pilot Performance
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Real-time pilot performance has proven difficult to measure, due to an inability to capture important interactions between pilot actions and displayed information. Intelligent Automation. Inc.’s innovative approach is to capture expert scoring policies by having experts first holistically judge quality of pilot performance. Previous research in other domains has shown that experts’ judgments are both reliable and valid. Expert raters then describe the rationale underlying their holistic judgments, making them explicit in discussions with other experts. These rationales identify critical relationships between what pilots see and what they do. For this project, pilots with varying degrees of experience will fly simulated missions using a cockpit simulator while the pilots’ eye movements are tracked. Work performance samples will be collected and given to expert pilots to judge. These experts will then discuss underlying reasons for their holistic scores with each other. Experts’ reasons will then be classified into categories from existing task analysis, and scoring worksheets which apply expert’s policies to work samples will be constructed and verified. The scoring worksheets will show that pilot evaluations can capture interactions between pilots and displays. The method will be analyzed for its applicability to the F-35 HMD environment. BENEFIT: The direct and immediate benefit of this research is its applicability to real-time Air Force pilot assessment. As part of this SBIR project, the Air Force Research Lab sponsors will see the applicability of this research to their programs, and incorporate it as they see it benefiting their existing training systems. The commercial applicability of this research is to investigate and then publicize the expert policy capturing (EPC) approach. The expert policy capture approach is a systematic, reliable, inexpensive method to bring the expertise collected by experts through years of experience to the assessment of operator performance in complex environments. We have demonstrated this approach in the domain of very complex equipment diagnosis; we are currently applying this approach to the dynamic environment of directing counterinsurgency operations in small villages in the Army’s Contemporary Environment. The current research will apply the expert policy capturing approach to highly perceptual domains that require near-immediate responses to rich displays within complex situations. Thus, this research will investigate the applicability of the expert policy capturing approach to new types of domains. The commercial value of this approach is that as assessment of performance becomes an increasingly desirable training capability and societal goal, methods to inexpensively and authoritatively assess performance in complex environments will be necessary. Applying the expert policy capturing method will be one very efficient method to construct valid and

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Michael Browne
AF103-033      Awarded:4/14/2011
Title:HMD-Compatible Mission Performance Measurement System and Tools
Abstract:ABSTRACT: How pilots interact visually with aircraft has changed dramatically over the last 60 years. Pilots have reconfigurable head down displays with multiple configurations, heads up displays displaying both imagery and symbology and head mounted displays displaying a plethora of information, in addition to the pilot having many more “out the window” tasks. Along with the increased complexity of the visual environment comes an increased complexity of discerning where the pilot is looking and how effective they are using these visual cues, in both simulation and operational environments. Without an accurate, real-time measure of where a pilot is directing his or her attention, it is almost impossible to infer what information they are attending/not attending to. SA Photonics has developed an approach to inferring where a pilot is looking and what they are attending to while using an HMD. Our approach captures the critical data without burdening the operator and the simulator environment with extraneous hardware of marginal value. We exploit available data signals, and our solution provides a deep grounding in the human factors of the operator’s interaction with HMD data and resulting actions. BENEFIT: The benefits of a performance and training assessment tool for use with an HMD include being able to understand what is working and what isn’t with respect to training pilots for using HMDs. In addition, individual pilot performance can be optimized by reinforcing concepts and tactics that they are having particular problems with. Our HMD-based measurement system will also be useful in operational cockpits for sensing pilot performance, including work overload, sleepiness, and hypoxia onset. Commercial benefits of our system include training commercial helicopter pilots in night vision goggle use, as there is an unacceptably high fatality rate for commercial helicopters flying at night.

21st Century Systems, Incorporated
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 505-7885
Plamen Petrov
AF103-035      Awarded:3/30/2011
Title:AMADEUS
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Airspace congestion with RPAs in close proximity to manned systems poses a serious threat for mishap. At present, RPA pilot training in airspace management is minimal. RPA operator training should consider communications, asset management, deconfliction, and coordination among RPA and manned system pilots, and air battle management personnel. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSI), which has been developing intelligent agent-based decision support tools for more than 14 years, will apply its mature technology and research experience to help fill this gap. Teamed with Dr. Eduardo Salas of University of Central Florida’s Institute for Simulation and Training, an expert on team and individual training, 21CSI proposes AMADEUS, an integrated scenario development, execution, and after- action review system for robust airspace management training. AMADEUS will leverage 21CSI’s intelligent agent infrastructure and advanced resource allocation, management and coordination algorithms, successfully employed for AWACS weapons director training, as wells as its evidential reasoning technology to link coaching agents to trainee’s mission objectives, for a dynamic performance metric evaluation system with feedback into the training exercise. 21CSI’s extensive intelligent agent experience, coupled with our unequaled, perfect commercialization rating from the DOD, makes us the respondent most likely to get this capability into the hands of the warrior. BENEFIT: This effort will result in state-of-the art training system for airspace coordination and deconfliction in the combat zone, largely targeted at RPA pilots operating in airspaces shared with or adjacent to manned aircraft. This openly architected agent-based trainer will be flexible to advances in visualization, verbal and text-based communications and other enhancements, as they become available. After successfully demonstrating technical feasibility in Phase I, Phase II efforts will be dedicated to the full-fledged implementation of the AMADEUS Virtual Trainer prototype which will take the concept “out of the laboratory” and into a limited demonstration and testing with SMEs and RPA operators. Through expert feedback, training methodology expertise, and a strong technical background, the AMADEUS trainer will deliver a robust multi-modal training capability, useful in single-user scenarios or in large team training exercises. Its component-based architecture will allow the tool to easily integrate with existing simulation and training systems, augmenting their value for mixed manned/RPA system operator training.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2437
Webb Stacy
AF103-035      Awarded:4/11/2011
Title:Scenario-based Learning for Airspace Management and Deconfliction (SLAMD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Difficult under typical conditions, airspace management and deconfliction becomes even more difficult in a mixed manned/unmanned environment. As UASs gain capabilities to operate in more complex environmental conditions, the challenges associated with mixed airspace management and deconfliction will become more apparent and the chances of fatal mishaps will increase. Current training for UAS operators does not teach airspace management concepts. While airspace management is well known to controllers and manned system pilots, understanding the nuances associated with interoperating with UASs is not the focus of their training. To meet this need, the Aptima team will develop SLAMD (Scenario-based Learning for Airspace Management and Deconfliction), a flexible system enabling its users to translate real-world airspace scenarios into immersive, high-fidelity training events. Using mishap logs as the basis for training scenarios, SLAMD will use real-world events as the basis for instructional scenarios, creating a flexible scenario envelope within which trainees can learn critical instructional concepts. Built on the DDD simulation environment, SLAMD will provide automated assessment during the training exercise for review during debrief. The consolidated product of SLAMD will provide an end to end training generation, simulation, and assessment system to enhance performance of operators involved with the airspace management problem. BENEFIT: The SLAMD training environment will provide users with a flexible scenario envelope by which they can leverage real-world scenarios and mishaps to generate rich training content. SLAMD will leverage currently existing technology, such as Aptima’s DDD, to substantially advance the quality of this product at the conclusion of the SBIR period. In addition, SLAMD will allow for rapid creation of constructive entities to increase the fidelity of the training simulation. Lastly, SLAMD will implement performance measurement technology to assess whether specific training objectives are being met and, if not, to provide feedback to trainees for enhancing their learning experience. The commercial applications for SLAMD are promising. In addition to targeting other DoD UAS operators and airspace controllers, we will target NASA, FAA, Commercial Airlines through the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and state and federal emergency management agencies.

DDL Omni Engineering, LLC
8260 Greensboro Drive, Suite 600
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 885-9675
James Sebastian
AF103-035      Awarded:3/30/2011
Title:Airspace Management and Deconfliction Training Environment for Manned and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAs)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) usage is proliferating at an unprecedented rate, making combat airspace increasingly more crowded (and dangerous) for manned aircraft. Familiarity with airspace control and deconfliction procedures varies greatly among RPA operators, while other operational personnel may not fully grasp the challenges of mixing manned and unmanned aircraft in the same airspace. This proposal offers a solution to meet this challenge by developing and validating a high fidelity, immersive environment for training airspace management and deconfliction for manned/unmanned aircraft sharing the skies. The objective of Phase I work is to develop and demonstrate a training environment featuring academic content presented in a realistic training scenario. Some of the products DDL OMNI Engineering will be developing during Phase I include example tools to create realistic and interactive portrayals of the airspace. Additionally, we will develop and demonstrate communications and coordination problem spaces for training the various players in the airspace. As envisioned, training will take place in three phases: Interactive Academics – Acquaint students with current tactics, techniques and procedures for RPA deconfliction. Airspace Visualization Drills – Get RPA operators thinking about airspace in three dimensions. Tactical Training Interactive Simulations – Tactical scenarios which put it all together. BENEFIT: The most immediate benefit of this product will be RPA crews that are better trained in airspace deconfliction procedures and tactical controllers better prepared to integrate RPA into their combat airspace. The technology resulting from this SBIR is expected to have an immediate appeal to the military UAS communities, both U.S. and allied. Market potential for the developed system extends to non-DoD government RPA users such as the Department of Homeland Security. Though currently underdeveloped, a civilian market will eventually emerge; this product will certainly have wide applicability for RPA likely to be employed in the civilian/private sector.

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Michael Graul
AF103-035      Awarded:3/30/2011
Title:Framework for Airspace Situation-awareness Training (FAST)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (KBSI) proposes the design and demonstration of a simulation-based training system to improve Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)-operator airspace situation awareness (SA). A key innovation in our proposal is the use of simulation- based training to increase and maintain airspace SA with manned and RPA systems. The resulting “Framework for Airspace Situation-awareness Training (FAST)” will support the following functions (i) Creation of instructionally sound scenario-based training content for airspace management and de-confliction for systems that include manned and RPA systems; (ii) Authoring and adaptively evolving scenarios that improve the effectiveness of simulation based training for airspace SA with manned and RPA systems; and (iii) Measuring airspace SA training using airspace. The proposed Phase I project will (i) analyze training needs for enhanced airspace SA with manned aircraft and RPAs; (ii) create instructionally valid scenario content including mechanisms for inducing enhanced airspace SA learning; and (iii) design and demonstrate a proof-of-concept implementation of the FAST technology using representative test data. The Phase II project will (i) harden the FAST innovation; and (ii) transition the resulting capability into a realistic simulation-based training environment. BENEFIT: The main benefits of the proposed research include the following: (i) significant improvement in the quality of training for airspace management, situation awareness, communications, and control for both manned aircraft and RPA systems; (ii) significant decrease in the time and cost to create and maintain instructionally valid simulation-based training content; and (iii) reduced cost to build and deploy simulation-based training for both manned aircraft and RPA systems. Government applications include defense and homeland security simulation based training systems. Commercial applications include commercial simulation-based training systems for aircraft, ships, automobiles, security, and health services.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5278
Wei Chen
AF103-036      Awarded:3/15/2011
Title:Multi-Con: A Novel Extensible Architecture for Multi-RPA Control Employing Multi-Modal Technologies
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As more and more RPAs are pushed into military service, significant challenges have emerged, e.g., the interfaces for one operator to control multiple RPAs. There is an absence of novel and extensible multiple-RPA control and management architectures, which would enable clear understanding of the operational implications of the interactions between human and machine in continuous, long-term and complex operations. Our innovation is Multi-Con: a novel, extensible agent-based architecture for the management and control of multiple remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) employing state-of-the-art multi-modal technologies for urban warfare. Multi-Con is flexible and extensible to accommodate both new capabilities of existing RPAs and novel RPAs in the future. Multi-Con includes (1) an integrated architecture employing various functionally-connected constituent components, (2) an investigation of the crosscutting technologies for the underlying algorithms, the information flow and control flow, and the communication interface and protocols among the components, (3) the development of a suitable scenario for proof-of-feasibility, and (4) a trade study to compare candidate solutions and present performance metrics for the evaluation of multi- RPA control systems. We will explore the connection of Multi-Con with the funding agency’s existing technologies/programs to achieve the openness, generality and interoperability of the proposed technology. BENEFIT: The anticipated Phase I results will provide a flexible and extensible architecture, Multi-Con, which manages its potentially heterogeneous RPA devices effectively and integrates state- of-the-art MMI technologies. This project addresses a huge market that faces this challenge: a single operator must control multiple distributed RPAs for continuous long- term complex missions. The functionalities of Multi-Con could be componentized, possibly as plug-ins, and ported to many various domains and existing systems. We have identified initial transition paths for Phase I, II and further stages. The immediate (human) users of Multi-Con include RPA operators, commanders, military planners, and IT personnel, etc. Potential customers may include the funding agency (AFRL, µAVIARI) and other U.S. Agencies, e.g., various RPA/UAV programs from the Air Force, Army and Marine Corps., which are all targeting complex RPA/UAV control, e.g., AFRL Distributed Mission Operations and Air Operation Center, as well as Navy/Coast Guard Maritime Interdiction Operations. The civilian sector may benefit as well, e.g., commercial air traffic control, complex manufacturing operations, smart grid power generation and distribution, border patrol, search and rescue, and the film industry.

Soar Technology, Inc.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Glenn Taylor
AF103-036      Awarded:3/7/2011
Title:A Smart Interaction Device for Multi-Modal Supervisory Control of Multiple RPAs
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Demand for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) within the U.S. Military has significantly increased over the past decade, including a demand for Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs). However, the increased use of these systems has been hindered by the lack of natural interfaces for controlling them. Currently multiple operators are required to manage all aspects of a single aircraft and operators interact with joystick or point-and-click interfaces that require almost their full attention. The work proposed here seeks to enable one operator to control multiple RPAs in a supervisory control fashion using multiple modes of interaction in order to reduce the burden on the operator and enable multiple RPAs to be managed in parallel. To accomplish this, SoarTech, in consultation with the University of Michigan, will design a multi-modal Smart Interaction Device (SID) for multiple RPA control, based on a proven Intelligent User Interface system that we have used for supervisory control of tactical simulation entities. We will extend this prior work to multiple input modalities and a new plug- in to interface with existing RPA control systems. This approach will enable supervisory control of one or more RPAs, and greatly reduce the workload of the RPA operator. BENEFIT: A natural multi-modal interaction system for supervisory control of RPAs has the potential to change the face of RPA systems. Current battlefield RPAs effectively require multiple people to operate, including navigation, system health monitoring, and payload and mission management. Changing the way in which an operator can interact with each RPA, including feedback from that RPA in natural modalities, frees the operator to work at a higher level of interaction. This in turn will allow for a single operator to more easily manage multiple RPAs, much like a human team lead can manage multiple subordinates. The SID framework will also be capable of managing diverse RPAs though a single natural control interface. Beyond RPA applications in reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) missions, supervisory control of autonomous entities has a great deal of potential in a range of fields: managing all kinds of ground and airborne unmanned systems; managing entities in large-scale simulation environments, where hundreds or even thousands of entities play a part; and managing intelligent virtual characters in immersive trainers.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Victor Grubsky
AF103-037      Awarded:3/2/2011
Title:Broadband Coherent Terahertz Spectrum Analyzer
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a coherent terahertz (THz) spectrum analyzer, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Coherent Broadband Terahertz Spectrum Analyzer (CONTRAST) system. Based on the detection of the intensity and frequency of an external THz source, the proposed system combines mature commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) components with a new approach to characterizing tunable THz sources that uses POC-developed components and software. The innovation in CONTRAST will enable the system to achieve a broad operating frequency range (>10 THz), high frequency resolution (~300 kHz), high frequency accuracy (5 GHz–10 GHz), fast measurement time (<1 s), and modular and compact implementation, therefore satisfying or exceeding the Air Force requirements. The proposed CONTRAST technology will provide the Air Force with a useful and versatile tool for characterizing THz sources used in biomedical research. In Phase I, we plan to analyze and optimize the CONTRAST system and demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by building and testing a THz spectrometer prototype. In Phase II, we will demonstrate the full range of the required operating parameters and fabricate a more advanced version of CONTRAST that will be demonstrated to the Air Force in a relevant environment. BENEFIT: Military applications of the CONTRAST technology will include new weapons and communications technologies, explosives and biohazards detection, and non-destructive testing (NDT). The CONTRAST THz spectrum analyzer can be used by the Air Force for calibrating and testing THz sources that are employed in the above applications. Significant applications of the CONTRAST system will include use by industry and academia to generate THz energy for medical imaging and security applications. This THz source could be used in academia for basic scientific exploration of THz energy. Because the CONTRAST system has the capabilities of detection and identification of concealed objects, as well as chemical and biological molecules, it has numerous commercial applications for public-access area security inspections, such as airports, subway stations, and government buildings.

Zomega Terahertz Corporation
2121 Sixth Ave
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 833-0577
Thomas Tongue
AF103-037      Awarded:3/17/2011
Title:THz Spectrum Analyzer
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to demonstrate a THz spectrum analyzer using a innovative, high speed involute delay stage in a Michelson interferometer configuration coupled to a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD). Compared to traditional linear stages, the involute stage offers a superior linear response, 1,000 times faster than traditional linear stages, and a more compact footprint. The involute interferogram measured by the GDD is converted via fourier transform to the spectral distrubution of the externally supplied unknown THz source. The spectral sensitivity of the system is determined by the GDD, which has the potential to be a broadband (>10 THz), fast (~MHz), and sensitive (Noise Equivalent Power –NEP- < 10^-10 W/Hz1/2). The GDD THz detector works at room temperature, and is also compact and inexpensive to fabricate. Zomega Terahertz Corp., in cooperation with the Center for Terahertz Research at RPI, has experience in the development and commercialization of compact THz devices. Zomega will integrate the GDD and the circular involute with the necessary control and display electronics in order to provide a compact, robust, user-friendly spectrum analyzer. BENEFIT: The resulting THz spectrum analyzer will be a useful diagnostic tool for new THz sources and as a calibration tool for existing sources. We anticipate as commercial applications become available for THz systems, this will be an essential tool for the calibration, lifecycle measurement and maintenance of THz sources and systems.

361 Interactive, LLC
408 Sharts Drive Suite 7
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 743-0361
Michael J McCloskey
AF103-042      Awarded:3/17/2011
Title:A Cognitive Analysis of Leveraging LADAR to Support Combat Identification
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Imagery analysts must frequently identify targets in rapidly changing environments where mistakes can have tragic consequences. LADAR is an emerging sensor technology that provides a rich data source for human analysts in support of combat identification. However, the primary focus of prior research has been on developing LADAR as a technology without adequately considering how an analyst will exploit LADAR data. Additionally, providing 3D LADAR data to an analyst when they are already trying to manage ever-increasing amounts of data in multiple forms can promote data overload. Further, issues of trust in automation must be examined. We will leverage innovative research methodologies and cognitive task analyses to identify the cognitive demands and challenges of combat identification analysts and determine how 3D LADAR data can address these gaps. We will develop visualization concepts based on ecological interface design principles to support 3D data exploitation. This effort will utilize a decision-centered design approach to develop a truly collaborative system that will allow a human analyst and assisted target recognition systems to work together to exploit 3D LADAR data. These concepts will generalize to other domains where the exploitation of 3D data is critical including medical imagery, border surveillance, and airport screening. BENEFIT: Within the military, this research will have direct applicability to military intelligence and any analysts who are responsible for exploiting 3D LADAR data for combat identification. The proposed system will provide innovative visualization concepts that will allow analysts to interpret and act on 3D data. This ability has direct relevance to any government or private sector group that uses 3D data, including DHS (border surveillance and airport screening) and the medical community (diagnosis using 3D imaging).

Sheet Dynamics, Limited
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Stuart Shelley
AF103-042      Awarded:4/4/2011
Title:Innovative Aids for Combat Identification
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The work proposed here will apply an extensive suite of tools and technologies developed by SDL for automatic target recognition (ATR) using multi-mode LADAR data to aid analysts to exploit multi-mode LADAR data for combat ID. SDL has teamed with experts in Cognitive Task Analysis to gain understanding of the challenges of this domain and the perceptual and cognitive needs of the domain practitioners. This understanding will be utilized to guide fusion of SDL's ATR and data visualization tools into an effective analyst interface to aid in the combat ID task. BENEFIT: The capability to be developed under the proposed research will enable analysts to efficiently and accurately glean the rich information and artifacts contained in LADAR data and utilize this to aid in combat ID and other ISR tasks. This will aid DOD and Intelligence Agency customers to make timely, accurate targeting decisions, increasing the effectiveness of the warfighting effort. The general concept of utilizing automatic recognition capability to aid analysts to quickly and accurately exploit large data sets has application to other data types and applications, helping to address the urgent "data overload" problem facing the DOD and Intelligence communities.

AuraSense, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue, Suite 4301
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 467-2874
David Giljohann
AF103-043      Awarded:4/4/2011
Title:Cell Regulation with Polyvalent Nanoparticles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Polyvalent nanoparticle constructs have unique properties that make them ideal for gene regulation applications, while overcoming many of the challenges which have prevented oligonucleotides from being developed into viable therapies. Specifically, AuraSense is developing constructs which are highly resistant to nuclease digestion, have high binding constants for intracellular targets, and, uniquely, have exhibited high entry into every cell type tested to date (over 50 cell types including primary cells, tissues and neurons). The AuraSense constructs thus represent a significant advance in gene pathway regulation technology while displaying the characteristics of an ideal gene therapy system. Building on our initial success, we are proposing to develop optimal constructs for application in the control of gene and protein expression. Objective 1 experiments will be designed to demonstrate and optimize: 1) Ability to deliver conjugate nanostructures into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, 2) Ability to deliver oligonucleotides including siRNA, DNA and modified nucleic acid structures, and 3) Qualitative and quantitative assessment of cellular entry. Objective 2 will determine the 1) Functional gene regulatory effect in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, 2) Biological compatibility and toxicity, and 3) Comparison with commercially available lipid and polymer systems (e.g. Lipofectin and Cytofectin). BENEFIT: AuraSense’s nanoparticle constructs have great potential as broadly effective, non-toxic agents for cellular transfection of genetic material. AuraSense nanoparticle technology has been developed in numerous proof-of-concept applications and has been the subject of consistent commercial interest to date. This platform stands to significantly advance transfection as a tool for life science researchers and for increasing the safety of troops in the field. AuraSense’s nanoparticle platforms are highly relevant to two markets: Chemical Transfection (as used for research applications) and Biodefense.

Medical Nanotechnologies, Inc.
320 Decker Drive, Suite 100
Irving, TX 75062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 873-2512
Rockford Draper
AF103-043      Awarded:4/4/2011
Title:Enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of therapeutics by NIR and graphene oxide-mediated thermally-induced endosome/lysosome leakage
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Numerous clever and creative and approaches to develop non-viral delivery vehicles have been described and every year brings additional progress. However, a bottleneck to nearly every strategy is endosomal/lysosomal vesicle escape. Transfection frequencies under controlled conditions with in vitro models rarely exceed 50-70% efficiency in the best model systems and are often lower, depending on cell type and cargo. In this proposal we will test a new way to improve vesicle escape that can be applied to almost any existing delivery technology. An important parameter in lipid bilayer membrane integrity is temperature. As the temperature rises, the kinetic energy imparted to the membrane lipids increases the possibility for local disorganization and rupture of the bilayer. We propose to test the hypothesis that controlled heating of endosomal/lysosomal vesicles containing a variety of delivery vehicles and cargo will enhance membrane breakage and improve delivery efficiency. Heating will be accomplished by exploiting the ability of nanoparticles to absorb near infrared (NIR) light and convert it to heat. The use of NIR has the advantage that tissue is relatively transparent in this region of the spectrum and that vesicle disruption can be targeted to tissue and organs where the laser is aimed. BENEFIT: The combination of a delivery vehicle that can efficiently cross the cell membrane and has high near infrared absorption enables the timed and on-demand transport and release of therapeutic agents. Such benefit will allow for quick response to the chemical and biological threats to which those on the battlefield may be exposed. Therapeutic agents that are difficult to administer or require high doses to achieve high efficacy may be more efficiently used when coupled to NIR-active nanoparticles which can transcend the cell membrane and enter intracellular vesicles and, subsequently release their payload upon NIR activation. Finally, novel drug combinations may be administered to patients that have acquired recurrent or resistance disease where existing therapeutic regimens have failed.

Architecture Technology Corporation
9977 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Maher N. Kaddoura
AF103-044      Awarded:2/17/2011
Title:AutoConfig Router: Policy-based Auto-configuring Routers to Support Dynamically Forming Networks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The future Airborne Network (AN) will include airborne nodes on wide body platforms that will perform internet working between heterogeneous networks operating with various protocols and communication link technologies. These nodes will have the capabilities to form the backbone routing structure of the AN. In such an environment, the topology and link statuses will dynamically change overtime because of the node mobility. Thus the configurations of the AN backbone routers will need to be continuously modified to adapt to the changes that are occurring in the network. Currently forming networks is a static and manual process, which will limit the adaptability of the AN backbone to network changes. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will leverage its extensive experience in network technology to develop, evaluate and demonstrate efficient policy-based software techniques that will enable routers to automatically configure themselves to form an optimal AN backbone and to dynamically adapt their configurations to changes that occur in the AN backbone. BENEFIT: The end product of this effort will be a new platform for managing networks with node and domain mobility. The platform will enable the efficient utilization of various protocols and communication link technologies to provide communication of data relating to activities such as command and control, situation awareness and collaborative planning. The same system will be extremely valuable in support of civilian activities such as Communications networks, public safety and the Airborne Internet.

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Seoung Bum Lee
AF103-044      Awarded:2/17/2011
Title:Mission Oriented Router with Protocol Heterogeneity (MORPH) for Dynamic Airborne Networks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Mayflower proposes an autoconfiguring router technology, namely the Mission-Oriented Router with Protocol Heterogeneity for Dynamic Airborne Network (MORPH). MORPH is a comprehensive autoconfiguration technology that allows the airborne network to automatically set itself up to facilitate the full networking functionality. This goal is much broader than the traditional view of autoconfiguration that primarily focuses on automatic acquisition of IP addresses and efficient duplicate address detection. Facilitating fully autoconfigurable AN routers not only involves these traditional IP autoconfiguration concepts but also the autoconfiguration of protocol metrics, protocol timers, constraints, and other factors that are sensitive to network’s operational environment. There are many challenges to deal with to realize goal. Knowing these challenges, our innovative MORPH technology will be initially designed in customized fashion for the USAF airborne network protocols and characteristics. Working within a well-defined and limited system framework would enable us to develop a MORPH design that can be implemented with current technologies, and can be scaled up to larger and more complex networks through future improvements. In the proposed SBIR program, the Mayflower team will develop an effective MORPH Airborne Network Router technology in Phase I and Phase II, and will ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond. BENEFIT: There is significant interest in autoconfiguration capability in the realm disaster relief network where multiple parties may operate jointly with network merging and disconnecting during the relief effort. Moreover, the disaster relief first responders from different agencies and countries may use different network access devices with different protocols, and therefore form a heterogeneous network. In addition, there is a growing need for truly autoconfiguring networking capabilities in the home networking area as well as for small enterprise applications. The proposed MORPH system can provide a plug-n-play networking capability for these networks. The autoconfiguring router technology, MORPH, can enable rapid deployment the airborne networks without the lengthy mission planning. The ability to autoconfigure the airborne networking assets without manual intervention can significantly shorten the network deployment time. Networks can merge and disconnect during the operation without any complex reconfiguration requirements. The ability to auto-select, auto- configure, auto-tune, and even switch the routing protocols based on the communication requirements and current networking conditions with adherence to prevailing policy would represent a key enabler in Network-Centric Warfare.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Stephen Brueckner
AF103-047      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Fight-Through Nodes (FTN)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Despite existing security efforts, DoD networks are susceptible to attack and compromise. For critical missions, it is necessary to “fight through” cyber attacks in order to achieve mission objectives. Such a “survivable” network would be capable of carrying on (in a perhaps degraded state) during an attack, continuing to provide critical services. Because human reaction times are very slow in comparison to the speed of cyber attacks, survivable systems require an automated response capability, so the network can dynamically respond to threats. The ATC-NY team will create the Fight-Through Node (FTN), a combined hardware/software system to enhance existing networks with survivability properties. Fight- Through Nodes are designed to replace nodes hosting mission-critical services in a network. Networks equipped with FTNs will be resilient, enabling critical processes to operate despite attacks on the node or impacts on other parts of the network. The methods used to achieve these capabilities include automation, redundancy, sandboxing, synchronization, checkpointing, and restoration. BENEFIT: As the DoD and private enterprise rely ever more heavily on their information systems, the frequency and sophistication of cyber attacks continues to rise. ATC-NY’s Fight-Through Nodes (FTNs) will improve the survivability of a network’s critical server nodes, making it possible to fight through cyber attacks. Rather than being disabled by such attacks, servers providing mission-critical services will continue to operate in spite of the attack. The DoD can use FTNs to replace critical nodes on Mission Assurance Category (MAC) I, II, and III DoD information systems. The mission assurance provided by FTNs will also appeal to critical infrastructure enterprises (e.g., utilities, health care, financial, transportation).

mZeal Communications
166 Boulder Drive, Suite 108
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 665-0281
Rajini Anachi
AF103-047      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Attack Recognition and Mitigation by Expert Virtual Assistant (ARMEVA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. faces constant attacks in cyber-space which have the potential to cripple the U.S. military infrastructure. Given the ramifications of such attacks, the Department of Defense has recently adjusted its strategy for cyber-defense toward maintaining mission-critical functionality in the face of cyber-attacks which have compromised critical portions of the mission-support infrastructure. The ARMEVA system (Attack Recognition and Mitigation by Expert Virtual Assistant) implements this strategy by using virtual and machine learning technologies to ascertain the security state of the system infrastructure. ARMEVA identifies not only if the system is under attack, but also which components of the system have been compromised. If the mission is endangered, ARMEVA automatically invokes contingency measures designed to mitigate the effects of the attack. ARMEVA’s cognitive representation paradigm allows arbitrary attack mitigation strategies to be implemented, from informing the commander as to which parts of the system are no longer trustworthy to implementing automated fail-over to replace entire suites of critical processes. This approach maximizes the potential for mission success even when critical portions of the system have been severely compromised. BENEFIT: A recently revealed exploit in the U.S. security system reveals the extent of the danger posed to the United States and its allies by cyber-threats. An exploit which started with the installation of a rogue program via a flash drive in the Middle East, was the “most serious breach of U.S. Military computers ever” according to William J. Lynn 3d, deputy secretary of defense, said recently in “Foreign Affairs”. Mr. Lynn described the tremendous difficulty of protecting digital military communications over a vast array 15,000 networks and 7 million computing devices all over the world against determined adversaries who, with limited means and a certain level of ingenuity, can inflict enormous damage. “A dozen determined computer programmers can, if they find a vulnerability to exploit, threaten the United States’s global logistics network, steal its operational plans, blind its intelligence capabilities or hinder its ability to deliver weapons on target,” Mr. Lynn stated. mZeal’s proposed ARMEVA (Attack Recognition and Mitigation by Expert Virtual Assistant) system provides a powerful combination of automated attack detection, mitigation, and decision support capabilities which will act to minimize mission risk in the face of potentially crippling cyber-attacks. For example, the exploit mentioned above would have been detected and eliminated by ARMEVA. This is due to the fact that each input to the system is tracked on a machine instruction basis, and trustworthiness and sensitivity levels of data and processes adjusted in accordance with how they interact with other processes and data. Since the rogue process did not originate from a trusted source, and/or would have pushed sensitive data out of the system, ARMEVA would have generated a low trustworthiness level for the

Distributed Infinity Inc
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 825-8709
Samuel Hamilton
AF103-048      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Network Virtualization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Virtualization technologies have the capability to provide significant improvements in horizontal network scalability. There are significant challenges, however, when adapting these technologies to tactical networks, where bandwidth, latency, and connection reliability issues combine to foil network characteristics that many network protocols within a virtualized network rely on. In particular, providing secure communication with minimum reliance on bandwidth and latency is absolutely critical. We propose to develop a new protocol applicable to this problem, which can enable secure communication between virtual network nodes with minimal bandwidth and latency constraints. It will do so with an emphasis on security, maintaining the ability to provide access control to virtual nodes as desired without burdening the system with the need to pass large access control restriction lists around the system, a requirement already presenting a significant burden on our tactical networks even without the expanded issues presented by network virtualization. BENEFIT: The need for a small bandwidth footprint and low latency impact are self-evident. In addition to these requirements, tactical networks require the ability to execute in a secure, and in some cases anonymous manner. If unprivileged network observers were able to deduce elements of the data addressed there could be catastrophic repercussions in the field of operation. In some cases, even deducing the participants in a data exchange operation can be vital information to an enemy. A virtualized network, with the potential for non-static location identifiers has an above average ability to provide such anonymity, but only if the protocol providing secure communication does not compromise this by requiring static key exchanges or other stable patterns allowing for information extraction by a participant in the networking environment.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4765
Olga Ratsimor
AF103-048      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Intelligent Optimization Solutions for Virtual Networks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The key innovation of this proposal is the development of a powerful virtualization solution that facilitates automated, dynamic management and optimization of virtual networks and underlying shared substrate. Our solution provides virtual networks with the capability to rapidly adapt to new conditions using information such as link metrics, ongoing traffic flows and incoming traffic constrains to drive informed decisions. More specifically, mechanisms such as dynamic performance-aware channel splitting and migration will support selection of links that best suit preference and communication requirements of incoming and currently active data flows. Additional mechanisms such as intelligent virtual router migration facilitate deployment of new virtual routers for purposes of maintenances and horizontal network growth. Our proposed solution relies on simple yet powerful enhancement to virtual routing tables. Our enhanced routing tables will not only contain routes to particular destinations but also provide additional status information about the underlying network links. Our algorithms will use this status information to make intelligent selections that will ensure dynamic performance-aware management of traffic flows in virtual networks. In concert, these mechanisms will provide a comprehensive management solution that will support secure, reliable, mission-oriented communications over virtual networks including connectivity with the nodes at the tactical edge. BENEFIT: Our proposed virtualization techniques address some challenging problems in virtual networks and provide a feasible solution for resource management and allocation in these networks. We expect to produce a software prototype as the initial product equipped with the proposed techniques for military as well as civilian applications. The proposed solution has tremendous application potential for military information systems. The proposed architecture, channel splitting and migration techniques, enhancement of virtual routing table, and virtual router migration technique can be applied to essentially all military networks. Our proposed techniques in virtual network management can also be applied in a wide range of civilian application scenarios. Essentially any kind of computer network can potentially benefit from our technology. The size of the market is extremely large and may grow rapidly as the world becomes more and more digitized and connected. As efficient connectivity and communications becomes more critical, we expect that the aggregate market size will be similar to or larger than that of military networks.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 983-3588
David A. Tolliver
AF103-049      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:Near-realtime Forensic Analysis Capabilities for Moving Target Indicator (MTI) Data
Abstract:ABSTRACT: ObjectVideo proposes a three tiered system for analyzing activities in WAMI MTI data. The proposed system captures distinct notions of behavior, from event frequency to activity sequences and specific site inference, with independent subsystems. Each level implements an appropriate statistical model with known state-of-the-art performance and fast fitting and inference algorithms. The models build upon detectors, UI tools, and data management components built during the implementation of the ObjectVideo ARGUS-IS ground processing station. This existing software suite in tandem with the decoupled layer design for activity modeling mitigate the risk, inherent to a closed-loop systems spanning all three notions of activity, while yielding a design that promises short time horizon integration into an existing WAMI processing station. BENEFIT: Semi-automated and automatic WAMI forensic analysis tools promise to unleash the power wide area motion imagery (WAMI). The proposed system addresses the critical issues for real-time WAMI processing through: a. The detection of hot-spots in spatiotemporal WAMI data to facilitate the near real-time surveillance of large areas with limited human resources. b. The determination of which individuals in are responsible for the creation of incipient anomalous event clusters. c. The means with which to follow, describe, and analyze the long-term behavior of those individuals. The ObjectVideo Team believes that these advancements will have a high impact in the defense and private sector WAMI and multi-sensor surveillance industries.

Parietal Systems, Inc.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
John J. Fox
AF103-049      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:GEM: Graphical Exploitation Models
Abstract:ABSTRACT: PSI will apply a novel form of unsupervised learning to the problem of detecting and identifying coordinated threats. Particular emphasis is placed on detecting motion based leading indicators of impending "swarming" attacks of small, low cost adversaries. The developed system will be able to not only detect the threats, but also provide operator's insight into the pedigree of this decision and notify operators when there has been a shift in tactics. The purpose of this Phase I effort is to demonstrate proof of concept and to perform an initial robustness analysis of the algorithm against various operating conditions. BENEFIT: The algorithm learns motion behaviors on the fly, and outputs statistics which are needed by track fusion systems, sensor management systems, network detection, and other exploitation systems. The technology will improve ground-target exploitation for surveillance of moving targets (vehicles and dismounts) in complex urban environments for military, law enforcement, emergency management, and security monitoring applications.

Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Michael J. Roemer
AF103-050      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Intelligent Sensor Registration and Data Association
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Impact Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate dynamic sensor registration and data association algorithms implemented within an intelligent-agent framework that will increase the robustness of multi-INT information for the USAF. The project team plans to achieve this goal by building on our recently developed intelligent-software-agent technology and state-of-the-art information fusion techniques. The proposed sensor registration algorithms will utilize a unified framework for joint sensor registration and data association, automatically taking Out-of-Sequence-Measurements into account. In addition, the proposed system will be built on an Open System Architecture using standard protocols while the software implementation and integration will follow a well-established system engineering approach. Utilizing methods such as the Multi-Scan, Markov Chain Monte Carlo Data Association algorithm, we will be able to focus on the problem of densely-packed target tracking, just as an example. Once an accurate sensor registration service has been implemented, the USAF will be able to utilize the alignment of sensors to provide a consistent global picture of the surveillance area for improved situational awareness, thus enhancing risk and vulnerability assessment and enabling optimization of operations and resource allocation. The performance and survivability of the fleet will therefore be significantly enhanced. BENEFIT: The resulting product will provide a valuable surveillance data fusion capability for private defense industry and other private sector companies with applications involving distributed sensors with diverse detection characteristics and training. This capability will be an enabling technology in valuable products for private industry to sell to other organizations dealing with human perception, human decision-making, and improved data fusion. Breakthrough technologies intended to improve the practicality and reliability of data fusion systems for large distributed sensor networks will benefit air traffic control, surveillance and reconnaissance, search and rescue operations, border patrol and law enforcement operations, and distributed fault diagnostics, among many others.

Information Systems Laboratories, Inc.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 269-3620
Jameson Bergin
AF103-050      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Application of Advanced Techniques to Multi-INT Information Association and Fusion
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Large numbers of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) sensors spanning a number of different phenomenologies (e.g., radio frequency and optics) are currently employed in support of the global war on terror. While these sensors provide data streams that contain a wealth of valuable information for the warfighter, the growing collection capability is effectively overwhelming intelligence analysts and systems which limits the amount of intelligence that can currently be extracted from existing sensor data. It is likely that opportunities to extract additional intelligence such as high-fidelity enemy movement patterns by fusing or associating data among disparate sensor types are being lost because tools do not exist to fuse the data without significantly increasing operator workload. Thus an opportunity exists to develop new analysis/fusion capabilities that can draw from diverse information sources and associate the data thus creating intelligence from previously unrelated products. BENEFIT: The primary commercialization path for the technology developed under the proposed effort is with Department of Defense program offices developing advanced ground station capabilities that exploit data from multiple ISR sensor sources. The new techniques developed under this SBIR will allow operators to focus more of their efforts on the intelligence extraction problem such as monitoring the activities of individuals of interest as opposed to spending their time on tedious tasks such as manual association of data among sensors to identify tracks of interest

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5009
Peter David
AF103-051      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:Chat Relevance and Targeting (CHART)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Technology to aid in the understanding and exploitation of text has not kept pace with the technology used to generate, record, transmit and store the data. The mismatch between the fire hose of text production and the soda straw of text consumption is particularly severe in systems that rely on chat. The proposed system, named CHAt Relevance and Targeting (CHART), ensures that chat-based data is delivered to the users who need it by passively capturing chat content and metadata and using a dynamically updated relevance model to pass it to the relevant users. CHAT’s relevance modeling is based on a probabilistic model of text content and user interests that is developed through a fully unsupervised process – no labeled data is required, and no assumptions about language use or data relevance are needed. CHART’s relevance model is also used to identify external, non-chat text data that is relevant to the material discussed within the chat domain. CHART can retrieve relevant data in realtime in support of current operations or in an after-action or forensic mode for training and event reconstruction. BENEFIT: The proposed system, named CHART (CHAt Relevance and Targeting) dynamically builds and maintains a relevance model that maps topics under discussion in the chat domain with specific user’s interests and job function. CHART uses this relevance model to automate the delivery of relevant chat content to the users that need it. By targeting the right information to the right users, CHART provides Warfighters with a more accurate and up-to- date situational picture with less manual discover of content required. CHART is also able to identify external, non-chat data that is relevant to the emerging topics of discussion in the chat domain, and can supply additional amplifying and clarifying to Warfighters in realtime.

Janya Inc.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
Thomas L. Cornell
AF103-051      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:Enhance Situational Awareness by Capturing Knowledge from Chat
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Computer-mediated synchronous communication (chat) is becoming an increasingly important tool for gaining and maintaining situation awareness in military operations. Our primary goal in this project is to investigate the ways in which text extraction technology can help in the kind of C2 Chat setting exemplified by Air Operations Centers' (AOC) dynamic targeting cells (DTC). The difficulties inherent in maintaining situation awareness in this fast paced and information rich environment can be addressed by improving training to make more effective use of existing tools, and by improving the existing tools themselves to help operators leverage their scarce attentional resources. We believe that text extraction technology adapted to C2 Chat will materially improve both off-line performance analysis and on-line information management. Janya and Aptima have already developed tools for dealing with Command and Control (C2) Chat. These two tools complement each other, allowing for a more comprehensive approach to managing C2 Chat. Janya's Semantex Chat Processor (Semantex/Chat) supports the real time recognition of entities, events and relationships mentioned in the chat stream. Aptima's Communications and Information Flow Tracking System (CIFTS) can analyze chat logs off line at a higher level, to identify patterns of communication supporting sophisticated performance analysis tools. BENEFIT: The ability to automatically annotate key items of information appearing in a chat message stream will help operators using this popular communication and collaboration tool to better follow the contents of multiple simultaneous conversations. Key information will be easier to spot, easier to retain, easier to share, and easier to integrate into a big picture view.

Black River Systems Company, Inc.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Michael Blount
AF103-053      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:Reducing time for forensic analysis of multi sensor GMTI from Days to Hours
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In today’s war environment, leaders are generating more Requests for Information than ever to support the fight and the MTI sensors providing beneficial information to service these requests are growing in number and capability. Thus analysts must have utilities at their disposal capable of interrogating this immense amount of MTI information in an efficient and effective manner to shorten the time for forensic analysis of MTI and provide leaders in the field a timely and complete product. Black River will work to fulfill this need for adequate MTI analysis utilities by researching and developing automated algorithms that can quickly sift through and enhance the billions of MTI in a given MTI enterprise to provide analysts an optimal set of MTI data within a reduced time delta. Also, Black River plans to define Measures of Performance Statistics to evaluate the MTI enterprises being developed by the MTI community which will exploit system weaknesses and ultimately allow a better product to be provided to the analysts. Thirdly, Black River intends to develop a Baseline MTI Enterprise / research platform for the Air Force that will allow for the testing of the proposed developmental data mining algorithms and MTI enterprise metrics. BENEFIT: Black River's proposed multi-faceted approach provides MTI data mining algorithms that will accelerate the forensic analysis of MTI allowing analysts to more quickly fulfill Requests for Information. The Baseline MTI Enterprise and metrics provides the MTI community with utilities to leverage for the advancement of developmental MTI exploitation algorithms.

Real-Time Innovations
385 Moffett Park Drive, Suite 115
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 990-7421
Heidi Schubert
AF103-053      Awarded:2/17/2011
Title:Reducing Time for Forensic Analysis of Multi-Sensor GMTI Data from Days to Hours
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The US uses a wide range of surveillance technologies to observe movements on the earth. These systems, knows as Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) systems, provide a wealth of information on the movement of potential targets. Real-Time Innovations (RTI) proposes to prototype a distributed system that can collect status from multiple protocols typically used in a GMTI system, integrate the information into a common picture, and deliver the data fast enough for an operator to respond decisively. The framework will process GMTI protocols, provide real-time analysis of data through Complex Event Processing (CEP), support MTI-like video data sources, and make all information readily accessible to provide the right data at the right time. RTI will build an open, extensible infrastructure for collecting, visualizing, analyzing, and reacting to GMTI sensor data in real-time. The proposed framework will be based on the Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard. It will use open-source, COTS technologies, and a deployed GMTI platform to collect the most important data and deliver it in a timely and predictable manner. When commercialized, it will bring facile, real-time Situation Awareness (SA) to GMTI systems, greatly increasing their accuracy, reliability and speed of execution. BENEFIT: The proposed research will result in the capability to collect raw GMTI data and convert it quickly to information in order to provide true Situational Awareness (SA). The information will then be delivered to advanced automated system, and finally to human analysts. Ultimately the goal is to enable real-time SA to identify and react to events as they happen. Such a system would be scalable and extensible to dynamic conditions, and is geared for the modern warfare challenges faced by the US Air Force. Some of the results of the proposed Phase 1 effort are enhancements and adapters for existing RTI commercial products, such as a STANAG-4607 adapter for RTI Routing Service. RTI will make this available as part of the commercial product offering. Similarly enhancements to RTI Database Integration Service to provide local and global synchronization would benefit both existing and prospective RTI customers and help drive DDS integration in data collection and analysis projects.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Hajime Inoue
AF103-054      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:SIPRIA: a System for Presenting Intelligence Relevant to an Anomalous Event Alert
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Analysts must determine the proper response to an alert produced by an anomaly detection system. Currently, analysts must manually generate queries to other intelligence sources and then search by hand through the results to find evidence relevant to the alert. This is a slow and error-prone process. Analysts may create flawed queries or miss the relevance of results. SIPRIA is a system for automatically gathering and presenting intelligence relevant to an alert. SIPRIA analyzes the alert, generates queries to remote data sources, and presents the analyst with results relevant to the alert in an integrated, web-like way. If more research is required, SIPRIA allows the analyst to query other intelligence sources with a single search interface. SIPRIA eliminates the error-prone steps and immediately presents the intelligence an analyst requires to determine the proper response to an alert. BENEFIT: With SIPRIA, intelligence analysts can more easily identify emerging threats. SIPRIA allows analysts to easily review all intelligence relevant to an anomalous event alert, eliminating the current tedious effort of manually querying intelligence sources to test their relevance.

Modus Operandi, Inc.
709 South Harbor City Blvd., Suite 400
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 473-1421
Richard Hull
AF103-054      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:BackSweep: Seeing Anomalous Events In Context
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A nightmare scenario for the U.S. Air Force would be if multiple satellites used by the Pentagon suddenly stopped communicating without warning, indicating a possible hostile anti-satellite (ASAT) campaign on the nation’s space assets. The Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) is leading efforts to improve space situational awareness (SSA) and early determination of space threats within the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS). To support JMS capability gaps, Modus Operandi proposes the development of BackSweep, an innovative, net-centric architecture and prototype tool for automating the retrieval of contextual information related to anomalous space-related events; helping warfighters understand the potential causes and impacts of these events. BackSweep uses semantic technologies and probabilistic models to formally represent and reason over the environmental, mission and system contexts of space assets. BackSweep’s advanced contextual reasoning capability will significantly reduce an intelligence analyst’s workload, enhance his space situational awareness, and improve his threat assessment effectiveness within the JMS. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of the BackSweep approach for the JSpOC Mission System are to: 1) significantly reduces manual processing of military intelligence; 2) provides reasoning over anomalous events to quickly determine threats to space assets; and 3) increases levels of fusion of data from multiple information sources. Significant potential commercial opportunities are available in the area of pervasive or ubiquitous computing including personal electronic devices such as cell phones and personal digital assistants. These devices are made much more useful when they are aware of the user's context.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Dean Paschen
AF103-056      Awarded:3/2/2011
Title:Modular Antenna System for Tracking Satellites by adaptations of existing terminals
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of this Phase I program is to develop and evaluate the feasibility of concepts that will allow existing vehicular and man-portable SATCOM terminals operating in the 20/44 GHz range to be adapted to track satellites in all kinds of orbits. Although most SATCOM terminals in this band are designed to interact primarily with satellites in geostationary (GEO) orbits, there is a significant opportunity for improving their capacity if they are reconfigured to interact with satellites in non-GEO orbits. A main objective of the effort is to reuse as much existing hardware and technology as possible to minimize the cost of implementing the proposed solution. In order to accomplish this, FIRST RF has developed innovative Doppler correction, acquisition and tracking, and antenna aperture concepts that will be investigated during the proposed Phase I effort. These concepts are designed to preserve the radio interface of the antenna as well as the largest possible percentage of existing control and steering hardware and electronics. FIRST RF believes this approach mitigates risk and will provide US Air Force with a low-cost concept that can be quickly – and reliably – deployed. BENEFIT: Although the specific urgent objective of the solicitation is to pursue technologies that address expanded capabilities of SATCOM terminals at 20/44 GHz, FIRST RF recognizes that the proposed technologies have considerable relevance in other SATCOM applications. In fact, because of the desire to reuse as much existing hardware as possible, FIRST RF’s proposed approach is comprised of several standalone modules, including the aperture, Doppler correction, tracking, and acquisition modules. As with the desired application at 20/44, one or more of these modules can be applied in concert to update different parts of existing terminals – or generate completely-new SATCOM technology. As these modules are implemented, ground terminals for satellite communications will gain access to satellites in a broader variety of orbits, increasing their applicability to a wider range of DoD assets. Additionally, the modular approach generates solutions that are more readily repaired or replaced at the component level, making implementation and maintenance less expensive than conventional all-in-one approaches. Because of these key benefits, FIRST RF believes the proposed approach represents an important paradigm shift in next-generation SATCOM terminals.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 242-9805
Kamran Mahbobi
AF103-056      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:Modular Antenna System for Tracking Satellites by adaptations of existing terminals
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Many currently deployed EHF (Extreme High Frequency) SATCOM terminals lack the ability to track and acquire satellites in highly inclined orbits primarily due to the large Doppler frequency offsets created by a combination of a fast moving satellite and high carrier frequency. Combining this problem with the large operating bandwidths of employed frequency-hopped waveforms such XDR (Extended Data Rate) further compounds the situation as the Doppler frequency cannot be treated as constant across the band. MaXentric’s solution is a two prong approach that is wrapped around a candidate hardware architecture codenamed BLADE (Blackbox Adaptive Doppler Elimination). The first approach relies on monitoring the varying Doppler frequency offset created across the EHF downlink band and intelligently applying frequency correction prior to modem demodulation. The second approach subdivides the receive band into narrower spectral slices that can be independently corrected using a Doppler compensation factor. The key benefit to both of these approaches is that expensive modification of the currently deployed EHF SATCOM terminal is not required. BENEFIT: In an information-driven world, there is an increasing need to conduct data transfers over satellite links, whether the traffic is high-definition video to consumers at home or communication relays for disparate tactical networks across the globe. Today, the satellite industry is seeing burgeoning opportunities in broadband IP services, defense and military applications, and space- and ground-segmented products and services. Additionally, large satellite system operators and teleport operators are now merging, and broadcasters and large users are now leasing satellite capacity rather than opting to deploy their own dedicated systems. This enormous consolidation in satellite services, due to a combination of the global economic recession as well as reduction in government spending in satellite programs, has required ground operators and service providers to incorporate new schemes and methods to provide high bandwidth services in older generation equipment. With the lessons learned in developing BLADE. MaXentric is poised to take advantage of this severe consolidation of services and equipment to provide novel algorithms, architectures, and protocols to reduce costs for ground operators and service providers

PRINCETON MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INC
UNIT C-10 3 NAMI LANE
MERCERVILLE, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 586-8140
Daniel Bechtel
AF103-057      Awarded:2/17/2011
Title:E-band Radiation Hardened Low Noise Amplifier
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In October of 2003 the FCC opened the 71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz, and 92-95 GHz for commercial use. Since these bands are also available for satellite applications there is a need for space-qualifiable front-end E-band components developed in parallel with robust components for terrestrial use. Phase I effort focuses on developing an E-band low-noise amplifier (LNA) design, using 0.15um technology and then validating the design with modeling and simulation. This effort will make non-traditional bands such as 81-86 GHz available for military applications. The LNA design has specific goals in low noise-figure, small-signal gain, wide operating temperature range, and radiation-hardness. In Phase I we will be identifying the most favorable device technologies and foundries in terms of both the focused Phase I radiation-hardened LNA objectives. We consider the most favorable device technology to be AlGaN/GaN fabricated on SiC and the most favorable foundry to be HRL. This viewpoint is based on system considerations: GaN has at least an order-of-magnitude better self-protection capability than GaAs or InP, it has the potential for higher-power transceiver MMICs, and it has a higher radiation tolerance than competing technologies. However, InP has a lower noise and higher gain and has sufficient radiation hardness. Uncertainties include the time that will be needed to bring GaN’s current high costs down relatively to other technologies. BENEFIT: This effort will align with the overall Air Force effort to make bands such as 81-86 GHz available for military applications.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
James Schellenberg
AF103-057      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:E-band Radiation Hardened Low Noise Amplifier
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop a low noise amplifier (LNA), operating at E-band frequencies (81-86 GHz), with SOA noise performance, enhanced linearity and low power consumption. This will be accomplished by a combination of SOA device technology and innovative circuit techniques. The key to the noise performance is the advanced device technology, employing InP HEMT semiconductor materials in conjunction with sub-0.1µm gate lengths. For this technology, we will team with either BAE or NGST. To enhance the amplifier linearity and reduce its power consumption, we are proposing two circuit innovations: Firstly, we are utilizing a cascode circuit configuration to improve the amplifier linearity, and secondly, we are biasing the amplifier stages in series (current reuse) to reduce power consumption. Neither of these techniques has been attempted before at these millimeter-wave frequencies. Simulations described in this proposal indicate that with these innovative techniques, we can simultaneously improve the amplifier linearity while reducing the power consumption. In fact, simulations indicate that we can reduce IM products by 30-40 dB, resulting in an OIP3 of 35.8 dBm with a power consumption of only 27mW. Finally, this amplifier will be packaged using QuinStar’s low-loss E/W-band waveguide packaging technology, which has been continually refined since the company’s inception in 1993. BENEFIT: Future MILSATCOM terminals require low noise, linear amplifiers for space based receivers operating at non-traditional millimeter-wave frequencies such as E-band (81-86 GHz). Linearity (high OIP3) is required in order handle advanced spectrally efficient modulation schemes such as QAM16, and low power is required both for power consumption reasons and to reduce self heating. In addition to space based SATCOM applications, this ultra low-noise technology is expected to find applications in other space applications including broadband RF cross-link communications in constellations, as well as airborne —including very high altitude long duration reconnaissance UAV—and terrestrial applications. Specific examples include the Joint Arial Layered Network (JALN), the ICD effort from STRATCOM and AISR. Further, this low noise MMIC technology can be readily applied to other military missions at adjacent frequencies such as W-band. QuinStar is an active participate in the AARGM missile program, and this low noise technology can be directly transitioned to the AARGM missile transceiver.

Architecture Technology Corporation
9977 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Maher N. Kaddoura
AF103-058      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:New Intrusion-Resistant Virtualized Adaptive Network Architecture (NIRVANA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: With increased connectivity and integration with other DoD networks the threat of cyber attacks on space operations assets has become significant. Hence, the Air Force has identified a need to protect satellite operations centers (SOCs) from cyber attacks for mission assurance. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes to develop an intrusion-resistant network architecture for the communications segment of DoD’s satellite control enterprise networks using a novel defensive concept called NIRVANA (New Intrusion-Resistant Virtualized Adaptive Network Architecture). NIRVANA is designed to protect the distributed satellite control enterprise network operating over the shared DoD Internet from two types of network-borne denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, i.e., host resource depletion attacks and access link flooding attacks. The goal of this effort is to demonstrate and establish the capability of the NIRVANA approach to enable the satellite control enterprise network to evade such DoS attacks and to provide continued assured availability of the system. BENEFIT: The NIRVANA effort will develop software-based networking products needed to defend the DoD’s satellite control network from network-borne DoS attacks. Businesses the world over have recognized how imperative it is to defend their mission-critical networks from DoS attacks. Thus, the DoS defense products developed by the NIRVANA effort will also address the needs of commercial enterprises.

Metron, Inc.
1818 Library Street Suite 600
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 727-4111
Marconi B. Ratonel
AF103-058      Awarded:2/17/2011
Title:Computer Network Defense (CND) for Future Satellite Operations Center (SOC) - MP 91-10
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Metron, Inc. (Metron) proposes a distinctive solution for the identification of relevant cyberspace characteristics that can lead to early detection of cyber attacks and then couple that identification to an effective mitigation strategy using an expert-system optimization tool. This system will consist of both an expert system and distributed agents. The expert-system optimization tool, or inference engine, will combine together multiple data sources to dynamically extract and condense relevant network data traffic information. This tool combines the programmed knowledge of network experts with advanced mathematical techniques for rapid automated informational data mining to identify anomalous characteristics. In this process, the engine will dynamically sift through large amounts of network data and then fuse only the most significant network information to help identify suspicious network activity. Once a cyber intrusion or anomalous activity is detected, the inference engine will then apply the programmed knowledge of expert operators in order to recommend courses of action. Human operators may directly respond to fault conditions once alerted, or utilize tailored network software agents that can be node-deployed in order to institute recovery procedures. These agents allow for a modular architecture in which different remedial behaviors may be uploaded or swapped. BENEFIT: The Cyber Alert Tool described for this Solicitation for Computer Network Defense for DOD Satellite Control Centers has potential use for network defense in other complex, multilayered enterprises. Commercial applications could include Commercial Satellite Operations that would benefit from using this technology to safe guard their commercial space assets from Cyber Attack, and more generally any large scale corporation that needs an optimization tool for Cyber defense of their network.

Janya Inc.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
John Chen
AF103-059      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Extracting Location-stamped Events from Textual Data for Persistent Situational Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Automated extraction of event location information enables intelligence analysts to rapidly visualize information contained in large volumes of unstructured textual data. Although natural language text analysis software already has the ability to extract locations to some degree, there still exist deficiencies that we will address in this project. We will expand geocoding to include facilities rather than only geocoding locations. Linking location mentions with event mentions or each other has not received an adequate treatment in existing literature. We will address this issue by implementing and benchmarking modules for these tasks. We will also study the prospect of automated extraction of implicit location-event extraction, namely determining the location of an event mentioned in an input sentence even if that location is not explicitly mentioned there. BENEFIT: The main anticipated benefit of this work involves advancements in methods to automatically extract and geocode locations corresponding to events as they occur in unstructured data. These are especially useful in enhancing event visualization from such data. Some of the methods to be studied involve extracting information that is only implicitly mentioned in the text, which is one step beyond what most systems can produce.

Linguastat
795 Folsom St, 1st Floor
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 324-8898
Mark H. Butler
AF103-059      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Extracting Location-stamped Events from Textual Data for Persistent Situational Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Air Force intelligence analysts need the ability to more rapidly monitor, visualize and analyze event information in large volumes of unstructured textual data. While research has been done in this area before, there is still a need for much higher accuracy extraction and geocoding of events. We propose to develop technology for event location stamping by combining key components in a way that has not been done before. Specifically we propose to improve the state of the art in location detection, location resolution, and trajectory resolution. BENEFIT: Current geotagging systems frequently fail to assign location stamps to events or assign incorrect location stamps to events. In both cases, visualization systems that present information as maps cannot perform properly. This project will result in the development of a fully automated event extraction and location-stamping system that is able to reason about time and assign correct location stamps to all extracted events. The solution will have broad commercial potential wherever knowledge workers perform geospatial analysis of unstructured text. In addition to software applications for intelligence gathering and analysis in defense, homeland security, and law enforcement, commercial potential exists in knowledge-based businesses such as professional services, engineering, medicine, and law. First commercial applications should be targeted where knowledge workers are faced with large quantities of unstructured text necessitating a geospatial analysis, for example disease discovery and tracking.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4633
Song Luo
AF103-060      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Survivable and Secure Content Publishing and Distribution Systems (SSCUDS) for Military Operations
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current commercial CDS (Content Distribution System) cannot meet requirements of military applications, when C2 nodes are more exposed to disconnected, intermittent, and limited communications. In addition, commercial products do not have enough security features as needed in military operations. In this proposal, IAI and its collaborator propose SSCUDS (Survivable and Secure Content pUblishing and Distribution Network) to address this critical need. The major advantages of SSCUDS include: 1) high survivability by minimizing the dependence of central servers; 2) various security mechanisms are designed to meet the military requirements; 3) increased flexibility by allowing publishing from anywhere in the network; 4) fully support of node dynamics; 5) Service Oriented Architecture. BENEFIT: We anticipate that by the end of our Phase II effort we will have matured SSCUDS sufficiently and we will be able to demonstrate its functions to evaluate the near real-world use of content distribution. This will be the first CDS product that is capable of operating over dynamic networks and meets military security requirements. It will lay a sound foundation for future R&D. The commercial market of SSCUDS is huge. With enterprise and personal computing platforms becoming more mobile, the demand for survivable and secure content distribution solution is significant. Currently there is no product similar to SSCUDS. SSCUDS can be used by all companies and organizations interested in secure content distribution over dynamic networks. Its potential market size is large and its possible customers are innumerable.

Securboration Inc
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 154
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-3295
Tony Stirtzinger
AF103-060      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:Secure Web-Based Content Distribution System (CDS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force currently relies on large, fixed nodes, such as the Air Operations Center, for their command and control (C2) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) needs. These sites are tasked with providing critical processing, analysis and dissemination. This centralized approach localizes mission critical data in information enclaves and creates a communications bottleneck that makes dissemination susceptible to disconnected, intermittent, and limited (DIL) connectivity. As a result information is not adequately pushed to the edge, pulled from it, or distributed amongst tactical edge nodes. Securboration proposes to develop a layered system called the Intelligent C2 Content Distribution System (IC2CDS) that has the potential to enable seamless information exchange among nodes in the GIG, from the outermost tactical nodes to the large CONUS intelligence centers, and vice versa. IC2CDS uses a semantic model to understand the context of the mission space and information exchange requirements. This intelligently determines which information products need to be propagated throughout nodes on the GIG, and how that exchange should transpire. Once this determination is made, WAN Optimization techniques, in conjunction with the security controls ensure that the transaction occurs in an optimized and secure manner. BENEFIT: This research has broad applicability in both the military and commercial domains. In the military, it can benefits the vision of forward operating nodes that seamlessly access the information they need, even in disconnected, intermittent, and limited connectivity environments. In one specific forward operating example, IC2CDS can support information exchange among Falconer AOC’s attached to a combat Air Force and other functional AOCs (e.g. those supporting space and mobility). In the commercial domain, our Letter of Support from Circadence testifies to the need and viability of IC2CDS. The ability to provide contextual, intelligent routing and optimization is lacking in current CDN commercial implementations. Our partnership with Circadence provides a transition path to embed this IC2CDS into Circadence’s product line, and Circadence’s ongoing military related efforts will help to ensure IC2CDS is available to support the troops in the field.

Colorado Engineering Inc.
1310 United Heights Suite 105
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Michael J. Hammel
AF103-061      Awarded:3/18/2011
Title:Learning Agents for Autonomous Space Asset Management (LAASAM)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current and future space systems will continue to grow in complexity and capabilities, creating a formidable challenge to monitor, maintain, and utilize these systems and manage their growing network of space and related ground-based assets. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), and in particular, Condition-Based System Health Management (CBHM), is the ability to manage and maintain a system using dynamic real-time data to prioritize, optimize, maintain, and allocate resources. A complete, modern CBHM system comprises a number of functional capabilities: sensing and data acquisition; signal processing; conditioning and health assessment; diagnostics and prognostics; and decision reasoning. In addition, an intelligent Human System Interface (HSI) is required to provide the user/analyst with relevant context-sensitive information, the system condition, and its effect on overall situational awareness. Colorado Engineering (CEI) proposes to investigate an Intelligent Information Agent Architecture that will provide a complete range of CBHM and HSI functionality from data collection through recommendations for specific actions. The research will also leverage CEI’s expertise with provisioning management network architectures to define a system to autonomously manage a complex network of current and future space-based assets to optimize their utilization. BENEFIT: CEI has developed software and hardware technologies for a variety of government programs, and the team has transitioned over 37 products to production for use in DoD and Government systems. CEI also has experience commercializing technology developed under Government-funded programs. Products are packaged as COTS items, listed on a catalog price sheet, supported with technical application notes and marketing materials, and made available for sale to both the commercial and Government markets. CEI will promote technologies developed under this effort as part of its standard commercial product marketing and sales activities. The LAASAM technology developed under this program will realize condition-based health management for enhanced situational awareness of a wide variety of space-based assets and supporting ground equipment. A key platform target for Phase III transition is the next generation Global Positioning System Control Segment (GPS OCX) program awarded to Raytheon, CEI’s teammate on this proposal. Raytheon anticipates leveraging CEI’s LAASAM architecture to help address the program’s requirement for condition-based health management. GPS OCX is the 3rd generation GPS information processing system and requires extensive provisioning, health monitoring, prognostics, and distributed diagnostic capability.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5106
Mike Colony
AF103-061      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:Bayesian Failure Prognostics Model (BFPM) for Space Networks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) under the United States Strategic Command employs a network of 29 sensors, known as the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), to track more than 17,000 objects in Earth orbit. Because the number of objects is large compared to the number of sensors, the SSN cannot track every object in the catalog. Decisions must be made to allocate resources to objects. If those resources become unavailable due to equipment failure or hostile activity, high-priority objects will have to be reassigned to other sensors or lost. A tool is needed to process information and predict when a resource is going to become unavailable. The DECISIVE ANALYTICS-Bowman team proposes a dynamic Bayesian network based prognostics approach incorporating anomalies and contextual information. The Bayesian Prognostic Failure Model (BFPM) framework, previously used for failure prognostics on electronics, incorporates a variety of contextual information into a dynamically configurable network to predict the availability of assets to perform tasking. The DECISIVE ANALYTICS- Bowman team will then demonstrate this tool’s ability to predict mission success of a proposed tasking plan using all available information. BENEFIT: The integration and enhancement of DAC’s suite of tools will allow the Air Force operators on the ground to plan missions with more effectiveness. By using available contextual information along with anomaly reports, it can estimate whether an asset can perform a defined mission allowing the best use of resources to monitor space activity. In phase 2, the DECSIVE ANALYTICS-Bowman team will work with Raytheon IDS and ISS to ingrate this technology in to the Joint Space Operations Center Mission System (JMS) and Air Force Space Surveillance System (Space Fence) programs.

