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262 Phase I Selections from the 11.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
Management Sciences, Inc.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Kenneth Blemel
AF112-001      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Embedded real time diagnostics and health management for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Payloads
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MSI has developed and is delivering systems for condition based monitoring (CBM) and prognostic health management (PHM) of tactical vehicles, aircraft and their payloads. The system includes workstation tools for remote assessment and a Smart Connector with an electronics processor and a data acquisition module mounted inside the backshell of avionic connectors. The ground based software is proven for trouble shooting in tactical vehicles. The Smart Connector is approved an Army contract to perform health monitoring of avionics on the Light Utility Helicopter and will transition to the navy EA-6B. MSI proposes new research to identify ways and means to use embedded inferential fusion to determine sources of degradation by fusing output data from the sensor suite. Our work will study a) fusing available information arriving from the RPA at the commander’s console and b) fusing information from a passive Smart Connector attached to the sensor payload. Raytheon (supplier of the AN/DAS-1 multispectral imager) has will participate as a subcontractor to assist in identifying parameters and data that can be fused to provide commanders with accurate diagnosis and prognosis of sensor suite health; and recommend what can done remotely to restore system health during the mission for potential degraded situations. BENEFIT: The military applications for the proposed technology includes remotely piloted aircraft, autonomous systems, automatic decision-making, and sustainment. There are parallel commercial applications for any remote system where sensor payloads are critical to other non military agencies such as Homeland Security border patrol, drug reinforcement agencies, and even land based security monitoring devices.

QorTek, Inc.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Gregory M Bower
AF112-001      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Diagnostics and Health Management for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Payloads
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In recent years significant effort in the development of sophisticated algorithms to complete prognostics (remaining useful life) RUL of electronic and mechanical systems has been completed. Life prediction of on-board sensor suites of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) remains behind the development curve of current work in health monitoring. QorTek, in collaboration with Northrop Grumman, proposes to implement a method based on statistics to substantially improve diagnostics and prognostics of the on-board sensor systems of the Global Hawk platform. The Global Hawk program headed by Northrop Grumman is an unmanned surveillance platform that has been deployed to areas such as Iraq and Afghanistan in recent conflicts. The Global Hawk platform is used both by the United States Air Force and Navy. Anticipated results of the program include health monitoring, remaining life prediction, source identification of system degradation, and system reconfiguration for maintaining system readiness. BENEFIT: In military markets, the ability to predict the end of useful system life can save human lives and maintain mission readiness. In terms of commercialization, the ability to predict RUL can be economically beneficial. Many types of commercial systems from traction applications, industrial machinery, to airliner maintenance can benefit from the implementation of a maintenance schedule algorithm. Maintenance can be planned as needed instead of a regularly scheduled maintenance reducing down time. Integration of a health monitoring algorithm into the commercial fleet can be a viable method to reduce maintenance costs and down time.

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
David Barsic
AF112-002      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Optimized Taggant Delivery Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Tagging, Tracking, and Locating (TTL) using optical taggants is a powerful tool for locating modern military threats. While many taggant delivery systems have been conceived, few are practical. Large surface-to-volume ratios make nanoparticles difficult to work with as they tend to agglomerate. Moreover, the oily ligands used in nanoparticle synthesis are not compatible with the range of solvents, binders, and additives that comprise a taggant and allow it to be stored and dispersed. When deployed on a target they must be imperceptible and, applied in sufficiently high density, they must be detectable. An optimized taggant system will demonstrate delivery by dry propellant-, aerosol-, paint-, and water-based media in a custom-designed, small-sized system mounted on a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). Using end-to-end system models the requisite taggant density and area covered will be determined for candidate standoff ranges. Using an RPV-based delivery system, the optimized taggants will be demonstrated in the field. A radiometrically calibrated laser and near-infrared LIDAR detection system will be used to assess the performance of the system. This data will be used in Phase II to optimize a delivery system and to demonstrate that system in government-sponsored field tests. BENEFIT: The needs satisfied by the proposed taggants and taggant delivery systems: Tagging, Tracking, and Locating (TTL), Combat Identification (CID), Identification of Friend or Foe (IFF), Materiel Control and Tracking, Access Control, and others. Commercial applications include security inks, anti-counterfeiting of luxury items (watches, etc), lottery tickets, and tax stamps.

Adsys Controls, Inc.
18 Technology Dr. Suite 139
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 436-6498
Brian S. Goldberg
AF112-003      Awarded:9/2/2011
Title:Autonomous Landing Capability for Air-Launched Small RPA (Group 2 / 3) Technology (#2)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS) are ubiquitous in today’s battlefield, and perform diverse tasks with a low overhead relative to full sized UAS. Recovering such vehicles safely and accurately is an obvious requirement. A very limited payload capacity, however, limits options for guidance equipment required for precision recovery. Modern battlefields further require ability to operate in a GPS-denied environment and without jamming-prone RF communication. Adsys Controls proposes a novel optical guidance system providing precision approach path guidance (a/c position and range) through touchdown. The system is specifically designed for accuracy, small size, and ease of use while providing day/night, all-weather operability. Adaptability for different vehicle recovery methods as well as support for multi-vehicle operations provides a robust method for flexible battlefield operations. BENEFIT: The autolanding capability provided will simplify UAS operations, expand their operating envelope, and reduce cost. In the end, this will increase usage of UAS by the DoD, law enforcement, fire protection, and research organizations. There are other applications outside of UAS where the technology can provide benefits. Similar systems can be used for precision satellite proximity operations or cooperative optical acquisition, such as laser communications.

Flow Modeling and Simulation
510 E. Plumb Ln. Suite B-3
Reno, NV 89502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 581-6119
Houshang Ebrahimi
AF112-004      Awarded:9/7/2011
Title:Advanced Analysis and Design Tool for Scramjet Air-frame Propulsion Integration
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Flow Modeling and Simulation proposes to develop a code designated Scramjet Simulation Tool (SCRAMSIM) to provide a powerful multi-level tool suitable for tight integration into the design, test and evolution cycle. The code will be based on the HEAT3D code. SCRAMSIM will be designed to reduce risks and costs, compress schedules (short term) and enhance physics insight (long term) by encompassing quick turnaround simple models as well as large scale simulations for detailed first-principles analysis. BENEFIT: A key goal of the SBIR effort is to establish and enhance the commercial position of our software, including SCRAMSIM and HEAT3D. Our business model is to provide the software and support to our customers, and then guide them in executing the software for whatever problem is of interest.

GoHypersonic Inc.
714 E. Monument Ave Suite 119
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Lance Jacobsen
AF112-004      Awarded:9/8/2011
Title:Advanced Analysis and Design Tool for Scramjet Air-frame Propulsion Integration
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR program provides the GHI team with the opportunity to integrate state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes into a scramjet engine analysis tool that will enable the rapid design, simulation, and optimization of scramjet engines within an airframe- integrated context. A successful effort will produce a scramjet engine analysis tool that will reduce the time and effort required to setup and analyze complex engine geometries while allowing user-selectable fidelity levels ranging from steady-state RANS simulations to unsteady hybrid RANS/LES with high-order low-dissipation numerics. The Phase I program focuses on the development of geometry manipulation tools and the automation and streamlining of the current approach used to grid and simulate the flow within these engines. During the program, generalized scramjet engine grid topologies will be developed with the intent of automating the grid generation process during the Phase II effort. To demonstrate the utility of the scramjet engine simulation and analysis tools, simulations will be performed on a canonical flowpath. In this demonstration, a low-fidelity RANS simulation will be compared to a high-fidelity hybrid RANS/LES simulation of the combustor and nozzle. Comparisons of the engine performance will be made to quantify the similarities and differences between fidelity of the numerical methods. BENEFIT: At the end of the proposed Phase I and Phase II program, the GHI/Candler team will possess high-fidelity airframe-integrated scramjet combustor simulation capabilities for use in the evaluation, design, and optimization cycles. These capabilities will be directly extendable to include various scramjet engine types and permit other analysis methodologies in future work. These tools will combine efficient CFD solvers, grid and surface generators, and could be extended to include sensitivity solvers, thermal solvers, and optimization algorithms into one advanced high-fidelity simulation and design (and analysis) environment. In addition, the Phase I and Phase II program will generate a much broader understanding of scramjet combustor flowfields utilizing current high-fidelity CFD methods with advanced chemistry modeling. Using these capabilities, the GHI/Candler team will seek to work with both the US government (DoD and NASA) and industry to use these tools to study and design air-frame integrated scramjet combustors. The development of an advanced high-fidelity CFD grid generation and simulation toolset based on the US3D solver could provide the GHI/Candler team with the opportunity to support the AFRL through engineering services and tool support. Additionally, our team would pursue the development of a license structure for the use of our toolset to enable the further development and refinement of the design and analysis tool, and to keep the flow physics of the solvers up-to-date.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Patrick J. Magari
AF112-005      Awarded:9/6/2011
Title:Pulsed Plasma Jets for Active Control of Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interactions
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The performance of supersonic inlets, actuators, and scramjet isolators is limited by shock wave/boundary layer interactions (SBLI). The adverse pressure gradient across a shock wave causes increased boundary layer thickness and often separation when it interacts with a boundary layer. This leads to increased total pressure loss and unsteadiness which can cause excessive thermal or structural loading. Control strategies to mitigate SBLI effects rely on bleeding the boundary layer upstream of the shock or enhancing the momentum transfer between the freestream and boundary layer. An ideal SBLI actuator will have low induced drag, high control authority, high frequency response, and low power requirements. Current actuators fall short in one or more of these areas. In the proposed effort, Creare and the University of Texas will develop pulsed plasma jet actuators for SBLI flow control. This type of actuator has demonstrated the potential for all the ideal actuator traits listed above. In Phase I, we will build and test novel actuator designs to determine their ability to reduce shock induced boundary layer deformation and separation. In Phase II, we will further develop the actuator design and control scheme to optimize it over a range of Mach numbers and shock types. BENEFIT: Technology derived from this program will be in the form of new SBLI flow actuators and actuator implementation schemes. These actuators may be applied to supersonic aircraft inlets, control surfaces, or scramjet isolators to reduce flow pressure loss and potentially damaging oscillations. The high frequency response of the actuators will allow them to be used in concert with new high-bandwidth control strategies for arresting scramjet unstart.

MLB Company
2551 Casey Ave Suite A
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 966-1022
Stephen Morris
AF112-006      Awarded:9/2/2011
Title:Long Endurance Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tier 2 Size UAV
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MLB has developed a ducted fan tail-sitter VTOL UAV to address the problems of operating rotorcraft or fixed wing UAVs from restricted areas or ships at sea. The V-Bat incorporates a ducted fan lift system instead of conventional tail surfaces on a streamlined airframe to provide VTOL performance with aerodynamic efficiency at high cruise speeds. The prototype V-Bat vehicle has demonstrated all phases of flight under manual control, indicating that the system has plenty of control authority in all operational regimes. It has demonstrated excellent aerodynamic performance, and robust structural and propulsive functionality. It has the payload/speed/range capability specified in the topic request, and we understand opportunities to improve efficiency and mission effectiveness. Hence we can concentrate on development and demonstration of control algorithms for robust autonomous operation. We will develop a medium fidelity simulator that includes a 6-DOF dynamic model of the proposed platform that accurately models the lift and drag coefficients and thrust limitations at all angles of attack. We will design control algorithm for all flight regimes, and we will emphasize robustness and safety especially during take-off and landing. We will demonstrate a subscale electric powered V-Bat tailsitter in flight tests. BENEFIT: Maximum mission flexibility requires that small UAVs be able to operate anywhere without requiring significant launch and recovery equipment. A vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) design can solve these problems, but achieving maximum duration and range performance similar to the best fixed wing designs has been challenging with conventional VTOL configurations (i.e. rotorcraft). Rotorcraft typically have poor range performance due to the excessive induced drag of the rotor system. They are mechanically complex, and pose greater danger to ground crews because of their exposed high-speed rotor blades. The V-Bat’s combination of VTOL operational convenience, with the safety of a shrouded fan and with fixed wing duration, in a small UAV system, will revolutionize the availability and utility of local situational awareness for UAV operations from confined areas. We are keenly aware of the mission pull for Tier II sized long endurance VTOL vehicles. Our design was originally solicited by a commercial customer for aerial photography. We have been approached by potential customers in several government agencies and by commercial groups seeking an anti-piracy solution. The opportunity for this vehicle class is substantial and diverse, and the need is immediate.

NUCLEUS SCIENTIFIC INC
6 OAKDALE LANE
LINCOLN, MA 01773
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 257-1405
Tim Fofonoff
AF112-006      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Long-Endurance Runwayless Composite Aircraft (Orca) UAS
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A persistent presence above the battlefield provides for distinct advantages in areas of operation. Aerial platforms can suspend surveillance, SIGINT and C3 payloads aloft for the use of operators and observers. These resources have proven extremely effective when deployed in the field by personnel near the operating area. Such is the case when operating UAVs from forward positions. The Nucleus Scientific team proposes to develop a long endurance UAV capable of operating from forward operating bases, in close proximity to personnel and equipment, by utilizing a hybrid VTOL/LE (Vertical Take-Off and Landing/Long Endurance) engine. The VTOL/LE system integrates with a low-drag airframe, providing launch and recovery without a runway and increased time on-station. The Phase I effort includes conceptual aircraft design, integration of the VTOL/LE system, flight simulation and performance analysis. The Phase I development path positions the effort for a Phase II prototype build and test. Design criteria include: vertical take-off and landing, +5 hours of flight endurance, autonomous operation and integration of modular payloads. The resulting system will launch vertically, transit to the mission area, support the payload for +5 hours of operation, return home and land vertically with limited risk of injury to ground personnel and equipment. BENEFIT: The proposed long endurance VTOL UAV will allow the Air Force to operate larger airframes from areas that may not have an available landing strip, typically required for Tier 2 sized vehicles. The fielding of larger airframes from forward positions will allow for more sophisticated payload packages to be operated for longer periods of time, closer to target areas. This advantage precludes transit time to target location and gives commanders and ground forces better information on a more persistent basis. The anticipated benefits of the long endurance Tier 2 VTOL UAV are: launch and recovery without an airfield; endurance comparable to CTOL UAVs; modular payload systems for multi-mission flexibility; and minimal ground support footprint for launch, recovery and maintenance operations. The technology required to develop a long endurance VTOL UAV has direct commercial applicability for future aerospace systems. The Navy and Coast Guard would have particular interest in an aerial platform that can take-off and land from the deck of a ship to provide aerial coverage. Current military platforms that are capable of landing without runways are helicopters and a handful of jet powered aircraft. These systems are plagued by short operating ranges, short endurances and extremely heavy propulsion systems, all of which limit payload and overall effectiveness. The development of a viable alternative using the proposed integrated VTOL/LE UAV engine could have cascading effects for future unmanned platforms operated by the DoD. As agencies such as the FBI, Homeland Security, police and similar federal, state and local agencies continue to experiment with UAS, and as costs decrease, these systems will proliferate outside of the military into broader

Hawaii Evolutionary Development llc
4243 LOWER KULA RD
Kula, HI 96790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 636-3146
Marcelo H. Kobayashi
AF112-007      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:A Software Suite for Integrated Design of Aerodynamic Shape, Structural Topology, Subsystem Topology, and Structural Sizing of Air Vehicles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This project concerns the research, development and demonstration of a novel MDO methodology that bridges the gap between conceptual and high-fidelity representation of air vehicle design by integrating engineering MDO principles, computer science software engineering, and biological principles for the translation of genotype to phenotype in an evolutionary context. BENEFIT: Success in the planned work would enable reduced design cycles in number of design iterations and development duration, while reducing development costs, both because of reduced design cycles and also due to the smaller engineering teams needed for conducting the design study of air vehicles. The anticipated commercialization includes aeronautical firms, both small and large, as well as space, automotive, energy and biomedical industries.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael G. Izenson
AF112-010      Awarded:8/26/2011
Title:Physics-Based Dynamic Modeling for Two-Phase Cooling Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Thermal management systems using two-phase flow can enable higher power, lower volume weapons and electronics systems on advanced aircraft. To exploit the advantages of two- phase flow, designers need analysis methods and software to size components, analyze system dynamics, and assess control system performance. We propose to develop new analysis methods and a software toolkit that will enable confident design of two-phase thermal management systems. We will build on extensive prior work developing physics-based analysis methods for two-phase flow. We will formulate models for new components needed in aircraft thermal management systems, and produce software modules that can be integrated with commercial system dynamics software. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of our approach by developing a prototype system of component models for a vapor- cycle refrigeration system and compare calculations with component and system-level experimental data. In Phase II, we will complete the library of thermal management components and integrate the calculations modules with a system dynamics code. BENEFIT: The proposed highly capable and innovative software toolkit will enable engineers to confidently specify the design of two-phase thermal management for advanced aircraft systems including directed energy weapons, high-power electronics, and phased array radar. Commercial applications include electronics cooling, refrigerators and heat pumps, and portable power systems.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Suthee Wiri
AF112-010      Awarded:8/26/2011
Title:Physics-Based Models for Transient Behavior of Two Phase Flow Cooling Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Air Force fighter aircraft are equipped with a comprehensive sensor and communications suite that provides situational awareness, command and control and network-centric warfare capabilities. As these technologies advance, the need for avionics cooling capacity increases. Transition to a vapor compression cooling system will help meet the thermal management demands of future aircraft. Since these are two-phase flow processes, there exists a significant need for an accurate, robust simulation tool to understand the transient behavior of the two-phase cooling system under all mission operation conditions. To this end the flow regimes and heat transfer coefficients present in the system together with the impact of aircraft maneuvers must be investigated and incorporated into a simulation tool. Oceanit plans to create a robust and accurate simulation tool to predict performance of a two-phase cooling system. The tool will be fast enough to explore parameter space to understand system dynamics and aid in the design process. Our approach will use a system level model combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to study the transients in the cooling system. Both simulation tools are proven and validated to study the flows and heat transfer regimes present in the cooling systems of interest. BENEFIT: A simulation tool capable to predicting transient phenomena in two-phase flow loops on aircraft is important to ensure functionality is maintained for all mission conditions. All military aircraft and commercial aircraft could benefit from this technology.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF112-011      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Aero-Optical Flow Control for Mitigation of Shock Effects in Airborne Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Spectral Energies, LLC in collaboration with the University of Notre Dame and Georgia Tech proposes to develop flow control approaches for mitigating adverse effects of shock formation, unsteadiness, and shock-induced separation on aero optical turrets. The work will focus for the first time on an investigation of the effectiveness of several flow control approaches in a surrogate setup that will enable the isolation of these effects from the complex, geometry-specific 3-D, unsteady flow environment of specific turret configurations. The research work will comprise interactive investigations of the flow control mechanisms and their effects on mitigation of aero-optical distortions. The research team anticipates that the eventual outcome of the proposed effort will lead to a “toolbox” of flow-control devices/approaches/design strategies that would be applied to a wide variety of turret configurations. During Phase I and Phase II, the effect of shocks that form over the exit pupil for both flat windowed and conformal windows will be investigated and documented along with effective flow control approaches for suppression of their adverse effects. It is anticipated that the turret design tools and database developed under the proposed program will be applied to a broad range of military and civilian aero-optical applications including warfighter missions, laser communications, astronomy, and power beaming. BENEFIT: The commercial products foreseen from the proposed work are turret design concepts, flow control devices, methods, and strategies, aero-optics instrumentation, CFD tools, and wind tunnel database. These products will have significant impact on military applications including the ELLA, Laser Strike Fighter, High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS), unmanned aerial vehicles, and aircraft surveillance systems. They also will have commercial applications such as in astronomy, laser communications, and power beaming.

Timelike Systems LLC
7103 4th St. NW Bldg O-2
Los Ranchos, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 228-4283
Stephen C. Coy
AF112-012      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Model-Based Systems Engineering Tools for Laser Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop a comprehensive, integrated software framework and toolset to support model-based engineering (MBE) of laser weapons systems. To be effective, MBE requires robust underlying modeling and simulation technologies capable of modeling all the pertinent systems, subsystems, components, effects, and interactions at any level of fidelity that may be required in order to support crucial design decisions at any point in the system development lifecycle. Very often the greatest technical challenges are posed by systems involving interactions that cut across two or more distinct scientific or engineering domains; even in cases where there are excellent tools available for modeling each individual domain, generally none of these domain-specific tools can be used to model to the cross- domain interactions. In order to fully support MBE for laser weapons systems we need to be able to bring all these capabilities into a single integrated framework, sharing a single unified representation of the system under development, so that design information can be effectively shared across the project, and the engineering team can function better as a team. BENEFIT: The proposed effort is ambitious, and the potential significance is commensurate. If we are able to meet all of our technical objectives, and if the proposed integrated toolset then wins acceptance among laser system engineers, it could swiftly become ubiquitous and invaluable in laser systems engineering. In civilian applications it has been shown that simulation- based development and acquisition can yield superior end-products in less time, and at lower cost. Military applications and advanced technologies present some special challenges, but the proposed environment would address those challenges. The net result would be shorter development times, lower development costs, and better, more robust systems. In any application, military or commercial, this would translate into money saved; in military applications it would also translate into a more effective fighting force.

G A Tyler Assoc. Inc. dba the Optical Sciences Co.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
David C. Mann
AF112-013      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Acquisition, Pointing and Tracking Applied to Optical Phased Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Significant opportunities exist for improving the measurement, estimation, and control processes of phased array transceivers. The proposed effort focuses on the Enhanced IPALS phasing concept, but can be adapted to other phasing concepts. A phased array model will be adapted from existing models, and will include many types of disturbances, such as speckle dynamics, platform vibration, aero-optics, and atmospheric turbulence. The model will account for proper radiometry and the characteristics of available sensors, actuators, and other devices. In preparation for Phase II work, we will demonstrate the feasibility of improving the measurement, phase estimation, and control processes of Enhanced IPALS. Developing these processes to reduce latency, improve stability, and mitigate the effects of disturbances will help the phased array concept become a reality. BENEFIT: The products of this research will include a detailed model of an optical phased array transceiver, and initial results of improvements to the measurement, estimation, and control processes of beam phasing systems. The model will benefit the optical phased array transceiver research community by aiding studies of various hardware and control approaches. The research results of the Phase I effort will provide a foundation for further research in methods of phasing laser beams on a target despite significant disturbances from various sources. Such disturbances will be present in any operational phased array system. The results of this research will be integrated into the design of operational phased array transceivers, enabling them to operate in battlefield conditions.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Richard A Hutchin
AF112-013      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Conformal HEL Phased Array Beam Control with Acquisition Pointing and Tracking (APT)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical Physics Company (OPC) in cooperation with Nutronics is proposing to combine two pioneering sets of optical phased array technologies developed independently at these two companies. The two technologies are OPC’s Holographic Beam Control (HBC) and Nutronics’ Conformal Laser Weapon System (CLAWS). HBC addresses target illumination, aimpoint selection, aimpoint maintenance, and kill assessment; whereas, CLAWS addresses target path wavefront control. Their synergistic use performs target path wavefront control and local phase control: With CLAWS running a high bandwidth inner loop, HBC provides a mid-bandwidth outer loop to compensate stair mode errors and steer the beam to the aimpoint on the target. During the base Phase I effort the OPC-Nutronics team will develop a complete high fidelity time domain model of the hybrid HBC-CLAWS beam control architecture including wave- optic propagation through turbulence. The model will include all significant physical effects and hardware limitations including time of flight delays, processing precision, latency, misalignments, moving turbulence, target velocity and rotation, target bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), vibration, aerosol scatter, and sensor noise using 19 and 43 subapertures. All transmission medium, sensor, disturbance and actuator models will be individually tested and verified as well as integrated and tested in subsystems and as an entire system. BENEFIT: The target application is a conformal HEL system in a jet fighter. Conformal HEL designs (enabled by the proposed beam control method) promise extremely lightweight, high performance and cost-effective options which can enhance utility and speed deployment. The conformal design and advanced features of the proposed beam control system also make it suitable for imaging. The HEL system can be a reconnaissance as well as a target engagement tool. One can foresee deployment on remotely piloted armed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Another application is space-based HEL defense which becomes practical when multiple apertures can be deployed on panels providing both high resolution imaging, aimpoint selection and high quality hit spots to defend against space-born threats. The beam control methods developed during this project are also applicable to ground based space object imaging, laser rangefinders, as well as commercial aircraft and ship defense.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 375-1158
Don Washburn
AF112-014      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:System Identification for Jitter Algorithms in Beam Control Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This effort will implement fast, efficient, system-identification algorithms, based on subspace identification techniques. The algorithms will apply for both plant and disturbance identification on HEL jitter reduction and tracking systems. BENEFIT: This technology will find application with both the military and in the commercial market. Military applications will include jitter stabilization subsystems in a variety of laser weapon systems. In addition we expect civilian applications of the system ID capabilities of the hardware in areas such as mechanical engineering, biology, physiology, meteorology and economics.

Tempest Technologies
Suite 506 8939 South Sepulveda Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-1677
Yun Wang
AF112-014      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:System Identification for Jitter Algorithms in Beam Control Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Laser-based directed energy systems are often identified as being game-changing technologies in advancing the mission of the Air Force. Precision efforts, minimal collateral damage, rapid response, and nearly unlimited ammunition are compelling advantages to laser weapon systems. Among the primary challenges to development and deployment is beam control, identified in the 2007 report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons and the more recent 2010 US Air Force Chief Scientist’s Report on Technology Horizons as a necessary focus for science and technology research. This Phase I proposal offers a robust adaptive system for pointing, tracking, and jitter control in advanced laser weapons systems. BENEFIT: Potential commercial applications will be of a military nature, as the effort proposed herein is heavily focused toward advancing strategic and tactical laser system capabilities. Optical communications and military applications such as target locating and unmanned vehicle guidance will benefit from the system identification algorithms developed herein.

CBRITE Inc
421 Pine Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 722-1128
Jian Wang
AF112-017      Awarded:12/13/2011
Title:Curved Sensor for Vision Systems (CSVS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal is aiming for sensor integration into small form-factor applications, such as helmet mounted systems (HMS) and small uninhibited air vehicles (UAV), by demonstrating the concepts of a curved sensor array for vision system (CSVS) capable of being integrated to small form factor applications in order to provide visualization capability to pilots and other war fighters. The technical challenges are how to design a curved substrate with radius of curvature of 1 in and FOV of 40 degrees suitable for sensor integration, how to pattern the TFT pixel readout circuit on such curved substrate, and how to integrate a photodetector array on the curved TFT backpanel plate. In Phase I, we will develop a top-sensing polymer photodetector with spectral response from 400 nm to 900+ nm capable of being integrated onto the curved substrate. We will design a curved substrate meeting the program’s specification. We will demonstrate the feasibility of making metal oxide TFTs and active matrix image pixels on the curved substrate. Continuing into Phase II, we will develop a photodetector covering wavelength from 300nm to beyond 1400nm, and we will design and develop a sensor array on the curved substrate. BENEFIT: We expect that the completion of the proposed work would have an immediate impact on military and commercial applications. By developing a VIS-NIR-SWIR sensor array on a curved substrate, the complex optics system to convert a curved field-of-view (FOV) into a flat focal plane array could be avoided. As a result, the volume, weight, and expense of the objective optics which used to make it extremely difficult for the installation of such sensor system into applications where weight and space are critical, are no longer the issue. Those benefits are not only beneficial to the military applications such as HM and small UVA, but also to the commercial applications such as cameras embedded in consumer electronics, homeland security, and automobile navigation.

Wavefront
7 Johnston Circle
BASKING RIDGE, NJ 07920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 558-4806
Jie Yao
AF112-018      Awarded:12/29/2011
Title:In-Line Sandwich of Silicon-based Photon-Counting Night Vision Sensor, Amplifier and Display
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Currently fielded night vision goggles intensify images in an integrated components train comprising a photo cathode, a multi-channel plate for amplification, and a phosphor screen. A purely semiconductor-based night vision device with higher performance, longer lifetime and lower cost is desirable. Built upon proven semiconductor nano-technologies, the proposed Photon Counting Integrated Circuit (PCIC) provides photon detection, image enhancement and in-line visual display with zero offset. The PCIC in-line detection-enhancement-display sandwich can cover 350nm – 1800nm wavelength, and has high pixel count and wide field of view to match those of the human eyes. The same PCIC delivers photon-counting night vision sensitivity and performs day-and-night imaging with glare control. In Phase I, we will fabricate and characterize the PCIC detector, optimize detector pixel sensitivity for night vision, and demonstrate glare control for day and night all light level operation. In Phase II, we will develop and prototype a complete PCIC in-line night vision sandwich to full specifications. The PCIC will be delivered to DoD laboratories for evaluation and demonstration. During Phase III, we will manufacture and market the PCIC night vision device to major defense contractors for incorporation into military systems and for our commercial medical device products. BENEFIT: Besides night vision either under covert illumination or under the more abundant natural night glow for military surveillance and target recognition, the proposed PCIC technology also finds commercial applications in laser detection and warning, laser eye protection, security, scientific instruments, biomedical imaging, ecosystem monitoring and protection, and manufacturing quality control.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 552-6141
Jeff Jungemann
AF112-019      Awarded:12/16/2011
Title:SAGES: System Acquisition Guidance from Expert Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The high costs and inherent dangers of live training with air platforms have influenced the increasing use of simulation-based training. However, selecting a system to effectively meet training objectives can be challenging, particularly one that must blend multiple disparate technologies. Among these challenges is the need to acquire visual display systems that optimally support training objectives. To support this need, Aptima, Inc., proposes to develop SAGES (System Acquisition Guidance from Expert Systems), a model-based solution intended to provide deep insight into the relationships between visual display attributes and training objectives. The SAGES system will include tools to characterize visual display systems, specify training objectives, and explore the tradeoffs for how well a system meets a set of training objectives compared to another system. An expert system will be at the center of this solution to automatically analyze and prioritize systems based on a data-driven model. SAGES will also be designed with a flexible architecture that can include future research to benefit the robustness of the expert system. BENEFIT: The SAGES system will offer extensive benefits to acquisition professionals, training communities, and researchers. Acquisition professionals will be able to make informed decisions on the tradeoffs of visual display system purchases with minimal time and effort. Training communities will be able to better understand existing training technology to improve the success rates for meeting training objectives. Research communities can refer to the SAGES expert system to generate and/or test hypotheses on the relationships between visual display attributes and training objectives. Furthermore, the commercial applications for SAGES are promising. All sectors of the Department of Defense rely on virtual environments for air platform training, and must carefully select visual display technology to meet training objectives. A similar application for SAGES can benefit the commercial aviation industry as they address the impact of HR5900 Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010. Finally, the medical simulation market continues to grow, which undoubtedly requires high visual fidelity for effective training, thus requiring support determining visual display technologies to meeting training objectives.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Peter Schuler
AF112-021      Awarded:12/14/2011
Title:Colorless Opaqueable Visor (1001-731)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Triton Systems has developed a variable light transmission technology that will be optimized for use in an Air Force visor application. There is an ongoing need to substitute two separate visors that provide clear and dark transmission with a single lens capable of fast transition, wide light transmission contrast range and fail clear operation. Our team which includes a current supplier of visors for the US military will fabricate prototype devices on flat and curved surfaces to demonstrate critical aspects of the fundamental performance capabilities that will eventually lead to use in a full sized complex curved visor system. The technology has already been developed for other eyewear applications and this program will continue to expand uses to improve warfighter capability. BENEFIT: The variable light transmission technology provides a fighter pilot with the capability to vary the visible light transmission at will thereby providing optimum contrast for maximum visual performance. This program will demonstrate the technical capability of the technology and demonstrate the manufacturability of our process that would lead to production manufacturing. Many dual use applications exist for the technology including large format windows, automotive sunroofs, military and sports goggles and electronic displays.

VIStology, Inc
5 Mountainview Drive
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 788-5088
Brian Ulicny
AF112-022      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:Fusion, Management, and Visualization Tools for Predictive Battlespace Awareness and Decision Making
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Recent years have seen many emergency response situations in which the US military has played an important role. These include Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans (2005), the devastating earthquake in Haiti (2010), and the tsunami and resulting nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan (2011, “Operation Tomodachi”). In all of these cases, US military forces have stepped in quickly to provide needed aid and support to rescue and humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) missions. Responding to HA/DR situations requires a Common Operating Picture (COP) for situation awareness. Situation awareness involves the identification and monitoring of relationships among objects participating in an evolving situation. In general, tracking the relationship of every set of entities in a situation is intractable, since there are too many of them. Instead, a COP provides a visualization of the situation, usually by means of frequently or automatically updated geospatial map overlays that depict the events and entities at issue and the geospatial relations between them. A shared COP allows for distributed planning, tasking and execution of courses of action to respond to, recover from, prepare for and mitigate hazards to civilians and property due to some disaster. Our plan is to use semantic technologies, in the form of annotating resources in terms of an OWL ontology of entities, times, and places, in order to find, filter, merge, display and store information in HA/DR COPs. We will leverage an existing state of the art HA/DR COP for our experiments in this area. BENEFIT: If successful, this technology will facilitate the deployment, management, and after-action review of HA/DR COPs by allowing users to more easily find, filter, merge, display and store information in an HA/DR COP. The resulting technologies and techniques should be useful in other context in which a Common Operating Picture is required, such as in law enforcement or in quickly mounting short-term campaigns with a geospatial dimension, perhaps in marketing or financial services.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 552-6123
Melinda Seibert
AF112-023      Awarded:12/29/2011
Title:RAPID: Realistic Assessment of Performance in Devices
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As the Air Force responds to high demands for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) operations, devices and strategies for effectively training Pilots and Sensor Operators are likely to increase in importance. While simulation-based training is available, little is known regarding the training effectiveness trade-offs of devices, environments, and/or methods. Current tools and processes for evaluating effectiveness lack the flexibility and automation required for providing quick, clear, and useful training guidance in light of technological improvements and changes to key missions. Thus, a Realistic Assessment of Performance in Devices (RAPID) Tool, an automated, data-driven, model-based decision support tool that is continually refined and validated, is required to provide training developers and acquisitions professionals clear recommendations on how to effectively train RPA operators. The RAPID Tool will leverage, enhance, and integrate proven technologies to accelerate automation of processes and models to produce a single source that will comprehensively analyze the effectiveness of existing and future RPA training solutions (e.g., devices, environments, and methods). When fully implemented, the RAPID Tool’s data-driven, automated, and continually refined models will support environment/device trade-off analyses, recommend blending learning strategies, and enable rapid assessment and characterization of training devices and tools in relation to desired training outcomes. BENEFIT: The results of our Phase I and II activities will be the RAPID Tool, an automated and adaptable tool that facilitates rapid, data driven analyses of the effectiveness of training environments and devices in relation to RPA training objectives. Specifically, the RAPID Tool will facilitate and house the automatic processing of objective performance data to continually refine and validate its underlying model of the relationships of relevant training environment characteristics and devices to training objectives. In support of training developers, the RAPID Tool will provide recommended training strategies for achieving desired outcomes effectively and efficiently leveraging a variety of training environments, tools, and devices as applicable. To acquisition professionals, the RAPID Tool will provide a data driven analysis of the training effectiveness trade-offs of current and future devices, including consideration of non-traditional fidelity variables that are important in RPA training environments. While we will develop a tool customized to meet the needs and challenges of Air Force RPA operations, our approach is designed to be generalizable and applicable to other DoD agencies and commercial organizations who share some common challenges with the Air Force: (1) high demand for achieving training objectives in environments besides live missions (e.g. high consequences for errors); (2) uncertainty regarding which training devices, environments, and methods effectively train which training objectives; and (3) limited resources to achieve operational training objectives.

Circular Logic
399 NW 7th Ave
Boca Raton, FL 33486
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 706-0863
Edward Large
AF112-024      Awarded:3/27/2012
Title:Listener Performance Modeling in Urban Environments
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of this Small Business Innovative Research project is to predict the ability of human listeners to detect and identify specific auditory targets within complex, real-world sound environments. Previous approaches, based on linear auditory models, have produced mixed results. Our novel approach simulates the nonlinear signal processing observed in auditory physiology, significantly extending the state of the art. By mimicking functionally important nonlinearities, we expect this technology to simulate human perceptual capabilities that are relevant to predicting the detection and identification of auditory targets. During Phase I, we plan to 1) create an explanation for auditory detection and identification based on a nonlinear model of spectral and temporal processing in the human auditory system, 2) build a computer model to produce predictions that can be compared with human data, and 3) test the model against an existing set of human data and design a new experiment for Phase II. A detailed report will be delivered along with a plan for simulating human detection and identification of aircraft by the end of Phase II. The success of the model will inform fundamental scientific research by further elucidating the role of nonlinear processing in the auditory system. BENEFIT: The model of auditory detection and identification we plan to develop for this Phase I project will have broad implications for military, aerospace and automotive technologies. The model will predict sound source detection and identification in military environments, and will provide predictions across a wide variety of background noise configurations. The model may prove useful in military training simulators, which have traditionally relied primarily on visual information and cues. In addition, the development and fielding of an auditory detection model has implications for automotive technology areas, the FAA, the U.S. Department of the Interior and National Park Service, by providing the ability to accurately predict auditory detection of aircraft and automobiles across a wide variety of locations, including residential areas, parks, and commercial zones. More generally, a technology that can successfully recognize complex sound patterns in natural environments would have significant implications for almost every application, military and civilian, that processes sound. Existing systems would be improved, deployment in new environments would be enabled, and new applications would become possible. Military applications would include audio surveillance, biometric security, and sonar. Civilian applications would include hearing technologies, speech technologies, and music applications. Hearing impairment alone is expected to affect 700 million people worldwide by 2015 and such technology would greatly benefit the users of hearing devices. Improvements to speech technologies would include better recognition rates and noise tolerance for speech recognition systems, and improved cell phone clarity in a range of environments. Music applications would be able to automatically segregate polyphonic recordings, yielding new and improved tools for several million musicians, for hundreds of millions of music

Sensimetrics Corporation
14 Summer Street Suite 403
Malden, MA 02148
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 399-0858
Patrick M. Zurek
AF112-024      Awarded:2/28/2012
Title:Listener Performance Modeling in Urban Environments
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of this project is a model capable of predicting the detectability of acoustic signals by human listeners. For the particular task of detecting aircraft in urban environments, the model must account for a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics of targets as well as dynamic and unexpected changes in the masking background. Past efforts to develop a predictive model have been limited to conditions of long-duration target signals in steady maskers, where observers listened to a one-channel (monaural) signal. Recent work by the applicants has extended an energy detection model to conditions that include signals of any duration and bandwidth, and to listening with two ears. Proposed work will further test and refine the energy detection model. It will also seek to develop a more general model that can not only predict ‘energetic’ masking, but that also provides a framework for predicting the ‘non-energetic’ masking that arises from conditions of target uncertainty, masker variability, and target/masker similarity. BENEFIT: The project will produce a model for predicting the detectability of sounds for listeners. It will be useful in military applications for knowing the audibility of aircraft and other vehicles, and for minimizing the effects of noise on civilian communities and animal habitats.

SIGNAL PROCESSING, INC.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
ROCKVILLE, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 505-2641
Chiman Kwan
AF112-024      Awarded:3/29/2012
Title:A Novel Approach to Listener Performance Modeling for Aircraft Detection in Urban Environments
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this proposal, we first extend the notion of speech reception threshold (SRT) to aircraft sound reception threshold (ASRT). In speech recognition, SRT refers to the mixture signal to noise ratio (SNR) required to achieve a certain intelligibility score, typically 50%. SRT is used to quantify speech intelligibility under various SNR conditions. Here we define ASRT as the SNR required to achieve 90% correct detection of aircraft sounds. ASRT will be used to quantify the capability of aircraft sound detection under various SNR conditions. Second, we propose to model humans’ capability on aircraft sound detection using ideal binary mask (IBM). An IBM is defined as a binary matrix within which 1 denotes that the target (aircraft sound) energy in the corresponding time-frequency (T-F) unit exceeds the interference (non-aircraft sound) energy by a predefined threshold and 0 denotes otherwise. It was found that the IBM plays an important role in human intelligibility. By the same token, the IBM will likely to play a substantial role in aircraft sound detection. Third, it is also important to quantify the listening model by connecting the IBM with AFRT under different noisy environments. Extensive experiments will be performed in Phase 1. BENEFIT: The proposed listener model has great potential in providing insights about human’s listening capability of aircraft sounds under various noisy conditions. We will produce a software tool for our model. It can also be used for other military and civilian applications. For example, detection of submarine using sonar, detection of acoustic events for perimeter defense, etc. are some other notable applications. The combined market for the above mentioned applications in this paragraph will easily exceed 10 million dollars. This is based on license cost of $2000 and a market size of 5,000 systems.

Remcom Inc.
315 S. Allen St. Suite 416
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-1299
Ruth Belmonte
AF112-025      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:Hardware Accelerated Code for Hybrid Computational Electromagnetics
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A hybrid computational Electromagnetic solution will be developed that combines techniques in order to handle far-field propagation, near-field interactions, and detailed interactions with complex objects, such as human anatomical models, while taking advantage of the computational power of graphics processing units (GPU). The approach will leverage existing, mature physics models with demonstrated capabilities, existing GPU acceleration, and mature graphical user interfaces. Research will be performed into alternative approaches to determine the best method for interfacing the two computational techniques. Specific enhancements to GPU capabilities will be identified and assessed to provide additional acceleration for scenarios of interest. The final solution will be a full end-to-end modeling tool that provides high-fidelity and optimal run times, with seamless interfaces between the physics techniques, and a unified, user-friendly graphical interface that allows setup, execution, and visualization of outputs. BENEFIT: The outcome of this SBIR will be a modeling suite that seamlessly integrates high-fidelity electromagnetic simulation in the near-field of antennas and in the vicinity of human anatomical models, with high-fidelity propagation calculations over rough terrain or within urban settings. Antenna designers, engineers, and health physicists could use this tool to assess health and safety risks in a variety of environments by determining the potential for radiation exposure to personnel. Its hybrid capabilities would allow it to be used to perform detailed assessments of fields or specific absorption rate (SAR) for near-field analysis or far-field analysis, well beyond the range where high-fidelity calculations would normally be feasible. GPU and other acceleration techniques would ensure reasonably optimal run times for calculations that would otherwise take significant time to complete. The combined set of capabilities also has potential for use in other fields, providing the capability to perform high fidelity electromagnetic analysis near any type of complex object within relatively large- scale problem sizes.

TechFlow, Inc.
2155 Louisiana Blvd., NE Suite 3200
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 903-6848
Stephen Oetzel
AF112-025      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:Hardware Accelerated Code for Hybrid Computational Electromagnetics
Abstract:ABSTRACT: TechFlow Scientific, a division of TechFlow Inc., is pleased to propose a hardware- accelerated computational electromagnetic software program in response to the Air Force’s SBIR topic AF112-025. Recognizing the need for an accurate, quick running software program for calculating electromagnetic fields and potential hazards to humans, we present our approach to developing a hybrid electromagnetic code, capable of running on graphical processing units (GPUs). The hybrid model combines the government owned Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) code TMAX and the 3-D ray-tracing code JREM. Our approach provides a high-fidelity model for the calculation of the electromagnetic field environment, the ability to calculate hazard zones based on permissible exposure limit (PEL) and the specific absorption rate (SAR) within human anatomical models. The TMAX code is well suited for a variety of EM calculations including antennas mounted on vehicles and interaction with human anatomical models. The JREM code is used for calculations of EM fields within small urban environments, penetration into buildings, and provides calculations for PEL. Critical to suitable implementation will be our development of a prototype GUI and underlying code for implementing the hybrid approach. Finally, we outline our approach for developing hardware acceleration of the hybrid software using GPUs. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits The interaction of electromagnetic wave interaction with humans is an important topic for both DoD and industrial sectors. The DoD uses EM waves for a variety of applications, including communications, RADAR, electronic warfare, high power microwaves, and high power millimeter waves for active denial. Industrial uses include cell phone and other communications, and law enforcement and air port security screening systems. Each of these applications may involve high powers and/or energies which have the potential to adversely affect humans. Each of these applications could benefit from the ability of a software program for modeling the placement of the antenna on a platform and modeling the surrounding environment. The complexities and large scales of the computation domains could benefit from a hybrid code that is able to calculate details using a high-fidelity computation EM code, such as the FDTD code TMAX, in addition to propagation codes, such as the ray-tracing code JREM, each being applied to a particular region of the problem space. Additionally, having these codes implemented using GPU acceleration will reduce the computation time. Under the proposed effort, the government owned JREM and TMAX codes will have the GPU acceleration added to the baseline codes in addition to the existing MPI parallelization capabilities. AFRL/RDHE will additionally benefit from having the JREM and TMAX codes able to solve larger, more complex simulations in a shorter amount of time. Potential Commercial Applications

361 Interactive, LLC
408 Sharts Drive Suite 7
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 743-0361
Michael J McCloskey
AF112-026      Awarded:11/23/2011
Title:An Analyst-Centric Approach to Supporting Integrated Intelligence Production
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Today’s intelligence analysts are faced with the ever-growing challenge of integrating multiple, disparate data sets into clear, coherent, and actionable products to support a variety of customer needs. Emerging technologies continue to provide analysts with expanded data resources with the expectation that both efficiency and quality of the resultant integrated products will improve. Unfortunately, even when the potential for overload is recognized, analyst-aiding technologies and measures of effectiveness typically ignore the cognitive demands they need to reflect. To address this issue, we will apply recent advances in macrocognitive theory to develop and conduct a multi-faceted analysis of the cognitive demands associated with the development of integrated intelligence products. We will employ a combination of recently developed envisioned world, simulation interview techniques along with novel, macrocognitive elicitation techniques to identify the cognitive demands associated with effective integration. We will also develop candidate effectiveness measures that truly reflect those demands. These findings will directly inform enhancements to existing technologies within multiple intelligence cells at the National Air and Space Intelligence Center as well as the development of novel proof-of-concept analyst-aiding technologies. These technologies will be vetted with the operational community at the end of Phase I, and then fully-developed in Phase II. BENEFIT: Technologies developed under this effort will directly support DMS NASIC, 178th Intelligence Squadron, U.S. Border Patrol, and other government intelligence analysts in exploiting massive, diverse data sets to develop integrated products tailored to customer requirements. The research methodologies and results will inform future R&D initiatives and will provide an analyst-centric foundation to developing future aiding technologies.

Etegent Technologies, LTD
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-1579
Allan Burwinkel
AF112-026      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:Cognitive Approaches to Integrated Intelligence Production
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The research proposed by the Etegent team will bring to bear our automated/assisted target recognition, data visualization and processing algorithm acceleration capability on the data- overload problem experienced in the ISR community within a rigorous, cognitive framework. We will utilize a new hyperspectral collection and exploitation program-of-record as a case study to research the cognitive challenges faced by analysts and how these tools may be deployed to help meet theses challenges. In this program spectral analysts must exploit data in an operationally relevant manner, both real time and by complete post processing in a matter of hours. This work will be conducted in the context of the additional challenge faced by analysts of having to remotely prioritize and queue data for retrieval from theater for exploitation, due to limited communication bandwidth. Though results from this research will be based on a specific program study they will be broadly relevant. BENEFIT: The proposed work will contribute significantly to developing cognitively efficient tools for analysts to exploit large data sets, potentially remotely with limited communication bandwidth, and under the requirement/opportunity to consider disparate information sources in doing so. In short, this research will help to address the "swimming in sensors, drowning in data" problem experienced throughout the DOD and civilian regimes.

SA Technologies, Inc.
3750 Palladian Village Drive Building 600
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 565-9859
Susan McDonald
AF112-026      Awarded:11/22/2011
Title:Situation Awareness Optimal Linkage and Reporting Intelligence System (SOLARIS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The combined effects of data overload, source variability, and the effects of a wide variety of cognitive biases add enormous complexity to the already-complex task of intelligence analysis. Given the criticality of the analysis task, it is imperative that effective tools be developed for mitigating the effects of ever-increasing data loads coming from existing and emerging collection systems. The objective of this effort is to identify and define the areas of the intelligence analysis task that would benefit the most from analyst-aiding technologies, and to begin the process of developing effective displays and analysis tools specifically designed to overcome these complicating factors. Our approach for this effort is the SA- Oriented Design process, a user-centered approach that provides a means to improve human decision-making and performance through optimizing situation awareness (SA). The process derives from a detailed analysis of the goals, decisions, and SA requirements of the analyst. Phase 1 work focuses on identifying critical intelligence analysis information needs, creating prototype decision aids and identifying appropriate metrics of effectiveness (MOEs) for evaluating the proposed solutions. BENEFIT: By creating decision aids to support the processing of large amounts of data, our SOLARIS designs reduce information overload, which is and will continue to be a concern as our society’s reliance on technology continues to grow. Developing information systems that focus on information when it is needed, how it is needed in a usable form not only makes sense, but also provides the needed user support for SA formation and SA sharing. While the problem of information overload, due to amount, variability and number of data sources is pervasive for intelligence analysts, the complexity of their operations has parallels in other domains, both military and non-military. This product is applicable to any domain in which individuals must analyze, synthesize, and convey large amounts of data to perform cognitively demanding tasks while maintaining high levels of individual and team SA, including, for example, reconnaissance pilots, air traffic controllers, security analysis, and Homeland Security experts. With these teams, the quality of their SA is critical for successful performance outcomes. Decision-makers in these domains may perform different tasks, but the critical need for timely, relevant, accurate, and trusted information to achieve and maintain SA remains the same. The SOLARIS decision aids can be easily adapted to suit this wide variety of domains and end users.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5234
Tao Jiang
AF112-029      Awarded:11/2/2011
Title:SecureVisor: Efficiently Protect Weapon Systems against Cyber Threats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current cyber threats analysis and detection techniques based on intrusion prevention/detection, anti-virus and spam filters often offer unsatisfactory security properties. They cannot detect new attacks, have high false negative rate and often identify attacks after they have happened. We propose a combined hardware-software solution to detect and prevent cyber threats to Air Force Weapon Systems. The secure framework consists of two parts, end system security and network security. The end system security is to protect execution of security-sensitive code from malware that may infect the OS, applications, or system devices. The network security is to secure the information flow into and out of Weapon Systems as well as access control. Our solution will not only provide high level of security, but also minimizes impacts on the platform in terms of power, processing cycles and operation performance. BENEFIT: Our proposed techniques in threat detection and prevention can also be applied in a wide range of application scenarios. Essentially any kind of computer systems can potentially benefit from our technology. As the world becomes more and more digitalized and connected and protecting cyber assets becomes more critical, the proposed solution has tremendous application potential for military systems as well as commercial sector.

Pikewerks Corporation
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Cody Buntain
AF112-029      Awarded:10/31/2011
Title:Countering Future Cyber Threats to Air Force Weapon Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As modern technology has produced a highly-diversified suite of technologies to build upon, warfighting assets have grown, shrunk, become more powerful, and changed in almost every other quantifiable dimension. Following these changes and the proliferation of network- based systems, the opportunities for adversaries to target weapons systems are ever-present and only increasing. For this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I effort, Pikewerks Corporation will research, design, and prototype core capabilities to protect weapons systems from malicious modifications to hardware, firmware, and software components. Specific weapon system platforms, hardware or software, will not be targeted; instead, Pikewerks will develop a broader protection framework by modeling system components and the intended missions and then identifying potential threats adversaries may leverage. Moreover, these models will drive the triggering and response mechanisms built into system monitoring capabilities that protect the system and impede detection by attackers. As the program continues, Pikewerks will incorporate adaptive healing and attack mitigation capabilities to achieve mission assurance via attack resiliency. BENEFIT: Solutions developed under this effort will ensure U.S. weapon systems are resilient to hardware-and software-based cyber threats.

D-Tech, LLC
43462 Mechanicsville Glen Street
Ashburn, VA 20148
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 829-5386
Kevin T. Smith
AF112-030      Awarded:11/4/2011
Title:Applying Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) to non SOAP protocols
Abstract:ABSTRACT: D-Tech is pleased to submit this proposal in response to the SBIR solicitation under topic AF112-030 titled “Applying Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) to non SOAP Protocols”. D-Tech will develop a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of user authentication and authorization for web applications, implementing an OpenID Identity Provider as a proxy to integrate RESTful services with a SAML-based Attribute Service compliant with NCES standard. We will extend the OpenID’s single sign-on capability with OAuth, an emerging standard for fine-grained user authorization. A survey and analysis comparing different standards, their applicability, and techniques for RESTful single sign- on will be provided. A new software framework to bind SAML with light-weight protocols will be presented in the final technical report, along with potential security applications in DoD and the commercial sector. We have formed a top-notch research team for this project, including DoD security veterans and university researcher with a solid track record in computer security and information assurance. We have a collaborative partnership with the Center of Secure Information Systems of GMU and will bring the latest R&D findings to benefit this project. The D-Tech team is confident in completing this research with the best quality and customer satisfaction. BENEFIT: Benefits: - Provide the DoD and the Federal Government at large with a simplified framework for web- based single sign-on, utilizing user attributes stored and maintained by standard enterprise directory service (e.g. LDAP) - Establish a new standard and approach for deploying web-based single sign-on and user authentication in a flexible, cost-effective way, integrating SAML with OpenID and OAuth - Gain valuable knowledge and experience in various technologies and best practices, with the potential of enhancing related open industry standards, and contributing the knowledge back to the DoD and the IT security community via publications and conference presentations based on Phase I research - Generate new intellectual properties out of this research if such opportunities arise Potential Commercial Applications - Online Service Provider to use SAML attribute service to provide trust services (e.g. Secure Token Service) for RESTful applications - Online Service provider to use SAML in combination with OpenID and OAuth to achieve attribute-based access control

Jericho Systems Corporation
6600 LBJ Freeway Suite 250
Dallas, TX 75240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 231-2000
Vijay Subramanium
AF112-030      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Applying Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) to non SOAP protocols
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Department of Defense and others need a standardized means to authenticate RESTful Web services users against SAML-compliant attribute stores and authorize user access based on those attributes. Previous attempts at bridging RESTful web services to SAML have included cookies, binary representation in HTTP headers, and proprietary options. Some of these approaches work but have limitations such as string length. In Phase I, we propose to prototype a SAML-RESTful bridge that incorporates Central Authentication Service (CAS), OpenID Authentication (OpenID), and OpenID Attribute Exchange (OpenID AE) with select Jericho Systems products, including EnterSpace® and SAML Attribute Responder™ (SAR). BENEFIT: • In our prototype, Central Authentication Service (CAS) serves as both OP (OpenID Provider)/IDP (Identity Provider) as well as a RP (Relying Party). This makes it much simpler to modify the CAS (as OP) to support OpenID AX by getting user attributes from Jericho System’s SAML Attribute Responder™ (simulating JEDS). • CAS provides an abstraction layer to isolate the various services from authentication protocol changes that might occur in SAML / OpenID / WS-Federation. The benefit of this approach is that in a system with 10 web servers, protocol or configuration changes can be made in one place (CAS) instead of at all 10 web servers. • The CAS-as-a-relying-party solution also makes it easier to implement the stateful “smart” mode of OpenID 2.0. This also makes implementation on multiple web servers simpler. • We will use CAS from Jericho’s EnterSpace® Decisioning Service, because it is compliant and includes a FIPS 140-2 certified cryptography module. Jericho’s EnterSpace® Decisioning Service will also serve as the PDP (policy decision point) to achieve ABAC for the prototype. • CAS is open source and widely used, so incorporating it into the solution would enable multiple vendors to participate in future implementations. • CAS is compatible with the Ozone Widget Framework (OWF), a cloud computing technology that has been increasingly adopted by the DoD. • This approach provides a method for DoD user attribute stores (e.g., LDAP directories) that presently provide SAML attribute assertions to obtain security information using OpenID Attribute Exchange. DoD could leverage new standards and specifications (e.g., OpenID) within the present operating environment to foster the use of light weight transaction protocols. • REST has become the preferred approach to developing Web 2.0 services and is widely adopted in social networking and other online domains. Successful development of a SAML- RESTful bridge that is compliant with open source standards would facilitate commercial interoperability of a wide range of enterprises and services.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Curt Wu
AF112-031      Awarded:11/3/2011
Title:Framework for Assessing Cloud Trustworthiness (FACT)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Assured Cloud Computing is needed by US Cyber Command to implement the USAF vision of global vigilance, global reach, and global power. When an Air Force application runs in a third-party “gray” cloud, the trustworthiness of the application is of special concern because there is little to no control over the underlying infrastructure. The user must treat the cloud as a black box that cannot be instrumented or modified. To support the trustworthiness assessment of applications running in gray cloud infrastructures, we propose a framework for assessing cloud trustworthiness that treats the cloud as a black box and assesses trustworthiness at the application level rather than at the cloud component level where we have limited insight. Diagnostic tests to assess application trustworthiness are integrated with the application binary, so they are run on the cloud within a single process. The integration process optimizes test coverage while accounting for properties of the diagnostic tests, parameters of the mission supported by the application, and properties of the cloud infrastructure. If a test fails, the framework reruns the application in the cloud until it executes on correctly functioning infrastructure and passes all tests, or until time constraints are exceeded. BENEFIT: We expect the full-scope framework to have immediate and tangible benefit for a number of military applications that would benefit from deployment in a cloud infrastructure. In particular, the framework will support the trustworthy execution of applications in the cloud, both blue and gray. In addition, we will look at companies that provide commercial cloud computing services as potential licensees of this technology to enhance their competitive advantage for security-conscious consumers.