21st Century Technologies Inc.
6011 West Courtyard Drive Bldg 5, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 682-4719
Igor Frolow
AF103-062      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:NetPAC: Network Prioritization Analysis Capability
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Through constant cyber attacks targeting our information infrastructure, our country faces a growing threat from nefarious groups and individuals intent on disrupting and destroying our infrastructure and way of life and acquiring military intelligence and intellectual property. Current methods used by the Air Force to defend against these attacks and protect the assets of its information networks typically focus only on ensuring that the information is transmitted successfully, not on the success of the mission. A need exists to change this cyber defense paradigm from information assurance (ensuring the successful transmission of information) to mission assurance (ensuring the attainment of mission objectives). Military missions and their supporting components and activities must be compared on an equal basis and prioritized according to their criticality in ensuring mission success. 21CT is proposing the Network Prioritization Analysis Capability (NetPAC), a system dynamics modeling approach to represent the activity network used to accomplish Air Force missions. The model will consist of the key activities and interactions needed to satisfy the military objectives and will give military planners a capability to analyze these activities and determine their priorities to determine the effects of disrupting a particular activity on one or more military missions. BENEFIT: If developed and implemented according to plan, NetPAC will be able to provide an invaluable capability to Air Force cyber security analysts and mission planners in identifying network components and activities that must be given higher priority prior to or during the execution of a mission. The analysts and planners will be able to run the model using a set of scenarios. The model will provide information on the impact that a cyber-attack induced degradation of capabilities in one or more activities might have on the success of a mission. This information will help identify higher priority activities. The ultimate benefit is the application of resources to the network assets that need them the most. The resources can be applied at the planning stage of the mission or during its actual execution since the model can be used to make asset prioritization adjustments in real time. The anticipated final results of NetPAC Phase I will include a proof-of-feasibility demonstration that illustrates the concepts enabled by the proposed approach. These concepts will show that it’s possible to conduct a complete comparative analysis of mission- supporting activities and determine how they should be prioritized. The ultimate intent is to extract the information needed to protect the Air Force’s most valued activities and ensure the successful completion of its missions. The results of the analysis and proof-of-feasibility demonstration will be documented in a final report at the end of Phase I. The Phase I results will determine the continuing research direction for Phase II and will provide the basis for the full-scale prototype to be developed in that phase. The lessons learned from the comparative analysis and demonstration of feasibility will be used to refine the system dynamics model and

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5215
Yi Cheng
AF103-062      Awarded:2/14/2011
Title:Agent-based Distributed Mission-Aware Prioritization for Coordinated Network Defense
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Cyber network has become a mission-critical asset for today’s military operation. To assure the availability of large-scale networks and their resources, mission commanders need to maintain situational awareness of the current status of the network and mission assets during the operations. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes an agent-based distributed mission-aware prioritization (DMAP) approach for coordinated network defense in large-scale cyber networks. Essentially, DMAP will obtain and evaluate the available cyber assets in a network corresponding to a particular mission, and automatically determine the assets required to carry out each task. Based on the damage assessment of the detected cyber attacks and their possible impacts on the mission, DMAP will further prioritize cyber assets to achieve mission assurance. Each of these technologies will be integrated into an agent-based distributed mission-aware prioritization framework for coordinated network analysis and defense. The significant advantage of the proposed system is: 1) mixed-initiative distributed simultaneous mission planning and prioritizing, 2) reliable and highly accurate, 3) scalable to large-scale networks, and 4) supporting real-time situational awareness. BENEFIT: Essentially, the proposed DMAP is an agent-based, distributed framework for network components and cyber asset evaluation and prioritization to assure mission success in cyberspace. It leverages and integrates the most recent advances on mission assurance, cyber asset mapping, network security analysis, as well as mixed-initiative distributed simultaneous mission planning and prioritizing techniques. If our approach is proven successful, the potential market size is very large. In addition, our industry partner, Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems can transition these technologies. One direct product of this research will be an integrated mission planning and prioritizing software tool. We expect that this tool can support efficient mission planning in different attack scenarios and various network sizes. It can evaluate, prioritize and identify the most critical cyber assets in the network corresponding to a particular mission. Such assets need to be sufficiently protected to assure mission success. The developed software tool can be applied as an independent component for protection of enterprise-level networks as well as military information networks.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 682-1514
Doug Ratay
AF103-064      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:Flexible Multi-sensor Tracking and Fusion Suite
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to create a multi-sensor, multi-wavelength tracking and fusion algorithm to be used for precise tracking of space objects. The algorithm developed within this work will incorporate overlapping measurements from both Electro-Optical and Radio Frequency sensors. We will base this tracking and fusion algorithm on a flexible framework developed by DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation for previous tracking problems within the Ballistic Missile Defense context. Our framework is able to cleanly and effectively handle the non- linear effects of including many different sensors in different locations. We will update our algorithms to be able to handle known and unknown sources of sensor bias and failure due to environmental or internal causes. We will utilize an advanced state propagation method which will allow us to make more principled state prediction claims than other traditionally utilized tracking algorithms. BENEFIT: Recent years have seen a proliferation in the number of space objects as well as in the number of sensors used to track those space objects. To keep a handle on the position and action of the vast array of non-cooperative space objects, it has become important to link together the measurements from a diverse set of sensors. These sensors are spread both geographically and in wavelength coverage. New tracking algorithms are needed to fuse the data from these sensors into one single integrated picture of the space environment, while accounting for the technical difficulties of obtaining measurements from equipment not originally designed to work together. The algorithms presented in this proposal are designed to advance the state of the art in multi-sensor tracking and fusion by seamlessly joining the results of different sensors and accounting for sensor bias and failure. Through our past partnerships with large prime contractors, we are confident that we will be able test, evaluate, and integrate these tracking and fusion algorithms into an operational radar system.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Aubrey Poore
AF103-064      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:Multi-Sensor Space Object Tracking
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space surveillance or reconnaissance is that component of space situational awareness focused on the detection of resident space objects (RSOs) and the use of multisource data including available radar and electro-optical reports to support their tracking and identification. The proposed program aims to develop modern and robust approaches to tracking RSOs through the use of advanced uncertainty management (nonlinear filtering), data fusion, and correlation techniques. In particular, the use of an adaptive multiple hypothesis and multiple frame assignment tracker is proposed for the association engine, enabling one to adaptively change between single and multiple frame methods. Further, the application of advanced uncertainty management using, for example, an adaptive Gaussian sum filter, will support accurate probability of intercept, collision avoidance, and anomaly detection calculations. The problem of combining data from multiple sensors through fusing and multilateration techniques is also addressed in the proposal. Orbital data provided by JFCC SPACE will facilitate algorithm development and verification. BENEFIT: The first anticipated benefit from the proposed program will be the development of modern and robust algorithms for multisensor tracking and fusion for radar and electro-optical sensors. A second anticipated benefit will be the integration of the above algorithms into an automated multiple hypothesis tracking system to track and identify the ever-increasing number of objects and debris in space. This combination ensures a robust system for multisensor data fusion and tracking. The key commercialization of the proposed program would be a transition of the algorithms and software, either alone or embedded in a modern multiple target tracking system, to the JSpOC Mission Systems. This program also provides the opportunity to work with other contractors and the nation's Air Force labs in support of the nation's space protection and situational assessment programs utilizing Numerica's strengths in all phases of multiple target tracking, modern control systems, sensors, sensor resource management, and situation assessment.

Ashwin-Ushas Corporation, Inc.
9 Red Coach Ln
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 739-1122
P. Chandrasekhar
AF103-065      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Very-Wide-Operating-Temperature Li Batteries Based on Unique Ionic Liquid Electrolytes Originally Developed for Electrochromics in Spacecraft Thermal
Abstract:ABSTRACT: While secondary Li batteries have advanced significantly in the last 30 years, one of their critical deficiencies remains poor performance seen at low (< -60 C ) and high (> +90 C) temperatures, due primarily to poor conductivity/ion mobility at these temperatures. This work seeks to use a new ionic liquid, developed in entirely unrelated work by this firm (in variable- emittance electrochromics for spacecraft thermal control operating at -80 to +100 C) and demonstrated to be a good Li battery electrolyte. This will be tested neat as well as in combination with stabilized carbonate-based Li battery electrolytes having high thermal stability. Preliminary data (shown herein) obtained specifically for this proposal show excellent Li battery functionality and an operating temperature range of -40 to +100 C. The new ionic liquid possesses large liquidus range (-95 C to +200 C), high conductivity both neat (10 mS/cm) and as a 40:60 mix with a lactone (18 mS/cm). It shows, e.g. 85% of room temperature charge capacity at -40 C and +90 C. Although the focus of the proposed work will be the new, wide-operating-temperature electrolyte, it will also address packaging and manufacturing aspects of Li cells pertaining to low and high temperature durability in aerospace applications. BENEFIT: If successful, a wide-operating-temperature Li battery electrolyte technology will be available, which may be considered a breakthrough in Li battery technology. The military applications would be as original equipment in military vehicles and portable field-use power sources for extreme environments. In the potentially much larger commercial market, applications wherever Li batteries are now used would be extendable to extreme environment and field use. These would include, e.g., electronic and computer equipment, cell phones, hybrid and electric automobiles and other vehicles, gaming equipment and recreational equipment.

Materials and Systems Research, Inc.
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 530-4987
Joonho Koh
AF103-065      Awarded:3/14/2011
Title:A Novel Long-Life Battery Power Supply
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Highly reliable power supply technologies are needed for future arming and fuzing system designs. These power supplies should be able to operate after a long dormant period of up to twenty years. A novel battery power supply is proposed for this purpose. The proposed battery utilizes a solid state electrolyte which would have indefinite shelf life. High peak specific power will be possible by optimizing the design of electrolyte composition and electrode interface structure. Battery cells will be fabricated and tested in Phase I. BENEFIT: The proposed novel battery can be used as a replacement in the current strategic system or in a future system requiring a highly-reliable, long-shelf-life power supply. Commercial applications include low-volume, long-life power supplies that can be used for emergency power applications such as disaster relief and contingency back-up power in a small package.

Quallion LLC
12744 San Fernando Road Building 3
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2015
Mikito Nagata
AF103-065      Awarded:4/6/2011
Title:Next-Generation Power Supply for Reentry Vehicles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Quallion LLC’s (Quallion) proposal responds to SBIR Solicitation No. AF103-065 entitled “Next-Generation Power Supply for Reentry Vehicles.” Under this solicitation, Phase I calls for identifying “design concepts for highly reliable power supplies that meet both size and environmental requirements for longer shelf life prior to use [and to] evaluate the potential power supplies for viability and reliability in a high-stress, hostile environment in a compact package.” In its response to this solicitation, Quallion proposes to leverage a former Phase I MDA SBIR effort to determine the feasibility of utilizing lithium-ion battery technology into a reserve type (decades of storage) battery application. The technology being investigated has shown potential to meet the following required characteristics outlined in the solicitation: - Minimized activation time, in the range of seconds - A stable voltage with ~35V as the nominal maximum - A minimum capacity of~700 to 1000 amp-sec - The ability to operate uninterrupted for tens of minutes Secondary characteristics that the battery should meet are as follows: - Improved energy density (peak specific power >10 kW/kg, specific energy >200 Whr/kg at the battery level) vs. current state of the art - Reduced volume (goal of 164 cm3) - A flexible form factor In this Phase I proposal, Quallion will further refine the process for the manufacturing of a reserve lithium-ion battery based on testing results to date; efforts will include the fabrication of proof of concept test cells. In this effort, Quallion will be primarily analyzing the mechanical design of the test cells and electrolyte salts used during forming and re- activation of the cell. BENEFIT: The initial target markets for this product are largely military in nature. A viable Lithium-ion reserve battery could potentially replace a number of existing legacy battery systems currently utilized in arming and fuzing systems, especially those that utilize missiles. Potential uses for Lithium-ion reserve batteries include: • As a substitute for Ag Zn batteries in applications requiring high energy density batteries. • As a substitute for primary Li batteries when safety concerns prohibit its use. • As a substitute for thermal batteries when long run times >30 min make thermals large and

Optical Sciences Corporation
P.O. Box 8291
Huntsville, AL 35808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-1500
Thomas M. Cantey
AF103-068      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:High Radiance Low Background Infrared Scene Projection for Wide Field of View (WFOV) Sensors
Abstract:Optical Sciences Corporation proposes an advanced, broadband, high radiance, low background, wide field-of-view, flight motion simulator compatible infrared scene projection system using a proprietary digital micromirror device emitter engine concept. This high radiance, low background projector system will be capable of projecting complex 2- dimensional scenes over a wide field-of-view with a large temperature range, high temperature resolution, and a high spatial resolution for low infrared background radiation simulations. In this proposal Optical Sciences Corporation presents our baseline concept for the projection system. This projection system and associated technology is designed to meet or exceed the objectives outlined in the SBIR AF103-068 topic. BENEFIT: Optical Sciences Corporation believes that there is significant commercial potential for the high radiance, low background, wide field-of-view infrared projector technology developed under this effort. We have demonstrated our ability to transition technologies developed under the SBIR programs to commercial sales through the sale of our micromirror based dynamic infrared scene projection products. Potential customer applications include the manufacturers of infrared seekers, missile systems, and missile warning systems. These test and evaluation applications will be capable of simulating high apparent temperatures, very large format synthetic scene environments, multispectral, and polarization infrared extended scene simulation. The broadband reflective digital micromirror device will allow this technological advance to be applied in other wavebands including the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared.

Power Photonic
25 Health Sciences Drive, Box 111
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 632-1358
Boris Laikhtman
AF103-068      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:Infrared Scene Generation for Wide Field of View (WFOV) Sensors
Abstract:We propose the development of a two color LED array emitting simultaneously at 2 and 8 microns suitable for use in infrared scene projection applications. The relative intensity of the two colors can be independently controlled. The Phase I effort will involve the fabrication and test of a 6x6 array, but the technology is scalable (we have recently demonstrated single- color 3.3 um LED arrays of 512x512) to 2048x2048 pixels or beyond. The two color LED arrays can be compatible with existing read in integrated circuits (RIICS) and scene generators for convenient and rapid deployment into IRSP facilities. These LED arrays are made possible through the flexibility of the GaSb based material system, where high quality type-I and type-II heterointerfaces are available. The long wavelength section of the proposed heterostructure is a type-II superlattice structure and the short wavelength section is implemented with type-I heterointerfaces. Power Photonic has previously implemented dual color individual LEDs and single color LED arrays, but hybrid type-I / type-II LEDs have not been demonstrated before individually or as an array. BENEFIT: The LED arrays will offer greatly enhanced performance compared to the resistor arrays currently in use. The advantages include higher apparent temperature, much faster response time, longer operational lifetimes, reduced cost, and a technology that can be duplicated by several government and commercial growers. This last ensures a robust list of alternate sources.

Architecture Technology Corporation
9977 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Benjamin L. Burnett
AF103-070      Awarded:3/31/2011
Title:Context Aware Scalable Dynamic Network (CASDN)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current air, ground and space networks are very dynamic with large-scale mobility needing human in-the-loop configuration to adapt to unforeseen situations. Humans and current automated systems cannot reconfigure consistently or fast enough. This leads to network performance not meeting mission needs. Airborne, space and ground networks are very dynamic, complex, and hard for the current human-centric management systems to maintain optimal routes consistently. Non-optimal routes and reactions to network disruptions affect the warfighters ability to communicate with others, maintain situational awareness and effectively complete their missions. Current management methods do not scale to the physical distances of air and space networks. The Air Force has identified the need to use network context to manage dynamic networks automatically. ATC’s Context Aware Scalable Dynamic Network (CASDN) will use context to improve performance. CASDN will demonstrate the use of context, network states, user intents, and predictions in a complex and uncertain environment to enhance network routing and management. BENEFIT: CASDN fulfills the Air Force’s requirements for a context-aware network routing and management system capable of tracking, predicting and using context to optimize a dynamic network. CASDN will maintain mission assured network connectivity, and optimize network performance. The benefits to High-performance network routing & management will be a significant contribution to global sets of information available from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network and future DoD communications systems. Additional commercial benefits can directly support cross-communications and high-connectivity requirements of commercial systems. These systems have an increasing need to use automated systems to make routing and topology decisions necessary for properly managing diverse communications systems.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Abhishek Tiwari
AF103-070      Awarded:3/9/2011
Title:Context Aware Routing and Management Architecture (CARMA) for Airborne Networks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this SBIR effort we propose integration of the complementary and symbiotic concepts and tools at UtopiaCompression Corporation and Air Force Institute of Technology into a Context Aware Routing and Management Architecture (CARMA). Our specific end of phase II deliverables will include a Context Aware Routing Protocol (CARP) that achieves superior performance compared to baseline MANET routing protocols by utilizing contextual information such node mobility data, information exchange requirements, node and radio characteristics, and environmental context. Our other major deliverable under the CARMA program will be Context Aware Network Management (CANM). CANM will have at its core a distributed agent based framework for collecting management information and taking policy based actions at various levels. Joint mission and network planning will include a Monte- Carlo simulation engine. The Monte-Carlo simulations will capture various “what if” mobility and flow scenarios which are generated using mission planning output and the information exchange requirement documents. BENEFIT: UC’s CARMA technology will greatly benefit the Air Force by providing dynamic networking among MANET and terrestrial domains. This problem has been particularly challenging, given that each domain may use a different routing protocol and different routing metrics some of which are additionally dynamic. Network management and routing technology, such as that proposed by UC, will enable improved situational awareness to incident commanders and other relevant actors by allowing free flowing of information and intelligence such as navigational data, targets, and strike results among both manned and unmanned aircraft within both MANET and terrestrial domains. Consequently, the proposed technology will greatly increase the effectiveness of incident control and strike efforts, including improved time-to-response margins and accuracy by increasing the distribution and delivery of pertinent mission information and enable a seamless tactical network environment. CARMA technology once matures could be potentially inserted into the Net-Enabled Command Capability (NECC). NECC is the DoD’s new principal command and control program, providing command and control capabilities to support the National Military Command Center, Joint Force Commanders, and Service/Functional Components as well as unit-level commanders. The Air Force Objective Gateway program is no longer active but its prototype is fielded. Battlefield Airborne Communication Node (BACN) was the Objective Gateway Prototype. BACN is a rapid acquisition program that provides air-to-air and air-to-ground voice relaying and bridging, 802.11 Wi-Fi interconnections between ground users, and relaying bridging and translation between tactical data links. BACN is the Air Force’s primary Joint Urgent Operational Need (JUON). The JUON involves the transition of BACN from a BD- 7000 aircraft to a RQ-4 Global Hawk for operation at higher altitudes, extended mission

Emergent Space Technologies, Inc
6301 Ivy Lane Suite 720
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 345-1535
Tim Esposito
AF103-071      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Innovative Technologies for Space Asset Management
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) needs to process situational awareness (SA) data from many sources and incorporates the resulting assessments to perform automated, intelligent tasking of space assets. SA and automated resource management (RM) for space assets take a significant amount of infrastructure and layers of technologies working in concert to be effective in a spacecraft ground system for cyberspace operations. To perform effective SA and RM, applications must interface many types of data sources, correlate that data to specific conditions, display that information in ways an operator can understand it, and use it to make intelligent RM decisions. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. is proposing to use an expert system to gain more SA of a satellite ground system and to enable better automated RM of space assets. The solution will be a service-oriented architecture (SOA) platform that will enable system integrators to easily construct SA displays that exploit existing sources of space asset data and to manage the assets using expert system technologies. The SA displays and expert system will enable end users to better manage the space assets in a more intelligent and effective manner. BENEFIT: The ultimate goal of this project is to integrate the SOA platform with situational awareness (SA) and resource management (RM) capabilities into JMS and ORS operational systems. Emergent has laid the groundwork for implementing new innovations that can make it to market significantly quicker than those starting a project without the same infrastructure. The innovation being tackled in this case is the application of expert system technologies to ground system operations. Emergent is also looking to commercialize the SOA platform to other government and commercial ground systems. We are currently working with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Ames Research Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on ground system technologies and plan to solicit the SOA platform to every upcoming NASA mission. Current NASA missions we are working with or soliciting include the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) at JPL and the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at GSFC. MSL is the next Mars rover mission and the FDF is responsible for TDRSS space network operations and orbital and attitude products for many of the GSFC missions. We also look to streamline and automate operations for existing missions that are looking to reduce operations overhead or further empower current operators. Emergent is also looking to market the SOA platform to commercial satellite providers, such as the upcoming Iridium NEXT project to replenish the current constellation of Iridium satellites.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
James R. McCracken
AF103-071      Awarded:3/1/2011
Title:NINJAS: Network-Centric INnovative JMS Asset Management Services
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Design Knowledge Company (TDKC) and Intelligent Software Solutions (ISS) are pleased to present this Phase I SBIR proposal titled Network-Centric INnovative JMS Asset Management Services (NINJAS) in response to Air Force Topic AF103-071, Innovative Technologies For Space Asset Management. Our Phase I plan includes evaluating cost- effective open source data fusion and intelligent system technologies in order to derive an operationally-focused solution that is demonstrable and operationally practical. As part of this SBIR project, TDKC will apply our extensive team experience with (1) JMS UDOP development; (2) JMS services/plug-in development; (3) non-deterministic intelligent systems technologies to include case-based reasoning, data fusion, possibilistic, and Bayesian network; and (4) experience with Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) and Space Surveillance Network (SSN) to create autonomous tools that perform real-time monitoring of space assets to generate effective blue force status realization. TDKC realizes the importance and need for this solution, demonstrated by recent world events and the overwhelming reliance on national space assets. BENEFIT: The technologies from this research initiative can support a variety of programs and transition to the JMS system. This work would also support the Space and Missile System Center blue force status initiative.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mark V. Zagarola
AF103-072      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:A Hybrid Thermal Management System for Space Electro-Optical Payloads
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Advanced space-borne electro-optical payloads require cooling at temperatures of 10 to 20 K. Cooling loads for these detectors will range from 0.25 W to 1.0 W at the primary load site, with additional loads at higher temperatures. During this program, we propose to build and test a multistage hybrid cryocooler that is optimized for cooling at a primary load temperature of 10 to 20 K. The hybrid cryocooler will optimally combine the strengths of multiple cryocooler technologies. Performance predictions indicate that our hybrid cryocooler concept will result in a 200% improvement in efficiency over the current state of the art which will allow landmark reductions in payload mass. In addition to high efficiency, the system will be lightweight, extremely reliable, produce negligible vibration at the coldheads, provide remote and distributed cooling at each stage, and be broadly applicable to cooling temperatures from 10 K to 100 K. During Phase I, we plan to optimize the cryocooler design for a particular mission class. We will use existing test data and analytical models to predict the performance of both a flight cryocooler and a brassboard unit which will be tested during the Phase II project. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this program will result in the demonstration of an extremely efficient low temperature cryocooler. This type of cryocooler is ideal for cooling applications in space-based surveillance and missile defense systems. Government-funded scientific applications include space-based infrared telescopes. Commercial applications include communication satellites, superconducting instruments, hypercomputers, and Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs).

Iris Technology Corporation
PO Box 5838
Irvine, CA 92616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 975-8410
Carl S. Kirkconnell
AF103-072      Awarded:2/28/2011
Title:Cryocooler Electronics for Hybrid Reverse Turbo Brayton - Stirling
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed Hybrid CCE optimally meets the drive and control requirements for the Creare/Raytheon Hybrid RTB-Stirling Cryocooler. The Hybrid CCE provides an integrated electronics solution for the associated Hybrid Cryocooler, reducing mass and packaging volume while enabling a Cryocooler that provides low jitter, remote cooling, and high efficiency down to 10K. The Hybrid CCE also supports “monolithic” RTB-only and Stirling- only cryocoolers. During the proposed Phase I Program, Iris, in collaboration with Creare and Raytheon, will develop a Preliminary Design for a spaceflight-design Hybrid CCE. BENEFIT: The Hybrid CCE enables the usage of the associated Hybrid Cryocooler for spacefight applications. Furthermore, by architecting the Hybrid CCE in accord with the modular approach Iris employs for all of our Cryocooler Electronics, broad applicability is assured. The Hybrid CCE will be readily configurable, for example, for a wide range of temperatures and power levels, and it will also support RTB, Stirling, pulse tube, and hybrid Stirling/pulse tube cryocoolers. It will substantially advance the state of the art in RTB and Stirling/pulse tube electronics, in particular, with TRL 6 electronics for both available after Phase II. Iris is actively commercializing this concept of open architecture, vendor agnostic cryocooler electronics for the DoD. This proposal is tightly aligned with that overall strategy.

Beam Power Technology, Inc.
5 Rolling Green Lane
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 308-6378
Jing Zhou
AF103-073      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:High-Power Satellite Communications Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space telecommunications require amplifiers that are efficient, high-power, wideband, small, lightweight, and highly reliable. Currently, helix traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTA) are the technology of choice. Conventional helix TWTAs employ circular electron beams. Recently, lightweight circular-beam helix TWTAs have been demonstrated with power output in the range of several hundred watts and overall efficiency in the range of 40 to 60 percent. Despite these advances, there is substantial value in further improvement across all of these areas. Beam Power Technology (BPT) proposes a novel elliptic-beam TWTA which is highly efficient (75% excluding the electronic power conditioner which typically has an efficiency of 90%) and has 100 W of CW power, reduced weight, lower voltage and an expected 15+ year lifetime. The average power operation is at a back-off of -6 dB from saturation. The linearity is -35 dBc. The Phase I objective is to determine the feasibility of an elliptic-beam helix TWTA which substantially exceeds the performance levels of conventional helix devices. In Phase II, BPT will complete the engineering design and experimental demonstration of a prototype targeting eventual deployment into satellite applications. BENEFIT: Elliptic-beam helix TWTAs have applications in rf amplification requiring high efficiency, high power, broad bandwidth and lower cost. Key markets will be commercial satellite communications, both space and ground stations, military radar and communications and non-lethal weapons systems, and commercial wireless base station amplifiers. This technology can be used to increase performance of all vacuum electron devices (VEDs) that use linear beams such that it will revitalize the market for highly reliable high power VEDs.

InnoSys
2900 South Main Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 975-7399
Larry Sadwick
AF103-073      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:High-Power Satellite Communications Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force has identified a need for a high performance traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) that supports high data rate battlefield satellite communications (SATCOM) for the foreseeable future. We propose to develop a light-weight, power-efficient, compact TWTA capable of operating between 20.2 GHz and 21.2 GHz, with high linearity using our innovative solid state vacuum device (SSVD) approach that employs solid state integrated circuit design processes and techniques for fabricating the interaction circuit slow wave structure (SWS) to realize and achieve high performance including excellent efficiency, high linearity in a compact and lightweight TWTA. The SSVD TWTA to be designed, developed and implemented in this SBIR program shall be capable of delivering an output power >80 Watts with a gain of 55 dB (min) and gain flatness of ± 1.0 dB (max) at rated power, a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 2.5:1 (typ), Load VSWR 2.0:1 (max), harmonic content of –3 dBc or less, spur suppression of –50 dBc , saturated efficiency > 60%, gain stability ±.25 dB/24 hrs, reliability consistent with 15-year satellite Mean Mission Duration (MMD), operating temperature range –40 deg C to +85 deg C, and radiation total dose tolerance > 1Mrad(Si). BENEFIT: The high power high frequency regime has a number of potential applications. New technology in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum will directly benefit communications on the battlefield such as military “comms on the move,” personal and portable active denial systems, and other communications and data gathering and dispersal systems. Immediate application potential ranges broadly to include secure data links, video links, backhaul connections between cellular communications stations, space, radar, biological and chemical agent detection, atmospheric environment sensing, near object detection, and material imaging. The small size and weight, combined with high linearity and efficiency make this SHF TWTA a key building block for both military and commercial uses. The proposed design of the 20.2 to 21.3 GHz SHF TWTA can be relatively easily designed for other frequencies, power levels and applications. Areas of commercial market interest include the RF-based commercial satellite communications programs (e.g. Iridium™, Globalstar™ and Spaceway™), and commercial SATCOM broadcast programs including XM™ radio, Sirius™ Radio and DirectTV™. Current and future commercial applications for these source products also include very high data rate transmissions including full duplex Ethernet connectivity, monitoring and detection systems for all-weather, day-and-night operations (i.e., mm-wave imaging, airport surveillance, intrusion detection, and harbor traffic monitoring), fusion plasma research and thermal interactions and processing of materials, and a host of other fundamental scientific, academic, and research applications.

Nuvotronics LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 341-2333
Jean-Marc Rollin
AF103-073      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:High-Power Satellite Communications Amplifier
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Nuvotronics has created a unique metal micromachining process, PolyStrataTM, used to create suspended recta-coax lines, high performance MMIC sockets, and millimeter-wave (MMW) interconnection circuits with low loss, small size/high density, and durability. Nuvotronics is proposing to develop high power, high efficiency K-band power amplifiers for future Miltary Satellitte Communication Systems. During this Phase I project, the main goal will be to design and layout the 80 Watt K-band amplifier and demonstrate high efficient operation through simulations and measured experimental data. BENEFIT: Military and commercial satellite communications systems.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Vlad Hruby
AF103-074      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Beam Focusing Carbon Nanotube Cathode for Traveling Wave Tubes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Gigahertz microwave amplifiers are limited when using thermionic type electron sources, due to the high beam currents and frequencies required. For this reason, field emission cathodes using carbon nanotubes are being investigated as a potential electron source replacement. Such devices are capable of up to Terahertz frequencies by direct field emitter gate modulation. Busek proposes to develop methods for depositing carbon nanotube catalyst materials on curved surfaces, while approaching current densities of 10A/cm^2. Curved emission surfaces allow for focusing of emission from a larger surface, into a narrow, high current density beam, without the drawbacks of electron beam focusing. Current technology employs lithography techniques, which are not suitable for patterning on non-planar surfaces. Under the Phase I, Busek shall demonstrate micron sized catalyst patterning and perform proof-of- concept testing on a new method for generating 100nm sized catalyst “dots” for the purpose of growing individual nanotubes. All methods will be compatible with writing on curved surfaces. To improve electron beam convergence, the PECVD process used by Busek shall be modified to align carbon nanotube growth to a focal point, minimizing radial electron energies and enabling reduced beam diameter. BENEFIT: For the armed services, realization of millimeter wave radio amplifiers enables Gigabit rate point-to-point satellite communications, as well as access to currently unused spectrum, while significantly reducing amplifier mass and size. Furthermore, millimeter wave radio communications enable reduced antenna size and increased signal directionality, increasing effective signal gain to the target. Higher power versions than proposed here are also applicable to directed energy weapons. Reduced mass and volume would be critical to small forward deployable weapons systems. Commercial applications for EHF radio tend to focus on taking advantage of the 60GHz oxygen absorption signal loss for measurement of upper atmosphere temperatures.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4886
Alex Vasenkov
AF103-074      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:E-band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier with Innovative Carbon Nanotube Cathode
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Existing satellite communication devices use Travelling Wave Tube Amplifiers (TWTAs), which operate in the ultra-high frequency, super-high frequency, or extremely-high frequency bands. Because these TWTAs use thermionic cathodes, they are bulky and heavy, and take valuable volume and weight budget in a satellite. Recently, the Air Force identified needs for a compact (< 30 lb) TWTA operating in the output frequency of 71 to 76 GHz (E- band) and at an output power > 50 W. To address these critical needs CFD Research Corporation teamed with University of Tennessee Space Institute to develop the design of E- band TWTA with innovative carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode (emitter). In Phase I, we will (1) fabricate innovative prototype emitter consisting of CNTs with precisely controlled diameter, length, and the neighboring spacing using a method of serial patterning with a femto-second laser, (2) adopt and validate CFDRC electro-magnet software CFD-ACE+ for computational design of CNT-based TWTA in triode configuration, and (3) conduct computational parametric studies to achieve an emission current density of 1–2 A/cm2, an output power > 50 W, and a power efficiency > 20%. The Phase II work will fabricate prototype CNT E-band TWTA and optimize its performance for output power, operating frequency range, linearity, operating temperature range, radiation tolerance and reliability specified by the Air Force. BENEFIT: The Air Force will directly benefit from the proposed work by using it in the development of new communication devices for high data rate battlefield communications with the following advantages: (1) Access to the 5 GHz of spectrum enabling satellite communications uplinks to operate at multi-gigabit per second data rates and (2) Well understood weather attenuation factors, such as rain fade. The initial market for this technology is expected to be limited to DoD applications. However, if price for the fabrication of CNT –based TWTA will drop, there is a potential for the proposed technology to be used in civilian applications such as cellular and wideband mobile communications and high speed data transfer.

RadiaBeam Technologies, LLC
1717 Stewart Street
Santa Monica, CA 90404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 822-5845
Luigi Faillace
AF103-074      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:E-band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifer with Carbon Nanotube Cathode
Abstract:ABSTRACT: RadiaBeam Technologies, LLC proposes to develop a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) cathode Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA). The frequency range of operation is in the E-band (71-76 GHz). The TWTA will be suitable for use in satellite communications. The utilization of innovative CNT cathodes will allow the exploitation of a broad spectrum, 5GHz, available in the millimeter wavelengths for high data rate battlefield communications. Thus, it will be possible to obtain satellite communications uplinks that will operate at multi-gigabit per second data rates and well understood weather attenuation factors, such as rain fade. In such a way, link budgets would be effectively realized. BENEFIT: There are two major markets for the technology being developed in this project. For Military/Defense applications, Traveling Wave Tubes can be used as RF amplifiers for wideband systems, such broadcasting, radar and satellite communications. For commercial applications, they find application in bandwith-intensive commercial communication arenas such cellular and wide band mobile communications and high speed data transfer.

Antenna Research Associates
12201 Indian Creek Court
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 974-3297
Christopher Magnan
AF103-075      Awarded:3/1/2011
Title:E-band Gimbaled Dish Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Directional wireless communication links from satellite to ground provide greater bandwidth and require lower power consumption for equivalent performance compared with omni- directional broadcast RF links. To be reliable, such links must be continuously and accurately pointed from the satellite to the appropriate ground station. Antenna Research Associates and the University of Maryland propose to design an agile, low-cost, light- weight, gimbal with a state-of-the-art E-band antenna. The design will be validated both in simulation and in practical tests. We will evaluate two gimbal designs: a design using high performance, high torque, pancake motors, and a design using a high performance stepping motor. The gimbalized antenna will have on board angular encoders and inertial navigation units (INUs) so that it can determine its relative attitude. BENEFIT: SATCOM on the move, first responder tactical network, satellite communications, point-to- point communication network, security, object recognition and tracking

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
P. Keith Kelly
AF103-075      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:E-Band Gimbaled Dish Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: FIRST RF proposes three lightweight E-Band gimbaled dish solutions that meet the need for scanning in two axes from a Geosynchronous Orbiting satellite (GEO). The designs are based on a gimbaled main reflector fore steering in one axis, but vary the method by which the orthogonal axis is scanned. During Phase I, FIRST RF will establish RF, mechanical, system and cost models of each approach and downselect the best value to the Air Force. In addition, we offer a wide-beam antenna to operate in concert with the steered beam antenna to maximize applications and transition opportunities. FIRST RF personnel have designed and fielded antennas for dozens of space applications currently in use. BENEFIT: As more data is becoming available from the proliferation of UAVs, the demand for wideband Beyond Line of Site data transfer will increase tremendously. The proposed technology meets the needs of the space terminal. Our close cooperation with the prime and user community puts FIRST RF in a unique position to commercialize the technology quickly. In addition, we can work with these same users to define/develop the terrestrial or airborne terminal.

Freedom Photonics LLC
90 Dean Arnold Place
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 277-3031
Milan Mashanovitch
AF103-076      Awarded:3/4/2011
Title:High-Power Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Optical Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Freedom Photonics is proposing to develop a high-power integrated advanced modulattion format reansmitter with high output power and operating in the 1450-1500nm window. This is achieved through the adaptation of our current Indium Phosphide integration platform from 1550nm to this wavelength range. To reach our goal, a combination of a tunable DBR laser, a high-speed advanced modulation format optical modulator, and a high-power SOA booster will be integrated in one monolithic chip. BENEFIT: Integrated high-power transmitters has the potential to dramatically reduce size, power consumption, cost, and improve reliability of free-space optical links for satelite deployment. There is a large dual-use commercial market for advanced modulation format transmitters. The adaptation of our photonic integration platform away from the conventional 1550nm window to new wavelengths can open new opportunities for niche applications in sensing, LIDAR or for medical applications.

NP Photonics, Inc.
UA Science and Technology Park 9030 S. Rita Road, Suite #120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7437
Wenyan Tian
AF103-076      Awarded:3/4/2011
Title:High power S-band tunable all fiber based transmitter for satellite communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: NP Photonics has developed high power single frequency narrow linewidth 1550nm and 1064nm fiber laser products for LIDAR, sensing, and telecommunications. The fiber laser incorporates proprietary fiber technology developed at NP Photonics. Current state-of-art technologies have been developed primarily for terrestrial applications and can not provide all features of high reliability, high power, and radiation hardness at the same time to meet the requirements. We propose a high reliability, radiation hard, high wall plug efficiency, rugged, compact, 10W S-band tunable all fiber based transmitter covering 1450-1500nm by using highly thulium and terbium co-doped S-band tunable fiber laser, highly thulium and terbium co-doped tellurite fiber MOPA system and external modulation. BENEFIT: The high power S-band tunable all fiber based transmitter proposed here has the potential to be widely used in satellite communications. It can be used for coherent communication for airborne LIDAR and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. It will also provide a wide range of opportunities in undersea free communications, terrestrial-based communications, wavelength division multiplexed network, sensing, scientific instrumentation, and R&D.

SEAKR Engineering, Incorporated
6221 South Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 784-7673
Ian Troxel
AF103-077      Awarded:3/8/2011
Title:High-Data-Rate Radio-Frequency (RF) Crosslink Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: High-speed inter-satellite links (ISLs) are a key feature to improving satellite communications (satcom) bandwidth in support of global military operations. ISLs increase the number of paths in the network which tend to improve aggregate bandwidth, network survivability, and improve the global instantaneous transmission coverage. Along with expanding network ground coverage, ISLs provide saving in ground system operations costs by reducing the number of ground stations and relay points required to maintain a satellite constellation while still providing improved coverage. The SEAKR team will work toward implementing a space-qualified inter-satellite crosslink with vastly improved data rate and reduced integration costs as compared to alternate designs. BENEFIT: High-speed inter-satellite links (ISLs) are a key feature to improving satellite communications (satcom) bandwidth in support of global military operations. ISLs increase the number of paths in the network which tend to improve aggregate bandwidth, network survivability, and improve the global instantaneous transmission coverage. Along with expanding network ground coverage, ISLs provide saving in ground system operations costs by reducing the number of ground stations and relay points required to maintain a satellite constellation while still providing improved coverage.

Vulcan Wireless Inc.
1935 Camino Vida Roble Suite 150A
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 602-0606
Kevin Lynaugh
AF103-077      Awarded:3/2/2011
Title:High-Data-Rate Radio-Frequency (RF) Crosslink Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this solicitation is to develop and demonstrate a crosslink transceiver capable of high data rates. The transceiver must be designed to handle the radiation environment found on a GEO orbit for a 20 year mission. In addition, the communication link must be designed to have significant link margin to be able to penetrate the nuclear channel. The data rate and coding gain would be adjustable depending on the BER detected by the receiver. BENEFIT: The military will benefit from having a reliable high speed GEO cross link. This would allow the US military to have high speed world wide communications even when trying to communicate through a nuclear channel. The same radio could be also used in any commercial satellite application requiring a direct RF link between satellites.

NexGenSemi Corporation
27130A Paseo Espada, Suite 1405
San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 340-7209
Vincent Harper
AF103-078      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Laser Transmitter Module with Integrated Thermal Management System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: NexGenSemi Corporation will explore the feasibility to develop GNR heat pipes as an integrated cooling system to thermally managing 'hot spots' associated with high power solid state laser components that can be readily integrated into a UAV and/or satellite payload to provide reliable, high-data-rate optical communications over the entire mission life of a communications satellite. The goal is to use Digital Beam Processing (DBP) methods to manufacture patterned arrays of GNRs to maximize heat conductivity to dissipate heat from laser modules. By milling the semiconductor substrate and patterning the GNR heat pipes we will make use of most efficient graphene-substrate interface to maximize heat conductivity; thereby, extending the lifetime and increasing performance of the laser. In Phase I we will perform lifetime experiments of the laser transmitter with the GNRs to aid the conductivity of heat away from the device, and compare to device performance without the GNRs in order to qualify our hypothesis. Phase I will enable us to establish a figure of merit for the lifetime of the laser transmitter, and validate thermal management via GNR heat pipe design to provide a basis for the realization of a prototype device. BENEFIT: The NexGenSemi Corporation/Sandia team is presenting process technology for manufacturing efficient heat sinks using graphene nano-ribbon devices based on custom edge termination profiles of patterned GNRs using DBP methods. Realization of these new heat sinks made from single layer graphene will have many commercial applications due to their high reliability, non-fouling of the environment during operation, and as a renewable energy source. GNR based thermoelectric film devices are ideal for applications like on- chip heat recovery, cooling, and power generation, alternative energy sources, heat flux sensors, and fluid flow sensors. A successful outcome on this program will help find a solution to the current challenges for producing highly efficient thermoelectric generators using available bulk materials and standard CMOS microelectronics processing in large volumes. NGSC’s has the unique ability to pattern the substrate-graphene interface to allow for maximum heat conduction away from the device. Also, NGSC has the ability to etch the graphene sheet to engineer the GNRs design to allow for well-defined edges and precise dimensions to maximize the heat conduction. The purpose of this topic is to utilize nano- technology to solve the design will satisfy the requirements of being cost effective while minimize weight, power and size impacts to UAV and/or satellite payloads.

Q Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Kevin F. Wall
AF103-078      Awarded:3/8/2011
Title:High-Efficiency Laser Transmitter
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this effort, we propose to develop a high-efficiency, high-power optical transmitter as an enabling technology for high-data-rate, free-space laser communications. The latter will be applied for use in future generations of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles- and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit-based military communications satellites to support warfighter Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. We take advantage of recent advances in key components, optimization of others and prior experience with satellite-based hardware to enable our advancement in the state-of-the-art for transmitters. The inherent high efficiency reduces the overall thermal load for the system, and the use of optical-fiber technology allows distribution of the sources of heat over a large area, simplifying thermal management. BENEFIT: Our improved fiber-amplifier efficiency allows either: more transmitter power and hence improved link margin for the same electrical power consumption and thermal load or reduced power consumption and thermal load for the same transmitter power. For satellites with solar panels, the lower power consumption leads to a smaller satellite footprint, thus reduced vulnerability, and reduced weight, leading to lower launch costs. For UAVs, reduced power leads to lower overall weight in the vehicle, and less waste heat to manage. The primary use of this device would be in Military satellite communication systems.

Princeton Optronics, Inc.
1 Electronics Dr
Mercerville, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-9696
Jean F Seurin
AF103-079      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Diode Lasers for Space-Based Cold Atom Clocks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is a new technology which can be used for developing high performance laser components for cold atom Atomic Frequency Standards(AFS) technology. The narrow linewidth of these devices combined with high modulation bandwidth and large spacing between the longitudinal modes which makes them relatively immune to mode hopping, and their high reliability make them uniquely suited for this application. Air Force requires the diode lasers at 7xx and 8xx wavelengths for the D1 or D2 lines of Cs and Rb. The diodes are required to have a lifetime of >15 years in space. Princeton Optronics proposes an approach to develop such a laser for Air Force in this SBIR using the VCSEL technolgy. In phase I, we would develop the specifications for the laser and design it and do experiments to determine the validity of the approach and in phase II develop the lasers at both wavelengths and test them thoroughly before delivering to Air Force. BENEFIT: In addition to AF, there is requirement for VCSEL devices for atomic clocks for many other military programs. There is need for the high performance diode lasers for atomic clock devices for a new generation of GPS devices which could be sold in very high volume. The total market for VCSELs for atomic clock is developing to be of several millions of dollars per year. Princeton Optronics has strong marketing, sales as well as manufacturing organization to take advantage of the market once the device development is done.

Vescent Photonics
4865 E. 41st Ave
Denver, CO 80216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 296-6766
Mike Anderson
AF103-079      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:Diode Laser Systems for Space-Based Cold Atom Clocks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to combine distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diodes with novel sideband locking schemes, MEMS atomic vapor cells, and offset phase locking to produce compact frequency-agile laser systems capable of autonomous operation on spaced-based platforms and remote environments. A master laser will output up to 40 mW of usable power and be locked to an atomic vapor cell forming an absolute wavelength reference on board the satellite. The slave laser will be offset locked to the master laser with agile detuning capability of up to ±10 GHz, and with output power up to 200 mW using a DBR tapered laser or MOPA. By adding RF sidebands, the master laser can be used without a slave by virtue of a novel offset locking technique enabling production of cold-atom samples with a single laser. In phase I we will study the long-term aging characteristics of DBR diodes and their effects on long-term locking. We will also demonstrate novel sideband locking that can be used to eliminate the slave laser. In Phase II the laser system will be packaged into hermetic butterfly packages including MEMS atomic reference cells. Electronics drivers will enable completely autonomous operation BENEFIT: High power diode laser systems capable of reliable, agile, atomic locking will find uses in cold-atom spectroscopic sensors such as atom interferometers, gravimeters, magnetometers, atom clocks, focused ion beam sources and quantum computers. New inertial navigation sensors and atomic clocks are needed for GPS design environments. More accurate and lower power atomic clocks are needed for network synchronization for wireless networks and SONET. Cold-atom technology is also being used for the development of high-brightness ion beams useful for focused ion beams for semiconductor fabrication and electron beams for electron microscopy.

Diversified Technologies, Inc.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Neal Butler
AF103-080      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Radiation-Resistant, High-Efficiency Direct Current-Direct Current (DC-DC) Converters For Spacecraft Loads
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Delivery of power to satellite subsystems requires efficient DC-DC down converters that can support multiple spacecraft loads at very low output voltages. The converters must be tolerant to radiation, support loads of 25 watts or more, utilize a minimum amount of power during the conversion, and provide reliable operation for 15 years or longer. The key technical requirements are to improve the efficiency of conversion (in a single step) from 80 volts direct current (VDC) to 1.2VDC, provide flexibility through additional intermediate voltage outputs (e.g., ±5VDC, ±15VDC), in a configuration with high radiation tolerance and the reliability to support multi-year space operations. The goal of this SBIR is to develop a capable DC converter. In Phase 1 DTI will begin defining the qualification requirements for the full converter to be built in Phase II, and define the tasks to be accomplished in Phase II to achieve a full specification, qualifiable prototype at the end of Phase II. BENEFIT: The technology should be capable of supporting a 15-year mission in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) or Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and 5 years in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) after 5 years of ground storage. Combining these parameters (efficiency, high input/low output voltage, peak power, power density, and radiation tolerance) requires innovative architecture and packaging solutions.

QorTek, Inc.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Gareth J. Knowles
AF103-080      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Radiation-Resistant, High-Efficiency Direct Current-Direct Current (DC-DC) Converters For Spacecraft Loads
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The new single-stage high step-down ratio/high power handling/high current capable solid- state power DC/DC converters will substantially increase the power density of radiation- resistant DC/DC converters. This new converter has the potential to boast power densities 3 – 5 times current state-of-the-art, while reaching radiation hardness unobtainable by conventional magnetic based solutions. This would directly lead to substantial improvements to current spacecraft power management and power conversion capabilities. We are proposing to a technology capable of meeting the needs of modern low-voltage high current sources necessary for low voltage processors and FPGA cores. The new technology promises to enable new standards on high-density extremely radiation-resistant (e.g. radiation MDA HAENS) converters. BENEFIT: The new technology is poised to capture a sizable portion of the between $100-200M power markets within North America. However, the commercialization transition onto weapon platform and space systems is of primary interest. Near term we will also be looking at embedding and integrating on products such as Proton 200K and 300K SBCs. Additionally, this new converter would have an immediate application in commercial down-conversion applications for common mobile electronics, due to the high efficiency and compact size, this “green” technology could have a direct COTS makeover that could substantially reduce size and weight while greatly increasing the efficiency of modern lap-top, cell phone, and mobile power chargers.

Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Freddie Lin
AF103-081      Awarded:3/14/2011
Title:Bandwidth-Adaptive Lossless Inter-Channel Compression System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is seeking to develop a suite of processor and bandwidth-efficient, lossless or near-lossless image compression algorithms that maximize the exploitation of mission data from space-based, electro-optical sensors. The on-board image processing methods currently used in space are unsuitable for SSA applications because they fail to meet the SSA requirements for lossless compression performance and platform-required compression efficiency. In order to meet the Air Force’s requirements, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes a Bandwidth-Adaptive Lossless Inter-Channel Compression (BALIC) System, which efficiently integrates our innovations in highly efficient lossless compression, ultra-fast region-of-interest detection, and bandwidth efficient TCP/IP. It achieves superior compression performance, improves detection, tracking and estimation of low-visibility or fast-moving targets, and provides robust and bandwidth-efficient data delivery over dynamic and bandwidth-limited tactical networks. The compression parameters and transport operation can be tuned and adaptively adjusted to maximize processor and bandwidth utilization, and the BALIC system can work perfectly independent of the underlying network conditions. BALIC compression & transport software has a small code size and small RAM usage, meeting the most constrained space application requirements. It can be easily implemented via available embedded COTS hardware/software or open source products. BENEFIT: BCI’s BALIC technology has many potential applications in military and government, especially in operational satellite ground station and dynamic and bandwidth-limited environments. The Warfighter’s Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T), Network-Centric Warfare, Command and Control (C2) Information System (C2IS), and NASA lunar and planetary surface exploration programs can benefit greatly from BALIC technology. In addition, the U.S. Air Force and DoD can incorporate BALIC technology into relevant tactical communications networks to achieve robust and bandwidth efficient data processing and delivery in bandwidth-limited scenarios. The BALIC technology developed for the space- based SSA may also be used in commercial applications for the detection of objects against any number of terrestrial backgrounds. BCI’s BALIC can provide government surveillance, Internet data compression, remote equipment monitoring, health care monitoring, and situational awareness applications. With a growing need in the U.S. and around the world for surveillance, BALIC technology has vast commercial potential.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Daniel Bock
AF103-081      Awarded:4/8/2011
Title:Advanced Region of Interest Foveation Catastrophe-based Morphing Compression
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for advanced compression algorithms for exploitation of space imagery, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Advanced Region of Interest (ROI) Foveation Catastrophe-based Compression (ARIFCaC) software suite. It is based on new ROI foveation, POC’s Catastrophe-theory-based algorithmic software, and POC’s advanced lossless and lossy (but perceptually lossless) compression algorithm. The innovations in ARIFCaC, including ROI foveation, Catastrophe-theory-based structural information encoding, and synergistic perceptually lossless compression, will enable the software suite to improve detection capability, metric accuracy, and tracking and estimation of fast-evolving scenarios. As a result, this technology offers processor- and bandwidth-efficient compression and image exploitation algorithms for the Air Force’s future space surveillance applications, which directly address the requirements of Space-Based Space Surveillance (SSBS) programs, specifically the SBSS Pathfinder satellite program. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ARIFCaC by providing quantified improvements in compression ratio and image exploitation processes using training data sets provided by the Air Force. In Phase II, POC plans to demonstrate the optimized ARIFCaC software suite, which minimizes computational burden but maximizes compression ratios, as well as detection capability and tracking ability of objects on the test data provided. BENEFIT: Since the ARIFCaC provides perceptually lossless compression and advanced image exploitation, it can be used in medical imaging applications, which have very strict parameters and do not allow compression because it will lose details in the image. It will not only save transmission time, but also storage requirements and infrastructure costs. The technology will provide the same benefits to the security and surveillance areas, as well to current information-rich applications. Classical problems in space surveillance are limited processing time and available downlink bandwidth. With the ARIFCaC technology, these classical problems in remote sensing, deep space surveillance, and target tracking applications can be greatly alleviated.

Blue Canyon Technologies LLC
1524 North St
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 215-4459
George Stafford
AF103-083      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for CubeSats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To overcome the limited Attitude Determination and Control performance of current Cubesats, Blue Canyon Technologies proposes a reliable, high performance design compatible with a variety of cubesat configurations. The BCT FleXible ADCS Cubesat Technology (XACT) architecture leverages a powerful processing core with BCT’s micro- CMG or micro-Reaction Wheel Assemblies to enable a new generation of highly capable, miniaturized spacecraft. As the capacity and speed of modern field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) continue to increase, the number of system functions that can reside within the device are also increasing. The notion of a system on a chip or SOC is now a reality. In this particular application, the SOC is the fleXible ADCS Cubesat Technology (XACT). In order to achieve the topic’s pointing goals within the ½ of 1U volume, we are integrating major pieces of the ADC system into a high performance programmable chip. These include star camera image processing and star field solutions, GPS software radio, the BCT PureDriveTM attitude control motor drive, the attitude solution and control processing, and multiple processing cores per chip for asynchronous ADCS function processing. BENEFIT: The Cubesat market is quickly growing. The established area of the market has been focused on the educational benefits of Cubesat design and development. With higher performance, and higher reliability components, Cubesat have the potential for making inroads into the greater than $3 Billion dollar satellite market. In order to take advantage of this market, established contractors must begin to see a match between their desire for a low cost, reliable, and high performance approach and the CubeSat being proposed. The BCT XACT solution will be the first solution that offers the kind of results that contractors need.

IntelliTech Microsystems, Inc.
2138 Priest Bridge Court Suite 3
Crofton, MD 21114
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 451-2505
George Sebestyen
AF103-083      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:MAI-1/2U-ADACS (Attitude Determination and Control System) for CubeSats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The MAI-½U-ADACS for CubeSats is a smaller than ½ U size complete ADACS system composed of a 3-axis reaction wheel, a novel 0.1-0.2º Earth Horizon sensor employing earth limb image processing in two orthogonal cameras, a sun sensor, 3-axis magnetometer, 3 torque coils and an attitude control computer that can accommodate additional sensors (such as GPS). The entire MAI-1/2U-ADACS is contained in a volume of about 10cm x 10 cm x 4 cm. It has a large enough momentum capacity to slew a 3U CubeSat at 8º/sec. When used with CubeSats it converts them to a very stable platform on which very accurate experiments requiring precise attitude control can be mounted. During Phase I, a prototype 1/2U ADACS will be developed, tested and exercised in a HITL (Hardware-In-The- Loop) environment to demonstrate and verify the performance capabilities of the system. In addition, mechanical and electrical and software interface specifications will be written to permit a user to integrate the MAI-1/2U-ADACS into his 3U CubeSat with a minimum of effort and within a very short time. HITL software will also be provided so that a customer can retest the system at his own facility. BENEFIT: The MAI-½U-ADACS will provide the ever larger CubeSat community a robust, easy to integrate and very small ADACS of 0.1-0.2º attitude control capability. With this capability (and an affordable price) CubeSats will be able to realize the potential seen for them, as a low cost but very capable platform for space experimenters. Under a DARPA SBIR contract we developed the MAI-100 1U ADACS for CubeSats. The MAI-100 enabled a number of nanosatellite applications not previously possible. However, the MAI 1/2U ADACS will halve the volume, more than quadruple the attitude control accuracy and reduce the power consumption of the MAI-100, making it highly desirable as the ADACS of choice for the CubeSat community. The MAI-100 has been a marketing success, having sold in a year over 22 systems. Since that time the CubeSat community has exhibited substantial growth, now achieving about 50 satellites per year. We expect that our commercialization program will capture the lion’s share of this market, making this SBIR program pay off handsomely for the Air Force and for the commercial space community.

DataSoft Corp.
1475 N. Scottsdale Road #460
Scottsdale, AZ 85257
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 763-5777
Rod Kronschnabel
AF103-085      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Agile Space Radio (ASR)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: DataSoft leverages its considerable military and commercial SDR experience to determine the desired ASR capabilities and critical enabling technologies, including SDR and CR technologies, which are essential to developing the ASR. Any gaps in technology are identified, and target requirements for the ASR are captured. DataSoft defines an ASR architecture that is both generic and versatile. It improves on several complex problems, including interoperability issues, by defining a fully reconfigurable radio using the latest digital and RF technologies to improve cost, size, power consumption and RF performance. Finally, DataSoft develops a Program Plan to design and build a feasible ASR prototype. The plan details multiple stages of rapid hardware development followed by circuit refinements and software integration efforts. The plan concludes with a final demonstration of the ASR prototype to all interested U.S. Government stakeholders. BENEFIT: DataSoft’s overall approach identifies technology advances and contrasts various ideas in order to develop the complete SDR-based ASR that incorporates innovative hardware components and demonstrates superior wideband operation with re-programmability for waveform processing and cognitive awareness of its RF environment. The DataSoft ASR architecture explores potential efficiencies across the entire transceiver and leverages our extensive, detailed military and commercial SDR platform design experience. DataSoft has successfully demonstrated its ability to build rapid hardware prototypes using a proven methodology. Our Program Plan to develop a feasible ASR prototype during Phase II saves time and money by producing early units for evaluation. Through repeated refinement, integration, and performance evaluation, the ASR architecture is developed and evaluated incrementally. The result is a final customer demonstration and a Program Plan for the high performance, reconfigurable ASR platform at the conclusion of Phase II.

Space Micro Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
David R. Czajkowski
AF103-085      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Agile Space Radio (ASR)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space Micro has developed unique and critically important technologies that solve all of these issues simultaneously, when combined with other industry standard satellite design practices can provide a reprogrammable, radiation hardened, scalable space grade communications radio. This platform, which we call the μSDR (software defined radio), can be used as a multi-band, multi-waveform radio that is capable of receiving DoD (Air Force) communications waveforms from all points in the satellite's communication scenario, such as communicating at S-band to one ground station, then reprogramming to K-band for communication to another ground station. BENEFIT: The end applications include many DoD, NASA, other civil and commercial space platforms. Among these specific space programs are NRO Colony, ORS, Tacsat family, Plug and play sats, AEHF tech insertions, F6 follow-ons, SBSS, STSS, advanced GPS, and several classified projects. This technology and evolving Space Micro products will also benefit many commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium Next telecom constellation replenishment, plus standard industry busses including Lockheed’s A2100, and Boeing’s HS-702. Potential customers include university CubeSat programs as well as space system suppliers, such as Lockheed Martin, Space Systems Loral, Northrop Grumman Space, Astrium, Toshiba, MELCO, and Boeing Space Systems.

Composite Technology Development, Inc.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
John Cronin
AF103-086      Awarded:3/1/2011
Title:High Compliance Carbon Nanotube based Thermal Interface Material for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. Air Force is seeking high-thermal conductivity gaskets to improve the thermal efficiency of space-based electronic systems. Advanced gasket materials will enhance the performance of electronic packages by improving heat dissipation during operation. Moreover, thermal management systems are often large, relatively heavy components that add volume and weight to the spacecraft. To address the need for improved thermal interface materials (TIM), Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Array-based TIM’s will be developed. These materials will be lightweight, highly compliant, reworkable, and highly thermally conductive. In addition, the CNT-based TIM’s will significantly reduce assembly, integration, and test time (AI&T) for the spacecraft. BENEFIT: With increased thermal capacity, as well as lighter weight and smaller packaging, thermal gaskets with carbon nanotube array could revolutionize the thermal management systems used in microprocessors, telecommunication systems, and power supplies. Heat dissipation is often a limiting factor in the performance of these systems, and the use of interface materials with significantly higher thermal conductivities will enable the construction of smaller and lighter systems, while also reducing power consumption. The results will be improved operational performance and longer lifetimes in the electronic components.

NanoTechLabs Inc.
409 W. Maple St.
Yadkinville, NC 27055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 846-0377
Thomas Tiano
AF103-086      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:Easily Reworkable Thermal Interface Material for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this program, the NanoTechLabs team will develop an easily-reworkable thermal interface material (TIM) that is highly thermally conductive, easy to handle, and highly compliant, yet can be qualified for aerospace and space missions. The enabling technology is the combination of a highly-compliant silicone-based pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) in combination with trimodal micro-and nanoscale silver that allows the PSA to have a consistent and bond line, low contact resistance and low thermal resistance. Use of a PSA allows easy application of the TIM from a roll of material with a release film. It also reduces the time and damage associated with rework as the PSA can be removed via mechanical and/or solvent techniques. The PSA will be available in a tape that can be applied directly to the substrate for a highly controlled bond thickness. It will have an extremely long working time, but will be easily applied and reworked. NTL will test this material for thermal and mechanical properties as well as outgassing. BENEFIT: The benefits of this system include high thermal conductivity, easy application and it is readily reworked. Beyond space applications, this TIM will find applications as a thermal management material in military and commercial microelectronics as well as applications in medical devices.

Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 569-6551
John Thayer
AF103-086      Awarded:3/10/2011
Title:High Compliance Thermal Interface Material for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Electronic boxes need to be quickly and easily attached and removed from the satellite payload deck in a spacecraft structure. Hampering the removal process is the vulcanized (RTV) used as the Thermal Interface Material, TIM. Because of its strong bond, it makes removal of the boxes time-consuming, and difficult to rework. Compounding the problem is the fact that electronics continue to get smaller and higher in power, the interface resistance is becoming the dominant temperature drop in the thermal circuit. The proposed solution is to use Highly Oriented Filament Array (HOFA) technology to improve the “through the thickness” thermal resistance by extending high thermal conductivity polymer filaments across the interface to contact the opposing side. A layer of HOFA is applied to both the electronics box being cooled and to the payload deck so that the two interface layers mesh like two hair brushes when brought together. The filaments form a high surface area contact conduction path without making an actual bond that is difficult to remove and rework. In Phase 1 several different filament geometries (round, square, rectangular) will be evaluated from various thermally conductive polymer materials. Sample filament materials made from high conductivity polymer formulations will be made using “Hot Embossing”. These materials will be tested for their effectiveness at meeting the Air Force’s defined TIM requirements. BENEFIT: Excess heat is the number one cause of failure in modern electronic systems. Concurrently, the electronics industry is facing ever increasing power densities as device sizes shrink and the performance of devices such as processors continues to increase. The associated increasing heat load is a critical issue as chip manufacturers, trying to perpetuate Moore’s law, find themselves outpacing the capabilities of existing thermal solutions. Power and heat have become the biggest issues for chip manufacturers and companies integrating these chips into everyday devices. Increasingly, the thermal resistance at the interface between the device generating heat and the system used to remove the heat is becoming the weakest link in the thermal circuit. Thus, there is a great need for improved thermal interface materials (TIM) to be satisfied by the proposed work effort.

Avolare 2, LLC
112 Ellsworth Pl
Chapel Hill, NC 27516
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 590-0605
John P. Snyder
AF103-087      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:Highly Scalable Metal Source/Drain ‘Schottky’ CMOS for Mitigation of Parasitic Bipolar Effects and Improved Power, Speed and Radiation Performance
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Avolare 2, LLC proposes the simulation and quantization of single event effects (SEUs) on highly scaled (i.e., sub-65 nm gate length) metal source/drain "Schottky" CMOS (SB- CMOS) transistors. Mixed-mode 2D device/circuit simulations of an SRAM core (back-to- back inverters) subjected to an energetic particle strike will be modeled. Avolare 2’s proprietary Monte Carlo TCAD tool ‘WhiteCap’ will be used to model the inverter not affected by the strike (a SPICE-like circuit simulation using compact models) and will also perform full 2D device-level simulations of the inverter subjected to ionizing radiation. N and p type devices, metal and conventional doped source/drain structures, gate lengths from 65nm to 10nm and uniformly doped well and double well (buried p-n junction) architectures will be investigated. The threshold LET – the minimum LET that causes upset – will be determined for each combination of parameters. Comparison/plots of threshold LET for metal and conventional doped source/drain structures with device type, gate length and well structure as parameters. Determination of threshold LET advantage of metal source/drain vs doped source/drain structure BENEFIT: The successful development of rad-hard metal source/drain "Schottky" CMOS (SB-CMOS) technology and the quantization of single event effects on SB-CMOS will be of great benefit to many system designers (military and commercial alike) who require highly scaled, high- performance components with the capability to operate reliably in radiation laden environments. Furthermore, due to the outstanding performance of SB-CMOS for high- speed, low-power applications, SB-CMOS based integrated circuits have the ability to enable entirely new classes of consumer and commercial products and will likely find widespread adoption across the electronics industry.

Robust Chip Inc.
7901 Stoneridge Drive Suite 226
Pleasanton, CA 94588
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 425-0820
Klas Lilja
AF103-087      Awarded:3/11/2011
Title:Single Event Transient Effects for Sub-65 nm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Technologies
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Robust Chip (RCI) and Vanderbilt University (Vanderbilt) propose a joint project to create and characterize a comprehensive, accurate, single event simulation solution for ultra scaled (45nm, 32nm, and below) CMOS technologies. Development work on novel layout techniques for ultra deep submicron technologies will be integrated in this project as well, through the development of specific layouts and test structures to verify simulation accuracy in a 45nm (and below) technology. The simulation technology will be a very important building block in the design flow for a radhard designer, providing the fundamental information about single event behavior of the basic building blocks in the design. Furthermore, the technology supports RHBD layout methodology and the incorporation of RHBD techniques in layout synthesis tools. BENEFIT: The project focus is on developing a production strength single event analysis solution for 45nm, 28nm and 22nm CMOS, building on the most advanced single event characterization software available. The additional work on layout implementation and novel layout methodologies, will guide the development of the software solution both for qualification and calibration purposes, and for guidance on and adaption to, important target applications. The key innovations behind the technology in this project, the layout technology LEAP, and the new simulation methodology in accuro, originate in earlier DTRA and DARPA sponsored projects. The dedicated, unique simulation solution is of great strategic significance, providing an ability to accurately model effects that cannot be measured directly, reducing the very expensive and costly experimental testing (and possible re-designs), and providing a unique design support which will allow for the generation of the best possible radhard circuits and layouts with a minimum of performance penalty.

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8826
James Justice
AF103-088      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A sensor concept called Enhanced GEMINI is proposed which exploits a passive visible CMOS imaging array, a new concept in very high sensitivity 3D SWIR Lidar arrays coupled with high pulse rate SWIR fiber lasers, and an extension of state-of-the art in Lamellar Micro-Spectrometers. These sensing capabilities are used in a single compact, multimode sensor design which a) performs passive visible search out to 2,000 km and active 3D search out to 20 km while searching a full hemisphere every 4 seconds, b) high resolution 2D and 3D tracking and imaging of targets entering the proximity of the host vehicle, and c) the capability for analyzing the pulse wavelenths, pulse energies, and pulse rates while in either a search/track mode or a recognition/track mode. Two sensors can provide full spherical coverage around the host vehicle. Low SWaP enables deployment on a wide variety of hosts with minimized impact. BENEFIT: Two new fundamental technologies, the 3D very high sensitivity Lidar receiver and the extended spectral response Lamellar Micro-spectromenter are fundamental advances in the state-of-the-art which will have broad application. For the Enhanced GEMINI concept these technologies enable an entirely new capability in active 3D large volume search and a capability for detection and analysis of laser illumination of the host vehicle across a very broad spectral region which can be integrated with more tradition passive search/track/identification sensors. Accomplishing this in a low SWaP sensor installation with minimum inpact on the host vehicles will enable a practical, cost effective improvement in the survivability of critical US space assets. Further, the technologies to be developed during this project will create new opportunities for wide area security surveillance applications, for monitoring chemical contaminations, and for improved 3D Imaging.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Byron Zollars
AF103-088      Awarded:3/14/2011
Title:Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a need for space optical systems that have high sensitivity and can stare over a super-wide field of regard without the complexity, size, weight, and cost associated with scanners or wide-angle optics. Nanohmics proposes to build and test a novel, low-cost optical system for satellite situational awareness that has a spherical field of regard. The optical system has no moving parts, has a very small depth along the optical axes, and can be constructed from light and extremely low-cost injection-molded polymers or space-quality glasses. Based on a wide-angle laser threat detector system, the innovative Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS) we propose combines non-imaging optics with integrated reflective surfaces to achieve a wide optical field of regard without sacrificing angular accuracy, sensitivity, or collection aperture. In operation, the TASS system stares for extended periods of time, detecting unusual events with unique spectral signatures that may indicate activity by orbital debris, other satellites and/or directed energy threats. If detected, spectral information, angle to the object, direction and speed information, and a magnitude estimate are forwarded to the spacecraft host bus for dissemination. Additionally, the detected location of the potential satellite, orbital debris or directed energy can be passed off to a narrow field-of-view imaging sensor for more detailed analysis of the potential threat. BENEFIT: The novel wide field-of-view optical system developed in this program will find utility in a number of commercial and military applications, from laser warning systems for spacecraft, vehicles, aircraft, and rotorcraft, to search and rescue beacon locators, and personal soldier laser warning devices. Commercial applications involve industrial tracking and location, monitoring of robots, and surveillance of airport and border perimeters.

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF103-088      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SA Photonics is pleased to propose the SENTRY threat awareness system. The system integrates the active and passive sensor subsystems we have developed over a wide range of programs. The active sensor combines a high performance fiber optic source with high sensitivity coherent detection and micro-radian optical beamsteering. The passive sensor exploits our experience in high sensitivity visible and IR systems for night vision products. The integrated system results in a long range active sensor for characterization coupled with the passive sensors for object detection with a package weight with low weight and power consumption. BENEFIT: The SENTRY system will allow long range detection and characterization of space objects in a very small and lightweight package. As "space junk" increases in desirable orbits, the detection of objects will be critical to protect the vehicles.

MMA Design LLC
PO Box 7804
Loveland, CO 80537
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 258-7365
Thomas Jeffrey Harvey
AF103-089      Awarded:3/25/2011
Title:A Modular High Power Solar Array for NanoSats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: With increased focus on development of highly capable Nanosat satellites and missions, innovations in spacecraft system design and architecture that yield high performance, modular and multi-function systems will enhance Air Force mission capability and flexibility. SWAP constraints in NanoSats necessitate this system approach to result in significant increases in performance and mission capability within a highly responsive and lower cost NanoSat environment. An area of considerable development opportunity and need to enable Air Force NanoSat missions is to increase available continuous power significantly, to lower costs and to further leverage this capability to effectively de-orbit the spacecraft at end-of-life. MMA Design proposes to advance the state-of-the-art in Nanosat power systems by developing an Enhanced High Watts per Kilogram (E-HaWK™) Advanced Power and De- orbit Module (APDM) consisting of an innovative deployable two-wing solar array and de- orbit system combined with a bi-axis sun tracking gimbal assembly specifically designed for NanoSats. The E-HaWK™ APDM targets a 300% increase in specific power (W/kg), 233% increase in peak power, and 900% increase in orbital average power (OAP) over existing SOA. This high performance is achievable within the Nanosat system design envelope through the use of innovative solar panel packaging and gimbal technologies. BENEFIT: Benefits and impacts to the Air Force mission for NanoSats include: 1. Space Situational Awareness – Bi-axis sun tracking allows the S/C to maintain high continuous power while simultaneously freeing the mission instruments to fully support the target mission, thus improving data collection; 2. Mission ISR data and quality can increase with increases in power capabilities and performance; 3. Maximizing the utility of the available volume by combining the functions of solar power and de-orbiting into one robust deployable system; 4. Rapid development and maturation of innovative power technologies for NanoSats leads to low cost solutions that are adaptable and scalable to other Air Force applications; 5. Advancement of key deployable and steerable solar array technologies to overcome current spacecraft and mission limitations; 6. A modular and scalable system architecture that is multi-functional; 7. A low mass and low volume system to maximize the mass/volume available for instrument payloads; 8. De-orbit capability ensures reduction in future space debris and available orbital slots; and 9. The MMA team offers Air Force high innovative content for revolutionizing NanoSat

Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Jeffrey Slostad
AF103-089      Awarded:3/4/2011
Title:PnP 30W Orbit Average Power Solar Panel for Cubesats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: TUI proposes to develop a lightweight, low-cost deployable solar array sized to provide 30 W orbit-averaged power to CubeSats. Our proposed design fits within the 6.5 mm extra volume allowed by the P-POD spec beyond the 10 cm square standard CubeSat footprint, and leaves 1U of a 3U CubeSat clear to allow mounting antennas and other components as well as access to umbilical ports. It also provides full 4-pi spherical pointing, enabling sun tracking with no constraints on satellite operations. The array design is compatible with the AFRL PnP CubeSat structure as well as most other ‘standard’ CubeSat bus structure designs. In the Phase I effort, we will develop a detailed design for the deployable array and construct an engineering unit to enable testing to validate the design, and in the Phase II effort we will build, qualify, and deliver a flight unit of the 30W OAP CubeSat Solar Array. BENEFIT: The proposed 30 W OAP Solar Array will provide a dramatic increase in the capability of CubeSat systems, enabling them to perform high-performance missions such as tactical operations requiring orbital maneuvering with electric propulsion thrusters, CubeSat-based radar systems for ISR or SSA, and CubeSat-based communications relay systems.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
Bradley Davis
AF103-090      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Lightweight and Rugged Reflectarray Antenna for High Gain, Portable GPS
Abstract:ABSTRACT: NanoSonic would design and simulate a man-portable, GNSS deployable reflectarray antenna. This design would be based on novel new HybridSil™ materials tailored for lightweight and stowable portable antennas. To accomplish this task, NanoSonic has created a team with a unique combination of engineers, chemists and materials scientists capable of design, simulation and fabrication of this product. In creating and simulating the design, NanoSonic would team leverage existing work and experience with custom antenna computational and COTS tools. NanoSonic would construct the antenna using HybridSil™ substrate layers in order to optimize antenna weight, volume and height with electromagnetic performance. These layers will be covalently bonded to ensure maximum resistance to delamination and the highest reliability. HybridSil™ systems have excellent thermal properties and UV durability along with dielectric tunability and low electromagnetic loss. In constructing these antennas, NanoSonic would exploit its in-house custom processing techniques and materials that include inkjet patterning and self-assembled mesh materials for lightweight, flexible, yet rugged and dimensionally stable surfaces. Preliminary antenna testing would also be performed in-house with NanoSonic equipment. The NanoSonic PI is antenna engineer with many years experience in both hardware implementation and simulation software construction. BENEFIT: The materials and devices developed and applied in this program may be used to form a variety of high performance microwave materials and devices integrated directly into lightweight polymer structural components. Such low-cost processing will allow the manufacturing of cost-competitive aerospace, electronic, optoelectronic, sensor and actuator materials, devices and integrated function structures. Conformal or free-standing, flexible RF antennas are of importance for both military and commercial applications. Additionally, these antennas would address DoD and law enforcement needs for communication and surveillance with reduced probability of detection. In commercial use, such antennas could be integrated into vehicle or building structures; NanoSonic also intends to apply these antennas as inexpensive as RFID tags.