Allied Associates International, Inc.
6801 Kennedy Road Suite 302
Warrenton, VA 20187
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 341-8262
James Metzger
AF112-032      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Enterprise Data Protection Against Exfiltration
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Investigate the use of advanced network protocol processing, algorithms and software to monitor and reconstruct network packets for the purpose of data loss prevention (DLP). Such computer network traffic may be in use by an insider threat communicating sensitive information over a covert channel using network steganography or inadvertently using overt network protocols. The main objective of this proposal is the development of a network protocol processing software infrastructure to ingest and extract protocol streams in real time to provide data loss sensing on an intranet enclave. This would involve the development of advanced algorithms acting on the data in transit to detect unauthorized transmission of data and possible network steganography. Such algorithms would be explored in a flexible development environment and hosted in a larger system as sensors for online network monitoring. BENEFIT: This technology is applicable to other federal agencies including the law enforcement and intelligence communities as well as private sector users interested in securing intellectual property or detection of other clandestine use of agency or company communications. It is anticipated that developments arising from the proposed SBIR R&D will provide a basis for applications which can be packaged for sale to government, private, or commercial users, providing such users with a tool for detecting and countering covert communications in network steganography for exploitation and for security purposes such as data loss prevention. Such application products could provide users with advanced modes of intruder detection in situations where applications based on signature based algorithms will be ineffective.

Assured Information Security, Inc.
245 Hill Road
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 336-3306
Richard Gloo
AF112-032      Awarded:11/3/2011
Title:Enterprise Data Protection Against Exfiltration
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Enterprise wide data exfiltration will be prevented by designing and implementing a method to protect files based on logical group membership. Anyone outside that group without the group key(s) will be unable to decrypt the data. Localized Encryption Groups (LEG) will provide an automated approach to ensure confidentiality and tracking of data files early in their creation, throughout processing and during transmission. It is intended that LEG will transparently exist within current information systems by coexisting and occasionally relying upon cryptographic and information sharing infrastructure. A design goal of LEG will be to be entirely implemented as software that is installed on host systems. LEG will function low in the operating system architecture to provide transparent functionality to high level applications. BENEFIT: Host or network based detection of data exfiltration is generally an ineffective, reactive approach and as such the LEG effort is built around a new and promising approach to proactively prevent data exfiltration. A design goal of LEG is to be entirely implemented as software installed on a host system. LEG will function low in the operating system architecture to provide transparent functionality to user space applications. The LEG effort will ensure the successful coexistence within the current and future enterprise information security infrastructure while maximally protecting data from unauthorized access.

Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Prachee Sharma
AF112-033      Awarded:11/2/2011
Title:Secure Order-wire for Airborne Network Topology Control
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We develop a communication system we call order wire which is an autonomous mobile network management framework order-wire for heterogeneous networks. To enable mobile network management, order wire collects the network information, computes the optimal network operational parameters and disseminates these values across the network. Operating parameters controllable via the order-wire include frequency, transmit power level, time slots allocations and directional antenna pointing. In the proposal, we identify order-wire waveform features. Several waveforms that address operational requirements including network heterogeneity, reliability, LPI/LPD and resilience to MANET fragmentations are discussed. We also explore existing standards that already (partially) implement waveform features and can be leveraged in this work. Selection of waveform features with emphasis on air-network mobility, information assurance requirements and approach that leverages existing standards is one of the strengths of this proposal. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits: These products will have the following competitive advantages, when compared with current state-of-the-art products such as traditional MANETs: • Ability to support network management in MANETs • Ability create an overlay network order-wire for any data-network network domains • Compatibility with existing IP based systems Commercial Applications: The order-wire for MANETs can be applied to several commercial applications. Small-scale applications include control of small devices like Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, handhelds, and wearable computers enhance information processing and accessing capabilities with mobility. On a larger scale, ad hoc can be used in emergency/rescue operations for disaster relief efforts, e.g., in fire, flood, or earthquake. Emergency rescue operations must take place where non-existing or damaged communications infrastructure and rapid deployment of a communication network is needed. Information is relayed from one rescue team member to another over a small handheld. Other commercial scenarios include e.g., ship-to-ship ad hoc mobile communication, law enforcement, etc. Order-wire can be used to implement QoS protocols to prioritize data within ad hoc networks in order to reserve better connections for high data rate applications while still maintaining enough bandwidth for lower bit rate communication. The support of multimedia services will most likely be required within and throughout the MANET, for which different QoS classes (e.g., voice, video, audio, web, and data stream) are needed to facilitate the use of multimedia applications.

Silvus Communication Systems, Inc
10990 Wilshire Blvd Suite 440
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 479-3333
Abhishek Tiwari
AF112-033      Awarded:11/3/2011
Title:SC-Orderwire for the Airborne Network
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this proposal Silvus Technologies propose an overall architecture for the Airborne Network Orderwire. We refer to this technology as Silvus Communications Orderwire (SC- Orderwire). At the PHY layer, we propose to leverage Silvus’ unique expertise with multi- antenna technology to provide a large one-hop link range of for data rate sufficient for Orderwire application using small aerodynamic omni-directional antennas and no external power ampliers. SC-Orderwire uses a spread spectrum waveform in the L band for Low Probability of Intercept (LPI). Additional range is achieved by the use of optimized relay and forwarding capability at the SC-Orderwire network layer. Each SC-Orderwire maintains a local database of node locations, radio parameters, application QoS requirements and network management information. SC-Orderwire architecture includes data replication and replicated computation features to maintain the consistency of distributed databases despite network partition and merges. SC-Orderwire requires no external coordination to setup and seamlessly handles node join and leave. To limit overhead SC-Orderwire architecture includes airborne node location prediction. Limiting orderwire updates ensures scalability and Low Probability of Detect (LPD) capability of SC-Orderwire. In Phase II Silvus Technologies proposes to host SC-Orderwire protocol on its SC-3000 radio product and conduct a TRL 4-5 flight test. BENEFIT: The techniques being developed under this program could have wide applicability with many types of mobile networks. The use of mobile networks is expected to explode both in military and civilian applications. The military airspace directly addressed by this proposal will become increasingly crowded with manned and ever more unmanned systems, making the coordination function addressed in this proposal critical to network efficiency and reliability. Even the civilian airspace might benefit from the techniques being developed. New concepts in air traffic control envision data communication directly between planes. Unmanned systems will almost certainly be introduced into the civilian airspace in coming years, putting additional coordination burdens on the system and likely requiring increased amounts of direct air to air data exchange. Even on the nations highways, proposed networks such as WAVE for passing traffic and safety information from car to car might benefit from concepts developed under this program.

Architecture Technology Corporation
9977 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Deborah Charan
AF112-034      Awarded:10/31/2011
Title:Crypto-Partitioning Aware PEP for Tactical Networks (CAPTAIN)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The USAF has identified the need for a ciphertext-side (CT-side) proxy to enhance the performance of military applications operating over a crypto-partitioned GIG environment. Such a capability is needed because the plaintext-side (PT-side) performance enhancing proxy (PEP) approaches that are currently employed suffer from one or more of the following limitations: (1) Poor performance enhancement capability; (2) Inability to support multiple applications; and (3) Lack of interoperability. To overcome these limitations and capability gaps of the state of the art for PEPs in tactical environments, Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes an innovative solution called Crypto-Partitioning Aware PEP for Tactical Networks (CAPTAIN). The CAPTAIN approach for application and network performance enhancement has the following benefits: it provides backward compatibility with existing COTS applications and existing network infrastructure; it is based on an open modular architecture that fosters multi-vendor interoperability and extensibility thereby lowering acquisition and operating costs; and it lends itself to a variety of product embodiments providing a wide range of price- performance alternatives to meet the needs of different tactical networks. BENEFIT: The CAPTAIN software product resulting from this effort will directly address the need of tactical military networks, such as the Airborne Network, that are increasingly adopting IP for network centric mission operations. In the civilian arena the CAPTAIN product will address the WAN performance acceleration needs of enterprises using IPSEC-based VPNs for interconnecting remote sites over the Internet.

Architecture Technology Corporation
9977 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
John Wu
AF112-035      Awarded:10/31/2011
Title:Adaptive and Integrated Multicast for the Airborne Networks (AIM-AN)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Secure and efficient IP multicast improves efficiency of bandwidth utilization in tactical networks such as the Airborne Networks and facilitates effective and timely dissemination of mission critical information among tactical edge users. In this SBIR effort, Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes an innovative Adaptive and Integrated Multicast for the Airborne Networks (AIM-AN) technology to address the need identified by the Air Force for secure, dynamic and efficient multicast services over heterogeneous black airborne networks. The AIM-AN approach will overcome two major limitations of the existing IP multicast approaches: 1) inefficient use of the scarce transmission resources in the airborne networks as well as failure of multicast protocols due to changes in network topology; 2) need for intense manual coordination and configuration of the red enclaves protected by Inline Network Encryption (INE) devices such as HAIPE. The technology will be developed to operate within the existing COTS network infrastructure, providing a cost-effective solution to secure and efficient multicast in the tactical networks. BENEFIT: This research will yield a software-based solution to secure and efficient multicast in resource constrained networks. Potential customers of the commercial product from this research include the military, the homeland defense and the commercial enterprises. For the military, this technology will facilitate effective and timely dissemination of ISR and C2 video, voice, etc., among tactical edge users as well as implementation of other net-centric services. For the homeland defense, this technology will be very useful in emergency response communications, which tend to have the characteristics of constrained bandwidth, uneven connectivity and high security requirements. In the private sector, AIM-AN will enable the development of applications that support secure group collaboration employing IP-based communication in networks that that are bandwidth or connectivity constrained.

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Seoung Bum Lee
AF112-035      Awarded:11/3/2011
Title:Topology Aware Secure Multicast in Airborne Networks (TASMAN)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Mayflower Communication Company, Inc. (Mayflower) proposes a novel multifaceted solution, TASMAN, to meet the Air Force objective, namely, to develop a concept for secure, dynamic, and efficient multicast services (voice, video, and data) over heterogeneous black airborne networks. In order to provide a complete solution for secure multicast in black MANET, Mayflower has teamed with XPRT Solutions (XPRT) for their expertise in networked communications over HAIPE. The TASMAN secure black core multicast technology proposed by the Mayflower-XPRT team provides efficient and robust black core routing despite high speed mobility of the network nodes. Also, it utilizes an innovative approach to bridge HAIPE in order to extend secure multicast to the red enclaves. The TASMAN solution, when proven feasible in the Phase I study for the Air Force application, has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. Mayflower will develop a prototype TASMAN secure multicast software in Phase I and II, and ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond. BENEFIT: The topology-aware secure multicast technology, TASMAN, is a compelling technology for military applications: it would provide secure, robust and efficient distribution of critical C2 and ISR information across the USAF Airborne Network. Also, TASMAN is attractive in tactical networks such as the JTRS SRW networks. In this case, TASMAN would be integrated in the protocol stacks of either the handheld or the waveform, providing access to either side of the encryption boundary. TASMAN is also an attractive technology for civilian applications that require efficient, robust, low-latency information distribution in heterogeneous network settings that includes IPsec and mobile wireless nodes. For instance, TASMAN could be an effective technology for first responders to gather and track information on large-scale disasters, and thereby enable accurate assessment and response to such events.

Janya Inc.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 242-8417
John Chen
AF112-036      Awarded:11/3/2011
Title:Enabling visualization of events from unstructured text (HUMINT) on maps
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Rapid visualization of events existing in unstructured data requires a system with the ability to accurately detect events and their arguments in such data. Currently, many systems that perform this task do so by relying on only sentential context. Those systems that do rely on document-wide context are more accurate but suffer in terms of efficiency in that they need to process the input document repeatedly, or that in order to process the current input document they require processing of related documents. We experiment with novel approaches for event extraction that rely on document-wide context. Here, event extraction includes event mention detection, event argument detection, and event coreference resolution. One approach is maximum entropy modeling with document-wide features. Another approach models the document as a Dynamic Bayesian Network. They offer the promise of event extraction with higher recall, precision, and speed than previous systems. BENEFIT: The main anticipated benefit of this work includes the development of a system that (i) extracts event mentions and event arguments from unstructured data with higher recall and precision, and (ii) performs event coreference resolution on these event mentions with higher accuracy than was previously attainable. Furthermore, the document-wide classification techniques developed on this project might be transferred to improve the accuracy of other information extraction modules.

Language Computer Corporation
2435 N. Central Expressway Suite 1200
Richardson, TX 75080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 231-0052
Sean Monahan
AF112-036      Awarded:10/31/2011
Title:Textual Inference for Grounding Events in Space (TIGRESS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of the proposed work is to develop a robust spatial reasoning capacity that can provide analysts in both national defense and business environments with operational-quality spatial information about events in unstructured texts from any domain. In order to achieve this goal, we plan to combine an open-domain and customizable event extraction framework with a suite of components designed to acquire all of the explicit and implicit spatial information available from collections of natural language texts. In contrast with most current approaches to spatial information processing, we will create an integrated reasoning-based framework which will leverage LCC’s existing information extraction, spatial reasoning and normalization, textual entailment, and semantic parsing capabilities in order to accurately locate events for spatial visualization applications. In executing Phase I of this effort, we shall define the operational semantics for event locating, select training and testing data for conceptual representations and semantic processing, and define requirements for each module. BENEFIT: We believe there is a growing need for systems capable of providing a wide range of accurate spatial and temporal information about events from unstructured texts within multiple sectors of the U.S. government, including the Departments of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the national intelligence organizations overseen by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. We anticipate that the prototype location-tagging and spatial reasoning system being developed as part of TIGRESS will not only enhance the quality of LCC’s suites of open-domain customizable event extraction tools, but will also serve the location-tagging and spatial visualization needs of operational customers as well. Transitioning our technology into these organizations will support incident responders, incident managers, intelligence preparation of the battlefield, and event detection / response collaboration. To accomplish our objectives, we will solicit our current contacts within the Intelligence and Homeland Security communities to demonstrate and tailor this capability to their needs. For DoD customers, we will work through our strategic partners to demonstrate and integrate conceptual visualization into their current and future systems. As fully location-tagging and spatial reasoning capabilities become more robust, we expect the quality and coverage of our applications will drive demand for LCC’s products in the civilian commercial sector as well.

Datron Advanced Technology Group, Inc.
3030 Enterprise Court
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 597-1500
Roger Kuroda
AF112-037      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Jam-resistant Waveform for Transponded SATCOM
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Datron will develop advanced waveform techniques that ameliorate the effects of jamming and are suitable for use in transponded SATCOM applications. BENEFIT: This research is for existing transponded military satellite communications programs like the Wideband Global SATCOM program. Commercial programs utilizing transponded SATCOM could also benefit from this research.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 242-9800
Brian Woods
AF112-038      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:SATCOM X-band Digital Beamforming Network
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As the size, cost, and power consumption of digital signal processing platforms continue to drop and their performance improves, incorporating digital beamformer (DBF) designs into future SATCOM satellite payloads has become an increasingly attractive approach. The advantages offered by digital beamforming stem from its ability to simultaneously synthesize multiple independent narrow beams that can be used to improve the efficiency of frequency re-use while also nulling interfering signals. In response to the US Air Force solicitation, MaXentric is proposing an X-band SATCOM digital beamforming development platform codenamed X-BEAST (X-band Beamforming Array and System Topology). X-BEAST is composed of X-band downconverters, high speed digitizers, FPGAs, and Manycore processors that enable the system to beamform while also monitoring and rapidly adapting to changes in operating conditions (such as number of users, jammers, etc). BENEFIT: With the X-BEAST platform supporting two-way digital communication across multiple, independent channels – which may be separated in frequency, space, code, and time – MaXentric introduces a scalable, low-cost technology to the satellite communication market. The applications for such a digital beamforming system are far-reaching in both the commercial and DoD markets. A large potential commercial market is the next generation base stations for broadband IP and mobile data services. Digital beamforming at the transmitter and receiver of the wireless base station can be used to provide higher data throughputs to increased number of subscribers. On the DoD side, X-BEAST provides an architecture for next generation satellite communication payloads. By using digital beamforming, payloads will provide better performance to meet the growing demand of SATCOM users.f

Scalable Network Technologies Inc
6100 Center Drive #1250
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 338-3318
Jeff Weaver
AF112-039      Awarded:11/2/2011
Title:High Assurance SATCOM Policy-based Network Management
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Operational management of tactical SATCOM networks is beset with a number of technical and administrative challenges, namely: customizable management control, fast network planning and configuration, capacity scarce SATCOM links requiring dynamic spectrum management and QoS management, and finally robust network configuration and planning that assures that the SATCOM is resilient to faults and outages. In order to meet the challenges listed above, there is a need for Policy Based Network Management (PBNM) tools specifically architected for satellite networks. The combined SNT and Telcordia team proposes to build a PBNM Tool for Satellite Networks termed as P-3, which will include cutting-edge network management and performance optimization techniques for satellite networks. The P3 architecture will also include a ‘faster than real-time’ simulation engine that will enable network management policies to be evaluated against a high fidelity satellite network simulation model for high assurance before being applied to the live system. In Phase 1, we will focus on evaluating existing and projected SATCOM networks for capacity, connectivity, and QoS characteristics via the use of high fidelity simulation models of the satellite networks. Based on our findings, we shall develop a high-level architecture and design of P-3 that will address SATCOM enterprise performance requirements. BENEFIT: In the military space, the P-3 PBNM solution being developed has direct application in the WIN-T and JTRS MUOS program, where it can be used in to automate the network planning, configuration and online re-configuration of the tactical satellite networks. On the commercial end, the simulated assisted policy based network management concept that will be researched has direct application towards enhancing existing network management of complex satellite and ground based wireless networks for better accuracy and assurance and will thus make the network management process more fault tolerant, efficient and effective.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4812
Michael Lee
AF112-041      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Quality of Information Services for Trusted Service Oriented Architecture Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Operating in a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) environment is risky because there is limited ability to gauge information’s trust level. Existing solutions track information pedigree, but do not consider other prerequisites to trust. This project proposes to build METSI (Metadata Establishing Trust in SOA-based Information) to quantify trust using six Quality of Information (QoI) metrics and an overall QoI Rating. Warfighters use the QoI Rating as an overview to information’s trust, and use the individual QoI metrics to evaluate trust based on what aspects are important to them. METSI will build upon CFDRC’s existing DINES technology which provides data integrity protection to both information and metadata in SOA environments – allowing METSI to protect against insider threats that maliciously alter trust in information. In Phase I, a prototype will be developed and tested in a representative SOA environment. To show feasibility, different types of SOA services across multiple different domains will use METSI to quantify the trust in information. We will also conduct a performance assessment of METSI to demonstrate its minimal storage and bandwidth requirements. During Phase II, the QoI metrics will be expanded and the revised prototype will be tested for scalability and robustness against insider threats and external attackers. BENEFIT: The SOA-based trust management solution developed under this project, called METSI (Metadata Establishing Trust in SOA-based Information), will be greatly beneficial to the Air Force and the rest of DoD by providing a Quality of Information (QoI) Rating that provides an overview of how much trust should be placed in SOA information. This QoI Rating will be based on six independent QoI metrics that quantify six different aspects of trust of information. Individual warfighters will use these QoI metrics to make their own determination of trust based on which aspects of trust are most important to them. During Phase II, CFDRC will work with prime contractors currently providing SOA solutions to the Air Force to design the prototype to operate in a SOA environment representative of Air Force networks. In Phase III, CFDRC will work with prime contractors to incorporate the METSI technology into existing SOA product lines. In addition to incorporating METSI into military SOA environments, CFDRC will also market and deploy the technology to healthcare IT providers. During Phase II, CFDRC will market the METSI technology and its ability to protect the integrity of both information and metadata to IT service providers that manage electronic health records. At the end of the Phase II effort, CFDRC will demonstrate the METSI technology to these service providers to demonstrate the benefits of data integrity and trust of information in service-oriented networks such as electronic health records. During Phase III, CFDRC will partner with a healthcare IT provider to deploy the METSI technology into their electronic health record services to

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Khurram Shafique
AF112-042      Awarded:10/31/2011
Title:Multiple Target Tracking (MTT) of Objects Exhibiting Significant Nonlinearities
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of novel nonlinear filtering and joint decision and estimation methods for robust and persistent tracking of multiple targets with nonlinearities in measurement and dynamic model. The key innovations in this effort are: i) a computationally efficient and accurate nonlinear point estimator that outperforms traditional extended Kalman filter and unscented filter ; ii) an approximate density estimation filter based on a numerical solution of Fokker- Planck equation with grid adaptation that provides an efficient alternative to particle filter based approaches, iii) a novel joint density and (point) estimation (JDE) framework that is optimal in information theoretic sense and enables efficient JDE for multi-target tracking, for example, joint detection and tracking. The project will benefit from University of New Orleans‘ expertise in nonlinear filtering, target tracking, and statistical inference, and ObjectVideo’s ongoing research activities on target detection, multi-target tracking, efficient multi-frame data association, and distributed MTI tracking. The Phase I effort will include: development of proposed nonlinear filtering and joint decision and estimation technologies, development of performance models for nonlinear multi-target tracking, quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the proposed technologies, and demonstration of proof of concept. BENEFIT:

Automatic interpretation of sensory data has been a persistent topic of research in the areas of information theory, sensor fusion, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, and psychology, but is still in a very primitive state. Robust detection and persistent tracking of targets in the scene is a critical first step towards enabling systems capable to interpret activities in the scene and provide timely situational awareness and effective forensic analysis capabilities to the analysts. The technologies proposed here enable persistent tracking of multiple targets with nonlinear dynamic and observation models. The proposed tracking techniques are generic and can be applied to many ISR sensors and applications that are characterized by complex models and uncertainties in the data, for example, urban surveillance from WAMI sensors, GMTI and AMTI tracking, 2D/3D particle tracking, and dynamic analysis of cellular organism in microbiology domain.

The proposed technologies can also be used to enable real-time and forensic analysis tasks that find a lot of applications in the domains of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), persistent surveillance, and video analysis. These benefits include:

  • Timely Situational Awareness: Timely availability of reliable intelligence is critical to support military missions and objectives. Knowledge regarding the trajectories of targets, their interactions with each other and other scene elements is a critical part of intelligence and its automated extraction from surveillance data will help expedite the

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Adel El-Fallah
AF112-042      Awarded:10/31/2011
Title:A Unified Bayesian Approach to Nonlinearity in Multitarget Tracking
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Nonlinearity in target tracking poses a far more difficult challenge than is usually understood. Besides nonlinear sensor and target-motion models, one must also address “nonstandard” sources of nonlinearity: known or unknown sensor fields of view; known or unknown clutter; target appearance and disappearance, etc. Furthermore, multitarget tracking (MTT) algorithms are inherently nonlinear. Any systematic MTT analysis must consider all of these forms of nonlinearity. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. proposes a theoretically foundational approach to multitarget nonlinearity analysis. First, we will devise computationally tractable nonlinearity figures of merit for MTT, using theoretically rigorous methods. Second, we will exploit the fact that the multitarget recursive Bayes filter inherently accounts for the above forms of nonlinearity. Specifically, we will develop approximations of the multitarget Bayes filter that comprehensively incorporate the above nonlinear models. We will also investigate new approximate filters that can operate in unknown backgrounds, including unknown clutter and unknown detection profiles. We will implement these algorithms using Gaussian mixture and/or particle-based techniques, and test their sensitivities to the various forms of nonlinearity just mentioned. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of multitarget tracking technologies. BENEFIT: Unified nonlinearity-resistant multitarget tracking (MTT) algorithms are of major interest to all branches of the military. Commercial application includes law enforcement, industrial and homeland security, air traffic control, and weather radar applications.

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 652-0007
Charlie Kuznia
AF112-043      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:High-Speed Data Transmission in Multimode Fiber
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This program will develop next generation fiber optic transceiver technologies to support high speed data communications on airborne platforms. We investigate innovative technology to increase the data rate and reduce the power consumption of fiber optic components. We take advantage of recent advancements in VCSEL technology to create compact components without the need for thermal control. BENEFIT: A compact VCSEL-base transceiver, operating at 10 Gbps per channel and a removable pigtail connector, would reduce the power consumption and costs associated with airborne fiber optic networks.

TechFlow, Inc.
2155 Louisiana Blvd., NE Suite 3200
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 903-6847
Walter Clover
AF112-047      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Automation of Nuclear Arsenal Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Situational Awareness (SA) for the country’s nuclear arsenal currently relies on manual processes for correlation and compilation of disparate data sources. The Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (AFNWC) Sustainment and Integration Center (STIC) needs automation in correlating data and compiling their SA reports. Net-centric technologies and proper application of state-of-the-art visualization frameworks have produced successful SA software solutions currently in use by AFRL/RV and other agencies. The STIC is a great candidate for the next success story, as it is involved in many organizations and its mission is critical to national security. TechFlow Scientific, a division of TechFlow, Inc., has developed proven interoperable, net- centric, enterprise tools that provide SA and decision support for battlespace awareness. TechFlow Scientific couples this expertise with an extensive background in nuclear and electromagnetic effects to offer a novel net-centric data fusion tool for SA that automates the process of data correlation and SA report compilation, exports to various reporting formats, includes a common/user defined operating picture (C/UDOP) “dashboard” display, and supports intelligent SA report dissemination and archiving. TechFlow will exploit its corporate expertise in successfully integrating emergent technologies into C/UDOP SA software solutions to ensure the proposed solution is both innovative and feasible. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of executing this SBIR program are: more efficient operations at the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (AFNWC) Sustainment and Integration Center (STIC); a clearer situational analysis product; a faster response time to short-term requests; the capability for rapid action should crisis arise; improved data dissemination due to a persistent access location, elimination of version conflicts, and secure access; more manageable data archiving as a result of smaller file size and an open data format that eliminates dependence on specific software versions. Potential commercial applications of the solution include providing data fusion solutions to create actionable situational awareness for military, law enforcement, and industry. TechFlow’s proposed data fusion solution can be adapted to serve pressing needs in the Military, such as detecting the presence of a terrorist attack and quickly identifying its scope and severity in a highly populated urban environment. TechFlow’s solution will also benefit law enforcement agencies, such as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and local police and fire fighters by applying these technologies in operations centers handling wildfires or other rapidly evolving

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
James R. McCracken
AF112-047      Awarded:11/3/2011
Title:SAUNA - Situation Awareness UDOP for the Nuclear Arsenal
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Defense Science Board, in addressing the loss of focus, describes the reduction in the rank/level of accountable individuals (from the end of the Cold war to today), stating “There has been little change in focus at the operating levels in the Navy and in the ICBM force up through the numbered air force (20th Air Force). Otherwise, the decline is characteristics across the DoD.” And, they conclude, “Still, when this occurs across virtually all of the relevant headquarters, the aggregate result is a precipitous decrease in attention to the nuclear enterprise.” Our proposed Situation Awareness UDOP for the Nuclear Arsenal (SAUNA) Phase I plan includes requirements definition, architecture assessment, and evolution of our existing data handling model in order to derive an operationally-focused solution that is cost effective, demonstrable and most of all operationally practical. As part of this SBIR project, TDKC will apply the User-Definable Operational Picture (UDOP) and service-oriented architecture (SOA) approach used for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) to create a flexible, extensible capability that has already delivered situation awareness in both the air and space domains. BENEFIT: SAUNA has direct application to current Air Force programs including the JSpOC Mission System (JMS). The tools and research had direct application to other domains including homeland defense, state and local emergency operations, and others.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. Kerry Wood
AF112-049      Awarded:12/21/2011
Title:EMU - Economic Modeling of Uncertainty
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Generally it’s not reasonable to expect that a satellite operator can effectively filter a list containing thousands of entries to identify the most important conjunctions. The need here is to prioritize the list to a more manageable level. However, we believe that the problem is, in fact, in a richer decision space. Identification, ranking, or filtering is important, but often insufficient. Operators must be presented a tradeoff space. The problem of ranking and identifying conjunctions that are most important to operations cannot be performed independently of the process of acquiring orbital data. Automated tools must be available to recommend a course of action and to inform users of the cost of their choice. Our proposed Economic Modeling of Uncertainty (EMU) Phase I SBIR includes: (1) the development of an in-depth technical model (including data, dependencies, and organizational requirements) of the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) collision detection and avoidance mission; (2) the reformulation of the JSpOC mission as an economic optimization problem; and (3) the development of JMS UDOP-compatible software tools that relay data from the optimization domain to end users as a decision aid. BENEFIT: EMU has direct application to current Air Force programs including the JSpOC Mission System (JMS), WebISSA, and RAIDRS. The cost estimation and conjunction algorithms have application to commercial satellite operations and networks as well.

Stellar Science Ltd Co
6565 Americas Parkway NE, Suite 725
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(877) 763-8268
Irene Budianto-Ho
AF112-050      Awarded:1/13/2012
Title:Scalable Conjunction Processing using Spatiotemporally Indexed Ephemeris Data
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To reduce the risk of on-orbit collisions, the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) tracks objects in its Space Catalog and forecasts potential conjunctions. Because both the size of the Space Catalog and its ephemeris update frequency are expected to grow significantly in the near term, the methods for conjunction analysis will need to incorporate new filtering techniques to more quickly winnow the list of potential conjunctions. Stellar Science will leverage their extensive software engineering, geometric processing, orbital analysis, space situational awareness, and parallel processing expertise to provide an effective filtering method for conjunction analysis of 100,000 or more space objects whose ephemeris are updated four times a day. We will develop a spatiotemporal index that reduces the computational run time by quickly finding nearby satellites using a relatively fine partitioning of orbital space, and eliminating all other candidates. We will evaluate whether a fixed spherical grid, k-d tree, spatial hash, or other index method provides the best throughput for the volume of data, and implement a prototype using the best approach. Our software methodology will ensure that the tool can be integrated with future tools such as the Continuous Anomalous Orbital Discriminator (CAOS-D) or the JSpOC Mission System (JMS). BENEFIT: Timely and accurate conjunction filtering is a critical need of the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The collision warnings produced by the JSpOC are of critical importance in protecting U.S. and allied spacecraft against destructive collisions, and in protecting the lives of astronauts during space flight. By reducing the number of objects requiring high- fidelity and computationally-intensive conjunction analysis, Stellar Science will enable the JSpOC to continue to perform its mission in the future as the number of tracked space objects and debris particles grows to exceed 100,000. In addition to benefitting JSpOC, this technology can be used aid the Naval Space Command (NSC), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and commercial satellite owners and operators in protecting their valuable and irreplaceable space assets from space debris. Future commercialization applications also include air traffic control, a domain that also requires predicting and avoiding collisions among multiple fast-moving objects.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. Kerry Wood
AF112-050      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:ACE - Algorithmic Conjunction Elimination
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Joins Space Operations Center (JSpOC ) is the central node of the US military tasked with maintaining up-to-date space situational awareness (SSA). This includes maintaining a list of on-orbit assets and their associated orbital information. JSpOC operators allocate resources on the space sensor network (SSN) to observe resident space objects. While ensuring that these data are current, the JSpOC must also forecast space object positions via propagators that ingest telemetry information and estimate future positions. These propa¬gated positions are compared to identify any situations where two objects are within a pre-defined minimum-safe distance. The goal of the collision detection and avoidance mission is to identify and avoid conjunctions. As part of our proposal Algorithmic Conjunction Elimination (ACE) SBIR project we will: (1) perform a computational-complexity focused analysis of the conjunction filtering problem; (2) develop a algorithm that is optimal and nearly linearithmic for conjunction filtering; (3) develop an approach to analyzing effects of orbital parameters on filtering algorithms; and (4) develop a prototype to demonstrate our implementation. BENEFIT: ACE has direct application to current Air Force programs including the JSpOC Mission System (JMS), WebISSA, and RAIDRS. The cost estimation and conjunction algorithms have application to commercial satellite operations and networks as well.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5215
Yi Cheng
AF112-053      Awarded:12/15/2011
Title:Cyber-DAM: An Integrated Situational Awareness System for Cyber Attack Detection, Analysis, and Mitigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Real-time cyber situational awareness and proactive impact mitigation are critical for DoD to secure and protect their computer networks and systems from various cyber attacks. When a security incident occurs, network operators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions should be taken in order to quickly mitigate the attack’s impacts. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes an integrated situational awareness and impact mitigation system, called “Cyber-DAM”, for effective cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation. Essentially, a comprehensive multi- layer common operating picture is designed. Based on that, advanced analysis techniques will be developed to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation. The developed technologies will be integrated into an agent-based distributed framework to achieve accurate, comprehensive, and near real- time cyber situational awareness and impact mitigation. BENEFIT: Essentially, the proposed Cyber-DAM is an agent-based, distributed framework for near real time network cyber situational awareness and impact mitigation. It leverages and integrates the most recent advances on attack graph, mission assurance, cyber asset mapping, network security analysis, as well as Bayesian inference and game theoretic approaches for efficient and effective cyber attack detection, risk analysis, and impact mitigation. If our approach is proven successful, the potential market size is very large. In addition, our industry partner, Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems and Boeing can help transition these technologies. One direct product of this research will be an integrated cyber situational awareness system. We expect that this tool can support efficient situation awareness and security analysis in different attack scenarios and various network sizes. It can help end- users better view and understand what’s going on across a cyber network and predict the potential threats in near future. The developed software tool can be applied as an independent component for protection of enterprise-level networks as well as military information networks.

Intelligent Fusion Technology, Inc
39 Timber Rock Rd
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 644-3391
Dan Shen
AF112-053      Awarded:1/20/2012
Title:A Network Sensor-Based Defense Framework for Active Network Security Situation Awareness and Impact Mitigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Networking technologies have given rise to worldwide social, business, and military networks, and commercial networks in US has been growing explosively. Cyber-attacks are increasing in frequency, impact, and complexity, which demonstrate extensive network vulnerabilities with the potential for serious damage. To defend against cyber-attacks, we propose a Network Sensor-Based Defense Framework for Active Network Security Situation Awareness and Impact Mitigation, with the aim of handling network security awareness, mitigation, and prediction. In particular, we will conduct the following research tasks: (i) develop a generic framework for integrating data from various sources, (ii) Develop information theory, image, and signal processing techniques to efficiently process alerts information and provide accurate detection decision; (iii) Develop novel techniques to carry out attack scene investigation via network forensic analysis and visualization; (iv) Develop the game theory to investigate the interaction between the attacker and defender with different strategies; and (v) implement a prototype system and validate our proposed solutions. Our work will have immediate and significant impacts on the security of U.S. Military and commercial networks. BENEFIT: The proposed approach has tremendous applications potential in many military applications. It can be applied as a functional component for the protection of enterprise-level networks as well as military information networks. During the Phase I, we will work closely with Lockheed Martin MS2, who is a primary contractor on the Aegis weapon system, the Littoral Combat Ship, and C2 lead for the DDG-1000 program. We have developed a concrete and realistic plan to transition our technology to their programs. We will leverage these relationships to identify the end customer, and work with these teams to transition our Phase II technology into their program. The DOD contact who knows the details of our work and who knows the above programs is Dr. Erik Blasch from AFRL. The market for military applications is quite large. Other potential commercial applications include civilian network, such as finance, medicine, communications, electric power, nuclear energy, internet service provider, and air traffic control. The size of this market is not small and may grow rapidly with the commercial demand in homeland security. We expect the aggregated market size will be similar to that of military applications.

PaneraTech
7056 Falls Reach Dr. Ste: 304
Falls Church, VA 22043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 599-8493
Yakup Bayram
AF112-054      Awarded:2/6/2012
Title:High-Performance, Low-Profile Antennas Utilizing Advanced Engineered Materials
Abstract:ABSTRACT: PaneraTech, Inc., in collaboration with The Ohio State University – ElectroScience Laboratory (OSU-ESL), is proposing a wideband conformal aperture based on Tightly Coupled Metamaterial Array concept (TCMA). This technology has a transformational capability to achieve the requirements of (1) conformality—only millimeters thick; (2)high bandwidth (12.5-50GHz) — more than 4:1 and up to 30:1; (3) extremely simple and of low weight; (4) multifunctional capability and applicable to many missions with different bandwidth and scanning requirements;(5) low cost feed design; (6) low angle beam steering. We will demonstrate feasibility of a thin (several mm) low-profile conformal wideband antenna that employs (TCMA) that is optimized to cover the required bandwidth. A key component of the proposed wideband aperture is that it can also scan low angles that are critical to achieving uninterrupted communication on the move. We will also employ broadband feed techniques along with characteristic mode analysis to identify optimal locations for feeding for each required frequency band. BENEFIT: The proposed research and development offers a new design paradigm in developing conformal wideband low-profile antennas. We anticipate that the proposed technology will lead to low-cost and low-profile antenna solutions for high-speed data communication links on aircrafts. It will enable low-drag and light-weight solutions in addition to increased antenna performance. It's anticipated that the proposed antenna technology also has significant potential in the commercial airborne platforms due to its low-cost and light-weight characteristics in addition to increased performance over legacy antenna systems.

Intelligent Fusion Technology, Inc
39 Timber Rock Rd
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 481-5397
Xin Tian
AF112-055      Awarded:1/24/2012
Title:A Holistic Approach to Optimal and Secure Tactical Wireless Broadband Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this proposal, a holistic approach to managing multi-hop broadband wireless communication network is proposed. It consists of three intertwined components including i) a cognitive sensing infrastructure for sensing and situation awareness at both physical layer and network layer to support the context-aware operation of the communication network, ii) a cognitive routing infrastructure for the proactive configuration of wireless communication network, QoS-aware hierarchical scheduling, cognitive multi-timescale routing, admission control and frequency management, and iii) a waveform adaptation infrastructure for power control, waveform shaping, dynamic spectrum access as well as avoidance of interference and jammers. The project will develop a cognitive network infrastructure for situation awareness and waveform adaptation at the physical layer, and permeate its benefits to other layers including medium access control and packet scheduling, admission control, joint routing and spectrum management, and mission-driven application layers. The cognition network will enable optimized network routing and management relative to user intents and wide-area net-centric sources, leading to mission-driven network optimization that enables covert communication, interference control, robust routing, and efficient random access. BENEFIT: The proposed RF cartography-enabled cognitive airborne system has tremendous potential in many military applications. The cognition infrastructure such as the RF cartography and its application to cognition-enabled tactical wireless networking is a research area critical for national security and battlefield information collection. It can also be directly used for developing of advanced mission planning and emergency preparedness decision support systems such as extensions to the Space Situational Awareness Fusion Intelligent Research Environment [SAFIRE] program, Predictive Awareness & Net-Centric Analysis for Collaborative Intel Assessment (PANACIA), JSPOC Situational Awareness Response System (JSARS), BMDS system, and Aegis combat system program. The technologies developed under our mission-oriented cross-layer analyses and designs will enhance the capabilities of the Objective Force Warrior (OFW) and the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) programs with novel power control, scheduling, routing, mobility management and resource allocation algorithms for communication/networking functions. The DOD contact who knows the details of our work and who knows the above programs is Dr. Erik Blasch from AFRL. The market for military applications is quite large. Our research thrusts on RF environment map estimation algorithms will have direct implications to random field estimation tasks for wireless sensor networks in various monitoring applications, such as structural health monitoring for critical national infrastructure, habitat monitoring, homeland security, and remote sensing. Other potential commercial applications include police and first responders for US Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, multi-layered sensing, disaster assessment, air traffic control system, the national weather service,

Shared Spectrum Company
1593 Spring Hill Road Suite 700
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 761-2818
Mark McHenry
AF112-055      Awarded:11/15/2011
Title:Ensuring Optimal and Secure Routes, Packet Forwarding and Spectrum Utilization through Synthesis of Tactical Wireless Broadband Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop a Cognitive Radio and Network Controller (CRNC). This technology is the critical for common secure broadband communication system configuration and operation to support rapidly changing DoD operational needs and managing both UAS and satellite-based networks quickly, efficiently, and securely. In this effort, we focus on the satellite domain. BENEFIT: U.S. forces face ongoing bandwidth and spectrum challenges due to friendly and hostile RF jamming interference and spectrum coordination issues among U.S. coalition and host nation forces. This challenging and emerging environment also requires consideration in future space-based capabilities. In addition to coordination among radios and processes inside a radio, spectrum availability and management are significant issues faced by ground, air-borne, and space-borne networks. By applying the CRNC in the current satellite communication system, the number of receivers or detectors can be reduced by at least 50%. Furthermore, leveraging the CRNC technologies, the quality of the channels can be detected more accurately and in a much short period of time. The combined space communication system will be more robust and more efficient.

Alfalight, Inc.
1832 Wright St
MADISON, WI 53704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 446-2610
Manoj Kanskar
AF112-056      Awarded:2/16/2012
Title:Highly-Reliable, Radiation-Hard Laser Diode Active Materials
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Quantum-dot gain medium in semiconductor lasers exhibit higher resistance to radiation induced damage. Irradiated diode lasers comprising quantum-dot gain medium demonstrated lasing two orders of magnitude beyond the maximum dose sustainable by quantum-well semiconductor lasers. These studies point to the strong potential for achieving a radiation resistant diode laser. Additionally, theoretical predictions anticipate the ideal quantum dots will possess many useful properties including ultra-low threshold current density, high optical gain, low linewidth enhancement factors, and temperature insensitive device performance, based on the delta-function idealized density of states. In addition, there is potential to have threshold current densities, Jth, and external differential quantum efficiencies which are less temperature sensitive (i.e. high To and T1 ) than QW lasers. Both of these factors are important for achieving high CW output power and high CW total power conversion efficiency in diode lasers beyond what has been achieved in the Super High Efficiency Diode Sources program. We propose to design a quantum-dot active laser comprising an optimized heterostructure for an emission wavelength of 980 nm in order to obtain output powers in excess of 10 watt with power conversion efficiency greater than 60% and demonstrate high reliability and high resistance to radiation damage. BENEFIT: Quantum-dot semiconductor laser at 0.98 micron emission wavelength will enable use of lightweight and efficient laser for numerous applications in high radiation environment such as space.

sdPhotonics LLC
450 South Lake Jessup Avenue
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 929-6675
Sabine Freisem
AF112-056      Awarded:3/1/2012
Title:Quantum Dot Gain Material for High Reliability, Radiation-Hard Laser Diode Pump
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A new active material will be developed and tested to improve reliability for space applications. Recent improvement in facet reliability reveals that bulk failure mechanisms could limit laser diodes used in space. Radiation-induced defects are expected to occur in the bulk of the laser diode gain material because of its active volume. The new active material is designed to limit internal heating at defects, and reduce the average junction temperature relative to the heat sink temperature. Preliminary studies on cleaved facet laser diodes indicate that with further improvement in active material quality, high quality facet coating, and high quality heat sinking, power and efficiency could reach or exceed commercial laser diodes. A Phase I is proposed to optimize the gain material and waveguide design to produce prototype devices for detailed reliability and radiation studies in a Phase II. Full optimization of the active material physics could produce laser diodes with electro-optic properties superior to commercial laser diode pumps. The combined improvements in bulk reliability and electro-optic performance could lead to rapid commercialization into the military and industrial laser diode markets. BENEFIT: The current commercial high power laser diode technology is highly developed and only incremental improvements are expected by maintaining the current active material and device designs. Many military applications can benefit from higher powers that could be possible by introducing new designs. These new designs should produce higher reliability, less susceptibility to radiation induced-defects for space applications, and lower internal optical loss to give the potential for higher power and efficiency. The new materials to be researched and developed in this research effort can bring these advantages by changing the internal laser device physics from the current planar quantum wells.

ThermAvant Technologies, LLC
1000 A Pannell Street
Columbia, MO 65201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 239-4297
Peng Cheng
AF112-057      Awarded:12/19/2011
Title:Next-Generation Micro-chip Carrier for Cooling of Satellite Payload Electronics
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Miniature flat plate oscillating heat pipe (FP-OHP) heat spreaders using ThermAvant's patent-pending ThermalCircuit architecture and low CTE materials will be demonstrated in order to transfer 100-300W/cm2 from chip-sized heaters (1cm2 to 3cm2) to a heat sink area that rejects heat at <10W/cm2 with effective thermal conductivities >10,000W/mK. Prototypes will be modeled, designed, built and then tested using a combination of different FP-OHP channel architectures, materials, and fabrication techniques. Research will include thermal cycling and durability testing from -60 to +60C. Particular emphasis will be placed on using FP-OHP case materials with CTEs from 4-17 ppm/K that can be rapidly manufactured for low cost, short lead time military supply using additive manufacturing methods. BENEFIT: The developed heat spreader using low CTE materials (4-17 ppm/K) will be demonstrated to remove heat from 100-300W/cm2 devices at ultra low thermal resistances. A high volume, cost-effective manufacturing process for the spreader which is embedded with micro-scale oscillating heat pipe channels will be identified during Phase I. Because the spreader transfers heat through its internal channels rather than through its case material, the spreader can be made from a range of materials with CTEs that match the heat dissipating device. Near-term applications of the spreader include single-device and multi-device cooling of military devices with low CTEs such as power amplifiers, converters, ASICs, laser diodes, high power density power supplies, and IGBTs. For these near-term military applications and for longer-term commercial applications, single-step additive manufacturing techniques for embedding the channels within the spreader is critical for highly reliability and short-lead time supply. Longer term commercial applications include direct-contact-to-chip heat spreaders and heat sinks with ultra-low thermal resistance for cooling of computer CPU/GPUs, high-peak-power surgical lasers, and IGBTs in electric- vehicle power drives. Across a range of industries, the proposed technology will enable device designers to continue to increase device power and place them in ever smaller packages without being thermally constrained by excessive temperature build up that occurs with status quo heat spreading technologies.

MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Noren Pan
AF112-058      Awarded:12/1/2011
Title:Ultra-High-Efficiency, Multi-Junction Solar Cells for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The innovation in this proposed Phase I SBIR program is the development of a new type of top subcell for a novel, all-lattice-matched multijunction solar cell. The proposed structure will achieve a much higher end-of-life power conversion efficiency, in conjunction with a greatly increased power density, than current state-of-the-art photovoltaic technologies. Photovoltaic power sources for satellite applications must be high-efficiency, lightweight, and radiation-hard. MicroLink proposes to meet these criteria with an innovative, high- efficiency triple-junction solar cell lattice-matched to InP. The proposed cell comprises an InAlAsSb top subcell (1.80 eV), an InGaAlAs or GaAsP middle subcell (1.17 eV) and an InGaAs bottom subcell containing InGaAs quantum well layers (0.71 eV). The InAlAsSb subcell will be developed in the proposed program. With this multijunction bandgap combination, AM0 power conversion efficiencies greater than 40% should be achievable. MicroLink’s epitaxial lift-off process will be used to remove the substrate to produce ultra- lightweight, flexible, robust solar cells. Substrate reuse will render this InP-based approach cost-effective. BENEFIT: In addition to their application in satellites, high efficiency, lightweight solar cells are needed for many portable applications. The ability to quickly recharge the batteries of portable devices is highly attractive in areas where electricity has limited availability. As the cost of solar cells continues to decrease, novel consumer applications will be realized. The market potential is very large due to the increasing demand for portable electronic devices, such as smart phones and laptop computers.

Solar Junction Corporation
401 Charcot Avenue
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 503-7007
Vijit Sabnis
AF112-058      Awarded:4/10/2012
Title:Ultra-High-Efficiency, Multi-Junction Solar Cells for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a continuing demand for higher efficiency space-qualified solar cells capable of powering spacecraft with growing power demand. For over a decade this demand has been met with lattice-matched GaAs based solar cells evolving from single junction GaAs/Ge with a BOL conversion efficiency of roughly 18% under 1 sun AM0 conditions to triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cells with conversion efficiencies close to 30%. The objective of this investigation is to build upon the success of this technology by developing a multi-junction space solar cell platform incorporating a GaInNAsSb dilute nitride solar cell. This material system provides a straightforward approach to achieving a >40% 1 sun AM0 solar cell. Early measurements of triple-junction solar cells GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb grown on GaAs substrates have demonstrated AM0 efficiencies in excess of 30% AM0 and preliminary results from proton radiation testing indicate the structure is sufficiently radiation hard for use in space applications. BENEFIT: The ever growing demand for increased platform power combined with the requirement for high-reliability form the need for a >40% 1 sun AM0 solar cell in a lattice-matched (LM) configuration, the configuration of all previous multi-junction solar cells. Due to fundamental technical extendibility issues facing existing manufacturers, cell suppliers are departing lattice-matching in favor of an inverted metamorphic (IMM) design. IMM introduces new potential risks and technical challenges: mitigating defects found within the graded buffer layer moving to the active region, a complex manufacturing process, potential cost increases as compared to an LM cell, new panelization methods and possible radiation softness. In contrast, Solar Junction’s GaInNAsSb cell maintains lattice-matching throughout the roadmap and is a drop-in replacement since the cell is grown monolithically on a rigid substrate. In addition, our GaInNAsSb material has a tunable bandgap, from 0.8 to 1.42 eV, thereby allowing multiple versions of the material with appropriate bandgaps for a five and six-junction cell solution. The extendibility of the material provides an efficiency roadmap exceeding 40% 1 sun AM0 while remaining lattice-matched. The manufacturing process consists of standard III-V methods utilized to produce semiconductors found in cellular telephones, LEDs or multi-junction solar cells. In the future, the GaInNAsSb cell architecture could also be adapted for substrate reuse for customers driven principally by Watts / kilogram. Potential commercial applications of the Research and Development, once manufacturing scale up has occurred, include all existing satellite manufacturers – both commercial and military - utilizing multi-junction solar cells to power the payload, particularly those who are most risk averse due to reliability concerns.

Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Shantanu Gupta
AF112-059      Awarded:1/20/2012
Title:Active Vibration Control for Enhanced Satellite Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose the use of adaptive algorithms for laser jitter suppression on a variety of space and airborne platforms, that are capable of closed-loop bandwidths exceeding 1kHz, residual jitter of few urads or less, and narrowband jitter suppression exceeding 20dB. For implementation, in addition to the use of conventional compact actuators, an advanced 'inertia-less' actuator will be also evaluated for jitter mitigation. Based on the above findings, an FPGA-based integrated design for laser jitter-control, compatible with a space- qualification roadmap will be developed. BENEFIT: (1) Jitter-suppression of laser source for high-bandwidth satellite laser communication (2) Target/Aimpoint maintenance and tracking for High-Energy Laser (HEL) systems on airborne platforms (3) Precision laser designation at long-ranges, or from high-altitude platforms (4) Laser beam stabilization for spaceborne lidar systems, including next-generation multi- beam lidars

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 759-4048
William Dickson
AF112-059      Awarded:12/1/2011
Title:Active Vibration Control for Enhanced Satellite Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As the data rates of satellite communication links increase due to inclusion of high resolution imagery and video, a high bandwidth backbone network is required to support all uses of the network. Free-Space Optical (FSO) communication links have the ability to provide very high data rates over very long propagation distances, however, due to their narrow beam divergence, they require accurate pointing and tracking of the terminal apertures. To address this need, SA Photonics proposes the AccuPoint Beam Control System. The AccuPoint system utilizes a compact Optical Inertial Reference Unit (OIRU) to generate an inertially stabilized Optical Reference Beam (ORB) that traverses the entire optical path, picking up jitter errors along the way. SA Photonics’ proprietary high bandwidth control system measures the induced jitter which is removed from both the incoming and outgoing FSO optical beams. A closed-loop control bandwidth in excess of 1 kHz provides jitter attenuation up to 100s of Hz. The OIRU utilizes highly accurate Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (FOG) based angular rate sensors which provide angular rate sensitivity down to DC. Therefore, signals from the IRU can be used during acquisition when absolute pointing accuracy is required while the aperture scans it’s transmit beam and searches for received optical power. BENEFIT: The AccuPoint system enables long distance FSO links by performing active stabilization of optical apertures. The AccuPoint system has very small SWaP allowing use in a variety of platforms, and is designed from the ground up for the space environment, ensuring robust and reliable operation.

Freedom Photonics LLC
90 Dean Arnold Place
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 277-3031
Leif Johansson
AF112-060      Awarded:1/12/2012
Title:Satellite Optical Communication Crosslinks Adaptive Bandwidth System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop a tunable, versatile high-efficiency, optical free-space link including the transmitter and receiver with an adaptive modulation capability. The development of adaptive modulation will be achieved through the study of contrasting approaches for adaptive modulation including data clock-rates and adaptive modulation formats. BENEFIT: This new adaptive modulation technology will be useful throughout the global satellite network as defined by the TCA, in STSS and in UAVs, communication satellites, avionic network systems, ships, and many other military platforms.

Boulder Ionics Corporation
18300 Highway 72, Suite 6
Arvada, CO 80007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 432-1400
Jerry L Martin
AF112-061      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:High Performance Ultracapacitors for Spacecraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR Phase I project is targeted at the development of a novel ultracapacitor using ionic liquid electrolytes. Commercially available ultracapacitors exhibit high power density, in excess of 6000 Wh/kg, but relatively low energy density of under 10 Wh/kg. Boulder Ionics proposes to develop a ultracapacitor with an energy density of over 30 Wh/kg through the use of ionic liquid electrolytes and nanostructured electrodes. Ionic liquids have very wide electrochemical stability windows, up to 6 V. As the energy density of ultracapacitors depends on the square of the operating voltage, ultracapacitors using ionic liquid electrolytes could offer energy densities three times those of commercial ultracapacitors with organic electrolytes. In Phase I, Boulder Ionics will demonstrate a novel ultracapacitor design using ionic liquid electrolytes. To address the cost-effectiveness and ultimate commercial potential of the design, Boulder Ionics will also demonstrate an innovative high- throughput, low-cost synthesis method for the electrolyte. BENEFIT: The new ultracapacitor power supply will increase the lifetime and capability of advanced spacecraft. Unlike batteries, ultracapacitors can provide hundreds of thousands of cycles, increasing the lifetime and reducing the life cycle cost of satellites, particularly for those in low earth orbit. In addition, the higher power density of ultracapacitors will enable increase capability, including higher power burst communications, actuators and thrusters. Commercial applications of high-energy ultracapacitors include windmill blade pitch drives, vehicle starting, hybrid-electric vehicles, grid-scale energy storage, backup power supplies and cameras. Ultracapacitors developed in this program are expected to have wide-reaching impacts on U.S. energy security and balance of trade.