PaneraTech
2600 Roberts Ct
Hilliard, OH 43026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 599-8493
Yakup Bayram
AF103-090      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Foldable Lightweight Parabolic Antenna (FLPA) for Navigation and Communication Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To meet Air Force's need for a light-weight, foldable and high gain transmit/receive antenna for navigation and communication, PaneraTech is proposing a unique ultra-light high gain antenna design based on foldable parabolic reflector. This technology is based on extremely light and flexible conductive materials for the reflector surface, and light-weight high- strength carbon fiber/polymer based structural support components. Its modular feed enables several other communication applications using the same foldable reflector surface; thus, creating a multitude of commercial opportunities in the civilian market. PaneraTech employs custom built GPS satellite constellation software to determine the minimum beamwidth required to view at least one of the GPS satellites when the antenna is pointed in the sky in random direction at any place and time on the earth. This information will feed into the reflector design to achieve the required beamwidth and minimum of 4dBic gain for the enhanced GPS navigation. BENEFIT: The proposed Foldable Lightweight Parabolic Antenna (FLPA) has tremendous commercial applications in the defense and civilian markets. While its potential applications in the DoD is clear, in the civilian market, it has a potential application as a communication enhancement technology for satellite telecom service providers such as Iridium, Globalstar etc. Current subscribers of the satellite telecom customers who rely on a bulky monopole antenna attached to their phones and receive poor service due to high interference, foliage etc, will be able to use FLPA as a high gain antenna for improved telecom service. Search and rescue teams who work in remote fields will also find this technology vital to their needs for enhanced telecom and navigation services.

Syntonics LLC
9160 Red Branch Road
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-0500
Steven E. Gemeny
AF103-090      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Light-Weight, High-Gain Receive/Transmit Navigation/Communication Antennas
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The desire to improve the performance of portable Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) in the presence of interference and/or signal attenuation creates the need for a multi-mode GPS antenna. The antenna first needs a higher gain mode for initial signal acquisition from at least one GPS satellite and then a lower gain all-sky mode for maximum navigation precision. The antenna must also be lightweight, rugged, low visual profile, silent in operation, and highly portable. In Phase I Syntonics will demonstrate the feasibility of this multi-mode GPS antenna by analysis plus actual laboratory and field measurements taken with a breadboard antenna structure. We will also investigate other tactical communication applications for the same antenna structure. BENEFIT: The anticipated results of a successful Phase I will be a design concept for a lightweight, robust, Multi-Mode GPS antenna. The resulting design can be prototyped in Phase II. The initial market for Multi-Mode GPS antenna that can be used with a variety of military UE is substantial, as GPS UE has proliferated throughout the U.S. and allied militaries. The Multi- Mode GPS antenna will also be compelling in civilian GPS applications than need rapid signal acquisition from a cold or warm start. We can market the technology as an adjunct to our existing line of UHF TACSAT antennas

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Paul Sorensen, Ph.D.
AF103-091      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:An Ultra-Compact Star Tracker for CubeSats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Creare proposes to design, develop, test, and deliver an ultra-compact star tracker specifically intended for the CubeSat platform. Our design is based on proprietary “folded optics” technology previously developed by our partner for use in military and commercial optical applications that require a compact footprint and high performance. The folded optics design is superior to conventional refractive optics in miniature star trackers because (1) the compact footprint is achieved without sacrificing accuracy; (2) the light gathering aperture is much greater, leading to better sensitivity; (3) the aperture geometry makes the shielding baffles smaller; and (4) the imaging sensor can be shielded efficiently from cosmic radiation. Our preliminary design far exceeds the requirements listed in the solicitation topic and promises to enable the Air Force to rely on CubeSats for space weather missions. During the Phase I project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our innovation by finalizing the design, performing analysis to determine the optimal design parameters, and testing a bench top prototype to verify the design models. In Phase II, we will fabricate the optimized design, test the prototype in the laboratory and in the field, and deliver the prototype to the Air Force. BENEFIT: Many Air Force, NASA, and commercial missions are exploring the use of pico- and nano- satellites as alternatives to expensive, large satellites. In order to enable many mission profiles, these satellites need attitude determination sensors. Our star tracker will enable highly precise attitude determination in a package that is significantly smaller, much lower mass, and uses less power than any alternative star trackers on the market. As the market for and uses of small- and nano-satellites increases, the demand for our star tracker will increase to enable missions that are not possible with today’s technology.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Richard A Hutchin
AF103-091      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Miniaturized Interferometric Star Tracker for Cubesats (C-MiST)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical Physics Company (OPC) is proposing to customize a novel miniaturized interferometric star tracker (MiST) design for cubesats, leading to a new star tracker device C-MiST. All of the optics, the detector focal plane array and the processor for C-MiST will fit inside 100 cubic centimeters, or 1/10th the volume of a 1U cubesat. OPC comes into this project having demonstrated the full size version of the interferometric star tracker (iST) design at TRL 5 under an Air Force Phase II SBIR contract. The proven accuracy of iST is 1000x better than the 0.02 degree requirement of this application. During Phase I, the existing design will be adapted to a lower cost simplified assembly process and plug-and-play interface. This will be followed Phase II prototype design. BENEFIT: OPC has partnered with Boeing for its interferometric star tracker technology transition. Boeing already has a picosatellite CubeSat TestBed 1 (CSTB1) in orbit with another - CSTB3 to demonstrate larger spacecraft capabilities such as higher communications bandwidth, three-axis control, onboard autonomy, and advanced dynamic power management in the works. Additional applications of OPC’s star tracker are Missile Defense satellite constellations, various DoD and NASA satellite GN&C subsystems, various ISR missions and GPS Independent Navigation and Guidance units.

Astronix Research LLC
P.O. Box 7336 44 Rudi Lane
Golden, CO 80403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 642-1405
Robert LeChevalier
AF103-092      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Radiation-Hardened, Analog-to-Digital Converter with High-Bit Precision
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Astronix Research Corp. proposes a novel pipeline ADC in 45nm CMOS SOI with 2GSPS sample rate and 62dB SNDR dynamic performance at ½ Nyquist rate (10 bits SNDR). The approach is based on extensive analysis and simulation showing that with properly optimized architecture and circuit topologies, as well as other proprietary methods, a single pipeline of only 3 stages can achieve over twice the resolution (+1 more bit) of the state of the art at this sample rate, and reduce power consumption almost 10 X, to under 500mW. The approach offers a foundation for single ADCs up to 20GSPS, and interleaved ADCs up to 80GSPS. The finished ADC would require a minimum of digital calibration. Ultra-deep submicron SOI technology combined with standard radiation-hardening-by-design techniques and a very small physical footprint are expected to achieve exceptional radiation tolerance for total dose, dose rate, SEU and SEL. A 45nm process CMOS node permits integration of ADC arrays into larger Systems on a Chip (SOC) for applications such QAM channel banks and beamforming receivers, offering substantially enhanced capabilities for high data-rate communications and signals collection. BENEFIT: A small form-factor/low power pipeline ADC has wide application for radar, beam forming antennas and communications systems in airborne and space systems. Systems of greater spectral diversity and higher sensitivity would be possible with the ADC. While State of the Art commercial parts from vendors such as E2v consume 5.7W each, the proposed effort seeks to deliver an ADC operating at power levels of approximately 0.5W (excluding other functions). As an example, because of substantial reductions in Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP) the proposed effort makes practical an array of over 20 ADCs on a single 5mm x 5mm silicon die operating at as little as 10W (excluding other functions) in a digitizer for a large, wideband channel bank. Compared to current SOA parts the proposed ADC would enable significantly improved QAM signaling with each ADC digitizing 800MHz bandwidth for a 20% oversampling over the Nyquist rate. The design would provide for improved data transmission with an error-corrected bit-rate at least 10 times higher than the bandwidth – 20Gbps per channel. The small footprint and low power of the device will enable aggregations of ADCs enabling data throughput of 200Gbps. This level of data bandwidth would have enormous impact on all satellite communications allowing much higher system capabilities without increasing cost, weight or power consumption. At less than 1mm2 per ADC, the die size for the array of 20 ADCs could be as little as 5mm x 5mm, which is small by today’s standards. 10W of heat dissipation (not counting I/O power) is certainly feasible in this die size even without wafer thinning. Commercial products are now providing 6 or more serial photonic data channels of 20Gbps each, demonstrating the feasibility of such efforts and the potential for suitable I/O for

Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Esko Mikkola
AF103-092      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Radiation-Hardened, Analog-to-Digital Converter with High-Bit Precision
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Ridgetop Group will design a radiation-hardened, high speed (2 GS/S) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with high-bit precision for use in low bit error rate (BER) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) demodulator applications. Due to its high linearity and dynamic range, the ADC block can be incorporated into critical communications systems where radiation exposure would otherwise cause degradation of performance. Ridgetop will employ an innovative time-interleaved pipeline ADC approach, based on the most advanced silicon-germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology available, providing more than 2 bits higher effective number of bits (ENOB = 11.0 bits) than the best commercially available radiation-tolerant 2 GS/s ADCs (ENOB = 8.9 bits). In addition, the ADC consumes 70% less power than the commercial ADCs, conserving valuable spacecraft power. Due to the inherent radiation tolerance of the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) and 130 nm thin-oxide CMOS transistors (in combination with radiation-hardening-by- design, (RHBD) techniques) the ADC will be tolerant to 1 Mrad of total ionizing dose (TID) radiation. The ADC will be also sufficiently hardened against single-event effects (SEL) of 120 Mev-cm2/mg, making it an ideal building block for advanced space-based communication systems. BENEFIT: Precision data converters are critical to the performance of high speed Digital Processing (DSP) Systems. The sampling rate and resolution of the converters define the performance aspects of the entire system. With the aggressive performance improvements of 2 GS/S sampling rate, high Effective Number of Bits (ENOB), and low power, this ADC overcomes a significant barrier to higher performance communications systems. Ridgetop’s innovative time-interleaved SiGe-based ADC will improve the resolution, linearity, power consumption and radiation hardness of state-of-the art of ADCs used in advanced communication systems. As a modular, self-contained building block based on a popular, Trusted Foundry process, the ADC will be an important library element for future system designs. The high-performance ADC finds wide applicability in satellite communication systems, space-based radar applications, medical imaging devices, software defined radio applications, power amplifier linearization, high speed data acquisition applications, high speed test and instrumentation equipment.

Tezzaron Semiconductor Corp.
1415 Bond St. #111
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 505-0404
Robert Patti
AF103-093      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Radiation-Hardened, Resistive Random Access Memory
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Tezzaron intends to develop a nonvolatile low latency memory based on 3D assembly of RRAM memory cell wafers with CMOS logic wafers. The very high density 3D interconnect that Tezzaron can produce allows circuitry to be manufactured on different wafers in different semiconductor processes and then integrated into a single polylithic substrate that acts as if were a single circuit. The combination of traditional CMOS and RRAM technology in a 3D integrated circuit allows exploitation of a new higher risk technology such as RRAM but with the confidence of using well known circuit design techniques and existing processes for much of the new component. The 3D integrated circuit approach also addresses another critical concern which is yield. Newer process technologies are plagued by low yields stemming from inferior material purity. This is a know issue with many experimental materials employed in RRAMs. 3D integration permits enhanced repair and redundancy due to the use of the high speed CMOS logic process and the additional wiring capacity 3D integration affords. This is a requirement for commercialization of large high density memories fabricated with any of the possible RRAM technologies. BENEFIT: It is anticipated the final device will provide a high density nonvolatile memory with high radiation tolerance. The development of a low latency random access nonvolatile memory developed with 3D integration addresses the commercial issues that are limiting acceptance RRAM technology. The technology will have direct use in many commercial and consumer devices, especially handheld devices such as smart phones and PDAs.

Applied EM Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
C.J.Reddy
AF103-094      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:CRPA for GNSS
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) includes a modernized Global Positioning System (GPS), the European Galileo, Russian Glonass, and the Chinese Beidou systems. At present, most systems are GPS only, but new GNSS receivers will use some of the additional GNSS systems becoming available to improve accuracy and availability. Polarization of GNSS signals is Right-Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). A Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) is an antenna which provides a means to electronically control and change the received antenna pattern. Current CRPAs are designed for GPS receivers (L1 and L2 band operation). CRPAs for future GNSS military receivers should at least provide the same AJ protection at all GNSS bands. The main objective of the proposed research effort is to design, build and test experimental AJ antennas for future military GNSS receivers. The antenna could be used to mitigate or null interfering signals such as jammers or multipath, while maintaining S/N for the GNSS satellites from the rest of the sky. The antenna may also be used to increase gain or S/N in the direction of GNSS satellites, or for direction finding of an interfering signal. BENEFIT: US and allied military user equipment programs will be interested in GNSS handhelds to improve accuracy and satellite availability. Commercial GNSS handheld technology is a very large and growing industry. Many next-generation receivers will include GNSS.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Tariq A. Mujahed
AF103-094      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Toyon Research Corporation’s six-element GPS antenna rejects cross polarization over the entire hemisphere by no less than 15 dB when summed in the first fundamental mode of operation. The antenna was designed for a direction-finding application where high levels of multi-path were present. The antenna diameter is 5” and it was designed for operation in the L1 – L2 GPS bands. Toyon proposes to modify the current design by replacing the six antenna elements with a thick patch design. The thick patches were designed for an OE-538 submarine mast, and they cover all of the GNSS bands. The thick patches are significantly larger in diameter than the original elements, so the total diameter of the array will go from 5” to no greater than 11.4”. Toyon will also add one additional antenna element to the center of the array, bringing the total number of elements to seven. BENEFIT: Geodetic grade GPS antennas on the market today are expensive, need large ground-planes or choke rings, and can be somewhat heavy pieces of hardware. The GPS antenna that Toyon proposes to design for the GNSS solution is ideal in many ways. The antenna does not require a ground-plane and the antenna’s height profile will be less than 1.5”. The cross polarization of the antenna is unmatched because of the orientation of the antenna elements. The nulling performance of the antenna is enhanced because of the vertical aperture of the array.

Adaptive Radio Technologies, LLC
PO Box 727
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 920-7081
Joseph Palmer
AF103-095      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Reconfigurable Radio for High-Data-Rate Satellite Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A reprogrammable software defined radio (SDR) will be developed for high performance channel coding in future satellite communications systems. The proposed device will make possible robust reprogramming of the radio after launch, thus enabling future satellites to be reprogrammed to adapt to changing radio requirements, and to take advantage of new infrastructure and methods. Today, many new radio systems are SDRs, and nearly the entire radio can be reprogrammed. Adaptive Radio Technologies is ideally positioned to execute the proposed work because we are experts in spacecraft reconfigurable computers and SDRs, such as found on the Cibola Satellite. The proposed work will develop an FPGA- based SDR that is post launch reconfigurable, and is able to be programmed to use a variety of different channel codes. We will use partial reconfiguration in order to reduce the size of FPGA bitstreams that need to be deployed to orbit, thus reducing deployment time, and non- volatile storage requirements on the satellite radio. A successful project will define the requirements for a prototype system to be built in Phase II. An operational version of the proposed SDR will give future satellite missions operational flexibility that has so far been unavailable. BENEFIT: Channel codes are a quickly evolving area of radio engineering. A post-launch reprogrammable radio in a satellite, or other spacecraft, allows the radio system to be upgraded with new channel encoders and/or decoders that were unavailable at the time of launch. Our proposed radio will be capable of post-launch reconfiguration, and the FPGA- based computer is fast enough to handle modern high-performance channel codes, such as Turbo Codes or LDCP Codes. If made commercially available, the proposed radio system will permit a new degree of freedom in future satellite missions. System designers can be more conservative with their radio designs, because they know that the radio can be upgraded post-launch with improved programming. It is not necessary to design the radio such that it can handle all conceivable scenarios and challenges. The ultimate benefit will be the extended mission life of spacecraft due to their obsolescence being preempted through regular radio upgrades. Some potential commercial applications include earth orbit and deep space science spacecraft, satellite command and control uplinks, military tactical radio, and high-speed satellite data downlinks.

ORB Analytics, LLC
5 Hillside Rd
Carlisle, MA 01741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 371-0484
Samuel MacMullan
AF103-095      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Reconfigurable Encoder and Decoder for High-Data-Rate Satellite Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Several MILSATCOM systems allow the use of turbo codes to improve communications performance. These systems were standardized before the widespread use of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. While turbo and LDPC codes have many similarities, ORB Analytics believes that future MILSATCOM systems should also support LDPC codes. Relative to turbo codes, LDPC codes offer greatly reduced implementation complexity, operation at higher data rates, and much greater flexibility in terms of code rate, length, and error correction performance. In addition, structured LDPC codes can be completely specified with a small set of parameters, allow rapid reprogramming. ORB Analytics proposes the Phase I development of an FPGA encoder and decoder design that can be dynamically configured to support legacy turbo code designs or a wide range of structured LDPC codes. Innovations include generalized direct encoding methods and a reconfigurable switch matrix between decoder check and variable nodes that are designed to support a programmable number of inputs, outputs, and algorithms. BENEFIT: Reconfigurable LDPC code encoders and decoders promise large communications performance and capacity gains for MILSATCOM systems. NASA, iNET, and wireless standards including 802.11n, WiMAX, and DVB-S2 all include LDPC code options, so the proposed research and development has a wide range of applications and potential markets.

AdvR Inc.
2310 University Way Building #1-1
Bozeman, MT 59715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 522-0388
Todd Hawthorne
AF103-096      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:High Speed, Watt Class Multi-access Modulators for Airborne and Spaceborne Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In order to achieve high data transmission rates (>40Gbps), it is necessary to use external modulators as direct diode modulation can be limited by chirping, parasitics or microwave effects. Traditional amplitude modulation is done with Mach Zehnder Interferometers or directional couplers. Unfortunately, this technology is not multi-access compatible without the introduction of multiplexing elements which add Size, Weight and Power consumption (SWaP) to the aircraft budget. An alternative approach is a serially transmitted, parallel encoding system based on an innovative multi-element modulator. In this Air Force Phase I effort, the feasibility of fabricating Watt class multi-access compatible waveguide modulators will be established. The proposed device will withstand high optical power and have a significantly higher rf modulation figure-of-merit than conventional waveguide based modulators. This parallel optical transmitter module suitable for satellite communications directly meets the needs of Air Force programs as called for in AF103-096 TITLE: High- Efficiency Optical Transmitter Module. BENEFIT: A broad range of communication applications will be affected by the availability of higher speed, higher power modulators. Applications include land-based as well as airborne and spaceborne use. Initially, the proposed modulator will address the DoD’s need for laser communications with lower terminal size, weight, and power. Next, free space communications will benefit directly as the near IR wavelengths most beneficial for earth based free space communications can be utilized at relatively high powers, not currently available with lithium niobate modulators. Further, the high figure of merit, simplicity of design, and high power handling will offer improvements for communications across a broader wavelength range than currently offered by lithium niobate modulators

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Krishnan R. Parameswaran
AF103-096      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Integrated Optical Waveguides for Satellite Optical Communications Receivers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop an optical integrated circuit that will allow optical thresholding and clock recovery from received signals in space communications systems. The system will be based on optical frequency mixers in lithium niobate that are compatible with any modulation format and data rates beyond 100 Gb/s. PSI has extensive experience implementing optical signal processing functions using the mature lithium niobate material system, which has been proven in satellite applications. The optical frequency mixers will be integrated with electronic and optical fiber components to create a unique receiver architecture suitable for the demanding space communications environment. During the Phase I program, an integrated device including directional couplers for beam combining, harmonic generators for optical threshold detection, and frequency mixing for clock recovery will be designed. A complete receiver including a local oscillator laser for the clock recovery function will also be designed using this novel optical integrated circuit. A prototype device will be fabricated in Phase II, where all components will be integrated into a compact package suitable for space qualification. BENEFIT: The proposed research and development will result in device technology that is directly applicable to commercial optical communications systems. The material and device structures will enable all-optical signal processing functions that will enable low-power, compact transceivers compatible with secure protocols and increased data rates.

Accipiter Systems, Inc.
412 Fox Meadow Drive
Wexford, PA 15090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 933-8895
David Drury
AF103-097      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Satellite Optical Backplane
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Data rates necessary to support the warfighter continue to increase. New satellite interconnects are needed which have minimal signal distribution weight and power overhead. Optical backplanes which accommodate these new "short haul" payload processing and "long haul" signal distribution across bus and payload subsystems are often fixed, dedicated interconnects with little to no flexibility to accommodate future applications. To meet the Air Force’s need for a high capacity optical backplane network for satellites built to meet the Operationally Responsive Space directives, Accipiter Systems is proposing to develop an Optical Burst Mode networking system with a passive optical core and intelligent ASIM modules that interface the optical network to sensors, processors and shared storage. The system is controlled by a central MAC controller, which will also be developed under the program and which ensures that network contention, congestion and traffic priority are handled effectively and without loss of data. The architecture will initially support up to 10 Gbps serial data between end systems. The data rate can also scale to 40 Gbps and above with no change in the optical core network. Accipiter Systems has gained considerable expertise in burst mode optical networking, working on programs for the Army, NAVAIR and DARPA. BENEFIT: The architecture developed on this program will allow implementation of a high bandwidth, all passive optical core for the satellite optical backbone. The proposed architecture will reduce space, weight, and power requirements for the satellite network as well as reduce the time for deployment configuration of satellites by providing a standard network for satellite payloads including sensors, processors, and shared storage.

EM Photonics, Incorporated
51 East Main Street Suite 203
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Ahmed Sharkawy
AF103-097      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:Satellite Optical Backplane
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical interconnects are the natural choice for interconnecting different chips when current interconnect technologies cannot fulfill current and future system requirements. Examples of optical interconnect architectures are free-space multistage interconnect, optical fiber interconnect, and thin film polymer waveguide-based optical interconnect. While all these architectures were successfully capable of satisfying the requirements for an optically interconnected system, the size they occupy is considerably large to be integrated on a chip- level optical system, especially with the minimum feature size of chip shrinking one year after the other. Nano-scale optical interconnects are now needed to satisfy future interconnect needs, since they will not only meet system requirements but will also occupy a size comparable to the interconnected chips. Typical Avionics Networks Requirements include; Many Different I/O Types,- RF, Analog, Digital, Discrete & Timing Strobes,- EMI Problems in Mixed Signal Environment, Many Different Network Media / Connectors Coaxial, TSP, Copper Cable, F/O, Backplane Traces/Vias, Many High Bandwidth/High Frequency Channels Avionics Modules are Connector Bound, Still Desire 2-Level Line-Replaceable Modules, Sensors Located Throughout Airframe, Coaxial Cable Has High Signal Losses/Distortion, Many Pt-to-Pt Cables Reduce Manufacturing Repeatability, Decrease Reliability/Effective Diagnostics. What is needed is a common network that can satisfy all connectivity requirements of an avionics suite, single channel, and single connector. Chip-Scale optical switching fabric can provide this universal avionics network if specific component, cost & packaging challenges can be overcome! BENEFIT: We intend to market a product based on the final device as part of the STTR program. We anticipate our initial market to be government and military applications but we will secondarily bring the final product to the commercial market. There are many groups that will benefit from this technology including the DoD, satellite TV and radio broadcasters, and private space companies. This platform will be useful in military applications ranging from communications to missile guidance to long-range imaging. Additionally, we believe that this device will convince more people to utilize the proposed chip-scale switch fabric in their designs, as this novel platform will greatly improve performance and open the door for many new applications.

BerrieHill Research Corporation
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 1001
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-1016
Peter Munk
AF103-098      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Signal Monitoring
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The US Department of Defense, heavily dependent on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for geolocation, navigation, timekeeping and other military operations, faces unique challenges increasing capability, accuracy and availability of current GPS systems. New GNSS Systems are being developed and fielded worldwide including the Russian GLONASS system, the European Galileo system and the Chinese Beidou System. These systems are similar to the US developed GPS system, but operate at slightly different signal frequencies and signal structures. A receiver that can combine the measurements from different satellite systems can be used to create more accurate and precise measurements. BENEFIT: Wideband antennas that can receive all available signals have valuable applications for both military and civilian use. GNSS systems have become mission critical for applications ranging from instrument landing systems for air transport to assessing crop yields in agriculture. Future reliability of the GPS system depends on continuing investments by the US government. Reliability can be compromised by

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Tariq A. Mujahed
AF103-098      Awarded:3/1/2011
Title:Universal GNSS Reference Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Toyon Research Corporation has developed a geodetic-quality GPS antenna based on a multi-arm helix. The antenna covers both L1 and L2 bands, exhibits cross-polarization rejection of more than 20 dB at and above the horizon, requires neither a large ground plane nor a choke ring, and weighs less than 150 grams. The uncompensated phase center error, as measured by NOAA, is less than 5.5 mm at L1 and 3.3 mm at L2. With compensation for variation with elevation angle, the phase center error should be correctable to a fraction of a millimeter. This antenna covers the entire 1559-1611-MHz GNSS upper band. However, its bandwidth around L2 is 1203-1265 MHz, only about half of the 1164-1300-MHz GNSS lower band. Toyon proposes to redesign the low-band helical windings of the current antenna to cover the full lower GNSS band. These changes will have little or no impact on the antenna’s weight or RF characteristics. Toyon will deliver a field-ready prototype of the GNSS antenna at the end of the Phase I. BENEFIT: Geodetic grade GPS antennas on the market today are expensive and typically need large, heavy ground planes or choke rings. Toyon’s proposed GNSS antenna offers many advantages. It is based on a proven L1- L2 GPS system that has met or exceeded the performance of both choke ring and 6-arm pinwheel antenna designs in severe multipath environments. Calibration testing by NOAA shows very small phase center errors that should be correctable to less than 1 mm. Toyon is offering to design and prototype an antenna that will perform as well as the best geodetic antennas on the market, but cost a fraction of their price and weigh an order of magnitude less.

Austin Satellite Design, LLC
4104 Aqua Verde Dr.
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 663-3069
Thomas Campbell
AF103-099      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:Dual Frequency Global Positioning System Receiver for CubeSat Space Missions
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Austin Satellite Design proposes to deliver a viable design of an integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for use on CubeSats and larger spacecraft at the conclusion of Phase 1 of this SBIR. A compact, low-power GPS receiver is essential to the success of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions using small satellites.The new GPS receiver will fit within a PC-104 circuit board form factor suitable for installation within a standard 10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm volume known as a CubeSat. The design will use Plug- and-Play methods that will make it rapidly integratable with a flight-ready satellite bus. The new GPS receiver will have a dual frequency capability using the modernized GPS signal, including the civilian L1 and L2C signals, that will enable sub-meter level real-time positioning in space and centimeter level near real-time post-processed positioning. Depending on selected design options, the new receiver will be designed to operate with a total mass of less than 350 grams, orbit average power of less than a watt, and installed volume of less than 10 cm by 5 cm by 5 cm. As part of the Phase 1 design activity, a radiation hardened upgrade path (to approximately 30 KRad total dose) will be defined. BENEFIT: The development of a commercially available dual-frequency GPS receiver which could be flown on Cubesats and larger vehicles is highly relevant for many ORS missions. On-orbit real-time positioning and precise orbit determination would turn small satellites into sophisticated sensor platforms. Because of the relatively low cost and rapid launch ability of small satellites, many ORS program objectives could potentially be met by this technology. The ability to use the same GPS receiver in multiple orbit types (LEO, HEO, and GEO) and the creation of a radiation hardened option further increase the utility of the device.

Emergent Space Technologies, Inc
6301 Ivy Lane Suite 720
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 841-6331
Kenneth L. Gold
AF103-099      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Generalized Broadband Operationally Responsive Navigator
Abstract:Operationally Responsive Space missions require a rapid satellite configuration and launch to fulfill the needs of in-theatre commanders. A GPS receiver that can be used with cubesats and that meets the SWaP requirements for these launches and that can perform GPS based scientific missions from the platform of a cubesat, and an ability to track GPS in complex high earth orbits. Emergent has developed a technology suitable to these goals, and the product currently exists in a small footprint, low power terrestrial form factor. The technology is called Spectral Compression Processing, and has its roots in codeless GPS technology in which GPS can be utilized without knowledge of the PRN codes used. Emergent will develop a migration strategy to take the proven terrestrial technology to a level that can be used in space. This will be accomplished by defining a new design based on the existing ground systems that is radiation hardened, considers existing PnP and SPA standards, and will be implemented in a Software Defined Radio Architecture. The resulting SDR waveform will also be SCA compliant. This is a significant innovation over the state of the art, and represents a significant advancement in the field of space borne GPS. BENEFIT: This work will result in two major accomplishments; a rad hardened software defined radio module, designed according to current plug and play standards, and an SCA compliant SDR waveform that accomplishes Navigation in various complicated scenarios, and will be deployable in standard SCA compliant hardware. The Navigation waveform will be capable of receiving both L1 and L2 GPS, and is easily adapted to modernized code types (L2C, L5, etc). It will be capable of tracking with high dynamic range, so is applicable to both LEO and more complicated HEO orbits in which GPS side lobes must be tracked, and additionally, can operate in high dynamics for scenarios such as launch, and station keeping. The receiver has applicability to DoD and NSF space weather research, especially in the areas of GPS radio occultation and neutral density measurements, and by far surpasses the current state of the art. It will have applications to any space based requirement for GPS tracking, but specifically where small satellites are desired for rapid launch, in which space weather is a targeted goal. Additionally, the first HEO commercial launch with GOES-R will open up a new realm for GPS, and any future GEO satellite is a potential user of this technology.

Intrinsix
100 Campus Drive
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 340-2352
Eugene Petilli
AF103-099      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Miniature GPS Receiver to Support Operationally Responsive Space Missions
Abstract:Intrinsix proposes a low power, high-integration, radiation hardened software defined Global Positioning System (GPS) single chip solution. The phase I SBIR contract proposes two major components. First the proposed GPS receiver is a heterodyne Radio Frequency Sigma Delta Modulator (RF-SDM) that significantly improves performance over other integrated solutions by absorbing mixers and high selectivity filters into a specialized Analog to Digital Convertor (ADC). Second Intrinsix proposes the development of a flexible digital platform using the NASA Navigator GPS as a baseline. The phase I SBIR contract will focus on the validation of the RF architecture, architecting an extendable digital platform for signal processing and the methodology for radiation-hardening by design in a modern commercial sub-100nm process technology. BENEFIT: For space applications single chip rad-hard GPS solutions do not exist. This development will provide Size, Weight and Power characteristics that are adequate for cube-sat and nano-sat applications with flexibility and programmability to adapt to new processing requirements. Other military radio applications that demand low power, high dynamic range and jamming resistance can also benefit by the architecture of the RF-to-bits portion of the receiver. Finally, there are many consumer applications of the RF-to-bits processing subsystem proposed ranging from lower cost terrestrial GPS solutions, to low cost mobile TV and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) applications for example.

Nu-Trek
17150 Via Del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 750-6345
Ray Eastwood
AF103-099      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Miniature GPS Receiver to Support Operationally Responsive Space Missions
Abstract:The goal of the proposed work is to develop a single-chip, rad-hard, GPS receiver. Nu-Trek has designed and will leverage a 2-channel rad-hard (HAENS level 2) GPS receiver front- end in the proposed work. The front end will be combined with a Raytheon baseband digital signal processor (DSP) developed for the Miniature Air Launch Decoy (MALD) program and Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. The key challenges to be addressed in the work are integrating all functions onto a single chip, achieving the low power requested (<1 W), mating the receiver to an ASIM for quick integration turnaround and radiation hardening the receiver to both 30 kRad TID and single event effects. Nu-Trek and Raytheon’s proposed approach integrates all functions onto a single chip, couples the receiver to the ASIM, substantially reduces power and hardens circuits through rad-hard-by- design techniques in conjunction with employing a robust processing technology (Jazz’s 0.18um SOI process). BENEFIT: Developing small, low power, quickly integrate-able space qualified technology such as GPS receivers is crucial to the success of future space missions and weapons systems. The Air Force is interested in developing such components to support future objectives to increase the life time while reducing the cost and power requirement of such technologies. The goal of the proposed work is to develop a single-chip, rad-hard, plug-and-play GPS receiver. It is being developed to support a number of activities, including the support of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions for space tracking of assets and debris in LEO and GEO orbit. The first use of this technology is the Precision Tracking and Surveillance System (PTSS). Near term total ionizing dose (TID) radiation hardening goal is > 30 krad and far term hardening goal is > 100 krad.

Clarcona Technology, LLC.
801 International Parkway Fifth Floor
Lake Mary, FL 32746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 694-4541
Brent Horine
AF103-100      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Practical Chaos Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Clarcona Technology, LLC. will develop a low probability of intercept waveform based upon chaotic sequences and modulation, along with receiver algorithms. We will design a chip to generate true chaotic sequences with built-in self-test capabilities to check for limit states. Blending chaos with ultra wideband concepts will result in a waveform with an exceptionally low power spectral density, yet possess good bit error rates. BENEFIT: This research will ultimately produce a space qualified low data rate LPI modem. It will also yield a sophisticated design and simulation tool for chaos based communication systems.

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alexander Milovanov
AF103-100      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Chaotic Pulse-Frequency Coding and Communciation System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for algorithm development that will enable remote chaotic communications with Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) and ad hoc networking between spacecrafts, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Chaotic-Pulse- Frequency Coding and Communication (CPCOM) system. This proposed system is based on a new method of chaotic bi-frequency generation. The implementation of chaotic bi- function to generate different chaotic frequencies will enable the CPCOM to provide LPI communication in spacecraft ad hoc networks. This system offers a novel secure chaotic communication approach and ultra-wideband (3-10 GHz), low-power (~30 mW) communication to support spacecraft navigation and position determination even when fully GPS-denied, which directly addresses the Air Force requirements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of CPCOM by analysis of CPCOM signal processing algorithms and chaotic modulation scheme, selection, and development algorithms that can be implemented with low computational complexity to provide LPI and meet low-SWAP requirements of the intended application to clusters of networked nano- or picosatellites (e.g., CubeSats). In Phase II, POC plans to implement the developed algorithms in low- battery power, programmable capability (e.g., FPGA) to demonstrate the performance of the CPCOM algorithms. BENEFIT: Military applications of the CPCOM will include specialized communications (including troops and distributed sensor networks) in noisy environments, such as combat zones, where electro-magnetic (EM) interference is one of the major limiting factors for communication. The CPCOM can be incorporated by law enforcement agencies to improve communication equipment. Commercial applications of CPCOM include first responder communication equipment, which will enable communication in environments with EM interference.

Blue Canyon Technologies LLC
1524 North St
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 215-4459
Matthew Beckner
AF103-102      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:Spacecraft Integrated-Power and Attitude-Control System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Spacecraft power systems based upon flywheel technology have been evaluated and analyzed for many years. The potential benefits are well documented and include: Mass and cost savings, System reliability and mission life multiplier, and Electrical Power System enhancement. However, these benefits have not come to fruition due to a few technical challenges, including the extremely high momentum storage (hundreds of Nms!), uncertainty about how to launch the system (spinning or not?), difficulties of integration and test, and the problem of fault scenarios (what if a flywheel fails?) Blue Canyon Technologies has developed an innovative Counter Rotating Flywheel concept with Integrated Power and Attitude Control functionality. The main advantage of our CRFP approach is the ability to simultaneously store enough energy to power a 1kW spacecraft through GEO eclipse, yet manage the net system momentum to a very modest level. The two counter rotating flywheels spin in opposite directions and at different speeds such that the total angular velocity of both rotors stores energy and the difference in rotor angular velocities determines net momentum for attitude control authority. BENEFIT: IPACS benefits to spacecraft providers, are primarily mass and cost savings due to the elimination of batteries. Other benefits include enhanced system reliability and mission life. The market which is addressed by IPACS type systems includes GEO and LEO spacecraft of medium to large size (cubesats and microsats would be too small for the IPACS system as currently architected, although that could change once a system is proven and can be scaled down). The annual launches in this class range from 20 – 30 per year, including NASA, DoD, Classified, and commercial spacecraft. Thus the potential market for this technology is relatively large in the spaceflight market.

Honeybee Robotics
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(646) 459-7809
Kiel Davis
AF103-102      Awarded:4/19/2011
Title:Spacecraft Integrated-Power and Attitude-Control System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The electrical power system (EPS) for spacecraft generally is comprised of a solar array system for collecting solar power when exposed to sunlight and onboard batteries for storing power that can be used when the satellite is in eclipse. While this method has been used for decades, the use of batteries also has some disadvantages that significantly affect the design of the spacecraft. Batteries have considerable mass, limited discharge depth and limited temperature range. Advances in composite construction techniques and magnetic bearing technology are bringing Attitude Control System (ACS) components like Reaction Wheels and CMG's closer to serving in a secondary capacity as energy storage devices in addition to conventional batteries. The benefits are mass savings and greater operational flexibility. Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop & demonstrate an Integrated Power & Attitude Control System that utilizes an array of Variable Speed Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMG) to supply up to 4 kW during eclipse with a specific energy on par with state-of-the- art Li-ion battery cell performance. BENEFIT: The technology could benefit mid to large size spacecraft by reducing mass and allowing greater operational flexibility. The envision product is beneficial to both military satellite and commericial satellite markets.

InView Technology Corporation
2110 Whitehorse Trail Suite G
Austin, TX 78757
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 354-1465
Robert Bridge
AF103-103      Awarded:3/2/2011
Title:Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) Sensor with Improved Solar Exclusion
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of the proposed SBIR program is to develop techniques to improve stray light rejection and reduce the solar exclusion angle for space-based optical observation of satellites using a wide field-of-view (WFOV) sensor. InView Technology Corporation proposes to develop, build, demonstrate, and ultimately deploy a compact, inexpensive, WFOV sensor that overcomes many of the limitations of existing solutions. This proposal describes a non-traditional technique employing Compressive Sensing (CS) imaging and a micro-mirror device to locate the sun and prevent its light from reaching the imaging detector. This CS approach can also adaptively adjust the data acquisition sub-system of the camera to optimize image dynamic range, using an approach which is not practical for a camera using a focal plane array. BENEFIT: Compressive Sensing shifts significant portions of the system performance requirements from the focal plane array (FPA) to both less expensive and less-exotic commercial-off-the- shelf (COTS) components and to well-understood software. The end result of CS is a cheaper and higher performance sensor and imaging system. Another result is the employment of a compact and dynamically configurable modulation device which can be used for active solar exclusion. InView will apply the technology developed under this SBIR to additional opportunities in the commercial space. Ideal candidates are sensing of areas for security or safety reasons, and for astronomy research.

Spectral Imaging Laboratory
1785 Locust St. #10
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 578-0626
Francis Reininger
AF103-103      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Space-Based Sensors with Solar Exclusion Baffles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. Air Force has a need to improve stray light rejection and reduce the solar exclusion angle for space-based optical sensors tasked with detecting and tracking multiple satellites. The Spectral Imaging Laboratory (SPILAB) proposes the development of artificial compound eye (ACE) optics with an internal honeycomb louver baffle that can block stray radiation from bright sources such as the sun. ACE optics have the benefit of generating high resolution, distortion free images that have uniform intensity across the field. During Phase 1 SPILAB will design a wide field-of-view (WFOV-ACE) camera for full awareness, near field tracking and a high resolution (HR-ACE) camera for long range tracking. BENEFIT: Will provide the military with systems that are highly relevant to Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) and Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Commercial applications include airborne surveillance requiring shielding from bright sources and machine vision for manufacturing, robotics, and vehicle situational awareness/safety systems.

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
John Matthews
AF103-104      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Satellite Severe Space Weather Easily-Integrable Advanced Protection System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for satellite protection in severe space weather, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Satellite Severe Space Weather Easily-Integrable Advanced Protection (SWEAP) system. This proposed system is based on a new design that uses in-house developed space weather monitoring sensors, novel hardware shielding, and error correction software. The innovative hardware shielding, which can be tuned on-the-fly depending on the severity of the space weather event, will provide a low overhead impact on the satellite design (<10% increase in size, weight, and power for circuits and systems, and no generation penalty for electronics components). As a result, this technology offers protection against the effects of extreme space weather phenomena with a low integration risk, which directly addresses the Air Force requirements for compatibility with existing military and government satellite design approaches. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SWEAP by developing a design solution and verifying that it meets the objectives through modeling and laboratory experiments. In Phase II, a prototype system will be developed and characterized with a laboratory test setup to demonstrate improved space weather protection with overhead impact on existing and future satellite designs. BENEFIT: Military applications of the SWEAP technology will include space weather protection of communications and navigation satellites to ensure warfighters have full-time access to command, control, and communication assets. The Air Force can incorporate SWEAP into military satellite communications (SATCOM), which will benefit from the reduction in loss of communications links during periods of heightened solar activity. Potential commercial customers include the commercial airline industry because polar routes are highly susceptible to cancelation due to disruption by solar energetic particles. Such cancellations can represent costs of about $100k per flight for airlines. Integration of space weather protection into commercial airline avionics would greatly reduce such costs.

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6897
James Christian
AF103-104      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Severe Space Weather Satellite Protection
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern space electronics used for military space communications are susceptible to highly energized charged particles such as electrons and protons originating from coronal mass ejections that create geomagnetic storms. There is a need for advanced protection measures that can help minimize the impact to space electronics caused by current surges during these solar storms. Although optical monitoring of the sun can predict the onset of severe space weather conditions, determining the details of the conditions often requires on- board satellite sensors. Current sensing platforms work well and provide information on the particle identification, flux, and energy of the space environment. These sensing platforms, however, are relatively large and incorporating them in the modern, smaller satellite platforms is not straightforward. Recent advances in scintillation materials provide the basis for developing compact radiation and radiation-hard spectroscopic detectors capable of distinguishing between different particles. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a lightweight, radiation hard and real-time radiation detector platform that can help protect satellites and monitor space weather conditions. The proposed solution involves coupling recently discovered charged-particle- sensitive scintillation detector with solid state photomultipliers (SSPMs) to monitor protons and electrons characteristic of solar events over a wide range of energies. BENEFIT: During space flight, both the immediate rate and total exposure information can be recorded simultaneously by these high efficiency digital dosimeters. The compact size and inexpensive nature of these sensors also opens the possibility of monitoring many areas for comparison of radiation exposure, including individual monitors for each satellite, even for the emerging, smaller, next-generation designs. Ground-based research and comparisons will also become easier and less expensive with the SSPM dosimeter. Inexpensive radiation dosimeters are in general demand for commercial applications, such as personnel or waste monitoring, other applications include border monitoring for homeland security and protecting satellites and ground-based equipment from solar flares. The ability to inexpensively mass-produce these devices creates a entirely new market for arrays of distributed sensors.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
David M. Sykes
AF103-105      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Advanced Microscale Cooling Technologies for Satellite IC Cooling
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Mainstream Engineering Corporation (Mainstream) will create a distributed cooling system based on advanced microscale cooling technologies. The proposed design will reject 28.5% more heat than an embedded thermoelectric heat pump scheme given the same rejection temperature. Additionally, the power input to this system is at least an order of magnitude lower than the thermoelectric solution. All components within the proposed design have been in space based systems for decades with long lifetimes. The proposed system will also have very simple controls and can accommodate nearly any PWB design. In the Phase I effort, Mainstream will not only simulate its performance, but it will experimentally confirm the computational findings. BENEFIT: The development of the integrated cooling system for high powered computing/power electronics is a thriving field with the ever increasing power density increases and massive parallelization of modern computing. The proposed system has applications in satellite IC cooling, clusters for CFD and FEA analyses, data centers, high powered diagnostic electronics, amplifiers, and power electronics. The market for all of these applications is very large, and wide reaching. The results of the proposed effort will enable the creation of a design tool for cooling devices for small ICs.

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 971-2027
Mark Carlson
AF103-105      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:Space-Based Distributed Cooling System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Due to the high cost and long lead time of space based thermal management systems, there is an increased need for a space qualified thermal network system which can maintain critical components within an acceptable range during operation and be flexible in design to adapt to a wide range of component sizes as well as varying thermal loading conditions. SA Photonics proposes their Intelligent Thermal Stabilizing System, which is modular, has the ability to monitor and control component temperatures and utilizes both standard and high thermal conductivity materials minimizing thermal resistance from source to sink. The core component in the ITSS for thermal networking the heat within an electronic subsystem is the combination of Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) and our unique Thermal Interface Plate. Our ITSS configuration allows for the networking of thermal energy (thermal energy sharing) for power efficient system cooling/heating. The unique thermal transfer plate/TEC configuration also provides the ability for improved component thermal control through the TEC’s ability to act as both a high and low temperature heater and a chiller. This innovative thermal control design provides a unique and stable system that allows accurate and autonomous thermal control of space based electronics. BENEFIT: The main benefit of the SA Photonics ITSS system is the ability to monitor and control critical components within acceptable temperature ranges by the control of heat flow (thermal networking). The ITSS design will network components and heat sinks together maintaining temperatures through the directing of heat flow into and out of components and heat sinks. The ITSS utilizes TECs which also provide the benefit of increased thermal control due to the TECs ability to act as both a heater and a chiller. This network will minimize thermal resistance through the incorporation of cutting edge thermally conductive materials to optimize thermal flow performance.

FirstPass Engineering PC
864 Happy Canyon Road Suite 110
Castle Rock, CO 80108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 688-6866
Lark Lehman
AF103-106      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Radiation-Hardened, Deep-Submicron Application Specific Integrated Circuit
Abstract:ABSTRACT: An innovative approach to integrate high-level Digital-Signal-Processing (DSP) functions into the traditional Application-Specific-Integrated-Circuit (ASIC) development methodology for sub-micron radiation-hardened CMOS circuitry is proposed. The solution involves developing a high-level DSP block functions whose parameters are specified by the designer that will synthesize into high-performance lower gate count Radiaton-Hardened-By-Design (RHBD) structures. These high-level blocks will generate HDL simulation models and verification testbench models and can be re-used within the circuit or in other designs thereby reducing development schedule and verification risks. BENEFIT: This research will beneficially impact the development cycle and quality of commonly used Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions. The methodologies used are directly and easily transferable from ASIC to ASIC as well as to other functions besides DSP. Benefits include rapid development time, substantial risk reduction and decrease cost and schedule. Potential commercial applications include common DSP applications such as communications, waveform digital processing such as demodulation, filtering and encoding and ASICs incorporating these functions.

Silicon Space Technology Corporation
804 Las Cimas Parkway Suite 140
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-1056
JW Smith
AF103-106      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Radiation-Hardened, Deep-Submicron Application Specific Integrated Circuit
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Silicon Space Technology (SST) proposes designing a customized 130nm Metal Programmable System on a Chip (MPSoC) slice based upon our 130nm fabric that can be used to implement multi-million gate designs. The slice would have embedded IP sub- circuits and IO interfaces that can be used to implement waveform digital processing designs. The MPSoC fabric uses SST’s Harden by Isolation (HardSIL™) process solution that has been verified at the 130nm node with the 8M DP SRAM device. The HardSIL™ technology hardens against all the major radiation hard problems for both natural radiation environments Single-Event Effects (SEE), Total Ionizing Dose (TID), and Dose Rate (DR) for man-made radiation environments. SST would collect waveform digital processing requirements from defense prime contractors. Using these requirements, SST would design sub-circuits such as 24 bit multiply-accumulate circuits to be embedded as IP building blocks in the custom slice. SST would demonstrate that waveform digital processing circuits implemented using these embedded IP blocks in the custom slice would have significantly lower power and higher performance than is possible with an FPGA implementation. BENEFIT: Silicon Space Technology is developing and demonstrating multiple radiation-hardened client-based processes and products in a commercial foundry manufacturing environment through integration of our unique RH process modules – which have been proven in silicon products. SST’s techniques are both patented and have other patents pending. SST’s HardSIL™ HBI technology mitigates Single-Event Effects (SEE) by significantly reducing the cross-section. HardSIL™ significantly increases Dose Rate (DR) threshold performance to > 6.8E9 rad(Si)/sec, and can be tailored to increase Total Ionizing Dose (TID) performance beyond the Mrad level. The Company will use both government R&D and venture capital funding to further establish its RH technology at a commercial IC foundry to pervade the industrial electronics marketplace using the fabless “RH Client Process” model. Our multi-faceted fabless business/technical strategy is in its sixth year of commercialization, and we have been advised our innovations have progressed rapidly to a TRL = ≥6. The MPSoC slice to be studied under this Phase I proposal will utilize SST’s existing HardSil™ HBI process module enhancements targeted for high reliability and extreme operating environment market segments. HardSil™ has been successfully demonstrated to provide significant radiation hardening capabilities on several semiconductor products spanning several process technology nodes (250nm, 180nm, and 130nm). The MPSoC slice that will be developed under this proposal supports development for both commercial and military/space applications. SST is creating demand for this MPSoC slice technology through a dual-use strategy by

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Anton Greenwald
AF103-107      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:Metamaterials for Variable Emissivity Coatings
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Excess heat can only be rejected from spacecraft by radiation and a reliable method to control radiation is desired. Agiltron proposes to design, fabricate, and test a self-adjusting, unpowered, easily scalable variable emissivity radiator that has no moving parts for the temperature control of satellites. The design is based upon an innovative metamaterial that has low emissivity in the near infrared band (IR) and shorter wavelengths, and temperature- dependent high emissivity in the long wavelength IR band. The variation is controlled by incorporating a thermochromic element into the metamaterial that will turn the emitting layer “on” when the temperature is above a preset value, and turn emission “off” when the temperature falls below this value. Published results show that the ratio of maximum absorption to minimum absorption for the metamaterial is much greater than a factor of ten. In Phase 1 we will demonstrate broad emission in the 8 to 12 um band in a variable emissivity radiator suitable for satellite applications. BENEFIT: The proposed technology provides another tool for the thermal management of satellites, one easily integrated in the temperature control system and customizable (as to transition temperature) by mission designers. It is passive, inherently low-weight, reliable, and can significantly lower the weight dedicated to thermal control of the spacecraft. It is most effective in those missions where the expected temperature variations are the greatest, such as low earth orbit. In addition to NASA spacecraft applications, the metamaterial coating developed by this project has application for helping to cool aircraft when on the ground. The outer covering of aircraft is mostly highly reflecting to avoid absorbing sunlight and further cooling problems. Radiation cooling is negligible. A metamaterial that reflects most of the suns energy but emits long wave infrared radiation such as proposed herein would increase radiation cooling

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
30 Forbes Road Building B
Northborough, MA 01532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 691-1175
Shannon White
AF103-107      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Rapid Fabrication of Aerogel Thermal Insulation for Operationally Responsive Space Satellites
Abstract:The Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) program has been developed to meet the space-related urgent needs of the warfighter in a timely manner. The ORS vision seeks to enable on-orbit mission capability via small satellites in less than 6 days from initial call-up in the field. The thermal control systems (TCS) on these satellites currently pose an obstacle to meeting this target. The TCS for each satellite mission, involving design, analysis, test and optimization, must be complete in 4 hours, in comparison to the current 3 – 6 months timeframe, thus significant improvements in current thermal management capabilities are required. Thermal insulation blankets are one of the critical elements of the TCS that must be addressed to meet ORS’s aggressive vision. Aspen Aerogels, Inc. is proposing to design and implement a transportable rapid fabrication packaging system for aerogel thermal insulation that could meet a 4 hour TCS development window for ORS missions. The Phase I work plan includes the design of a transportable packaging system and selection of a portable cutting system that will become an essential part of the packaging system to produce fabricated aerogel thermal blankets which could be deployed to ORS integration and test sites around the globe. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits This proposal addresses maturation and integration of various unit operations required for design, fabrication, and installation of encapsulated aerogel space thermal blankets relevant to ORS mission requirements. The program tasks are intended to help transition aerogel thermal insulation technology into a refined, integrated and portable capability that can be implemented at integration and test sites around the globe in a rapid timeframe after mission call up from the field. Potential Commercial Applications Potential commercial applications include those requiring thermal insulation in a vacuum where convection and conduction are not important and radiation dominates. Space applications include NASA, civil and commercial sectors such as missile tracking, surveillance, astronomy, mapping, weather monitoring, etc. Non-space example applications include superconducting cables, cryogenic gas transportation, storage and transfer; space suits, shipping containers, and home appliances.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
James Belcher
AF103-107      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Advanced thermal tile (ATT) for operationally responsive space satellites
Abstract:The US DOD has called to establish a tactical and strategic satellite program with requisite launch capability in a matter of days, not months. The thermal control system (TCS) aboard satellites has typically required several weeks of design, installation and testing. Infoscitex (IST) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating a promising, rapidly installed TCS called the Advanced Thermal Tile (ATT) system. This advanced TCS is designed to be highly compatible with current and future ORS platforms, has built-in failsafe electronics, is robust to launch conditions and efficiently and effectively performs thermal transfer. Not only will the ATT system meet all of the operational and performance requirements, it eliminates the need for satellite-specific thermal analysis and design of each component interface, design of unique spacecraft-level TCS and detail verification. The ATT TCS only requires that basic checks are performed to ensure that each component is within the thermal/power envelope of its corresponding ATT chain. In the Phase I effort, IST will integrate its ATT system with a notional plug-and-play power bus via an appliqué sensor interface module (ASIM). IST has teamed with ASIM suppliers, satellite integrators and thermal testing experts to ensure rapid development, testing and transition in follow-on efforts. BENEFIT: The proposed TCS addresses a key challenge in the DOD push for operationally responsive space assets. In addition to military applications, the proposed system is ideally suited to be deployed on commercial communications satellites and other cost-dependent civilian assets

LoadPath, LLC
5555 Zuni Road SE Suitte 20-342
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 690-1612
Derek Hengeveld
AF103-107      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Thermal Control for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Satellites
Abstract:The objective is to provide a robust thermal control subsystem (TCS) design focused on overcoming the unique challenges of Responsive Space (RS). The proposed TCS design will be based on state-of-the-art technologies including: variable emissivity devices, variable heat transfer layers, and advanced insulating materials to name a few. Technologies such as these have recently been the subject of significant DoD investment as a response to the RS charge. However, the literature has shown that little work has been done to evaluate how they might be integrated in a combined system. This work will identify enabling TCS technologies, evaluate their current performance, and provide a synthesized TCS specifically designed to overcome RS challenges. The overall performance and capabilities of the resulting TCS design will be fully evaluated and described. BENEFIT: This research and development effort provides a direct response to the unique thermal challenges of Responsive Space. Specifically, a modular and reconfigurable thermal control subsystem design will be developed and evaluated based on state-of-the-art technologies. This unique approach has the potential to significantly reduce design, development, and integration costs.

Paragon Space Development Corporation
3481 E. Michigan Street
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 271-6702
Norman Hahn
AF103-107      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:Integrated Variable Heat-load and External Environment TCS
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The ORS program is designed to field a customizable satellite that can be assembled in a few days. Unfortunately, the TCS is typically custom built around the heat loads and operating environments. For an ORS mission, both the heat load and the operating environments will be unknown until the needs for the satellite are determined. Therefore the TCS must be flexible enough to handle a wide variety of loads in a wide variety of thermal environments. Paragon proposes to solve this issue by developing an integrated Variable Heat-load and External Environment TCS (VHEET) architecture that couples a radiator panel with variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs). The VHEET radiator rejects heat to space and the VCHPs act as a thermal regulator, allowing more heat to pass to the radiators in high heat load/warm thermal environment conditions and less heat to pass in low heat load/cold thermal environment conditions. Because the VHEET components are self-contained and passively controlled there are no wire harnesses or fluids to install, facilitating quick installation. BENEFIT: Since the TCS is often the most customized system on a spacecraft, this concept could be expanded to better serve all DoD satellites, reducing both the time and cost to get the satellite in the air. Additionally, this TCS concept could be utilized to provide better thermal control of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) whose use is expanding almost exponentially as both reconnaissance and weapons delivery platforms. Paragon is actively engaged with a number of commercial space companies and NASA to design their thermal control system. Being able to reduce the integration time will significantly reduce the development and operational costs, allowing these vehicles to reach maturity quicker and cheaper than current technology allows. The application of this proposed TCS could help solve problems associated with the wildly varying thermal conditions on the lunar surface that occur during the course of a lunar day.

Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-8988
James Hom
AF103-107      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Advanced Modular Radiator
Abstract:This proposal introduces advances in the performance and packaging of modular radiators for heat flow modulation on operationally responsive space (ORS) smallsats. The proposed concept is based on the loop heat pipe (LHP) thermal switching radiator. Two key advancements proposed are: 1) use of a novel submicron pore size, high permeability wick that offers higher performance and lower cost than traditional titanium wicks typically used in ammonia LHPs; and 2) a low profile, integrated LHP/insulation/radiator module that can be quickly bolted to a satellite bus panel, or payload panel and deliver high switch ratio heat flow modulation. The Phase I project will involve novel wick development and characterization, and advanced modular radiator concept development, modeling and preliminary design. This work provides the foundation of fabrication and testing of the advanced modular radiator in Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed advanced modular radiator will is a key component of a plug-and-play thermal architecture that allows rapid smallsat assembly using off the shelf thermal components selected based on mission requirements.

Thermacore, Inc.
780 Eden Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 519-3136
John G. Thayer
AF103-107      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Thermal Control for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Satellites
Abstract:Three tiered Thermal Bus System isothermalizes the satellite, allowing payload components to be mated in arbitrary locations without requiring detailed thermal analysis. The first tier is pyrolytic graphite embedded in aluminum panels (kCore) to provide local spreading. The second tier consists of embedded heat pipes to isothermalize each panel. These heat pipes also interface with third tier which consists of loop heat pipes to provide interpanel isothermalizing and transport heat to deployable radiator. Heat transport in this sytem is passive, with active thermal control. BENEFIT: The proposed system meets the objectives of the solicitation, and is applicable to any spacecraft bus.

Thermal Management Technologies
1575 North 600 East Suite 100
North Logan, UT 84341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 797-4371
J. Clair Batty
AF103-107      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Deployable Articulating Radiator Thermal Control for ORS Satellites
Abstract:Thermal control systems are one of the large hurdles in the development of rapidly deployed spacecraft. The solicitation discusses the goal of achieving a 6-day mission capability from initial request. This ambitious task will require a thermal management system that is flexible, modular and is rapidly assembled with high reliability. ORS requires the thermal control system to handle a range of 50 to 400 watts. Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) proposes to leverage currently developing isothermal panel technology along with a newly developed thermal articulating hinge to meet these varying loads. The new deployed articulating radiator thermal control system will be modular, light weight, and easy to integrate. The technology has minimal inactive mass and varies the radiating surface area to meet radiative cooling needs in order to control the spacecraft temperature. This technology will not only support the ORS thermal control system challenges and requirements but we anticipate this will have wide capability for use in the aerospace community. BENEFIT: TMT anticipates that upon successful development and environmental qualification of this deployable, articulating radiator thermal control unit there will be many sectors of DoD, NASA, and commercial space interested in the technology. The primary benefits of this thermal control technology are: tie-in to isothermal bus technology, reliability, being adaptable to variable heat loads, modularity, rapid assembly, and light weight.

Aerophysics, Inc.
2521 7 Mile Point Road
Allouez, MI 49805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 487-4558
Jason Sommerville
AF103-113      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:A modified Local Space Imaging System (LSIS) for near-sun detection
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aerophysics has developed the Local Space Imaging System (LSIS) to provide proximity detection for spacecraft. The LSIS sensor is a small, bolt-on unit that meets many of the requirements for this solicitation: the LSIS is small, low-power, semi-autonomous, and two LSIS units could cover the entire sky. However, like all passive EO detectors, LSIS has limitations when trying to detect unresolved objects close to or in front of the solar disk. Work proposed here will further improve LSIS performance by reducing its solar exclusion angle. Three design options will be evaluated to trade cost and complexity against performance improvement. BENEFIT: An all-sky version of LSIS could protect commercial spacecraft from collisions with orbital debris.

Applied Physical Sciences Corp.
475 Bridge Street Suite 100
Groton, CT 06340
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 310-9301
Scott Bloom
AF103-113      Awarded:3/4/2011
Title:All Sky Electro-Optical Proximity Sensor for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In order to avoid potential collisions with space debris future spacecraft in geosynchronous (GEO) orbit may be required to detect all objects in their local environment and will be required to have 4pi steradian coverage. Unfortunately the sun can blind and/or damage these sensors if precautions are not built into the sensor. APS is proposing to use an ultra- narrowband filter (0.001 nm), called a Differential Doppler Imager (DDI), to reject the broadband blackbody spectrum of the sun; it uses an atomic emission line from the sun itself as the illumination source for the object. The filter is passively (naturally) locked to the chosen atomic line and only allows that line to pass through the optical system. Rejection of background light can be very high (enables imaging in solar disk) while maintaining high in band filter transmission. APS has: a unique atomic physics computer code that properly models these filters, the ability to model the full optical system performance, and built many of them at a variety of wavelengths. Since the DDI uses the Doppler shift of atomic lines to reject background the device can also measure the line of sight velocity component of the debris. BENEFIT: The successful demonstration of imaging in very high dynamic range conditions could have many possible applications in both defense and industry. The proposed instrument enables the GEO satellites to identify, track, and avoid potentially lethal debris. This technology could also be used to build an optical ground moving target indicator instrument for satellite, aircraft, or UAV surveillance missions. A similar sensor might also be used to image high brightness arcs or exhausts in an industrial setting. Another very interesting application is as a passive wind speed monitor for airports or other research applications.

Dynamic Eye, Inc.
345 MT LEBANON BLVD STE 6
Pittsburgh, PA 15234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 561-0686
Chris Mullin
AF103-113      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Liquid Crystal Displays as Solar Protection for Space Sensors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space-based wide field of view cameras can be enabled to point near or directly at the sun if the sunlight is prevented from reaching any lens surfaces. A pixellated glare shield placed in front of the first lens surface that darkens in a region sufficient to shade the lens will accomplish the task. Two laminated passive matrix liquid crystal displays will achieve contrast ratios of over one million and will prevent both saturation of the sensor as well as stray reflections in the lens system. With the proper geometry, satellites can be tracked to within just a few degrees of the sun. BENEFIT: Dynamic Eye is focused exclusively on providing protection from bright sources of light. Glare protection in cameras is but one niche market for shielding technology. The high contrast ratio and low haze technology developed for space based camera will translate over to many other markets that require protection from bright sources of light. Outdoor security cameras and TV cameras for sporting events are two applications that could benefit as well.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Ihor Berezhnyy
AF103-113      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:Omnidirectional Proximity Sensor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force’s need for an All-Sky Electro-Optical Proximity Sensor for Space Situational Awareness (SSA), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Omnidirectional Proximity Sensor (OPS). This proposed device is based on a new design that uses in-house developed mature and COTS components. The innovative imaging system design, which is based on fiber optic and MEMS technologies and on novel use of fiber optic components, will enable the OPS to use a single-component objective, collect light within the fiber acceptance angle only, and block imaged sunlight completely. As a result, this device offers 4 pi steradian field of view (FOV), significant SWAP reduction, significant reduction of detected stray light, and detector protection from damage by direct sunlight, all of which directly address Air Force requirements for sensors for resident space object (RSO) detection. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of a single-pixel OPS prototype by demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach to eliminate the effects of sunlight. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a prototype to show that the OPS is an all-sky electro-optical sensor for SSA that is capable of proximity detection in all solar lighting conditions. BENEFIT: Military applications of the OPS design will include various target identification and SSA systems. POC’s OPS can be implemented in a range of existing and future Air Force spacecraft for RSO detection. The POC design substantially minimizes sensor vulnerability to sunlight by reducing the amount of indirect sunlight, and protects the detector from damage by instantly blocking sensitive areas from direct sunlight. The major commercial markets for OPS technology include: remote sensing (e.g., crop evaluation), sensing of civil system satellites, border patrol, security, surveillance, process control in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and product inspection.

Microelectronics Research Development Corporation
4775 Centennial Boulevard, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 294-1962
Xiaoyin (Mark) Yao
AF103-114      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:Strategically Radiation-Hardened Star Tracker
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose a new radiation-hardened star tracker system which will provide high-precision performance while meeting all radiation requirements listed in the solicitation. It has a baffle, focal-plane arrays, microprocessor, memory and power supply. The key component is a high-performance microprocessor fabricated using the Micro-RDC rad-hard Structured ASIC process. This is a low cost solution to implement the rad-hard microprocessor and communication interfaces including Space Wire, I2C, and USB. In addition, the system will include a rad-hard memory and CMOS active pixel sensor (APS). The system has a simple architecture with a small number of components. The star tracker will have total ionizing dose (TID) tolerance greater than 1 Mrad (Si). The performance degradation of the star tracker at 300 krad(Si) will be less than 30%. The star tracker will have an inertial pointing measurement error of less than 1 arc-second. The star tracker can continue to operate at track rate slew up to 2 degrees per second. The “lost in space” feature will be included, too. BENEFIT: The target market of the radiation hardened star tracker includes all satellite or space applications that need attitude information, especially these satellites required to work for long time in radiation environment or following a high dose rate event. For general commercial satellite, the radiation hardened star tracker can extend the life time of whole system and work more robustly in some harsh space environments, such as “space storm” when Sun activity peaks. The proposed star tracker has the advantage of high radiation tolerance, high accuracy and low power. Comparing to existing start trackers, our star tracker is competent for high reliability and long term space applications, especially for military satellites. In addition, the radiation hardened computing part can be used in all space applications that needs low power, high performance and radiation tolerance. The application is much wider than the star tracker.

Scientic, Inc
555 Sparkman Drive Suite 214
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-0848
Barry A. Posey
AF103-114      Awarded:3/4/2011
Title:Strategically Radiation-Hardened Star Tracker
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Scientic, Inc. and Comtec AeroAstro (CAA) in partnership proposes to determine intrinsic radiation hardness of the CAA MST design in order to identify requirements needed for a strategic radiation level star tracker that will include tolerance to natural space radiation environments. We will investigate improvements in the MST design such as EEE parts replacements, innovative shielding techniques, new hardened materials and/or architecture approaches to that will improve the radiation hardness capability. The ultimate goal of this effort is the development of a strategically radiation hardened star tracker with autonomous lost-in-space recovery and high-angular-rate tracking capability Scientic, Inc. and Comtech AeroAstro (CAA) look forward to exercising the excellent linkage between this Air Force Research Laboratory SBIR and the Commercialization effort. While the current market does not yet meet AFRL’s needs for performance specified in the solicitation with commensurate cost, the CAA ruggedized miniature star tracker system will take camera design forward with the next significant generation of technological/cost strides. BENEFIT: Our proposed star tracker enables low SWAP, low cost spacecraft attitude control is a crucial element in the commercialization strategy for Space Customers. We believe that this ruggedized star tracker will become the standard for all DoD satellites, and we plan to push for incorporating the radiation-hard star tracker on every US satellite launched (government and civilian).. We project that our operational system will be available for integration onto DoD systems by 3Q 13 and commercial systems by 4Q 13. Our sales forecast is below: FY13: 4 units FY14: 8 units FY15: 15 units FY16: 20 units Volume is sustained through ~ FY20 Scientic and CAA truly believe that this system also has tremendous potential in the non-space community as well. Fundamentally, the radiation-hard star tracker is a very robust, low power, low volume vision and ranging system. Therefore, the possible terrestrial applications range from security/monitoring systems to autonomous robotic vision for mobile systems. We plan to expand the Phase I and Phase II work to address non-space qualified parts to reduce recurring costs, and expect to have good long term projections by mid-2011.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2407
Paul Picciano
AF103-116      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:Satellite Ground truth Information Fusion (SatGIF)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To maintain the most actionable SSA, analysts must assimilate the best available information regarding on-orbit satellite position, orientation, motion, functionality, health, and numerous other parameters to ensure a blue asset is able to perform its mission capably. The availability of ground-truth presents an opportunity to uniquely characterize and fingerprint a satellite based on predictions of its reflective and thermal properties. This fingerprint can then be compared to real-time satellite measurements to more accurately assess current satellite functionality and its impact on mission success. We propose Satellite Ground-truth Information Fusion (SatGIF), a knowledge management system that will provide innovative data visualizations and displays that support the analyst’s mental processes and investigatory methods, providing decision aids and alerting capabilities to increase SSA. Aptima’s SatGIF solution accounts for dynamic user needs (because of expertise, conditions, situations) through development of algorithms and architectures sufficiently nimble to handle a host of data inputs, user inputs, and user expectations. SatGIF will fuse disparate resources; combine space and earth observations with elements of imagery, spectral analysis, and radar returns; coordinate these over time and space; and run models of atmospheric disturbances to reduce uncertainty to support the information seeking and decision-making tasks of the analyst. BENEFIT: The SatGIF solution will help achieve AFRL RV’s objective of improving the reliability and utility of ground-truth data, driving toward a future state in which a vast array of operators will have access to and find benefit for such capabilities. Within the vehicle of the SBIR, Aptima anticipates it can contribute to advancing the current system infrastructure, characterizing human-centered, workflow driven requirements, and developing interactive designs and strategies that will benefit the program. The proposed product is an intelligent, intuitive knowledge management system that pulls data from multiple sources (databases or applications), combines the data into unique visualizations of a predictive nature, and provides rigorous unbiased input to analysts. The system utilizes multifaceted browsing capabilities, context-driven algorithms, pattern matching, and data mining, coupled to satellite/space models, to rapidly provide data-driven recommendations to analysts. It is fully interactive, permitting analysts to test and visualize hypotheses via an intuitive graphical user interface that blends seamlessly with the way they think and work. A rich library of templates for visualizing parameters and interactions between parameters makes it easy to view complex interactions. In addition, advanced computation flow techniques act to order and obtain data required to rapidly complete appropriate visualization(s) and recommendations.