XG Sciences, Inc.
815 Terminal Road
Lansing, MI 48906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 703-1110
Inhwan Do
AF112-061      Awarded:3/1/2012
Title:High Specific Energy Ultracapacitor with Hybrid Graphene Nanoplatelet Paper Electrodes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Ultracapacitors are attractive energy storage devices due to their high cycle life, extremely high charge/discharge rates, and very low degradation rates. Improving ultracapacitor specific energy to 30 W-hr/kg or more would provide important functional benefits enabling a wide variety of space-based and terrestrial systems. XG Sciences, Inc. (XGS), an industry leader in graphene product research and development with more than 10 years history through its partnership with Michigan State University, manufactures a new nanoparticle called xGnP® Graphene Nanoplatelets. This “platelet morphology” lends itself to many unique applications that can take advantage of graphene’s unique mechanical, electrical, thermal and barrier properties. xGnP® nanoplatelets are an ideal electrode material because they overcome the limitations of conventional electrodes delivering high surface area, high electrical conductivity, are more cost effective than other carbon nanomaterials, and are produced through a commercially-proven, environmentally friendly manufacturing process. XGS hybrid EC electrode compositions involving mixed morphologies of graphene and activated carbon have achieved 20 W-hr/kg. For this program, lightweight paper electrodes incorporating these hybrid xGnP® and activated carbon with carbon nanotubes and/or xGnP® serving as conductive “binder” are envisioned for ultracapacitors having the opportunity to deliver the 30+ W-hr/kg specific energy sought by the U.S. Air Force. BENEFIT: High energy density ultracapacitors enabled through use of novel paper electrodes constructed from hybrid xGnP(R)graphene platelets, activated carbon, using nanotube binders and stabilized for long life through optimized platelet oxygen functional groups will provide efficient, compact, reliable, long-life energy storage for space applications as well as terrestrial applications.

Astronix Research Corporation
P.O. Box 7336 44 Rudi Lane
Golden, CO 80403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 642-1405
Robert LeChevalier
AF112-062      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:High Performance Electron Beam ADC
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Astronix Research Corp. proposes to investigate a revolutionary “electron-beam” analog-to- digital converter (ADC) based on a micro-cathode ray digitizer concept using micron scale, high performance electron guns built with a novel MEMS process concept in silicon. Based on previous work under NRO DII funding we propose to demonstrate feasibility of 1.5 GSPS ADC with 16 bits dynamic ENOB, and dimensions under 5mm x 5mm x 20mm. A mature device could consume only 200mW of power. The Phase 1 objectives are to prove the feasibility by building on the NRO work for a 100GSPS/10bit ADC, and defining the mechanical and electrical parameters of a 16-bit architecture, proving the operation using electrodynamic simulations, and investigating processing requirements for a Phase 2 effort. The device provides performance that exceeds the physics-based limits of any current or forecast semiconductor technology by at least 10 times, and can be manufactured en masse in a multi-wafer assembly, using low cost “trailing-edge” manufacturing infrastructure readily available at most university MEMS fabs. The device possesses intrinsic radiation immunity greater than any traditional semiconductor device, and can operate outside the military temperature range of -55C to 125C, making it well suited for highly demanding terrestrial and orbital applications. BENEFIT: A high performance, small form-factor and low power ADC has wide application for radar, beamforming antennas and communications in airborne and space systems of greater spectral diversity and higher sensitivity. A 1.5GSPS / 16 bits ENOB ADC is over 10 times the performance of any existing semiconductor ADC and the same technology can be used to make devices up to 100GSPS / 10bits ENOB, as well as performance points in between. This kind of performance leap will dramatically alter the capabilities of virtually every military system. The MEMS process for making dense arrays of micro-particle guns in small, low-cost, mass produced devices is a fundamental breakthrough that has the potential to revolutionize fields as diverse as ultra-high speed data acquisition, RF communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, sonar, directed energy weapons and miniaturized mass spectrometry. The immediate impact will be greatest in radar, SIGINT, electronic warfare and communications, particularly highly arrayed digital beamforming antennas, where the devices enable higher performance ADCs, DACs, RF amplifiers and time delay elements with instantaneous bandwidth exceeding 100GHz. Amplifier arrays will offer higher transmit power and the capability of hundreds to thousands of independently steerable beams exhibiting high “depth-of-nulling” to achieve jam-resistance.

The Athena Group, Inc.
408 West University Avenue Suite 306
Gainesville, FL 32601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Fredrick J. Taylor
AF112-062      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Analog-to-Digital Converter for High Depth of Nulling SATCOM
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is charged with the daunting task of providing satellite communication (SATCOM) support over a wide range of applications. The AF112-062 call is designed to address the problem of providing analog-to-digital converters (ADC) suitable for use in SATCOM applications. The Athena Group, Inc. (Athena) responds to this challenge with Peregrine, an advanced ADC concept that is capable of operating at high speeds in space. Peregrine’s major differentiating feature is the innovative use of the residue number system (RNS), an area of Athena expertise that includes developing and marketing RNS-enabled products. A 2GSa/s with 16-bit Peregrine RNS-enabled ADC is proposed to operate within a collection of small independent channels. As such, Peregrine can enhance SATCOM performance, including jamming suppression. Athena’s Peregrine technology will be developed and evaluated in Phase I and prototyped and tested in Phase II. The outcome will be a new class of high performance, low power, radiation-tolerant ADC that meets or exceeds all Air Force SATCOM requirements. BENEFIT: Partnering relationships developed during Phase I will be formalized in Phase II, leading to a commercially viable ADC technology with broad military and civilian applications. The outcome of the SBIR study will be high-valued semiconductor intellectual property (IP) that will complement a family of products currently marketed by Athena.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
5777 Central Avenue, Suite 221
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 834-3475
Geoffrey Crowley
AF112-065      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:GPS Autonomous Micro-Monitor (GAMMA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force and other DoD components require accurate knowledge of the ionospheric environment to understand and predict its impacts on vital radio-based systems, including communications, navigation, and surveillance systems. ASTRA proposes the “GAMMA” GPS autonomous micro-monitor to meet these Air Force and DoD needs. In response to the STTR Topic AF112-065 we propose to investigate the development of next-generation, advanced light-weight, low-power, autonomous, GPS-based ionospheric monitors. These monitors will use innovative designs to exploit miniaturized 2-frequency GPS technology, GPS receiver software techniques, ionospheric measurement algorithms, and robust housing. These GPS-based ionospheric monitors will be lightweight, low-power, fully autonomous, and able to provide fully processed and highly accurate ionospheric TEC and scintillation parameters in near-real-time (at least 5-minute updates) in highly compressed, small data packets suitable for relay via low-data-rate satellite link. These new receivers will be suitable for host platforms such as oceanic buoys (moored or mobile), or remote solar- powered unmanned sites. They could also be used as disposable monitors deployed into theater locations. The new GAMMA receiver will build on ASTRA's recent successful Phase-II STTR contract for the development of the CASES dual frequency GPS space weather monitors. BENEFIT: These new receivers will provide high quality ionospheric data including TEC and scintillation parameters, but they will be suitable for host platforms such as oceanic buoys (moored or mobile), or remote solar-powered unmanned sites, thus making data potentially available from previously inaccessible locations. This will be of great benefit for the DoD in producing global maps of the ionosphere, since 70% of the earth is covered in water. It will also enable regional maps from hostile locations. There is commercial interest also in monitoring and specifying the ionosphere using GPS receivers, especially in scintillation- prone environments.

Data Fusion & Neural Networks, LLC
1643 Hemlock Wy
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 469-9828
Christopher Bowman
AF112-066      Awarded:11/16/2011
Title:Fusion of Space Weather Data with Satellite Telemetry
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To support emerging requirements for continuous and automated Space Situational Awareness (SSA), there must be an understanding of the root causes of anomalies, as this directly affects courses of action. To further SSA, one must accurately attribute anomalies to environment versus man-made with a high confidence level. DF&NN will extend its Bayesian Fusion Node (BFN) software to fuse over 100 combined years of Enterprise-Satellite-as-a- Sensor (E-SAS) abnormality detections of SOH and space weather data including protons, electrons, and x-ray measurements for GOES at GEO and DMSP at LEO, plus Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) data for GPS at MEO. The latter will be used to search for scintillation cloud attribution. Given our prior fusion tool development and unexpected abnormality detection success with these sources we are well-positioned to quickly demonstrate the prototype fusion of E-SAS abnormality detections and space weather tracks to assess if the weather is more correlated to satellite event tracks than man-made causes in all 3 space domains. DF&NN will perform an analysis of alternative approaches and assess the probability of detection, false alarm, characterization accuracy, timeliness, and effort required to adapt the approach to other satellites and space weather sources. BENEFIT: The competitive advantage of this DF&RM ANOM technology is in its affordability derived from the data-driven pattern learning software, ability to detect the unexpected abnormal signatures, and its extendibility/reusability derived from the DNN DF&RM technical architecture. The data-driven core of the DF&NN ANOM software enables it to be easily applied to detect, recognize, and track abnormalities in any commercial or government system. Operational prototypes of this capability are already operating on-line at to 2 satellite operations (SOPS) sites and these ANOM tools have been applied off-line to over 100 different large to enormous real data sets for over 190 combined years of data. DF&NN has a pending patent on the ANOM technology and plans to commercialize to many DoD and commercial systems in collaboration with our Commercialization Pilot Program (CPP) team member Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) (e.g., for SOPS, Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), and other LMC products). We also have a Strategic Alliance & Joint Development Agreement with OLEA Systems Frank Morese, Chief Executive Officer, for commercial applications to include buildings, sensor systems, and factories. So DF&NN has the government and commercial teammate agreements and patents in place now to commercialize this affordable and high performance data-driven ANOM technology.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
James Ong
AF112-066      Awarded:1/6/2012
Title:Anomaly Assessment for Space Weather Causes with Intelligent Visualization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The USAF requires accurate assessment regarding the effects of space weather upon Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. This information is important in order to distinguish between natural environmental effects upon spacecraft systems and man-made threats. This effort aims to address this problem by developing a tool that assists in determining the cause of an observed satellite anomaly. Specifically, we propose a Space Weather Anomaly ("SWAN") Explorer, which will correlate space weather and satellite telemetry events, allowing investigators to confidently discern whether or not there is a basis for attributing an anomaly to space weather. SWAN Explorer, in cooperation with space weather data products and expertise from Space Environment Technologies (SET), will bring together space weather indexes from diverse data sources and perform automated analysis to present the evidence for or against the contribution of space weather to a detected satellite anomaly. SWAN Explorer will provide a flexible framework for performing automated analysis from user-editable analysis models such as decision tree and naïve Bayes classifiers, and intelligently present the results of the automated analysis to the user to optimize the salience of the data presented to the user while mitigating information overload. BENEFIT: This proposed research effort will result in intelligent data visualization technology that will enhance the speed and accuracy with which satellite operators can review data and correlate satellite telemetry anomalies with space weather conditions. The Space and Missile Center Space Superiority Wing and Electronic Systems Center JSpOC Mission Systems program are two potential customers within the Air Force who have a need for this technology. However, a multitude of target users exist in the private sector. Fixed satellite services garnered revenues of $9.5 billion in 2009, with an estimated annual growth rate of 5.4% through 2019. These firms include SES, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Telesat, just to name the largest players among the hundreds of operators out there. Aside from the long-term benefits that could be derived from a greater understanding of the specific effects of space weather on satellite systems, satellite operators, manufacturers and insurance companies have immediate interest in determining the cause of satellite anomalies, so as to place the blame for unexplained anomalies where it is due. The in-orbit loss of the Telstar 401 satellite in 1993, for instance, resulted in $135 million in insurance disbursements and the in-orbit loss of Telstar 4 in 2003 cost insurers $141 million. Large sums are at stake when investigating the cause of a failure. A good indication of the frequency of total satellite losses is the insurance rate of 1.75-3% of the depreciated value of the satellite after it has survived post-separation. Considering that satellite demand is only expected to increase in the next decade, there is no question that there exists ample

Agiltron Corporation
15 Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Matthew Erdtmann
AF112-067      Awarded:11/28/2011
Title:Silicon-Based, Hardened, Extended Response Photodetector Array (SHERPA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Agiltron will develop the Silicon-Based, Hardened, Extended Response Photodetector Array (SHERPA) for Air Force space-based applications. The SHERPA sensor contains an array of fully-CMOS compatible silicon nanowire phototransistors whose unique nanoscale architecture enables extended spectral response spanning the UV, visible, and SWIR wavebands, colossal internal gain at biases on the order of 1 V, near-unity quantum efficiency, low dark current comparable to silicon PIN photodiodes, and greater radiation and laser hardness compared to standard CMOS or CCD imagers. The nanowire pixel array will be integrated with a radiation hardening by design (RHBD) CMOS readout integrated circuitry (ROIC) to realize a robust silicon-based sensor that can meet the functional requirements for Air Force space-based applications. BENEFIT: The proposed low-SWAP, robust SHERPA sensor is designed for rapid detection of visible and SWIR lasers for space-based surveillance and reconnaissance applications. It is also ideal for numerous terrestrial military applications requiring low-light level sensitivity, such as target acquisition and designation, reconnaissance, range safety, forward observation, and surveillance. Because the SHERPA sensor is silicon-based, it will have significantly lower cost than other SWIR technologies, particularly InGaAs and HgCdTe, making it attractive for diverse applications such as chemical and biological agent detection, environmental sensing, non-destructive testing, covert illumination, range gated imaging, free space communications, hyperspectral imaging, and wavefront sensing, tracking, and ranging for missile threat warning systems. The SHERPA sensor will be critical in supporting airborne and ground-based military operations in modern warfare arenas, either as standalone sensors or in combination with MWIR and LWIR sensors.

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
George Williams
AF112-067      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:CMOS Compatible SWIR-Response Silicon Detectors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: CMOS silicon imagers are the dominant focal plane arrays for visible light imaging. Over several decades, there have been investigations in broad near-infrared (NIR) spectral response using laser doped and structuring silicon (Si) detectors, including so-called "black" silicon imagers. But, to date the data shows that the fs-laser ablation and subsequent resolidification of the "black" silicon surface results in significant dark current and unstable spectral response. In Phase I, it will be shown that extrinsic chalcogen doping of the surface of silicon microtips can be achieved using PbS nanocrystal layers electronically bound to the bandgap of the silicon by inorganic ligands. Extended short- wavelength-infrared (SWIR) response, low dark current, high detectivity, high charge injection, and low image lag can be achieved using extrinsic PbS nanocrystal sensitization layers on CMOS compatible substrates. In Phase I a series of varying diameter photodetectors and small sized arrays will be fabricated and demonstrated. In Phase II, fully- function, large format SWIR imagers will be built using facile, CMOS compatible processes. BENEFIT: The most recent developments in target tracking, target identification, and high-speed free- space communication involve the shortwave-infrared (SWIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Lasers at SWIR wavelengths can be eye-safe at high power and propagate more efficiently through the atmosphere than visible lasers. These laser emissions are undetectable to most imaging technologies, including silicon, CCD cameras, night-vision tubes, and long-wave IR cameras. SWIR applications include seeing battlefield lasers, facial recognition, battle damage assessment, seeing-through-dust, pilot vision enhancement, laser-aided spotting scope, active passive rangefinders, celestial navigation.

Orbit Logic Incorporated
7500 Greenway Center Drive Suite 1070
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 982-6232
Alex Herz
AF112-069      Awarded:11/14/2011
Title:Autonomous On-Board Control of Satellites for Space Superiority
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Future Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions will require significant capabilities in onboard and ground-based automation and autonomy, including event detection, planning and scheduling (P&S), and task execution. Onboard P&S is particularly challenging, because of the many constraints involved. For this Phase I effort, Orbit Logic, Inc. and Emergent Space Technologies, Inc., will research and design an autonomy planning suite with plug-and-play capabilities that is capable of solving complex space mission planning problems for ORS missions. The suite’s planning techniques and algorithms, concept of operations, requirements, architecture, and interface specifications will be investigated and defined in Phase I. Phase I will culminate in developing a proof-of-concept demonstration of the planning suite in a relevant on-board simulation environment that paves the way for Phase 2 development, integration and test. BENEFIT: Reduction in satellite planning timelines. More responsive assets to warfighter needs. Beneficial to deep space missions.

Smart Information Flow Technologies, d/b/a SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 325-9314
David Musliner
AF112-069      Awarded:12/15/2011
Title:D-HAMMER: Distributed Highly Autonomous Mission Manager for Event Response
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SIFT proposes to design D-HAMMER — a real-time autonomous on-board constraint- and model-based planning system — to meet the challenges of fielding responsive, survivable, and cost-effective on-board autonomy for Air Force satellites. D-HAMMER is a three layer on-board autonomy architecture that combines a high-level mission planner and coordination system, a threat response planner, and a system executive to autonomously coordinate, plan, execute, and reactively replan the coordinated operations of teams of spacecraft. D-HAMMER will build on the flight heritage of the NASA JPL CASPER mission planner used on EO-1, combined with SIFT’s CIRCA threat response planner to reason proactively about hazards and adversaries. The resulting coordinated plans will be executed by a flight-ready executive such as the NASA Universal Executive or SRA’s Spacecraft Command Language Run-Time Executive. BENEFIT: D-HAMMER will dramatically improve the effectiveness and survivability of military satellites through the following specific improvements to the state of the art (1) automated on-orbit checkout, (2) coordinated multi-satellite autonomy, (3) rapid, distributed threat response, and (4) realistic path to flight experimentation.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Michael Tsay
AF112-071      Awarded:2/24/2012
Title:Modular Green Propulsion System with Autonomous Orbit Control
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop an advanced propulsion module with autonomous orbit control for ORS satellites. It will be fueled by low-toxicity liquid propellants and will provide as much as 329m/s delta-V to a 250kg spacecraft. Due to the stability and ease of handling of the green propellants, the proposed system can be safely stored on the shelf in a fully fueled state for extended period and rapidly integrated into the spacecraft with minimum effort. Busek is also proposing to partner with Microcosm, Inc. to incorporate the patented autonomous orbit control software into the control logic of the primary propulsion system. The software will also be able to command the attitude control system and thus achieving fully autonomous stationkeeping. This technology will have significant impact in reducing the operation cost of ORS satellites, which are typically stationed in low Earth orbits and require frequent orbit maintenance burns to compensate high atmospheric drag. BENEFIT: Market size for the green propulsion system is very large. In addition to the ORS office, all branches of the military have potential interests in such propulsion for tactical or in-space applications. The pre-fueled green propulsion module, indefinitely storable on the shelf prior to integration with the spacecraft, is crucial to ORS for speedy launch operations. Such a system will obviate the conventional spacecraft fueling by a team of people in hazmat suits at the launch site with preparation time of at least a week, countering the ORS effort for launch in hours as opposed weeks. The autonomous orbit control feature of this system will further enhance its marketability because it can drastically reduce the operational cost of satellite constellations situated in low Earth orbits. We plan to commercialize the specific green propulsion system as well as the key innovations within it: the material-compatible high pressure propellant tank, the green propellant thruster, the piezo microvalve and feed system, and the fully autonomous orbit control software.

Design_Net Engineering LLC
16080 Table Mountain Parkway Suite 500
Golden, CO 80403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 462-0096
Wayne Boncyk
AF112-071      Awarded:12/21/2011
Title:Modular, Scalable, Autonomous Energy Management for Next Generation Responsive Space
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Next generation highly autonomous space vehicles need certain key technologies in order to achieve their promised goals. Much time is spent in mission planning working out the details of daily activities of space vehicle so as to assure adequate power/energy margin. The more autonomous vehicle must be able to manage power in a proactive rather than reactive way. It is not sufficient to simply notify the C&DH system when the battery is in yellow limit, or shut down non-essential functions when energy reserves are low—a new generation PMAD must take over much of the work previously done on the ground by mission planners. This is similar to ground-based “smart grid” technology. Sources and loads are managed by predictive tools. Design_Net is developing such a system that will support on-orbit autonomous mission execution—a system that takes requests from the ground for high-level operations and translates that into a “mission plan.” The smart PMAD called “Autonomous Energy Management Subsystem or AEMS starts with a baseline but “learns” operations as the mission proceeds and is able to more highly optimize use of resources. The AEMS depends on a new generation set of modular source and storage which is also being developed. BENEFIT: Cost issues for Space Mission operations look for technology solutions that allow more control and autonomy on board. Likewise, tactical needs seek more direct input into Space Vehicle tasking—tasking at a much higher level such as “take a HS image of this Lat/Long ASAP.” More modular architectures and components, the ability to add rule based autonomy engines of Spacecraft and the fact the subsystems and components can now have more “smarts” built into them are enablers that allow us to move toward achievement of these larger goals. DNet’s Autonomous Energy Management System (AEMS) is one of the key enablers which will reduce the need for detailed mission planning and move much of that function on-board the space vehicle. Likewise development of the hardware technologies and architectures described in our proposal fill the need for “depot based” rapid configuration of a mission by allowing highly modular energy source and storage components. Our “smart battery” based on Quallion cell technology allows zero maintenance and rapid call up reducing dramatically the cost and maintenance required over traditional approaches.

PnP Innovations, Inc
2017 Yale SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 503-1563
Don Fronterhouse
AF112-071      Awarded:11/18/2011
Title:Innovative Modular Propulsion for Multi-Mission Space Vehicles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Early spacecraft were very expensive and took many years to painstakingly develop. The high cost and infrequency of space launches fostered a culture of exquisite performance at exquisite prices. With space access and usage becoming more prevalent, the modern metrics of development speed and cost and agility of performance outweigh exquisite performance. The “good enough” paradigm promoted by ORS allows risk management rather than risk avoidance to participate in the cost equation. The ability to add a SPA compatible, modular propulsion capability to exising spacecraft designs provides significant improvement in operational capability at moderate cost. By utilizing envionmentally safe fuels (as opposed to highly toxic hydrazine for example), the ability to pre-fuel satellites can save significant time during launch vehicle integration. Phase I will develop the initial mechanical and structural designs including spacecraft & propulsion module coupled loads analyses; a SPA compliant Propulsion Activity Agent; implementation of a SPA-S Propulsion Control ASIM; and a demo test bed to evaluate the resulting design. The result of Phase I will be a feasibility demonstration of a modular propulsion system useable for ORS Tier 2 and Tier 3 programs. BENEFIT: The use of propulsion on small platforms can be prohibitive because of overall cost and propellant handling restrictions. The combination of a modular approach coupled with higher energy density and green aspects of HPGP can address both of these issues making propulsion enabled small satellites more viable for a wider user and mission type base, e.g., DoD, NASA, commercial space (both domestic and international), university sponsored programs. Additionally, such a product type complements rideshare opportunities such as ESPA. For example, ESPA-class satellites will be able to take advantage of lower cost access to space, but can have the ability to modify their orbits since they are enabled with meaningful propulsion capability. We feel that a much broader market exists for this type of modular propulsion than just the ORS tactical satellite domain, so we expect to provide systems for other DoD agencies, NASA, and a growing number of commercial customers. The combination of modularity, non-toxic high performance green fuel, SPA compatibility, and demonstrated space hardware will be a compelling argument for future systems.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 481-5397
Michael Clark
AF112-072      Awarded:1/23/2012
Title:Reconfigurable Digital Transceiver (RDT) for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: IAI proposes the design of a Reconfigurable Digital Transceiver (RDT), to achieve the goals of this solicitation. The proposed design will be prototyped in the earlier phases on a custom Multi-Channel Digital Synthesizer and Processor (MCDSP) platform that has been designed and field-tested by IAI for digital transceiver applications. Our innovation for this Phase-I is focused on integrating fixed crystal oscillator based transceivers with wideband digital frequency synthesis capability to cover Space-to-Ground Link Subsystem (SGLS) and the Unified-S band. We list Our approach proposes the use of a single 2.4 GHz oscillator and augmenting wideband direct digital synthesizers to cover the entire SGLS/ Unified S-band spectrum. The entire RDT design is proposed with space grade components, including conservative design strategies which increase the probability of future space qualification. BENEFIT: Military applications of this technology include spacecraft transceivers, UAS transceivers, and tactical radios for ground soldiers and weapon systems. The most promising commercial applications of the proposed programmable frequency transceiver besides spacecraft transceivers are: • Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) radio for astronauts and rovers • Arbitrary wideband waveform synthesizers and processors • Reconfigurable Cognitive radio with multi-mode capabilities • Multi-protocol programmable radios

Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Nestor Voronka
AF112-072      Awarded:11/16/2011
Title:Programmable Picosat Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of the Space Test Program operated by the US Air Force is to enable the rapid development of emerging space technologies by providing economical flight opportunities to increase a technology’s TRL. In particular, the CubeSat form factor has emerged as an economical platform for testing technolo-gies that can be made to fit in the 10x10-30 cm form factor. Unfortunately, the lack of an SGLS trans-ceiver sized for these pico-satellite platforms has hampered the use of the flight proven ground stations in the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). These rapidly developed and launched test missions cannot rely on having fixed frequency assignments within the unified S-band, but must still maintain compatibility with the signaling requirements of the AFSCN. Utilizing its experience building and flying CubeSats, TUI proposes to leverage its existing CubeSat software- defined radio platform to build a pro-grammable SGLS transceiver with lower size, weight and power (SWaP) than what is currently available. After constructing and demonstrating a brassboard prototype in the Phase I effort, we will design and build a functionally complete transceiver in the Phase II effort suitable for flight qualification. BENEFIT: This SBIR effort will produce a compact SGLS/USB transceiver in a 0.25U CubeSat form factor that will provide high-speed data downlink capabilities for CubeSat and other pico- satellite missions. This transceiver will increase the downlink capabilities of CubeSat missions while reducing total mission cost.

Ascent Solar Technologies
8120 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-5135
Lawrence Woods
AF112-073      Awarded:12/22/2011
Title:Enabling High Operational Efficiencies with Mid-Bandgap AgCIGS on Modified High-Temperature Capable, Lightweight and Flexible PBO Substrates
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This phase I project will develop and merge the different technologies to reduce the defect- density of mid-bandgap (1.4 eV) chalcopyrite based solar absorbers to enable > 15% efficient modules (at standard test conditions) on lightweight and flexible polymer substrates. As an added benefit, the mid-bandgap device will improve the performance of CIGS-based devices for space applications by enable 30% higher performance at nominal operational temperatures due to lower temperature coefficients and reduced joule-heating losses. The defect-density reducing technologies that will be developed are listed as follows: 1) Higher- temperature capable PBO polymer substrates enabling higher processing temperatures (> 600ºC), 2) Higher conductivity and stress reducing back contact structures enabling lower stress solar absorbers and 3) Ag alloying in mid-bandgap CIGS solar absorbers. Each of these approaches have been demonstrated to reduce defects and will be merged for the first time under this proposed project while leveraging earlier development with the individual components. BENEFIT: We have a natural evolution of our product development through R&D, Roll-to-roll Prototype, 1.5MW Production, 25MW production, and beyond. Commercialization of the mid-bandgap devices will be marked by demonstration on the 1.5MW facility, but materials for evaluation will be available much sooner, namely when demonstrated on the prototype line. Mid- bandgap modules with High-T substrates will likely represent the second or third generation of product from AST, the first being baseline single-junction CIGS. Our customers for this product will be defense agencies/contractors (space and satellite power, near space reconnaissance, battle field power solutions packs, solar powered tents, portable power), power electronics OEMs, building material solution providers, and PV system integrators for both the commercial and residential building product markets. Our lightweight, high specific power product can be incorporated into fabric, structural composites, and polymeric circuitry to present advantages over ultra-high efficiency expensive multijunction PV. We will be able to demonstrate this technology on the 1.5MW line and gain experience with the higher- performance products. Phase II work of this project will feed directly into pre-production demonstration and process validation. Given a nominal one to two-year gestation of the product, we can expect a device achieving true commercialization sometime after 2012.

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
23 Mauchly #109
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
Vladimir Markov
AF112-074      Awarded:11/21/2011
Title:Target Characterization using McMODAF (Markov-chain Augmented Multiple-Modality Data Fusion) Technique
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose a technique which employs a variety of sensors combing data to form a comprehensive picture of the situation of interest. The goal behind this technology is to increase the effectiveness of military objectives by giving a more complete, integrated view of situations to enable a quicker response while eliminating errors caused by individual sensor failures. In Phase I of this program AS&T will assess a data fusion paradigm that enables decision making based on the fusion of heterogeneous data. This will be done by utilizing sensors with differing modalities, some typical for imaging (visible, MWIR, LWIR) and some associated with non-imaging detectors. The collected data will then be used to demonstrate the optimal methods of identification, discrimination and tracking of the target necessary to determine various aspects of its state and features for augmented space surveillance. The focus of the approach to be developed in Phase I is to exploit the high data rates of non- imaging sensors to augment the overall system performance. During Phase II, we will extend the proposed method, design and build a breadboard for verifying and optimizing the predicted system performance, demonstrate and refine laboratory operation, and estimate the working envelope. BENEFIT: The US military relies upon a diverse array of sensing resources to achieve enhanced space situation awareness. As a result, given the vast resources providing a war-fighter with information, the military incorporates stochastic algorithms into sensor fusion systems to process the sensors’ information. Military applications include, but are not limited to remote sensing, active tracking of fast-moving targets including space objects (satellites, space debris), and cross-communication systems. Commercial sectors that are effectually use the multi-parametric sensor fusion technology include robotics, geospatial information systems, business intelligence, and a broad variety of medical applications, including diagnostics, recovery prognosis and optimal recovery estimates, etc.