Tau Technologies LLC
PO Box 9334
Albuquerque, NM 87119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 244-1222
Robin Ritter
AF103-116      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Optimization of Satellite Ground Truth for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The overall purpose of Phase I is to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by developing a working prototype of the approach. The three main concepts we will demonstrate are 1) a relational data model and database of the diverse information encountered in modeling, simulation and assessment (MS&A)-based SSA; 2) interfacing signature generation and image processing tools to this database, and 3) developing a natural, efficient, visual interface to a relational database, particularly as applied to the AFRL/RVSS usage. BENEFIT: If this approach is successful, we expect to deliver a tool which will greatly enhance the MS&A process in place at the Space Vehicles directorate. In Phase I we will demonstrate the key concepts of a relational database custom engineered to fit the ongoing mission threads, useful analysis tools which interface with this database, and a novel, highly- interactive, and visual method for navigating related data.

Aerospace & Bonded Structures
4 Green Street
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 670-7391
Mike Winter
AF103-117      Awarded:3/24/2011
Title:Low Cost Replicated Nanotube Reflector (RNR)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force requires lightweight, stiff and stable mirrors for use in high quality, air-based and space-based observation and energy projection systems. The current state-of-the-art uses various types of honeycomb materials with glass and composite face sheets that are expensive to fabricate. Current replicated mirror technologies do not meet the stringent performance parameters of both light weight and surface quality. Nanolaminates pucker locally when bonded to SiC and stretched shell mirrors cannot maintain their shape without significant supporting structures. The results are structurally inefficient mirror systems that cost and weigh too much. The proposed program will develop low cost manufacturing methods for reflective films supported by a structural network of lightweight nanotubes. The Replicated Nanotube Reflector (RNR) uses a low cost sputtered film rather than a nanolaminate and a low cost mixed grade of nanotubes as a supporting structure. Testing has already shown that this combination can produce a surface roughness of only 8.1Å, exceeding the stated λ/500 goal. ABS will develop the RNR system through a careful plan of technology transfer, design, modeling, and prototype manufacture and testing. Complete development of this technology will provide a mirror system that will enable better, lighter, and less expensive optical instruments. BENEFIT: In addition to the myriad of Air Force, Missile Defense Agency, NASA and other government missions such as ABL, SBL and observation platforms that would take advantage of extremely stiff and lightweight mirrors, many university and private observatories would be ready customers of the RNR mirror technology. UAV’s in particular use both curved focusing mirrors and flat steering mirrors to rapidly image over tactical battlespaces. ABS commercialization partner, QinetiQ, is the developer of the Zephyr. This extremely high altitude UAV is very payload weight limited and would benefit greatly from a low cost, lightweight set of concentrating and steering mirrors.

Composite Mirror Applications, Inc.
1638 S. Research Loop Suite 100
Tucson, AZ 85710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 733-9302
Robert N. Martin
AF103-117      Awarded:3/9/2011
Title:Ultra-Lightweight and Low-Cost Space Telescope Mirrors using CFRP Composites
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The current designs of telescopes for space borne applications use monolithic glass, beryllium, or silicon-carbide optics. With that existing optical technology, it is increasingly difficult or impossible to meet the new goals and requirements of AF, ORS, and other modern DoD missions. In particular, (a) rapid fabrication, response to needs, (b) ultra- lightweight optics, (c) compact size, miniaturization, (d) athermal performance, and (e) low cost are all key requirements for DoD missions. The development of these existing space mirror systems have reached their limit since these technologies require long lead times for fabrication and exceed the mass requirements for future lightweight telescope systems. New solutions are needed for the imaging telescope systems envisioned for nanosat and near- space payloads. In this proposal, we offer such a solution without the need for investment in further process or material development. We propose a path for developing EO/IR imaging telescope mirrors using composite materials which addresses these needs. Our proposed CFRP telescope mirrors are modular, ultra-lightweight, flexible in design, thermally stable, and rapidly fabricated on ORS tier-2 and tier-3 time scales. This technology, coupled with a COTS camera system, will lead to a high quality, space platform, ultra-lightweight imaging system at drastically reduced cost. BENEFIT: The Ultra-lightweight CFRP mirror technology will drastically reduce the cost and timescale for space platform imaging systems. This will benefit military application of responsive space and laser communications. Commercial imaging applications utilizing portable telescope systems will also benefit from this technology.

Advanced Optical Systems, Inc.
6767 Old Madison Pike Suite 410
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-0036
Stephen Granade
AF103-118      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:Rapid Assembly and Alignment of Electro-Optical Sensor Payloads
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical component fabrication for electro-optical sensor payloads has advanced in leaps and bounds; however, component assembly into a final system has not. Payload designers often must choose between fabricating optical components with extremely tight mechanical tolerances to support snap-together assembly, or using less-tightly-toleranced components that must be painstakingly aligned during final system assembly. Tight-tolerance components cost far more than lower-tolerance components and have a high schedule risk, but leaving adjustment and alignment for assembly runs the risk of driving up assembly costs and increasing delivery timelines. While these approaches can be blended, oftentimes the blending is achieved by feel and guess rather than deterministically using data. Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. (AOS) has developed a deterministic process for designing and aligning separate optical modules to provides snap-together assembly of the final system while eliminating the need for expensive tightly-toleranced materials. Given an optical design, we identify critical interfaces and set appropriate tolerances for manufacture and assembly. We then apply design for manufacturability and assembly techniques to identify how best to sub-divide the system design into separate modules. During manufacture, each separate module undergoes a streamlined individual alignment process. The modules are then assembled into a system using kinematic self-alignment techniques to provide repeatable zero-alignment interfaces among modules. The result is an electro-optical system whose manufacturing and assembly schedule is determined with high reliability and whose assembly costs are kept low. Phase I will demonstrate the process’s feasibility, leading to software and hardware in Phase II to support Air Force needs. BENEFIT: The result of this project is a process for manufacturing precision optical and electro-optical systems. The process will be instituted at AOS as several electro-optical manufacturing cells, using capital investment and financing as necessary. The cells will be available for military products, and at least one cell for commercial products. The military product cells will be capable of assembling classified hardware. Our process will be scalable to full automation. For either high rate component assembly, or for high rate system assembly, the process needs to be compatible with dual use flexible assembly lines. One key will be in partnering with large prime companies that produce the electro-optic systems to which our processes can be applied. Our process is applicable to commercial products as well as military ones. A critical element in mini- or micro-optical systems is an optical telescope which reduces the physical size. However, this is an alignment nightmare – the greater the size reduction, the tougher it is to make. Our process would greatly simplify this task. In addition, commercial products are often made in much greater quantities than military ones, allowing us to take advantage of economies of scale.

CFE Services
5147 Pacifica Dr.
San Diego, CA 92109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 204-6299
Brian Catanzaro
AF103-118      Awarded:3/3/2011
Title:Rapid Assembly and Alignment of Electro-Optical Sensor Payloads
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Electro-optic (E-O) sensor payloads play a critical role in the gathering of information for variety of uses for both civilian and national security interests. Systems that provide this function can be grouped in terms of their capability which determines to a great degree their application. There is increasing motivation for reducing the assembly, integration, and test (AI/T) of optical systems. The development of E-O sensor payloads has been historically resource intensive for a variety of reasons. One powerful driving force behind the expense is that the manufacturing technology required to achieve the performance requirements leaves little room for alignment tolerances. One potential method of addressing this sensitivity to alignment tolerances is to design and build optical systems using computational imaging principles; converting from a simple imaging system into a signal processing system. BENEFIT: Reduction in cost and increase in performance for commercial optical systems (e.g. digital camera manufactures, digital video camera manufacturers, remote sensing system vendors). Reduction in cost and increase in performance for government/military systems (e.g. E-O payloads for space, UAV, or manned aircraft platforms).

Nu-Trek
17150 Via Del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 750-6345
Ray Eastwood
AF103-122      Awarded:1/26/2011
Title:GPS Degraded and/or Denied Precision Navigation for Munitions
Abstract:To address navigation in environments where GPS signals are degraded or denied, Nu-Trek is proposing to develop a highly-compact, multi-channel, multi-frequency receiver. The receiver will include a high anti jam GPS receiver as well as several other channels [1.1-1.6 GHz (GPS), 420-450MHz (C2), and 225-450 MHz (EPLERs)]. The compact form factor and the anti jam capability exceed the state of the art, providing an enabling navigation tool for small munitions, where space is very limited. The multi bandwidth receiver leverages Nu- Trek’s high anti jam RF ASIC chip and a Raytheon anti jam DSP, which enable both the high performance and the compact form factor. Heading the Nu-Trek team are Ray Eastwood, Wais Ali, and Kyle Lyson, who developed the Nu-Trek front end. Heading the Raytheon team is David Lewis, the Director of Raytheon’s GPS Advanced Products Group. Dr. Yannis Paschalidis, is an expert in algorithms with specific expertise in GPS denied environments. This multi-disciplinary team, that combines both hardware and algorithm experts will be able to effectively address both signal acquisition as well as interpretation. The collaboration with Raytheon, one of the world’s leaders in guided munitions, provides a direct path to insertion into waeapon platforms. BENEFIT: To address navigation in environments where GPS signals are degraded or denied, Nu-Trek is proposing to develop a highly-compact, multi-channel, multi-frequency receiver. The receiver will include a high anti jam GPS receiver as well as several other channels [1.1-1.6 GHz (GPS), 420-450MHz (C2), and 225-450 MHz (EPLERs)]. The compact form factor and the anti jam capability exceed the state of the art, providing an enabling navigation tool for small munitions, where space is very limited. The multi bandwidth receiver leverages Nu- Trek’s high anti jam RF ASIC chips and a Raytheon anti jam DSP, which enable both the high performance and the compact form factor.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Paul Shnitser
AF103-122      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Optical Velocity Sensors for Navigation of Small Munitions
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for improved navigation of small munitions in GPS-denied environments, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Optical Velocity Sensor (OVS) system. The proposed compact, low-cost sensors will use a self- mixing interferometric technique and light backscattering from air around a munition’s skin for the determination of the munition’s velocity and its angular velocity of roll, pitch, and yaw. The innovation in sensor design will enable fabrication of compact sensors capable of precise operation in a wide range of velocities. As a result, these sensors can be installed into new and already available types of small munitions as an auxiliary tool to the inertial measurement unit for improving munitions navigation accuracy without GPS signals. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sensor system through the theoretical modeling and experimental demonstration of sensors operation in a fast-moving truck. In Phase II, POC plans to fabricate the full sensor system and deliver it for testing at government facilities. BENEFIT: The proposed sensor system will be used by all military services for improving navigation of various munitions. It can be easily modified for the utilization of light reflection from the ground for navigation of military vehicles or dismounted soldiers without a GPS. It can be used by commercial or industrial users for navigation in mountain terrains or in “city jungles” where a GPS signal is not always available. It is especially useful for use is in large buildings and underground facilities (as mines) for tracking personal movement.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4930
Peter Liever
AF103-123      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Hypervelocity Aerodynamic Interaction of Ballistic Bodies
Abstract:The process of dispensing unguided submunition projectiles from weapons systems must result in stable projectile flight with high kinetic energy and even dispersion over the target area. This project will incorporate a solid body collision methodology into the existing Loci/CHEM coupled 6-DoF/CFD framework to enable simulation of the simultaneous collision and aerodynamic interference effects between large numbers of projectiles that dominate the early phases of the ejection process that are not amenable to simulation with engineering level methods. The Loci/CHEM architecture has demonstrated extreme scalability and automatic parallelism that make a CFD based simulation approach with large numbers of moving bodies possible. Phase I will demonstrate the efficiency of the CFD based simulation system, integrate a body collision prediction module in the coupled 6- DoF/CFD system, and demonstrate the scalability to simulations with large numbers of projectiles. Phase II will see full implementation of the coupled simulation capability, application demonstrations for capturing dominant influence factors in the dispersion process, and development of a design-of-experiment methodology to deliver probabilistic projectile state definitions with reasonable computational effort. The resulting probabilistic definition of projectile spatial distribution and flight state will be handed over to the more economical engineering level methods for the terminal flight phase. BENEFIT: Military Application: The resulting simulation capability will enable design and evaluation of technology and concept maturation for save dispensing and pin-point delivery of payloads. It will support integration design of submunition and ordnance ejection processes for hypersonic and lower Mach airframes. Commercial Application: The predictive capabilities will benefit system design and process planning for air delivery of payloads such as humanitarian relief supplies. The methodology will help predict payload ground-impact distributions for flight regimes intended for commercial applications.

Kord Technologies, Inc.
701 Pratt Avenue
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 527-9148
Robert Tramel
AF103-123      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Multi-fidelity Simulation Tool for Hypervelocity Aerodynamic Interaction of Ballistic Bodies
Abstract:Many military systems dispense objects such as submunitions or fragments which are designed to destroy targets through explosive munitions or hypervelocity impacts. The dispersion pattern of the dispensed objects is of paramount importance in determining the efficacy of the system as a weapon. The routine modeling of such systems is prohibitive through traditional computational methods, such as CFD. An approach to modeling dispense events is required that is fast, approximate, but accounts for highly chaotic and indeterminate physical processes such as collisions, time-dependent aerodynamic interference, and the interaction of the objects with the parent vehicle. Kord Technologies proposes an innovative approach to the fast simulation of multiple-body dispense based on Autoregressive-Moving-Average (ARMA) modeling. In this approach, forces and moments on an object are expressed in terms of approximate values based on simplified CFD analyses, and stochastic terms based on the analysis of Navier- Stokes/6DOF computations that have been run previously on a dispense vehicle. The stochastic terms account for the more complicated aspects of object dispersion, such as collisions between objects. Once the ARMA model coefficients are established, the model can be run in a Monte Carlo mode to determine the most likely dispersion patterns BENEFIT: The technology developed during this effort will have broad applicability to any DOD system which relies on successful dispense of many bodies such as Brilliant Anti-Tank System, MODS darts, etc. It is also anticipated that this technology will be useful in other areas such as swarming systems, etc

Karagozian and Case
2550 North Hollywood Way Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 240-1919
John E. Crawford
AF103-125      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Cumulative Structural Damage from Multiple Weapons
Abstract:The overall goal for this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a methodology to generate physics-based fast running analysis models to predict the cumulative damage imparted to a structural system by multiple weapon strikes. In the second phase of the project, our goals are to develop cumulative damage fast running models for one or more kinds of structural systems. BENEFIT: As a science and engineering consulting company actively involved in a multitude of government and private industries including building construction, defense, anti-terrorism, petrochemical plant safety, and nuclear plant and infrastructure safety, K&C is in an excellent position to market, commercialize, and transition the technologies developed under this project. These clients, especially related to their overseas operations, have particular concerns related to the risks engendered by small cased munitions. Similarly having a rapid easily used means to evaluate the effects of cumulative damage on structural systems and components can greatly aid in the development of more resilient structures, a major goal of DHS. The U.S. Department of Homeland security has recently initiated the High Performance- Integrated Design (HP-ID) and Advanced Materials Council (AMC) programs, which seeks to develop new robust, resilient, and energy-efficient materials for use in building infrastructure. One of their research programs, involving ERDC, Georgia Tech, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mississippi State University, and Karagozian & Case is focused on understanding and modeling the mechanical behaviors of novel materials, which can be aided by the cumulative damage tools being developed under this project. In other words, the goal of the work and DHS to achieve more resilience in structures is greatly aid by having the ability to predict cumulative damage effects. Funding to the HP-ID/AMC programs is on the order of several millions of dollars per fiscal year. The U.S. defense community is another clear market for this technology, which also has interest in the resilience of structures and having the ability to evaluate the effects of cumulative damage. In this regard, the stochastic approach to be taken to modeling cumulative damage will be especially of interest since the probability of a particular outcome in a cumulative damage targeting problem should reflect the uncertainties involved if it is to be useful.

ImSAR LLC
510 W 90 S
Salem, UT 84653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 717-9378
Bryce Ready
AF103-130      Awarded:1/25/2011
Title:Non-GPS Dependent Method for Accurate UAS Navigation and Orientation Determination
Abstract:ImSAR and BYU propose to use SAR/STAP/MIMO techniques to provide continous navigation in a GPS denied environment for UAS. The team has expertise in precision location of UAVs targets using a variety of methods inlcuding radar. BENEFIT: Commercial aviation and UAS missions that have become dependant on GPS navigation solutions will have an alternative during GPS outage or in jammed situations.

Microcosm, Incorporated
4940 W. 147th St.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 219-2700
James Wertz
AF103-130      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Light-weight, Low-Cost, Stellar-Aided Inertial Navigation System for Unmanned Aerial Systems
Abstract:Microcosm will leverage previous Phase II SBIR work on a Navy stellar-aided inertial navigation system (SAINS), along with extensive ongoing experience in developing new star sensors for spacecraft for both the Air Force and NASA, to develop a low-cost, light-weight, low power SAINS for UAS applications. This star sensor will provide orientation and position information as a backup for GPS outages and reduced INS drift and enhanced overall INS capability. Traditional sensors that provide the SAINS function are operationally complex, high-mass, high-power, expensive systems that are difficult to maintain and calibrate. The SAINS star sensor proposed here is a small, strapdown sensor capable of detecting stars in daylight, employing a new generation of focal plane arrays (FPAs) and appropriate filtering techniques. The full sensor will have a mass of 3-7 kg, power < 10 W, and a recurring cost target of $200K-$300K. In Phase I, Microcosm will develop the initial SAINS design, scaling the sensor significantly down in size from the larger sea-level-based Navy version. The best available FPAs will be selected with the appropriate spectral sensitivity to allow daytime star detection. In Phase II, a prototype SAINS will be built and delivered for UAS testing. BENEFIT: The proposed sensor will be immediately applicable to any UAS mission, from larger to smaller platforms. It can also be adopted by strategic piloted military aircraft that have traditionally relied on older, much more expensive and complex SAINS devices. Once performance is proven on the UAS platforms, it is likely that companies building piloted aircraft will be more willing to accept the new SAINS. Additionally, commercial aircraft could make use of this device as a GPS backup navigation instrument, which will be much more affordable than traditional SAINS devices.

ACTA Incorporated
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
G. Wije Wathugala
AF103-131      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Predicting Structural Debris and Secondary Air-Blast
Abstract:The secondary debris generated during the breakup of walls and slabs interacts with the high pressure gases passing through cracks in the separated material. This interaction causes a reduction of blast/gas loads in the blast room and acceleration (and sometimes further breakup) of secondary debris that can be lethal to personnel and equipment in adjoining rooms. The secondary debris can also impact walls and windows in adjoining rooms causing additional damage. Current High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) Fast- Running Models (FRM) ) that are used to predict weapon effectiveness do not model these coupled, interactive physics yet data from current operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, etc. demonstrate that this secondary debris is an important damage mechanism. Ignoring this will have a negative impact on collateral damage estimation and weaponeering activity. A novel approach to simulate this complex scenario using HFPB methods is proposed. FRMs will be developed based on the results of a suite of these HFPB runs BENEFIT: Present HFPB (High Fidelity Physics Based) FRMs (Fast Running Models) at Air Force assessment codes were developed using uncoupled calculations. Therefore, they are not capable of predicting the generation of secondary debris mass-velocity distributions accurately. The current models also do not predict the projection of blast loads to adjoining spaces. The successful completion of this project will provide, AFRL with better tools to account for secondary debris for assessing lethality of weapons.

Karagozian and Case
2550 North Hollywood Way Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 240-1919
Ken Morrill
AF103-131      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Predicting Structural Debris and Secondary Air-Blast
Abstract:The disintegration of overloaded walls and slabs generates two important secondary effects that can be lethal to personnel, equipment, and structural components located in adjoining rooms; the first is secondary debris from fragmentation of the wall/slab component and the second is secondary air blast that can, in many circumstances, interact with the disintegrating wall and project blast and dynamic pressure loadings. Current HFPB FRMs that are used to predict weapons effectiveness or assess human or building lethality do not account for these effects. The DoD needs a new generation of FRMs to improve their prediction capabilities in these areas. The overall goal of this project is to develop HFPB FRMs to simulate the effects of air-delivered weapons against building structures and the resulting structural response, disintegration of the structure and projection of structural debris and secondary air blast into adjoining spaces. The models will consider the structural types and materials typical of Air Force targets, current and future weapons in the Air Force’s arsenal, and function within the framework of AFRL’s L&V codes. The predictive accuracy of the models will be quantified, based on comparisons with experimental data and HFPB calculations. BENEFIT: The anticipated results of Phase I are a set of HFPB approaches that can be used to compute physically-based representation of secondary debris and secondary air blast for FRM development. The results of the Phase I will place K&C in a position to identify a plan for additional research and FRM model development. The Phase I studies, which include feasibility demonstrations of the analytical approaches, are then a key step to providing a foundation for the research and development efforts to be performed in Phase II and beyond, where we plan to develop them into useable tools. The blast effects modeling and protective design industry is also a growing market that is devoting millions of dollars for R&D and to develop a better understanding of blast effects, the damage imparted to structural components and the risks of collapse this engenders in structural systems such as those used in buildings, bridges, dams, etc. Development of stochastic based analysis methods will be of great interest not only to the U.S. military in developing better attack strategies and defensive protective designs, but also in anti-terrorist and anti-insurgent efforts around the world to enable a more efficient means of identifying the vulnerabilities of structural and mechanical systems and components. The protective design community, especially related to anti-terrorist, anti-insurgent protection industries have a marked potential to benefit from the new methods proposed herein. Finally, because the modeling techniques we seek to develop are to be based on stochastic principles, they could be deployed for other structural analyses problems and materials characterizations where uncertainties are a dominate element in determining behaviors. Thus industries including aerospace and biomedical industries could potentially benefit from the methods developed in this effort.

Cyan Systems
5385 Hollister Ave
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 453-0582
John Caulfield
AF103-132      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Wide-Field-of-View Seeker Technology
Abstract:Cyan Systems has teamed with Centeye and Nova Sensors to develop a high performance Wide Field of View Seeker Technology (WFST). The WFST is the centerpiece for a potentially revolutionary technical breakthrough required in the successful development of gimbal-less obstacle avoidance sensors for compact munitions egomotion control, detecting /tracking objects, and seeker guidance. Our strategy is to address the limitations that exist in larger gimbaled systems, namely large mechanical optical gimbals requiring a larger airframe. Our concepts uses advanced sensor technology for improved situational awareness and airframe egomotion while reducing size, power, and weight (SWAP). Cyan has developed on FPA processing circuitry which has improved sensitivity and target pre-detection for improved situational awareness. BENEFIT: 1. Seeker that support high performance compact munitions due to the small pixel high resolution sensor front end. 2. Signal Pooling to allow high precision, low false alarms and the ability to track in very low SNR conditions. 3. Low CEP and obstacle avoidance due to small oversampled pixels and advanced pixel binning and acuity. 4. Subpixel FPA sensor that provide unpresidented persistent stare and the dim target discrimination of real targets from “clutter”.

Spectral Imaging Laboratory
1785 Locust St. #10
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 578-0626
Francis Reininger
AF103-132      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Wide-Field-of-View Infrared Seeker
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force has a need to develop small and agile strapdown (no-gimbal), wide-field- of-view (WFOV) seekers capable of precision guidance within cluttered urban environments. The Spectral Imaging Laboratory (SPILAB) proposes the development of infrared strapdown seekers that utilize the architecture of WFOV, artificial compound eye (ACE) optics coupled to variable acuity sensors. ACE wide angle optics have the benefit of generating high resolution, distortion free images that have uniform intensity across the field. Variable acuity sensors enable selected portions of the image field to be read out at maximum resolution while the remainder of the field is read out at low resolution. This maximizes the readout rate by minimizing the data volume. The SPILAB ACE design includes a honeycomb louver baffle that can block stray radiation from bright sources such as the sun and flares. During Phase 1 SPILAB will design two types of infrared ACE systems and determine the feasibility of developing them into prototype strapdown seekers. BENEFIT: Will provide the military with infrared wide angle seekers that can be used in small weapon/aircraft systems engaged in combat and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Commercial applications include surveillance activities in law enforcement, search and rescue, border control, and homeland security. Other commercial applications include machine vision for manufacturing, robotics, and vehicle situational awareness/safety systems.

ACTA Incorporated
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
George Lloyd
AF103-134      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Munitions Effects on Building Infrastructure Components
Abstract:Functional Kill of buildings and below-ground structures is becoming an increasing area of concern for war fighters. Functional Kill refers to defeating a building by rendering it or its contents (infrastructure) functionally incapable of performing the overall mission for which the building was designed. AFRL/RWPL is seeking innovative methods to accomplish the modeling of Functional Kill. ACTA proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of several innovative methods for modeling building infrastructure within the Smart Target Model Generator (STMG) and to demonstrate the feasibility of a general and practical methodology for high-fidelity physics-based (HFPB) Fast Running Models (FRM’s) for predicting the probable effects of munitions on the functionality of building infrastructure components. Finally, the feasibility of integrating the FRM’s within the enhanced STMG/MEVA framework will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: Numerous government agencies, all military branches, and the majority of industry are required to estimate risks and maximum probable loss to buildings and equipment arising from terrorist threats and accidental explosions. Existing methodologies for infrastructure vulnerability are few, largely heuristic, and do not account for uncertainty. Most demonstrated consequence models require extremely long run times and are unsuitable outside a research context. The development of HFPB Fast Running Models for predicting the probable effects of munitions on building infrastructure will remedy this widespread need. Integration of these FRM’s within STMG/MEVA will provide AFRL/RWPL with a greatly enhanced ability to assess functional kill under different scenarios, accounting for uncertainty. Availability of infrastructure component models will also greatly improve the ability of planners to mitigate potential threats.

Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants Inc.
3330 Oakwell Court Suite 100
San Antonio, TX 78218
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 218-3803
David Bogosian
AF103-134      Awarded:1/25/2011
Title:Infrastructure Components -- Part 2, Foreign Construction
Abstract:A 9-month, $100,000 effort is proposed to (a) extend STMG capability to include non-U.S. construction standards for mechanical, electrical, plumbing, data, and architectural systems and components; (b) extend STMG capability to include hardened (belowground) construction; (c) perform fragment tests on typical booster pump components and define their fragility for eventual incorporation into MEVA. For feasibility demonstration, enhanced STMG functionality will be limited to one geographic grouping and will represent plumbing systems only. The automated generation algorithms will rely on proven industry experience derived from design of realistic systems for a variety of building types. The testing will be augmented as necessary by analysis and consideration of accidental explosion data in petrochemical facilities. BENEFIT: The new fragility models will aid the Air Force in predicting functional kill on a facility based on assessment of the building's mechanical, electrical, data, and plumbing systems. New capabilities will be developed in model generation software supporting the definition of such systems within simplified target models used by assessment codes. In the commercial sector, the models and tools being developed will be of great interest to developers and urban planners doing top-level sizing and planning of new facilities. The automated rules for generation of MEP components could then be linked to databases of equipment cost, installation cost and difficulty, and maintenance cost, facilitating quantification of tradeoffs between alternate building footprints/heights, functions, and locations. Potential users would primarily be architect/engineer companies involved in planning and design of commercial/industrial buildings.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mike Usberghi
AF103-135      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:High Reliability, Wireless, High-speed digital Fibre Channel Interface for Micro Munitions (IMM)
Abstract:New smart munitions will require high-speed digital interface connections from the launcher to munitions such as that defined in SAE’s Interface for Micro Munitions (IMM), SAE 5726. The IMM connection specifies Fibre Channel as its data communications protocol and superimposes this balanced electrical data along with DC power signals over paired coaxial connections. Single-ended safety and mated status discretes also form part of this interface. The high-speed digital interface operates at 1.0625 Mbps. and will be very sensitive to intermittency or loss of transmission path integrity. Upper layer protocols will be able to compensate for data dropouts and loss through retransmission requests, but this could be time consuming and unacceptable in operation. The purpose of our research effort will be to examine and tradeoff potential contact-less forms of high rate data communications including: RF data link, optical data links, and near- field data links in order to identify a more reliable alternative IMM interface that will improve operational performance and readiness. Our work will culminate in a laboratory demonstration of prototype hardware. BENEFIT: Potential commercial applications: peer-to-peer virtual connections for smart devices, wireless digital content transfer for cameras, electronic viewers, personal entertainment and communications devices, contactless ticketing and security applications.

WINTEC, Incorporated
220 Eglin Parkway SE Suite 4
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 664-6203
Fred Benedick
AF103-135      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Innovative Micro-munition Electrical Interface Physical Interconnection Alternatives
Abstract:Current methods for physically interconnecting the electrical interfaces on micro-munitions or other small stores to host platforms or other carriage devices rely on traditional military style circular connectors. These connectors have significant physical footprints in locations where space is at a premium, typically exhibit higher than desired release forces that undesirably constrain potential store ejection techniques, have reliability/durability issues, and are cumbersome to connect for some store physical installation scenarios. Other physical interconnection techniques including both wireless technologies and alternative conductor-based interconnection techniques (such as tear-away connectors or butted contacts on mating surfaces) have the potential to provide the necessary physical signal interconnectivity while eliminating some or all of the stated drawbacks. The effort proposed here will investigate/evaluate alternative technologies for physical interconnection of required signal paths across micro-munition electrical interfaces, and define one or more candidate alternative interconnection schemes based on those alternative technologies deemed to be most viable within the applicable implementation constraints. A plan for a recommended follow-on program to accomplish prototyping and demonstration of the defined alternative interconnection scheme(s) will also be documented. BENEFIT: The technology developed under this effort will facilitate easier and more reliable electrical mating of micro-munitions with host platforms. It also has significant potential for commercial application in integration of external sensors on non-military air and ground platforms.

Photon-X, Inc
360 C Quality Circle Suite 350
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3416
Blair A Barbour
AF103-136      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Layered Sensing Bio-Signatures for Dismount Tracking
Abstract:The company proposes to offer a sensor-software solution to advance the Air Force goal of robust, long-term identity, tracking and behavior awareness by using patented Spatial Phase Imaging (SPI) technology. With the capabilities of this technology, it will be possible to simultaneously obtain visible/ IR, 3D and polarization signatures from a single sensor that has small form factor and low power requirements. Creating a multi-sensor system, information from individual sensors will be fused into a single multi-dimensional signature per individual. Thus in addition to stand-alone performance, the sensors will also integrate seamlessly within the network of sensors and the bio-signature will be continually updated. This system-wide integration will ensure identity and trajectory management over extended durations. The resulting network of sensors of different types, placed at different geographic locations, will provide a comprehensive awareness of the situation. BENEFIT: The work in this project will lead to a multi-layered system that performs high-level integration. The collected data will be useful for other Air Force initiatives involving dismount analysis, scene modeling, simulations, and biometric recognition. The unique solutions developed to perform core tasks such as target detection, tracking and identification will further the state-of-the-art in these areas and have a significant impact on a broad range of defense and civilian applications. For example, algorithms developed for dismount and vehicle identification can be easily extended to object recognition. These can help Humanoid Robots navigate and find objects in a cluttered room. They can also help UGVs to detect suspicious objects and weapon caches. Similarly, the developed target tracking algorithms can be applied to applications as disparate as tracking the trajectory of missile or the motion of a ball. Additional commercial applications involve the increasing demand for effective non- intrusive systems. Such systems allow users to interface with minimal imposition, while allowing operators to track user activity in a covert manner. Examples of these applications include entry access, remote detection, automated recognition, behavior analysis, and intra- campus/facility tracking. A brief list of potential industries includes law enforcement, banking, private corporations, schools and universities, casinos, theme parks, retail, and hospitality.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Gaemus E. Collins
AF103-136      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Layered Sensing Bio-Signatures for Dismount Tracking
Abstract:Bio-signature is a new area of research that may be used for tracking and identification (ID) of dismounts through remote sensing. Typical "cooperative" bio-signatures (e.g. fingerprints, retinal scans) require that an individual agreeably come in contact with a sensor, which is not applicable to realistic battlefield conditions tracking non-cooperative dismounts. Toyon proposes to develop non-cooperative and remote bio-signature technologies that can be integrated with fusion and ATR algorithms and applied to multi- layer sensing networks. An Exploitation and Feature Extraction (EFE) model will be designed for each type of sensor in the layered sensing architecture. The unique features extracted from each sensor will be included with that sensor's measurements as they are sent to an Autonomous Tracked Object Manager (ATOM). ATOM will use sensor measurements and features to ID and track targets of interest. ATOM will also interface with a database search and correlation tool that can query the DoD Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) and correlate the target's features with stored biometrics on known targets. BENEFIT: There is a great interest in surveillance technologies that track and identify objects and dismounts. The proposed technology will use features to maintain continuous long-term track on a target of interest. Continuous long-term tracks are necessary to identify anomalous target behavior, highlight entities that might be engaged in illicit activities, and engage targets. Further, the proposed work will help identify non-cooperative dismounts using remote sensors, from standoff distances that were previously impossible. This addresses essential capability requirements in layered sensing systems, and will help support effective use of bio-signatures to identify and track dismounts. This identity information can help intelligence analysts connect specific people to events and locations, and learn about insurgent operations.

Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6339
Scott Reome
AF103-139      Awarded:1/4/2011
Title:Automated, On-Wing Engine Airfoil Inspection
Abstract:The proposed research is aimed at the development of an automated on-wing method for failure prevention in gas turbine engines. Maintenance is presently the largest controllable cost in the gas turbine industry. However, failure-prevention action is the most common corrective response, even though condition-based maintenance (CBM), which takes action prior to the occurrence of complete failure, is much more cost-effective. Most currently existing gas turbine monitoring methods are based on signals acquired during off-line tests. The proposed research will develop a monitoring system that will make it possible to replace turbine components based on their actual condition. Turbine components will be replaced only when they are worn, such as when the thermal barrier coating is severely damaged. BENEFIT: The overall objectives of the proposed work is to determine the feasibility of developing a high speed, high resolution IR camera to measure defects and temperatures in aerospace gas turbine environment, and link it to a health management system that evaluates the signal real time and compares it to expected component performance, determining the component health based on deviations. The complete High Speed, High Resolution IR Health Management System would also be equipped with an on-wing storage card to store the visual images captured during the inspection, which can later be used for post-processing to evaluate health of components and determine if maintenance is required, thus reducing turn around time for aerospace gas turbine engines.

MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
James Trolinger
AF103-139      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Optical Damage Sensors for Automated On-Wing Engine Airfoil Inspection
Abstract:Two optical methods are proposed for the detection of a range of types of damage on coated and uncoated airfoils in advanced gas turbines, by means of borescope inspection of on-wing parts. The techniques are based on low coherence interferometry and luminescence spectroscopy. The Phase I work plan consists of a demonstration of the measurement capabilities, an analysis of critical components and feasible operating envelope, and a detailed Phase II design and development strategy. BENEFIT: The proposed instrumentation provides a significant advance over currently employed visual inspection of gas turbine airfoils. For instance, with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), these techniques allow the detection and quantification of incipient spalls, delamination, and changes in TBC porosity which typically go unnoticed with visual inspection methods. The proposed methods are well suited for use with borescopes and thus provide a large potential to be developed into commercial optical diagnostics instruments for use during maintenance and inspection of advanced gas turbines.

TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 261-1142
Jeannine Elliott
AF103-140      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Flat UV-Cured Powder Coatings
Abstract:UV curable powder coating is an attractive technology which has far less environmental impact. Than conventional coating processes. Since powder systems are solvent-free they reduce air pollutants and reduce waste streams by eliminating the disposable of leftover wet paint. For these reasons the Air Force is interested in expanding it use of UV curable powder coatings. However, these UV cured coatings generally have a medium to high gloss finish, while military and weapon system require a flat matte finish. TDA has recently developed a new nanomaterial flattening additive which increases surface roughness. In this Phase I project TDA will demonstrate this additive can be used to reduce gloss in a powder coating formulation that provides good durability and adhesion. BENEFIT: Flattening agents could also be employed in a wide variety of other military coating applications. Beyond aerospace coatings this technology could also be applied to make CARC UV curable powder coatings. Additionally, commercial users may be interested in matte textures for furniture and other decorative materials.

Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Brad Rix
AF103-140      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Powder Coating
Abstract:Powder coatings are finding favor with the Air Force due to their reduction in hazardous waste streams since it is a 100% solids process. Unfortunately, traditional methods are not easily adaptable to large parts, as they can not be placed into an oven for curing. The development of an effective ultraviolet radiation curing powder coating (UVCPC )would allow larger parts to be easily coated and the coating could be cured in place. Texas Research Institute Austin Inc. (TRI/Austin) proposes a novel UVCPC based in part on previous work in this area. The unique materials will provide the proper cure profile and exhibit excellent mechanical and environmental properties. The goal of the Phase I is to prepare a UVCPC that will readily cure and pass a specified test protocol adapted from MIL-PRF-85285, MIL- PRF-23377, and MIL-PRF-32239. During Phase I, TRI/Austin will be working with a leader in powder coating technology to produce specimens for evaluation. Mechanical and environmental testing will show that the coating technology could be a drop-in replacement for current military specification coatings. The novel materials proposed for this effort will result in a high quality powder coating that will find application on aircraft and other platforms. BENEFIT: The advanced UVCPC will be beneficial as an environmentally friendly replacement to current solvent based systems on military aircraft. Additional applications for this novel technology would include Navy aircraft, surface ships, and submarines, as well as support equipment for all DoD agencies. Commercial applications would include decorative coatings, particularly for those that require a reduced heat cure.

Materials Research & Design
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-9000
Guido Teti
AF103-141      Awarded:12/22/2010
Title:Implication of as Manufactured Delaminations on CMC the Life of Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract:The goal of the testing is to develop and life prediction theories which describe the structural re-sponse in CMCs with delaminations emanating from manufacturing imperfections. Much work have been done studying the effects of defects in CMCs particularly in the area of porosity, but no one has clearly explained the failure mechanisms ovserved in advanced CMC jet engine after burner flaps and seals. Analysis and physical evidence indicates that the combined thermo-structural and acoustic loadings combined with CMC thermal ageing/oxidation cause It is believed that the combined thermo-structural and acoustic loadings combined with thermal ageing cause the delaminations to spread across the CMC resulting in surface ply loss. The objective of the proposed effort will be to execute a research program to develop the appropriate representative S200 CMC material samples with delaminations of various sizes in test specimens and test types, and to demonstrate through tests, mathematical composite materials analysis, fracture based delamination growth modeling and finite element modeling the ability to predict test specimen structural delamination growth rate as a function of time, temperature and stress with and with-out production reportable delaminations through pre and post-test analysis predictions. BENEFIT: Several Air Force programs for ceramics matrix composites (CMCs) are targeted for use in ad-vanced jet engines. Examples are the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the versatile affordable advanced turbine engines (VAATE) initiative, Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) etc. This research will help prime engine contractor like Pratt&Whitney, Rolls Royce and General Electric.

Structural Analytics, Inc.
1216 Abelia Ave.
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 845-8206
Unni Santhosh
AF103-141      Awarded:1/5/2011
Title:Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Impact on Material Performance
Abstract:Innovative research and development leading to a dual-use advanced technology product is proposed. The product is a methodology and associated software for a damage-based non- linear deformation model to study the effect of manufacturing defects and service-induced damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). Once developed, the model would be used in conjunction with non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to predict the effect of defects and damage on structural properties, component life and residual strength. The primary focus is on 2D SiC/SiC HiPerComp® CMC for the gas turbine components. However the methodology would be applicable to a much broader class of CMCs and components for military and commercial applications. An innovative Physics-Based mechanistic modeling approach is proposed. The approach includes direct consideration of relevant defect and damage mechanisms and environmental degradation. Phase I will involve characterization of the mechanistic model for CMC materials selected by Pratt & Whitney for exhaust nozzle application. The models will be validated against already available test data and against test data generated by our partner, Triton Systems, Inc., under Topic AF103-153. Predictions will be compared with experimental measurements to assess the modeling approach and feasibility for a comprehensive methodology development in Phase II. The proposed product is a comprehensive defect and damage assessment methodology and associate software for its implementation. BENEFIT: Due to the proliferation in potential applications of ceramic matrix composites in military and commercial aerospace engines and in industrial gas turbine industries, the proposed dual- use high technology product has an immediate and expanding market. SAI will market the methodology, the software and technical expertise (services) to these and other industries.

Materials Sciences Corporation
135 Rock Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Richard Foedinger
AF103-142      Awarded:12/21/2010
Title:Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Implications for Component Life Prediction (MSC P2138)
Abstract:A physics-based life prediction methodology for ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) which can account for the component operating environment (thermal, structural, chemical) in the context of realistic defects and damage has not been sufficiently demonstrated. The innovation offered by this proposal is a unique computationally efficient methodology for predicting both the overall effective constitutive relation and damage evolution equations for materials with very complex micro-structures. Local failure modes (cracks) are treated by formulating an effective thermodynamic and dissipation potential in terms of these discrete damage. Under this program, a Discrete Damage Space Homogenization Method (DDSSHM) will be implemented to predict the deformation, damage initiation and growth of micro-cracks, and a methodology will be outlined for total life prediction of CMCs under expected service environmental and thermo-mechanical loading. The DDSHM represents a true physics-based approach as matrix cracks are treated by formulating an effective thermodynamic and dissipation potential in a theoretical framework that differs from the widely cited phenomenological continuum damage mechanics method. BENEFIT: The proposed research will result in the implementation a mathematically sound methodology for life prediction of CMC materials, accounting for component operating environments and realistic defects and damage. These constitutive relations will e integrated into a commercial finite element software program, ABAQUS, and conducted sufficient global structural analysis to show that this theory can be practically implemented for “real” structures. A significant opportunity/benefit also exists for data transfer between the CMH-17 CMC Working Group and this program to enable development of life prediction modeling guidelines.

Structural Analytics, Inc.
PO. Box 131447
Carlsbad, CA 92013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 845-8206
Unni Santhosh
AF103-142      Awarded:12/30/2010
Title:Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) – Implications for Component Life Prediction
Abstract:Innovative research and development leading to a dual-use advanced technology product is proposed. The product is a methodology and associated software for a damage-based non- linear deformation model to study the effect of manufacturing defects and service-induced damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). Once developed and validated, the methodology would be used in cost effective development of CMC components by the Air Force and its major aerospace engine suppliers. The proposed methodology would be applicable to a broad class of CMCs and components for military and commercial applications. An innovative mechanistic (physics-based) modeling approach is proposed. The approach includes direct consideration of relevant defect and damage mechanisms. Phase I will include characterization and modeling of existing CMC data obtained from Pratt & Whitney and COI Ceramics, Inc. (our industry endorsers). The models will be validated against benchmark test data involving CMCs containing defects and damage. Predictions will be compared with experimental measurements to assess the modeling approach and feasibility for a comprehensive methodology development in Phase II. BENEFIT: Due to the proliferation in potential applications of ceramic matrix composites in military and commercial aerospace engines and in industrial gas turbine industries, the proposed dual- use high technology product has an immediate and expanding market. SAI will market the methodology, the software and technical expertise (services) to these and other industries.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 848-5929
James Snider
AF103-143      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Enhanced Composite Structures
Abstract:During the Phase I Program, a composite structure will be selected from one of Aurora’s current UAS platforms which will serve as the baseline for the program and provide a commercialization path for the carbon nanomaterial (CNM) enhanced composite structures technology. Design and manufacturing principals for the proposed CNM enhanced composite structures will be developed as part of the Phase I Program. Test articles will be designed and fabricated using the developed principles and subsequently tested to determine system performance. Testing will consist of both mechanical and electrical properties and an evaluation of the embedment of conductive media and other portions of the developed CNM technology. Based on test and fabrication results, the CNM applications and associated materials and process parameters will be revised in preparation for the fabrication of a full-scale article during the Phase II Program. BENEFIT: The need for carbon nanomaterial (CNM) enhanced composite structures is primarily being driven by the U.S. defense industry for future aircraft development programs. The technology developed as a result of this program would find applications in both military and commercial aircraft applications. Aurora will work to develop this technology and transition any processes or techniques developed during the course of this program to the military and commercial sectors. Application of this technology to Department of Defense programs will help to allow reduced platform weight, decrease maintenance costs and provide the airframe designer with increased design possibilities. Aurora will market the design and manufacturing techniques developed during this program as a tool in the acquisition and development of new aircraft programs in both the military and commercial sectors. It is expected that the early market will include Department of Defense contractors and specifically programs focused on the development of advanced composite aircraft structures.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8365
TERRISA DUENAS
AF103-143      Awarded:1/3/2011
Title:Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Enhanced Composite Structures
Abstract:Leveraging the team’s expertise in conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS) technology, nano-materials, and CNT fabrication, the overall objective of our program effort is to develop CLAS antenna designs with CNT antenna elements which demonstrate significantly improved system level performance in comparison to CLAS designs which use conventional materials such as copper for the antenna element. Specific Phase I objectives include demonstration and quantification of structural and antenna performance by modeling and testing of coupon and proof-of-concept CLAS antenna articles for a selected candidate antenna concept. While several candidate antenna designs will be studied, our point of departure design is an anti-jam GPS conformal array antenna. In a potential Phase II effort, we will optimize and mature the design by developing a complete functional antenna system (which will include antenna feeds, supporting electronics, etc.) and conduct structural and anechoic chamber tests on multiple articles. At the end of Phase I, we expect to achieve a TRL = 4; in Phase II, we will increase the TRL to 6 or higher. The technology developed under this program will result in CLAS designs with improved antenna as well as structural performance. Potential applications include UAVs, satellites as well as ground vehicles. BENEFIT: Expected benefits from this SBIR include: • Development of novel CNT fabrication processes with unprecedented structural and electrical properties of resulting arrays, achieved by minimizing entanglement, increasing packing density, and increasing number of contact points due to the weave properties of ribbons. • Improved CNT CLAS antennas which have increased band-width and radiation pattern in comparison to conventional designs. • Antenna designs which do not compromise structural integrity, and potential provide increased strength and stiffness. • Antenna elements which have increased fatigue life compared to copper or other metallic elements. • CNT CLAS antennas which are more efficient for integration in high performance aircraft. We expect to achieve a TRL of 4 at the end of Phase I and TRL of 6 at the end of Phase II. Potential applications include UAVs, satellites, as well as ground vehicles.

Nova Research, Inc. DBA Nova Sensors
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mark A. Massie
AF103-144      Awarded:12/15/2010
Title:Anti-Jamming Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) ROIC
Abstract:Readout integrated circuit (ROIC) designers at Nova Sensors are developing a 768 x 512 pixel “High Dynamic Range Array” (HIDRA) ROIC that is optimally matched to operate today’s high performance indium antimonide (InSb) mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detector arrays. In addition, unlike conventional ROICs for infrared applications, it will not saturate when exposed to radiance levels produced by very bright targets. It incorporates a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) input amplifier stage that produces optimized performance when used with an InSb photovoltaic detector array. Preliminary estimates indicate that the ROIC-contributed noise should be < 30e- when operated in its “linear” mode of operation. The extremely high speed readout structure of the device, combined with our use of the highest-performance InSb detector material currently available will produce a system that satisfies the demanding requirements of MWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) that must operate in the presence of high-flux jamming illumination conditions. Nova Sensors proposes a design/utilization trade study based on the existence of the ROIC currently in design/development on another SBIR project. The Phase 2 effort will develop/test and deliver the resulting anti-jamming imaging system. BENEFIT: The highest possible performance of a MWIR imager in the presence of jamming illumination sources will be achieved in this effort. The resulting system will have wide applicability to space-based and aircraft missions where high flux levels that would otherwise saturate conventional MWIR FPAs will be tolerated.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Todd Grimes
AF103-144      Awarded:12/16/2010
Title:Fault Tolerant Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) Detector
Abstract:RNET Technologies and L3 Communications – Cincinnati Electronics (L-3 CE) are responding to the Air Force SBIR topic “AF103-144: Fault Tolerant Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) Detector”. It is well recognized that operational optical sensor systems are susceptible to unfriendly laser sources that can seriously damage or even render a FPA useless through heating and ionization. The Air Force is interested in new laser hardening methods to bring another layer of protection beyond the standard materials-based solution for the detector array. More recently, the focus has been on readout integrated circuit (ROIC). Our Collaborator, L-3 CE has demonstrated some advanced techniques to laser harden the ROIC, including current limiters at the column level, circuit redundancy, and the addition of top metal layers. As a result, they have been able to fabricate FPAs that are immune to laser kill. However, there are certain areas where improvements can be made and this proposal describes solutions to address these problems. In Phase I, we will perform schematic designs of the required circuits, conduct simulations, and verify performance. Physical layouts of the verified circuits will be conducted and fabricated using a mature process with cryogenic models, resulting in a small format ROIC. BENEFIT: The technology developed in this SBIR is intended for DoD applications. L3 Communications – Cincinnati Electronics (L-3 CE), a DoD Prime Contractor, are the users of this technology and hence we will transition this technology to them.

Advatech Pacific, Inc.
1849 North Wabash Ave.
Redlands, CA 92374
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 598-4005
Scott Leemans
AF103-145      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:Novel Analytical and Experimental Methods for Evaluating Repairs in Composite Honeycomb Structure
Abstract:The overarching objective for this project is to develop a validated analysis tool to predict the behavior of damaged and repaired honeycomb sandwich structures. The approach used in the proposed Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of a fully parametric, calibrated and validated, honeycomb sandwich structure damage and repair evaluation design environment using multiple capabilities of StressCheck®. This analytical tool, will demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-scale, FEA-based, design and analysis tool capable of evaluating the various details of typical honeycomb sandwich structure at a scale that is adequate for each detail of interest. A test program, based upon the widely adopted and accepted building block format, will be used to perform two main functions. The first function will be to supply relevant and unique coupon and element level test data that will be used to calibrate the FEA-based analysis models. The second function will be to generate higher level (element and sub-component) test data to investigate using additional test data to validate the analysis tools over the entire realm of the design space over which the tool is expected to be deployed. BENEFIT: Following the success of the Phase I proof-of-concept effort, the models from Phase I can be made available for initial deployment for evaluation and improvement. Involvement of initial users can be leveraged to accelerate the development and expansion of the capabilities of the tool in parallel with the Phase II effort. The Phase I models will also provide the technological foundation for more generalized configurations of damage and repair to be developed in Phase II. When brought to fruition in Phase II, the end result will be a calibrated and validated analytical design environment that that can be widely deployed among the dispersed engineering teams on any given program. It will be capable of addressing in a parametric fashion, all of the various types of damage and failure, along with subsequent repairs, that are completed at that time. This initial set of configurations will allow engineering teams to investigate a wide range of damage and repair scenarios. The design environment developed in Phase II will be structured as a modular, multi-scale, and expandable tool. That will allow customers to integrate this tool within their existing analytical framework in a complementary manner. It will incorporate a fully parametric formulation for every aspect of the inputs and outputs of the 3D solid element, ply-by-ply FEA models that will allowing for encapsulation and automation of the entire set of analytical steps required to fully evaluate any given range of configurations. This will also allow the user to capture every relevant detail that may have an effect on the evaluation. The Phase II test effort should provide a good foundation for determining a standardized methodology for calibrating and validating analytical models such that they can be trusted to yield accurate results over the entire segment of the design space that they are configured to evaluate. This approach will open up the entire feasible design space for use by the engineer.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
James Gorman
AF103-145      Awarded:12/21/2010
Title:Hybridized 3-D Photogrammetry Strain Analysis for Sandwich Structures (1001-609)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. will in this Phase I apply 3-D digital image correlation to obtain and process full-field strain imagery of critical composite honeycomb structures to produce full- field images of structural safety margins. While the technology for obtaining surface strains via photogrammetry has been commercially available for several years, our novel data processing software will provide design and manufacturing engineers with powerful tools for composite sandwich structures by: • Identifying the influence of design details and discontinuities on overall structural integrity. • Evaluating non-conforming part integrity, in support of material disposition. • Developing and evaluating repair procedures. • Evaluating the effect of executed repairs on the integrity of the composite sandwich. The Phase I goal will be to produce maps of structural safety margin on loaded virgin, damaged and damaged/repaired sandwich structures, using the ability of digital image correlation to distinguish in-plane and out-of-plane strain components, combined with the laminate properties. A series panel tests will assist in developing the correlation between the semi-empirical strain/margin maps and actual sandwich failures. The outline of a user- friendly software system to process measured strain maps into safety margin contours will also be produced, which system will be the subject of Phase II developments. BENEFIT: The benefit of the developed semi-empirical composite sandwich design and evaluation system is that the availability of full-field strain and structural safety margin maps will provide both the design engineer and the manufacturing/QC engineer with direct and comprehensive feedback concerning the integrity of sandwich structures. We envision several distinct outputs from this project, including principally an integrated measurement/analysis tool for producing the strain/safety margin maps for specific design configurations and a handbook or database of typical composite sandwich configurations; virgin, damaged and repaired, with associated structural safety margin maps for simplified loadings so that the engineer can rationally judge both the impact of specific defects upon structure integrity and the advisability of various repair strategies.

Advatech Pacific, Inc.
1849 North Wabash Ave.
Redlands, CA 92374
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 598-4005
Scott Leemans
AF103-146      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:Novel Analytical and Experimental Methods for Evaluating Bolted Joint Repairs in Composite Structure
Abstract:The overarching objective for this project is to develop a validated analysis tool to predict the behavior of damaged and repaired bolted joints in composites. The approach used in the proposed Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of a fully parametric, calibrated and validated, bolted joint damage and repair evaluation design environment using multiple capabilities of StressCheck®. This analytical tool will be a multi-scale, FEA-based, design and analysis tool capable of evaluating the various details of typical bolted joints in composite structures at a scale that is adequate for each detail of interest. A test program, based upon the widely adopted and accepted building block format, will be used to perform two main functions. The first function will be to supply relevant and unique coupon and element level test data that will be used to calibrate the FEA-based analysis models. The second function will be to generate higher level (element and sub-component) test data that it can be used to validate the analysis tools over the entire realm of the design space that tool is expected to be deployed. BENEFIT: Following the success of the Phase I proof-of-concept effort, the models from Phase I can be made available for initial deployment for evaluation and improvement. Involvement of initial users can be leveraged to accelerate the development and expansion of the capabilities of the tool in parallel with the Phase II effort. The Phase I models will also provide the technological foundation for more generalized configurations of damage and repair to be developed in Phase II. When brought to fruition in Phase II, the end result will be a calibrated and validated analytical design environment that that can be widely deployed among the dispersed engineering teams on any given program. It will be capable of addressing in a parametric fashion, all of the various types of damage and failure, along with subsequent repairs, that are completed at that time. This initial set of configurations will allow engineering teams to investigate a wide range of damage and repair scenarios. The design environment developed in Phase II will be structured as a modular, multi-scale, and expandable tool. That will allow customers to integrate this tool within their existing analytical framework in a complementary manner. It will incorporate a fully parametric formulation for every aspect of the inputs and outputs of the 3D solid element, ply-by-ply FEA models which allow for encapsulation and automation of the entire set of analytical steps required to fully evaluate any given range of configurations. This will also allow the user to capture every relevant detail that may have an effect on the evaluation. The Phase II test effort should provide a good foundation for determining a standardized methodology for calibrating and validating analytical models such that they can be trusted to yield accurate results over the entire segment of the design space that they are configured to evaluate. This approach will open up the entire feasible design space for use by the engineer.

Stratton Composite Solutions
865 Chestnut Lake Dr
Marietta, GA 30068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 840-3530
Robert Stratton
AF103-146      Awarded:1/12/2011
Title:Novel Analytical and Experimental Methods for Evaluating Bolted Joint Repairs in Composite Structure
Abstract:In today’s composite aircraft structures, bolted joints are frequently subject to abuse, overloads, heat damage, or lightning strikes which can damage both the fastener and the surrounding composite material. This damage, when detected, must be repaired. However, little information currently exists to guide the maintainer in the design, analysis, or certification of the repair. SCS proposes to solve this problem through the use of a combined analytical/empirical approach using series of coupon and element tests to establish and validate the empirical parameters needed to accurately match joint strength behavior. This procedure, consisting of an analytical approach combined with a material- specific strength database, would be used to predict the strength of a repaired fastened joint relative to its undamaged strength. Used by itself, this tool will enable maintainers to evaluate repair options and qualitatively determine whether the proposed repair restores the joint to its original, undamaged strength. When combined with the original joint analysis and/or material properties database, the tool could be used to determine the resulting strength. With knowledge of the loads and margins of safety of the individual fasteners, these predictions can then be used to determine repair approaches and techniques. BENEFIT: This testing and development of bolt repair methodology will benefit both commercial and DOD aircraft. This technology will improve the ease and reliability of bolted hole repair on all aircraft. This should increase the safety across the entire DOD and commercial aircraft fleet.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Chi Wey
AF103-147      Awarded:12/28/2010
Title:Pull and Stick Nutplate Process
Abstract:To address the Air Force’s need for a nutplate installation process that requires no preparation of the nutplate before installation, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Pull and Stick Nutplate (PASN) process based on implementing an innovative micro-channel passive fluid mixing geometry that is operator-independent and cost-effective on top of existing and proven packaging processes. This innovative design uses one simple, inexpensive adhesive sachet instead of the bulky adhesive cartridge, dispenser, and mixing tip that are currently used. PASN utilizes an adhesive injector guide that mitigates the risk of creating foreign object debris (FOD), which requires hole reaming. Because PASN is compatible with the current approach of individually placing nutplates in a nitrogen-filled bag, it directly addresses the Air Force’s requirements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of PASN by developing a prototype nutplate/adhesive combination and testing it in a laboratory to ensure equal or better performance compared with the current solution. A preliminary cost estimate and transition plan will also be proposed during this phase. In Phase II, POC plans to further mature the design and demonstrate the process in a representative production environment with a detailed cost comparison and transition plan. BENEFIT: Military applications of the Pull and Stick Nutplate (PASN) process will be relevant for both vehicular and structural platforms that require adhesive nutplate installation. The process can be incorporated by the Air Force into installation processes involving aircraft such as the F22 and F35. Commercial applications of PASN process include the transportation industry, where the PASN process can be utilized in the construction of civilian aircraft, sea vessels, and ground transportation. POC’s PASN process can be adapted to accommodate both single and multiple part adhesives and can also be applied universally to adhesion processes that require adhesive dispensers.

Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Rock Rushing
AF103-147      Awarded:12/22/2010
Title:Peel-and-Stick Nutplates
Abstract:In the current aircraft manufacturing environment there is an ongoing need to increase production rates and efficiencies. One of the innovations that has decreased fabrication times is bonded nutplates. Adhesively bonded nutplates can be installed in a fraction of the time required for the installation of riveted nutplates. Labor savings of 50-80% are possible by replacing riveted nutplates with bonded nutplates. While these savings are significant, opportunities exist for additional labor and cost reductions. During Phase I TRI/Austin will develop a one-component peel-and-stick nutplate adhesive that will eliminate the need for surface preparation or application of adhesive to the nutplates. This technology will be based on an acrylic based adhesive that will provide increased assembly speed and lower assembly costs. Recent advances in anaerobically cured adhesives make it now possible to formulate adhesives that will cure rapidly on low energy surfaces including stainless steel and polymer matrix composites. The overall objective of the Phase I effort will be development of adhesive systems that are tailored specifically for peel and stick nutplate installation. This will result in a process that is more efficient while producing bonds that are reliable in terms of adhesion performance. Processes will be developed to pre-apply the adhesive to nutplates before the bagging procedure. Activation of the adhesive will occur when the adhesive is mated to the substrate during installation. BENEFIT: The need for improved efficiencies in aircraft manufacturing is ever present. Aircraft specifications require tight tolerances in the manufacturing process, and the proposed technology will eliminate the manual application of adhesive. Automation is particularly important in F-35 assembly, where the production rate is projected to reach one per day. Bonded nutplates are used in other manufacturing areas including commercial airliners, helicopters, launch vehicles, satellites, yachts, buses, trucks, racecars, and sporting goods. These areas will benefit from the improved bonding rates as well.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Jay C. Rozzi, PhD
AF103-149      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:An Automated System for the Laser-Based Stripping of RAM Coatings
Abstract:Demonstrations have shown that laser-based stripping systems can effectively and affordably vaporize and strip aircraft coatings in an environmentally friendly manner when coupled to a vapor-removal system. However, all of the laser-based systems in use today are “open-loop” systems that require a pre-set recipe of laser power, beam diameter, and scan speed to remove a pre-selected coating thickness. The lack of automation associated with current laser-based stripping methods limits the effective stripping rate. Our innovation is a novel Automated Coating Removal System (ACRS) that couples a Non-Contact Coating Measurement (NCCM) system for the real-time measurement of the coating thickness to an established laser-based stripping system. Our approach eliminates the need to develop a pre-set recipe of laser parameters prior to stripping the coating, enables real-time process monitoring and Statistical Process Control (SPC), and enables the current strip rates for laser-based stripping to be exceeded. During the Phase I project, we will assemble the NCCM system, complete testing on relevant materials and geometries, and design the system for integration on the manufacturing floor. During Phase II, we will complete the ACRS design, integration, testing, and transition. BENEFIT: Because our technology enables the accurate, real-time measurement of the coating thickness in single or multi-layer coatings, we expect that numerous commercial and military applications would benefit from the application of our innovative ACRS. In addition, the development and implementation of our innovation would increase the market for coated materials in applications where they are not currently used.

Energy Research Company
2571-A Arthur Kill Road
Staten Island, NY 10309
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(718) 608-0935
Arel Weisberg
AF103-149      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Real-Time Control of Laser Coating Removal for Surface Preparation
Abstract:Energy Research Company (ERCo) proposes the development of an instrument to improve laser-decoating processes through novel real-time control technology. The technology allows for precise and selective removal of the desired coating layer while preserving any underlying coatings and the base material. Because of the real-time nature of the proposed device, using the instrument will not result in a reduction in the decoating rate. The quality of the decoating process will thereby be greatly improved while throughput of the laser decoating system will be unaffected. ERCo has demonstrated the technique in its laboratory and has shown that very accurate coating removal can be obtained. In Phase I, ERCo will demonstrate the device’s ability to automatically and accurately control the removal of topcoat and/or primer layers while preserving underlying layers and the substrate material. BENEFIT: The benefits are the accurate removal of coatings while preserving underlying layers and substrate materials with an instrument that is inexpensive and self contained. This will result in reduced maintenance costs for decoating operations. The federal and civilian markets are large. The federal market includes paint and coating removal from ships, aircraft, and related equipment. The civilian market includes paint removal from commercial jetliners, ships, and bridge maintenance.

Perfect Point EDM Corporation
15000 Bolsa Chica St., Ste C
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 299-7237
Bill Paleva
AF103-150      Awarded:2/11/2011
Title:Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of Holes in F-35 Structure
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Hole preparation for aircraft manufacturing is the one of the highest manufacturing costs at approximately 30 percent. The current manual method for hole preparation is to drill a pilot hole (typically 0.128-inch diameter) then perform multiple reaming steps to achieve final diameter. Military aircraft and certain areas of commercial aircraft utilize thick, exotic materials to achieve strength-to-weight requirements. The current manual, multistep process is time consuming and ergonomically difficult. Perfect Point has developed a patented technology that is commercially available for aircraft fastener removal. The purpose of responding to this SBIR Solicitation is to evaluate whether Perfect Point’s technology can be adapted to the task of drilling holes in multiple material stacks used in airplane manufacture. Perfect Point has already demonstrated our technology is able to cut every type of conductive material included in multiple material stack samples provided by aircraft manufacturers. The next step is to evaluate whether the technology can be adapted such that all materials can be cut to specifications while stacked, eliminating burrs and the need to de-stack materials prior to final assembly. BENEFIT: The resulting technological advances may be commercialized in the form of tools to be used in the airplane manufacturing process that could result in a significant reduction of manufacturing costs. The commercial product(s) would be of interest to any manufacturer of commercial or military aircraft in which incorporate thick, exotic, multiple material stacks (including mixes of composite and metal) are used.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Michael Reznikov
AF103-150      Awarded:1/5/2011
Title:Hybrid Electrical Machining of Polymer Composites
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an electrical discharge machining (EDM) hole-drilling process in military aircraft structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Hybrid Electrical Machining of Polymer Composites (HEM-POC) technology. This proposed technology is based on the combination of near-dry electrical discharge machining and non-equilibrium plasma treatment. The innovation in the tool design will enable the HEM-POC technology process to drill holes in carbon-polymer composites despite their non-conductivity, which is required for the conventional EDM process. As a result, this technology offers a high material removal rate, ability to drill large-diameter holes with perfect hole roundness, and a wide range of types and thicknesses of the processed material, which directly addresses the Air Force requirements for drilling of holes in military aircraft structures. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of HEM-POC technology by building a prototype tool and drilling composite materials of varied thicknesses; perform initial testing using ASTM methods; and provide initial cost estimates for the system and consumable items. In Phase II POC plans to develop the HEM-POC portable, handheld device prototype capable of integration with drills and location drilling systems, and demonstrate it in a production-representative environment and production-representative structures. BENEFIT: Meeting technical parameters required by the U.S. Air Force for electrical discharge machining of the composite materials will allow POC to initiate HEM-POC technology development for specific implementations in current and future military projects. Military applications of the HEM-POC technology will include the machining, specifically, hole drilling, in military aircraft composite structures. The HEM-POC technology can be incorporated by the U.S. Air Force into the robotic assembly systems as a compact, lightweight machining tool with low material degradation. Anticipated marketable commercial applications of the proposed HEM-POC technology include polymer machining, composite structures drilling, and non-conductive materials (glass, ceramics, polymers) micro- machining.

Hy-Tek Manufacturing Co. Inc.
1998 Bucktail Lane
Sugar Grove, IL 60554
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 466-7664
John Jude
AF103-152      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Joint Sealant for High Operating Temperatures (JSHOT)
Abstract:To overcome the capability gaps of current joint sealants, HMC will rely in part on our previous internal engineering analysis and experience to explore commercially available sealants that incorporate novel additives to improve joint sealant performance and longevity. HMC has experience and expertise in developing sealants for high operating temperature applications. In 2004, HMC performed preliminary research and testing to develop high temperature joint sealants. HMC engineers developed a novel method for compounding concrete joint sealants that provided high heat resistance through the formation of a surface thermal passivation layer when exposed to high temperature gas and flame. These formulations endured repeated exposures of 1400oF while maintaining structural and mechanical sealing capabilities. Excellent sealant flexibility and adhesive properties remained intact with no subsurface sealant degradation, melting or burning. For this SBIR effort, HMCs goal is to present improvements to those previous formulations to provide the USAF with novel and cost effective concrete sealant that can withstand the high temperature and jetblast velocities of VTOL aircraft. BENEFIT: The Joint Sealant for High Operating Temperatures (JSHOT) proposed herein will have the thermophysical properties necessary to provide USAF with the following performance: • Withstand repeated exposures of 1700oF • Maintain long life structural and mechanical viability • Decrease FOD • Remain Weather/UV Resistant • Easy to apply • Low viscosity and self leveling • Resiliency to high velocity exhaust • High chemical resistance • Cost effective

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Vinod Veedu
AF103-152      Awarded:1/26/2011
Title:Concrete Joint Sealant for High-Temperature Applications
Abstract:Oceanit proposes a revolutionary approach for a concrete joint sealant that can sustain temperatures up to 1700°F while maintaining satisfactory mechanical properties at ambient conditions. The proposed approach utilizes the high temperature resistant materials to enhance thermal stability of the sealant material. BENEFIT: The successful outcome of the proposed research has significant impact on national infrastructure. The developed nanocomposite sealant can be utilized in the construction of new airfields landing pads in addition to the retrofit of existing runways. Commercial applications for the sealant material include use of the material as a highway joint sealant or in high temperature areas such as blast furnaces, rocket pads or ovens.

Evisive, Inc.
8867 Highland Rd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 962-0658
Karl Schmidt
AF103-153      Awarded:2/11/2011
Title:Effective Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Defects and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this project is to develop nondestructive evaluation technology to locate and characterize defects and damage in ceramic matrix composite material with sufficient quantification to be usable in material performance models. The Evisive microwave interferometry technique has been successfully applied to nondestructive examination and determination of density and porosity in S-200 ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material. This technology will be used to quantify characteristics of known defects, which will be destructively analyzed and used to validate models for prediction of material performance and live prediction. Evisive scan microwave interferometry requires no contact and no coupling media, and supports real time evaluation. The project will leverage these characteristics to provide practical testing strategies for manufacturing and in-service environments. The project is anticipated to extend methodology applicable to manufacturing of S-200 material to advanced materials. BENEFIT: CMC materials offer higher temperature capability, reduced weight, and improved durability compared to conventional materials. They are potential suitable for a variety of high temperature structural applications in turbine engines and elsewhere. In order to apply the material, it is necessary to develop models which are able to predict material performance and degradation associated with deviations in design properties; and to predict material longevity. Evisive Scan microwave interferometry has been demonstrated to be effective in nondestructive testing of S-200 and similar CMC material. Development of quantitative NDE measurements which are sufficiently precise and repeatable to support modeling of the material properties will enable prediction of useful life, and enable use of the material in many novel and highly effective applications. Replicating these NDE methods in the in-service environment will enable condition monitoring and effective application of the material. Effective quantification of manufacturing irregularities and in-service degradation will facilitate migration of the material into service applications, as well as supporting advancement of the CMC material itself. Efficient NDE process and manufacturing quality control will reduce manufacturing cost and further enable migration of the CMC materials into service applications. This proposal includes letters of support from ATK COIC Ceramics, Inc. (ATK) and Materials Research & Design, Inc. (MR&D) who are supporting the project. Copies of the ATK and Pratt & Whitney letters of support for further development and application of the Evisive microwave NDE under SBIR Topic AF07-105 are included, as these indicate intended incorporation into their manufacturing processes and potentially utilize the technique as a quality assurance tool in acceptance of manufactured CMC parts. As

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Thomas McDonald
AF103-153      Awarded:2/9/2011
Title:Identification and Characterization of Defects in CMC Components(1001-628)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Triton Systems Inc, in conjunction with its OEM and small business partners, proposes the use of advanced ultrasonic inspection techniques to detect and quantify local voids, distributed porosity, delaminations, ply drops and wrinkles in CMC materials, ultimately to input the measured parameters to a materials model to enable improved disposition decisions. Triton has put together an experienced, cross-functional team to: 1. Provide coupon level simulation of real-world CMC defects; 2. Identify the finite element analysis (FEA) requirements for defect sizes and characteristics in order to ultimately incorporate NDI findings into an FEA-based component evaluation/dispositioning tool 3. Use the proposed NDI methods to demonstrate acquisition capability required to detect and characterize CMC defects; 4. Employ post-processing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to manipulate full- waveform image data to provide accurate characterization of detected CMC defects; 5. Notionally integrate the NDI methods and NDE techniques into a functional system; 6. Preliminarily evaluate potential higher sensitivity methods (e.g. phased arrays) for greater resolution and productivity; 7. Demonstrate the integrated system on real-world problems (in Phase II); and 8. Correlate the resulting NDE findings with CMC materials models to provide a reasonable standard for the range of acceptable defects in typical CMC components (in Phase II). BENEFIT: The benefits of this approach are: 1. Optimized NDE methods increase the probability of detection (POD) of defects of a certain size in a given component, regardless of location; 2. Post-inspection data manipulation provides full characterization of the defect to enable a design engineer to assess its impact on component strength and life; 3. Automation of the inspection process itself ensures higher reliability than do current manual and hand-held techniques; and 4. Ultimate development of a robust POD model, in conjunction with integration with an FEA-based evaluation tool, will enable design engineers to more accurately calculate the reliability of the component over a range of potential defects. The proposed inspection methods can be applied to a wide range of advanced military and commercial advanced gas turbine engine designs that will more widely incorporate CMC

Airflow Sciences Corporation
12190 Hubbard Street
Livonia, MI 48150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 525-0300
Jeffrey D. Franklin
AF103-154      Awarded:2/7/2011
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Tools for the Management of Bulk Residual Stress
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Development and validation of a CFD method for determining heat flux rates during quenching of aircraft components is proposed. Current methods of managing the bulk residual stresses of machined aircraft forgings rely on experimental determinations of quenching heat fluxes that are costly, time-consuming, and subject to several types of errors. The proposed Phase I scope of work includes the development of several novel routines for the simulation of all modes of boiling heat transfer as well as the transition between these modes. Initial validations will be based on published data for each portion of the simulation method. The final validation will be based on new data collected on a representative part in a typical quench facility. Analysis of the quench data will include calculation of the experimentally determined heat fluxes and prediction of residual stresses based on CFD and test-based heat flux rates. Completion of this effort will establish the feasibility of developing a practical CFD-based tool for management of bulk residual stress. BENEFIT: A well developed CFD tool will provide more accurate and complete data, and will avoid the time and cost involved in manufacturing prototype parts for use in heat flux determinations. The higher quality data will be useful in developing improved manufacturing techniques, which will allow for the development of near-net shape forgings techniques. These improvements will directly impact the buy-to-fly ratio for these parts (the ratio of the forged weight to the final part weight) providing a direct reduction in manufacturing costs. In addition to extensive applications within the military and commercial aerospace communities, the proposed tool could be widely applied within the broader manufacturing industries. Data from 2006 suggests that the size of the commercial US heat treating market is greater than $20 billion. Improvement in the quench quality for the high value end of that market will represent a significant improvement in quality along with a reduction in scrap and rework rates.

AltaSim Technologies, LLC
130 East Wilson Bridge Road
Worthington, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 861-7015
Jeffrey Crompton
AF103-154      Awarded:2/8/2011
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Tools for the Management of Bulk Residual Stress
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The quenching of metallic aircraft parts produces residual stresses and distortion that increase subsequent manufacturing costs and reduced component performance. Manufacturers seek to control these residual stresses through design of the quench process. In this proposal, AltaSim Technologies will develop tools to accurately predict the heat transfer coefficients associated with the quenching process, and ultimately, the residual stress in the quenched part. This work will solve the conjugate heat transfer problem using multiphysics tools that model both the fluid and the solid. BENEFIT: The development of this tool will provide engineers with a more accurate method of predicting residual stress and distortion in quenched parts. This tool will improve the design of parts and the quenching process to reduce machining of parts and wastage of material by bringing forging designs closer to net shape.

Acree Technologies Incorporated
1980 Olivera Ave Suite D
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Mike McFarland
AF103-155      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Passive, Wireless Sensors for Extreme Turbine Conditions
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate innovative wireless sensor materials and concepts that can be used on turbine engine components for Engine Health Monitoring (EHM) at temperatures up to and exceeding 1,260° C. The state of the wireless sensor circuit will be determined by the resonant response from an outside transmitter/receiver. The sensors will be constructed from proven high-temperature materials that meet the project goal of stable material properties up to 1260° C (2300° F). BENEFIT: The development of low cost, robust, high temperature sensors will allow: 1) For measuring the operating parameters in extremely hot environments such as the compressor and turbine sections to validate computer modeling codes, 2) Allow active control of pressure surges in turbine engines, 3) Allow the ability to diagnose turbine engine system health and estimate component capability for future missions, thereby reducing the cost of ownership, 4) Provide inputs for diagnostic and life prediction models and will allow engine inspection and maintenance to be performed on accurate need-based schedules, removing the inefficiencies and guesswork from aircraft maintenance. This is expected to lead to significant depot and maintenance cost savings and a significant reduction in aircraft downtime.

Wireless Sensor Technologies, LLC
1020 Glen Arbor Drive
Encinitas, CA 92024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 234-3741
John R. Conkle
AF103-155      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Passive, Wireless Sensors for Extreme Turbine Conditions
Abstract:WST's thin-film passive wireless temperature sensor technology will be optimized to measure the surface temperature of turbine blades in the hot section of the gas turbine engine. This technology consists of a conformal, thin-film circuit that can be deposited on a blade. The minimal size and weight of the sensor insure that the static and dynamic characteristics of the blade are not altered. The wireless temperature sensor will be designed for current manufacturing techniques allowing easy fabrication on the curved surface of a compressor blade without the use of clean rooms. The sensor physical configuration will be optimized to allow volume manufacturing and then “after-market” installation on non-rotating surfaces of gas turbine engines. BENEFIT: This temperature sensor provides an effective monitoring tool for gas turbine engine developmental testing as well as in operational environments as part of a Condition-based- Maintenance system. Since the sensor is wireless, it will achieve a dramatic improvement in reliability when compared to previous wired solutions. When the sensor system development is complete, up to 100 temperature sensors may be installed in each engine providing a significantly improved picture of the environment within the engine.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Robert Mulligan
AF103-156      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Dynamic Mid Wave Infrared (MWIR) Attenuator
Abstract:Countermeasures to MWIR imaging devices include non-destructive narrow band infrared lasers that temporarily saturate the sensor and reduce a mission’s intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) effectiveness. Technologies that detect and selectively filter an offending laser wavelength while maintaining thermal imaging capabilities are sought by the Air Force. Infoscitex proposes to develop a dynamically tunable MWIR optical system that can filter a specific threat wavelength detected by a sensor. The remaining portion of the spectrum will remain viewable by the imaging device, thereby maintaining mission capabilities. The advantages to IST’s technical approach for actuation of the filter include fast response time, low jitter, and compatibility with MWIR imaging subcomponents like lenses. Additionally, the approach incorporates novel optical quality polymers that have utility in other wavelength regions. In this Phase I project, IST will develop the discrete system components and demonstrate the principle of operation. During Phase II R&D, the components will be integrated into a high functional prototype during a spiral design process. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will result in tunable filter technology that is compact, lightweight, robust, does not adversely affect ground state transmission, and has a rapid response time. The underlying principle of operation can be readily transferred to other portions of the EM spectrum. In addition to the significant market size for military surveillance imaging systems, the dynamic filter will also have an impact in the industrial chemical sensing sector.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Christopher Bingham
AF103-156      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Frequency Agile Narrow-band Infrared Absorber(1001-612)
Abstract:The Air Force desires a narrowband tunable absorber which can be placed in the optical path to block undesired wavelengths while allowing ambient IR to pass undiminished. Triton Systems working with a university laboratory will design and construct a novel tunable narrow band absorber which theoretically is capable of OD 8 at the blocked line while transmitting the remainder of the band with low insertion loss. A novel tunable mechanism will provide for tuning throughout the 3-5 µm range with kHz speed. In Phase I a laboratory proof of principle of the filter will be designed, built and characterized. The new tuning mechanism will be computationally designed. Triton will work with a major prime contractor to evaluate the technology for insertion into existing AF platforms. A complete prototype device will be fabricated and tested in Phase II. BENEFIT: The commercial infrared market is expanding rapidly due to the availability of low cost uncooled sensors for industry and security applications. The tunable IR device developed here will be used with IR cameras for purposes such as locating gas leaks in factories, refineries and pipelines, and in spectroscopy and medical instrumentation.

Fracture Analysis Consultants, Inc.
121 Eastern Heights Drive
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-4970
Paul Wawrzynek
AF103-157      Awarded:2/9/2011
Title:Three-Dimensional (3-D) Crack Growth Life Prediction for Probabilistic Risk Analysis of Turbine Engine Metallic Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force has been placing increased emphasis on probabilistic methods for predictions of design reliability of fracture critical engine components, including metallic turbine engine blades and disks. Current state-of-the-practice for these methods typically include a significant amount of conservatism in crack initiation and fatigue crack growth and inspection design criteria due to uncertainties in material properties, fatigue performance, crack growth analysis, stress analysis, residual stresses, damage mechanisms, and nondestructive inspection, among others. We propose to develop and demonstrate a new probabilistic life prediction methodology that will significantly reduce uncertainty and conservatism by employing an accurate mechanics based crack growth analysis. We will combine an existing high fidelity 3D crack growth simulator (FRANC3D) with an existing probabilistic life prediction code (DARWIN). Both codes are recognized as being the most mature and the most capable codes in their areas of specialization (high fidelity crack modeling and probabilistic life prediction , respectively). The new methodology is expected to reduce conservatism in probabilistic life predictions, thus extending component lives or inspection intervals. The proposed effort includes the involvement of a major engine OEM. BENEFIT: Current probabilistic methodologies for setting fatigue lives and inspection intervals for metallic engine components include a significant amount of conservatism due to uncertainties in the, among other things, crack growth analysis. The proposed effort will combine a high fidelity crack growth simulator (FRANC3D) with a probabilistic fatigue life calculator (DARWIN). The resulting tool and methodology is expected to reduce conservatism in probabilistic life predictions, thus increasing the predicted mean time to failure. For a constant relative probability of failure this will extend the allowable component life and inspection intervals. Extending component fatigue lives and inspection intervals will yield significant costs saving over the lifetime of the engine. The resulting methodology can be used in non-engine applications such as airframes, land and sea based turbines, and terrestrial vehicles.

Simmetrix, Inc.
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 348-1639
Ottmar Klaas
AF103-157      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:Tools for Reliable Modeling of Crack Propagation In Turbine Engine Metallic Components
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR will provide a flexible and expandable system for the simulation of crack propagation in structures focusing on turbine engine metallic components. The work here will build off of years of work already invested in developing such a system. The software will be designed to be easily incorporated into existing design processes by directly utilizing CAD design geometry and existing commercial finite element analysis software. The current software will be extended to incorporate probabilistic techniques for predicting component life considering variations in both component properties and operating conditions. BENEFIT: The failure of engineered structures due to propagation of cracks has caused many highly visible and costly accidents in recent years in structures ranging from bridges to aircraft. Better understanding of this failure mode and ease of evaluating the potential for such failures is critical to improving the design of a wide range of products. The software developed in this project will be specifically designed for easy integration with existing design processes to reduce unexpected failures and allow further optimization of structures to reduce weight and cost.

Active Signal Technologies, Inc.
Hammonds South, Unit Q 611 North Hammonds Ferry Road
Linthicum Heights, MD 21090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 636-9350
Keith Bridger
AF103-158      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Nonlinear Dielectric Materials and Processing for High-Energy-Density Capacitors
Abstract:Active Signal Technologies proposes to develop novel nonlinear dielectrics based largely on solid solutions of substituted sodium bismuth titanate (NBT) with substituted lead magnesium niobate (PMN) to shift the NBT antiferroelectric phase into the ambient temperature range. The effects on dielectric properties of nano-scale processing, including the preparation of submicron powders and coating the particles with glass-forming ions, will be studied. Measurements of permittivity, loss, resistivity, polarization and strain will be performed as a function of electric field, and breakdown strength will be measured on K- squares and small lab prototype capacitors to provide input data for our model which calculates intrinsic energy densities of the dielectrics – comparing nano with conventional processing. It is anticipated that the nano processing, which has been shown to enhance consolidation and increase breakdown strength, combined with the unique NBT-PMN compositions will yield high energy densities with very low dissipation factor. In parallel, the team will demonstrate engineering capability to build and test a large (12-kV, 0.5μF) low inductance module using a commercial, high-energy-density antiferroelectric dielectric. A smaller module will also be constructed with prototype fuse elements to prove that graceful failure mechanisms can be achieved while pulsing at 100-pps. BENEFIT: The availability of high-energy-density ceramic capacitors that exhibit graceful failure and can to scaled to large capacitances at high voltages will greatly reduce the size and weight of power-conditioning systems and directed energy weapons since capacitors are often the largest component of these systems. Additionally if the capacitors extend these properties to high temperatures then hybrid electric vehicle and energy exploration technologies will be positively impacted.

Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc.
200 Innovation Blvd. Suite 237
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7400
Shihai Zhang
AF103-158      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Nonlinear Dielectric Materials and Processing for High-Energy-Density Capacitors
Abstract:We propose to develop polymer capacitor film with antiferroelectric behavior by combining a high dielectric constant polymer with antiferroelectric ceramic particles. Special processing techniques will be developed to achieve 3-D structure to enhance the dielectric performance and the dielectric breakdown strength. The novel nonlinear polymer nanodielectric materials will show a significantly higher dielectric constant at and above the critical switching electric field, which may lead to dramatically improved energy density as observed in ceramic antiferroelectric materials. The high risk of this unconventional approach is well justified by the potential superior performance of the antiferroelectric film capacitor technology. Similar to polypropylene capacitors, the novel capacitor will also have graceful failure feature and can be produced into large size capacitor bank that stores mega joules energy. The advanced hybrid capacitor film will have energy density above 4 J/cc and dissipation factor lower than 1%, lifetime above 100,000 charge-discharge cycles at 100 pps repetition rate. BENEFIT: There are numerous applications that will benefit from the antiferroelectric film capacitors with high energy density, low dielectric loss, and graceful failure characteristic. These capacitors can be used in the powder system conditioning electronics in the all electric structures developed by the Navy and the Air Force, DC link capacitors for next generation hybrid or plug-in electric vehicles, power electronics in down hole oil/gas exploration, pulse- forming networks (PFNs) for the conversion of prime electrical energy into the necessary short pulses of energy needed to energize loads such as high power microwave, directed energy, kinetic energy weapons, and high power microwave. The Army is developing future vehicles which require compact electrical power systems. The Navy is developing the all- electric ship in which the power requirements of future Naval vessels will not be as dominated by propulsion as current ships and it may be desirable to be able to transfer energy between uses. The Air Force is developing all-electric aircrafts. This will require storage and conditioning of vast amounts of power. Compact, high-energy-density, pulse- power capacitors will be the enabling technology for all future weapon systems that the DoD plans to pursue. In addition, these advanced capacitor film can also be used for implantable cardiac defibrillators, external defibrillators, and capacitor bank for hybrid electric vehicles.

TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Seongtae Kwon
AF103-158      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Nonlinear Dielectric Materials and Processing for High-Energy-Density Capacitors
Abstract:TRS Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop high energy density capacitors with stable dielectric properties for utilization in pulse power systems. The proposed ceramic capacitor will combine the best features of high energy density, low dielectric loss and high reliability. The capacitors developed on this program will have an energy density >4J/cc, low power dissipation (tanƒÔ<0.005), and high operation voltage. Nonlinear antiferroelectric material with high energy density will be fabricated into multilayer capacitor with fine grained and defect free microstructure to have high breakdown strength, high energy density and high reliability through fine ceramic processing with nanopowder. BENEFIT: The proposed program will enable development of multilayer capacitors with high energy density and high application voltage for pulse power application. Successful development and commercialization of these capacitors will enable development of compact, light weighted pulsed power supplies for wide range of applications including military directed energy systems based on aircraft, ships, and ground vehicles.

Hstar Technologies
82 Guggins Lane
Boxborough, MA 01719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 239-3203
John Hu
AF103-159      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:An advanced intelligent robotic pallet (i-Pbot) system for the cargo-handling and aircraft-loading efficiency
Abstract:Hstar proposes an advanced Omni-directional intelligent robotic pallet (i-Pbot) system for military cargo handling. The proposed i-Pbot will be designed and developed by integrating Onmi-directional Wheel Technologies for high mobility in confined spaces, high strength Hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators (SEA) for Active Compliance Control (actuation, suspension, and sensing), Telerobotics Control for enhancing the guidance of robotic pallets, and wireless sensor network for self-location capability. This system will: 1) autonomously on-load, transport and off-load cargo; 2) self-configure a network of systems that communicate within the group and with external devices/operators; 3) include intelligent navigation control and high level motion planning; 4) provide telepresence robotic control; 5) monitor inventory and system status; and 6) integrate logistics management. Our primary innovation is an automated robotic pallet system with omni-directional wheel and hydraulic compliance actuation that can run in telepresence operation mode with local process autonomy. i-Pbot will leverage core Hstar technologies including robotic actuator, omni-directional wheel, and sensor fusion. Other key features include high degrees of mobility and power actuation, intuitive OCU, advanced dynamic control, and wireless sensors for integration with networked command and control systems. BENEFIT: An automated robotic pallet system with omni-directional wheel and hydraulic compliance actuation is a crucial enabling technology for the military air cargo handling. Applications include commercial air flight cargo handling, human-safe autonomous navigation and perception system, and integrated sensor-based inventory monitoring system. Additional applications include 1) Container and Truck Loading/Unloading, 2) Warehouse Assistant Robot, and 3) Manufacturing Plant Floor Automation.

Stratom Inc.
5375 Western Avenue Suite A
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 565-9609
Cory Dixon
AF103-159      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Intelligent Robo-Pallet
Abstract:Stratom is proposing the development of a system that will significantly increase cargo airlift sortie rates by automating the pallet-loading process for military aircraft. The initial design will be based on a 463L pallet. The system will be an automated guided vehicle (AGV) capable of withstanding 10,000 pounds at 8 g. Each robo-pallet will be capable of communicating with a central command location, and also other robo-pallets. Stratom engineers will spend the majority of the Phase I effort developing algorithms for the autonomous guidance of the vehicle through the loading facility. Additional work will be done to integrate multiple sensors in a simulation environment. BENEFIT: The immediate benefit from the robo-pallet will be an increase in sortie rates for airlift cargo handling missions. The robo-pallet will reduce damage to aircraft and also reduce the manpower needed for sorties. The system software will be easily transferable to commercial air cargo handling systems as well as other cargo handling units such as 20' and 40' containers used for ground shipping.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
J. Michael Cutbirth
AF103-163      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Increased Capacity for Thermal Energy Storage by Combining Latent and Bonding Reaction Heat Storage
Abstract:Avionic systems which feature low duty cycle heat loads, such as high-powered microwave (HPM) or high-energy lasers (HEL) require thermal energy storage (TES) to minimize the volume/mass of the thermal management system. The Air Force currently seeks a TES with system-based heat capacities of 68 kJ/kg and 120 MJ/m3 while allowing for a charge/discharge rate of 2 kW/kg. Currently state-of-the-art paraffin-, metal-hydride-, and ammonia-based reversible systems have volume based system heat capacities that do not exceed 90 MJ/m3. Mainstream¡¦s approach which combines both latent- and bond-reaction thermal storage is capable of >450 MJ/m3 by employing an open-loop concept that allows for recharging during ground-operations. This approach can easily be tailored for either HPM, 70 „aC, or HEL, 20 „aC, DEW. For the Phase I effort, Mainstream will experimentally demonstrate the heat capacity and heat input rate. The Phase II effort will focus on the integration of the TES with an avionic TMS. BENEFIT: Solid-state lasers for direct energy weapons (DEW) require a minimum capacity of 100 kW of optical power. However, existing efficiencies of the DEW are <10%, yielding a thermal load of >1 MW. However, DEWs are also characterized by low duty cycles allowing for thermal energy storage (TES) to significantly reduce the size of the thermal management system (TMS). Even if a reversible system could be designed to yield 120 MJ/m3 (current state of the art is < 90 MJ/m3), the TES would require 12.6 m3 (assuming ATLS mission profile). However, if a mission profile can be designated pre-flight, the total energy storage would be defined allowing for an open-loop system that can be recharged during ground- operations between missions. Mainstream¡¦s open-loop system provides for a 5x increase over the SBIR solicitation in both mass- and volume-specific heat capacity without the obstacles faced with common open-loop systems such as water vaporization (inadequate operating temperatures and high vacuum requirement) and ammonia vaporization (hazardous material storage and venting). The proposed design would allow for optimization of TMS/TES for finite mission/life cycle systems such as single-flight UAVs, missiles, and DEWs.

Rocky Research
1598 Foothill Dr PO Box 61800
Boulder City, NV 89006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 293-0851
Lance Kirol
AF103-163      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:High Energy Density and High Power Density Thermal Energy Storage
Abstract:Thermal energy storage for load smoothing can be beneficial in applications having large transient heat load compared to steady-state heat rejection. Laser weapons and high-power microwave generators are examples where TES can help. Ammoniated complex compound systems can provide heat absorption due to exothermic dissociation of the complex compound. Very high energy density and power density TES are possible, and there are no standby losses from a charged system. Gas released during dissociation must be stored. Phase I will evaluate systems storing gas (a) in and pressurized vessel, and (b) in a gas- storage reactor with a lower vapor pressure complex compound. TES systems of this type are recharged by allowing ammonia to return to the TES vessel and reform the complex compound. Thousands of TES-recharge cycles are possible. Heat and mass transfer processes and internal structures developed at Rocky Research ensure high reaction rates and stabilize the solid reactant. Phase II will focus on development and demonstration of the preferred configuration. Heat storage from a 70C load from a microwave generator will the primary focus of both phases. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits/Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development. (No classified or proprietary information)

AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
410 Jan Davis Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Maria Vincenti
AF103-164      Awarded:2/3/2011
Title:Plasmonic Beamsteering
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to develop a plasmonic beam steering device based on annular metallic array including electro-optically active materials. The proposed device will be designed to work either in the visible or near infrared (NIR) regimes, depending on the geometrical dimension of the metal structure. We will exploit field localization and surface plasmon generation/propagation that occur in such devices to access the regime of extraordinary optical transmission: under these circumstances both linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system as a whole are enhanced and we will have a full control on the field localization in every part of the structure. The geometrical sizes and the spacing, as well as metal thickness and form factor will be properly dimensioned to work efficiently in the enhanced transmission regime. Our preliminary simulations reveal that this approach will result in an integrated device exhibiting an extremely high sensitivity to the refractive index of the electro-optic material filling the structure. In fact the change in the optical response and the consequent field deflection is produced by the local variation of the refractive index inside sub-wavelength regions where the field is strongly localized. BENEFIT: An optical beam scanner is an indispensable device for the missile LADAR seeker. Optical scanners are used to control the position of a light beam in one or more orthogonal spatial dimensions. There is a strong need to develop a seeker with increased ability to track and engage multiple fleeting targets at increased range. Existing opto-mechanical scanners and liquid crystals (LC) based scanners can effectively scan laser beams but have limited scanning speeds. LC scanners have further limitations that include high drive voltages and non-programmable birefringent plate designs. In principle, electro-optic effect based scanners can operate at higher speeds (in the nanosecond range), but require a high driving voltage (e.g., 1000 V), which makes it very difficult to achieve ns range high-speed operation. To achieve fast automatic target tracking and recognition, a fast scanning, low- voltage, optical beam scanner is needed for future tactical missile seekers. Certain applications require the ability to quickly reconfigure the scan directions to correct for errors in the overall scanning system. Such example applications are free-space optical wireless, inter-satellites links, optical microscopy, mobile military platforms, and 3-D displays. For example, inter-satellite links require fine angular scanning tunability of the order of 1µrad at high speeds to keep track of the fast moving destination satellite. Yet another case of mobile military platforms needs a scan dynamic range of ±45o. Hence, demand exists for a no moving parts, scanner that can provide scanning over a large angular scan dynamic range with high resolution beam control.

EOS Photonics
44 Cogswell Ave. 2F
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 351-5548
Mark F. Witinski
AF103-164      Awarded:12/17/2010
Title:Plasmonic Beamsteering
Abstract:The plasmonic beamsteering device proposed by EOS Photonics to meet the requirements of the present SBIR topic is an evolution of the plasmonic collimators developed at Harvard University. It includes several novel components and design improvements that will augment the capability of the original technology. In particular, we will use electro-optic materials in conjunction with plasmonic nanostructures to allow for fast beamsteering. In Phase I we will develop the concepts and designs for active beamsteering devices with integrated plasmonic nanostructures. At the end of Phase I we will deliver a prototype demonstrating the feasibility of our approach for beamsteering. In Phase II, we will explore soft-lithography fabrication techniques which will allow for high throughput and low-cost fabrication. We will also engineer active devices with two- dimensional beamsteering capabilities. BENEFIT: Specific applications within the Infrared spectroscopy market segment are as numerous as they are varied. Support by the Air Force’s SBIR program would allow EOS to produce ultra- compact and rugged sensors that can help to fill several commercial market needs while at the same time addressing a number of critical non-commercial and homeland security objectives. The technology proposed here would allow us to further reduce the size of our sensors, make them more rugged, and, most importantly, to enhance their capabilities. Beamsteering using plasmonic nanostructures is an excellent example for an application where integration of plasmonic nanostructures not only reduces the device footprint but also enables new functionalities. Compact and rugged laser based sensors from EOS Photonics have already garnered great interest from industry leaders (Bruker, Thermo) and the DOD through its affiliated laboratories. These partnerships allow EOS to focus on its core competencies while benefiting from the existing sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities of larger entities.

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0792
Adam Langdon
AF103-165      Awarded:1/28/2011
Title:Airborne Network Trusted Code (Assurance) Involving the Anti-Access Environment
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Advances in communication, computational capacity, and sensing systems have provided unprecedented capabilities to generate, process, and communicate vast amounts of information. Utilizing such a complex network for effective situational awareness requires a high level of trust in the data that is ultimately produced. Critical to this goal is ensuring the trustworthiness of the components that ultimately compose the system-of-systems. This is made more complicated by the fact that the Air Force relies heavily on commercial-off-the- shelf software for mission-critical functionality. This software varies highly in its quality and trustworthiness, and may contain vulnerabilities and poor design characteristics. In response to this need, Edaptive Computing Inc. proposes an innovative solution that combines a robust software evaluation framework with online performance detection and collaboration techniques... The proposed EDAptive® AssuredNet solution builds on previous Edaptive Computing, Inc (ECI) knowledge and technology – itself innovative – to provide a comprehensive solution to assessing trust throughout development and deployment. Prior experience and new research have already shown that ECI’s innovative tools suite will be clearly adaptive to insert applicable technologies. BENEFIT: The need for more accurate situation awareness will continue to grow as the complexity and role of sensor and cyber networks also grow. Any solutions that can improve the reliability and safety of sensor networks will help increase readiness and can ultimately save lives. Similarly, any tools that can better protect mission-critical systems and prevent software vulnerabilities or untrusted nodes to harm a network will greatly improve the effectiveness of the warfighter. Not only will such a solution improve the ability to mitigate cyber threats, but a robust approach will make it easier to incorporate new sensors with advanced capabilities. The product of our effort is an assurance framework for assessing trustworthiness in complex network systems. The immediate warfighter applications include any design and deployment activity associated with sensor networks and similar large complex communications systems. Closely related DoD applications include any large scale enterprise systems (logistics, weapons systems information, and the like). The AssuredNet solution will be particularly relevant within the layered sensor methodology of the Air Force. Similar requirements exist and may be met within diverse public and private sector realms, including homeland security, law enforcement, and emergency response.

Real-Time Innovations
385 Moffett Park Drive, Suite 115
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 990-7421
Heidi Schubert
AF103-165      Awarded:1/28/2011
Title:Establishing and Maintaining Trust for an Airborne Network
Abstract:Fast, efficient distributed computing enables more capable aircraft avionics. However, distributed systems face distributed threats. These threats can only be countered with a distributed trustworthiness architecture that measures and enforces trust across a network. We propose to a) create a method for attaching a trust index to each node in a real-time network, and then b) enforce communication control based on that trust index. This design thus provides direct security control based on distributed trust. We propose two different components of trust: an a priori component, which classifies a node before it joins the network, and a dynamic component, which is updated depending on the node’s behavior while communicating. Together, these components give a clear picture of the trustworthiness of an operating node in the environment. We will next implement a distributed trust-enforcement framework within the most important emerging communications standard for military systems. This is no abstract research project. RTI has achieved the highest SBIR Commercialization Achievement Index (CAI) rating of 100%. The proposed work will create a practical trust architecture, ready for implementation and eventual standardization. The standards-based trustworthiness infrastructure will mitigate the risk of cyber attacks for many real-world applications, including the multi-service MADL airborne network. BENEFIT: The proposed Phase I effort will result in the capability of isolating airborne nodes that either do not join the network with the right trust index or start misbehaving due to cyber attacks. The proposed infrastructure will provide an automated mechanism for updating nodes' trust index based on their behavior monitored by the network. Such a system would be scalable and extensible to dynamic conditions, and is geared for the modern warfare challenges faced by the US Air Force. RTI will aggressively market the results of this research. We plan to incorporate this work as part of our standard product offering. Along with selling to our traditional aerospace and defense customer base, RTI sees huge potential in other commercial markets. Sophisticated distributed-system customers, particularly in the power systems, pipeline, industrial control, and water and waste management industries, will be receptive early adopters to new trusted technologies to secure SCADA systems.

WW Technology Group
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Chris Walter
AF103-165      Awarded:1/28/2011
Title:Trusted Architecture for Airborne Networks
Abstract:Next generation systems are increasingly network centric and reliant on collaborative data exchanges to perform critical functions. In order for these networked systems to meet their mission objectives and provide decision makers with timely and accurate information the assurance levels and trustworthiness of the systems and the data they provide must be evaluated. These complex entities are often systems-of-systems with layers of complexity and nested capabilities. Assessing the trustworthiness of these systems requires an analysis framework that can represent these complex layered systems at multiples levels of abstraction. We propose a comprehensive analysis framework, supported by model based analysis tools to address the challenge of determining the trustworthiness of complex distributed systems- of-systems. The analysis framework is based on the WWTG EDICT tool suite which is capable of performing architectural analysis for information assurance, reliability and safety system aspects and supports open tool interfaces through the Eclipse platform. Our proposed framework can evaluate trustworthiness at multiple levels of abstraction and across the many system aspects that contribute to trust. BENEFIT: Our proposed approach contains many benefits for the assessment of trustworthiness of airborne networked systems architectures. The trust evaluations are set in an architecture framework that provides traceable and consistent representations of complex systems at multiple levels of abstraction enabling agile analysis and navigation of large systems. The trust metrics are calculated using architectural analysis methods for information assurance, reliability and safety; enabling the full scope of trust to be examined within a single set of integrated analysis tools. Our proposed tool infrastructure is open to integration of component level trust assessment by third part solutions. These low level trust assessments can then be put into a system context and used to assess the trust of the system overall.

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0783
Jorge Sanchez
AF103-166      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Methods for interfacing broad bandwidth data links to airborne ISR systems
Abstract:Sensors making use of the Common Data Link (CDL) are generating more information, thus taxing the capabilities of available spectrum for the relay of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance information. We will define new sensor-to-link and link-to-sensor interface models, which will provide the capability to perform “what-if” analysis on parametric models impacting latency and bandwidth. These models will support: multiple data rates for Bandwidth Efficient (BE) rates, multiple streaming channels, and segregated control and data channels. We will use state-of-the-art tools for performing modeling, simulation, analysis, and documentation on the developed models. BENEFIT: Models will enable rapid simulations and analysis of the trade-offs amongst multiple parameters of CDL component interfaces and different protocol configuration options by providing controllability and observe-ability of the key parameters and status of the interfaces. The results of our successful technology transition will be usable for designers and integrators of CDL assets. The developed models will allow for a greater degree of confidence in specification and design of CDL-based interfaces. These benefits will impact the USAF and commercial entities developing and using CDL interfaces.

Aneeve
22207 Linda Drive
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(323) 528-0987
Pochiang Chen
AF103-167      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Based Electronic Components for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
Abstract:We will undertake a Phase I study of CNT FET radio frequency devices for Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNA), Power Amplifiers (PA) and RF switches towards enhancing the reliability and efficiency of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Existing UAS electronic systems are bulky and inefficient (electrons operate in the diffusive transport regime). It is well defined that the key limiting factor of CNT RF transistor technology is the presence of metallic CNT that occurs during the CNT growth process. These metallic CNT components are responsible for unacceptable Ioff currents that cripple Ion/Ioff ratios and suffocates the electrostatic field effect on the semiconducting channel resulting in low transconductance (gm). Our approach to this SBIR Phase I is to increase device efficiency beyond III-V devices by evoking the CNT ballistic transport regime. In order to realize this goal we plan to (a) reduce metallic tubes by optimizing CNT aligned grow processes (b) increase CNT density for higher current capacity (uA/um) and (c) further optimize CNT FET device design and fabricate a LNA aiming to demonstrate positive gain. BENEFIT: The US Armed forces are embracing unmanned aerial systems (UAS) as critical tools for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance and in some cases, also for strike missions in particular in counter-insurgency operations. Based on Visiongain’s research (www.visiongain.com), global spending in 2009 on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) reached $5.1bn. Over the forecast period of 2010-2020, the cumulative UAV market will total nearly $71bn. Within these systems a great dependence lies with advances in electronics, in particular where one could decrease weight, increase battery lifetime and reduce power consumption. This is where advances in low power, light and robust circuits developed within this project can make a dramatic impact to the performance of these UAS systems. In addition, advances from this proposal have the potential to revolutionize the $60 billion analog and mixed signal semiconductor markets. As an example of potential market size, Analog electronics (making use of CNT superior RF properties) sales were over $47 billion in 2009 (11.1 percent CAGR).

RF Nano Corporation
4311 Jamboree Road Suite 150
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 955-1441
Michael Schroter
AF103-167      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Based Electronic Components for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
Abstract:The production of RF amplifiers using carbon nanotube field effect transistors. BENEFIT: Higher power and spectral efficiency for communications and more sensitive detection.

Azure Summit Technology, Inc.
12587 Fair Lakes Circle #342
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 268-6192
Mark Sullivan
AF103-168      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Unknown Wireless Network Discovery
Abstract:The evolution of RF communications from legacy radios to newer software defined radios that utilize dynamic spectrum access and cognitive radio technologies presents an emerging problem to current electronic warfare systems. These technologies will be employed by ourselves and also by our adversaries. Rogue networks may try to mask their presence by exploiting software defined radios to mimic a variety of different signals and networks. Selfish rogue networks may also seek to manipulate other radio networks into surrendering spectral resources by masquerading as primary users of the spectrum. Malevolent rogue networks could even try to disrupt the operation of other networks using active attacks crafted to take advantage of the competing networks set of policies. Azure Summit proposes to counter this threat using Sensor Network Awareness of Rogue Emitters (SNARE). In this Phase I effort, we will show how a sensor network can identify traffic originating from a rogue network, show that we can monitor this traffic and infer the topology of the network, and demonstrate how active probing can be used to infer the policies of the network. BENEFIT: Azure will work with transition partners to identify commercialization opportunities for the technology developed under this program. We note that the capabilities offered by SNARE would be a useful addition to two new programs, the AFRL Cognitive Jammer, and the DARPA BLADE program. Another application for SNARE would be to provide ES for counter IED systems such as CREW.

Bascom Hunter Technologies
341 Third Street
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 802-7131
Andrew McCandless
AF103-168      Awarded:1/25/2011
Title:Unknown Wireless Network Discovery
Abstract:The primary focus of this proposed effort development of methods to allow for ultra fast wideband RF sensing and classification of unknown RF devices. In order for cognitive radio methods and techniques to be implemented substantial improvement in sensing and classification of non-cooperative RF devices must be addressed. The team is proposing a comprehensive approach that first provides ultra fast detection of hidden nodes and then determination of intent of the identified hidden node. BENEFIT: This program will have direct benefits to cognitive radio and next generation electronic warfare technology development. In addition to cognitive radio and electronic warfare applications for the military, there is increased demand for similar technologies in other non- military applications, law enforcement, business, consumer, and commercial markets. The result of this project is directly applicable to next-generation versions of commercial RF communication technologies.

Echo Ridge, LLC
11127 Elmview Place
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 470-7885
John Carlson
AF103-168      Awarded:1/25/2011
Title:Unknown Wireless Network Discovery
Abstract:The end goal for this research is the delivery of a software application capable of detecting and characterizing non-cooperative hidden nodes (NHN) which can be installed and operated on military and commercial communications equipment. The research effort will define and study the threat, define and evaluate detection and characterization algorithms, and estimate their performance through a parametric trade study. The key contributions will be an assessment of what measurements can be made through RF sensing and their value in discovery & characterization, a framework for the cognitive function that schedules and combines probes/measurements towards discovery and characterization, a definition for performance metrics for NHN discovery & characterization, and estimates of performance in various scenarios. The NHN threat focus will be towards the future RF environment, which is expected to contain primary users and secondary users using software defined radio- based dynamic spectrum access and other cognitive radio techniques. Emphasis will be placed on scenarios where the NHN operates by “joining” a target network to achieve its objectives of surveillance, impairment, or spectrum resource capture. BENEFIT: In both military and commercial radio network environments, the opportunity exists through emerging technology in software defined platforms, cognitive behavior and networking to deploy non-cooperative hidden nodes (NHN) with malicious intent. This technology will be required to detect and characterize these threats, and to generally enhance battlefield situational awareness. In addition to the direct benefits of this research in addressing the NHN future threat, it has great value towards on-going cognitive jamming research activities. The efforts towards defining the NHN threat is directly usable, as an NHN may become a key threat that a cognitive jammer must address. The discovery algorithms are also usable, as the cognitive jammer must also sense and characterize the NHN to prepare jamming strategies. Finally, many of the sub-functions necessary for NHN discovery are applicable to cognitive jammer, including the cognitive engine and cooperative networking approach.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4251
Justin Yackoski
AF103-168      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Multi-Level Detection and Characterization Mechanisms against the Intentional Hidden Node Problem
Abstract:In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI), along with Professor Jung-Min Park (Virginia Tech), propose to develop a Multi-Level Detection and Characterization (MuLDaC) approach to defense against the intentional hidden node problem in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). The proposed MuLDaC approach utilizes multiple disciplines including PHY layer detection, authentication, and trust-aware data fusion. Most existing research focuses on the unintentional hidden node problem, and hence cannot be directly applied to the intentional hidden node problem. In addition, due to high flexibility and rapid reconfiguration capability of cognitive radio, it is much easier for a node to intentionally “hide” in the cognitive radio environment, compared with the traditional networks. Moreover, to discover the unintentional hidden nodes, distributed cooperative spectrum sensing schemes are proposed; however, they give even more opportunities to the intentional hidden nodes. Thus, a complete study is necessary and yet not available for characterizing various behaviors of intentional hidden nodes in CRNs, their impacts on the network performance, and the corresponding solutions. The objective of the proposed MuLDaC approach is to properly and promptly detect the selfish and/or malicious nodes and determine their intents, based on the established knowledge of the intentional hidden nodes in tactical networks. BENEFIT: The proposed detection and characterization approach has tremendous potential to greatly enhanced survivability for the war-fighters. Given the GIG vision, such heterogeneous and dynamic wireless networks will be common, and the developed multi-level mechanisms can be applied to various military networks potentially supporting a number of major programs such as Airborne Networks Program, Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), Future Combat System (FCS), etc. The commercial drive for reliable communication is also increasing due to the increasing popularity of wireless network technologies. The potential commercial applications include commercial cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless mesh networks where there exist both the infrastructure and the more mobile “edge” networks. The size of the market is quite large and may grow rapidly with the commercial demand for network reliability and availability.

Space and Defense Systems Inc.
1925 Isaac Newton Sq E Suite 100
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 390-9315
Jay Livingston
AF103-168      Awarded:1/27/2011
Title:Cognitive Network Discovery and Characterization
Abstract:Our system uses the Cognitive Radio itself as a sensor to form a Cognitive Network that performs non-cooperative hidden node detection and characterization. PHY layer information is collected in order to perform Specific Emitter Identification (SEI), Geolocation, and Network Topology Discovery, making it possible to detect a hidden node and hidden node candidates. Data-link layer (DLL) information is also shared amongst nodes in the network, providing the ability to characterize the hidden node’s behavior and complete the detection process. We assume that the non-cooperative hidden node has the ability to masquerade to some degree as a network node. We will develop models of cognitive radios and networks, simulating the distributed algorithms to be used in hidden node discovery. Collected RF waveforms from a cognitive radio will be used for SEI and Geolocation study. Other simulation tools will characterize the network at the Data-link layer. Algorithms will be simulated and the results compared to determine the best approach to hidden node detection and characterization. We are teamed with a cognitive radio provider, Shared Spectrum Company, in order to bring greater fidelity to our modeling and simulation. BENEFIT: Our system provides the ability for the network to become self aware. Such a network can alter its behavior to accomplish goals specified by the network designers. For example, a self aware network can balance network loading and optimize network routing, creating a more efficient network. The network has the ability to change its transmission patterns, frequencies, and bandwidth, to both avoid interfering with a hidden node and the node interfering with the network, yielding higher network throughput and reliability. It can prevent network abusers from using the system for their own purposes by denying them access to the network, again, yielding higher network availability and reliability. The system can be directly applied to both commercial and DoD applications, since both entities desire better network operation. Commercial firms will be more interested in the ability to operate efficiently, deny access to network abusers, and avoid interference with hidden nodes. The DoD will be more interested in the ability to detect and characterize hidden nodes that have nefarious intent.

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0782
Frederick Gies
AF103-169      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Prioritization of Weapon System Software Assurance Assessment
Abstract:Our proposal specifically addresses the stated requirements of the solicitation; we will develop and integrate software risk identification, assessment and analysis tools to enable a standardized Air Force approach to measuring and reducing software integration risks. The proposed EDAptive® RAMP solution builds on previous Edaptive Computing, Inc (ECI) and Air Force knowledge and technology – itself innovative – to assist ASC plans for implementing a Agent of The Certifying Authority (ACA). The resulting capabilities will result in enhancing the Air Force’s existing RI3 software investment and will provide a software environment that allows integration with existing software risk analysis tools. Prior experience and new research has already shown that ECI’s innovative RAMP tools suite will be clearly adaptive to enhancing the Air Force and DoD’s software assurance (SwA) capabilities. BENEFIT: Opportunities for adoption and integration with software capabilities from external organizations, whether they are in the form of (open) source, executable applications, and/or component libraries continue to increase. This trend will grow and accelerate as the software industry in each of these areas continues to grow. Software has proven to be a key asset for the Air Force and other public and private enterprise operational success. The results of our successful technology transition will be immediately usable by Air Force software architects and the planned Agent of the Certifying Authority. Through RAMP, users will have a systematic method for identifying software integration risks and have a clear and prioritized plan for managing those risks through execution of software analysis tools. RAMP’s direct integration with software risk analysis tools will allow Air Force analysts and architects to be able to quickly know what third-party analysis tools should be used based upon the unique weapon system to be integrated with and its relevant operating environment. This benefit will incur minimal technology insertion impact within a myriad of USAF and DoD information enterprises while setting a more solid foundation for future work. The product of our effort will be based upon a proven process and software platform—the Air Force Research Lab’s Risk Identification: Integration & Ilities (RI3) calculator software developed by Edaptive for AFRL. This will enable Edaptive to expedite development of RAMP. The immediate warfighter applications are applicable to all those situations where external software needs to be integrated but yet has not been assessed for risks, or has not been accredited and/or certified. Closely related DoD applications include other engineering disciplines where external IP integration opportunities are applicable and risk is introduced. Similar requirements exist and may be addressed within diverse public sector realms: industrial systems, financial enterprises, homeland security, law enforcement, personal communications, and entertainment; those environments where external software integration poses risk.

GrammaTech, Inc
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
David Cok
AF103-169      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Prioritization of Weapon System Software Assurance Assessment
Abstract:The cost and timeliness of weapons-software deployment may benefit from including shareware, freeware, open-source, and COTS components. However, Air Force’s critical, safety-of-flight, and sensitive-data applications require higher assurance than that provided by commercial components. To make their use cost-effective, technical assurance of software quality (and assessment of risk in its deployment) requires automation. Unfortunately, no existing tool captures the broad spectrum of security vulnerabilities that need to be analyzed to assess security risk. Also, precise security-analysis techniques do not scale to today’s software systems. Finally, these techniques generally analyze source code, which precludes evaluating components available as binaries only. We propose a risk-assessment solution based on a hierarchy of analysis techniques that provide varying levels of detail about the analyzed software. The coarser (and computationally cheaper) techniques will provide rough estimates of risk; their answers will inform the choice of finer (and computationally more expensive) techniques that will yield more precise estimates of risk. The proposed solution will provide the ability to analyze binary components, making it applicable to shareware, freeware, and COTS components. Furthermore, it will incorporate a technique for mitigating certain security vulnerabilities, providing a path for accepting a component that is not deemed to be flawless. BENEFIT: Organizations that develop software are looking for ways to manage complexity while reducing development time and cost. Many organizations are making extensive use of open- source, shareware, freeware, and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Because few of these components have been developed for use in high-security and high-reliability systems, using them in such environments is problematic. Organizations must assess the quality and security of components, but tool support for this task remains poor. New technology is needed that helps organizations prioritize and perform reviews. The product resulting from this SBIR research will be a suite of tools that helps organizations examine security and reliability properties of software, especially software developed by other parties. The suite will: (i) examine open-source, shareware, freeware, and COTS executables (i.e., binaries) and recommend specific analyses for particular code, based on criticality and risk, (ii) apply a variety of analysis techniques to binary code (and also source code, if available) to pinpoint specific security and reliability problems, and (iii) where possible and appropriate, perform automated vulnerability patching and remediation on code—including binary code.

Harmonia, Inc.
2020 Kraft Drive, Suite 1000
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Marc Abrams
AF103-169      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:SPAA: Software Priority Assurance Assessment
Abstract:Harmonia proposes to create “SPAA: Software Priority Assurance Assessment” which is designed to automate software assurance assessment. The final tool will allow for risk assessment of commercial software through a formal risk acceptance approval process enabling the software to be officially installed and integrated on various weapon system platforms. Our objective is to create a tool through which an individual called the Agent of the Certifying Authority can perform rapid risk assessment of non-Air Force funded software to (a) prioritize which software requires deeper inspection and (b) document evidence that the software should be approved for use in the certification and accreditation (C&A) process. The assessment should produce a report that ranks or prioritizes for each software code the risk of using it. The risk level can then be used to decide which codes to pursue through the certification and accreditation (C&A) process. The Agent of the Certifying Authority (ACA) will prepare the case for codes to be approved for use in the weapon program; the documentation prepared goes to the Certifying Authority (CA). Once certified, each time the code is installed in a new environment it must be accredited by the Designated Accrediting Authority (DAA). BENEFIT: The completed tool will provide a way to quickly and with limited resources do an initial assessment of the risk in using certain non-Air Force developed software codes for weapon systems. This reduces the work for C&A through prioritizing risk and generating the evidence in documentation required for the CA and DAA. We estimate that SPAA can save 54% to 72% of the time required for analysis and documentation by the ACA, based on automating 60% to 80% of the work with a labor reduction of 90% for the portion that is automatable. Manual use of multiple code analysis is difficult to reproduce in a C&A setting, because processes can be documented in spreadsheets that are detail laden and there are many compiler switches and variables in analysis tools where one small change produces a big change in the output.

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Shean McMahon
AF103-170      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Morphable Payload Support Enabled Through Interface Standardization System
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for standardized payload interface technologies, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Morphable Payload Support Enabled Through Interface Standardization (MENTIS) system. This proposed technology is based on a dual-step interface transcoding architecture, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), real-time signal remapping, and interface-specific daughterboards. The innovative system architecture simultaneously provides high TRL (TRL10) translation between standards (H.264, MPEG2, MPEG4), and supports legacy, existing, and evolving sensor and weapons interface standards. The novel use of daughterboards enables direct interface with airframe and payload, with no rewiring or platform/payload modifications required. As a result, this MENTIS technology offers real-time interface standardization capabilities to the Air Force and directly meets the solicitation requirements for Standard Payload Interface (SPI) technologies for use on Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) platforms. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MENTIS by developing a comprehensive interface list, a preliminary MENTIS design, and fabricating a proof-of-concept prototype interface translation and signal remapping system. In Phase II, POC will refine the MENTIS design, expand the interface translation libraries, and develop extensive productization and platform integration roadmaps. BENEFIT: Successful development of the MENTIS system will benefit the United States by providing a new paradigm in hardware agnostic/cross platform processing and concurrent computing. This technology will allow a group of disparate processors with oftentimes proprietary system software, instruction set architectures, or data formats to interoperate and collaborate on processing problems. Existing technologies can see extended life and new application areas by employing the MENTIS technology, which will reduce R&D costs while simultaneously extending product lifecycles. The government will benefit from improved technologies, increased tax revenue, and reduced unemployment rates made possible by newly enabled business ventures, while commercial sectors will benefit from more straightforward and rapid implementations of existing and future products. These technologies can also directly translate to improved military technology capabilities.

VIPMobile, Inc.
100 Montgomery Street Suite 2000
San Francisco, CA 94104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 632-1239
Carl Angotti
AF103-170      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Small Unmanned Aerial System (SUAS) Standard Payload Interface (SPI)
Abstract:Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) are often required to carry diverse payload varieties; deployment into mixed Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions – Tagging, Tracking, and Locating (TTL), Command, Control, Communications, and Situational Awareness (C3SA), Find, Fix, and Finish (F3), etc. – influence the necessary components in the payload and hence the payload type. However, most current payloads have unique electronic interfaces, rendering reconfiguration or swapping of new/modified payloads to SUASs a costly process. To address this problem, VIPMobile proposes the development of a standard payload interface (SPI) in the form of an SUAS ISR Micro- Payload Interface Master Module (PIMM), a technology based on a previous VIPMobile system. The SPI solution identifies relevant sensors, munitions, and other payload components for SUAS and provides flexible and scalable interconnection between the SUAS and payloads. Cross queuing of sensor data and digital communication between payload components is standardized through XML-derived the Cursor-on-Target machine language. The Micro-PIMM will have a ground control segment, granting on-the-ground CCT operatives access to avionics, firing, and override solutions. The overall system will enable end users to efficiently and cost effectively plug and play various ISR payloads into SUASs without swapping out or reconfiguring the entire payload from mission to mission. BENEFIT: The SUAS ISR Micro-PIMM overcomes typical SUAS-payload incompatibility and enables efficient and cost-effective plug and play of various ISR payloads into SUASs without swapping out or reconfiguring the entire payload from mission to mission. It also allows on- the-ground Combat Control Teams tactical access to and control of the avionics/payloads and sensor data of the SUAS. Commercially, there is a rising demand for UAVs and accompanying technology, especially with respect to SUAS. Potential application of the Micro-PIMM can be extended to larger UAV systems (perhaps to all unmanned vehicles), and to other (DoD) departments and branches, such as Customs, CNTPO, Army and Homeland Defense. The Micro-PIMM can be delivered as a “Tactical ISR Package” to current end users of VIPMobile solutions such as CAG JSOC. The package would consist of a UAV equipped with the Micro-PIMM, an EICT Field Computing Device for the most forward deployed Combat Control Teams (CCT) that communicates with the Micro-PIMM, and an ATC Tactical Briefcase that interacts with both the PIMM in the air and the EICT on the ground.

Indirect Imaging LLC (DBA: Rebellion Photonics)
5010 Big Spring Drive
Pearland, TX 77584
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 305-9098
Artur Olszak
AF103-171      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Development of a video-rate snapshot hyperspectral sensor for tracking moving targets
Abstract:This proposal focuses on the development of a novel video-rate snapshot hyperspectral sensor (VSHS) capable of providing large format datacubes at up to 100 frames per second without the need for scanning. It contains no moving parts or dynamically adjustable components. Its principle is based on Image Mapping Spectrometry (IMS), a technique recently developed at Rice University and exclusively licensed to Rebellion Photonics. The VSHS will be capable of providing, for the first time, simultaneous hyperspectral imaging capabilities over the entire VNIR to SWIR spectrum within a large format image at high acquisition frame rates. The proposed device requires no scanning i.e. it can image fast moving targets while guaranteeing a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and compact size. It is characterized by low power consumption, no post image processing to correct for misregistrations either spectral or spatial, and increased durability and resistance to shock and vibrations. BENEFIT: Our ultimate goal is to provide the VSHS in a highly portable form, e.g. similar to a large SLR camera working in the infrared spectrum with the aim to allow remote detection of various organic compounds. The DOD will have many uses for this product in addition to aerial surveillance and target tracking, some of these applications could include: improvised explosive device (IED) detection, missile target verification, and discovery of camouflaged objects. In addition, the technology can also be applied to many non-military applications. Chemical companies can use the VSHS to detect and quantify chemical leaks from the piping at their plants. Oil companies can use this device for oil exploration and it will also be used in the agriculture industry for improving the quality of their crops.

OPTRA, Inc
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Julia Rentz Dupuis
AF103-171      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Fiber Optic Snapshot Hyperspectral Tracker
Abstract:OPTRA proposes the development of a Fiber Optic Hyperspectral Tracker based on a multiple slit dispersive spectrometer. The key components include imaging optics, a fiber optic bundle, a dispersive element, and a focal plane array (FPA). The integrated hyperspectral imager allows for the simultaneous acquisition of 64x64 spatial resolution elements and 32 spectral resolution elements within a single exposure of the FPA. The benefits of this approach include compactness, no moving parts, and particularly the computational simplicity with which the hyperspectral cubes are reconstructed relative to other “snapshot” hyperspectral imagers employing coded apertures or computed tomography. The overall effort is expected to produce a complete hyperspectral tracking system prototype by the completion of Phase II. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits of the proposed approach include the ability to produce snapshot hyperspectral cubes without the computational complexity of coded aperture and computed tomography based systems. Our system is compact, rugged, and it contains no moving parts. Applications in addition to target discrimination and tracking include chemical and biological detection on surfaces at various ranges. Commercial applications for the hyperspectral tracker include law enforcement, border patrol and search and rescue.

Space Computer Corporation
12121 Wilshire Boulevard Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
Scott G Beaven
AF103-171      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Hyperspectral Sensor for Tracking Moving Targets
Abstract:Continuous surveillance of selected targets from electro-optical sensors on aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are providing significant potential in tactical situation awareness and threat monitoring applications. Situations of interest include movement of vehicles, material, personnel and equipment as well as civilian or military vehicles. Recent capabilities developed include the use of wide-area framing systems combined with image registration and multi-track processing to monitor moving targets. A practical challenge encountered by such systems in a complex environment (e.g., a city) is maintaining the correct association between successive observations of the same target over long time periods or through periods of obscuration or missed coverage. HSI sensors for tracking have the potential to improve the ability to maintain/disambiguate tracks and reacquire lost tracks. Space Computer Corporation, in conjunction with our subcontractor Bodkin Design & Engineering, propose to develop a system design for spectral tracking of moving targets. Our approach is based on the use of the new generation of staring video hyperspectral sensors in conjunction with color cameras and/or wide-area persistent surveillance sensors for tracking. This approach will be compared to alternative methods based on scanning, sequential (temporal) filter-based approaches and Fourier transform methods against the desired system requirements. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits of our proposed approach include significant improvements in capability for continuous monitoring of specific threat targets moving in complex backgrounds, through incorporation of fine-scale hyperspectral signature information and discriminants into a motion-based target tracking architecture. Potential military applications include: (1) real- time detection, tracking and identification of designated vehicles and dismounts, (2) wide- area persistent surveillance from remote airborne platforms, and (3) identification and mapping of temporally evolving threats such as chemical weapon releases. Potential Government applications include 1) monitoring areas for illicit activities, such as drug transactions, 2) monitoring borders to keep track of suspected illegal border crossings and 3) monitoring industrial processes. Potential commercial applications include site security and intrusion detection, real-time traffic monitoring, air and water pollution effluent tracking, and airborne surveillance for law enforcement and disaster relief.

Surface Optics Corporation
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mark S. Dombrowski
AF103-171      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Hyperspectral Sensor for Tracking Moving Targets
Abstract:A program to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging sensor capable of detecting camouflaged objects and tracking moving targets from airborne platforms is proposed. The proposed Hyperspectrally-Enhanced Long-range Imaging UAS Sensor (HELIUS) for target tracking builds upon Surface Optics¡¦ real-time hyperspectral imaging activities, including the Multi-band Identification and Discrimination Imaging Spectroradiometer (MIDIS) processor and the 3-D Full-Cube HyperSensor focal plane array. Simultaneously sampling at least 16 to 49 spectral bands from 0.4 ƒÝm to 1.0 um over a full 2-D field of 588 x 432 pixels, the system is ideal for accurately measuring and exploiting spectral reflectance differences of targets for real-time tracking. The proposed program develop and analyze an optimized design for a 3-D hyperspectral camera for the detection and tracking of moving objects from airborne platforms at standoff ranges up to 5.8 km; the system will include a compact, rugged, inexpensive 3-D imager plus the real-time hyperspectral (HS) data processor. The proposed effort represents an extension of Surface Optics¡¦ 19 years experience in hyperspectral imager design, and miniaturization of SOC¡¦s patented real- time hyperspectral image processor for real-time hyperspectral discrimination. By building on Surface Optics Corporation¡¦s experience in hyperspectral imaging system development, sensor development, and algorithm development, the proposed program will produce a new airborne hyperspectral tracking sensor of unsurpassed capability. BENEFIT: By producing and exploiting spectral imagery at video frame rates in a staring, not scanning, mode, the HELIUS sensor will dramatically enhance ability of the Airforce to identify, track, and mark threats from airborn platforms. Extension of HELIUS to other military applications will enhance the military¡¦s capability to extract information from a scene that is unavailable to current tactical imaging sensors. Further commercialization will vastly improve the warfighter¡¦s ability to detect highly camouflaged threats. Potential non-threat sensing applications include remote sensing, surveillance, pollution monitoring, plume analysis, medical diagnostics, industrial production control, and land mine detection.

Applied EM Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Thomas Campbell
AF103-172      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Conformal Antennas for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)
Abstract:Combined with the demands for UASs is the increasing demand for additional electronic systems, payload carrying capacity, and antennas that are required for each electronic/communication system on the platforms. Broadband conformal antennas offer unique solutions to the strict size weight and power requirements for sensors deployed on UAS. Multi-functional conformal antennas can also address the issue of antenna locations that arise from limited real estate. Typical UAV telemetry systems operating at UHF or L- band frequencies usually employ blade and wire antennas on the fuselage and protrude into the air stream. These antennas degrade aerodynamics, increase drag, increase weight, and usually provide less than optimal antenna performance. These problems can be largely eliminated by conformal (and/or embedded) antennas into UAV composite structures. This antenna research will develop; (a) advanced conformal, low profile and wide bandwidth antennas and (b) apply innovative “paint-on” manufacturing methods to apply conformal antenna (and EMI ground plane shielding) designs directly onto the ‘skin’ of flight platforms. These combined technology developments will provide unique solutions by reducing the profile size and weight of UAS antennas and will also address the issue of antenna locations and (real estate) conflicts through the use of EM simulation and modeling. BENEFIT: Improved UAS conformal antennas for satellite communications, sensors, and COMINT and SIGINT mission applications.Innovations developed under this topic will benefit both DoD and commercial programs. Possible uses for these products include commercial aerospace, automotive, and communications industries.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 848-5929
James Snider
AF103-172      Awarded:1/12/2011
Title:Conformal Antennas for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)
Abstract:During the Phase I Program, Aurora Flight Sciences and the University of South Carolina will demonstrate the feasibility of co-curing an integrated antenna assembly within carbon composite structures. As part of this program, a candidate platform will be selected from one of Aurora’s current UASs which will serve as the baseline for the program and provide a commercialization path for conformal antenna technology. The location for placement of the antenna on the UAS will be defined during the program along with materials of construction. In addition, the integrated antenna assembly will be designed and modeled, fabricated and then tested to verify the modeling. An embedded test coupon will be produced that includes the integrated antenna assembly and a representative structural element. BENEFIT: The need for conformal antennas is primarily being driven by the U.S. defense industry for future aircraft development programs. The technology developed as a result of this program would find applications in both military and commercial aircraft applications. Aurora will work to develop this technology and transition any processes or techniques developed during the course of this program to the military and commercial sectors. Application of this technology to Department of Defense programs will help to allow reduced platform weight, increase aircraft performance and provide the aircraft designer with increased design possibilities. Aurora will market the design and manufacturing techniques developed during this program as a tool in the acquisition and development of new aircraft programs in both the military and commercial sectors. It is expected that the early market will include Department of Defense contractors and specifically programs focused on the development of advanced aircraft structures.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Dean Paschen
AF103-172      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Conformal Antennas for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)
Abstract:As the number of functions being incorporated into unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) increase, the number of antennas needed increases as well. For a UAS, there is often limited real estate available, making it difficult to incorporate these multiple functions on one vehicle. FIRST RF proposes a unique conformal antenna design to help address the issue of antenna locations and provide a solution to the conflicts that arise from this limited real estate. By integrating unique materials into fuselage composites, the antenna profile can be reduced, providing a more conformal solution with low aerodynamic drag. This is attractive because it allows for larger antenna apertures on the aircraft skin and a more effective use of onboard payload space. In addition to displaying excellent performance in preliminary testing, the unique materials proposed for use in this Phase I effort are lighter and more cost effective to produce than conventional approaches, making them desirable for UAS applications. The combination of these new unique materials with proven FIRST RF broadband antenna technology results in a lightweight, low-cost, conformal antenna with far- reaching potential for use in other military and commercial applications. BENEFIT: Although the specific objective of this solicitation is to develop wideband conformal antenna solutions for communications and signal intelligence functions on UAS, FIRST RF recognizes that the proposed technologies have considerable relevance in other UAS, DoD, and commercial applications. By integrating broadband antennas into aerial vehicles in a conformal manner, the approach allows for the installation of antennas in nontraditional locations, such as wingtips and other control surfaces. More effective use of payload space as well as larger antenna apertures on the aircraft’s skin are the result of these methods. In addition, a removable panel version can be created, allowing existing aircraft to be retrofitted with the new designs. FIRST RF has shown the capability to transition SBIR technologies quickly and effectively to fielded hardware, so the results of this effort will be leveraged as the maturity of the technology allows.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alireza Shapoury
AF103-172      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Quasi-Optically Scanned Conformal Antenna
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for conformal passive and active antennas for an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Quasi-Optically Scanned Conformal Antenna (QOSCA), based on a quasi-optical beamforming, non-planar, reconfigurable antenna design, and individual element excitation. Innovations in controlling the time delays of the signals from or to the array element will enable the QOSCA to perform wideband, all-angle beamforming and steering without detrimental beam squinting as the frequency increases. As a result, the QOSCA system offers a conformal antenna that can operate VHF–Ku frequency bands, i.e., 0.03–18GHz, with a tuning range of 10% of the carrier frequency, making it suitable for SATCOM, SIGINT, and Link 16 applications. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the QOSCA by modeling and simulation verification through lab-scale prototyping, and perform Tradespace study for nontraditional antenna locations. In Phase II, POC plans to fabricate, test, and integrate the QOSCA into a scaled UAS model and verify its performance including gain, polarization purity, reflection coefficients, and spectral response, juxtaposing measurement results with simulation to optimize the QOSCA for a full scale over-the-air test in a program of record platform. BENEFIT: The proposed QOSCA technology can be applied to wireless communication and electronic warfare, as well as tagging, tracking, and location identification for border control. Its compact design can provide an excellent feed system for a wide range of civilian and commercial radiating elements. POC’s QOSCA system can also be applied commercially, where it will find use in transmitters and receivers for telecommunications, sensors, and other applications requiring long-range data transfer, e.g., satellite uplink and downlink antenna systems; and for broadband data links for airplanes and radar in commercial airliners. The conformal structure of the QOSCA can be applied to antenna transmitters on water towers, buses, trains, and vehicles, for high-bandwidth data transfer such as WiMAX, and for wireless USB. POC’s QOSCA also has applications in SATCOM on the Move (SOTM) for TV and radio transmission and reception systems.

LightSmyth Technologies
875 Wilson Street Unit C
Eugene, OR 97402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 431-0027
Thomas W Mossberg
AF103-173      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:High performance and Cost Effective Diffraction Gratings by Projection Photolithography
Abstract:Use of projection photolithography allows for fabrication of high fidelity diffraction gratings with individual control on location and shape of each groove using modern semiconductor tools and powerful computer-based simulation and CAD software. The method yields master- grade highly efficient diffraction gratings with high batch-to batch reproducibility at the fraction of the cost of regular holographic or mechanically ruled gratings. Proposal included development of the entire range of designs for hyperspectral imagers covering VIS, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR ranges, dual band grating design for MWIR/LWIR range and fabrication of VIS grating prototype all in Phase I. BENEFIT: Proposed method will be ideal for large volume, highly reproducible, high yield and high efficiency gratings requested by AirForce in the topic. The grating design and fabrication technology has been already proven in other types of diffraction gratings.

NANONEX CORPORATION
1 Deer Park Drive Suite O
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 355-1600
Wei Zhang
AF103-173      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Large area low cost manufacturing process for precision diffraction gratings with very small line-edge-roughness (LER) and defect- free surface coverin
Abstract:We propose a large area low cost manufacturing process for diffraction gratings with very small line-edge-roughness (LER) and defect-free surface using self-perfection by liquefaction (SPEL) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The manufacturing process is capable of producing diffraction gratings covering wavelength ranging from UV to LWIR. The manufacturing process starts with making a master grating template by scanning beam interference lithography (SBIL) and reactive ion etch (RIE). Then, the master grating template is duplicated to have many intermediate templates by high resolution NIL and RIE. The gratings on intermediate templates are further perfected by SPEL to greatly reduce LER and remove surface defect. Simultaneously in SPEL process, the grating profile is changed from trapezoid to sinusoidal, which is desired profile of diffraction gratings. By using carefully developed SPEL process, the template will have nearly perfect grating lines with very small LER, defect-free surface and desired sinusoidal profile. The template will be imprinted to replicate these nearly perfect gratings onto end-product substrate. NIL using Air Cushion Press (ACP) will be used to replicate these gratings faithfully without degrading its quality. The large area low cost manufacturing capability of NIL using ACP will significantly reduce cost of diffraction gratings made by this process. BENEFIT: Proposed works provide a manufacturing path to produce precision large area diffraction gratings at affordable cost to end user. In general, any application that needs a large area diffraction grating with superb spectrum performance will be benefited from this development. In foreseeable future, military surveillance and guided weapon system will likely take benefits from this development. By adding a large area diffraction grating together with optical detector with arrayed pixels, it becomes possible to obtain target images within a narrow spectrum band. The narrow spectrum imaging and band selection capability will tremendously improve performance of target finding, tracking, and identification. This means fast, accurate, and reliable battlefield surveillance and smarter guided weapons. Most importantly, this development can produce large area diffractive gratings with superb spectrum band selection cheaply enough for broad implementations on battlefield. Security force is another potential user benefiting from this development. The key technology SPEL developed in proposed works will have tremendous impacts on nanofabrication when feature size variation control becomes more and more challenging for making nano-devices. Potentially, the key technologies used and developed for proposed manufacturing process can also be used for making other optical devices, nanofluidic channel for bio-applications, and nano-wire based sensors.

Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Nahum Gat
AF103-173      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Manufacturing of high-efficiency gratings for imaging spectrometry
Abstract:OKSI will produce in Phase-I high efficiency gratings for imaging spectroscopy. These gratings will be characterized using interferometry, optical microscopy, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, to demonstrate the grating sub-micron accuracy and nanometer surface quality. The grating will also be characterized in an existing spectrometer to quantify straylight, diffraction efficiency at multiple orders and in zero order, ghosting, MTF, spot sizes at various wavelengths and multiple field angles, as well as aberrations such as smile and keystone. Results will also be compared with identical holographic gratings. BENEFIT: The process we propose will reduce today’s unaffordable cost of high-end grating that are used in spaceborne and planetary missions, and provide alternative to low efficiency gratings that are used by most industrial / commercial systems. All branches of the DoD, NASA, DoE, USDA, Commerce, NOAA, and other agencies have programs in hyperspectral imaging from spaceborne (ATREMIS, HyspIRI) to airborne (HyCAS, SPIRITT), to various ground based. High performance spectrometers are also essential for various commercial and industrial systems such as precision farming, factory automation and inspection. OKSI is a major supplier of such sensors to both government and commercial users, our sensors are routinely used in various DoD tests. This program will lead to improved performance spectrometers for all such applications.

Bodkin Design & Engineering, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 795-1968
Carson Roberts
AF103-174      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Switchable Polarimetric Camera for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)
Abstract:Polarimetric imagery, where the polarization state of light, in addition to light wavelength or intensity, is measured across an image scene, has been shown to greatly increase the ability of an Infrared (IR) imaging system to detect man-made objects in natural backgrounds. The proposed research project is directed toward the development of a switchable polarizing element. This device, when retrofitted to an existing IR camera will add the capability of switching from high-resolution IR imaging mode to a polarimetric IR imaging mode. This will allow the acquisition of an image containing the full polarization state of the light in a single camera frame, thus allowing the detection of fast moving objects, or of making observations from a rapidly moving platform, such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Since the polarization mode will be user-selectable, the modified camera will be capable of generating fused imagery, where hidden man-made objects such as vehicles, buildings or land mines, can be highlighted within the high-resolution scene. The polarizing element is designed with no moving parts, making it ideal for deployment in UAV or missile platforms. BENEFIT: The development of the switchable polarimeter allows switching between high resolution imagery and polarimetric imagery. This system can be retrofit to existing IR camera systems, improving the ability of UAVs to distinguish manmade objects through clutter, camouflage, and tree canopy.