Tau Technologies LLC
PO Box 9334
Albuquerque, NM 87119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 244-1222
Robert Ritter
AF112-074      Awarded:11/18/2011
Title:Hybrid Multi-signature Data Fusion for Remote Object Identification and Characterization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Phase 1 effort covers the design and testing of a Data Fusion Processor / Controller, which resides on-board a satellite and interfaces directly with the available sensor package. The goal of this Phase 1 is to prove the feasibility of the concept and evaluate algorithm performance in a realistic scenario. We will build a digital simulation of the concept to evaluate a broad performance space, select the most promising approach, and demonstrate that approach inside a Software Test System environment. BENEFIT: Upon successful completion of this SBIR the industry will have a novel and robust approach for deriving critical information from a diverse array of sensors in real time. This is applicable to a multitude of platforms, including space-based sensing and remote object identification.

Deployable Space Systems
75 Robin Hill Road, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 722-8090
Brian Spence
AF112-075      Awarded:11/30/2011
Title:100X-500X Concentrator Photovoltaic Space Solar Array System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS), in partnership with Entech Solar (ENTECH) and Emcore Photovoltaics (EMCORE), will focus this effort on the development of a new innovative 100X-500X concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) solar array technology (termed CPV- Array). The proposed CPV-Array technology embodiment is a new lightweight high- performance point-focus refractive Fresnel lens concentrator space solar array that leverages from both ENTECH’s and EMCORE’s successful terrestrial CPV products, ENTECH’s space-flight heritage derived from the successful NASA NMP DS1 and Air Force PASP+ technology demonstration experiments/missions, and DSS’s innovative deployable solar array structural platform technologies. The proposed CPV-Array technology promises to provide >40% efficiency under AM0 concentration, 100X to 500X concentration ratio capability, accommodate +/- 2 degrees off-pointing with less than 10% power loss, scalability to high power (100kW+ array size), tolerance to high radiation and natural/manmade environmental events, passively controlled low-operating temperature, affordability (up to >50% projected cost savings at the array level), lightweight (projected >300 W/kg BOL), high voltage operability (100V to 300V+), compact stowage volume, and operability in a 5-yr LEO or 15-yr GEO environment. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is applicable to all future DoD, NASA and commercial missions (including communications and earth observation) as a direct replacement for existing technologies. The proposed technology promises to provide the DoD with a near-term and low-risk solar array system for future applications and will provide revolutionary performance beyond current state-of-the-art in terms of high operating efficiency, better cost-effective utilization of expensive ultra-high efficiency photovoltaic devices, higher specific power / lightweight, affordability, broad modularity and scalability, high voltage operability, high deployed stiffness/strength, compact stowage volume, simplicity and high reliability, and operability in a 5-year LEO or 15-year GEO mission environment. The successfully developed technology will provide the end-user with mission-enabling benefits such as increased payload mass/volume capability, ultra-high power capability, lower mission/spacecraft costs, and overall improved/enhanced mission capability.

Light Prescriptions Innovators, LLC
2400 Lincoln Ave
Altadena, CA 91001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 296-6490
Waqidi Falicoff
AF112-075      Awarded:11/14/2011
Title:Off-axis Kohler-XR Solar Concentrator Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) is developing a next generation “Off-axis Kohler-XR Solar Concentrator Array” to satisfy the need for a satellite concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system with: very large acceptance angle, very efficient electrical generation, light weight, compact stowed configuration, and long life. LPI is a world wide recognized leader in the development of high performance CPV solutions and has developed the highest recorded proof-of-manufacturing systems. The LPI “Off-axis Kohler-XR Solar Concentrator Array” design will have better than ±2 degrees acceptance angle, at up to 500X concentration. With its experience in advanced high-reflection coatings and anti-reflection materials, and with the latest in multi-junction cells, the design can achieve up to 40% DC efficiency and 300 watts per kilogram. The satellite design has a very small stowed configuration and can be easily deployed into a full 100kW system. System life is planned for 5 years in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and 15 years Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) or Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). BENEFIT: The key benefits of the “Off-axis Kohler-XR Solar Concentrator Array” will be a reasonably priced, reliable, high efficiency, concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system for use on DOD, NASA, and commercial spacecraft.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Richard J. Adams
AF112-076      Awarded:11/14/2011
Title:Fusion of Information for Response to Space Threats (FIRST)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In the proposed Fusion of Information for Response to Space Threats (FIRST) program, Barron Associates will develop an autonomous software agent for the on-board fusion of anti- satellite (ASAT) threat information. FIRST enables autonomous ASAT assessment and response by rapidly providing threat state information, classification, and confidence measures to an on-board planner/executive. Through dramatically reduced threat response timelines, FIRST will maximize a spacecraft’s opportunity to autonomously execute defensive courses of action. At the core of the fusion system is an advanced generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) based Bayesian inference engine that integrates telemetry, sensor, and environmental data to produce statically rigorous confidence measures. The proposed solution is broadly applicable to a range of potential ASAT threats, including direct ascent missile attack, ground-based laser, radio-frequency jamming, and proximity operations. The proposed Phase I program includes production of a prototype gPC-Bayesian information fusion agent for a customer-approved use case, integration of the software agent into a six degree-of-freedom threat simulation, and quantification of performance through receiver operating characteristic curves that demonstrate the sensitivity (event detection versus false positive rate) of the resulting system. Phase I will establish a roadmap subsequent Phase II demonstrations that integrate both on-orbit and ground-based experimental components with a high fidelity scenario-based simulation. BENEFIT: Barron Associates will pursue commercialization of the proposed technology through a three-pronged approach. First, the effort will open consulting services and contract R&D opportunities for providing defense and commercial satellite manufacturers with enhanced situational awareness and defensive capabilities. Second, by streamlining integration between the fusion agent and on-board planner/executive software, the program will make our existing Bayesian inference tools accessible to a broader customer base and a wider range of applications. Finally, we will pursue direct opportunities to commercialize advanced threat information fusion technologies in spin-off ventures that leverage the algorithms developed in the proposed program.

Parietal Systems, Inc.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
John Fox
AF112-076      Awarded:12/1/2011
Title:Autonomous Satellite Threat Processing and Response
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposal considers a model based approach to detecting anomalous events and/or emerging threats to a satellite. The basis of the approach is the development of non- parametric Bayesian techniques for learning a model of satellite health. This model can then be used as the basis for detecting when the satellite enters anomalous states corresponding, for instance, to a component failure, the impact of space weather, or a deliberate act to intentionally degrade the satellites ability to perform its mission. BENEFIT: The specific techniques employed are potentially applicable to a broad range of time series analysis problems including more general forms of failure detection, stock market analysis, etc.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 927-4774
Thomas Murdock
AF112-077      Awarded:11/10/2011
Title:Advanced Algorithms for Next Generation Wide Field-of-View (WFOV) EO/IR Staring Sensor Exploitation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Frontier Technology Inc, (FTI) proposes to improve advanced algorithms in hyper-temporal imaging (HTI) to provide new capabilities in target discrimination in challenging environmental conditions. Specifically, we propose to develop a computationally efficient algorithm for target detection and discrimination under optically obscured geometries and in closely spaced formations (within clouds or under clear sky). HTI opens new dimensions in orbital or aerial overhead persistent infrared surveillance, especially in these two challenging regimes. We are proposing to take advantage of advances in focal plane technology that allows sections of the array to operate at very fast frame rates by developing novel algorithms and approaches to enable detection of target launches beneath optically thick cloud layers and to discriminate and track multiple closely-spaced objects on a subpixel basis. These novel algorithms are based on our previous work in Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding and Fourier Transforms. Using these techniques, parts of the focal plane upon which are projected the areas of interest that are obscured by clouds could be operated at very high frame rates, while the remainder of the array could continue in its current, lower frame rate, operating mode. BENEFIT: The research objectives of this Phase I SBIR are in line with FTI’s goals to continue adding new capability to our commercial I-SAT® software, invest in our GPU analytical code base, and most importantly, extend our development into algorithms and tools that support the next generation of EO-IR sensors and missions. Hyperspectral and hypertemporal analysis and visualization capabilities are a growth focus for FTI. There is wide demand in the government sector for more rapid and computationally efficient exploitation of WFOV imagery to provide operationally-responsive information to the warfighter. The market for this technology is also ongoing: in order to maintain a constellation of persistent surveillance coverage, new WFOV sensors will need to be continually developed and flown.

SciTec, Inc.
100 Wall Street
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-3892
Steven Maria
AF112-077      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Advanced Algorithms for Next Generation Wide Field-of-View (WFOV) EO/IR Staring Sensor Exploitation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The mission of the U.S. Air Force Infrared Space Systems Directorate is to develop, acquire, and sustain space-based infrared surveillance, tracking and targeting capabilities for missile early warning, missile defense, battlespace awareness and technical intelligence. To support this mission, enhanced sensors are being developed for the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) for surveillance applications. The increased numbers of detector elements and improved sensitivity of these next-generation next-generation, wide-field-of- view (WFOV) electro-optic (EO) and infrared (IR) sensors motivates the need for advanced algorithms that can efficiently provide real-time exploitation of large volumes of data using limited processing and bandwidth resources. SciTec has been a leader in the research and development of algorithms to exploit Overhead Persistent Infrared (OPIR) data for enhanced extraction, tracking, and exploitation of low-observable target signatures in a timely manner to provide information that is critical for resolving ambiguities, developing tactical parameters, discriminating events and supporting battlespace awareness and missile defense objectives. SciTec has leveraged these algorithm development experiences to identify an innovative end-to-end processing suite for the rapid detection, extraction, and tracking of dim closely-spaced targets in data from WFOV sensors viewing cluttered scenes. BENEFIT: Our proposed product would satisfy several critical objectives for demonstrating feasibility of innovative algorithmic approaches for providing significant improvements in low-observable, multiple, closely-spaced target detection and state vector estimation using WFOV EO/IR staring sensor data. First, our work builds upon an existing clutter suppression technique that has been developed and tested for autonomous processing of R&D data sources that share many of the attributes of these new systems but extends it for use with higher bandwidth data. Second, our work matures and integrates additional processing techniques to address some of the most challenging low observable problems and address closely space object resolution issues. Finally our work combines significant existing capability with these new developments into an environment for rapid tuning against new data sources.

Digital Optics Technologies, Inc.
1645 Hicks Road, Suite R
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 358-2592
Shih Tseng
AF112-078      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Carbon Nanotube based Solutions for the Next Generation Logic Circuits
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Designing efficient logic circuits involves improvement and optimization of transistors and interconnects. However, as technology follows Moore’s law down to nanometer dimensions, the performance gap between the transistors and interconnects is continuously widening. As conventional CMOS technology approaches its fundamental physical and material limits, interconnects have become the primary bottleneck. An additional dimension to these already challenging issues is the expectation to make the nanoscale logic circuits radiation hardened for defense and space applications. Radical alternatives like carbon nanotube (CNT) based interconnects and field-effect-transistors (CNTFET) are currently being investigated for future logic design. To study the feasibility of a complete CNT based logic platform we plan to investigate current conduction modes, electrical properties and parasitic elements of CNT interconnects and CNTFETs. The objectives of Phase-I are: (i) to explore new structures of mixed CNT bundles for on-chip communication, and (ii) to develop techniques to exploit the negative capacitance (NC) effect to design high-performance, ultra-low-power CNT based logic circuits. Prototype development and radiation hardening would be addressed in Phase-II. The proposed work is a collaboration between DOT, UIC and a couple of CNT companies. Dr. Masud Chowdhury from UIC, who recently proposed a new structure of mixed-CNT bundle interconnect and introduced the concept of using NC effect in CNT based logic circuits, will coordinate the project. BENEFIT: Virtually all military satellite programs could benefit from the availability of high-density, radiation-hardened logic that would result from this project. Commercial applications high- density logic resulting from carbon nano-tube would be ubiquitous, including computer memories, MP3 music players, and cell phones.

Space Micro Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
David R. Czajkowski
AF112-079      Awarded:11/28/2011
Title:High-Capacity Satellite Micro Common Data Link (uCDL)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space Micro has developed unique and critically important technologies that solve all of these issues simultaneously, when combined with other industry standard satellite design practices can provide a reprogrammable, radiation hardened, satellite grade Common Data Link (CDL) transponder. This platform, which we call the μCDL-SDR (CDL-software defined radio transponder) can be used as a multi-band, multi-waveform transponder that is capable of receiving CDL communications waveforms from multiple UAVs (or ground users) simultaneously. The μCDL-SDR will be capable of supporting 2 Gbps total communication link data rate capacity at Ka-band frequencies using a BPSK, OQPSK and 8PSK spread spectrum waveforms. Additionally, the μCDL-SDR will be capable of supporting S-, X- and Ka-band operating frequencies with multiple antenna ports for multiple UAV communication links. BENEFIT: A family of DOD and commercial products will evolve from this SBIR technology: Reconfigurable digital and analog modules combined to produce lightweight software defined radios spanning HF through S band and beyond. DOD applications which are growing due to recent conflicts and increased stress in RF data links, is the electronic warfare (EW) marketplace and also C4ISR applications focused primarily on DOD software defined radios (e.g. JTRS, AMF, etc), Homeland Defense initiatives. The very high linearity and “combing” of undesired interference energy provides the needed enhancements to permit such systems to operate in more hostile environments. Pursuit into portable and power conscious applications will be considered an adjacent marketplace – includes the Cluster 5 and Manpack versions of JTRS. Commercially, the wireless infrastructure market is an additional excellent opportunity – not limited to any one of the following and serving multiple bands (WCDMA, GSM/EDGE, CDMA2000, WiMax, WiFi, etc). The technologies incorporated in this proposal offer advantages that are immediately transferable – not network or modulation type dependent. Our business strategy is to make all of these products available as high reliability components, sold against a commercial datasheet. Interest in any commercial or military marketplace will then be addressed and fine tuned for cost or performance requirements.

Deployable Space Systems
75 Robin Hill Road, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 722-8990
Brian Spence
AF112-081      Awarded:12/15/2011
Title:High Survivability Adhesive-less Photovoltaic Panel Assembly for Space Solar Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS), in partnership with Emcore Photovoltaics (EMCORE) and JDS Uniphase Corporation (JDSU) proposes the development of an adhesive-less photovoltaic panel assembly, termed “HSP” for High Survivability Panel. Space solar array adhesives have been known to significantly outgass and become a major source of contamination, and after typical space environmental exposure will tend to have reduced optical transmission, degraded electrical dielectric and conductivity performance, and degraded elastic modulus and strength properties. Adhesives are the biggest contributor for thermally induced CTE mismatched mechanical strains. To mitigate these aforementioned concerns and to enable survivability under extreme high temperature threat conditions our teams’ proposed HSP technology has been specifically developed to utilize NO adhesives. The proposed adhesive-less HSP technology offers superior mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical, and outgassing performance/properties, and promises to provide superior environmental stability with little degradation throughout a typical mission life or after exposure to rapid heating and/or long-term high temperature. The HSP panel integrates onto a flexible blanket, compactly stows in z-folded or rolled configurations, and accommodates standard and advanced multijunction-PV photovoltaics. The adhesive-less construction reduces blanket assembly mass and dramatically increases temperature survivability to potentially 500C-600C sustainable extremes. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is applicable to all future DoD, NASA and commercial missions (including communications and earth observation) as a direct replacement for existing technologies. The proposed technology potentially provides the DoD with a near-term and low-risk solar array panel assembly that could enable ultra-high survivability missions where survivability from exposure to natural or man-made events such as rapid heating and/or long- term high temperature is required. The proposed adhesive-less HSP technology promises to offer superior mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical, and outgassing performance/properties, and promises to provide superior environmental stability with little degradation throughout a typical mission life, and overall improved/enhanced mission capability for certain applications.

AMERGINT Technologies, LLC
1040 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 522-2812
Jeff Papenfuss
AF112-082      Awarded:12/13/2011
Title:Ephemeris Update Receiver for Space Vehicle Tracking
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) requires an advanced Ephemeris Update Receiver (EUR) that can be used with either parabolic dish antennas or geodesic dome phased array antennas. The ideal EUR must track minimum signal levels of -195 dBm for both narrow and wideband signals. Optimizing Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and carrier tracking are critical to success for any new EUR. AMERGINT Technologies has recent relevant experience replacing the legacy Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) Tracking Receiver. This work included system-level characterization of the existing tracking algorithms. AMERGINT also has significant expertise in software-defined signal processing algorithms and satellite communications links. Our proposed Phase I activities develop conceptual designs for an advanced EUR. The designs provide a suite of candidate algorithms that track residual and suppressed carrier signals in degraded signal environments. The candidate algorithms are evaluated for both parabolic and phased array apertures in both an ideal environment and in the full RTS system environment. Analyzing, modeling and simulation is performed to characterize two or more of the candidate designs. The simulation involves residual and suppressed carrier signals, varying SNR and Es/No, and related antenna pointing dynamics BENEFIT: Both DoD and commercial satellite systems can benefit from the ability to precisely track satellites in non-ideal conditions. Tracking degraded signals is particularly valuable for resolving satellite anomalies. It may mean the difference between loss and recovery of the space vehicle.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
5777 Central Avenue, Suite 221
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 834-3475
Geoffrey Crowley
AF112-083      Awarded:11/14/2011
Title:E-field Instrument for CubeSats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force and other DoD components require accurate knowledge of the ionospheric environment to understand and predict its impacts on vital radio-based systems, including communications, navigation, and surveillance systems. In response to the STTR Topic AF112-083 we propose to develop a conceptual design for a miniature, low-cost, lightweight, high sensitivity electric field instrument using the double probe technique to provide in-situ measurements of ionospheric electric fields. Our focus will be on developing a new electric field sensor that meets or exceeds the performance of SSIES, yet has significantly smaller mass and power requirements such that it can fly on CubeSats or nano-satellites. The new design will also be Space Plug-and-Play Avionics (SPA) compatible. The name of the new instrument is DIME (Double-probe Instrumentation for Measuring E-fields). DIME will draw heavily from the lessons learned in developing the electric field instrument for the DICE mission. It also benefits from ASTRA’s experience with Space Plug-n-Play Avionics (SPA). BENEFIT: The DIME (Double-probe Instrumentation for Measuring E-fields) sensor is a new electric field sensor that meets or exceeds the performance of SSIES, yet has significantly smaller mass and power requirements such that it can fly on CubeSats or nano-satellites. The new design will also be Space Plug-and-Play Avionics (SPA) compatible, so it can contribute to the efforts that are underway to develop complete PnP satellite systems built on a SPA backbone using SPA components. It is suitable for mass-production, and is expected to populate the fleets of CubeSats that are expected to fly in the near-future. Small size and low operating power enable the DIME sensor to fly on any spacecraft from the smallest (CubeSat) to the largest.

Advanced Photon Sciences, LLC
PO Box 1567
Williston, VT 05495
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 578-5189
Brent Boerger
AF112-087      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Radiation-hardened, Non-volatile Memory for Aerospace and Defense Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A need exists for a reliable, low cost radiation-hardened, non-volatile (NV) memory in aerospace and defense applications and in reliable, long-life, high-speed NV memory for terrestrial and commercial applications. Present offerings can accomplish the objective, but only at the expense of performance, power, size, and weight. Recent refocus on magnetic memory technologies, stemming from core memory, one of the first successful space-born memories, have shown promise in the possibility of overcoming some of these hurdles, but the devices themselves have been difficult to manufacture, have more active devices per bit, and overall stability has yet to be determined. MxRAM is proposed to solution the needs of the Air Force through the use of a true ferro- magnetic solid state memory device. The device is designed as a true NV Random Access Memory (RAM), with bit stability which is impervious to radiation disruptions, unlimited read / write cycles, a non destructive read cycle, and a number of devices per bit which is able to keep pace with Moore's Law. BENEFIT: The plan for commercialization of this technology is to target low volume critical markets such as life safety, instant on systems, aircraft, and ruggedized platforms. Eventual markets include RAM devices in computers, Portable devices and eventual replacement of traditional hard drive technologies once the cost per gigabit proves to be competitive.

Privatran
1250 Capital of Texas Highway South Building 3, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 431-8460
Burt Fowler
AF112-087      Awarded:11/18/2011
Title:Low-Cost Radiation-Hard Nonvolatile Random-Access Memory
Abstract:ABSTRACT: PrivaTran will measure the radiation tolerance of new memristive materials and will design, model and simulate advanced memristor-based architectures for nonvolatile random access memory (RAM). The requirements for proper memory element isolation, programming voltage drive and current sense circuitry will be determined by circuit analysis. Memristor circuit models will be developed and used to trade different memristor types and optimize performance to the technical program objectives. Viable circuit topologies will be identified that enable high-density data storage solutions for aerospace and defense applications. Phase II prototype fabrication and commercialization work plans will be developed including a manufacturability analysis addressing materials compatibility and integration methods for insertion into current CMOS and BJT platforms as well as scaling the technology to the 10nm technology node and beyond. BENEFIT: The benefits of the proposed memristor architecture and materials include low-power nonvolatile memory operation, inherent radiation tolerance, good data retention over large temperature extremes, compatibility with three-dimensional (3D) memory architecture, fast switching speeds, large ON/OFF dynamic range, vacuum compatibility, highly-localized switching, good immunity to EMI, and unipolar switching, thus enabling a low-cost, high- density, memristor-based RAM that can be directly inserted into current and future Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) semiconductor manufacturing platforms to provide a solution for aerospace and defense systems with the combined performance of conventional hard disk, RAM and FLASH memory technology.

MMA Design LLC
PO Box 7804
Loveland, CO 80537
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 258-7365
Thomas Harvey
AF112-089      Awarded:11/14/2011
Title:Large Deployable Telescope Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Air Force space missions with optical payloads are limited in their reflective aperture by the diameter of the launch vehicle fairing. EELV class vehicles are very expensive and even then their apertures are limited to less than 5 m. If the smaller launch vehicles like the Minotaur I and IV or Falcon 1e are considered the aperture size is even more limited to less than 2.3m. Future operationally responsive space missions based on imaging platforms need high performance in a smaller spacecraft and launch vehicle to lower system cost. MMA Design proposes to advance the state of the art in deployable optical payloads for a Minotaur class launch vehicle. The proposed effort is based on research that MMA Design has completed previously for a 12m deployable optical payload (forming a Cassegrain telescope) for the Air Force and adapting it to a Minotaur envelope. Small spacecraft capable of being launched on a Minotaur offer significant cost savings. Significant efforts have been completed in the past to deploy extremely large apertures from the biggest launch vehicles in the arsenal. Where a smaller vehicle is desired for responsive missions, there is high value in leveraging past efforts in developing smaller high performance systems. BENEFIT: Potential benefits and impacts to the Air Force mission by developing the proposed system include: 1. Lowering of mission costs for small satellites by allowing the use of Minotaur launch vehicles. 2. Enhance the ISR capabilities of small satellites. 3. Enable rapid deployment of surveillance assets through small spacecraft with plug and play capabilities, enhancing operationally responsive missions

Deployable Space Systems
75 Robin Hill Road, Building B2
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 722-8090
Brian Spence
AF112-091      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Simple Low-Cost High-Performance Unrollable Panel Structure Solar Array for SmallSats
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on coupling standard/advanced space-qualified high-efficiency multi-junction photovoltaics (PV) onto a simple innovative ultra-lightweight compactly-stowable elastically self-deployable panel/structure solar array system. The proposed technology, named Aladdin, will enable emerging missions and increase SmallSat operational capability. The Aladdin technology is ultra-simple and has been specifically designed to inherently provide lower risk, cost, mass, and stowage volume, allowing for dramatically increased operational capability for SmallSats. Aladdin repeatedly and elastically rolls-up in the stowed configuration occupying an ultra-compact cylindrical launch package, and then elastically deploys from its own strain/spring energy to an integrated extremely-stiff planar solar array structure. Aladdin employs high modularity and design simplicity allowing for ultra-affordability and reliability from 30W to 300W+ array/wing powers. Aladdin promises to provide revolutionary performance beyond current state-of-the-practice in terms of high specific power / lightweight (exceeding the 200 W/kg BOL AFRL goal), affordability (>30%-50% projected total cost savings depending on PV), broad modular scalability (30W to 300W+ array/wing sizes), high deployed stiffness (>1Hz deployed first mode frequency for largest wing/size), high deployed strength capability, compact stowage volume (>20-36 kW/m3 BOL), simplicity and high reliability, and operability in a 5-yr LEO or 15-yr GEO environment. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is applicable to all future DoD, NASA and commercial (including communications and earth observation) SmallSat missions as a direct replacement for existing technologies. The proposed technology promises to provide the DoD with a near- term and low-risk solar array system for SmallSat applications and will provide revolutionary performance beyond current state-of-the-practice in terms of high specific power / lightweight, affordability, broad/modular scalability, high deployed stiffness, high deployed strength, compact stowage volume, simplicity and high reliability, and operability in a 5-year LEO or 15-year GEO mission environment. The successfully developed technology will provide the end-user with mission-enabling benefits such as increased payload mass/volume capability, lower mission/spacecraft costs, and overall improved/enhanced SmallSat mission capability.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, INC.
5285 SHAWNEE ROAD SUITE 400
ALEXANDRIA, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 638-1043
Douglas Hine
AF112-092      Awarded:1/19/2012
Title:Fusion of Multiple Space Weather Data for Situational Assessment
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As satellite technology has become increasingly pervasive in both our military warfighting capability and civilian society, the ability to determine and forecast space environmental impacts on these satellites is critical. AFRL, NOAA and NASA have been nowcasting and forecasting space weather events such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), Solar Flares, and Geomagnetic Storms. These space weather events can cause serious operational problems with satellites. Atmospheric drag effects on low flying satellites, ionosphere scintillation, communications upsets, and spacecraft surface charging are a just a few documented interferences due to solar storm disruptions. MTSI will select a representative satellite system, such as GPS, and characterize different satellite anomalies due to space weather impacts. Multiple space weather data sources will be fused with satellite orbital state data and satellite subsystem performance to highlight weather impacts on satellite mission performance. This multi-sensor fusion approach will incorporate a fusion technique to correlate satellite anomalies with the space environment. Scalability will be demonstrated by incorporating a Solar Prediction Model as a new data stream. Finally, MTSI will provide an initial concept demonstration and show the potential interoperability with JMS infrastructure, including alerting and visualization services. BENEFIT: With over 950 active satellites in orbit around the earth, satellite operators are very interested in the effects that space weather has on their spacecraft. Almost half of that number belong to the United States; with close to a 50/50 mix between civil/commercial and government/military satellites. The techniques developed under this proposal will show the linkage between space environment effects and impacts to subsystems on the spacecraft.