Polaris Sensor Technologies, Inc.
200 Westside Square Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-0087
J. Larry Pezzaniti
AF103-174      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Switchable Polarimetric Camera for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)
Abstract:Recent developments in polarimetric imaging have shown that polarization can offer significant advantages in target detection in difficult detection scenarios. However, many of the systems used to demonstrate these performance enhancements are used in situations where signal to noise is not an issue. In almost any polarimeter, loss of signal to noise results because of the relatively unpolarized nature of the target signatures and the inherent loss of unpolarized light to the polarizer in the system. Schemes to remove the polarizer from the system for these situations is not practical. Polaris Sensor Technologies is proposing to address this problem by developing an on- demand polarizer. This device will be capable of switching the polarization sensitivity off with little loss in throughput increasing sensor sensitivity in difficult detection scenarios. When turned on, the polarimeter will function as a conventional, division of focal plane polarimeter. The Phase I will developed the on-demand polarizer device, establish design and process rules for fabrication of prototype and integration into a system in Phase II. BENEFIT: There is significant commercialization potential for the proposed system for Air Force manned platforms, missiles, and ground based vehicles. The small size and sensitivity of the final sensor will enable plug and play replacement of existing sensors.

Aerius Photonics, LLC.
2223 Eastman Ave., Suite B
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Falgun Patel
AF103-176      Awarded:1/5/2011
Title:Multispectral Compact Personnel Tag Device
Abstract:Aerius Photonics proposes to develop a design for a prototype personnel tag device which incorporates multiple technologies into a compact, portable system suitable for the warfighter. The Aerius design will incorporate both RF and IR transmission technologies such that the tags can be turned on remotely from airborne platforms. Return signals will be RF and/or IR, coded to military standards. In addition, the design will allow the warfighter to reprogram the tag in the field. In order to create a multiuse tag device, Aerius Photonics will design a device with RF technology, NIR, MWIR, and LWIR laser sources, and high fidelity optical receivers based on vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs). The culmination of the Phase I effort will be a final design for a prototype system that is ready for development and field testing in Phase II. BENEFIT: With the successful completion of this project, Aerius will have developed the technology to build high high fidelity multiuse personnel tags. These tag devices will be low cost and have more functionality than current single technology based devices. The multispectral personnel tag has immediate utility for current military operations, and since it is designed to work with current targeting pods, Aerius’ tag device can be deployed as soon as production begins. In addition, once in commercial production, these tags have applications in law enforcement. Therefore, a key objective for the Phase II effort will be to finalize a tag design that is ready for production by the end of the program. Moreover, while this product will be targeted for the needs of our AF customer, it would have broad appeal across all branches of the military, and therefore, the volume potential for a commercial product is substantial.

Spectra Research, Inc.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
James Riddell III
AF103-176      Awarded:1/5/2011
Title:Dual Mode Tag (DMT) Proof-of-Concept Device
Abstract:The purpose of the present effort is to develop a Dual Mode Tag (DMT) proof-of-concept system for reducing fratricide, contributing to battlefield situational awareness (SA) and finding downed pilots, by identifying friendly vehicles at tactically significant ranges. We propose an RF Tag, IR/E-O Tag and RF wakeup/trigger receiver providing responses to corresponding sensors on friendly aircraft. Respective radar, FLIR, laser range finder, etc. sensors will be identified on both weapons carrying and search and rescue aircraft. Missions for which the DMT will be investigated include Strike, CAS, ISR and CSAR. The design goal for the DMT is a device which can simultaneously respond to any RF or IR/E-O sensor and provide Combat ID to any or all of the respective sensors in an innovative, compact system. Maximum use will be made of Spectra Research’s proven RF Tag and RF receiver technology, combined with new concepts in the IR/E-O Tag arena, particularly IR Markers. IR/E-O aircraft sensors under consideration include not only stand alone FLIRS, etc, but also pods with integrated FLIR, laser range finder, designators, pointers and TV. A final DMT design will be submitted including estimates of military utility, performance, SWaP, and cost. BENEFIT: Spectra Research’s commercialization strategy will capitalize on the growing demand for miniaturized RF/EO-IR transmitters for tracking soldiers on the battlefield and civilian uses such as firefighters or law enforcement officials. Animals also require long term tracking, with identification, such as in National Parks, State Parks and for University-level research in animal behavior. Although the technology proposed in this effort would require expansion outside of DoD use, it could also be applied to supply chain management in warehouses and outside storage facilities. Homeland security requirements include identification of goods in transit into the country and in storage.

Auriga Measurement Systems LLC
650 Suffolk Street Suite410
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-1117
Qin Shen-Schultz
AF103-178      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:X-Band and Ka Band Low Noise Block Downconverter
Abstract:Phase I tasks will determine the integration plan for the block downconverters used in satellite communication systems. The anticipated advantage of using GaN HFETs for limiter/LNA combination will be quantified. The concept will be verified by device characterization, modeling and a prototype amplifier demonstration. MMIC amplifiers will be designed for the final goals, to be completed and fabricated in Phase II. A precise device model, both noise and large signal, of 0.15 micron gate GaN HFETs will be developed and used in the LNA design. Two amplifiers will be designed for X-band and Ka-band with the performance goals consistent with requirements. In parallel to completing the LNA design, a single-stage prototype amplifier will be built to demonstrate critical key features in the LNA design, such as noise figure and high-power survivability. Feasibility of integrating other block downconverter components will be studied and a recommendation will be made. BENEFIT: This technology is applicable to military satellite communication and radar systems. Commercial Application: High performance, affordable downconverter components would find wide application in commercial satellite communication systems and mobile communications.

CUSTOM MMIC DESIGN SERVICES INC
1 Park Drive Unit 12
Westford, MA 01886
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 467-4290
Paul Blount
AF103-178      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:X-Band and Ka Band Low Noise Block Downconverter
Abstract:Custom MMIC Design Services has significant experience in the design, characterization and destruction testing of MMW LNAs. We have successfully designed X-band LNAs on GaAs with sub 1dB noise figures. These designs have been shown to survive up to 1W of RF power with no input protection. CMDS has also designed diode based limiter circuits to extend that protection to 6W. Our innovative design techniques and modeling capability have ensured that first pass designs with world class performance are possible. These techniques will be used to create GaN devices that need no input limiter and therefore exhibit composite noise figures that are significantly improved from GaAs devices. When coupled with a much higher OIP3 the overall dynamic range of the system will be extended. The improved performance will derive from the wide band gap of the device creating higher pinchoff voltages which directly relate to the voltage swing that is present upon the device when an incident high power signal is encountered. When coupled with circuit techniques that incorporate elements to limit these voltages input levels of greater than 5W will be achievable. BENEFIT: These LNAs will provide lower overall noise figures (when compared to protected GaAs devices) and higher OIP3 values such that the system dynamic range will be greatly improved. As GaN power amplifier volumes rise the processes will transition to 4” wafers and costs will begin to fall. At that point the RF improvements will be cost effective and can be rolled into systems. At the same time CMDS will develop other RF functions for the block downconverter systems including mixers, switches, and attenuators. These too can provide significant benefits to the block downconverter system.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
Donald Kimball
AF103-178      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:X-Band and Ka Band Low Noise Block Downconverter
Abstract:MaXentric proposes to focus on a low noise, high linearity and high reliability of the downconversion chain for this effort, and especially the AlGaN/GaN HEMT low noise block downconverter. MaXentric will employ a noise cancellation design in AlGaN/GaN low noise amplifiers (LNA) to reduce the overall noise, in conjunction with optimal gate biasing and digital predistortion to enhance the overall linearity. The technology will yield low noise amplifier’s noise figure of less than 1.5dB with 100MHz bandwidth at all powers and all receiving bands (X-band and Ka band). A tunable network provides adaptive inter-stage matching to improve the frequency agility and the linearity. BENEFIT: The X-band and Ka-band LNAs proposed by MaXentric have unprecedented interference tolerance, and distortion mitigation. For Air Force applications, the LNAs could be used on jammer aircraft. Harmonic and spurious emissions from jammers can be relatively large, and using these X-band and Ka-band LNAs may allow the aircraft to continue to communicate even when the jammers are active. The crowded conditions on decks of Navy aircraft carriers can also lead to large interfering signals, so these LNAs would be desirable for topside applications. Air Force UAVs often feature various communication pod payloads, and sometimes substitute for satellite communication relays due to their long endurance times. The communication pods may become targets for hostile jammers, and even friendly miss-pointing of other antennas. Using our proposed LNAs on the pods will allow for minimum noise figure, maximum interference tolerance, and minimum distortion. In civilian applications, X-band and Ka-band radars are sometimes used to map the earth’s crust for earthquake activity, and plate tectonics. The low noise figure and high interference tolerance of the LNA will allow for the use of lower mass diplexers with improved topological resolution. NASA also uses X-band and Ka-band for deep space communication, so the LNA can be used adjacent to low mass high power amplifiers with improved link margin. The LNAs will allow for improved link margins with and reduced filtering requirements.

Nitronex Corporation
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 807-9100
Alan Victor
AF103-178      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:X-Band and Ka Band Low Noise Block Downconverter
Abstract:Nitronex Corporation has identified unique innovations in Gallium Nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) for realizing advancements in X and Ka-Band low noise amplifiers (LNAs). These advancements are based on existing GaN on silicon (Si), radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA) device techniques and when applied to LNAs, improve Satellite Communication (SATCOM) receiver systems in the presence of wideband high powered RF signals. It is well established that GaN based semiconductor structures, specifically AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, provide advantages over GaAs, SiC, Si, & SiGe in the domain of high power operation. GaN-based materials have wide bandgap and high breakdown fields, which allow the device to operate at a voltage > 2.5 times the maximum operating voltage of a GaAs device. The reduction in signal distortion due to non-linearity of a LNA or a low noise block downconverter (LNB), while maintaining low noise figure is of particular significance to SATCOM systems The proposed GaN on Si technology will produce cost effective LNA and LNB building blocks that are highly-reliable, extremely linear and very robust to signal overload in X and Ka-Band SATCOM applications. BENEFIT: The proposed GaN on Si technology will produce cost effective LNA and LNB building blocks with high performance for use in military and commercial SATCOM applications at X or Ka-Band.

C & P Technologies, Inc.
317 Harrington Avenue Suites 9 & 10
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Ke Yong Li
AF103-179      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Real-Time Dismount Detection and Tracking Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) System
Abstract:In this proposal, C&P Technologies (C&P) offers an innovative generalized adaptive radar signal processing technique that will improve the capability of the warfighter to detect enemy combatants (dismounts) in challenging clutter environments. Radar is the sensor of choice for this persistent surveillance application because it can operate at long range, both day and night, and under a wide variety of weather and battlefield conditions. C&P will apply an innovative adaptive radar discrimination technique to provide ground surveillance radars operating at very low elevation angles with an improved capability to detect low RCS dismounted adversaries against a battlefield background that may include highly reflective stationary terrain features, buildings and other manmade urban structures, rain, wind-blown vegetation and sand, and other moving clutter sources along with low-flying air vehicles. BENEFIT: The proposed algorithms can improve the system performance of other military and civilian applications. These new algorithms and tools will optimize the utility of global imaging systems that are useful for multi-sensor and multi-target tracking of military targets in any region of interest. The receiver design algorithms proposed here can be incorporated in commercial applications such as weather mapping and forecasting. Other applications include backup for boarder patrol in terms of detecting fleeing dismounts and tracking their number and possibly identifying their shapes for homeland security type applications. Harbor surveillance for homeland security, law enforcement surveillance, and industrial security are other possible commercial applications of the proposed algorithms.

Gitam Technologies Inc
9782 Country Creek Way
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 885-9767
William McCormick
AF103-179      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Real-Time Dismount Detection and Tracking Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) System
Abstract:There is a current Air Force need to research, develop and implement airborne Circular SAR (CSAR) based algorithms for real-time detection and tracking of dismounts with potentially nonlinear and unpredictable motion in a heavy clutter environment. In practical urban operating conditions, the dismounts are expected to appear in SAR with multiple nonlinear Doppler signatures, which cannot be represented via simple models employed by many current studies. In addition, the dismount signatures tend to be overwhelmed by strong clutter which need to be addressed. The Phase-I objective is to develop a radar system concept and necessary signal processing algorithms for real-time dismount detection and tracking system to enhance the capability of current radar based surveillance systems. The proposed research will focus on laying the groundwork for a practical CSAR radar system design by studying many of the fundamental design parameters, including the operating radar frequency band, the separation of the transmitter and receivers, the operational distance, the integration (azimuth) and elevation angles, and determining optimal image generation frequencies. Real-time data processing requirements would also be considered to make detection and tracking of dismounts practically feasible. BENEFIT: A successful Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for the development of a robust Detection and Identification of dismounts in urban clutter environment using high-BW, high-resolution C-SAR, although many of the algorithms and concepts are equally applicable to other potential targets. The resulting design and trade analysis will provide the foundation for implementing the necessary algorithms for the desired real-time Detect/ID tasks for a variety of DOD and civilian applications. We expect there are two approaches to commercializing the development of this technology. First, there is the direct military application of Detect/ID/tracking of dismounts including potential terrorists that harm our interests. If effective, this technology will be critical for the Air Force and the other services. We plan to first develop the technology to maturity under Phase I and Phase II SBIR efforts. Once this has been done, we plan to market the technology to military programs, operations analysts, and large systems integrators who build radar systems with dismount Detect/ID capability, as required in some recent conflicts. The marketing presentation will make use of the algorithms and performance trade-off analysis conducted under these SBIR efforts. A part of this strategy is to have the matured capability inserted in a simulation exercise, such as those performed at Joint Forces Command, so that the potential of the proposed study can be demonstrated to many of the decision-makers that witness these exercises. The second approach to commercializing this technology is to apply it to other applications in the military world or in the civilian marketplace. Potential civilian applications include drug enforcement, and border control. Military applications include surveillance of

Goleta Star LLC
24085 Garnier St
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 891-2435
John Kirk
AF103-179      Awarded:1/6/2011
Title:Real-Time Dismount Detection and Tracking Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) System
Abstract:AFRL-WPAFB has initiated various programs to better understand the coherent information in SAR data. The current effort is intended to further this objective by developing algorithms to detect dismounts in SAR imagery that are acquired via: i) subaperture monostatic and along-track bistatic monopulse SAR data from a single pass; ii) subaperture monostatic SAR data of a single pass; and iii) subaperture monostatic SAR data of multiple passes. We will use 2D spatially-varying adaptive filtering in range and Doppler domains to blindly calibrate these dual imagery for clutter cancellation. The approach does not require complicated hardware development and time-consuming signal processing of a multiple- channel SAR platform that are essential for other algorithms such as STAP. To improve the system sensitivity to detect dismounts, we propose the use of a nonlinear flight path such as AFRL’s GOTCHA platform. We also utilize an innovative feature-aided tracking technique which has shown good performance for tracking weak and slowly-moving target signatures in strong clutter. In addition to GOTCHA data, Goleta Star would also collect SAR data with its dual-channel Ka-band UAV radar. Thus, the proposed algorithms and associated signal processing form a basis for a practical and real-time approach to detect and track dismounts. BENEFIT: The anticipated result from successful completion of this project will be a set of innovative subaperture-based nonlinear SAR signal processing algorithms and their associated hardware implementation for real-time processing to detect, track and image moving dismounts that are applicable in surveillance and reconnaissance radar platforms of the Departments of Defense, Homeland, and Justice.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
William Pierson
AF103-179      Awarded:1/25/2011
Title:Real-Time Dismount Detection and Tracking Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) System
Abstract:The assumptions and techniques in existing literature for detection and tracking of dismounts in radar data are invalid for use in standoff, ISR radar systems. This work proposes using change detection techniques to detecting and tracking dismounts. This work contains efforts both in modeling as well as empirical analysis. The modeling provides the ability to determine the types of radars best suited for this problem as well as assist in radar design. The empirical work helps to validate the models as well provide a proof of concept for the use of change detection for locating dismounts. Finally, the traditional methods of radar-based dismount detection are also considered to determine whether or not the models and techniques can be modified such that they are valid for standoff radars. BENEFIT: The primary benefit of this work is the development of techniques to detect and track dismounts. This has the potential to aid in several DoD missions including battlespace awareness, mission planning, checkpoint safety, and perimeter monitoring. Commercialization opportunities exist as the capability to estimate threat is needed by various government agencies including the DoD, US Border Patrol and law enforcement. Our goal is to market these sectors with a suite of tools that will denote regions that have an elevated level of threat.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5229
Eric van Doorn
AF103-180      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:CogDisSen: Cognitive Distributed Sensing for IED detection
Abstract:Recent and ongoing conflicts have conclusively demonstrated that Remote Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices are highly effective, yet low-cost weapons deployed routinely by asymmetric threats, and that this threat is here to stay. While numerous specific detection technologies and sensors each focusing with some success on a particular aspect of the IED, the IED challenge is still here. It has become increasingly clear that 1) there is no silver bullet, and 2) the adversary is adaptive, constantly adjusting its approach to counter measures brought to bear, and 3) a comprehensive solution must be multimodal, persistent, distributed, and adaptive /cognitive itself. To help address the persistent threat of RCIEDs, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes CogDisSen: a cognitive, distributed multi-modal sensor architecture incorporating state of the art heterogeneous sensing, multi-sensor processing and efficient networking for IED detection and localization. BENEFIT: The proposed work directly addresses a critical need of the Warfighter: protection against one of the most effective threats it faces. Commercial applications include security applications in Iraq, and other areas of the Middle East, and event security in the homeland.

Ricciardi Technologies, Inc.
2411 Dulles Corner Park Suite 220
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 580-9217
Dan Reuben
AF103-180      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Cognitive Multi-Sensor Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection Technologies (COMIDT)
Abstract:Up to 40% of all U.S. and coalition deaths in both Iraq and Afghanistan have been due to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In addition, the Department of Homeland Security reports that more than 600 IED incidents occur worldwide each month outside of these regions, including within the U.S. While IED detection technologies continue to improve, insurgents and others who place IEDs are highly adaptive, using homemade explosives, non- metallic shrapnel and housings, and remote controlled detonators. As a result, current detectors, which generally focus on a specific aspect of the IED anatomy, are subject to very high rate of false positives. This greatly slows mission completion, wastes resources, and further endangers the warfighter. To resolve this problem, an extensible and distributed system is needed, capable of fusing multiple sensors based on geolocation to distinguish probable IEDs from false alarms. Ricciardi Technologies and the University of Washington will define this system, select explosive, radar, and radio frequency detection sensors, and define a common sensor interface, data normalization middleware, and reference databases. The team will also define the distributed architecture, cognitive engines to determine the probability of an IED, develop an integration plan, and build a simulation/proof of concept of the technology. BENEFIT: HSRC estimates $29.4 billion has been spent to date on counter IED technologies worldwide, and that $23.2 billion in additional products and services will be spent by 2012. $5.6 billion is currently focused on detection technologies. This addresses the growing IED threat, which Defense IQ estimates will rise 30% in the coming year. By leveraging an extensible and distributed interface for disparate sensors, each detecting different components of an IED, and interpreting the relative probability with each added signal, false positives will be significantly reduced, allowing more fluid movement of troops and resources to disable the real threats. The system will not only be able to utilize standard DoD explosive and radio frequency detectors as well as ground penetrating radar, but also third party sensors. In some cases, this may even include sensors the insurgents themselves have placed. The ability to use different and changing sensor networks will also make it more difficult for insurgents to adapt new strategies in response to these detectors. Once matured, this interface and architecture will also have applications in consumer, medical, safety, agricultural, and environmental sensor fusion areas; particularly the navigation and artificial vision fields of the $21 billion robotics market.

Spectral Labs Incorporated
12225 World Trade Drive, Ste. H
San Diego, CA 92128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 451-0540
Jack Silberman
AF103-180      Awarded:1/26/2011
Title:Cognitive Multi-Sensor Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection Technologies (COMIDT)
Abstract:Due to the domestic availability of the materials needed to construct Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and the ability to quickly disperse them and inflict serious harm to our citizens, military, and allies, IEDs have become the weapon of choice for insurgents, terrorists and extremists. In fact, according to recent FBI Bomb Data Center data, over 70% of all homeland terrorist incidents in the United States involve the use of explosives and incendiary agents. These data also show over 3000 IED incidents within the United States each year with over 100 injuries, and dozens of fatalities. As a result of this dangerous and potentially rapidly growing threat to our homeland the US Government has been developing aggressive, multi-faceted Counter IED (C-IED) programs that include intelligence operations, strategic planning, training and, most relevant to this proposal, developing technologies to provide the professionals responsible for detecting IED threats the incipient threat information needed to proactively prevent an attack. This proposal is focused on analyzing available data to determine if a potential threat is emerging and provide the localization information to enable authorities to prevent an attack. This approach is particularly important to protect against vulnerabilities that would allow adversaries to attack our homeland. BENEFIT: Provide improved protection against potential IED threats within the United States.

Technology Service Corporation
3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 800
Los Angeles, CA 90034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 535-2100
Dan Lawrence
AF103-180      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Cognitive Multi-Sensor Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection Technologies (COMIDT)
Abstract:Due to variations in design and configuration, no one sensor can fully and reliably detect all the possible IED threats to the modern warfighter. By utilizing the advancements in processing capability and data transfer of modern computing, we can reduce the burden on single sensors. What if sensors only needed to reliably detect a specific component of the IED anatomy? Many existing sensors have already demonstrated promise in identifying common components of the current IED threat. The solution is a network of heterogeneous sensors working in conjunction with a cognitive data fusion process. In this proposal, Technology Service Corporation (TSC) will address an entire integrated solution: identification and integration of heterogeneous sensors, a distributed sensor network architecture, a software data fusion interface, and optimized data fusion algorithms. BENEFIT: Our proposed design of the Cognitive Multi-sensor IED Detection System and its critical components would benefit and have commerical applications on multiple levels to the DoD, FAA, domestic law enforcement, and other US Government agencies. DoD applications are readily apparent for supporting military operations and saving lives in current tactical environments, by diminishing the threat of IEDs to overseas civilians and the warfighter. FAA and domestic law enforcement applications would provide safety and reliability in the inspection and evaluation of people, luggage, homes, and suspicious containers for evidence of HME fabrication. A successful, efficient, and reliable sensor fusion system providing an integrated situational awareness display would support existing systems across all branches of the DoD. Systems such as Guardian Angel (BAE), Cooperative Engagement Capability (Raytheon/US Navy), Distributed Common Ground System, Common Data Link, Sand Dragon (Aero Mech/AFRL), JLENS (Army), NC3S Vigilare (Boeing), Husky Mounted Detection System (Niitek), Vehicle Optics Sensor System (US Army), and Healy Beacon (JIEDDO) would benefit from this technology.

Metron, Inc.
1818 Library Street Suite 600
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 326-2913
Kristine Bell
AF103-181      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:MAP-PF/LRDT Multitarget Tracking for Next Generation Over the Horizon Radar - MP 88-10
Abstract:Detection, localization, and tracking in over the horizon radar (OTHR) systems is a challenging problem due to the existence of multiple ray mode propagation paths between the transmitter, target, and receiver. Traditional OTHR multi-target tracking techniques use three isolated processes: slant azimuth/range/Doppler estimation (detection), followed by association of detections to targets and mode paths, followed by fusion of associated slant detections into a single track in Earth coordinates for each target. We propose to use the maximum a posteriori penalty function (MAP-PF)/ Likelihood Ratio Detection and Tracking (LRDT) approach to formulate the detection and tracking problem as a MAP estimation problem operating directly on the radar array data. The result is a two-step estimation process similar to traditional methods, except the processes are coupled via the penalty function and the data association step is eliminated. In the azimuth/range/Doppler estimation process, the penalty function guides the estimator to look for detections at slant coordinates of possible mode paths for the current target state. In the track estimation process, the penalty function adaptively determines the influence of mode path estimates on the final track estimates. The algorithm will be implemented in Matlab and tested on Relocatable OTHR (ROTHR) data. BENEFIT: MAP-PF/LRDT has the potential to improve target detection, localization, and tracking accuracy while reducing computational complexity in next generation OTHR systems.

NorthWest Research Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 3027
Bellevue, WA 98009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 582-4905
L.J. Nickisch
AF103-181      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Multimode Tracking for Next Generation Over the Horizon Radar (NG OTHR)
Abstract:Coordinate Registration (CR) of OTHR targets requires accurate real-time ionospheric modeling coupled with HF propagation calculations to convert radar-measured target signal delays and beam steers to geographical position. Our team is the developer of the most sophisticated CR capability currently in existence, CREDO (Coordinate Registration Enhancement by Dynamic Optimization). CREDO uses OTHR vertical and oblique backscatter soundings to model the ionosphere using Tikhonov Regularization, a constraint that produces the smoothest ionosphere that agrees with all input data to within measurement error. Recently we extended CREDO to utilize Known Reference Points (OTHR returns from known geographical coordinates, including FAA ground tracks). When multimode returns from the same target can be identified, an additional strong constraint on the ionospheric model is imposed; skywave propagation must connect all modes to the same geographical location. In Phase I we will incorporate this multimode constraint in CREDO’s optimization algorithm and demonstrate resulting CR accuracy improvement. In Phase II we will use this improved ionospheric modeling to develop a multimode tracker using NWRA’s SIFTER extension of track-before-detect, with tracking performed in geographical coordinates instead of radar coordinates. This approach removes the requirement for explicit mode linking, eliminating the longstanding problem of misidentified modes. BENEFIT: The incorporation of additional ionospheric data beyond conventional OTHR vertical and oblique backscatter soundings is expected to improve the fidelity of real-time ionosphere models, resulting in improved OTHR Coordinate Registration accuracy. Skywave representation of Known Reference Points such as FAA ground truth targets is one example of such extra ionospherically-related data. Identification of skywave modes that belong to the same target (called “family members” in ROTHR terminology) allows the incorporation of an additional strong constraint on the derived ionosphere model; skywave propagation in the model must properly co-locate family-member modes geographically. The Next Generation OTH Radar (NGOTHR) is expected to have the additional benefit of elevation information in its backscatter soundings, and this can be incorporated in our solution method for additional fidelity. Improved CR accuracy will enhance the applicability of OTHR as a wide area surveillance asset for Air Force and Homeland Security applications with dramatic cost savings over alternative microwave radar solutions. The Phase II development of a geographic-space tracker eliminates mode-linking errors (the cause of the largest CR errors in OTHR) and provides enhanced sensitivity to low RCS targets (e.g., small boats or cruise missiles), extending the applicability of NGOTHR to important Homeland Security issues.

Propagation Research Associates
1275 Kennestone Circle Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 384-3413
Jim Stagliano
AF103-181      Awarded:1/4/2011
Title:Multimode Tracking for Next Generation Over the Horizon Radar Real-Time Ionospheric Correction
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes to develop a real-time error correction processor using multimode tracking for over the horizon radar. In particular, PRA will leverage its extensive experience in propagation effects and tracking algorithms coupled with target selectivity algorithms to develop a dynamic real-time mode linking process for over the horizon radar using aircraft beacon data. Ray tracing the radar signals from origin, through reflection in the ionoshpere, to the receiver on the ground, an estimate of the expected modes will be produced. This will be compared with the measured modes to provide a uniform detected track from the multiple propagation modes. The detected tracks will be compared to the true tracks of the cooperative aircraft to form an error surface for minimizing errors on uncooperative targets due to unaccounted propagation phenomena. The error surface will be updated as additional aircraft position measurements become available in order to adapt to changes in the structure of the ionosphere. BENEFIT: The problem of multiple propagation modes is a significant issue for over the horizon radar, particular during active ionospheric periods. Through the use of cooperative aircraft targets providing accurate aircraft state information in real-time, a real-time error surface can be extracted to improve the track performance of over the horizon radars independent of the particular atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena inducing the errors. The successful completion of Phase I will result in an autonomous error correction algorithm using an operations research optimization approach. The optimization approach applied to multimode tracking can be extended and modified for other engagement applications including air-to- air and ground-to-air engagements. PRA has already applied a similar approach to force protection against rockets, artillery, and mortars and to enhanced target selectivity for anti- ship missiles. The general operations research approach can be evolved from the successful completion of Phase I for applications to include radar and communications mode linking, missile engagements, UAV operations, robotics and operational logistics. The algorithm can also be applied to asset defense in a multiple engagement scenario with many incoming threats for optimum assignment and engagement of targets such as a swarm of small boats attacking a ship or a swarm of low cost rockets attacking a high valued asset. Other anticipated benefits and commercial applications are in resource allocation for first responders, disaster planning, police chases, etc. In Phase II, PRA plans to develop a simulation to demonstration the processing and exercise the interfaces in preparation for a Phase III implementation into an OTHR system. The processing algorithms will need to be numerically efficient for real-time operations and PRA will develop near optimal algorithms that are capable of achieving fast computation. In addition, PRA plans assess the algorithms using R-OTHR data from Raytheon. In the longer term PRA will continue to develop and commercialize products based on the exploitation and mitigation refraction of signals through continuous media. Applications

STRAD Corporation
141 Providence Rd Suite 150
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 294-6835
Michael Papazoglou
AF103-181      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Simultaneous Tracking and Ionospheric Model Estimation for NG OTHR
Abstract:Robust target tracking and accurate geo-location for over-the-horizon radar (OTHR) are currently limited by clutter-contamination of signal returns and uncertainty in the multi-mode mapping from radar to ground coordinates. In this proposal, we address both these challenges by developing methods which jointly estimate target ground positions and ionospheric model perturbations while optimally associating radar detections across multiple dwells. The proposed Simultaneous Target and Ionospheric Model Estimation (STIME) approach exploits non-maneuvering targets and/or known aircraft flight paths to both geo- locate targets and to track the variations in ionospheric parameters which frequently degrade the performance of current systems. Moreover, by incorporating estimates of ionospheric parameters into the target tracker, STIME greatly simplifies the subsequent association of multi-mode ground tracks. In principle, STIME is applicable to both current and next generation OTH radar. For NGOTHR, the proposed approach maximizes the utility of elevation angle measurements obtained using 2-D transmit and receive arrays by incorporating them early on in the tracking and data association process. BENEFIT: The proposed methods for improving multi-mode OTHR tracking and geo-location in the presence of ionospheric model uncertainty will benefit both current systems used for counter- drug enforcement as well as NGOTHR systems designed for wide-area surveillance of US coastlines in support of homeland defense.

W R SYSTEMS LTD.
11351 Random Hills Road, Suite 400
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 293-7312
Roderick Barnes
AF103-181      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Multimode Tracking for Next Generation Over the Horizon Radar (NG OTHR)
Abstract:We propose the development of simple models that demonstrate the full OTHR multimode tracking process in both conventional and next generation systems. The models shall permit exploration and demonstration of well-understood limitations and ambiguities, and the performance of potential resolutions. The model components include a track generator, coordinate transform and statistics generator, mode association and linking scheme, Known Reference Point (KRP) data generator, and KRP association and assimilation scheme. Several innovative techniques to improve conventional multimode tracking are described and will be modeled. These are centered on 2-D OTHR and MIMO enabled mode selection. In a high-density target environment, these will be crucial innovations in eliminating ambiguity, but some ambiguities between closely spaced targets will remain. We therefore propose a new method of KRP assimilation, which uniquely associates ground location with propagation paths. We call this method Cooperative Othr Registration Technique (CORT). Due to the unambiguous nature of CORT, it is expected to be a most effective technique in improving OTHR robustness in a target dense, multimode track environment. A proliferation of CORTS could see a very different paradigm in OTHR tracking, leading to consideration of OTHR for new missions. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits The phase 1 developments will illustrate the potential of novel techniques for tracking and coordinate registration in next generation OTHR. They will demonstrate the degree to which the techniques address the fundamental ambiguities that limit accuracy and robustness of current systems. This provides valuable information for requirements development in next generation OTHR. If successful, the benefits of these techniques will be to eliminate many of the ambiguities in OTHR tracking accuracy that have limited the mission use of the sensor thus far. If these ambiguities can be removed then OTHR could, for example, be considered for low cost surveillance in denser target environments such as traffic monitoring in gap areas over CONUS. Potential Commercial Applications The phase 1 developments will provide valuable products in informing the OTHR TRRI phase 2 and ROTHR programs on the feasibility of new techniques in OTHR multimode

aPeak Inc.
63 Albert Rd.
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 964-1788
Stefan Vasile
AF103-182      Awarded:1/12/2011
Title:Photon counting receivers with on-pixel signal processing
Abstract:Geiger mode avalanche PhotoDiodes (GPDs) are being used in latest LADAR receiver designs. Current GPD based FPAs require multiple laser pulses to validate the target and additional off-chip processing to produce range images with low false alarm rate and in real- time. The goal of this program is to develop FPAs with on-pixel signal processing. Phase I effort will address design, fabrication of prototype FPA dies and physical characterization, predict the LADAR receiver metrics, and validate the main steps of the fabrication process for LADAR receivers. Phase II effort will validate and integrate all the steps of the fabrication process, will further develop the critical process steps, design methods to improve on single-photon sensitivity and noise, and will manufacture FPAs for LADAR receivers with enhanced on-pixel signal processing. This new receiver has the potential to decrease the processing time, simplify the frame capture and improve on LADAR image acquisition. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits/Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development. Anticipated benefits: Better photon utilization efficiency, lower false alarm rate, real-time output, improved 3D image overlapping and alignment Potential applications include: obstacle detection, night vision, time of flight imaging in High-Energy Physics Commercial applications may include: Collision avoidance, robotic driving, material identification and tracking at construction sites

Epitaxial Technologies, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5830
Ayub Fathimulla
AF103-182      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Advanced High Sensitivity Receiver Array Technology for 1550 nm Ladar Applications
Abstract:For this SBIR project, Epitaxial Technologies will an innovative active sensor and associated ROIC technologies and demonstrate large format 128 x128 focal plane arrays (FPA) having simultaneously high single photon sensitivity, frame rates and effective bandwidths. In Phase I, we will design and fabricate an intermediate format (32 x 32) APD array and demonstrate that these devices are capable of high detection probabilities, high pixel bandwidth and high frame rates. In Phase II, we will design, build and test 128 x 128 arrays and photon counting ladar receivers with room temperature single photon detection probability greater than 80%, speed higher than 1.0 GHz, frame rate of 20 KHz and DCR lower than 10000 counts/sec. BENEFIT: This proposed project would result in the commercialization of large format (128 x 128 pixels), high dynamic range, and high frame-rate (20-kHz) sensor arrays with single photon- counting sensitivity levels and high reliability that are critical to the development of laser imaging ladar capabilities for airborne targeting and reconnaissance missions However, it will also be applicable in a wide variety of the DoD systems that require high detection probability single photon sensor technology including laser warning receivers, passive rangefinders, detectors of ordinance, gunfire, and rocket plumes, infrared counter measures, night vision imaging of military aircraft, space borne surveillance systems, and chemical sensing. Commercial applications include quantum cryptography, quantum repeaters and quantum imaging and for, astronomy, chemistry and microscopy, noninvasive measurement of the concentration of blood components such as glucose, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and albumin.

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Andrew Huntington
AF103-182      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Large-Format Linear-Mode Single-Photon-Sensitive Flash LADAR Receiver
Abstract:The most effective strategy to increase LADAR range performance while minimizing size, weight and power (SWAP) growth is to increase the sensitivity of the detectors used in the receiver. To address this need, a radiation-hard, 256×256-format flash-LADAR receiver will be developed based on linear-mode single carrier multiplication (SCM) InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) array technology with 85% quantum efficiency, 4x the responsivity, and 1/6th the excess multiplication noise of conventional InGaAs APDs. The innovation is intended to supplant Geiger-mode APD receivers, whose performance is highly variable in cluttered scenes due to the technology’s long dead times, inability to detect more than one photon per dead-time period, and inability to detect pulse amplitude. Contrastingly, the proposed single-photon-sensitive LADAR detector technology can record pulse time of arrival to <100 ps, pulse intensity to 10 bits, and the time of arrival and pulse amplitude of up to three pulse returns per pixel at a 20-kHz frame rates. In Phase I, a SCM-APD ladar receiver will be fabricated and its superior performance documented. The Phase I results will be used in Phase II to fabricate and assemble a low-SWAP 256×256 LADAR camera. In Phase II, radiation and lifetime testing will also be performed. BENEFIT: The single-photon-sensitive APD technology is ideal for applications where laser power is limited and high-resolution 3D imaging is needed for enhanced situational awareness or navigation. Promising applications include 3D data for targeting, mission planning, vertical obstruction identification, site survey, atmospheric profiling, autonomous navigation, automotive cruise control and hazard avoidance, wavefront sensing, and adaptive optics.

MaxxEng
401 Kato Terrace
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 249-5145
Bruce Lee
AF103-183      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:Electrical Energy Generating for Anti Tempering Devices using Piezoelectric Effect
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of an electrical energy generation using piezoelectric devices, which can be used for power solution for sensors detecting tampering engineering and reverse engineering for core electronics devices such as CPU, DSP, or FPGA. BENEFIT: Many Anti-tamper technologies need power to operate properly. However, deploying and maintaining batteries for powering these AT devices up present enormous challenges to the DoD logistic supply chain pedgree. The proposed solution harvests energy using piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric device also can detect vibration or noise potentially induced by weapon systems operated in severe environment and destructive analysis for tampering engineering. The electrical potential generated by the piezoelectric device will be harvested to power AT devices up without a dedicated battery. The energy harvesting and storing techniques can be also used in the area of commercial IP protection applications.

Micro Optics Technologies, Inc
8608 University Green #5
Middleton, WI 53562
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 831-0655
Jeffrey Buchholz
AF103-183      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:RF Harvesting for Anti Tamper (AT) Techniques
Abstract:A system is designed to extract energy from background RF energy in the ambient due to radio and wireless communication sources. This energy is harvested on a continuous basis and stored on-board to provide power for anti tamper systems. This eliminates the need for maintenance of battery sources that would otherwise be needed to power the device electronics. With a maintenance free power source provided by harvesting energy from the environment the sensors can operate for an unlimited time unattended. BENEFIT: Powering electronics from ambient RF backgrounds eliminates battery maintenance in wireless devices. Potential commercial application is wireless recharge of batteries in portable electronic devices and sensor networks.

TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4440
Lew Bragg
AF103-183      Awarded:1/25/2011
Title:Anti Tamper (AT) Techniques
Abstract:The Air Force has a need for improved power supplies to service anti-tamper (AT) systems. The current approach, primary batteries, because of power draw requirements is oversized and bulky and subject to degradation over long storage periods. While energy harvesting (EH) devices are a possibility, the quiescent storage environment negates many EH options. TPL has developed EnerPak, a microprocessor-controlled, EH-based power management system, which also employs a unique energy storage/delivery device configuration for improved efficiency. Combined with improved betavoltaic batteries now entering the market, perhaps complemented by the use of vibration generators, a long lasting, miniaturized power supply for AT systems appears viable. In Phase I, power requirements will be defined; betavoltaic batteries, thin film rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors will be characterized; supporting circuitry will be designed and fabricated; and a breadboard demonstration of the EH-based power supply will be demonstrated. TPL’s expertise in developing power management systems for a variety of EH devices, its use of a rechargeable battery/supercapacitor configuration for power delivery, and proven performance of EnerPak over a two year field test provides a proven capability to develop the needed advanced power supply. BENEFIT: The DOD has an extensive need for EH-based power supplies, including unattended ground sensors, structural and component health monitoring, wireless sensor networks, and other applications. There is growing use of EH-based power supplies in the commercial sector with forecasts projecting a market of $4B within the decade the such devices. The proposed project will increase the options available for the development of such power supplies.

NexGenSemi Corporation
27130A Paseo Espada, Suite 1405
San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 422-6625
Michael Zani
AF103-184      Awarded:1/12/2011
Title:Advanced Integrated Circuit Anti-Tamper Methods
Abstract:NexGenSemi will develop a unique semiconductor fabrication process to execute multiple AT techniques on a single wafer. During the phase I program, NexGenSemi will perform preliminary sub 90nm tests leading to the TAPO ASIC test structures to be fully executed in the phase II. BENEFIT: Provide the DOD a high speed, low cost Trusted AT manufacturing method for electronics below the 90nm node.

Space Photonics, Inc.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 856-6367
Matthew Leftwich
AF103-184      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Development of an Ultra-Low Power IC Design and Packaging Technique to Provide a Variety of Critical Anti-Tamper Safeguards
Abstract:Novel design methods, processes, and techniques, are needed including implementation demonstrations and subsequent security evaluations of alternative integrated circuit AT methods. These methods should provide multiple attributes of the following characteristics: a visible barrier to the underlying circuitry, electromagnetic shields to suppress or confuse radiated and conducted emissions, methods that protect from both the front and rear of the active integrated circuit areas, methods to detect intrusion and that initiate a tampering penalty, methods that cause the reverse engineering process to be substantially delayed or rendered fruitless. These techniques must be applicable to integrated circuit design and manufacturing processes, use minimal circuit area/power resources, provide minimal decrease in manufacturing yield, and remain cost effective. Advanced AT developments and techniques are required in the following integrated circuit areas: software/firmware design, circuit design, physical layout, and packaging techniques. Additionally, simulation and analysis methods need to be developed to assess and verify AT effectiveness, prior to fabrication. Test methods and measurement standards are required to assess the protection provided by the proposed mix of AT chosen for a particular point-design. This effort will therefore focus on developing innovative, ultra-low power IC design and packaging techniques that will provide a variety of die-level and package-level CPI/CT volume protection capabilities. BENEFIT: The proposed innovation will provide the following AT safeguards: i) Prevention of side- channel attacks (SCAs), including power-based, timing-based, electromagnetic (EM)- based, and fault-based ones; ii) Prevention of non-intrusive X-ray and SEM imaging with real-time knowledge (and triggering) of the imaging event; and iii) Prevention of physically de-packaging the IC with real-time knowledge (and triggering) of the de-packaging event. Applications are limited to critical military electronics that reqiure AT safeguards.

The Athena Group, Inc.
408 West University Avenue Suite 306
Gainesville, FL 32601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Jonathon D. Mellott
AF103-184      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Advanced Integrated Circuit Anti-Tamper Methods
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR project, The Athena Group, Inc. will develop an analytic methodology in order to derive practical metrics that can be used early in the design process for power analysis countermeasures in cryptographic design implementations. These metrics may be used iteratively during the design process in conjunction with established design tools and methodology and prior to costly and time consuming fabrication and laboratory testing of implementations to produce results that are designed up to the requirements for resistance against specific classes of power analysis attacks. The impact of this innovation will be to reduce cost and schedule risks associated with the implementation of power analysis attack countermeasures and to provide a deterministic measure of attack resistance now and in the future. Athena expects that the analytic methodology will also be applicable to similar attacks and countermeasures based on electromagnetic emanations. The establishment of this analytic methodology will lead to a greater understanding of side-channel attacks, in general, and may suggest new countermeasures or produce quantitative means of establishing protocol-level countermeasure thresholds, such as cryptographic key lifetimes. BENEFIT: Athena will market cryptographic implementations that incorporate the quality improvements enabled by Athena’s analytic design methodology to military and commercial electronics manufacturers. The adoption of these implementations will enable more predictable performance of cryptographic implementations against side-channel attacks, while lowering time-to-market and implementation development costs, thus enabling more widespread adoption of cryptographic protection.

Tigers Lair Inc
72 Nickerson Road
Ashland, MA 01721
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(774) 224-4303
Paul Bradley
AF103-184      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Advanced Integrated Circuit Anti-Tamper Methods (configurable AT focus)
Abstract:Tiger’s Lair proposes to research and develop a method of constructing a trusted chip design (ASSP, ASIC, FPGA) where the designer uses automated design tools and lightweight reconfigurable instruments (hardware IP) to create a fabric of embedded real- time security monitors and countermeasure functions that can be inserted into digital subsystems such as processors, memories, buses, peripherals, controllers, power management circuits, clock management circuit and legacy circuits to protect the chip from tampering, reverse-engineering, malware, Trojans and unauthorized use. A primary objective is to create reconfigurable instruments that will be very small and have minimal impact on the gate-count, area and system performance. Another primary objective is to create automated IP insertion tools that enable easy creation, configuration and insertion of instruments into specific areas of the design – without requiring the user to have intimate knowledge of the hardware design. The use of design analysis and automation tools enables instrumentation IP to be “mixed and matched”, and subsequently tailored to the specific application. The automation tools will also enable the automated insertion of third- party IP such that heterogeneous AT sensors can be integrated in silicon and general managed within the development process. BENEFIT: Using a combination of design tools and lightweight reconfigurable hardware IP we will enable protection of both new and existing products. This tool-based approach allows organizations to take control over all IP and establish standardized methods for security IP use and re-use based on correct by construction design automation techniques. The tools will provide substantial benefits to obsolescence management, technical refresh programs and retrofitting activities. The lightweight nature of the hardware IP allows protection to be added to systems with severe area or performance limitations, as well as legacy systems and proprietary circuits that cannot be protected using current large/intrusive security IP solutions. The proposed delivery method allows quicker adoption and standardization of embedded IP security solutions, and importantly, the potential to retrofit existing FPGA based systems with proposed protection schemes. The reconfigurable IP is technology agnostic, can be used in ASSPs, ASICs and FPGAs. It is transportable between any programmable logic devices. Tiger’s Lair will work in partnership with Raytheon to analyze the feasibility and practicality of retrofitting this technology into existing systems. Upon successful completion of Phase I, we will implement and demonstrate the proposed security scheme on an existing Raytheon system in Phase II.

NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown
AF103-185      Awarded:1/5/2011
Title:Collaborative Global Positioning System (GPS) Receivers for Enhanced Navigation Performance
Abstract:Under this SBIR effort, we propose to develop a system architecture that provides improved accuracy and availability under adverse conditions for networked GPS receivers operating collaboratively using a GPS Distributed Aperture Processing (GDAP) approach. The proposed collaborative approach operates by using a combination of shared GPS observations, augmented by other networked observations including intra-network ranging to allow robust positioning of all network participants. The collaborative algorithms to be used by the GDAP system will be demonstrated using a combination of test data analysis and modeling and simulation. Test data will be collected using our existing POSCOMM software defined radio test-beds that can provide GPS and intra-network range observations using a 900 MHz transceiver. Modeling and simulation will be performed with our in-house urban navigation simulation tools that use Google Earth’s 3D warehouse combined with a ray propagation path tool to simulate GPS, intra- network ranges and jammer signals. A Phase II design will be developed for a Software Defined Radio implementation suitable for transition onto future handheld military tactical radios. A test plan will also be proposed for demonstrating how the networked GDAP units can maintain accurate positioning in an urban canyon, indoors or under signal spoofing or interference. BENEFIT: The NAVSYS GDAP System (GPS Distributed Aperture Positioning) will provide greatly improved accuracy in the very difficult urban environment that will shorten battles and save lives. The civilian public protectors will be able to execute their tasks more efficiently and with less delays that can save lives. The fact that GDAP is a software product that can be installed in JTRS radios has the additional benefit of providing the above improvements for minimum cost.

Qunav LLC
58 Linwood road
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(740) 541-1529
Andrey Soloviev
AF103-185      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Multi-Platform Signal Processing and Trajectory Estimation for Navigation in Difficult GPS Environments
Abstract:A common feature of existing methods for improving the GPS performance is the attempt to enhance signal processing and navigation estimation parts of a single receiver. At the same time, potential that is inherent to the integration of data from multiple receivers remains completely underutilized. To utilize this potential, we propose to develop a MUlti-platform Signal and Trajectory Estimation Receiver (MUSTER) technology that will integrate signals and measurements from multiple GPS receivers organized into a collaborative network. The technology will enable: 1) Integration at the signal processing level, including: 1.1) Multi-platform accumulation of weak signals; 1.2) Multi-platform phased arrays for jamming suppression; and, 2) Integration at the measurement level, including: 2.1) Joint estimation of the receiver navigation states; 2.2) Multi-platform integrity monitoring. Development of the MUSTER technology will be built on an open-loop GPS receiver methodology that has been previously explored for stand-alone GPS receivers. Phase I will investigate into algorithms and methods of multi-platform GPS processing; will demonstrate their feasibility in simulated environments; and, will perform limited demonstration with experimental data. The MUSTER technology will be developed to meet limitations of military communication networks, to support processing of unsynchronized data and to maintain robust performance under data latencies. BENEFIT: Phase I effort will demonstrate that signals and measurements can be combined from multiple non-synchronized and non-collocated GPS receiver to a) increase the signal-to- noise ratio; b) enhance beam-forming capabilities for interference mitigation; and c) improve the overall satellite availability for solution estimation and integrity monitoring. Phase I will also analyze real-time implementation aspects of a combined FPGA/software implementation of the multi-receiver technology as well as its functionality within military communication networks where data rate limitations serve as the main challenge. As a result, Phase I will determine the system architecture that optimizes the benefits of multi-platform integration under the limitations of computational power and data exchange capacity. These anticipated results will lay the foundation for Phase II prototyping and technology demonstration.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Richard A Hutchin
AF103-186      Awarded:1/11/2011
Title:Sheared Coherent Interferometric Photography for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:Optical Physics Company is proposing to develop a space object imager based on three dimensional sheared coherent interferometric photography (3D SCIP). The approach provides a lightweight and scalable imaging system , immune to atmospheric turbulence and Doppler shifts of fast moving space objects. The imaging platform can be ground based, airborne, or in space. A 0.5-10 m aperture using a lightweight Fresnel film collector provides 5cm 2D resolution and 5 mm depth resolution at 30-1000 km range for space based imagers. For ground based imagers, a 3D image at 2.5 cm 2D and 2.5 mm depth resolution at 1000 km range is possible using a 20 m diameter aperture built using tiled panels. During the first six months of the Phase I effort, the baseline design of the imager will be defined. Performance estimates for the baseline design will be based on an analytic performance model of the end-to-end system and the results of high fidelity simulations of multiple imaging scenarios. During the last three months of the Phase I effort, a laboratory demonstration will be designed, assembled, and tested to validate the analytic performance model. The project will conclude with the design of the Phase II Prototype. BENEFIT: Standard imaging techniques do not provide the capabilities for detecting and identifying space objects. With space threats increasing and smaller satellites being deployed, this capability is becoming a growing need. OPC’s 3D SCIP approach provides a complete and cost effective solution for this shortfall. The technologies developed under this effort can be applied to many air surveillance systems, as well. As an example, the 3D SCIP imager could be coupled to a coelostat can benefit detection of small UAV’s. To facilitate technology transition, OPC already has already identified a major prime contractor. The prime contractor is a system integrator with considerable experience in LADAR imaging systems, image processing and military manufacturing. OPC and the prime contractor have already worked together to consider practical issues related to embedding 3D SCIP in a field deployable system.

Privatran
1250 Capital of Texas Highway South Building 3, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 431-8460
Burt Fowler
AF103-186      Awarded:1/26/2011
Title:Wavefront/ Wavefunction Sensor for 3D Imaging
Abstract:PrivaTran proposes to develop a Wavefront/ Wavefunction Sensor 3D Imaging high resolution SCA (Sensor Chip Assembly) for use in coherent 3D imaging of long range targets for Space Situation Awareness (SSA) through turbulent atmosphere. The Wavefront/ Wavefunction Sensor will be composed of a sensor assembly utilizing a SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier) / sensor assembly and a ROIC (Read Out Integrated Circuit) receiver chip to provide amplification and high-speed sample-and-hold pulse shape capture. BENEFIT: By capturing the function coherently at a high repetition rate, both coherent amplitude vs. range and Doppler vs. range can be derived. These functions, combined with angle change between pulses allow a full coherent Inverse Synthetic Aperture image to be constructed of extremely long range targets

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Andrew Huntington
AF103-186      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Large-Area, Rad-Hard, Near Infrared Focal Plane Array for Coherent Holographic LADAR Applications
Abstract:Advances in component technologies have enabled new classes of coherent LADAR systems that offer the potential for enhanced persistent space surveillance and asset protection. Their complex-valued images allow for imaging functions not possible with intensity-only images, including coherent detection of target dynamics and shape. However, practical implementation of these techniques in a high-bandwidth configuration have not yet been demonstrated. To achieve these desired results, in Phase I, a novel wavefunction focal plane array (FPA), configured with a high-responsivity InGaAs detector array, will be fabricated under program funding, and an existing low-noise, high-dynamic-range WFS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with range gating down to 4 ns, pixel-to-pixel gain and offset level correction, correlated double sampling (CDS), snapshot imaging, and sustained 10 kHz operation will be fabricated, characterized, and tested against simulated targets. The successful Phase I requirements analysis and proof-of-concept WFS camera demonstration will prepare for Phase II, in which the ROIC will be re-designed to include multiple outputs and other user requirements, so that kHz frame rates can be achieved for FPA formats of 256×256 and larger. The camera will be delivered to AFRL for evaluation in a Coherent Holographic LADAR testbed. Phase II will also include radiation, reliability, and lifetime testing. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is applicable to traditional LADAR markets, including 3D data for targeting, autonomous navigation, automotive cruise control and hazard avoidance. When scaled for commercial application, the innovation will have widespread application in the areas of medicine, engineering, optical computing, and gene sequencing.

Applied EM Inc.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
C.J.Reddy
AF103-187      Awarded:2/7/2011
Title:Antennas for GNSS Handheld Receivers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) includes modernized global positioning system, the European Galileo, Russian Glonass, and the Chinese Beidou systems. Many next-generation receivers will include additional GNSS satellite signals to improve accuracy and satellite availability. The GNSS frequencies span from 1164 MHz to 1300 MHz and also 1559 MHz to 1611 MHz. The Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP) gain should be maximized over all of the visible sky. Innovative GNSS antennas are needed which are small enough to be used with handsets. Under this project, Applied EM in collaboration with its team members proposes two handheld GNSS antenna configurations. The first configuration involves an antenna that fits inside a target volume of 3” by 1” by 1”. This antenna volume can be mounted on top of the existing handheld receiving unit or fitted inside the top of the handheld unit. This fixed design eliminates any moving parts. The second configuration involves a moving antenna part that has a target volume of 4” by 3” by 0.25”. When the receiver is not operated, the antenna part would be collapsed as a cover or simply folded back for storage. The second approach avoids the need for significant modifying the receiver unit. BENEFIT: US and allied military user equipment programs will be interested in GNSS handhelds to improve accuracy and satellite availability. Commercial GNSS handheld technology is a very large and growing industry. Many next-generation receivers will include GNSS.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
4865 Sterling Drive
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Dean Paschen
AF103-187      Awarded:1/28/2011
Title:Antennas for GNSS Handheld Receivers
Abstract:The FIRST RF approach to the handheld antenna for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is a wide bandwidth, wide beamwidth, compact adjustable element with integrated Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). This approach uses an innovative FIRST RF design to maximize bandwidth around the GNSS 1164-1611 MHz band while minimizing volume, maintaining uniform gain, providing efficient radiation over the full upper hemisphere, and allowing low-cost manufacturing. The element design makes use of a unique, electrically small, radiator that provides efficiency and excellent pattern shape over a wide bandwidth. A LNA is integrated on the back of the antenna element in order to ensure good carrier to noise ratio, which results in better satellite acquisition, lock and positional accuracy. The overall antenna design is implemented with low cost manufacturing techniques that include individual component test and verification before integration, design margin for material and temperature variance, and use of COTS components. The antenna is baselined as a flip-out module for handheld receivers, but also offers a variety of installation options. BENEFIT: Countless military and commercial applications utilize GPS receiver units to obtain global positioning data. These units obtain data from satellites in the GPS constellation using the L1 and L2 frequency bands (1563 – 1587 and 1215 – 1240 MHz, respectively). Demand is continuing to grow for use of more satellites from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), including the European Galileo, Russian Glonass, and the Chinese Biedou systems. This makes the systems more universal, useful and accurate. In order to accommodate this extension of application, the receiver and antenna combination must be able to operate over the additional frequency bands associated with these satellite systems. It is also equally important in man-operated applications, that these receiver / antenna combinations be portable, light, and manageable. Currently, there are a limited number of receiver and antenna vendors for these GNSS bands. Some handheld receivers have been developed that can handle the additional frequency bands, but often times the limiting factor has been the antenna. Current handheld antennas either cover only a few selective GNSS frequencies or are physically too large and cumbersome for handheld application. In order to remedy this, FIRST RF proposes to leverage their expertise to create a small, high performance, fully GNSS capable antenna for implementation in a handheld unit.

Pharad LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive, Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 590-3333
Rodney Waterhouse
AF103-187      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Small Dual-Band RHCP Printed GNSS Antennas
Abstract:In this Phase I effort Pharad will investigate and develop a new class of small circularly polarized antennas for GNSS handheld receiver terminals. Our solution will be based on novel technologies pioneered by Pharad that incorporate slow wave engineering concepts to reduce its overall size. The inherent multi-layered configuration will be capable of operating efficiently over the 1164 – 1300 MHz and 1559 – 1611 MHz frequency bands with good Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP) to within +5o of the horizon. The slow wave engineering concepts we will apply to the structure will significantly reduce the size of the radiator by a factor of 7 – 9, making this new compact dual band GNSS antenna ideally suited to handsets. In Phase I we will use rigorous full-wave electromagnetic simulation tools to design the new compact dual band RHCP antenna and also establish important design trends and trade-offs. We will fabricate proof of concept prototypes of the new antenna and test their Voltage Standing Wave Ratio and radiation performance, including the axial ratio response. As part of Phase I we will also investigate through simulation and experiment, the impact of the user on the performance of the GNSS antennas. BENEFIT: The antenna subsystem developed through this program will be primarily applicable to military use in handset terminals, although it is obviously applicable to the commercial market as well as other military platforms, such as Controlled Radiation Pattern Antennas (CRPAs). As US forces are deployed to conflicts throughout the world, the utilization of GNSS is extremely important. The antenna proposed by Pharad will be a key technology for ensuring GNSS availability to US forces and weapon systems. Its small size and efficient operation will enhance the mission capability of US Air Force personnel and aircraft, in addition to other platforms.

EPIR Technologies Inc
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Angelo Gilmore
AF103-188      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Readouts for Energetic, High-Speed Event Sensing
Abstract:Current infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) are too slow for the detection of high speed events such as fast moving targets primarily due to the speed of their readout integrated circuits (ROICs). The speed of the readout is not only dependent on the unit cell bandwidth, but also the ability to move the electrical signals from the unit cell to the signal processing unit, which operates at ambient temperatures. While the speed of electronic circuits (for readout applications) has improved due to reductions in transistor gate lengths, the speed of the interconnects has become a bottleneck for present and future readout technology. At the same time, reduced pixel sizes and constraints on power consumption limit the incorporation of additional functionality in ROICs. In this SBIR effort, EPIR Technologies Inc. proposes to design a high speed ROIC using a three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC) process comprised of multilayered integrated circuits built by stacking and integrating individual IC layers. Parallel connects between the analog and digital sections will be implemented using the 3D process by realizing them on two different substrates. This technology can provide a higher circuit density and enhanced speeds while retaining power conservation. BENEFIT: High speed IR imagers are required in a variety of applications where it is essential to capture and analyze high speed events. Such events at present are difficult to capture with existing imaging systems due to limits on IR readout capabilities. This proposed effort provides a method to improve the speed of IR imagers enabling access to a suite of potential applications including imaging turbine blades, missile defense, fire detection, chemical analysis and automotive safety systems.

Nova Research, Inc. DBA Nova Sensors
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mark A. Massie
AF103-188      Awarded:1/13/2011
Title:Hostile Fire Indicating Infrared Focal Plane Array
Abstract:In this effort, a single ROIC device will be developed that simultaneously operates in “Imaging Mode” (i.e., for high spatial resolution imaging applications) as well as “Temporal Mode” (i.e., for high frame hostile fire detection applications). Nova’s design approach will use a single photodiode device in each of the unit cells. Switched capacitor circuitry within the unit cell architecture will be used to: • Store a representation of a given frame’s integrated photocharge on an in-cell capacitor at frame rates of up to 20 kHz. This is referred to as the “Temporal Mode” operation. • Perform analog “subframe averaging” on the resulting signal within each of the native (high resolution) unit cells, subsequently storing the time-averaged signal, thereby developing a high spatial resolution image at a 60 Hz rate. This is the “Imaging Mode” operation. Preliminary designs for the “Hostile Fire Indicating Infrared FPA” (HFIRFPA) ROIC will be produced; an initial physical layout of the unit cell circuitry will be performed in this Phase 1 effort. BENEFIT: The unique simultaneous, dual-mode operation of this new ROIC will permit both high spatial resolution video-rate imaging as well as high-speed hostile fire indication. This will enable new capabilities for future man-portable as well as UAV-based imaging, surveillance and reconnaissance applications.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Todd Grimes
AF103-188      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Readouts for Energetic, High-Speed Event Sensing
Abstract:RNET Technologies and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (Ball) in Colorado are responding to this SBIR topic “AF103-188: Readouts for Energetic, High-Speed Event Sensing”. We are collaborating with Ball because they have tremendous experience in the detection of energetic events and we will utilize their expertise in this SBIR. Ball has been a chief supplier of equipment and algorithms focused on ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance), MW (missile warning), MASINT (measurement and signature intelligence), and BSC (Battle-Space Characterization), including self-protection systems. Ball has also developed an innovative and unique FlashPoint suite for detection of energetic events. Both RNET and Ball will collaborate by designing dual sampling (both 30 Hz and 10 KHz) ROIC, which will make use of FlashPoint algorithm suite to capture energetic events. BENEFIT: The ROIC that will be developed in this SBIR will be primarily commercialized through Ball and they are the ideal commercialization partner. The plan is that in Phase II we will ensure that the ROIC will be hybridized with an MWIR detector that Ball selects and the assembly is extensively tested by Ball. We will also work with Ball in Phase III so that the prototype will be transitioned to applications/customers Ball selects to market this technology. We will also sign a licensing agreement with Ball so that this SBIR project will generate commercialization revenue.

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Adam Lee
AF103-188      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) for High-Rate Tracking of Energetic Threats
Abstract:The persistent surveillance infrared imaging systems deployed on USAF air- and space- borne platforms typically employ staring focal plane array (FPA) technology, which despite their large formats, have insufficient pixel bandwidth and frame rates to characterize small, energetic, fast-moving objects. To satisfy the need to image and track energetic threats, in Phase I, a radiation-hardened SOI CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) will be designed. Leveraging well-characterized ROIC pixel and control circuit intellectual property (IP) design cores, a High Energy Event Tracking (HEET) ROIC design will be realized. When hybridized to a detector material, the HEET ROIC integrates the functions of a conventional video-rate staring IRFPA with a time-resolved detector, integrating threshold- based, time-of-arrival threat detection and tagging information at the pixel level. In Phase I, the scalable, radiation-hardened ROIC will be designed using the proven ROIC design cores, and the design will be simulated and readied for fabrication at a domestic CMOS fab. The design will include a high-speed 14-bit analog-to-digital-converter (ADC) and a serial programming interface (SPI). In Phase II, the HEET ROIC will be fabricated, characterized, hybridized with a suitable detector array, and the ROIC’s energetic threat-tracking and low- noise staring modes of operation will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: The transient event capability added to the staring, imaging mode of an ROIC has widespread application. Applications including threat warning systems for fixed- and rotary- wing aircraft. Other applications include active (ladar)/passive imaging, tracking, surveillance, and charged particle detection. Other applications include medical sensors and vertex detectors for use in high-energy physics.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Curt Wu
AF103-189      Awarded:1/5/2011
Title:Adaptive Resource Management Architecture for Network Disruptions (ARMAND)
Abstract:Electronic warfare (EW) measures are an integral component of threat suppression missions such as suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD). A successful EW mission requires an underlying communication network that remains operational even when under attack. The communication network must be able to support the distribution and fusion of data provided by networked sensors. The fused sensor data provides an accurate situational awareness (SA) of enemy capabilities, and is therefore a target for enemy countermeasures. To support EW mission continuity and success while fighting through network disruptions, we propose an architecture that allows seamless dissemination and replication of tasks over a dynamic network. Our architecture will support resource virtualization, so tasks are not tied to a specific physical resource. Overlay networks will provide an efficient and scalable communication scheme that adapts to changing network topologies and conditions, and provide redundancies in the event of network link failures. We will incorporate a prioritized fault tolerance scheme to protect critical tasks without overloading available resources. Also, a data fusion algorithm management module will select and execute the most appropriate algorithm within the general task management framework based on time and accuracy constraints given the current state of the network resources. BENEFIT: We expect the full-scope framework to have immediate and tangible benefit for a number of distributed military algorithms fighting through network disruptions. In particular, the framework will help the execution of data fusion operations in the EW community. The technologies developed under this effort will also be applicable to commercial efforts in the real-time resource management market.

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Ronald Fernandes
AF103-189      Awarded:1/4/2011
Title:Mission-aware Trusted Sensor Networks for Distributed Electronic Warfare (MTNDEW)
Abstract:Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (KBSI) proposes to develop the Mission-aware Trusted Sensor Networks for Distributed Electronic Warfare (MTNDEW) simulation framework to support the modeling, development, testing, and deployment of monitoring, detection, recovery, exploitation and attack technology using advanced application-aware, distributed data fusion and re-routing algorithms in electronic warfare networks. The MTNDEW framework vision is to provide a comprehensive experimentation framework that supports a wide range of attacks, detection, and recovery mechanisms that are extensible to support new research ideas for high assurance in heterogeneous sensor networks that support electronic warfare. MTNDEW can also be used to evaluate electronic warfare network exploitation and attack in addition to defense. BENEFIT: MTNDEW is an innovative approach towards developing detection and fast rerouting techniques for emerging electronic warfare (EW) sensor networks. The principal project benefits anticipated from MTNDEW include the use of network simulators and data analysis for developing and analyzing high-assurance EW networks, leading to development of highly secure emergent networks before they are deployed. MTNDEW supports the analysis of anticipated threats, malicious and anomalous behavior as well as the performance and effectiveness analysis of detection, avoidance, and recovery solutions. The technology is beneficial to the DoD, Department of Homeland Security, and other government departments in protection of electronic warfare, intelligence and cyber networks. Commercial applications include enterprise network security and protection and cyber situational awareness technology across the commercial sector. MTNDEW can be applied to diverse sensing applications for more reliable and intrusion-free applications such as environmental monitoring, disaster preparedness and response, and CBRNE sensing.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Michael Perloff
AF103-189      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Distributed Battle Data Networks (DBDN)
Abstract:Evolving strategies for distributed EW rely critically on data networks, to communicate emitter detections and geolocations between sensors and C2 and tactical assets. Network reliability has been assumed in strategy development. However, standard IP networks may suffer data loss, delay, and congestion when node mobility, disruption, or loss results in intermittent connectivity. SSCI has developed unique, integrated disruption tolerant routing for airborne networks with intermittent connectivity. The routing methods maintain global, persistent views of network assets and link availability. In this effort SSCI will adapt and expand these technologies to enable EW networks, even if impaired, to continue performing essential tasks. Further, we will combine this expanded network view with awareness of the network EW tasks, node capabilities, data dependencies, and priorities to design routing extensions that will further ensure that EW networks complete essential tasks. We will be assisted in this effort by BBN Technologies, the principle developer of the original ARPANET. Their long history of expertise in TCP/IP, WAN and MANET routing, and Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), combined with SSCI's background in mobile DTN networking, data fusion, and EW geolocation methods, will ensure a successful Phase I feasibility demonstration, Phase II prototype, and Phase III transition. BENEFIT: Current EW sensor networks lose data when nodes temporarily lose network connectivity due to malfunctions, enemy action, mobility, or traffic congestion. There is a need for new routing methods that account for sensor node availability, use it in packet forwarding, and provide network users and managers with a full picture of the network for selecting data fusion methods to ensure that high priority enemy targets are detected, identified, and tracked. In addition to EW, the methods developed here are applicable to Homeland Defense sensor networks and commercial or personal applications where sensors are vulnerable to suppression or environmental degradation.

Raydex Technology, Inc.
655 Concord Ave, Unit 704
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 763-2711
Jingqun Xi
AF103-190      Awarded:1/26/2011
Title:Robust Broadband Anti-Reflection Coating for Infrared Spectrum
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to develop a robust anti- reflection coating in mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) spectrum. Such coating can virtually eliminate the Fresnel reflection over a broad spectrum range. The coating is enabled by the nano-technology, and can have large laser damage threshold. The combination of the optical function of the coating and its resistance to laser damage will enable a robust optical coating for high power laser applications. The technology can also be applied to other robust optical coating fabrication, such as highly reflective and partially reflective coatings. The combination of the material innovation and coating structure innovation will enable such novel optical coating technology. The intellectual merit mainly lies in technical challenges for coating design and material fabrication. BENEFIT: The availability of robust optical coating will be extremely beneficial to high power laser application, not only in MWIR spectrum but also in other spectra as well. High power laser devices and components are interest for many applications, in both of military field and non- military field. However, laser device or component failure caused by optical coating failure has caused the reliability concern for current state-of-art coating technology. The proposed robust optical coating using nano-technology can significantly enhance the robustness and reliability of the coating itself under the harsh environment, such as high laser power and high humidity. Also, it can enable novel optical function that conventional coating cannot achieve. The stability and the reliability of the high power laser devices and components can be drastically enhanced with the proposed coatings. Hence the new applications involved with stable high power lasers can be enabled.

TELAZTEC LLC
15 A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9905
Douglas Hobbs
AF103-190      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:High Laser Damage Threshold, Broadband Anti-Reflection Treatment Based on Surface Relief Microstructures
Abstract:Multiple strategic military missions depend on the advancement of high power lasers that operate within the IR spectral region. For maximum effectiveness, laser systems under development for the CIRCM, ABL, and next generation UAV programs, require increased power and broad wavelength agility. Promising tunable mid-IR solid state laser sources depend on conventional thin-film coating technology to achieve critical optical functions such as anti-reflection (AR), high reflection (HR), and spectral or polarization filtering. Thin-film coatings are easily damaged within high power laser systems, and the threshold for coating damage decreases as the demand for higher performance or wider bandwidth increases. As a primary example of this performance/reliability tradeoff, developers scaling the power output and tuning range of metal-ion doped semiconductor lasers opt for more complex, less stable laser cavity configurations with reduced efficiency in order to avoid the use of thin-film AR and HR coatings directly on the laser gain material facets. Dramatic increases in the power output and tuning range of these laser sources could be attained by development of a more robust AR treatment applied to the gain material facets alone. An innovative AR treatment based on surface relief microstructures has been shown to have great potential for increasing the reliability and power handling capacity of optical components. AR microstructures (ARMs) etched directly in the surface of relevant IR transmitting materials have consistently exhibited damage thresholds 2 times higher than untreated surfaces, a value that equates to a 4-5 time increase over any equivalent performance broad-band thin- film AR coated surface. This Phase I project proposes to demonstrate robust, wide bandwidth, high performance ARMs textures built in the end facets of chromium ion (Cr2+) doped zinc selenide (ZnSe) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) laser gain material. Multiple ARMs design variants will be fabricated in ZnSe, ZnS, and Cr2+:ZnSe coupons and subjected to standardized pulsed and continuous wave laser damage testing. Additional ARMs treated coupons of the most promising designs will be delivered to the Government for further damage testing. In collaboration with IR laser manufacturer IPG Photonics, the new robust AR treatment will be integrated into critical AFRL systems during Phase II and Phase III commercialization projects. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that a dramatic increase in laser power handling capacity combined with enhanced operational lifetime will be achieved through the integration of anti-reflecting microstructures in solid state laser systems. In particular, the broad-band performance of ARMs will benefit tunable metal-ion doped ZnSe and ZnS lasers that find a wide range of applications throughout the mid-IR spectral region. Air Force applications requiring more reliable, higher power, wavelength agile mid-IR laser sources include laser communications, countermeasures, target designators, weapons, rangefinders, remote chemical sensors, and infrared scene projectors. Commercial applications include environmental chemical monitoring, industrial welding and cutting systems, and food

C & P Technologies, Inc.
317 Harrington Avenue Suites 7, 9, 10 & 11
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Vinay Murthy
AF103-191      Awarded:1/6/2011
Title:Interrupted Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Abstract:Modern antenna technology makes possible the deployment of systems able to perform radar, communications, and electronic warfare functions with a single aperture. Such systems, due to demanding mission requirements and constraints, must switch among numerous modes while maintaining essential functions (e.g. air-to-air situational awareness). Therefore, radar functions that normally require extended dedicated aperture time and bandwidth must be interrupted so that other vital missions functions are not compromised. This proposal addresses Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging in the presence of temporal and spectral interruptions. In addition to interruptions due to competing mission tasks, interruptions may also be caused by spontaneous friendly and hostile radio frequency interference. The proposed work will address the quality and utility of imagery formed from interrupted SAR data as a function of interruption metrics. C & P Technologies proposes to study the functional dependence of image quality factors on interruption metrics such as: mean-interrupt rate, interruption duty-cycle, higher-order interruption statistics and minimum inter-interupt time. The proposed methods build upon recent developments in signal processing and applied mathematics, namely, sparsity-regularized inverse problems and algorithms for low-rank matrix completion. The proposed work will compare the image quality and utility of several SAR algorithms. BENEFIT: C & P plans to commercialize the results of this research in multiple commercial application areas of SAR such as commercial surveillance, satellite imaging applications including monitoring ocean waves, winds, currents, and seismic activity. The main emphasis will be data recovery for improved image quality and resolution. C & P plans to build a commercial toolbox for data recovery using the techniques developed as part of the proposed effort. C&P plans to address several of these application issues during the Phase I effort and plans to collaborate with primes during the Phase II period.

Integrated Adaptive Applications, Inc
2681 SW 103rd Street
Gainesville, FL 32608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 505-1931
Luzhou Xu
AF103-191      Awarded:1/18/2011
Title:Innovative Techniques for Interrupted Synthetic Aperture Radar
Abstract:In the proposed program, we will first perform a detailed investigation of the effects of various temporal and spectral interruptions on SAR image quality and utility. We will then develop innovative interrupted SAR imaging algorithms using the state-of-the-art sparse signal recovery (SSR) techniques, and consider their fast implementation by fully exploiting the SAR data structure. We propose to investigate the algorithms using both synthesized and collected data, and to evaluate their technical feasibility for practical applications in terms of effectiveness, robustness, computational complexity, memory requirement, and implementation simplicities. BENEFIT: The novel approaches we propose to develop have many advantages over existing methods. A successful effort of this program will significantly enhance the Air Force's ability to detect and classify targets and perform surveillance in the presence of an overcrowded spectrum and/or hostile ratio frequency interference. A partial list of these applications includes Counter-Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C-ISR), persistent surveillance missions of UAV, domestic counter-terrorism efforts, boarder security, drug trafficking, ground mapping.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Robert W. Hawley
AF103-191      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:Interrupted Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Abstract:High and ultra-high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are increasingly used for surveillance. These high resolution modes require a significant coherent integration time (CIT) to achieve the high cross range resolution. Persistent surveillance sensing modes require continuous collection of SAR data. The reality of sensor resource management is that this kind of time dedicated to SAR may not be achievable. Instead the sensor must be periodically interrupted so that other functions such as air-to-air situational awareness (search, track, and track maintenance), terrain following/terrain avoidance (TF/TA), electronic attack (EA), electronic protection (EP), and communications. A further complication occurs due to the crowded spectrum which is especially true for UHF foliage penetrating radar. In these lower frequency bands there are frequent gaps in collected radar spectrum due to interference or transmit restrictions. This interrupted SAR mode results in imaging artifacts that serious degrade the performance of subsequent exploitation algorithms. This effort will explore not only the impact of varying levels of interruption on SAR exploitation but also study several techniques for mitigating the effects of interruptions. BENEFIT: This research will result in mitigation of artifacts in SAR data that seriously degrade the performance of change detection algorithms used for persistent surveillance. The approach will be immediately beneficial to low frequency foliage penetrating SAR where interference in frequency is high and large integration times are needed to achieve cross range resolution. The technique will also facilitate novel sensor resource management approach to allow multi-function sharing of an aperture. The technique not only has applications to military sensors but also commercial foliage penetrating interferometric radars used in terrain mapping applications.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Les Novak
AF103-191      Awarded:1/14/2011
Title:Interrupted Synthetic Aperture Radar (intSAR)
Abstract:New and developmental multi-function radar employ active antenna arrays to fulfill multiple radar modes with a single aperture. This is particularly attractive for unmanned aerial vehicles, where form factor and size are highly constrained. For example, the Multi-Platform Radar Technology Insertion Program intended for the RQ04B Global Hawk is in tended to gather Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Ground Moving Target Indication data simultaneously. A SAR system can be made compatible with other interleaved modes if the effects of the interruptions in SAR data gathering necessary to accommodate these other modes can be ameliorated. SSCI and our subcontractor GOLETA Engineering propose to characterize and quantify how these interruptions affect SAR image quality and utility, and to develop gap-filling algorithms that accurately recover the missing phase-history data, thus providing formed SAR imagery containing minimal artifacts. BENEFIT: One of the critical radar functions is the collection of radar data to form good quality, high- resolution SAR imagery. The severe timeline demands imposed by the multi-mode functions of modern airborne radars utilizing active array antennas may result in interrupted SAR data collections -- and thus the SAR images may be corrupted. Characterizing the effects of interruptions on SAR image quality using phase-history data having data-gaps is essential to understanding the quality and the utility of the imagery in SAR imaging modes – from simple visual exploitation of the imagery by image analysts to the more advanced image exploitation modes such as interferometric imaging and coherent change detection. The benefits of this “interrupted SAR” research program are the development of new SAR signal processing and image formation algorithms that accurately recover image quality, permitting interleaving of other modes during SAR data collection in order to enhance the pilot’s situational awareness.

Parietal Systems, Inc.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Robert B. Washburn
AF103-192      Awarded:1/21/2011
Title:Hierarchical Nonparametric Tracking (HINT)
Abstract:The development of full motion video sensors on board unmanned platforms is quickly enabling persistent surveillance of areas of military interest in dense urban environments. Although the high resolution and update rate of persistent sensors facilitates tracking ground targets, serious tracking challenges remain due to obscuration, closely spaced targets in traffic, and maneuvers. Recently developed non-parametric Bayesian statistical methods for stochastic dynamical systems provide an opportunity to improve tracking by predicting track performance in such environments by learning target signature and motion behavior on-the-fly from the sensor data. The methods also automatically generate statistics which can be fed directly into fusion, sensor management, and other track exploitation systems. The proposed effort will apply non-parametric Bayesian methods to predict performance in feature-aided video trackers. The main output of the effort will be a prototype MATLAB implementation of the track performance prediction algorithm embedded in a MATLAB implementation of a forensic video tracker. In addition, the effort will produce an evaluation of the algorithm’s performance with simulated data and CLIF video data. Although developed for video sensors, the technology will apply to other types of moving target sensors. BENEFIT: The research will produce automated algorithms to predict track performance for feature- aided trackers using video or other types of sensors. The algorithm learns target signatures and motion behaviors on the fly, and outputs statistics which are needed by track fusion systems, sensor management systems, network detection, and other exploitation systems. The technology will improve ground-target tracking for surveillance of moving targets (vehicles and dismounts) in complex urban environments for military, law enforcement, emergency management, and security monitoring applications.

Sheet Dynamics, Limited
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Adam Nolan
AF103-192      Awarded:1/10/2011
Title:Performance Modeling of Feature Aided Trackers
Abstract:The bandwidth of current and future image analysts is insufficient to ingest the vast quantity of data generated by staring sensing platforms. Because of this, signature exploitation algorithms need to play a role in the data processing chain to cue analysts to specific regions of interest within the imagery. For systems which utilize exploitation algorithms, there is a need to understand the ability and limitations under various conditions. We propose a feature aided tracker that is able to model its performance based on the current operating conditions. This performance model is a crucial component of any layered sensing architecture. BENEFIT: EO based tracking algorithms for security applications, crowd monitoring, consumer characterization, and traffic flow analysis all suffer from limited self diagnostics. Algorithms which are able to predict performance corresponding to specific operating conditions would be able to 1)optimize sensor collection 2)mitigate false alarms 3)allow fuzzy decision making and 4)allocate additional resources when needed.

Signal Innovations Group, Inc.
1009 Slater Rd. Suite 200
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 323-3450
Jonathan Woodworth
AF103-192      Awarded:1/7/2011
Title:Performance Prediction of Feature Aided Trackers using Persistent Sensors
Abstract:The proposed Phase I program will develop a Bayesian framework for modeling and predicting track uncertainty and performance as a function of OCs and integrate this framework with algorithms for tracking vehicles in WAMI. The proposed Performance and Uncertainty Modeling and Prediction for Tracking (PUMP-T) framework is comprised of the following key elements: (1) explicit extraction of operating conditions (OCs), (2) calculation of information-theoretic metrics for quantifying uncertainty in track posterior probability density functions (PDFs), (3) sparse Bayesian regression algorithms for modeling track uncertainty as a function of OCs, (4) Bayesian semi-supervised regression/classification algorithms for modeling track performance as a function of OCs, (5) an offline process for training the uncertainty and performance models, and (6) an online process for predicting track uncertainty and performance and directly validating the models in the context of the observed data. The underlying prediction models driving the PUMP-T framework will be founded on posterior PDFs over track states inferred within a rigorous Bayesian framework. In Phase I, the PUMP-T framework will be designed to be agnostic to the specific tracking algorithm employed such that alternate tracking algorithms can be integrated and evaluated within the PUMP-T framework. BENEFIT: While the PUMP-T framework will be leveraged for video tracking applications in the proposed program, the framework easily generalizes to other exploitation algorithms (e.g. detection and classification) and other sensor modes. Medical device manufacturers are developing cutting edge sensors leading to revolutionary advances in diagnosis of a variety of diseases, especially cancer. These devices have the ability to gather a significant amount of data, much more than a physician or technician can handle alone. Therefore, automated processing, including rigorous understanding of uncertainty and performance predictions, is necessary for realizing the full potential of these devices. While the video exploitation software leveraged under this SBIR offer significant impact on a broad spectrum of DoD and IC applications today and in the future, the exploitation software also offers significant benefit to several existing and new commercial markets, including municipal public safety, traffic analysis and flow optimization, mining of video for targeted advertising, corporate security, and mining of surveillance cameras for retail applications. SIG has had discussions with companies and venture capital interests that participate in such markets and believes that the exploitation products of this SBIR would benefit these video content extraction markets.

Systems and Technology Research
14 Franklin Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 606-1602
Mark Luettgen
AF103-192      Awarded:1/31/2011
Title:Hybrid Learning and Model-Based Approach To Performance Prediction of Feature Aided Trackers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Generating track data from wide area motion imagery is an important first step in many exploitation tasks including high value target tracking, activity-based threat detection, and adversary network analysis. Tracker development to date has made significant advances, but there has been limited focus on tracker performance modeling and we need such a model to enable fusion with other sources of object detections and tracks, to establish our confidence in derived analysis products, and to quantify the value of additional collections or allocation of human resources to resolve tracker uncertainties. This program will develop a hybrid learning and model-based approach to integrated feature-aided tracking and performance modeling to dynamically compute measures of track performance, particularly distributions on track kinematic, association, and continuity, on a track-by-track basis, enabling users of that track information, whether human or automated, to perform the functions above. The performance model will be modular, enabling integration with both the baseline tracker we use for testing as well as other video trackers. The tracker and performance model include on-line learning as an essential element to calibrate background and kinematic models and to adapt performance model parameters over time. BENEFIT: The benefit of this program will be improved performance of video trackers and of downstream applications that leverage video tracks, and improved human, computational, and sensor resource allocation.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Darin A. Knaus
AF103-196      Awarded:2/18/2011
Title:3-D Imaging and Fluorescence for Quantification of Liquid and Vapor in Fuel Sprays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The performance of modern propulsion devices such as gas turbine main combustors and augmentors is largely dependent on fuel spray dynamics. Fuel sprays, usually involving a liquid jet emanating into a gaseous flow followed by subsequent breakup and atomization, are critically important to many performance metrics including thrust, efficiency, static stability, dynamic stability, observability, and emissions. Despite the importance of jet breakup and atomization, these processes are poorly understood and design approaches are largely based on correlations, yielding limited predictive accuracy. The ability to study fuel spray dynamics is limited by existing diagnostics which have difficulty penetrating the dense core region and discriminating between liquid and vapor fuel. In the proposed effort, Creare and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) will investigate applying an emerging 3-D flow visualization technique to this problem called Wave Front Imaging (WFI). Laser- Induced Fluorescence (LIF) will be used in combination with WFI (WFI-LIF) to quantify liquid and vapor fuel below the imaging resolution of WFI. In Phase I, we will conduct proof- of-concept experiments using isolated fuel drops vaporizing in hot air. We will compare WFI-LIF with numerical simulations of the same configuration. In Phase II, we will further enhance and calibrate WFI-LIF and extend it to representative flow conditions. BENEFIT: Technology derived from this project will be in the form of a new and novel flow visualization technique to study spray atomization. This will provide new insights into the spray breakup and mixing process, ultimately leading to decreased development time and cost for future propulsion systems while improving performance. This technology will be relevant to a broad range of combustion applications beyond augmentors including military and commercial aircraft combustors and internal combustion engines.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-6546
Sukesh Roy
AF103-196      Awarded:3/1/2011
Title:Planar Liquid-Vapor Imaging of Fuel Sprays for JP-8 and Alternative Fuels
Abstract:ABSTRACT: An optical technique for reliably separating and quantifying the liquid and vapor phases of real fuels has been elusive. Challenges include multiple scattering in dense regions, complex laser interaction with the fuel, a wide range of length scales, and effects of temperature and pressure. This proposal seeks to overcome these difficulties by (1) introducing a new approach to distinguishing yet capturing both the liquid and vapor phases, (2) removing the effects of multiple scattering, (3) capturing single-shot planar images of droplets, droplet size distributions, and vapor concentrations, and (4) utilizing and calibrating for real fuels, such as JP-8. This will be accomplished through laser-induced fluorescence, phosphorescence, and Mie scattering combined with structured laser illumination. In addition to developing a simplified diagnostic platform to perform these combined diagnostics, significant effort will be expended to analyze data from cold and heated sprays to determine calibration parameters for specific fuels such as JP-8. The Phase I will show the feasibility of these proposed experimental methods, as well as identify strategies for Phase II development of the laser-based planar imaging hardware and software system. BENEFIT: Proper fuel-air mixture preparation is critical for meeting the performance objectives of propulsion devices, including gas-turbine combustors, afterburners, pulsed-detonation engines, and rocket engines. The proposed work would provide new tools for visualizing the multiphase mixture preparation process in these devices for real fuels. This will enable researchers to study ignition, flame stabilization, combustion efficiency, and emissions as a function of injector design and operation conditions, leading to improved performance for the warfighter. In addition, the proposed laser diagnostic tools will be useful in a wide variety of multiphase flow applications, including commercial propulsion, stationary power generation, internal combustion engines, space heating, production of alternative fuels, and industrial sprays. Hence, the advanced diagnostic hardware for simultaneous detection of multiple planar images and calibrated signal interpretation algorithms should see wide commercial potential.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Scott D. Phillips
AF103-197      Awarded:1/27/2011
Title:Advanced Fuel System for Low-Bandwidth Screech Suppression
Abstract:Combustion stability is critical to the performance of augmented military jet engines. Instabilities such as screech can result in reduced augmentor performance, blowout, or even catastrophic failure. Screech remains a difficult problem to predict and mitigate, and its occurrence can limit the operational flight envelope of military systems. Many of the passive techniques used to suppress combustion instabilities in stationary gas turbines are unsuitable for military propulsion systems. Advanced active control techniques involving high-bandwidth active cancellation of instabilities have not been applied to real systems due to their inherent complexity. In this research program, Creare and Georgia Institute of Technology propose to develop an advanced fueling system for low-bandwidth active screech suppression in augmentors. The fueling system provides control of the spatial distribution of heat release in the augmentor allowing for manipulation of symmetry and convective time delays in the augmentor without structural modifications. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for transverse instability suppression in a subscale, cylindrical augmentor rig. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate, and demonstrate our technical approach at a realistic scale. Design activity will be supported by an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for predicting fuel distribution in augmentors. BENEFIT: Technology derived from this project will be in two forms. First, we will develop a novel fueling system for low-bandwidth active control of augmentor screech. The system will be suitable for retrofit into modern systems such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. In addition, this research program is expected to improve the overall understanding of the mechanism(s) that couple heat release and acoustics in augmentor systems. These technologies will expand the flight envelope for augmented military jet engines, increase the robustness of augmentor systems, and lead to more capable, cost-effective aircraft.

SPIRITECH Advanced Products, Inc.
731 N US Highway 1 Suite 1
Tequesta, FL 33469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Daniel Haid
AF103-197      Awarded:1/31/2011
Title:Technologies for Suppression of Screech
Abstract:A passive screech suppressing augmentor liner concept is proposed to absorb acoustic energy at frequencies below 1 kHz. Acoustic, or screech, liners have historically been designed to affect modes whose frequencies are greater than 1 kHz. Liners have proven to be a cost effective and lightweight way to control screech modes above 1 kHz, but they are impractical for lower frequencies. The proposed screech suppressing liner concept absorbs screech modes below 1 kHz using a mechanical spring-mass-damper system integrated within the liner design. This is provided through use of floating liner panels installed in the augmentor using spring retainers in a manner that allows them to resonate at the desired frequency. Damping, provided through use of metal foam in a constrained layer viscoelastic damper, absorbs the acoustic energy, thereby attenuating the pressure oscillations that lead to screech. This Phase I program will evaluate the proposed concept, develop a conceptual configuration, compare it to several other potential integration approaches, and verify feasibility of the concept through cold flow tests that utilize existing SPIRITECH hardware to save costs. The Phase II program will further develop the concept through a detail design and hot flow testing. BENEFIT: This SBIR effort (Phases I and II) will result in the development and demonstration of a new acoustic damping approach that will work in concert with current acoustic liners to address lower frequency screech phenomena. This is needed due to the potential for significant structural damage and/or performance degradation in future advanced afterburner designs, where non-axisymmetric exhaust ducts may be required. Specifically, the earliest immediate application is for the 6th generation fighter engine, where a radical redesign of historical afterburner architectures may be required to address low observables challenges. Several additional government programs could benefit from this technology, including RATTLRS, Supersonic Cruise Missiles, UAV/UCAV Aircraft, and Hypersonic Aircraft with TBCC propulsion. These near-term applications suggest the need for immediate government funding to transition results of Phase II to a product with specific application to the 6th generation engine for use in a future multi-role fighter. Beyond these needs, there is also potential for application to future commercial space transportation vehicles.

Mechanical Solutions, Inc.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Michael Platt
AF103-198      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:High Temperature Blade Health Measurement System for Adaptive Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal describes radar sensors and data processing algorithms that address the technology gap between NSMS and strain gage vibration surveys. The radar-based approach provides data that can be processed in the time and frequency domains to accurately track blade vibration down to very low levels and over a very wide bandwidth. The work in this project will be planned, performed, and reviewed in close cooperation with the Propulsion Instrumentation Working Group (PIWG) and its member companies. This lays the groundwork for a transition path for this technology. The proposed technology development and validation program will bring this system to technology readiness level 7 by the conclusion of Phase II. BENEFIT: Improvements in blade health monitoring capability will significantly reduce the cost and risk of development and operation of military and commercial gas turbine engines, industrial gas turbines used for power generation, as well as many types of industrial steam turbines, compressors and expanders. The costs associated with maintenance, downtime, and readiness are already well established and understood by both military and industrial users. By designing the system to meet the requirements of the PIWG community and validating the system with laboratory and engine tests, Mechanical Solutions is confident that a successful technology transition will occur.

Prime Photonics, LC
1116 South Main Street, Ste 200
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
Dan Kominsky
AF103-198      Awarded:2/9/2011
Title:High Temperature Blade Health Measurement System using FOCIS
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern turbine engines are advancing with remarkable progress in the development of increasing power, decreasing fuel consumption, and enhanced controls allowing for prognostic estimation of health. Even so, there are areas of these engines which can be dramatically improved given suitable enabling technology. One such area is in the adaptive adjustment of blade clearances, which can allow for higher fuel efficiencies and higher thrust to weight ratios. An additional area in which engines can be dramatically improved is in adopting a condition based approach to maintenance. Prime Photonics, LC (PPLC) will leverage its Fiber Optic Clearance and Identification Sensor (FOCIS) technology to develop a high-temperature, multi-function sensor platform to enhance the instrumentation capabilities for high performance turbine engines. The proposed sensor system will provide real time measurements of blade tip clearance, time of arrival, blade speed, and detection of foreign object damage, is intended for operation at temperatures of up to 1450°C (2650°F), and will be robust enough for flight engines. This effort extends prior work demonstrating the detection and identification of foreign object damage (FOD). This temperature range will be extended through the use of high temperature materials in the probe head, including sapphire, superalloys, alumina, and zirconia. BENEFIT: Using the high temperature PPLC FOCIS technology will allow for turbine engines which have greater performance, lower cost of manufacture, reduced fuel consumption, and lower maintenance costs. Through providing a single sensor which is capable of measuring all the parameters which the FOCIS system can, engines can reduce their instrumentation load, while increasing the value of the data obtained. Even so, there are areas of these engines which can be dramatically improved given suitable enabling technology. One such area is in the adaptive adjustment of blade clearances, which can allow for higher fuel efficiencies and higher thrust to weight ratios. An additional area in which engines can be dramatically improved is in adopting a condition based approach to maintenance, which allows for vast reductions in the cost of ownership of an engine over its lifetime. Both of these enhancements require the application of sensor technology which does not exist. The realization of these potential enhancements requires a robust, high-temperature, high- speed, multi-functional sensor system.

QUEST Integrated
1012 Central Avenue South
Kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 872-9500
Qingying (Jim) Hu
AF103-198      Awarded:1/28/2011
Title:Microwave Microscopy for High Temperature Blade Monitoring
Abstract:We propose a microwave microscopy for blade health measurement of aircraft engines at high temperature. Its designs will efficiently insulate the sensor components from the combustion heat without sacrificing the measurement sensitivity and accuracy. The microwave sensor is very sensitive to the blade movement and provides information to calculate the blade tip clearance dimension and blade rotation speed. Blade vibration measurement and analysis is conducted through multiple sensors distributed in the radial and axial directions. In this proposal, the technical paths/tasks are discussed in detail and some theoretical analysis is also provided. BENEFIT: The proposed microwave microscopy can meet the requirements for blade tip clearance measurement, blade speed measurement and vibration measurement to improve the turbine performance in terms of higher fuel efficiency, lower maintenance cost, less emission, and lower noise. It can be used in aircraft maintenance and monitoring for both the US military and the civil aircraft industry. The other industry that will greatly benefit from this technology is power generation who has the same needs for the blade monitoring as the aircraft engine industry. The proposed sensor can be slightly modified to be used as microwave non-destructive inspection tools for both metal and dielectric materials. Applications include non-contact inspection of crack, corrosion, and bubble flaws in aircraft structures, bridge, road, and building materials.

Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-0988
Anil Patnaik
AF103-199      Awarded:3/1/2011
Title:Fiber-Coupled Pulsed and High-Intensity Ultraviolet Optical Measurements for Propulsion Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Augmentor designs are rapidly evolving as goals of high performance, static and dynamic stability, and low emissions are pursued. To understand the details of the combustion in these and other devices, one generally requires spatially resolved, continuous high- repetition-rate (¡Ý 20 kHz) monitoring of species concentrations and temperature. Optical access must be made using fibers through high-temperature walls that are subject to fouling. Many diagnostics that perform well in laboratory flames experience challenges in these situations, including traditional laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Current state-of-the-art laser-based measurement technologies are not amenable to fiber-coupled measurements in the ultraviolet regime and are incapable of providing quantitative, continuous engineering information with the temporal resolution required to address the instabilities associated with combustors or afterburners. We propose an innovative fiber- coupled sensor based on hyperspectral UV sources to provide LIF-based temperature and OH concentration in reacting flows at ¡Ý 20 kHz. The sensor system will also be able to monitor other species including NO, CH2O, and possibly C6H6 with straightforward modifications. The hyperspectral ultraviolet sensor to be developed will be rack mounted with required accessories accompanied by the state-of-art ultra-low-solarization fibers that can be coupled to the test article. BENEFIT: A hyperspectral UV fiber-based sensor would be of great value to scientists and engineers for monitoring a wide variety of chemical species remotely. The detection of illegal drugs, chemical warfare agents, and chemical pollution for both airborne and water-bound substances could be monitored with such a system. Rapid analysis of chemical signatures could be useful for the Federal Law Enforcement Community (DEA and FBI), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Defense. A hyperspectral UV source would allow combustion engineers to monitor combustion efficiency and minimize the production of pollution in combustion processes with a high temporal resolution. Higher efficiency translates into lower fuel costs, while lower pollution translates into reduced green-house emission, which resulting in a cleaner and safer environment for everyone. The results of the Phase-I Market Need Assessment are detailed below.

Seaforth, LLC
2216 Bridgestorn Ct.
Fort Collins, CO 80525
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 218-5151
Christopher L. Hagen
AF103-199      Awarded:2/25/2011
Title:Fiber-Coupled Pulsed and High-Intensity Ultraviolet Optical Measurements for Propulsion Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical diagnostics for combustion, such as planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), require high power ultraviolet (UV) laser light with high spatial quality. Fiber optic delivery of such UV light would provide the robustness needed for applications in harsh environments, for example to combustors. However, the need to deliver high intensity UV light presents challenges for conventional silica fiber optics due to solarization, optical damage, and beam quality degradation due to mode coupling. Seaforth LLC’s personnel have extensive experience in high power fiber optics. We have delivered millijoule levels of nanosecond pulsed light through large core silica fibers. Through a recent innovation in fiber selection and launch, we have also achieved superior beam quality (lower M2) relative to that typically achieved, which will benefit sheet uniformity and shot-to-shot variation. In the Phase I program, we will extend this unique capability to UV light delivery. We will perform fiber characterizations under high power UV operation including parametric studies of solarization, optical damage, and non-linear effects. We will also show use of the fibers with high repetition rate (kHz) laser sources including demonstration of PLIF of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in a laboratory scale turbulent flame with burst mode imaging. BENEFIT: The ability to deliver high power nanosecond ultraviolet pulses via optical fibers with high spatial beam quality at the fiber output will benefit the entire optical combustion science research community. It will enable more versatile beam delivery for applications in harsh environments, such as combustors and engines, as well as for vacuum chambers and more typical bench-top settings. Application to combustor and engine environments is a particularly acute need owing to the lack of currently available methods. This innovation will also accelerate advances in fiber delivered laser based ignition systems for aero-turbines, where relighting at high altitudes is problematic, and for reciprocating gas engines, where conventional electric spark plug ignition systems are a bottleneck to achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. Improved fiber optic delivery of high power UV beams can also benefit areas of biomedical science such as fiber based PLIF or CARS for imaging applications.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Paul E. Yelvington
AF103-200      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Reactant Film Cooling Strategy for Increased Turbine Blade Durability
Abstract:Current combustors in gas turbine engines are releasing unburned fuel into the downstream components. These combustible species contact turbine blade film cooling air and undergo localized secondary combustion near the blade’s surface, resulting in increased temperatures, heat fluxes, and thermal stresses in the blades that significantly impact thermal fatigue and decrease turbine durability. While much research has been done on reacting fuel/air mixtures and non-reacting film cooling, the interaction of film cooling air with reactive freestream flows under realistic gas turbine conditions has not been adequately addressed by previous studies. The proposed work will close this knowledge gap by performing a detailed computational and experimental effort that will provide solid understanding and design guidelines addressing the effect of film cooling on blade wall temperature and durability. This understanding will enable the development of the proposed cooling strategy (fully explained inside) that will mitigate the impact of secondary, turbine-stage combustion on blade surface temperature, heat flux, and durability. The Phase I effort will include transient shock tube experiments with mixtures of high fuel concentrations and bleed air over various correlated geometries to measure wall temperatures and heat fluxes. A TRL 4 will be achieved at the end of Phase I. BENEFIT: The proposed technology has the potential to reduce energy consumption of the domestic transportation sector: The improved cooling strategy allows for higher combustor temperatures and stoichiometric ratios and increased thermal efficiency, and thus reduces energy consumption. Even in cases where the gas turbine combustor temperatures are not increased, more complete burning of the injected fuel will be achievable through local secondary combustions away from the turbine blade, increasing the amount of energy released for a given gas turbine and increasing thermal efficiency. The technology also has the potential to reduce the environmental impacts of the domestic transportation sector by minimizing the amount of unburned fuel exiting aircraft gas turbine engine exhaust, known to affect cloud formation among other environmental impacts. Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions can result from poor mixing, typically high with current short combustors with low residence time operating at high stoichiometric rates. Dual jet film cooling is an excellent method for mixing at least a portion of the fuel and air, and will thus reduce the unburned hydrocarbon emissions of any gas turbine engine. The approach proposed is an extremely practical and robust system that can be implemented onto any gas turbine engine with a capacity for compressor bleed air for film cooling. This project can provide economic benefit to US consumers in three main ways: (i) by the direct savings associated to more efficient gas turbine engines for commercial aircraft transportation, (ii) by the corresponding improvement in fuel emissions and the reduced environmental impact associated to a more reliable and efficient gas turbine engine, and (iii)

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF103-200      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Novel Laser-Based Diagnostics for Quantitative Characterization of Burning in the Turbine Phenomenon
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There are two overarching objectives of the Phase-I research effort. The first objective would be to provide non-invasive optical measurements for quantifying the pattern factor of the exhaust products from a Well-Stirred Reactor when it is entering a test-section that includes turbine blades with various cooling-hole configurations. The second overarching objective would be to present data from the areas near the turbine blades, including temperature, OH concentration, local heat release, and local equivalence ratio profiles for various cooling-hole configurations and blowing ratios between the combustor exhaust and coolants. The measurements will be geared toward addressing the following issues: (1) Quantify the conditions that result in "burning in the turbine;" (2) Quantitatively determine the effects of various cooling-hole configurations in preventing or reducing the heat release related to this secondary combustion near the turbine blade; (3) Identify the areas that need to be cooled based on a 2D measurement of heat-release rates near the turbine blade; (4) Identify coolant-delivery methods to the needed areas guided by quantitative measurements of temperature and species concentrations; and (5) Validate that coolant maintains vane at acceptable temperatures without burning. The specific task objectives are to obtain three measurements: The first is a measurement of the 2D temperature profiles of the exhaust products coming out of a well-stirred reactor connected to the turbine-blade test section using two-color OH PLIF. The second is a measurement of 2D temperature and OH- concentration profiles near the turbine blades for various flow conditions, shedding light onto the reactions near the turbine. OH PLIF images will also help to mark the reaction zones near the turbine blades. The third specific objective is to measure 2D heat release and equivalence ratio profiles near the turbine blades, utilizing an innovative hyper-spectral emission. This innovative sensor system will provide spectrally-resolved, two dimensional images of OH*, CH*, C2*, and CO2*at a speed of 20 kHz, thereby allowing for the calculation of local heat release and equivalence ratios from the ratios of OH*/CH* and C2*/OH*, respectively. BENEFIT: The proposed research effort will provide new diagnostic capabilities that will enable the Air Force and gas-turbine-system manufacturers to address the challenges associated with the development of compact combustors and their integration with turbines. These tools are critical for the development and long-term health of propulsion systems for high-performance military as well as for commercial systems. The proposed research will also help to advance the state-of-the-art turbine-cooling technology by quantitatively identifying various factors that lead to burning in the turbine and then by designing innovative cooling configurations for preventing burning near the turbine blades. Quantitative measurements are critical for validating numerical models of reacting and non-equilibrium phenomena affecting modern gas-turbine and hypersonic propulsion systems. The data-analysis tools

Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Jie Yang
AF103-201      Awarded:2/22/2011
Title:High Temperature Energy Harvesting Solution for Autonomous Wireless Sensor Networks in Aircraft Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this SBIR project is to develop a high temperature (225 °C +) energy harvesting solution for miniaturized smart wireless sensors that can be easily integrated with aircraft turbine engine components such as roller bearings and bearing assemblies to form a distributed engine control system (DCS). The wireless sensing suite, utilizing state-of- the-art high-temperature silicon-on-insulator (HTSOI) processes, will enable the next- generation of harsh environment aircraft turbine engine health monitoring. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will revolutionize the approach to health monitoring and control of aircraft engine, as well as other high performance aerospace components. This technology can also be widely applied in commercial industries such as power generation. In addition to the technical benefits to aerospace and industry partners, the development and commercialization of this technology will provide many high-tech and high-paying jobs to the State of Arkansas, which has been designated as a Highly Underutilized Business Zone (HUBZone).

Prime Photonics, LC
1116 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
John Coggin
AF103-201      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:Wireless Sensor Network powered by Energy Harvesting Solution Network
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Turbine engine performance, efficiency, and reliability can be greatly improved if additional and evolving instrumentation can be added for input to the FADEC and PHM systems. As this additional instrumentation becomes a larger percentage of the engine’s total life cycle cost; the need to reduce maintenance and installation overhead for new instrumentation becomes increasingly important. With an already overburdened FADEC and an overstuffed engine compartment, the most promising route to achieving the benefits of additional instrumentation is by transitioning to a distributed engine control paradigm. Enabling technologies for a distributed engine control system (DCS) include WSN subsystems for sensing, wireless electronics, and energy harvesting that can operate in the harsh, high temperature environment of existing and future turbine engines. Prime Photonics LC (PPLC) has over 10 years experience with instrumentation of turbine engines and in recent years has initiated development efforts for self powered wireless systems designed with high temperature SOI electronics. PPLC proposes to develop the Omnivore™ multi-source energy harvester to enable reliable wireless transmission of sensor data for future DCS installations. The combined thermoelectric and vibration harvester will provide reliable power to wireless sensor nodes across the full operational envelope of a turbine engine. BENEFIT: The benefits of this proposed technology are as follows: • No cables - general reduction in system complexity for engine monitoring – a technology enabler for DCS • Reliable power generation - Multisource harvesting from thermal and vibration energy provides reliable power across all engine operating conditions. • High Temperature Capable - Operation in harsh environments up to 250 C using high temperature SOI electronics. • Superior Radio Architecture - Utilization of miniature and low power ultra-wideband radio (UWB) technology makes optimal use of harvested power. • Robust Radio Link - Improved signal penetration in difficult RF environments due to the broad frequency content. • Efficient power management – the multi-source power circuit design utilizes multi-power point tracking (MPPT) technology to achieve high efficiency across a range of power levels. • Low Maintenance - Elimination of the battery and the need to replace or charge it. By providing elevated temperature, standalone, self-powered, maintenance-free sensor nodes, the proposed PPLC Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network (EHWSN) will

LURACO Technologies, Inc.
1132 107th Street
Arlington, TX 76011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 633-1080
Jeffrey Tooley
AF103-202      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:Commercial Controls Technology Insertion
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Currently, Air Force aircraft engines rely heavily on Centralized engine Control System (CCS) architectures. These architectures consist of a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) module that is hard-wired to sensors and actuators. As a result, new control and sensing technology is slowly adopted within aircraft engines, and when these adoptions are made the overhaul cost is high. Additionally, the FADEC is often unable to pinpoint sensor, actuator, and engine component faults, and does not provide the ability for sensors to calibrate themselves in response to environmental (in particular temperature) conditions. C2DICon provides the Air Force with the capability of a reliable and cost effective communication link for a distributed engine control and sensing nodes within high temperature environments. To accomplish this C2DICon will utilize a standardized data bus and open communication protocol whose software and hardware requirements are sufficiently limited such that cost-effective high temperature integrated circuits can be used to implement the communication architecture. We will study and analyze the effects that both high temperatures have on the communication channel of different distributed engine control and health monitoring topologies, and expected channel delays and packet dropout rates have on the data bus throughput and stability of the distributed network variations. BENEFIT: C2DICon is expected to help reduce aircraft costs in several different ways. First, C2DICon will enable new control and sensor technology, which usually reduces aircraft weight, increases engine efficiency, and/or has some other tangible aircraft cost benefit, to be readily adopted into aircraft engine designs, thereby hastening the realization of operating cost reductions and obviating the need for expensive aircraft FADEC overhauls. Second, by enabling distributed engine control and health monitoring nodes to communicate digitized and processed (as opposed to analog) sensor data to other devices, the amount of wiring amongst devices is significantly reduced. This translates to weight reduction (which results in fuel savings) and decreased integration labor costs. Third, since C2DICon will enable distributed engine control and health monitoring nodes to be located closer to monitored components than is currently possible with CCS architectures, system faults can be more accurately diagnosed than in the CCS architecture. As a result maintenance time and cost should be reduced. C2DICon has the potential for wide commercial reach. Any system that requires distributed health monitoring and/or control, especially in extreme environmental conditions, can effectively use C2DICon. C2DICon will initially be targeted at aircraft engine control

Orbital Research Inc
4415 Euclid Avenue Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Mike Willett
AF103-202      Awarded:2/23/2011
Title:Communication Architecture for Distributed Control of Turbine Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The use of a distributed electronics interface in air vehicles offers many highly sought benefits but remains conceptual due to the fact that rugged electronic components capable of reliable operation in high temperature environments are not now readily available. In Phase I Orbital Research will develop a common distributed control architecture for turbine engine controls based on affordable high temperature electronics (HTE). This will be accomplished by building a communication model derived from the sensors and actuators used by at least two different FADECs to make decisions regarding turbine engine control. Orbital Research will analyze the I/O needs of the FADECs and correlate those needs with several protocol standards. The protocol standard chosen by industry for distributed control of FADEC I/O interfaces will require a high temperature component for the physical layer, and this component will be developed by Orbital Research during Phase II. Orbital will apply its significant experience in designing and developing HTE to producing an HTE communications ASIC, integrating it into a Multi-Chip Module, and subsequently testing the system. All aspects of development will be conducted in close working relationships with the major FADEC and turbine engine manufacturers to assure practicality of the final configuration. BENEFIT: Military Market. The technology developed in Phases I and II (and III) of this project will provide the many benefits of distributed control in turbine engines and eliminate the current major constraint associated with the thermal environment on the engine system. This technology promises many applications for the military market, including advanced engine and flight controls, unmanned aerial vehicles, directed energy systems, military control units, actuators, and more-electric systems. Civilian Market. Projected applications for the developed temperature-tolerant control technology in the civilian sector are equally attractive and include commercial aircraft, automotive, ground-based power generation, oil industry, and harsh industrial processing applications.

Impact Technologies, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Patrick Kalgren
AF103-203      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:Electrical Power System Robustness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Impact Technologies is teaming with Raytheon to develop a methodology and supporting tool to assess and quantify robustness for electrical power systems. Developmental fighter aircraft, unmanned systems, and emerging aerospace systems present challenges to traditional aircraft design whose solutions lay in more electric aircraft (MEA). Electrical power systems (EPS) offer significant weight reduction while reducing apparent complexity presented to aircraft manufacturing and maintenance. Opportunities for improved energy optimization through integration of thermal and power management, combined with weight savings offered by fuel system incorporation into thermal management, present design optimization complexities never experienced before. Capitalizing on the promised benefits of migration from quad and triple redundant hydraulic actuation systems to MEA, emerging fifth generation systems and developmental sixth generation systems are outpacing the ability of traditional reliability assessment tools to predict reliable performance under dynamic conditions. While presenting a clean and simpler system for platform integration and maintainer support, the underlying complexity, abstracted away through extensive utilization of modern solid state electronics and control, embodies many ill-understood variables and high degrees of uncertainty. The proposed robustness assessment and modeling environment leverages multiple facets of design, reliability, and supportability tools to arrive at a robustness metric and improve EPS reliability. BENEFIT: Robustness is not a new term, and strategies for designing robustness into complex systems are employed in multiple industries. Quantifying achieved robustness can support value propositions in a broad array of domains. The potential market within communications, data management, medical, and financial industries illustrates opportunities outside the electrical power system domain. Within the EPS domain, new strategies for robust and efficient building thermal and energy management, along with the emergence of alternative energy as a supplemental strategy to commercial building design, tools for designing in and assessing achieved robustness are required.

Ridgetop Group, Inc.
6595 North Oracle Road
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
James Hofmester
AF103-203      Awarded:2/15/2011
Title:Power System Robustness Assessment Tool for All-Electric Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: An innovative electrical power system (EPS) Robustness design tool will be created for calculating system-level Robustness in aircraft. The design employs flowgraph models for components at different levels of hierarchy including power sources, electronic circuit breakers, and electromechanical actuator (EMA) loads, which can be connected together. The components accept real measured data, including degradation effects, to produce a system-level Robustness RB(t) metric. The models can be connected in in series, parallel, and combinations of both to conduct extensive “what-if” analyses to optimize the design for overall system reliability improvements. The model parameters are drawn from consensus inputs, then adjusted with composite degradation factor (DF) information obtained from prognostic and diagnostic data on fielded units. Using Bayesian Network methods, this information is used to calibrate the model through a series of updates drawn from actual degradation data, field database information, or HALT testing results. Each model in the EPS contributes to the overall system Robustness and this is handled using an extension of Bayesian Network analysis. The result of this SBIR Program will be a much more accurate and modern alternative to determining system reliability in the presence of LRU degradation from actual environmental effects (heat, radiation, vibration) and wear patterns. BENEFIT: The metric of Robustness goes far beyond standards-based MTBF reliability prediction tools and offers far more relevant information on the performance of the system to perform its intended tasks. This information is useful in the improvement in reliability of all-electric aircraft designs, and supporting life cycle cost reductions by identifying best candidates for design improvements that improve robustness. With this SBIR program, Ridgetop will leverage its prior innovations in signature-based prognostics to address the realistic assessment of robustness of aircraft power systems. The result will be a deterministic analysis tool that allows the importing of field data from airborne power systems to provide well-calibrated models that can be employed in “what if” analyses to improve reliable performance of these complex systems.

General Nano LLC
3040 Fairfield Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 607-5802
Lucy Ge Li
AF103-204      Awarded:1/20/2011
Title:Improved Data & Power Transmission: Conductor & Shielding
Abstract:Carbon Nanotube (CNT) technology has become a promising replacement for traditional copper, aluminum, and metallic based EMI shielding in power and data transmission cables. CNT materials offer the potential for significant weight reduction and improved mechanical performance. The proposed work plan encompasses a team that spans the entire cable and nanomaterial supply chain. Each team member will apply their individual core competencies to address the stated objective, which is to determine which type of cable(s) will be able to benefit from integrating nanomaterials. Specifically, the team will 1) integrate its proprietary CNT threads, ribbons, yarns and other derivative materials; 2) perform analysis and modeling, and 3) a technical and commercial feasibility assessment. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the work performed in the proposed technical plan will result in identifying cables (e.g. data and/or power) that will benefit from replacing bulky metal-based EMI shielding with General Nano proprietary Carbon Nanotube (CNT) technology. By replacing incumbent metal-based materials with nanomaterials, significant weight reduction and improved mechanical performance will be achieved. Weight reduction yields major cost savings and improved mechanical performance yields improved form factor capabilities and durabilities.

Minnesota Wire & Cable Co.
1835 Energy Park Drive
Saint Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 659-6763
Tom Kukowski
AF103-204      Awarded:1/19/2011
Title:Improved Data & Power Transmission: Conductor & Shielding
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes form conductive composites at such low loading ratios and thus could be a key component in EMI shielding and conductors for lightweight aircraft wiring. Compared to conventional metal-based materials, electrically conducting polymer composites has attracted interest due to their light weight, resistance to corrosion, flexibility, and processing advantages. Minnesota Defense proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of creating aircraft wires with the use of carbon nanotube sheets and yarns for shielding and conductors for producing lightweight wires. Minnesota defense has already demonstrated the ability to achieve significant weight saving through the use of carbon nanotube sheets and yarns for short lengths of cable. The effort will scale to larger cables and address termination issues presented by conducting polymers. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits and/or potential applications of this project could apply to data transmission wiring, litz wire, coaxial cable, wire harnesses, USB, electronic circuitry, and component shielding.

Turnkey Design Services, LLC
12757 S. Western Ave. Suite 229
Blue Island, IL 60406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(708) 293-1120
Robert Kennedy
AF103-205      Awarded:2/16/2011
Title:Thermally Efficient Fuel Management Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Emerging platforms such as stealth aircraft have three to five times the heat load of legacy platforms while being limited in their ability to reject heat to the environment due to the reduction of vents, grills and inlets that create radar and infra-red hotspots. This increased heat load is the result of modern avionics, advanced mission systems; fueldraulic based vectored thrust control systems, increased use of composite structures, and larger more electric aircraft engine accessories such as generators, or environmental controls. To reduce overall fuel system temperature rise through main engine fuel pumps, Turnkey Design Services of Blue Island, IL proposes to design a variable delivery, two stage fixed displacement pump for aerospace applications that can achieve speeds greater than 16,000 RPM, has excellent metering capability due to the ability to vary stroke and speed, good thermal efficiency due to the ability to completely unload one stage, good suction capability because of the small high efficiency 1st Stage and can detect performance degradation and oncoming failures. BENEFIT: The program benefit is that the main engine fuel pump overall fuel temperature rise will be reduced. This in turn reduces maintenance cost of aircraft by reducing the potential of engine fuel nozzles and manifolds from clogging and increasing the life of components that rely on fuel for lubrication. Potential commercial applications include commercial aircraft that that have reduced specific fuel consumption requirements.

Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Shin-Juh Chen
AF103-207      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Inlet Unstart Detector
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Southwest Sciences proposes the development of an inlet unstart detector based on the measurement of flow velocity at very high bandwidth using lower power electronics and simpler analyses within a compact footprint. Early detection of thermal choking and engine unstart in the isolator section is necessary for trimming fuel flow rates into the combustor to prevent loss of thrust. The proposed detector is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) of chemical species absorption lines and will overcome many of the limitations of these other methods such as particle velocimetry, shadowgraphy, Schlieren imaging, pressure and temperature probes to provide high-sensitivity, fast measurements that are essential in noisy high-speed flows as encountered by hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. This sensor will be compact, non-intrusive, flight capable, high-precision, high-speed and self-calibrating. It will be suitable for monitoring high-speed flows along the propulsion flow-path of an air-breathing engine. This sensor will monitor the propulsion system performance characteristics for in-flight, real-time modifications. This information will safely expand the flight envelope of aerospace vehicles. The sensor may be utilized for flight regimes ranging from subsonic to hypersonic. Our goal is to design an in-flight sensor that is applicable to both piloted and unmanned hypersonic air-breathing flight vehicles. BENEFIT: This project will be of great benefit to the Federal Government, especially the Air Force and NASA; providing an important diagnostic and control instrument for advanced aircraft engines. In collaboration with military aircraft engine and instrumentation manufacturers, this high-speed inlet unstart detector would be developed into a commercial product combining modest cost with high performance and reliability for in-flight diagnostic use and as feedback for engine performance control. For the primary function of this work, we envision three major customers. NASA and DOD play a major role in the study and development of advanced and new engines for aircraft and space vehicles. Our sensor will be an important tool for improving the design of these engines and in understanding the complex properties in combustion flow. Within the commercial sector, jet engine manufacturers would find this sensor useful for product development and quality assurance. Beyond the aerospace community, high-speed sensors may also have use in a wide variety of fields. Biomedical breath analysis requires high sensitivity and new research indicates that the ability to distinguish the time evolution of a species within a single breath can be critical in identifying specific conditions or diseases. Other applications may exist in airborne environments measurements, and for feedback and control in industrial processes and power

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF103-207      Awarded:1/25/2011
Title:Towards Closed-Loop Control of Unstart in Scramjets: Development of Tools for Optimal Design of Sensors and Actuators
Abstract:This research program proposes to make significant advances toward a novel framework for optimal design of sensors and actuators for use in closed-loop control of dual-mode scramjet engines. The proposal specifically aims to implement control theoretic methods to aid the user in determining the optimal configuration of sensors/actuators for improved detection and control of unstart. During the Phase I effort, two main tasks are proposed: 1) analyze a wide range of fast-response pressure transducer locations in an effort to determine particular configurations of sensors that best predict transient behavior of the unstart-shock system behavior; and 2) quantify the time-scales and sensitivities associated with fast and distributed (multiple) actuator schemes on the unstart-system dynamics. Pulsed air jets will be the focus of Phase I but the methodology is meant to apply to any actuator type or combination of types. The major emphasis of this research effort will be placed on how to optimally cross-correlate the sensor signals with the goal of deriving an early/timely precursor signal of impending rapid changes to the shock-state. These insights when coupled with the fast and coordinated actuators will form the backbone of a robust closed- loop unstart-control system. BENEFIT: The proposed research effort will make significant progress toward achieving critically needed sensor and actuator performance characterization data to enable the robust design of active control systems for scramjet engines. Military and commercial applications include but not limited to space launch vehicles, time-critical weapon systems, strike/reconnaissance vehicles, and systems related to space access.

ATA Engineering, Inc
11995 El Camino Real Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 945-2367
Matthew Garrett
AF103-208      Awarded:2/7/2011
Title:Variable-Fidelity Toolset for Dynamic Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Aircraft Thermal Management System (TMSs)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A variable-fidelity toolset for conducting thermo-analysis of steady-state and transient behaviors of vapor compression systems (VCS) and generalized aircraft thermal management systems is proposed. Existing dynamic models of VCS components will be leveraged and development will concentrate on improving model accuracy and user- friendliness. To improve the accuracy of existing VCS models, high-order computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models will be used to generate tuning data for the lower-order moving boundary and finite control volume models used in the toolset. The use of CFD has four main advantages: 1) provides tuning data for components that have not been fabricated or instrumented, 2) permits validation of single component models rather than interconnected systems, 3) provides tuning data for many variables that would be expensive to measure (e.g. detailed temperature/pressure/heat flow gradients), and 4) provides noise-free data. The CFD models will be solved using the full Navier-Stokes equations with an Eulerian multiphase model. ATA will also adapt its commercial software tool Attune to allow automatic tuning of VCS systems or component models to test- or CFD-derived tuning data, using advanced gradient and genetic algorithms. This can reduce tuning time for VCS systems from weeks to hours, with a corresponding increase in model accuracy. BENEFIT: By integrating advanced automatic correlation algorithms with real-time capable switched moving-boundary models of vapor compression refrigeration components, this new toolset will do in hours what previously took weeks to do, namely, correlate full thermal management system models against transient test data spread over multiple experimental runs. In addition to analyzing aircraft thermal management systems, the new toolset will be useful to any group performing thermodynamic analysis of vapor compression cooling systems or more general thermal management systems. This will include applications in space, as well as terrestrial applications such as refrigeration systems for food storage or medical use. In addition, the new correlation algorithms developed under this SBIR will flow into a commercial release of ATA Engineering’s existing commercial software tool Attune, expanding its capabilities to include correlation against transient data. This will benefit existing Attune customers and expand the customer base to include potential customers who are interested in correlating analysis models to transient test data, regardless of the nature of the analysis. Finally, the two-phase computational fluid dynamics methods developed under this SBIR will be used by ATA Engineering to enhance its existing engineering services business.

PC Krause and Associates, Inc.
3000 Kent Avenue, Suite C1-100
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Kevin McCarthy
AF103-208      Awarded:2/10/2011
Title:Variable-Fidelity Toolset for Dynamic Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Aircraft Thermal Management System (TMSs)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The primary objective of the proposed effort is to develop a variable-fidelity transient thermal management toolset. Particular emphasis will be given to vapor cycle components with two phase flow analysis capability in the Phase I with expansion to additional components and hardware validation in the Phase II. The toolset will be designed in a modular, drag and drop library in Matlab/Simulink. Components will be modeled from first principles and performance maps with underlying physics being transient for relevant system states. Upon completion of the thermal management component models, an example system will be modeled to verify the approach. Various control strategies will be implemented as a proof-of- concept demonstration of the toolset. Documentation will be provided through html help files integrated directly with the Matlab/Simulink help file system. BENEFIT: As cooling concepts on-board present/future military aircraft continue to advance, the need for dynamic vapor cycle system analysis is apparent. The direct benefit of the Phase I effort will be the development of a variable-fidelity transient thermal management toolset capable of analyzing dynamic vapor compression cycles including two phase flow. The toolset will provide the Air Force and aerospace community with the diverse, robust, and accurate analysis capability needed to investigate present/advanced cooling designs of military aircraft. A proof-of-concept study using a real hardware system will provide the necessary verification of the tool to justify transition into a Phase II and beyond.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4817
Paul Dahlstrand
AF103-209      Awarded:2/24/2011
Title:Small UAV Hybrid Propulsion System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation (Aurora) proposes to conduct trade studies to determine the optimum hybrid propulsion system for an in-service UAV in the 50lb to 150lb weight range. The propulsion system will be an internal combustion (IC) engine installed in parallel with an electric motor system driving a single propeller. We are leveraging Aurora’s experience using a design tool for design space exploration and multi-objective optimization for hybrid propulsion systems in UAV applications. We will combine Aurora’s extensive UAV aircraft design experience with Mississippi State University’s automotive hybrid propulsion system design experience to provide a state-of-the-art UAV hybrid propulsion solution. BENEFIT: A hybrid propulsion system in a small UAV will allow the vehicle to operate with the benefits of both an IC engine (long endurance) and electric motor (quiet stealth) with proper design. Once a hybrid propulsion system design process is established it could be applied to virtually any existing UAV for propulsion system retrofit.

Northwest UAV Propulsion Systems
2717 NE Bunn Road
McMinnville, OR 97128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 434-6845
Chris Pellegrino
AF103-209      Awarded:2/24/2011
Title:Internal Combustion (IC) Engine/Electric Hybrid Power/Propulsion System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Northwest UAV Propulsion Systems Develops and Manufactures heavy fuel engines for UAVs and is proposing using a purpose built engine for a ScanEagle sized UAS combined with a novel Axial Flux Motor/Generator system and a electric clutch system currently availalbe as a COTS item. We have teamed with Oregon State University for control design & Insitu Inc. for acoustical & flight testing to develop a hybrid propulsion system that provides adequate mission performance with stealth capabilities. BENEFIT: Duration, decreased noise signature for ISR and Border Control Missions, hybrid vehicle design, small diesel generation units for plug-in electric vehicles, Aircraft Axilary Power Units.

Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-4980
Jim Crafton
AF103-210      Awarded:2/4/2011
Title:Indentification, Validation, and Control of Jet Noise Sources
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The noise generated by jet exhaust is a significant environmental concern, impacting both flight operations and ground crew. The jet noise is generated by small-scale turbulent structures in the jet that interact with shocks, and other jet structures. Current measurement techniques, such as hot wires provide good temporal resolution but limited spatial resolution while non-intrusive techniques such as PIV offer good spatial resolution but limited temporal resolution. Substantial progress has been made with high-speed lasers; however, these devices are expensive and offer a maximum of 10-kHz bandwidth. Particle Shadow Velocimetry is a new measurement technique that offers high spatial and bandwidth of over 20-kHz while performing non-intrusive 2D velocity measurements. PSV utilizes volumetric illumination provided by LED’s and the depth of field is set by the receiver optics. The displacement of seed particles in the flow are tracked, producing 2D velocity maps. The use of LED’s combined with high speed cameras have been used to configure systems with bandwidths over 15-kHz, and systems that operate at 50-kHz are possible. The spatial resolution of the system is a function of the receiver optics and resolutions similar to micro- PIV have been demonstrated, thus the system offers both high spatial and high bandwidth. BENEFIT: The focus of this proposal is the use of the high speed PSV system for velocity measurements with high spatial resolution in jets. Beyond the improved understanding of jet acoustics that would result from the high spatial and temporal resolution velocity measurements, the PSV technique could be used for several other commercial and research purposes. The PSV technique offers excellent near-wall velocity measurement capability, thus application such as heat transfer, film cooling, and skin friction could be investigated. The optical tool that is central to the proposal, the kHz PSV system, should have much broader appeal as a commercial system. Undergraduate institutions have expressed an interest in allowing students access to the newest tools and instruments, such as PIV. To date however, the safety concerns related to mixing students with high-power lasers have prevented this access. One key advantage of a PSV system is the use of low-power LED’s, thus eliminating the safety concerns. A second advantage of a PSV system is cost as a pulsed LED is much less expensive ($100 versus $50,000) than a PIV laser. This combination of safety and price should be attractive to this potential market. A second potential target is research institutions such as government labs and graduate schools at universities. In this case, the key advantages of PSV are bandwidth, cost, and capability. Traditional laser based kHz PIV systems are limited to about 1-kHz where a PSV system can easily attain 10’s of kHz. This increased bandwidth opens up the potential to investigate biological flows such as vocal cord research, heart valves and assist pumps, and artificial hearts commonly use high speed PIV systems.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF103-210      Awarded:1/24/2011
Title:Identification and Active Control of Jet Noise Sources Using High Resolution Coupled Measurement Devices and Methods
Abstract:The noise due to jet engine exhausts of current military and commercial aircraft continues to be a major environmental concern since the advent of jet aircraft. Challenges associated with increasing levels of noise pollution include aircraft operations ashore and afloat. The high frequency, intense noise, and associated vibration pose physical and environments hazards to air crews, ground support personnel, and those residing or working in the vicinity of active aviation operations. In order to identify and mitigate the jet noise sources, Spectral Energies, LLC in collaboration with Syracuse University (SU), The Ohio State University (OSU), and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) propose to develop experimental diagnostic methods that will establish the cause-effect linkage between the jet turbulent velocity field, the associated unsteady pressure in the jet, and the resulting near field and far field acoustic pressures. The diagnostic instrumentation will provide sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to identify the jet noise sources within this sequence of flow-noise generation. Tasks to be conducted in the SU anechoic chamber demonstrating the source diagnostic system consist of: 1) setting up high speed cold jet experiments at Mach 0.6 and incorporating a high speed high resolution PIV system, 2) acquiring high speed high resolution PIV measurements simultaneously with near and far field acoustic pressures in the baseline jet configuration, 3) acquiring high speed high resolution PIV measurements simultaneously with near and far field acoustic pressures in the controlled jet (excitation frequencies/amplitudes will be guided by results from step 1 and 2), and 4) performing POD analysis on velocity fields and cross correlate with the near and far field acoustic pressures. The knowledge gained from Phase I will be used to evaluate flow control methods for jet noise reduction and for establishing data analysis methods for pressure and turbulence data acquisition during Phase II. Higher Mach numbers and nozzle geometries approaching military engine configurations are planned for Phase II. This research will have significant impact on civilian and military gas turbine engines and land based gas turbine power generation units. BENEFIT: The knowledge gained from the proposed research will help identifying the jet noise sources and methods to control them. The proposed research will also have significant impact on civilian and military gas turbine engines and land based gas turbine power generation units.

Fluorochem, Inc.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-3714
Kurt Baum
AF103-211      Awarded:7/26/2011
Title:Novel Heterocyclic Oxidizers for Solid Propellants
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The DoD requires increased performance and increased density solid propellants for use on boost, strategic and tactical missile systems. Current ingredients are incapable of imparting the desired performance and insensitivity. New oxidizers are needed to increase the energy and density of formulated solid propellant mixtures while meeting other required attributes (hazard classification, lifetime, cost, performance, etc) defined by the DoD/NASA/US Industry’s Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program Phase III goals and beyond. The objective of this program is to prepare new nitro- substituted heterocyclic oxidizers using a novel synthesis approach. BENEFIT: The development of advanced oxidizers would provide the basis for advanced future generations of rocket propellants for missile defense systems, as well as tactical and strategic missiles. Commercial applications would include satellite technologies.

NALAS Engineering Services Inc.
20 STONEWALL ROAD
Salem, CT 06420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 861-3691
Jerry Salan
AF103-211      Awarded:8/4/2011
Title:Novel Oxidizer for Ammonium Perchlorate Replacement
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In an attempt to develop novel oxidizer materials that the DoD requires for use in missile systems to meet performance and sensitivity requirements, NALAS proposes to screen potential candidates for suitability using first known and predicted information. Specific types of materials under consideration will be those possessing intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonds such as those appearing in molecules like TATB and FOX-7, which appear to stabilize these materials, and derivatives of 3,4-diaminofurazan. Promising materials will be synthesized and evaluated for suitability using sensitivity, thermal stability characteristics, and projected performance. Candidates meeting all requirements will be proposed for further study in a Phase II effort, in which they will be tested for performance in formulation. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits are identification of novel oxidizer materials for use in missile systems that meet the performance and sensitivity requirements outlined in IHPRPT. In addition to use in military applications, such materials could be made available for space applications and commercial gun and/or airbag propellants.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2732
Martin Chiaverini
AF103-211      Awarded:8/2/2011
Title:Advanced Solid Oxidizer (ASO)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: ORBITEC proposes to develop and synthesize a safe, high performance, high density solid oxidizer to replace Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) in solid propellants for use in booster, tactical, and strategic systems. The long sought replacement for ammonium perchlorate remains an unanswered challenge as the development of an insensitive but high energy solid oxidizer has proven very difficult. In response, ORBITEC proposes a simple molecular structure as a practical synthesis target whose constitution offers highly desirable excess oxygen per unit weight. Based on its molecular structure, we estimate that the target compound has a melting temperature that significantly exceeds the solicitation requirements. In Phase I, we will conduct chemical equilibrium calculations to compare the performance of propellants containing the new oxidizer to a state-of-the-art solid propellant (e.g., the Castor 120 propellant), synthesize the new oxidizer, and conduct a battery of tests to characterize its physicochemical and thermal behavior. In Phase II, oxidizer synthesis will be scaled to kilogram-sized quantities for additional, more thorough characterization. BENEFIT: The non-toxic, non-explosive oxidizer we propose to develop has a high amount of excess oxygen, a high melting temperature, and a high density. In addition, it should have a safe, economic synthesis route. The ability to produce this ASO economically in larger scale will have many military implications and applications. The Department of Defense (DOD) will be able to develop new, energetic solid propellants for boost, strategic, and tactical systems. Because solid propellants are so widespread, once this technology is proven, NASA will also benefit, and the market could also expand to the private space sector. Additional customers could include developers of air bags, pyrotechnics, fireworks, the hobby rocket industry, and commercial mining.

Acellent Technologies, Inc.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-1188
Shawn Beard
AF103-214      Awarded:7/19/2011
Title:Intrinsic Health Management of Solid Rocket Motors (InSRM)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Solid rocket motors (SRMs) serve as the propulsion system for numerous types of missiles. Many of these missiles are intended to sit idly in storage for extended periods and then are required to function flawlessly. However, SRMs are subject to a variety of unexpected environmental and loading conditions from the time-of-manufacturing to launch, and these conditions can significantly impact the performance and reliability of the motor. In addition, aging of the materials can cause significant property changes, leading to bondline degradation and changes in the propellant strain field, which can result in anomalous burning behavior when the motor is fired. An accurate assessment of the current state of an SRM, and prediction of the future state, is critically needed to ensure the viability of each asset and maintain a healthy missile fleet. Acellent Technologies is currently developing structural health monitoring systems to address these issues. The proposed program focuses on innovations to develop a complete integrated system that can monitor the health of the SRM from cradle-to-grave. The goal of the program will be to develop the system for deployment on operational motors. The development will be conducted in close collaboration with ATK-Thiokol who fully supports the developmental efforts. BENEFIT: The proposed diagnostic system for solid rocket motor health and process mishap monitoring allows for early warning of structural and propellant damage, errant structural behavior, or material degradation detection throughout involved handling, transportation, and testing processes. The largest and nearest-term impact areas for the technology are mission critical COPV structures used in aerospace structures. Economic and political factors drive the need to keep these structures in-service for longer periods of time, often well beyond their designed service life. As these structures age, there is an increasing need for inspection to ensure public safety and schedule maintenance effectively. The high cost of owning and operating these systems provides incentives for enhancing the means of evaluating and monitoring their structural integrity. The proposed work will be conducted in close collaboration with the rocket motor industries (such as ATK Thiokol) to ensure that this research will be directly beneficial to them. Acellent is currently working with other industries such as aeronautics, automobile, off-shore and ground vehicles to enable utilization of mass-production techniques to provide high quality sensing technologies at lower costs to the individual users. Once developed, the system will be available independently or in a complete package along with the monitoring layer, software and hardware. The plug-and-play feature of the system will make it ready to use for any practical application.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Allan Dokhan
AF103-214      Awarded:8/4/2011
Title:Non-Invasive, Portable, Real-Time Sensor for Health Monitoring of Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc., has proposed to develop a mobile, non-invasive, sensor to assess over time the chemical and physical health of solid rocket motors without affecting motor integrity. During Phase I, we have proposed a program that will allow us to identify and monitor specific species as markers of chemical and mechanical aging of solid propellants. We have proposed a program that will allow reliable and confident demonstration of a remote sensor in Phase II for health monitoring of propellants in a subscale SRM in environments relevant to a deployed missile system. BENEFIT: The proposed mobile, non-invasive sensor will enable remote assessment of the propellant’s structural integrity in fielded tactical and strategic systems. The overall goal of such monitoring is reducing life cycle cost and improving system reliability, which will have multiple applications throughout the DoD, NASA, and commercial industry. Our proposed sensor will offer significant advances over the current state of the art at affordable prices and with the ability to transition to field use by the DoD on a short time scale.

Polymer Aging Concepts Inc
372 River Drive
Dahlonega, GA 30533
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(706) 864-6304
Kenneth Watkins
AF103-214      Awarded:7/26/2011
Title:Real-Time Health Monitoring for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A Health Monitoring Sensor for Solid Rocket Motors (SRMs) uses actual polymeric components of propellant in a tiny new sensor called AgeAlert™. These sensors will provide real-time data corresponding to aging of the propellant. The sensors are mounted external to the propellant and automatically track degradation passively without electrical power until interrogated. They are extremely accurate because they degrade in the same way under the same environment as the propellant in motor itself. AgeAlert sensors are attached to a rocket motor so they “see” the same environment as the propellant being monitored. Applications include (1) data for verifying existing and proposed SRM health management models based on environmental sensors and (2) stand-alone “Smart Shelf-Life™” labels attached to small ordnance items or packaging to monitor aging of the propellant during transportation, storage and deployment. These smart labels provide immediate “go, no-go” indication to the user in the field without special training or equipment. This project expands on successful research by Polymer Aging Concepts, Inc. for prototype sensors to monitoring aging of electrical insulation materials in nuclear power plant components. Participation by a SRM prime contractor in the selection propellant materials and sensor data correlation optimize probabilities of success and technology implementation. BENEFIT: These innovative sensors will greatly advance Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) of solid rocket motors and potentially save up to 50% of the cost of present methods utilizing destructive testing while improving reliability and safety of military and commercial solid rocket motor assets. The accuracy and in-situ features of AgeAlert technology means that not only will operators in the field benefit with a smart label which provides continuous status as to the reliability and safety of solid rocket motor ordnance, but objective data is readily available on individual assets to support mechanistic modeling for surveillance and shelf life extension programs. It will reduce the need for embedded sensors which add complexity and uncertainty due to stress risers in operational assets. This new heath monitoring approach is very cost effective since (1) the sensor utilizes inexpensive fillers used in the composite sensors, (2) sensor smart labels and readers are simple and reliable because they are based on the inherent “variable resistor” output of the

CalRAM, Inc.
2380 Shasta Way, Suite B
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 844-7812
Dave Ciscel
AF103-215      Awarded:7/26/2011
Title:Advanced Near-Net Shape Metallurgy of Liquid Rocket Engine Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The designs of complex liquid rocket engine components are limited by the manufacturing processes used to build them. Traditional manufacturing processes, such as, casting or forging and machining, although capable of producing high-quality hardware, are expensive and time consuming. CalRAM, Inc. has been developing an additive manufacturing process, Electron Beam Melting (EBM) manufacturing, which can help the AFRL achieve IHPRPT’s goals. The layer-build process produces near-net shape components directly from a CAD file by melting powder with an electron beam and does NOT need tooling to manufacture “functional” hardware. The overall Phase I Objective is to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of EBM manufacturing with respect to producibility (cost and quality), fabrication time and material properties to achieve IHPRPT goals. A shrouded titanium impeller will be EBM manufactured and spin tested to demonstrate the ability of the process to meet the IHPRPT goals. In addition, alternative materials will be explored and evaluated. BENEFIT: If the project is funded, there are four anticipated results from Phase I: 1. The successful spin test of a shrouded upper stage titanium impeller will show that EBM manufacturing can produce a complex structure capable of meeting the structural loads. In addition, the cryogenic behavior of EBM manufactured Ti will be confirmed to meet or exceed Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI properties. 2. Feasibility to produce EBM manufactured Alloy 625 with a uniform, dense microstructure and comparable mechanical properties to conventionally produced Alloy 625 will have been demonstrated. 3. Producibility, cost and schedule of an EBM manufactured titanium impeller that helps the AFRL meet Phase III IHPRPT goals will have been generated. 4. A path to scale up the EBM process to produce booster size components will have been laid out.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2752
J. Arthur Sauer
AF103-215      Awarded:7/26/2011
Title:Advanced Near-Net Shape Metallurgy of Liquid Rocket Engine Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate a family of Low-Cost Thrust Chambers (LCTC) for use in future NASA exploration systems. Substantial cost savings will be realized in the production of the LCTCs with ORBITEC’s innovative hybrid fabrication technique. Hybrid fabrication (HF) allows for the rapid casting of near-net shape metallic thruster components, including regeneratively-cooled nozzles, propellant injectors, manifolds, and faceplates. The new manufacturing process provides increased design flexibility and reduced lead times for rocket components, resulting in a compressed design- build-test cycle. To further ease component fabrication concerns, the LCTCs will employ ORBITEC’s patented vortex-cooled thrust chamber approach. During Phase I, a cryogenic flight-like thruster in the 300-lbf thrust class will be fabricated and tested in a hot-fire test campaign. The design and fabrication of cryogenic LCTCs in the 3k-lbf thrust class will be demonstrated during Phase II to show that this process scales readily. BENEFIT: The primary focus of this activity is to develop a low-cost manufacturing process for engine systems to support NASA’s Exploration Vision. An operational earth-to-orbit engine system developed with the hybrid fabrication process will be developed during the Phase III program for a cryogenic space engine. The same low-cost fabrication technology could be used in other NASA engine applications including large-scale boosters, reaction control thrusters, and other in-space thrust chambers. Furthermore, this technology could expand to other propulsion sub-systems including gas generators, pre-burners, turbopump assemblies, and hot gas valves. It is anticipated that the cost benefits of hybrid fabrication will provide a strong incentive for NASA’s propulsion system designers and fabricators to integrate this technology into their hardware design/fab process.

Transition45 Technologies, Inc.
1963 North Main Street
Orange, CA 92865
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 283-2118
Edward Chen
AF103-215      Awarded:8/3/2011
Title:Flexible Production of Geometrically Complex Rocket Propulsion Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In order to design and manufacture complex, one-of-a-kind to limited quantity liquid rocket engine (LRE) components, while shortening the development cycle time and reducing the associated costs, an innovative method must be developed that expands upon current manufacturing technologies. A flexible manufacturing system that can handle the production of such parts in short time periods is desirable. Today’s near-net fabrication technologies are extremely limited in design flexibility due to the use of injection molding. Considering the need for design flexibility as well as shorter development cycles, reduced costs, and minimized variance in making one-of-a-kind components, an innovative manufacturing technology will be demonstrated in this work to eventually fabricate geometrically complex titanium LRE components. BENEFIT: Potential DoD and commercial applications of this technology include rocket and airbreathing propulsion system components, especially those requiring sophisticated internal passageways. Other possible applications are components and structures for industrial gas tubines, industrial pump and valve for corrosion resistance (petrochemical industry), and biomedical implants.

Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Nahum Gat
AF103-218      Awarded:12/14/2010
Title:Modular Architecture for the Enhancement of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data Products
Abstract:OKSI proposes to develop a modular architecture to support the fusion of multiple imaging data products to provide enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of the overall fused image product. The software toolkit utilizes pan sharpening and temporal upsampling algorithms to fuse all data products to highest spatial and temporal resolution possible. BENEFIT: Upgrading the sensor hardware on existing multispectral and hyperspectral platforms is an expensive undertaking. Existing platforms include ground-based tracking mounts, air- and space-borne systems. A software solution could be utilized to enhance all sensor platforms at a fraction of the cost of a hardware upgrade. The applications include data collected for Missile Warning Systems (MWS), Ballistic Missile Defense, Improvised Explosive Device (IED) detection, mine detected, hostile fire, rocket propelled grenades, ground vehicle detection and tracking, and more. The software has applications to mapping and Geographical Information Systems where layers of multispectral imaging can be combined at the best possible resolution and georegistration of various imaging modalities.

Space Computer Corporation
12121 Wilshire Boulevard Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
Pierre V. Villeneuve
AF103-218      Awarded:12/16/2010
Title:Fusion Technology for Multispectral Imager with Adjunct Sensors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: techical abstract placeholder BENEFIT: anticipated benefits placeholder

Boston Applied Technologies, Inc.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Quincy Chen
AF103-219      Awarded:1/4/2011
Title:Passive Hyperspectral Scope for Jet Engine Diagnosis
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Single-point spectroscopic analysis of flame emission and blackbody radiation has been successfully used for jet engine diagnosis such as measuring temperature and specie concentration. An obvious need is to extend such a diagnostic mean to 2-D and 3-D scales. This SBIR project is aimed to develop a passive infrared imaging spectroscope suitable for jet engine diagnosis. Key features include multi-chamber enclosure for applicability to harsh environment (up to 4000F), electro-optical tunable filter for fast measurement (>1.0 kHz), large acceptant angle for near-distance imaging (> 40 degree) and wide spectral range (workable range from 600nm to 6000nm). In phase I, we will physically build a prototype imaging spectroscope working at SWIR (900nm to 1700nm) and test it under temperature from 600F to 4000F. It is anticipated that the proposed scope can collect big portion of IR spectrum from large field. The developed instrument will perform spatially resolved measurements of temperature, species concentration, fuel/air ratios, and heat release of gas turbine combustion. BENEFIT: This device can be directly used for fire studies and combustion research, such as used for the development of military and commercial turbine and afterburner combustion processes and active control for flight systems. A significant application is precision thermograph for many high temperature processes in gas turbine engines, afterburner sections, internal combustion engines and boilers. They are also useful means for kilns, the steel and iron industries to monitor temperatures throughout the product making process. The proposed hyperspectral scope itself can be used for military surveillance, firefight department and homeland security.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Darin A. Knaus
AF103-219      Awarded:12/16/2010
Title:Passive Optical Sensor for Real Engine Diagnostics
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Diagnostic measurements in gas turbine combustors and augmentors are challenging due to the hostile environment and limited optical access afforded by real engines. Probes that are inserted into the flow are generally undesirable because the probes inherently influence the flow and must be cooled to survive the extreme heat flux. Optical sensors that flush-mount on existing combustor surfaces and that can passively measure quantities such as heat release and fuel distribution would be of great use to engine developers seeking to better understand the performance and characteristics of real engine systems. In this project we will develop fiber-optically coupled, passive optical sensors for measuring heat release and equivalence ratio in real engines. The measurement is based on chemiluminescence emission from C2* and CH* radicals within the flame. Individual sensors can be used for time resolved, line-of-sight measurements, or multiple sensors can be synched for correlating the spatial distribution of flame dynamics or for tomography. In Phase I, we will develop a proof-of-concept sensor prototype and demonstrate its performance using a high optical access afterburner rig. In Phase II, we will optimize sensor performance, packaging, and the engine interface. We will then demonstrate the sensor under real engine conditions. BENEFIT: The outcome of this project will be a well developed modular heat release and equivalence ratio sensor suitable for rapid transition. The sensor could potentially provide novel insight into local processes in real combustion systems and will be a valuable tool for CFD validation. We expect to commercialize the sensor via licensing to an existing supplier of combustion diagnostic tools. The sensor will then be available for use in a wide range of military and commercial combustion systems.

Global Technology Connection, Inc.
2839 Paces Ferry Road Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 803-3001
Nicholas Propes
AF103-220      Awarded:12/14/2010
Title:Valve Health Monitoring System
Abstract:Global Technology Connection, Inc., in collaboration with academic partner, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, and valve actuator manufacturer, BAFCO, addresses valve diagnostics and prognostics by proposing a Valve Prognostic Health Monitoring System (VPHMS) that detects and identifies valve incipient failure modes and estimates valve remaining useful life from sensor data. Valve types considered for Phase I will include hydraulically actuated ball and butterfly valves because they are common types in industry and at Arnold AFB. Other valve types will be considered as well during the latter phase of the program. Valve rotary position, oil temperature, differential pressure across servo valve ports leading to actuator, and hydraulic actuator linear position will provide the minimal expected sensing arrangement while other sensing capabilities will be considered. Critical failure modes that will be examined include seal failures, sensor failures, loose linkages, worn bearings, and degraded/contaminated hydraulic fluid. The data analysis approach will include anomaly detection, failure identification, and remaining useful life estimation. Simulated (GTC) and real valve data (BAFCO) will be used to validate the resulting diagnostic and prognostic models. Phase II will configure, implement, and test the prototype VPHMS at Arnold AFB’s facility. BENEFIT: The benefits of a diagnostic and prognostic valve health monitoring are reduced maintenance costs, increased uptime, and improved process efficiency. The ability to detect and identify failures before catastrophic failure will increase the ability to avoid costly maintenance. Prognostic ability will allow maintainers to plan schedules for part and work orders more intelligently and avoid long downtimes. Valves are utilized to control processes in many areas of commercial industry. Pulp and paper, power plants, food processing, water treatment, space applications, etc. are just a few areas which could use valve health monitoring to reduce labor and downtime; improve plant safety; and decrease product variability.

Mechanical Solutions, Inc.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Charles Prisco
AF103-220      Awarded:1/4/2011
Title:Valve Health Monitoring System
Abstract:Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) is currently developing a Vibration and Physics-Based Health Management system that focuses on rotating machinery. MSI is now proposing to augment this system to also address valve health monitoring. This will require the incorporation of additional condition indicators, and the associated data acquisition and signal processing, specific to failure modes of valves. The intent of the add-on valve health monitoring module is to address the most prevalent failure modes of valves and provide maintenance personnel with warnings of impending problems. The valve types in use at Arnold Air Force Base will be the Phase I focus. Reliable condition indicators will be sought to predict valve failures such as leakage, binding, worn seats, loose linkages, and MOV motor problems. Sensors such as accelerometers, pressure transducers, microphones, electric current probes, and strain gages will be considered. Phase I testing of the sensors and algorithms will be the basis for finalizing the valve diagnostic/prognostic system architecture for further development during a Phase II project. The processed health assessment output from the valve health monitoring system will be transferable to a centralized system such as the MAINTelligence System. BENEFIT: Successful implementation of the valve heath monitoring algorithms will have significant use in both military and commercial facilities such as power plants, refineries, water treatment plants, and general industry. While many commercial companies focus on rotating machinery health management systems, the same effort in the valve area is lacking, and would be particularly useful for motor operated valves (MOVs) in the refining and nuclear power industries.

Chromation Partners, LLC
526 W 113 ST APT 43
New York, NY 10025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 284-1193
Nadia Pervez
AF103-224      Awarded:1/6/2011
Title:Infrared Photonic Crystal Spectrometer for the Cryovacuum Environment
Abstract:The proposed innovation is a compact infrared photonic crystal spectrometer. The photonic crystal spectrometer utilizes the leaky modes of photonic crystals patterned on a multimode waveguide to selectively extract wavelength specific light to a 2D detector array (e.g. an imager). The pattern detected by the imager can then be analyzed to reconstruct the spectrum. Significant differences between this technology and diffractive grating technologies are that the photonic crystals can be arrayed over two dimensions, the patterned regions are small allowing a single detector to image many patterns, and the spectrometer resolution is independent of the distance between the diffractive element and the detector. Unlike a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the photonic crystal spectrometer has no moving parts. These characteristics also yield a spectrometer with the potential for high vacuum, low temperature, vibration, and particle tolerance. The scaling law that governs this system enables substantial miniaturization of these spectrometer devices; the resulting module size is constrained by the dimensions of the detector. BENEFIT: Applications of this project include portable infrared spectrometer modules for absorption analysis of organic and inorganic compounds. Spectrophotometer implementations of such modules could be used for detection of pollutants, toxins, and chemicals for environmental, public health, safety, and law enforcement applications.

Polaris Sensor Technologies, Inc.
200 Westside Square Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-0087
J. Larry Pezzaniti
AF103-224      Awarded:1/6/2011
Title:Infrared Spectrometer for the Cryovacuum Environment
Abstract:The 7V and 10V space chambers at Arnold Air Force Base are deep space environment simulators developed to test high performance interceptors and surveillance sensors in deep space conditions (20K background temperature). The chambers operate over the visible to Long Wave Infrared portions of the spectra. The proposed spectrometer will be designed for integrated into either the 7V or 10V space chamber to assist in calibration/test of the collimator/source array and to test the resistive source array, point sources, flood sources and monochromator source. The starting design for the spectrometer named CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Infrared Spectrometer) makes use of Polaris’ Division of Aperture technology, Grism diffractive elements realized with Grey Scale Technology, and the Aquarius Si:As focal plane array offered by Raytheon. Several designs will be investigated as part of the Phase I development and an optimal design will be proposed for Phase II development. The proposed spectrometer design provides for both 1D spatial information and spectral information between the wavelengths 1 and 20 microns. The spectrometer is small and lightweight, and has the potential to mature into a field portable ruggedized sensor. The design uses current state-of-the-art commercially available components. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the Compact High Resolution Infrared Spectrometer (CHRIS) will have a wide range of applications including chemical threat cloud detection, nuclear proliferation detection, humanitarian de-mining, remote sensing, and medical imaging. The sensor is designed to be small, compact and lightweight, allowing the sensor to be operated from a variety of platforms, including airborne, military vehicle, stationary outdoor or naval.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Justin J. Hill
AF103-225      Awarded:6/6/2011
Title:Maximum Hydrogen Storage Densities in Scalable, Low-Cost Vessels through Compression and Adsorption
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal outlines a scalable, low-cost procedure for the fabrication of hierarchical hybrid nanomaterials that will produce ultra-high pressure tolerance and surface area vessels. These vessels enable the physical storage of hydrogen through compression and adsorption at densities predicted to exceed the DOE 2015 requirements by 65% and 98% for volumetric and gravimetric standards, respectively. The hybrid nanomaterial is composed of a moderate strength structure with tunable orientation, surface area and volume. It is additionally included with a high strength material to enhance vessel pressure tolerance and hydrogen physisorption without loss of volumetric storage. Furthermore, the novel storage medium comprises a safe technology that would gain immediate market penetration in the area of hydrogen storage, transportation and delivery. BENEFIT: The development of this nanomaterial hybrid vessel for hydrogen storage would have immediate application in hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen powered applications. The vessel could safely store hydrogen for transport and delivery but would also facilitate a controllable yet high flow rate of hydrogen release.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Venkat Kamavaram
AF103-225      Awarded:6/6/2011
Title:High Density Hydrogen Storage with Nano-Material Hybrids
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit proposes to develop a hybrid nanomaterial composite with high hydrogen storage capacity. The nanocomposite material is composed of nanomaterials chemically bonded to support. The unique hierarchical architecture will contribute towards high hydrogen storage capacity. BENEFIT: The successful development of hybrid nanocomposite hydrogen storage technology will enable the wide scale utilization of fuel cells that find many applications at DoD installations for stationary portable power generation, military fleet vehicles, high endurance UAVs, and man-portable applications. Commercial applications for the fuel cells powered by reliable and high storage density hydrogen storage materials are numerous, e.g., portable electronics, automobiles, portable stationary power and many more energy guzzling devices.

TH Chem
5901-J Wyoming Blvd. #338
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 610-6027
Tuqiang Chen
AF103-225      Awarded:6/6/2011
Title:High Density Hydrogen Storage with Nano-Material Hybrids
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Hydrogen powered fuel cells are promising next generation power source technologies for automobiles and many other portable and mobile electronics. However, application of the technology is greatly hindered by current hydrogen storage technology due to low storage capacity and unsatisfactory safety performance. TH Chem, Inc. (THC) proposes to team with Professor R. T. Paine of the University of New Mexico (UNM) and Professor D. Hirschfeld of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) to develop a nanoporous, spherical boron nitride (BN) based nanocomposite for high capacity, safe hydrogen storage to meet the need for high performance hydrogen storage materials. In the Phase I effort, the proposed BN-based nanocomposites will be prepared via a low-cost synthetic approach and structurally characterized. The performance of the hydrogen storage material will be evaluated in term of hydrogen storage capacity, operation temperature, operation kinetics, and storage reversibility. The proposed nanocomposite hydrogen storage technology has great potential to realize the commercialization of hydrogen-powered fuel cells that have great commercial applications in automobiles, and other mobile and portable consumer electronics. The project team has extensive experience in nanomaterials preparation and characterization. BENEFIT: The proposed nanocomposite hydrogen storage technology has great potential to realize the commercialization of hydrogen-powered fuel cells that have great commercial applications in automobiles, and other mobile and portable consumer electronics. The technology will also find application at any DOD installation in the United States and abroad which have fleet vehicles and air/ground support equipment.

Agave BioSystems, Inc.
P.O. Box 100
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Omar Green
AF103-226      Awarded:6/2/2011
Title:Luminescent Coordination Polymer-Based VOC Monitoring System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) serve an important role in manufacturing processes as solvents. However, once these products reach the marketplace the industrial solvents are released into the ambient air, causing them to concentrate in enclosed work spaces such as office buildings. Exposure to VOCs from sources such as new furnishings, wall coverings, and office equipment has been linked to sick building syndrome, and has been blamed for increased rates of leukemia and lymphoma. A CDC investigation has suggested specific VOCs contributed to the illnesses associated with living in FEMA trailers following Hurricane Katrina. Therefore, the detection and subsequent mitigation of VOC exposure is important for public health in myriad settings. In this Phase I, Agave BioSystems proposes to use coinage metal (i.e. Cu(I), Ag(I), and Au(I))-based luminescent coordination polymers capable of reversibly interacting with target VOCs (e.g. benzene and trichloroethylene (TCE)). Changes in the optical characteristics resulting from interaction between VOCs and the coordination polymers can be photometrically detected for a simple and sensitive continuous monitoring system. BENEFIT: At the completion of the Phase II, Agave BioSystems will have developed a single step, field portable VOC sensor capable of specifically and sensitively detecting VOCs in the ambient workplace environment. The sensor will be marketable as an easy to read and fast replacement to EPA compendium method TO-15. The sensor will have applications at numerous DOD sites, and due to rapid detection, the device will provide a means to test multiple locations more frequently, enabling faster remediation of contaminated sites. Other markets include industrial facilities, homeland security, forensics, and law enforcement.

Dioxide Materials
60 Hazelwood Dr
champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 239-1400
Rich Masel
AF103-226      Awarded:6/2/2011
Title:Continuous Indoor Vapor Intrusion Monitoring System for Volatile Organic Compounds
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The AF has a need for vapor intrusion alarms. Dioxide proposes a device that uses a preconcentrator, microGC and novel detector. The device will use The TO-15/17 protocol to scan for the compounds of interest to the air force. BENEFIT: This device will be useful for indoor air quality control for a number of applications.

Kestrel Corporation
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Boyd Hunter
AF103-226      Awarded:6/2/2011
Title:Continuous Indoor Vapor Intrusion Monitoring System for Volatile Organic Compounds
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A new differential spectroscopic technique is proposed to detect VOCs for environmental monitoring and remdiation at Edwards AFB. This new technique has demonstrated promise with similar materials and can be deployed in a modestly sized unit to provide continuous monitoring. BENEFIT: This technology is applicable to various types of monitoring application and is an orthogonal signature that complements standard IR molecular fingerprints. The technology can be used for laboratory instruments, chemical detection and identification, as well as explosives detection.

Excellatron
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Steve Buckingham
AF103-232      Awarded:6/3/2011
Title:Smart Miniaturized Power Supply
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Phase I proposal will meet the Air Force requirements for smart scalable miniaturized batteries with high energy density, safety, and reliability. The battery design allows for energy densities in excess of 800 Wh/L and solid state cells are capable of extremely high cycle life, and extended operating temperature range. The lithium cell proposed is fabricated using low cost production processes and has already demonstrated high energy density and ultimate safety even in extreme environments. To meet the power requirements in this solicitation the cathode performance will be enhanced by optimizing the cathode thickness and lithium diffusion rate. Thin, hermetically packaged 1 Ah modules can be easily stacked to scale to any required capacity. The inherent safety of the solid state technology minimizes requirements for power management and other protections that are essential with other battery technologies. This drastically simplifies the task of circuit design for monitoring the power supply condition in smart applications. BENEFIT: The ultra safe all-solid state lithium batteries prepared on thin substrates will not only satisfy the Air Force’s requirements for instrumentation and flight termination support applications, they can also provide energy storage for other military applications, for devices in the electronics industry and other consumer markets. The most promising opportunity is in portable electronics, such as cellular phones, portable computers, and other personal digital assistance devices. Smart, miniaturized power supplies have application in the commercial market for the auto industry and many other applications that have space constraints. The solid state construction is ideal for extreme military environments including temperature range, acceleration and vibration. Also, the cell is expected to perform well in EMI/EMC testing. Further development of this novel technology and scale up of the manufacturing capability will lead to a lithium battery with an energy density at least 100% higher than that of conventional lithium ion batteries. By developing a high capacity, all-solid state battery on thin substrates, the US will establish a leadership position in rechargeable battery research and benefit from this high margin, high performance battery market.

Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Christopher Rhodes
AF103-232      Awarded:5/23/2011
Title:Miniaturized Power Supply for Safe Operation in Low and High Temperature Regimes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Remotely Piloted Vehicles (e.g. Raven and Dakota), are heavily relied on by U.S. Air Force warfighters for safe and successful completion of critical missions involving surveillance, intelligence, target acquisition, payload delivery and reconnaissance. Because onboard space on RPVs is limited, miniaturized power supplies, which can deliver high energy densities in scalable quantities, are needed to power instrumentation and flight termination systems. RPVs face extreme temperatures and power supplies must be capable of safe and reliable operation at high and low temperature regimes. Lynntech proposes to develop a miniaturized, smart, rechargeable, non-flammable Lithium-ion battery that will safely and reliably operate in the temperature range of -40 to +85 °C and will be capable of generating 30 Wh of energy, with scalable charge capacities (1 – 10 Ah). In order to accomplish this, Lynntech will develop a highly conductive, wide temperature range electrolyte/solvent mixture, during the Phase I project. A prototype based on the advanced electrolyte and high capacity electrodes will be fabricated and the performance demonstrated under varying loads of 0.25C to 2C. Phase II will focus on refining the prototype to meet military requirements (i.e. 30 Wh, <4 in3, military-grade parts, and smart software) and field testing. BENEFIT: Miniaturized, rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries that deliver high energy densities in high and low temperature regimes would satisfy the U.S. Air Force’s need for small power supplies for Remotely Piloted Vehicles, particularly the Raven and Dakota. The benefits of developed Li-ion batteries to the Air Force and other DoD agencies, include improved stability and reliability at extreme temperatures, increased safety, and high performance during critical operations. The developed electrolytes for wide temperature ranges will also benefit the private sector. Li-ion batteries based on advanced electrolytes designed for commercial products (e.g. consumer electronic devices and hybrid/electric vehicles) can have improved power densities, reliable operation in various climates and reduced risks of explosions. The most applicable market in the private sector for the developed technology would be the communications and transportation service.

Materials & Electrochemical Research (MER) Corp.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85756
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Raouf O. Loutfy
AF103-232      Awarded:6/14/2011
Title:Using a Novel Family of Electrolytes to Extend the Safety and Temperature Range of Li-ion Batteries
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The increasingly demanding mission requirements placed on Air Force applications have necessitated the use of higher energy density and higher power density storage systems capable of safe operation over a broader temperature range. MER Corporation and the University of Arizona are proposing a novel family of electrolytes appropriate for Air Force miniaturized lithium-ion battery use. These high quality lithium-ion transporting electrolytes will enable lithium-ion battery to operate through out a wide temperature range (-40°C to +100°C) with improved cycle life. A miniaturized smart recharge circuitry system, which is based on MER’s earlier version, will be developed in Phase I for Phase II prototype system. BENEFIT: MER’s proposed concept will provide an advanced Li-ion transporting electrolyte for immediate use by the Air Force. Lithium batteries using this electrolyte will provide power from subzero to nearly boiling hot temperatures while offering improved specific power and power density. MER’s goal is to develop an alternative in power storage, a safer higher performance lithium-ion battery. Incorporation of the proposed safe electrolyte materials in the Li-ion battery system will lead to significance improments in performance across a wide operational temperature range. The results of this work will provide lithium-ion batteries with a non- flammable electrolyte for use with naval aircraft and in commercial aviation applications.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
James Butz
AF103-235      Awarded:5/25/2011
Title:Articulated Nozzle for Aircraft Fire Protection
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Fires in dry bays and engine nacelles of military aircraft present a significant hazard to aircraft survivability. The USAF is interested in reducing weight and improving performance of systems to protect these spaces. ADA Technologies, Inc. has 10 years experience developing advanced fire suppression technologies, and proposes a solution that aims a plume of clean agent directly at fires. This transition from a flooding approach to local application of extinguishing agent will result in a smaller system that extinguishes fires more quickly. We will build and evaluate proof-of-concept designs for a local application fire suppression system that employs an aimable nozzle to apply to an evolving fire a plume of CO2 and water stored as a microemulsion. ADA has demonstrated that this microemulsion is very effective as a fire-inhibiting agent that can be discharged in less than 100 milliseconds. In Phase I we will use commercial components to construct a novel system to steer the nozzle toward the target fire. We will conduct fire tests of the system in a simulated confined space. In Phase II we will integrate the new hardware with state-of-the art detectors and controllers, followed by fire testing to demonstrate fast and effective fire suppression performance. BENEFIT: A local application fire suppression system for confined spaces would have wide appeal in the aerospace field for the protection of military aircraft. Applications would also include service in commercial aircraft as a fire protection system in engine nacelles as well as cargo compartments. A commercial variant would find markets for the protection of engine compartments of transport vehicles such as trucks, buses, and trains. Light armored military vehicles are another potential market for this technology, where both crew compartments and engines could be protected. Engineered for cost reduction, the market for automobile protection could also be addressed. ADA has identified candidate commercial partners who build and sell aerospace fire suppression equipment to help us take this technology to market as development advances through Phases I and II of the SBIR process.

Engineering and Scientific Innovations, Inc.
6740 Kelseys Oak Ct
Cincinnati, OH 45248
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 605-3700
John M. Davis
AF103-235      Awarded:5/5/2011
Title:Universal Fire Suppressant Nozzle
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Engineering & Scientific Innovations, Inc. (ESI) has an extensive background in aircraft survivability and vulnerability reduction and has specific experience in the fundamental understanding of the fire suppressant transport phenomena in highly cluttered spaces such as engine nacelles and dry bays. This opportunity allows for the development of a unique smart nozzle technology which could be used to retrofit current systems in legacy aircraft as well as compliment the design of new suppression systems in future aircraft. By incorporating an optical fire location device with a proprietary discharge nozzle, the newly developed smart nozzle will be capable of locating a fire and discharging agent directly at the fire zone within 100 ms of receiving an external detection signal. This smart nozzle will thereby increase the overall efficiency of the suppression system by increasing the coverage area of a single nozzle, reducing the number of nozzles required and decreasing the amount of agent required to extinguish a fire, all while reducing collateral damage to nearby areas not effected by the fire. BENEFIT: The proposed smart fire suppression nozzle offers a method of increasing the effectiveness of halon replacement fire suppression systems for DoD and commercial aircraft platforms by achieving higher agent transport efficiencies to fire regions. This smart nozzle will allow retrofit of legacy systems as well as integration into future fire suppression systems. Furthermore, due to its universal nature, the nozzle is expected to be easily marketable to several additional industries including but not limited to the following: ground vehicle suppression systems (military and commercial), building fire protection systems, solid propellant gas generation fire suppression systems, and electronic/computer equipment rooms. This multi-use marketability increases commercialization of the final product and decreases the cost per unit, especially for DoD applications.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5229
Eric van Doorn
AF103-236      Awarded:5/19/2011
Title:SynCon: a Master-time Synchronized Event Controller
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) is the world's premier rocket sled test track. During tests, payload and instrumentation are moved over miles along rails by means of rocket sleds. Events like firing motors, initiating flares, and deploying petals are initiated along the length of the track when appropriate speeds/accelerations are reached. High speed sensors are used to collect data about the test events. Data and triggers must be time synchronized with sub-microsecond accuracy. However, the timing accuracy provided by the legacy master control computer is too poor for anticipated needs. Also, a solution independent of a cable plant leveraging modern wireless technology is desirable Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes SynCon: a wireless, time-synchronized, event control system. SynCon consists of a single Master Event Controller and multiple sub-stations along the track. SynCon will use GPS-disciplined clocks at each sub-station along the track, and derive accurate timing data. We will also use redundant synchronization methods to improve robustness and performance. This reconfigurability will facilitate integration with legacy equipment (e.g. using serial/parallel interfaces), or newer instrumentation using USB or Firewire. BENEFIT: The proposed work directly addresses a critical need of the Air Force, specifically the need for cost-effective testing and evaluation of must-have equipment and safety features. wireless synchronization technology in general has both military and civilian applications. Military test ranges requiring common, precise time tagged event initiation and data collection. Large factories, refineries, docks or rail yards requiring common, precise time tagged events. Sync systems used in cell phone base-stations provide the source for the transmission frequencies that carry the data between cell-sites and the cell phone users, distribute UTC time, and synchronize all the stations in the network so the user's conversation is seamlessly transferred from one cell site to the next. The biggest users of these precision sync technologies are all the communications related industries, government/military services, and public utilities.

McQ Inc.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Mark Winston
AF103-236      Awarded:4/29/2011
Title:Wireless, Time-synchronized, Event Control System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a wide-area, wireless, time-synchronized event controller system (WTECS). The proposed solution will provide a reliable, low cost, non-intrusive system that can record sensor data, control events, and display data in real time by employing a distributed network of wireless event controllers. BENEFIT: There is a critical need for the ability to precisely measure and control events on high speed test tracks, such as the Holloman high speed test track (HHSTT). Typical event measurement and control systems consist of a set of sensors along the track that are connected by individual cables to a centralized data acquisition system where the signals are digitized for processing and analysis. This architecture has many disadvantages. It is cumbersome and obtrusive because of the amount of cabling required to connect the sensors to the data acquisition unit. Additionally, because of the long measurement lines these systems are very susceptible to loss, delay, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) which can corrupt the signal leading to poor signal quality. Most importantly, timing latency becomes significant when signal must travel several miles down the track. McQ is proposing a system design that will overcome these challenges. The proposed solution will provide a reliable, low cost, non-intrusive system that can record sensor data, control events, and display data in real time by employing a distributed network of wireless event controllers.

Physical Optics Corporation
Products and Engineering Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Allen Hollister
AF103-236      Awarded:5/6/2011
Title:Wireless Event Controller
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force’s need for a time-synchronized, event control system to replace its current rocket-sled control system. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Wireless Event Controller (WIRELESSEC). The system is based on a high-speed, precise, and long-range RF link and an intuitive user interface (GUI) that controls, monitors, and records events over a 12 mile area. The innovations in WIRELESSEC will enable the system to provide a wireless communication link with a universal system clock that includes hardware compensation of propagation time errors. The precise electronics will enable all events to be time tagged (at test initialization) with a precise time resolution (10 ns) directly addressing the Air Force’s requirement for maximum time resolution (100 ns or better). In addition, WIRELESSEC has a special operator-controlled abort/hold button that is fast and reliable, with a custom GUI allowing for rapid and intuitive customization of the test setup and the recorded data. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of WIRELESSEC with a scaled down (100 meter range) prototype and define a concept for implementation. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a full-scale prototype (12 mile range) of the system with several primary and backup events. BENEFIT: The ability to wirelessly control and record accurate (10 ns) time-tagged events over long distances (12 miles in this case) is a breakthrough application that will benefit the nation by enhancing this particular rocket sled application, as well as other military and commercial applications that require this amount of time accuracy and synchronization. To put the 10 ns time resolution into perspective, the radio signal requires 63.36 µs to go the 12 miles from the base station to the end of the track. Some significant commercial applications include large factories, refineries, docks, rail yards, and vehicle crash testing facilities that require precise time-tagged events.

American Testing Services LLC
2268 North Moraine Drive
Dayton, OH 45439
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-9390
William Neyer
AF103-239      Awarded:12/17/2010
Title:Multipurpose Non-Destructive Inspection Test Kit
Abstract:It is important to be able to assess technicians and their ability to reliably detect critical defects without rejecting acceptable parts. To accomplish this, a series of test kits with a variety of acceptable and unacceptable anomalies needs to be available to perform POD studies. The aim of this proposal is threefold. 1)Identify the types and sizes of defects that need to be detected by categorizing them according to: NDT Method, Part Geometry, Defect Geometry, and Material. 2)Modernize the creation of artificial defects by collaborating with Mound Laser & Photonics Center to image cracks and recreate them at varying depths and lengths. We foresee the advantages to POD studies to include: a. Greater control over defect size, shape, and depth variation. Artificial defects will not be limited to straight lines and simple curves but instead can be jagged and multi-depth. b. Artificial defects that are much smaller when compared to EDM notches. c. Artificial defects that have little to no heat affected zone. 3)Choose specific materials, geometries and artificial defects to include in a POD kit for surface defects. Engineering drawings showing the final product(s) will include cost estimates for producing the kits. BENEFIT: Commercial benefits include test kits with manufactured defects that are more representative of defects found on in-service aircraft which will provide the opportunity to maximize POD. Additionally, test kits will be designed to overlap NDT methods such that one test kit can be used for multiple inspection disciplines. This will reduce the cost associated with POD studies.

Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
David Forsyth
AF103-239      Awarded:12/15/2010
Title:Multipurpose Non-Destructive Inspection Test Kit
Abstract:A wave of new inspection requirements is anticipated in the near future, accompanied by an increase in the number of candidate inspection techniques. Qualification of these will require an increasing number of QAPA studies. The lack of QAPA studies forces an overly conservative inspection strategy, adding additional maintenance costs and decreasing fleet readiness. However, the empirical nature of those studies, as currently defined in MIL- HDBK-1823, makes them very costly in terms of both time and dollars. A similar need arises as the USAF fleets age: new areas must be inspected, and cracks are found where they have not been found before. NDI is called upon to provide a quick response in terms of deploying inspection techniques to maintain operational capability, and NDI engineering must provide estimates of capability quickly. Typically it costs hundreds of thousands of dollars to make a significant sample set and may take many months to specify and procure. Texas Research Institute, Austin Inc. (TRI/Austin) in collaboration with Dr. Floyd Spencer of sfHire and APES, Inc. propose to design Multi-Purpose NDI Test Kits to enable fast and cheap QAPA’s for new inspection requirements and for quick response for inspection issues in the depot and field. BENEFIT: The TRI Team approach of modular, scaleable coupons to specimens for the implementation of universal testing kits with accompanying POD analysis software will provide the USAF with rapid response capability for QAPA studies at much reduced cost over existing alternatives.

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6856
Timothy Tiernan
AF103-240      Awarded:12/14/2010
Title:Flexible, Compatible, Solid-State Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Defects Near Edges of Curved Components
Abstract:Eddy current testing (ECT) is a widely practiced and critically important nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method used in aerospace, yet it relies on decades-old, wire-coil sensors. Flexible sensors are needed to inspect curved surfaces near the edges of components including wheel bead seats on landing gear and dove tail slots on turbine rotor disks. For many tests, the large signal generated by the nearby edge of a component overwhelms the small signal due to a defect. RMD, in collaboration with Wyle Laboratories, proposes a flexible, solid-state ECT sensor probe made from a linear array of microscopic, directionally-sensitive, solid-state eddy current sensors. The high sensitivity ECT probe will greatly enhance the probability of detection (POD) of measurements near the edges of curved components. The multiple element sensor array will allow faster, highly localized inspections. The modular sensor array will be compatible with existing ECT systems so that it can be adopted without the expense of buying new equipment, or training personnel in new ECT methodologies. The sensor array will be fabricated on thin durable plastic (approximately 100 um thick) that is highly flexible so that it can be used on tightly curved surfaces. BENEFIT: DOD APPLICATIONS: The proposed technology provides an entirely new method for NDE that permits high resolution detection of minute defects near the edges of components and in difficult to access areas. The proposed NDE technology will be useful for inspecting landing gear, engine components, flight surfaces, support structures, titanium castings, hydraulic lines and other components that are made of standard or advanced metallic materials. The technology will permit inspection of curved components in 3-D. For materials testing and development, incipient defects can be detected and their propagation monitored and analyzed during aging. Since the technology can be used to improve manufacturing and the selection of materials, and to test finished components and aging systems, it will have a broad impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of DOD missions. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS: The advanced ECT sensor technology proposed here will enable inspectors to detect extremely small defects near edges and other features of components. It will be simple to use and compatible with existing ECT systems. Eddy current testing is the most widely used NDE technique with a market value in excess of $200M/year in the US alone. Some of the commercial market areas where the new technology has promise include: pipelines, heat exchangers, oil refineries, aircraft, ship and other transport vehicle inspection, jet engine inspection, manufacturing and QA of metallic components.

United Western Technologies, Corp. dba: UniWest
122 South 4th Avenue
Pasco, WA 99301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 544-0720
Alan Miller
AF103-240      Awarded:1/12/2011
Title:UNIVERSAL FLEXIBLE COIL EDDY CURRENT PROBE
Abstract:To address the Air Force's need to develop “low cost of ownership” inspection solutions, capable of inspecting various areas that require edge crack detection, UniWest proposes to further develop its production-proven eddy current flexible coil probe technology (currently capable of detecting cracks close to edges) to a quantifiable inspection that is able to detect cracks at edges. Development and application tasks remain in probe design, characterization (optimization) and in application of these probes to meet the edge-crack detection requirements for engine dovetails, and aircraft wheels. The implementation of edge crack detection with flexible coils will offer a simple and efficient solution to significantly reduce inspection time, making them simpler to implement, maintain, and operate. Specific areas for study would be the wheel bead seat and the dovetails slots on turbine rotor disks. The Phase I program is essential to economic development of eddy current flexible coil probe packages, to enable demonstration on cracked specimens and real hardware during a Phase II program. A phase III effort will then commercialize the eddy current flexible coil probe packages by DoD, NASA, Commercial and Civil aircraft applications. BENEFIT: Universal Flexible Coil Eddy Current Probes capable to quantify the detection of edge cracks would dramatically change the way inspections are conceptualized and deployed. The non- complex nature of the approach does not tax equipment hardware, reduces failure modes and is easy to own, as it does not require a high level of expertise or maintenance. This “Low Cost of Ownership” inspection process makes it a perfect candidate for both the military and for the commercial industry, where a “faster, better and lower cost of ownership” is needed to assure the structural integrity of aircraft

JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
David Grundy
AF103-241      Awarded:1/29/2011
Title:Fastener Hole ET, Including Holes with Nut Plates
Abstract:Phase I will develop prototypes for two bolt hole probes, using innovative linear drive eddy current array formats (similar to the JENTEK MWM-Array). The first probe will be designed to operate with the NEW moderately priced GridStation (the GS-Durable – a soon-to-be- introduced JENTEK instrument provided in 7-, 15- or 37-channel versions) for bolt-hole C- Scan imaging, providing inspection of the entire internal hole surface for holes with and without nut plates. The second probe will include two pairs of channels that can operate in differential or absolute mode and work with either the NEW low cost GS-Hand-Held (a soon- to-be-introduced two-channel JENTEK instrument) or conventional ET instruments currently used by the Air Force. This SBIR will not only deliver a new practical probe for bolt-hole inspections with nut plates that can be used with either JENTEK or competitive Nondestructive Testing instruments; but also deliver enhanced C-Scan imaging capability for bolt holes that will provide substantial advantages over current practice at an affordable price. This will include POD curve generation in Phase II for cracks at edges at the nut plate end and for cracks in other locations for direct performance comparisons. BENEFIT: If this program is successful, the Air Force will have two advanced bolt hole inspection probes: one that will deliver superior inspection performance in all areas of bolt holes, including at the end of the hole near a nut plate, using JENTEK GridStation instruments; and a second probe that will work with competitive instruments to support inspection of bolt holes with nut plates. This will provide the Air Force with a clear choice for nondestructive testing solutions for bolt holes.

United Western Technologies, Corp. dba: UniWest
122 South 4th Avenue
Pasco, WA 99301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 544-0720
Thomas W. Guettinger
AF103-241      Awarded:1/29/2011
Title:Improved Nut Plate Fastener Hole Eddy Current Probe
Abstract:To address the Air Force’s need to perform a quantifiable inspection of the inside region of fastener holes with installed nut plates, UniWest proposes to design a probe that optimizes pertinent parameters to position the sensing mechanism at the edge of the fastener hole (including surface area right under the nut plate). The parameters include (but are limited to): probe geometry design, coil design, shielding, coil placement, inspection technique, and material. A Probabilty of Detection (PoD) test will be demonstrated utilizing Air Force inventory instrumentation and scanning mechanisms. Phase I will address the feasibility of a probe design which accurately inspects fastener holes with installed nut plates for flaws, including surface area right under the nut plates, and no damage to probe or aircraft. A PoD plan In Accordance With (IAW) HDBK-1823A will be presented. Phase II will refine probe design based on feedback, and PoD demonstration will be performed to compare the detection capability of current and the new probe designs for cracks emanating at the surface where the nut plate is attached. Phase III will perform dual use commercialization, applying the probe to all military aircraft, as well as all commercial aircraft, that utilize nut plates. BENEFIT: Improved flat-bottom bolt-hole probe designs increase the reliability of flaw detection at the interfaces between fastener holes and nut-plates, thus reducing the risk of material failure originating from a known stress-riser. This would allow a reduction in inspection frequencies, lowering aircraft ownership costs and significantly improving aircraft safety in the military as well as commercial sectors.

Aspire Solutions, Inc
323 W Spring St
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 966-4381
Bryan Walker
AF103-243      Awarded:1/28/2011
Title:Improved Methodology for Engineering Repair Process
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop new techniques for addressing the engineering change requests (202’s). These techniques include new processes and workflow management techniques designed to streamline the process and minimize the response time. The 202 process is essentially a network efficiency model where information is shared among various nodes. Once all nodes have completed their assignment, the process is resolved. The Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) has several initiatives focused on this effort; however, many are still based on the manual, paper based system. This research will focus on several areas. First, clearly identifying the full stream data needs of the entire process. Second, identify techniques to simplify the data collection process, and third design utilize network modeling theory to development work flow management processes to ensure minimal flow time. This research will utilize human based processing theory, network modeling diagrams, and optimization / scheduling strategies to enable the OC-ALC to reduce its lead-times while providing high quality engineering solutions. BENEFIT: The ultimate goal of the research is to increase maintenance throughput by minimizing the impact ETS requests have on the production schedule of the aircraft. The research will achieve this goal by: • Streamlining the existing ETS process by ensuring complete, standardized data is captured when the request is submitted • Prioritizing requests to improve customer service rates • Improving communication; thereby, decreasing engineering response time • Minimizing the variation; thereby, simplifying planning Within DoD there is a huge opportunity to expand the impact of the research due to the long service hours and battle damage equipment. Within the private sector, there is also a large opportunity due to the aging infrastructure within utilities such as electrical, gas, and water.

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Michael K. Painter
AF103-243      Awarded:1/28/2011
Title:Technical Support and Professional Engineering in Real-Time (TechSPERT)
Abstract:KBSI’s goal for this project is to develop and deploy a high velocity engineering technical support (HV-ETS) capability referred to as Technical Support and Professional Engineering in Real-Time (TECHSPERT™), reflecting the delivery of critical engineering knowledge and technical expertise at a warrior-centric pace. As currently envisioned, TECHSPERT™ embodies the development of (i) a reengineered ETS process, (ii) a knowledge capture, discovery, exploitation, and management methodology, and (iii) a blueprint for augmenting standard Air Force product life cycle management (PLM), engineering data management, and engineering analysis systems to deliver a comprehensive, HV-ETS capability. The Phase I effort will focus on developing and demonstrating the feasibility of a reengineered ETS process and supporting technologies to eliminate waste, reduce flowtime, and improve quality. The Phase II effort will refine and harden a comprehensive capability demonstrated through working with actual 202 requests ranging from the routine to those that require specialized engineering expertise (e.g., corrosion, crack inspections, and mechanical failures). This effort provides a foundation for exploiting the 3,808 firm $50B aviation MRO market in the U.S. Flowtime losses in the DoD depot environment due to nonconforming material issues result in lost availability representing tens of thousands of dollars per day in lost revenues. BENEFIT: High velocity engineering technical support (HV-ETS); product life cycle management (PLM); reengineering; social networks; decision trees; system nonconformance markup language (SNML); nonconformance technical assistance; systems development methodology (SDM)

NanoTechLabs Inc.
409 W. Maple St.
Yadkinville, NC 27055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 297-5040
HEATHER BROOKS
AF103-245      Awarded:2/28/2011
Title:Lightweight, Frangible Cables and Composite Ladders with Lightning Strike Protection
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Phase I SBIR program will focus on demonstrating the feasibility of developing a frangible nanocomposite ladder for ILS/GS towers. Non frangible, high mass metal components will be replaced with a FRP nanocomposite incorporated with NTL’s BuckyShield™ product. Frangible designs such as manufactured stress lines and jointed sections will be investigated to produce a low mass, rigid nanocomposite ladder that is frangible upon impact that meets FASG’s frangibility requirements. NTL’s BuckyShield™ product will provide lightning strike protection, grounding and EMI shielding that is composite compatible. The Phase I program will primary focus on demonstrating the feasibility of nanocomposite ladders and the cable shielding currently being developed in a MDA phase II program will be applied to frangible cabling in follow-on efforts. BENEFIT: NTL’s frangible nanocomposite ladder would replace the current non-frangible, one piece woven or solid metal ladders. This ladder would present less of a collision threat due to its low mass ladder and incorporated frangibility. The BuckyShield™ component would be low mass and organic along with the multifunctional benefits of lightning strike protection, grounding and EMI shielding without impairing the ladder frangibility. BuckyShield™ is composite compatible and doesn’t present the corrosion and CTE mismatch issues that metals do. BuckyShield™ would be combined with the composite ladder in a one step manufacturing process that could be scaled up. NTL’s frangible nanocomposite ladder could be used to replace non-frangible ladders at hundreds of commercial airports and military bases to provide FASG conforming, safer environments.

Select Engineering Services
1544 N. Woodland Park Drive STE #310
Layton, UT 84041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 586-0551
Wade Binks
AF103-245      Awarded:3/2/2011
Title:Frangible Cables, Ladders and other Accessories for “ILS/GS Structures and other Non-visual Aids”
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Select Engineering Services (SES) is a leader in developing, testing, and implementing frangible structures for airfield use worldwide. We have developed a large range of composite structures to improve the performance and quality of Air Force assets while decreasing costs to maintain these structures. Military and commercial aviation rely heavily on Navigation Aids (NAVAIDS) for positional awareness, landing aids, and meteorological information. NAVAID instrumentation is almost exclusively attached to towers located within the frangible zone of an airfield. NAVAIDS such as Instrument Landing System (ILS) / Glide- Slope (GS) towers are located in close proximity to a runway and are required to be frangible (ability to break away) when struck by a wayward aircraft. SES has recently demonstrated (through full-scale impact testing) that frangibility can be designed into large airfield structures such as ILS/GS towers. SES is uniquely positioned to extend frangibility concepts to cabling, ladders, and accessories associated with such structures. SES will conduct a rigorous requirements analysis, market survey, and feasibility analysis of commercially available cabling, ladder, and accessories to be used to develop a complete frangible ILS/GS solution. Results of Phase I are expected to integrate naturally with ongoing development and qualification of a complete frangible ILS/GS solution. BENEFIT: Every major airport has mission specific equipment located within the frangible zone. Frangibility requirements extend to both military and commercial environments. Frangibility requirements for Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) / Glide-Slope (GS) towers are often waived due to non-existent solutions. Results of Phase I will naturally integrate with ongoing development and qualification of a complete frangible ILS/GS solution. SES has recently conducted full-scale frangibility testing of an ILS/GS towers indicating that frangibility can be designed into these large airfield structures. Currently there are no known frangible solutions for necessary cables, ladders, or accessories that are attached to these structures. Following qualification of frangible cables, ladders, and accessories, these necessary components can then be integrated with other qualified frangible structures to provide a complete frangible solution to both military and commercial environments.

Hy-Tek Manufacturing Co. Inc.
1998 Bucktail Lane
Sugar Grove, IL 60554
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 466-7664
Jack Audet
AF103-246      Awarded:6/13/2011
Title:Automatic Load Balancing Device (ALBD) for Energy Efficient Tactical Shelters
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The purpose of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of reducing fuel consumption by efficiently providing single phase 120VAC power distribution that is automatically load balanced over existing 240VAC three phase generator produced power. This device, coined the Automatic Load Balancing Device (ALBD), will supply single phase 120VAC for distribution within Forward Operating Bases (FOB) and mitigate the majority of generator small load overcompensation. The proposed ALBD device will provide a method to spread or “balance” the single phase 120VAC load across all three phases of the generator three phase outputs equally without modification to existing generators or infrastructure. The effect of this balancing will minimize the “normal” generator reaction to increase RPM since the load is spread and the voltage drop will be divided. BENEFIT: The most obvious benefit to the development of the ALBD is the immediate reduction in FOB fuel consumption. No less important are generator maintenance issues especially related to engine wet stacking caused by no load high speed operation.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Charles D. Sampson
AF103-246      Awarded:6/13/2011
Title:Energy Efficient Tactical Shelters
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal outlines potential systems for efficiently distributing power to tactical shelters. One system, automatic load balancing, consists of a system of microcontroller controlled semiconductor switches and power sensors. The loads are transferred automatically to ensure phase balance. The alternative system, active power distribution, consists of high power, high frequency, high power density, converters, three phase and single phase inverters, and rectifiers which are constructed so that they have form, fit, and function compatibility with the existing power distribution systems. In the active power distribution system, the single phase power is isolated electronically from the three phase power and no imbalance due to single phase loading occurs. Computer models of each system are to be constructed and tested using typical and worst case load scenarios. From these data results an optimum power distribution which saves fuel and costs, will be selected, providing a starting point for the Phase II development of a prototype, scalable, 5kW system. BENEFIT: The development an efficient power distribution system provides benefits in terms of efficiency of power transmission from generator to loads. Increased efficiency in power transmission will result in reduced fuel consumption of generators.

Select Engineering Services
1544 N. Woodland Park Drive STE #310
Layton, UT 84041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 343-5445
Greg Whiting
AF103-246      Awarded:6/6/2011
Title:Energy Efficient Tactical Shelters
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Select Engineering Services (SES) is a successful provider of engineering and technical services to Air Force and Army customers; including system design, development, testing, and sustainment of complex tactical shelter and energy systems. Over the past nine years, SES has been instrumental in helping the Air Force develop and test a new generation of energy efficient composite shelters; offering increased thermal efficiency and significantly reduced fuel consumption. SES is well positioned to build on this previous work by designing energy efficient composite shelters that include several other energy saving technologies. SES is also uniquely positioned to make use of more than a decade of alternative energy R&D that can also be applied to shelter designs, allowing shelters to adapt to varying energy technologies that are deemed appropriate for given deployment scenarios. SES will conduct a Feasibility Analysis that will assess a broad range of innovative energy efficient/emerging technologies; including renewable generation and energy storage/management. Results are anticipated to show a high potential for short-term fuel savings of 50% or more. Additionally, the SES proposed Shelter Energy Laboratory is expected to establish software tools capable of rapidly modeling deployed shelters to provide highly adaptive energy conservation and alternative energy technologies. BENEFIT: The commercial potential and benefit for energy efficient tactical shelters is significant. There are a number of non-military organizations that use shelters in remote locations where there is no grid power or fuel delivery infrastructure. Commercial benefits include: minimizing fuel delivery costs to remote geological or construction sites, minimizing the ongoing cost of establishing fuel supply lines to such locations, and reducing the potential liability associated with fuel spills and/or emissions in remote locations. Potential customers include large multinational industries such as petroleum and mining; telecommunications, organizations involved in local enterprises such as forestry or road construction; and scientific organizations involved in remote ecosystem research. In each of these cases, delivering energy to the shelter is expensive. Moreover, these sites are often located in ecologically sensitive locations (e.g., national/state parks, arctic regions, or other sensitive environments), where the use of fuel, and/or the construction of a fuel delivery infrastructure, are discouraged by local authorities. Research for this effort is anticipated to show up to a 50% reduction in fuel consumption using a variety of energy use/management technologies as applied to shelter system designs.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Richard W. Guiler
AF103-250      Awarded:6/16/2011
Title:Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc. and the West Virginia University propose to develop an innovative Tactical Sustainment and Sensor Deployment (TSSD) system for the covert delivery of up to 45 lbs of supplies or ground sensors. This system can glide over 45 miles after deployment from a wide variety of aircraft in current US Air Force inventory. The proposed 20 pound payload TSSD system is designed for a high degree of flight performance, low cost and ease of deployment. The stowed vehicle’s outer mold line (OML), rigidity and vibration characteristics are designed to mimic that of the GBU-39 small diameter bomb. Because our system is designed to be able to be used on any platform that can deploy a GBU-39 it opens a wide variety of deployment options including internal stowage on the F-35 and F-22 and flight clearance on the Predator UAV. The system’s max loaded weight of 62 lbs makes it able to be handled without specialized ground equipment. TSSD uses a variety of modular payload canisters including a sensor deployment module. The aerodynamics and deployment mechanisms can be scaled to a 500 pound vehicle which would have many configuration and size characteristic similar with the AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) BENEFIT: The Tactical Sustainment and Sensor Deployment (TSSD) system concept represents a revolutionary new approach to the resupply of small covert units and the long range covert insertion of ground sensors. The development of this system will enable the resupply of units operating in high threat areas and the rapid airborne clandestine deployment of sensing devices to many environments including high mountains and the marine environment. This concept is revolutionary because it can operate from many aircraft types and can precisely deliver a payload through all weather conditions. This system can take advantage of the specific operational environment in order to get access to difficult to reach targets. In it’s current form, this system could be used to resupply forest fire fighters in hostile environment or mountain rescue personnel. This technology can also be scaled up to provide significant amounts of supplies to military or disaster relief personnel.

Piasecki Aircraft Corporation
519 West Second Street P.O. Box 360
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 521-5700
Brain R. Geiger
AF103-250      Awarded:7/26/2011
Title:Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Piasecki Aircraft proposes to use a variant of its Turais Wing and Bomb Bay Launched UAV (WBBL-UAV) in conjunction with a covert trajectory planner and a guided parafoil to meet the challenges presented in the “Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System” SBIR solicitation. The Turais UAS was designed to be carried in the bomb bay or wing station of a P-3 Orion on standard 14- or 30-inch BRU lugs and released at up to 30,000 ft altitude to perform its mission. Turais has performed two successful unpowered air drop demonstrations from a surrogate aircraft. A scaled down version using a similar layout will be used for the 20 lb payload variant with the option of using the existing two airframes without modification to demonstrate a 500 lb payload delivery. To achieve covert delivery, PiAC will employ previous dissertation work by the Principal Investigator for a covert trajectory control algorithm that plans a minimally detectable path to the landing zone based on known observer locations or terrain profiles while accounting for vehicle dynamic limits. In addition, PiAC will team with Atair Aerospace to exploit Atair’s extensive expertise in guided parafoil systems, which enable the proposed CPADS system to achieve 50-yard landing accuracy. BENEFIT: A CPADS UAV as described in this proposal represents significant value to the military for covert resupply. Using a Covert Trajectory Navigation System provides the Turais UAV with a unique ability of enemy avoidance and accurate, soft delivery of supplies/sensors. In addition, the Turais is a modular system allowing for the insertion of combat munitions to be the primary payload. This gives the Turais UAV to ability to strike enemy targets. The advancement of UAV capabilities is one of the most promising areas of investment, which is forecasted to amount to over $20 billion dollars. Furthermore, future UAVs are anticipated to play an expanding role in border patrol, natural disaster relief, and search and rescue services in the future under the direction of other agencies such as DHS, the Coast Guard, and security contractors. The CPADS would enhance the capabilities of these tasks by providing covert resupply of forces behind enemy lines. PiAC has designed the Turais Naval UAV for use aboard the Naval P-3, P-8, F-18, and SH- 60 Aircraft. The universal BRU-14 airborne carriage system makes the Turais a unique product in the field of UAVs. Key to the Turais migration into land forces will again be its unique characteristics which differentiate the system from other offerings. A key characteristic which has high military worth is the reaction time or speed capability of the Turais (VD = 279 kts). The Turais has a strong structural center section dictated by the need to react high inertial and dynamic loads aboard the F-18 when launching & recovering to the carrier. This allows the Turais UAV to sustain high acceleration without modification to the base core airframe. That transitions to a wide range of capabilities of the Turais UAV. This strategy allows the Turais UAV to keep the production cost low to allow for

SeaLandAire Technologies, Inc.
1510 Springport Rd Suite C
Jackson, MI 49202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 784-8340
Stephen Ziegenfuss
AF103-250      Awarded:5/23/2011
Title:Covert Precision Aerial Delivery System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SeaLandAire Technologies and its team member CH Robotics propose to develop a 14 lb gliding vehicle capable of delivering a 20 lb payload. The vehicle will utilize a tandem wing arrangement. During transport, wings and stabilizers will be stored inside the glider, which will be designed to integrate with bomb racks that comply with MIL-STD-1760 through the USAF Seek Eagle effort. Before release, startup commands including altitude, airspeed, relative speed over ground, heading, GPS location, and landing coordinates will be sent to the glider. The autopilot will then calculate an optimum flight path based on this information. After release from the aircraft, the glider will deploy its lifting surfaces, and begin its controlled descent to the landing zone. Turning will be accomplished through AOA changes in the whole wing, eliminating the added complexity of additional ailerons or flaps. When the glider is nearing its landing zone, it will initiate a proprietary maneuver attenuating all ground speed and executing a very low ‘g’ landing. BENEFIT: The commercialization strategy for CPADS is dependent upon the approach to the problem taken throughout this SBIR effort. SeaLandAire believes the best approach is to start the design effort with a specific package form factor to prove feasibility in a time and funding efficient manner, but develop a package delivery system that can be scaled up to 500 lb loads. The communication suites that will be used to transfer location information from the plane to the payload and the sensor suite that will be used to determine the current payload location will be identical between all of the different models. This will necessitate only the payload carrying module to change. Increasing the performance capabilities of the warfighter through adding reliable and cost- effective guided aerial precision standoff deployment would be an extraordinary step. Fundamentally, it would “open the door” to a host of uses, both military and civilian, for low cost guided aerial precision standoff sensor systems. In the Phase I effort, SeaLandAire will apply the same legacy engineering to the development of the CPADS hardware that it has to the low production cost and reliability of the standard expendable sonobuoy platforms. The results of the research within this SBIR will help further the development of a modular expendable CPADS hardware packages that could be applied to a number of aerial deployment systems. Scientific sensors could benefit widely from future R&D as situations could be explored where standoff deployment would be beneficial because of environmental factors such as hurricanes, volcanic explosions, lightning storms, etc. Creating guide packages for critical supplies and sensors of all sizes and shapes will creates a large commercialization opportunity. Low cost, high glide ratio, guided sensor packages could be advantageous in most branches of the military, as well to the scientific community, and relief agencies in the commercial world. Potential markets and applications include:

EMD Technologies, LLC
17892 Bear River Court
Reno, NV 89508
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 247-7884
Krishnan Raja
AF103-252      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:Selective Solar Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Dimethyl Ether (DME) Using Unique-Architectured Nanotubular Semiconductors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide feed stock can be converted into fuels of solid, liquid or gas phase by chemical, electrolytic, photocatalytic and photo-electrocatalytic methods. Reduction of CO2 to fuel form of any phase requires energy. The reduction process should be energy efficient so that we do not spend more energy and emit more (indirect) CO2 in the process of converting CO2. From this point of view, conversion processes occurring at room temperature look attractive. The major objective of the proposed project is to convert CO2 to DME using sunlight in the presence of photo catalysts. The proposed research aims at developing a novel photo-catalytic system consisting of unique-architecture of self-ordered arrays of nanotubular transition metal oxide as photo active material functionalized with nanoparticles of Pd, Cu and other sp metals as catalysts for CO2 conversion. The developed systems will selectively convert CO2 to methanol by using sunlight. The proposed low-cost technology will address the objective of the U.S Air Force that intends to develop technologies for converting CO2 into a fuel that is fungible with JP-8. The photo converted methanol will be further transformed to dimethyl ether (DME) by a catalytic dehydration process at low temperatures using a novel catalyst system. BENEFIT: The targeted potential market segment is alternate fuel in the form of dimethyl ether for transport and power generation. DME can potentially replace liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in many applications such as large scale power generation, heating of buildings, cooking, and clean combustion for automobiles. DME has a higher cetane number (55) than diesel (cetane number 42-45) which indicates that it has a shorter delay time between ignition and combustion. DME is sulfur free and the combustion products contain less amount of toxic particulate emissions such as NOx and CO. Therefore, DME can meet very stringent emission regulations and can be used as fuel in underground mines. The established market of DME is for aerosol applications which is about 150,000 metric tons per year. For propellant applications, very high purity DME is required. However, for household applications, such as cooking and heating, a reduced purity is tolerable (about 95% DME. When DME is adopted as alternate fuel, the demand will increase exponentially. In China alone the production is expected to grow to 20 millions metric ton by 2020. Conventionally DME is manufactured through direct conversion of natural gas, which is considered as the most cost effective process. DME is also produced by catalytic dehydration of methanol at 250 oC. The sources of methanol can vary from syngas derived from coal or natural gas or biomass conversion from either agriculture or paper industry waste stream or energy crops. According to a report by DME association , the production cost is affected more by the rate of production (tons per year) than by the conversion processes such as direct or indirect method. However, it is clear that if the sources of methanol and process heat are renewable,

M3 Consulting Services, Inc.
63520 Georgetown
Washington, MI 48095
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(586) 943-9907
Kevin Mulrenin
AF103-252      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:Direct Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This project will investigate the feasibility of converting carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into liquid hydrocarbon fuel using solar energy and the same thermodynamic principles that enable biological photosynthesis; however, existing industrial technologies and processes will be integrated and substituted for biological processes. The significance of the artificial photosynthesis process is that for the first time, military units will be able to produce fuel using atmospheric or other sources of CO2 and water at or near the point of use in the theatre of operations, thus reducing the logistical footprint and associated costs of providing fuel to the military. Phase I activities will include development of concept designs utilizing commercially available technologies and demonstrating the ability to fabricate the necessary nano-scale components of the system. Research facilities at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF) will be utilized to develop and test the required hardware. Phase II activities will concentrate on optimizing the solar energy collection and conversion efficiencies, increasing fuel production capacity, and reducing the complexity of the system to facilitate manufacturing. The Principal Investigator, Kevin Mulrenin and the Senior Scientist, Dr. Stephen Bergin have both demonstrated that they are highly qualified to perform this work by developing and commercializing similar synthetic fuel technologies for the Government. BENEFIT: The development of a system for producing liquid hydrocarbons using artificial photosynthesis has broad application across the nation. This technology stands to replace some, if not all, traditional petroleum-based refinery production of transportation fuels and to dramatically reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere. This technology will be marketed to both traditional and non-traditional energy suppliers in the private sector. Licensing arrangements will be pursued with large energy providers such as ExxonMobil, BP, and other traditional fuel suppliers. In addition, it is likely that this technology will also enable non-traditional private entities to license this technology and enter the fuel production market, thereby diversifying and increasing the competitive landscape of the fuel production market. The size of the fuel production market is immense. According to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, the U.S. consumed 14.7 million barrels of petroleum each day in 2007 within its transportation sector. This amounts to 5.2 billion barrels per year and the rate of consumption is projected to grow over time. It’s clear that, given our nation’s economic and military dependence on transportation fuels, a

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Volodymyr Romanov
AF103-253      Awarded:1/10/2012
Title:Compton Scattering Three-dimensional Imaging System for in situ Nondestructive Inspection of Large Honeycomb Sandwich Structures
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a reliable method to inspect large honeycomb sandwich structures on aircraft, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new automatic, three-dimensional (3D) Compton Scattering Imaging System for in situ NDI of Large Honeycomb Sandwich Structures (IMHOS) used in aircraft and spacecraft, providing accurate detection, identification, and precise 3D localizations and measurements of possible disbonds, core and skin defects, and intrusion of different fluids. The proposed IMHOS NDI system is based on the POC-developed high-contrast Compton imaging tomography technique, optimized for NDI of honeycomb sandwich structures, and POC- patented apodized coded aperture X-ray optics. The IMHOS is a low-dose in-field noncontact, one-sided NDE system. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the IMHOS in POC X-ray lab experiments with honeycomb sandwich structures. In Phase II, POC plans to completely test the developed fully functional TRL-6 IMHOS, demonstrating accurate detection, precise spatial localization, and measurements of disbands and different skin and core defects of different (metal and nonmetal) large honeycomb sandwich structures with varied geometric forms, and also liquid intrusion detection with liquid type differentiation (fresh and salt water, oil, other organic liquids). BENEFIT: Military applications of the IMHOS system will include NDI of large honeycomb sandwich structures of aircraft for accurate identification, localization, and measurements of disbonds, skin and core different defects, and liquid intrusions, including identification of the detected liquid (e.g., fresh and salt water, oil) during aircraft depot maintenance, or in-field for the U.S. Air Force. The IMHOS system can be incorporated by the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force as a reliable, rapid, automatic, easy-to-use NDI system of large honeycomb sandwich structures used in aircraft and other military platforms. With minor modification, the IMHOS system can also be used as an NDI system for parts containing different heterogeneous light materials (e.g., explosives, adhesives, electronic components, composites, plastics). An expansion of most of the techniques developed under IMHOS Phase II can transition to the commercial application as an NDI system of large honeycomb sandwich structures, of civilian aircraft, spacecraft, light vessels, and so forth, or any application requiring control of honeycomb sandwich structures. With minor modifications, the IMHOS system can also be used for detection of hidden objects inside airframe cavities in fuselages, wings, etc.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Thomas McDonald
AF103-253      Awarded:1/10/2012
Title:Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Inspection(1001-630)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Triton Systems Inc, in conjunction with its OEM and small business partners, proposes the use of advanced data acquisition and analysis inspection techniques to detect and quantify skin/core disbond, crushed core and fluid intrusion defects in aircraft honeycomb sandwich structures. Triton has put together an experienced, cross-functional team to: 1. Provide coupon level simulation of real-world honeycomb sandwich structure defects; 2. Identify the defect size and type detection requirements for honeycomb sandwich structures; 3. Use the proposed NDI methods to demonstrate acquisition capability required to detect and characterize honeycomb sandwich structure defects; 4. Employ post-processing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to manipulate and analyze data to provide accurate characterization of detected honeycomb sandwich structure defects; 5. Notionally integrate the NDI methods and NDE techniques into a functional system; 6. Preliminarily evaluate potential higher sensitivity methods (e.g. multi-probe arrays) for greater resolution and productivity; 7. Demonstrate the integrated system on real-world problems (in Phase II); and 8. Summarize the results to estimate probability of detection (POD) for honeycomb sandwich structure defects of various sizes (in Phase II). BENEFIT: The benefits of this approach are: 1. Optimized NDE methods increase the probability of detection (POD) of defects of a certain size in a given component, regardless of location; 2. Post-inspection data manipulation provides full characterization of the defect to enable a design engineer to assess its impact on component strength and life; 3. Some level of automation of the inspection process itself ensures higher reliability than do current manual and hand-held techniques; and 4. Ultimate development of a robust POD model, in conjunction with integration with an FEA-based evaluation tool, will enable design engineers to more accurately calculate the reliability of the component over a range of potential defects. The proposed inspection methods can be applied to a wide range of advanced military and commercial aircraft that incorporate honeycomb sandwich structure components

Data Fusion & Neural Networks, LLC
1643 Hemlock Wy
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 469-9828
Christopher Bowman
AF103-255      Awarded:12/20/2011
Title:Sensor Data Fusion for Intelligent Systems Monitoring and Decision Making
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The DF&NN baseline Dual Node Network (DNN) Data Fusion & Resource Management (DF&RM) technical architecture will be compared and extended. The multi-source DF&RM problem functional decomposition provided by DNN will be the framework for rigorous problem-to-solution space technology trades. To address the AF Air Logistics Centers (ALC) machine maintenance problems, the DF&NN team will extend its Enterprise Satellite as a Sensor (E-SAS) Condition-Based Health Management (CBHM) software that is currently an operational prototype at Schriever AFB used to detect, characterize, and track abnormal satellite events. The technical objective for the IBM InfoSphere Streams integration tasks is to demonstrate the ability to leverage the computational capability, agility, performance, and scalability of Streams as a fusion system architecture platform. The DF&NN team will extend and test its large volume data mining, fusion, and CBHM tools on enormous ALC data sets. Then we will design, develop, and test its multi-source fusion system architecture implementations based upon the ALC identified operational needs and the DNN DF&RM technical architecture. The DF&NN team will provide affordable data- driven tools for abnormality detection and characterization which will be tracked and used to provide rigorous higher level DF&RM capabilities to include relationship, impact, performance, and context assessments. BENEFIT: The competitive advantage of this DF&RM CBHM technology is in its affordability derived from the reusability provided by the DNN technical architecture and its extendibility derived from the data driven pattern learning software. Due to the substantial data driven nature of the DF&NN team software, the Condition-Based Health Management (CBHM) products from our current SBIR Phase II will be easily extendable to detect, recognize, and track abnormalities in any commercial or government system that provides state of health or normal operations data to include manufacturing and cyber system applications. Commercial and military satellite operators have already shown significant interest in having these products applied for Blue Force Status (BFS) capabilities. We have already delivered operational prototypes of this capability to 2 satellite operations sites and applied the tools off-line to over 100 different large to enormous real data sets. The next generation fusion systems will need to automatically find or accept from the user relevant context for situation awareness (SA), assess the concurrency of the SA picture with the context, and then incorporate this context into the current SA picture as a basis for the fusion of the next set of SA inputs. This capability will require automated data fusion process assessment which drives the SSA s