Minnesota Wire & Cable Co.
1835 Energy Park Drive
Saint Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 659-6763
Tom Kukowski
AF112-093      Awarded:2/10/2012
Title:Robust, Lightweight Wiring for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The military have been challenged to find ways of effectively shielding sensitive electronic equipment from electromagnetic interference (EMI) without adding a lot of weight to satellites (the more massive they are, the more fuel they need to achieve orbit). Copper wiring comprises one-third of the weight of a 15-ton satellite. Half of this wire weight is typically in the EMI shielding. However, that weight reductions must not come at the expense of EMI shielding effectiveness; wiring and connectors are particularly vulnerable to electromagnetic interference. As an alternative, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), when applied as thin-film composites, offer effective EMI shielding--they are lightweight, highly conductive, flexible and strong. This project will advance feasibility of using CNT-based wires for use space applications. This will project will develop the first CNT-based wire that meets the stringent electrical and mechanical requirements of ECSS-E-ST-50-12C (SpaceWire). Specifically our Phase I technical objectives are to: develop a requirements analysis for EMI shielding for Space Wires; develop prototype CNT shielded wires that is ECSS-E-ST-50- 12C compliant; conduct validation testing of CNT shielded wires to make an initial assessment of robustness of cables; investigate termination strategies for the ECSS-E-ST- 50-12C compliant CNT shielded wires. BENEFIT: The potential benefits of this innovation could include military development for future ground, air or space systems that have stringent weight requirements, including launch vehicles, UAVs, portable communications,small satellites,etc. Commercial Application: Any commercial development for electronic-heavy systems with stringent weight requirements, including jetliners, satellites, small computers, etc.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Richard E. Cagley
AF112-094      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Increased Data Processing Capabilities for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this effort Toyon proposes to develop a set of technologies for improving onboard processing capabilities for RPA. This will include small form factor hardware, a library of high-level image processing routines, as well as general development support in order to allow end-users to further enhance the processing unit. Hardware will leverage commercial- off-the-shelf processing modules that conform to industry standard. Examples include COM Express and MXM. Furthermore, this hardware will communicate using standardized, high- speed serialized interfaces, such as PCIe and GigE. Image processing library support will be provided in the form of algorithm implementations that address commonly needed tasks such as registration, background modeling, tracking, and classification. These algorithms will be focused on general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) using OpenCL. However, the platform will be heterogeneous, employing different processing units when appropriate. Toyon will seek to make the platform as extensible and easy to use as possible. Image processing routines will use open-source interfacing in the form of OpenCV. Extending the processing capabilities will be able to take place through not only direct OpenCL programming, but through high level language entry. This may include both OpenCV and MATLAB, with backend OpenCL/BLAS/OpenMP support. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research will result in the development of hardware and software providing a potentially revolutionary advancement in the ability to deploy advanced image processing to RPA platforms. This capability will be of great interest for future military systems that rely on the automated processing of aerial surveillance video. For example, the developed technology is expected to benefit the Night Stare, Gorgon Stare, Angel Fire, Constant Hawk, TAILWIND, and ARGUS-IS programs as well as numerous smaller platforms. We note that our proposed solution is both modular and scalable. Other potential government applications include any situations where surveillance is required by an imaging sensor on an aerial platform, such as border patrol, crime fighting, traffic analysis, and counter-terrorism.

Spectranetix, Inc.
2066 Walsh Avenue, Suite #B1
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 492-0064
Lars Karlsson
AF112-095      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Secure/Covert Short Range Combat Wireless Network
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Standard commercial wireless protocols are regularly used to attach peripheral devices to personal area controllers. These protocols (such as Bluetooth or WiFi) and associated hardware are very low cost and manufactured by many dozens of vendors. But they are not meant for secure, covert applications where stealth is needed. Furthermore, these protocols are easily jammed or exploited. What is needed for the warfighter are new, secure, compact wireless datalink devices that attach to their standard commercial USB or Ethernet ported peripherals. Such a secure/covert network needs to be easily used by non-technical personnel, with plug-n-play installation. It also requires that if lost, these devices cannot be used to attach to any secure network. Spectranetix proposes to build a high frequency, spread spectrum, high bandwidth wireless network. Standard AES-256 encryption will be used. Phase I will provide the complete design, down to the chipsets, schematics, and antenna designs. We will also finish (and demonstrate during Phase I) the discovery algorithms and communications protocols. Phase II will accomplish the development of working breadboard prototypes, along with the antennas, followed by system-on-chip implementations as well as compact packaging. Phase III will be the production and manufacturing stage. BENEFIT: • Secure communications and tactical networking • Low probability of intercept communications • First responder location and communications

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
David Schut
AF112-096      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Extended-SWIR Targeting Sensor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is an increasing awareness of the advantages of solution-processed mesoscopic semiconductor devices. Compared to epitaxially-grown, lattice-matched, crystalline semiconductors, solution-processed optoelectronics offer fabrication without expensive and energy-intensive high-temperature and high-vacuum processes. To realize these benefits, a nanocrystal shortwave-infrared (SWIR) detector technology will be demonstrated. The detectors will be fabricated using facile solution-based processes. After characterizing the optical, morphological, and crystallographic properties of the nanocrystals, high performance SWIR films will be fabricated and characterized. Using novel application of inorganic chemical coatings the surface oxidation states of the nanocrystals will be optimized for both low dark current and low image lag. A variety of detectors will be fabricated and shown to exhibit extended spectral response (400-nm to 3000-nm), high responsivity, background limited (BLIP) performance, and high speed. The SWIR film's imaging performance will be demonstrated using existing readout integrated circuits. In Phase II, a large format, fully-functional extended-SWIR imager will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: The most recent developments in target tracking, target identification, and high-speed free- space communication involve the shortwave-infrared (SWIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Lasers at SWIR wavelengths can be eye-safe at high power and propagate more efficiently through the atmosphere than visible lasers. These laser emissions are undetectable to most imaging technologies including silicon, CCD cameras, night-vision tubes, and long-wave IR cameras. SWIR applications include seeing battlefield lasers, facial recognition, battle damage assessment, seeing-through-dust, pilot vision enhancement, laser-aided spotting scope, active passive rangefinders, celestial navigation.

Ascendant Engineering Solutions LLC
12303 Technology Blvd. Suite 925
Austin, TX 78727
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 744-1804
Greg Mooty
AF112-097      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Miniature Stabilized Gimbal Laser Pointing System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Ascendant Engineering Solutions (AES) proposes to develop a novel architecture for stabilizing/pointing a laser designator beam by using a high-bandwidth beam steering mechanism (BSM), and gyro feed forward within a small two-axis stabilized gimbal. AES will leverage its previous development and design verification testing experience for a sub 4- inch stabilized gimbal designed for UAV environments. AES will model the BSM, an optimized two-axis gimbal, including the gyro and target tracker to demonstrate performance toward meeting the 25µrad goal. In addition, AES will optionally build, integrate and test this BSM subsystem to verify its critical performance in a Lab Demonstration System, greatly reducing the risk of developing a complete stabilized gimbal systems-level solution for Phase II. AES will also leverage its experience in thermal management of high heat density packages for efficient transfer of heat to the external surfaces for direct convection cooling. AES has the engineering resources and capabilities to develop this design into a full- fledged product for a Phase III or other commercialization effort. AES has established working relationships with multiple defense contractors that will be tapped for sourcing end products to the DoD. BENEFIT: The U.S. Military UAV market alone is forecast to continue to grow at a 10% Compound Annual Growth Rate. AES’ precision laser stabilization/pointing solution provides a significant performance improvement without a significant increase in SWaP or cost enabling more advanced missions for current and future UAVs. This includes precision laser designation/marking/range finding with reduced risk of collateral damage for more military units in the field and improved situational awareness via range finding and illumination for DoD, DHS, and “first responders” applications. Small form factor lasers with higher performance stabilization/pointing could also benefit critical alignment applications as seen in pipeline construction, particle accelerators, and laser line of sight communications.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
David A. Neal
AF112-098      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Rapid Identification of Parameters for Optimal Store Ejection
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The overall objective of this effort is to develop the system architecture and embedded algorithms for intelligent store launch capability in the next generation of smart bomb racks. Barron Associates is teaming with Nielsen Engineering (NEAR) to investigate options for dynamically determining store launch release parameters. The off-line method will utilize NEAR’s STRLNCH application to build a look-up table as a function of a number of relevant parameters which will be queried on-line to derive the correct settings. The on-line method will solve for the optimal solution on-line, using as its simulation engine a modified version of STRLNCH. The hybrid method will combine the two approaches. The optimal release parameters are a function of the flight conditions, as well as the store properties, bomb rack location and the aircraft. The off-line approach will be implemented and tested for execution time, to insure robustness and to verify that the correct release parameters are determined. An investigation will be made of appropriate cost functions to insure aircraft safety and maximize mission success probability. In addition, the system architecture requirements to support the proposed solution will be examined, with a focus on the interfaces between the aircraft, the bomb rack and the store. BENEFIT: Software algorithms and the necessary supporting architecture are being developed here to allow online modification of the pitch angle and ejection forces for releasing a store from an aircraft. This technology will have benefits for a broad selection of store launch applications, from munitions delivery to flare release. The algorithms will be designed and tested with multiple airframe/store combinations including fighters, bombers, helicopters and UAV’s. As such, the technology will be a benefit to all the major branches of the military.. The architecture is applicable to a large range of stores/munitions and bomb-racks, opening up the potential applications of the technology to include release of store countermeasures, supply pod release, as well as munitions delivery. For example, the proposed technology can enhance Countermeasures Dispenser Systems such as the AN/ALE-47, which already uses threat information from the aircraft to determine a flare dispersion pattern. Another potential market for the technology is UAV/UAS delivered stores. The success of using UAVs for missions such as troop resupply in a combat zone, depends critically on autonomous, on- board store-release operation. Greater flexibility for this sort of mission would be provided by allowing the store launch settings to be adjustable during the mission.

Full Spectrum Technologies, Inc.
503 Golfview Dr. Suite 200
San Jose, CA 95127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 420-1618
Dalton Cantey
AF112-099      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Boosted Penetrator Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: FSTI proposes a 6 month research and development study to assess the feasibility of near- term application of Distributed Penetrator Case Venting techniques for control of Burn-to- Violent Reactions (BVR) in Insensitive Munitions (IM) threat hazard environments for Hard Target Rocket Boosted Penetrator weapons. The key technical issue is definition of the response of candidate main charge explosives (like AFX-757 and PBXN-109) to high pressure extrusion of the main charge explosive through these vents. These extrusion effects will occur during the intense deceleration environments experienced by high speed penetrators as they fly through very hard, high strength targets. We will assess the status of analytical and experimental methods applicable to this problem, recommend potential solutions, and apply these methods to develop preliminary designs for experimental procedures which can be applied to resolve this problem. We will also address the closely related issues associated with prediction of the total quantity of explosive which can be lost during this transient penetration loading process to assess the potential impact on warhead fuzing reliability issues. Finally, we will provide an assessment of the potential case wall thickness and weight penalties associated with application of distributed IM venting for hard target penetrators BENEFIT: Buildings and other structures that are built on very hard surfaces depend on oil well drilling techniques to make holes in the hard surface. This is a time consuming and expensive process. The boosted penetrator would allow for penetration into the hard surface to be accomplished in the fraction of the time required for conventional drilling. Installation of anchors into these same surfaces is difficult and expensive. Again, the utilization of hard target penetrator techniques may offer a faster and less expensive way to anchor structures to very hard surface. The use of distributed venting techniques for burn-to-violent reaction control in these devices would greatly improve the safety of handling and storage for these devices during their life cycle including exposure to industrial, transportation, and storage accidents.

Digital Optics Technologies, Inc.
1645 Hicks Road, Suite R
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 358-2592
Shih Tseng
AF112-100      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Compact and Integrated Inertial Measurement Unit For GPS Denied Navigation Using Fast-Light Gyroscopes and Accelerometers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: For navigation under GPS denied conditions, there is a need for developing inertial measurement units (IMU), employing gyroscopes and accelerometers, with better accuracy and/or smaller volume and weight than the state of the art. Currently, we at Digital Optics Technologies (DOT) have been developing a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (SRLG) that can improve the accuracy of rotation sensing by nearly five orders of magnitude. Alternatively, for a given accuracy need, the SRLG can be very small. We have also developed the architecture for a superluminal ring laser accelerometer (SRLA), which is expected to achieve a sensitivity of 10 pico-g/Hz, while occupying a very small volume. The focus of Phase I would be to demonstrate the technical feasibility of realizing a compact IMU that would house three SRLGs and three SRLAs for 3-axis rotation and acceleration sensing, utilizing miniature vapor cells, integrated optical components, detectors and frequency-stabilized lasers. Development of a prototype that would meet the size, weight, power and performance goals stated in the solicitation would be carried out in Phase II. Photodigm, Inc., will participate as a subcontractor as well as a vendor. Dr. Selim Shahriar, inventor of the SRLG and the SRLA and the chief scientific adviser at DOT, will coordinate the overall effort. BENEFIT: Three SRLAs, combined with three SRLGs, can be used to realize a high accuracy IMU that is very compact and light weight. Such an IMU could also be relatively inexpensive. An IMU of this type could have a significant impact on guidance, navigation and control systems for spacecraft, launch vehicles, missiles, kill vehicles, smart munitions, and other applications requiring precision inertial knowledge. Non-DoD applications include spacecraft guidance, navigation and control, as well as commercial aircraft inertial navigation systems.

Photodigm, Inc.
1155 E. Collins Blvd. Suite 200
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 235-7584
Preston Young
AF112-100      Awarded:11/7/2011
Title:High power DBR lasers for optimized pumping of chip-scale He:Rb lasers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Phase I SBIR proposal is submitted to address critical component technology for integrated fast light micro-inertial sensors for GPS denied navigation. One promising sensor type is the superluminally enhanced ring laser gyro (SEA-RLG). This proposal addresses development of high-power narrow-linewidth diode laser pump sources for low- power He:Rb alkali vapor lasers at the heart of the SEA-RLG. These are specialized variants of diode-pumped alkali vapor lasers (DPALs) with an emphasis on minimum input pump power and lasing threshold. The key thrust of this work is development of narrow- linewidth 780nm DBR lasers to efficiently pump small He:Rb alkali vapor cells allowing lasing and inhomogeneously broadened gain at the 795nm Rb D1 line. The end goal is to enable chip-scale integration of these He:Rb lasers into compact SEA-RLGs. From previous work, it has been shown that DPAL optical pumping is best accomplished with narrow-linewidth pump sources rather than conventional diode lasers. It has also been shown that the typical minimum pump power required to initiate DPAL lasing is on the order of 300mW to 500mW total. The single element tapered DBR lasers to be developed under this work present ideal candidates for high efficiency pumping of micro-He:Rb DPAL lasers. BENEFIT: The proposed program has benefits to numerous DoD and commercial applications requiring precision inertial sensing, timing, and navigation. Components developed in this work will benefit other researchers and systems integrators working in the fields of atom optics, cold atom physics, alkali atom-based timing, and inertial navigation systems.

Spectral Imaging Laboratory
1785 Locust St. #10
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 578-0626
Francis Reininger
AF112-101      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Dual Waveband Artificial Compound Eyes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. Air Force has a need to develop a new class of advanced, wide field of view (WFOV), dual band infrared sensors that can be deployed on Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as well as micro-air vehicles (MAVs), missile seekers and smart munitions. The Spectral Imaging Laboratory (SPILAB)proposes the development of a 120° field-of-view artificial compound eye (ACE) sensor with simultaneous 3 - 5 um middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and 8 - 10 um long wavelength infrared (LWIR) capability. BENEFIT: A nadir pointing version of the sensor can enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability of the larger RPAs, and a forward looking version can enhance the guidance, navigation and control of the MAVs, seekers, and munitions within cluttered urban environments. The WFOV capability will eliminate the need for heavy gimbals and thereby reduce the overall size, weight, and power of seekers and munitions. The dual band capability will enable the simultaneous imaging of cold bodies in the LWIR and hot surfaces or missile plumes in the MWIR.

Knobley Technical Associates LLC
510 State Route 956
Rocket Center, WV 26726
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 726-5419
Louis E. Miltenberger
AF112-102      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Technology for Tactical Missiles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Knobley Technical Associates Phase I Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Technology for Tactical Missiles program is planned to identify and evaluate technology advancing weight and risk reducing processes, component designs and increased energy reduced signature propellant systems for the rate augmented highly loaded dual pulse tactical propulsion system. The proposed program is planned to build on the successes of KTA’s Phase I, Phase II and on-going Phase III Rocket Motor-Dual Pulse Motor programs to advance the Technical Readiness Level of this type propulsion system for next generation tactical missiles. Higher energy reduced signature propellant formulations will be identified and analytically evaluated as candidates for the highly loaded grain rocket motor. Matrix and rate augmented propellant burn rate strand testing will be conducted to demonstrate the targeted burn rates required for a highly loaded grain tactical rocket motor. Design studies will be conducted to define performance enhancing and process friendly “starter grain” geometries for the highly loaded grain multi-pulse rocket motor. Motor case geometries and manufacturing processes associated with using weight reducing nano-titanium and fiber reinforced aluminum type materials will be explored and evaluated. These case design studies will also evaluate SMA nozzle and forward closure releasing features for enhanced IM compliance. KTA’s Phase I program will also identify, and analytically evaluate envelope compliant blast tube-type nozzle systems featuring non- or low-erosion potential throat insert configurations. The program will also include design trade studies to define performance enhancing ignition and stress relief liner/case insulation systems as required for an end-burning highly loaded grain rocket motor. BENEFIT: The Phase I program is tailored to identify and advance technologies for transitioning and use of the performance enhancement provided with highly loaded grain multi-pulse motor technoligies in next generation solid propellant propulsion systems.

TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2313
James Nabity
AF112-102      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Energetic Nanoparticles for High Impulse Reduced Smoke Propellants
Abstract:ABSTRACT: U.S. tactical air-to-air missiles provide exceptional performance to the warfighter, yet even higher performance is needed to expand the no-escape zone when engaging enemy aircraft. Ultimately, the missile flight performance depends upon rocket motor total impulse, which can only be improved by increasing the propellant loading or its specific impulse. Current motors use radially burning grains, which have several percent void fraction. A more highly- loaded end-burning grain configuration could be employed if the propellant burn rate could be increased without loss of performance in other areas. Unfortunately, conventional burn rate modifiers reduce the propellant specific impulse (e.g. reduced smoke propellants use up to 2 wt% iron oxide). Thus, the discovery of highly effective burn rate modifiers remains an important research challenge. Nanomaterials, with their inherent high surface area, are very attractive for use as catalysts and combustion aids. Therefore, we propose to develop novel energetic nanoparticles to replace conventional burn rate modifiers. In Phase I TDA and ATK will conduct experiments to determine their effects on burn rate and specific impulse. Our objective being to develop propellants that can be used in highly loaded, end-burning grains. In Phase II we will subcontract ATK to test rocket motors containing our nanoparticles. BENEFIT: More effective burn rate modifiers allow higher energy propellants to be utilized in highly- loaded grain configurations. These advanced rocket motors will increase the flight engagement envelope of tactical missile systems as well as improve access-to-space. A successful formulation would be a valuable commercial commodity that could be sold to vendors who currently produce solid rocket motors.

Nanocomposix, Inc.
4878 Ronson CT STE K
San Diego, CA 92111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 565-4227
Thomas Darlington
AF112-106      Awarded:11/7/2011
Title:Multi-functional self-healing composites
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Structural fiber-reinforced composites can experience subcritical damage in the form of delamination, matrix cracking, or fiber breaks well before final failure. During the Phase I research we will improve a proven self-healing polymer matrix via the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The remendable polymer utilizes thermally reversible Diels Alder cycloaddition reactions to repair broken bonds. Addition of CNTs into this healable polymer matrix will improve the mechanical properties of the composites and also increase the thermal and electrical conductivity, both of which will aid in the remending process. Damage and healing is detected by applying an addressable conducting network that will both sense resistance changes due to damage in the composites as well as deliver current for resistive heating to addressable locations within the composite for repair. BENEFIT: The proposed technology provides a solution to the serious problem of repairing impact, delamination and microcracking damage in aircraft and vehicles. Currently, such damage is difficult to repair, especially in situations where the carbon fiber structure is remotely deployed. The proposed CNT composite material will have improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Additionally, once damage is detected, a simple and low cost method of thermally repairing the structure can be performed that requires only an elevated temperature to remend Diels Alder bonds within the polymer matrix. This method of healing has advantages over other strategies such as the localized release of a chemical reagent in that repeated damage to the same location can be repaired.

NEI Corporation
400 E Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-3141
Daniel Eberly
AF112-106      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Multi-scale and Multi-functional Self Healing Fiber Reinforced Composites
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) are attractive structural materials for Air Force applications due to their high strength to weight ratios. Multi-functional self-healing FRCs will advance the state of the art in Air Force applications that either currently use FRCs, or will use FRCs in the future. The multi-functionality, as introduced through dispersed and aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), will enable enhanced mechanical and electrical properties not otherwise achievable, and the self-healing property will enable a damaged FRC component to be healed to as-good-as-new condition. We call this the SAN-FRC approach (Self-healing Aligned carbon Nanotubes). Since damage to an FRC structure most frequently occurs at the interface between the matrix and the fiber, the proposed technology addresses this by incorporation of both the self-healing property as well as the CNT multi-functionality at this critical boundary. Building upon our previous work with self- healing FRCs, and in conjunction with our university collaborator’s expertise in fiber processing, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the SAN-FRC approach during Phase I of the program. This will include preliminary evaluation of the self-healing, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties in a bulk composite. In Phase II, we will implement the SAN-FRC approach in the context of a manufacturing process. Life-cycle costs to produce the composite material and prototype airframe structures will be determined in collaboration with a commercial prepreg/FRC manufacturer. Prototype samples will be delivered to the Air Force for testing. BENEFIT: Currently, there is no commercialized technology for self-healing resins for composite materials. Additionally, the current use of CNTs in FRCs is challenging due to the lack of alignment of the CNTs as well as difficulty in dispersing the CNTs in the polymer matrix. The proposed technology solves both of these issues by developing a commercial-ready means of incorporating both the aligned/dispersed CNTs as well as the self-healing agent, where they are needed most to not only self-heal microcrack damage, but also to impart full multi-functionality to the FRC component through enhancement in mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. The developed technology can be implemented in carbon tow, carbon weave, towpreg and prepreg. The technology can be implemented in any Air Force application that uses or will use FRCs. Commercial end-use markets that would benefit from the technology include commercial aircraft, aerospace, automotive, composite overwrapped pressure vessels as used for storage of liquids and fuels, and sporting goods.

MATSYS, Inc.
504 Shaw Road Suite 215
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 964-0400
Tony F Zahrah
AF112-108      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Novel Hybrid Structural Reactive Composites
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MATSYS proposes to develop novel hybrid compositions and processing techniques for structural reactive composites for the enhancement of Air Force munitions. This effort will combine our unique expertise in instrumented-Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) with new approaches in reactive materials design to develop a new generation of cost-efficient, high strength and highly reactive materials. The proposed material system will use a blend of elemental or compound powders capable of an energetic (exothermic) chemical reaction. The existence of different powders will allow for tailoring of the mechanical and reactive properties of the material through engineered variations of the volume fraction of each powder to control the type of reaction and the form of energy release as well as the mechanical properties. During this program, we will demonstrate the versatility of the approach by fabricating high strength and highly reactive materials that will enhance the munitions lethality by releasing a large amount of exothermal heat and overpressure. These materials can be used to replace structurally inert materials with structural reactive materials to enhance weapon effectiveness and reduce payload. Upon successful demonstration, this powder-based process can be easily applied to different powders, and scaled for cost- effective, high-volume production of fully dense structural reactive composites. BENEFIT: The proposed program will have dual use commercialization with military as well as commercial applications. The material can be transitioned into several military hardware programs for weapon development in urban terrain (MOUT) and other low collateral damage scenarios. Commercial applications include potential use in petroleum exploration and oil well stimulation, and law enforcement applications.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Prakash B. Joshi
AF112-108      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Lightweight, High Strength, Enhanced Blast, Energetic Structural Composites for Enhanced Lethality Munitions
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and Alliant Techsystems (ATK) propose to develop novel structural reactive materials with mechanical and energetic characteristics particularly applicable to low collateral damage munitions, weaponized UAVs, and advanced submunitions. The materials are lightweight, possess high energy density, and exhibit mechanical properties similar to aluminum. The composition and fabrication process of the materials can be specialized and tailored to realize mechanical and energetic properties as needed for different applications. In first six months of Phase I PSI will develop and demonstrate reactive materials formulations and processing, as well as fabricate samples for testing. We will measure the strength and stiffness of the materials and also characterize their impact, friction and electrostatic discharge sensitivity. We will also characterize relative energy release rates of materials under mechanical impact at PSI facilities. In the last three months of Phase I, we will fabricate samples of additional formulations, characterize their mechanical properties, and conduct simulated bulk autoignition and energy release tests at ATK facilities. An approach will be developed for fabricating reactive materials in practical shapes and sizes in Phase II. BENEFIT: The primary beneficiary of the proposed technology of Structural Reactive Materials (SRM) is the US military including the Air Force, Army, Navy, and MDA. The SRM will be applicable to all types small weaponized UAVs and munitions for increasing their lethality. Non-military applications include systems used in excavation and mining and hardware for law enforcement.

Reactive Metals International Inc.
340 East Church Rd
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 279-2340
Gregory Knowlton
AF112-108      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Reactive Case Materials for Enhanced Blast
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Fully Dense Reactive Nanocomposite Materials (FD-RNM) have unique chemical and physical properties and if properly exploited can lead to greater blast effects, chem/bio agent defeat and less collateral damage than conventional steel warhead cases. Whether the FD- RNM are thermite type or metal-metalloid type these benefits are realized through the materials highly exothermic reactions. Reduced collateral damage is achieved through consumption of the warhead case which leads to the reduction in fragment footprint while the heat generated upon ignition is sufficient to create enhanced blast effects and possible formulation into the FD-RNM can achieve chem/bio agent defeat. The FD-RNM are formed from micron size particles making them less static and shock sensitive than materials formed from nanoparticles. They have shown the ability to be pressed into shapes, are sufficiently dense and maintain enough strength to penetrate targets like their steel case counterparts. There is a wide array of materials that can be utilized to form FD-RNM which leads to the ability to customize in respect to density, strength and reactivity. Because of the materials available a large effort will be given to developing mechanistic models of initiation which can be used to evaluate the desired performance of components and systems. BENEFIT: Reactive case materials will make it possible to modify the desired effects of a warhead when operating in military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). When used as a warhead casing the reactive materials can be completely consumed reducing the likelihood of collateral damage from the casing material. The high heats of reaction contribute to an enhanced blast effect making a reactive material warhead more destructive in enclosed conditions such as bunkers or caves. Civilian ordnance devices can also benefit where reduced shrapnel is desired. Reactive materials can also be formulated to contain biocide material that can aid in chemical and biological agent defeat in both military and civilian uses. The military would use the agent defeat capabilities in the event there is stored chemical and biological agents in the vicinity of the planned warhead attack. This would help safeguard the warfighter who may be exposed to the chemical and biological agents. Civilian use would also benefit by incorporation of biocide agents into smaller ordnance for agent defeat such as a terrorist attack.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4807
James Paduano
AF112-109      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Attitude Control Enhancement Using Wing Load Sensing
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aurora proposes to develop a ‘Proprioceptive Wing’ concept designed to measure and feedback wing forces, thereby enabling ‘load servoing’, or modulation of control surfaces to achieve desired wing moments and/or forces. By implementing a feedback loop on the actual force or moment output of the lifting surface, this concept has the potential to provide higher bandwidth rejection of gusts and other disturbances by reducing measurement latencies and using feedback to provide robustness to aerodynamic uncertainties. Such uncertainties can occur due to operation in complex aerodynamic regimes, (e.g. low Reynolds (Re) number effects such as separation bubbles, vortex lift, stalled surfaces, or complex interacting surfaces), incomplete modeling, or aerodynamic surface damage. Aurora will validate the concept as originally described by AFRL, and also test a number of novel, proprietary extensions. Innovative sensors from UMD will also be investigated. BENEFIT: Methods for SUAV flight in gusty environments are among the key technologies for future SUAVs performing military operations. The need for more stable, robust flight of MAVs and SUAVs is clear to anyone who has tested or used these vehicles at low speeds (for urban maneuvering, perch, or hover-and-stare operations) in windy or gusty situations – these operations are very challenging and performance stands to be significantly improved by Proprioceptive Wings. Aurora’s commitment to, and experience in, quickly fielding new vehicles will greatly increase the probability of transition of the Proprioceptive Wing concept to operational vehicles with enhanced capabilities. Given the necessity for these systems and the general nature of the gust rejection and aerodynamic robustness problem, Aurora foresees rapid development and aggressive marketing of the architecture developed under this program.

Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Peter Thompson
AF112-109      Awarded:10/15/2011
Title:Attitude Control Enhancement Using Wing Load Sensing
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Flying animals achieve good attitude control using a combination of optical and strain sensors. Strain sensors have much lower latency than optical sensors, leading to the hypothesis that strain sensors are what make good attitude control possible. A Phase I program is proposed to create models, theoretically test this hypothesis, and design a small- air-vehicle. The vehicle will be built in Phase II and used for flight test validation of biomimetic sensors. The basic case for using strain sensors, or equivalently, accelerometers, is 1) the vehicle has a higher effective moment of inertia, 2) which provides better gust performance and robustness, 3) in addition they can damp flexible modes, 4) and also aerodynamic modes such as Dutch roll. Optical sensor latency still limits the achievable attitude bandwidth, but this can be improved by using feedforward, the biomimetic analog of learned behavior. The Air Force GenMav will be the benchmark platform. Changes will be made to the outer mold line and mass properties to demonstrate generality and robustness. Previous work will be leveraged to provide a range of models, both rigid and flexible, in order to theoretically demonstrate the use of accelerometer, strain, and optical sensors. BENEFIT: A sensor suite using optical and strain sensors is a new paradigm for micro and small air vehicles, replacing the more traditional IMU-based sensors. If performance, weight, and cost advantages can be demonstrated this will create a new market opportunity. The military and civilian market for autonomous reconnaissance vehicles is large and growing. New technology developed here will be licensed to appropriate system integrators.

General Lasertronics
830 Jury Ct. Suite 5
San Jose, CA 95112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 947-1181
James W. Thomas
AF112-110      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Portable Laser Removal Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed portable, hand held, laser tool will enable efficient field maintenance of specialty coatings and outer mold line (OML) materials of advanced aircraft. Laser pulses are scanned over the surface with optimal power, energy, and control to remove coatings without substrate damage. In Phase I, the contractor will demonstrate automated closed loop removal. The laser produces 10,000 pulses per second, and optics in the tool move the laser pulses to avoid dwell on one spot. The operator selects surface colors to remove. Between pulses, sensors interrogate the surface and electronics decide if the laser should fire. The proposed tool concept includes guides to position the tool for cleaning OML materials and for tapering coating layers. Automation of the guide system in future systems could enable "set-and-forget" operation. The proposed tool also includes integrated waste collection to eliminate hazardous emissions. Work area cleanup requirements are eliminated, and concurrent maintenance can occur elsewhere on the aircraft. Aircraft maintenance time is substantially reduced. The proposed laser is commercially available, and the laser delivery subsystem has demonstrated technology readiness level of 9. The project will focus on tool development and operational approval for the specific objectives of this topic. BENEFIT: Higher level of weapons system readiness. Reduced environmental impact. Reduced health- risk and injury potential of maintenance personnel

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Sivanesan Ponniah
AF112-110      Awarded:9/29/2011
Title:Portable Laser Removal System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a portable laser removal tool, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Portable Laser Removal (POLAR) system. This proposed system is based on continuously attenuated pulsed laser ablation and real-time ablative process monitoring by plasma emission spectroscopy (PES) combined with optical surface profiling. The innovation in combining real-time material diagnostic feedback and laser- manipulating optics will enable the proposed system to identify the coating layer being removed and to control the ablation process. As a result, this POLAR system offers selective removal and tapering of coatings without damage to the substrates and a strip rate of better than 6 ft^2/hr, which directly addresses the Air Force requirements for a portable coating removal tool. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of POLAR by building a benchtop prototype using commercial off-the-shelf components and conducting proof-of- concept experiments at a POC laboratory. The experimental validation will include the selective removal and tapering of coating from a small test panel and quantitative damage assessment. In Phase II, POC will build a portable, deployable, and automated POLAR system prototype and test its performance in stripping contoured and difficult-to-reach surfaces. BENEFIT: The POLAR system will bring many benefits to the government in field maintenance of aircraft, including reduced worker injury (carpal tunnel syndrome), reduced hazardous material use, reduced hazardous waste generation, reduced repair time, and reduced substrate damage. Other benefits include decontamination and cleaning of nuclear facilities, government buildings, and military facilities. Potential commercial applications include the maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) operations of civilian airlines and automobile industries, which can benefit from the development of the POLAR system by replacing the mechanical paint removal process and the use of chemicals that are environmentally unsafe. Other potential commercial applications of the POLAR system are cleaning and removing coatings on various high-value high-volume parts, as well as glass etching and surface preparation in aerospace, automotive, medical, electronics, and telecommunication industries. In addition, the marine industry can benefit from the use of the POLAR system to decoat and clean parts and systems made from composite materials (such as boats and propellers) where chemical stripping is not suitable.

Edward Pope Dr dba MATECH
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Chris Hill
AF112-111      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Ceramic Field Repair for Structurally Compliant, Dielectric Matched Component Restoration
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this AF Phase I SBIR program, MATECH proposes to demonstrate the ability to perform “on wing” repair of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components. Due to safety concerns (both for aircraft and personnel), on wing repairs cannot exceed 300F cure temperatures. In addition, the presence of organic solvents is highly undesirable due to both fire safety and toxicity. MATECH proposes to demonstrate its high ceramic yield, fully domestic, solvent less preceramic polymer resin, developed for its successful SiNC and SiC ceramic fiber programs, as the preferred resin system for field repair. This resin can be fully cured at below 300F, thereby meeting the on wing temperature requirement. This resin also emits limited gaseous by-products during curing. Higher temperature “pyrolysis” can be performed either by utilizing engine heat (for engine and/or engine exhaust components) or in flight (for leading edge components). In the Phase I, MATECH will demonstrate this approach by measuring CMC strength before and after the simulated repair. The technique used for the simulated repair will be amenable to an operational field application environment (flight line or hanger). This Phase I program benefits from the active support and participation of Lockheed Martin Co., Pratt & Whitney, General Atomics. BENEFIT: Ceramic and ceramic matrix composite will be increasingly utilized in both military and commercial aircraft engines and turbine generators, along with other applications requiring high service temperature components, due to their light weight and higher service temperature capabilities. A facile, user friendly ceramic repair capability would greatly encourage the use of ceramics and CMCs in commercial applications by reducing maintenance costs.

Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
John Bulluck
AF112-111      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:High-Temperature Ceramic Field Repair
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal responds to the US Air Force critical needs to develop new materials and methods for the repair of ceramic structures. There are no existing field level rapid repairs of ceramics or CMCs being performed. Typically, these damaged structures are removed from the aircraft and repaired at a depot level, mitigating aircraft availability and force projection. Texas Research Institute Austin proposes to build on our previously successful technical work and products for aircraft field repairs. New high temperature matrix materials and reinforcements will be defined and evaluated. A comprehensive repair test program will be enacted to quantify the integrity of the repairs. The repair compositions, procedures, and supporting equipment will be identified. This will lead to early commercialization and military deployment during Phase II. These new repair materials and methods will result in significant initial savings and life cycle supportability costs. Increased savings will be realized due to decreased repair time, decreased labor expenses, and lower maintenance costs. Minimizing the difficulty of the repair process and supporting equipment will enhance rapid deployment. A systematic experimental design development approach will be utilized in developing this new repair material. BENEFIT: Our new ceramic field repair materials and process will be directly applicable to new hot structures required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within earth’s atmosphere and non-earth atmospheres. Also, NASA and commercial space launch vehicle manufacturers could immediately make use of the new ceramic repair materials and procedures.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Byron Zollars
AF112-112      Awarded:9/29/2011
Title:Increased Infrared (IR) Sensor Angle of Regard for Conformal/Special Operations Force
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical sensors are extensively used in aircraft for a variety of purposes. The majority of these sensors are situated behind windows, which provide the interface between the aircraft interior and the outside world. The window must be transparent in the spectral bands of interest, and this requirement generally mandates materials that tend to have a large refractive index. Without surface treatment, each window surface reflects a significant amount of light (up to 30%, depending on material) destined for the sensors. The reflection problem is greatly exacerbated at larger angles of incidence, where the window can cause polarization changes and ghosting due to internal reflections. Conformal aircraft windows have curvatures that make conventional surface treatment techniques complex. There is a need for optical window surface treatments that reduce reflections over broad regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and for large incident angles, while maintaining the structural, mechanical, optical, and environmental qualities associated with the interface between aircraft interior and exterior. Nanohmics proposes to develop and demonstrate broad- spectral, high-angle, anti-reflection surface treatments for conformal infrared windows by producing nanoscale structures into the window surface. Computational modeling has demonstrated that surface structures reduce optical reflections over wide spectral ranges and for angles exceeding 70°. BENEFIT: Nanohmics will be producing transparent optical window components with low surface reflection and low scattering losses over broad ranges of the visible and infrared spectrum. The windows will maintain low surface reflectivity even at large angles of incidence. Furthermore, the surface treatment and materials involved make the windows rugged and resistant to erosion by rain and sand. These qualities will find application in numerous markets beyond airborne sensor systems, such as security and surveillance, environmental process windows in chemical plants, advanced night-vision optics, and chemical and biological detection equipment.

Surmet Corporation
31 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 345-5724
Robyn Foti
AF112-112      Awarded:9/29/2011
Title:Physical Surface Structures for Enhanced Transmission Performance at High Angles of Regard
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The design of IR windows is dictated by the need for high optical performance while maintaining a low radar cross section (RCS). Distributed apertures and faceted window assemblies are used for increased situational awareness while maintaining acceptably low RCS. Unfortunately, the design requirements which allow for a low RCS also typically require looking through these windows at high angles of regard. The traditional method of reducing the reflection losses at the surfaces of IR windows is to apply anti-reflection (AR) coatings. Unfortunately, the reflections from the 2 dimensional surfaces of coated windows severely limit the usable range of angles. Structures physically etched into the surface of a window are an alternative approach to providing AR function. The 3D nature of the physical surface structures is predicted to reduce reflections at high angles. MWIR/LWIR sized features can be produced using widely available equipment; however, Vis-NIR sized features require UV lithography, which is not readily available. In the proposed effort, Surmet will demonstrate a more scalable and producible method for producing physical surface structures on IR transparent substrates with enhanced optical performance at high angles of regard. BENEFIT: The F-22 strike fighter employs a distributed aperture system (DAS, made by Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems) consisting of six silicon windows situated around the aircraft to provide the pilot with all-around coverage for full situational awareness, missile warning, aircraft warning, day/night pilot vision, and fire control capability. The silicon windows suffer from transmission loss at high angles of regard. Physical Surface Structures provide a good solution for these silicon EODAS windows. In addition, the Joint Strike Fighter is the next generation of strike aircraft weapon systems for the Air Force, Navy, and the Marines. The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter has an electro-optical targeting system employing a facetted sapphire IR window assembly whose performance is limited by low transmission at high angles of regard. Application of physical surface structures to the sapphire windows has the potential to increase system performance, and even decrease the number of window panels required for this window assembly.

Systems and Materials Research Corporation
1300 West Koenig Lane Suite 230
Austin, TX 78756
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 968-4750
Malcolm D. Prouty
AF112-113      Awarded:1/20/2012
Title:GripChek - Real-Time Hole Depth Measurement System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: AutoDrills located at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) drill over 12,000 holes in the wing skins and understructure on each F-35 aircraft. To ensure these holes get the correct fasteners, a technician must measure the depth of each hole and mark the dimension on the skin adjacent to the hole. This procedure is known as "gripping". LM Aero has suspended gripping due to the enormous time requirement - over 230 hours per aircraft. Systems and Materials Research Corporation (SMRC) proposes GripChek, an automated, zero time added, hole depth measurement solution. Since gripping is no longer being done, technicians tend to use fasteners that are known to be too long. This adds unnecessary weight, and affects the performance of the aircraft. Likewise, fasteners that are installed too short must be removed and replaced with the correct fastener. GripChek uses the drilling operation itself to determine and record the depth of the hole in real-time - exactly the right length fastener every time. GripChek will benefit the aircraft industry by reducing weight, cost, and waste with zero time added. BENEFIT: SMRC's GripChek real-time hole depth measurement system ensures ideal fastener length for each drilled hole. Furthermore, the system requires zero additional time to perform the measurements, and will port the information directly into the Digital Thread to be used in kitting or other tasks. These attributes result in improved throughput, quality, and consistency while greatly reducing operator workload and fatigue. SMRC enters into this Phase I program with a clear understanding of fastener installation, and design of automated CNC tooling for aerospace applications. SMRC also has had discussions with an established technology partner, Sandia National Laboratories, who has committed to provide its support to SMRC on this project. With a clear commercialization roadmap entering into Phase I, GripChek has a high probability of transitioning into the commercial marketplace, making it available to manufacturers worldwide.

Variation Reduction Solutions Inc
14901 Galleon Court
Plymouth, MI 48170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 245-0006
Brett Bordyn
AF112-113      Awarded:1/20/2012
Title:Measurement of Hole Depth During Automated Drilling
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Objective: Develop a method for measuring the depth of holes drilled through stacks of material with minimal impact to the drilling process to replace manual grip measurements. Description: Variability in the manufacturing process of aircraft skins and understructure components results in slight uncertainty in the thickness of material stacks. This uncertainty requires each hole across the outer surface of an aircraft to be accurately measured so that fasteners may be sized appropriately to reduce waste, excess waste, and ensure a tight fit. The current measurement process is manual and labor intensive. Mechanics use hand- operated thickness gauges, or grip gauges, to take measurements of holes individually. The measurements are stored electronically and used in selecting appropriate grip lengths for fasteners during kitting. Phase I will result in a prototype system demonstrating the ability to autonomously measure holes in a bench top environment, and that it saves time over the current process. Tests for accuracy and consistency will be performed. A preliminary cost estimate along with manufacturing/transition planning will be performed. Details of a plan to integrate the system into the assembly line will be provided. BENEFIT: The goal of this program is to eliminate the use of hand-operated gauges and manual labor for acquiring grip length measurements. Significant time savings can be realized by automating the measurement process. Ideally, the automated process would be integrated into the computer numeric controlled (CNC) machines that drill each of the holes and would occur in parallel with the drilling operation, thereby eliminating manual grip measurement and adding no additional time to the manufacturing process. If an alternate solution is pursued, it should still be able to decrease significantly the time required to take these measurements over the current manual process.

IST-Rolla
11560 Forest Lakes Drive
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 429-6931
Michael Dancer
AF112-114      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Novel Tool Wear Monitoring of Cutting Tools Using Neural Network based Observers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal seeks to develop a novel tool wear monitoring technology using a neural network-based observer. In this methodology simple models of the wear process and another related machining process, such as force, are developed. The model development does not require lengthy analysis or experimentation since the methodology inherently accounts for the uncertainty in the models. The monitoring methodology measures the related machining process signal, as well as other available signals, and a neural network-based observer is used to estimate model uncertainties and the tool wear state. This information can be used to ensure tools are changed in a timely manner. Preliminary simulation studies show the promise of the proposed monitoring technology and this proposal seeks to further develop this methodology and prove it with real machining data of Ti6Al4V. BENEFIT: The proposed tool wear monitoring methodology will allow manufactures to dramatically increase the productivity and quality of their manufacturing operations. The ability to cost- effectively monitor the state of cutting tools in real time will provide the means to prevent cutting tools from being taken out of service before they have been fully utilized or from being taken out of service after they are too worn to be reground or, worse yet, they wear to the point of breakage. The proposed technology will minimize tool changes and costly downtime, allow cutting tools to be utilized longer, and will minimize incidents of tool breakage that ruin parts, which is particularly costly in a finishing operation of a part that undergone days, or even weeks, of processing. The commercial impact will be tremendous since the proposed technology can be applied to any machining operation.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dmitry Starodubov
AF112-114      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Innovative Optical Monitoring System for Performance Assessment of Cutting Tools
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for in-process monitoring of machine tool wear, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an Innovative optical Monitoring system for Performance Assessment of Cutting Tools (IMPACT). This proposed system is based on a new design that uses POC-developed mature components and commercial off-the-shelf components. The innovative strategy for isolating vibrations of interest will enable the system to determine the condition of cutting tools during the course of routine production. As a result, this system enables the end user to replace or refurbish worn cutting tools before performance falls below the required work piece quality requirements. This directly addresses the Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL’s) requirements of periodic production tool inspection. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of IMPACT by correlating machine part quality with the measurable outputs of our sensor system. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a prototype system to show how the approach solves the problem in a production-relevant environment. BENEFIT: In addition to the fabrication of military aircraft, the IMPACT system will find application in parts machining for commercial aircraft, shipbuilding, the automotive industry, and other industries in which automated quality control of the machining process will deliver the benefits of cost reduction and performance improvement. This system will enhance production quality and yield by maintaining the optimal machining conditions and helping ensure the timely replacement of cutting tools. The proposed system will also reduce manufacturing costs by reducing material waste on failed parts as well as reducing manpower and resources required for cutting tool maintenance.

Systems and Materials Research Corporation
1300 West Koenig Lane Suite 230
Austin, TX 78756
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 968-4750
Malcolm D. Prouty
AF112-115      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:SealKap - Semi-Automated Intelligent Fuel-Resistant Sealant Dispensing Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern military and commercial aircraft utilize empty areas within the aircraft structure to store fuel. As such, fasteners and joints within these "wet areas" must be sealed with fuel- resistant sealant to prevent leak paths. Systems and Materials Research Corporation (SMRC) proposes SealKap, a semi-automated intelligent sealant dispensing tool designed to assist technicians with inverted sealing, dome sealing, and fillet sealing over exposed fasteners, nutplates, and fay surfaces, respectively. Currently, fuel resistant sealant is hand applied to wet areas within the F-35 using manual sealant dispensers and spatulas to shape the sealant over the application areas, a time-consuming, operator-dependent process that frequently results in over-application of sealant. This adds unnecessary weight to the aircraft, and its over-use is fundamentally incompatible with the JSF program's ESH mission. Likewise, under-application of sealant can produce detrimental fuel leak paths. SealKap uses custom applicator nozzles and a programmable dispenser valve to deliver a metered amount of sealant to the application area - exactly the right amount and placement every time. Its small form factor and mounted CCD camera assists the technician in difficult- to-access areas of the aircraft. SealKap will benefit the aircraft industry by saving time, weight, and cost all while delivering a higher quality seal. BENEFIT: SMRC's SealKAP semi-automated intelligent fuel-resistant sealant dispensing tool ensures precision application of sealant over exposed fasteners, nutplates, and fay surfaces, improving throughput, quality, and consistency while reducing operator workload and fatigue. SMRC enters into this Phase I program with a clear understanding of sealant dispensing equipment and design of semi-automated handheld tooling for aerospace applications, as well as initial interaction with an established transition partner, SEMCO, the leader in sealant dispensing solutions. With a clear commercialization roadmap entering into Phase I, SealKap has a high probability of transitioning into the commercial marketplace, making it available to aircraft manufacturers and maintainers worldwide.

TIAX LLC
35 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 879-1271
Anil Mankame
AF112-115      Awarded:9/27/2011
Title:Automate/Mechanize Current Manual Fuel Sealant Application Methodology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aircraft fuel tank fasteners are currently sealed using manual, labor and time intensive processes including extrusion based handheld sealant gun application to hand applied sealant caps and hand operated sealant cup applicators. TIAX proposes the development of an automated and mechanized sealant applicator gun which leverages their core applicator technology for viscous materials. The proposed design will utilize extrusion of the sealant to a fastener specific applicator. Through mechanized delivery a regulated, consistent, and specified quantity of sealant will be delivered to each fastener. As a result of either electronic or mechanical sensing the device will self regulate the flow of sealant to the applicator and thus to the fastener. The Phase I effort will include the characterization of current methods practiced and sealants used, preliminary development and analysis of solution concepts. BENEFIT: The current process of military aircraft fuel tank fastener sealing is labor and time intensive, and of varying quality. Thus the current process incurs future maintenance and failures, as well as increased costs per plane. The TIAX proposed development, by improving the quality of the sealant application in a reduced amount of time, will create costs savings at the production and maintenance levels. Additionally, it will increase the quality and consistency of the sealant application. At the commercial level, the TIAX proposed applicator can provide similar benefits to the civilian aircraft industry. Outside of the aircraft industry the applicator with or without applicator modifications could provide similar savings in the civilian and military construction and automotive industries.

Keystone Synergistic Enterprises, Inc.
698 SW Port Saint Lucie Blvd Suite 105
Port Saint Lucie, FL 34953
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 343-7544
Bryant Walker
AF112-116      Awarded:9/27/2011
Title:Composite Aluminum Aircraft Matting for High-Temperature Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Keystone is proposing to develop and demonstrate prototype manufacturing methods for aircraft landing matting for high-temperature applications. Specifically, Keystone is proposing to select and recommend materials and manufacturing methods for producing high-temperature airfield matting to replace and/or complement conventional AM-2 matting. Task 1 of the four task Phase I project will, in conjunction with the Air Force TPOC, establish an initial set of requirements for high-temperature AM-2 matting while the second task will select and recommend specific high-temperature materials and manufacturing methods with the capability of meeting the Task 1 requirements. The third task will complete an initial Value Stream Analysis of the envisioned manufacturing process from which a cost model will be constructed to estimate the affordability of the recommended high-temperature matting. The last task of the project will provide program mamangement and reporting per CDRL's and a roadmap or plan for an envisioned Phase II project to construct and evaluate high- temperature airfield matting. BENEFIT: Military application: The material will be used for parking ramps and expeditionary landing pads for vertical takeoff and landing aircraft. Also applicable to aircraft structures. Commercial application: Industrial processes where a lightweight, high-strength material is required for high-temperature environments (aircraft, matting, bridges, and architectural construction).

Powdermet Inc.
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Mark Grogan
AF112-116      Awarded:9/26/2011
Title:Composite Aluminum Aircraft Matting for High-Temperature Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current mats are manufactured from aluminum 6061 because of its relatively high strength-to-weight ratio and durability. However, 6061 does not maintain these desirable characteristics when exposed to higher temperatures, where it loses strength significantly above 150°C. This makes 6061 very undesirable for high temperature applications, where the mats could be exposed to temperatures of up to 1700°F. It is also desirable that aircraft landing mats have high thermal conductivity so that concentrations of high temperatures can be quickly dissipated to the surrounding material. Currently, the top surface of the mat is coated with an epoxy-based, non-skid coating. This coating requires frequent replacement due to wear or breakdown from the environment. Powdermet, along with its subsidiary/spin-out MesoCoat Inc, propose to demonstrate an extrudable, nanocomposite, aluminum metal matrix composite as a high temperature, high strength-to-weight ratio matting material which can be directly substituted for 6061 aluminum and reduce weight in landing mats by 20% or more. Furthermore we propose to demonstrate the application of a thermally insulating low density (microballoon-reinforced) superalloy metal matrix syntactic composite thermal protection coating system (with non-skid properties) to reduce mat temperatures and extend matting life when used in jet exhaust wash environments. BENEFIT: There are multiple applications for high temperature aluminum to replace titanium and higher density materials in transportation and aerospace systems, including nanocomposite aluminum landing mats, and thermal barrier non-skid topcoat, refurbishment or OEM landing mat coating and refurbishment services, applying the metallic non-skid to both existing and original parts. A non-skid surface with enhanced heat resistant capabilities will be required, to meet the operational envelope of the Joint Strike Fighter and MV-22 aircraft. Specifically, nozzle exhaust gas temperatures will be much higher than produced by previous Vertical Take-Off and Landing aircraft.

Accudyne Systems Inc
210 Executive Dr
Newark, DE 19702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 369-5390
Mark Gruber
AF112-118      Awarded:9/27/2011
Title:Automation of Material Placement for Aircraft Radomes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Accudyne proposes a SBIR program to develop an automated material placement process for aircraft radomes and demonstrate it by forming quartz cynate ester fabric over an existing radome tool. The process employs computer simulations to model the forming process and compute a 2D fabric pattern as well as a four degrees of motion machine to form the fabric over the curved radome tool. The targeted part properties are those measured by quality control inspections currently employed in the forming process. The accuracy of placement will be determined by measuring the chine overlap and chine butt joint between plies. Phase II will utilize the process and various deliverables from Phase I and provide the platform for the manufacture of a full scale radome. This pilot demonstration will validate the process and manufacturing methods that will ultimately be incorporated into an automated machine. BENEFIT: The successful demonstration of automation of material placement over complex curvature yielding full mechanical properties would present benefits for the Air Force, Air Force OEM’s, and the aircraft industry. The automation will result in i) lower part manufacturing cost by reducing the total operator interaction ii) reduced touch labor by eliminating hand forming of material by an operator iii) higher quality, repeatable parts by eliminating operator error and inconsistencies iv) potential reduction of quality control inspections. The resultant machine automation and process development will lead to other platforms and concepts for the automation of other complex curvature parts used in aerospace manufacturing.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Paul Shnitser
AF112-119      Awarded:9/27/2011
Title:Flexible Arm Non-Contact Interferometric Coordinate Measurement System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a more accurate and fast technology for key characteristics measurements in the advanced aircraft assembly process, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Flexible Arm Non-Contact Interferometric Coordinates Measurement System (FANCI CMS). This proposed system is based on a combination of a highly accurate flexible arm with a novel ruggedized, compact, and lightweight interferometric sensor as well as several new and commercially available software packages. The innovation in the system design will allow for repeatability in achieving the required measurement accuracy while significantly accelerating measurement procedures and reducing labor consumption. The flexibility and compactness of the FANCI CMS will allow for fast and reliable key characteristics measurements in difficult-to-access areas. This lightweight system will be easily mountable on the assembly line and will require only one minute for calibration of its position. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system by assembling a laboratory prototype and demonstrating its operation on representative portions of airframe at an MRL-4 level. In Phase II, POC plans to develop this system to MRL-7 to be ready for its integration into the manufacturing process. BENEFIT: The proposed FANCI CMS will improve quality of the aircraft assembly and will save many hours of skilled labor needed for the currently used measurement technology, resulting in multi-million-dollar savings to the Air Force and taxpayers. The proposed highly flexible and convenient to use system with improved accuracy will find numerous applications in various industries for parts inspection, process control, and quality control. The developed user- friendly software package will support any quality control system both in large and small businesses, facilitating improvement in the quality and competitiveness of American-made products.

SURVICE Engineering Company
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 297-2378
Adalberto Castelo
AF112-119      Awarded:9/27/2011
Title:Key Characteristics Metrology Solution
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SURVICE Engineering is proposing an innovative, robust, non-contact optical hardware and software metrology technology that already exceeds solicitation accuracy requirements for advanced fighter aircraft center fuselage measurements. Our proprietary proposed approach for improved GD&T (geometric dimension and tolerancing) provides a system that is capable of being (a) integrated with current production tooling and processes, (b) driven by industry-standard metrology software on the assembly line, and (c) readily handled, maintained, and calibrated. We have brought together a unique team well recognized for high-quality metrology technology for complex manufacturing. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this SBIR will provide military and commercial airplane manufacturers with the capability for improved GD&T (geometric dimension and tolerancing) that significantly reduces both cost and cycle time in aircraft production.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Chris Ulmer
AF112-120      Awarded:9/30/2011
Title:Interpolated Liquid Shim Application System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a method to apply exactly controlled amounts of highly viscous liquid shim material within established manufacturing process specifications of the advanced aircraft assembly process, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Interpolated Liquid Shim Application System (ILSAS). This proposed device is based on a new design that utilizes novel electronic control technology developed in-house, integrated with COTS components. The innovations in electronics controls allow the device to control and monitor the shape of applied beads of liquid shim material to match a precalculated deposition plan. Integration of proven sensor technology measures the applied bead to guarantee proper application and absence of voids. The device can be directly integrated into the manufacturing process to eliminate four separate steps from the current assembly process, producing a tremendous labor savings and eliminating an existing production bottleneck. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate feasibility of this device by building an initial prototype, and demonstrating it on a representative section of an airframe structural flange at an MRL-4 level. In Phase II, POC plans to develop ILSAS to MRL-7 to meet advanced aircraft manufacturing requirements and to ready it for integration into the manufacturing process. BENEFIT: The Air Force will benefit from the proposed ILSAS technology by removing four steps from the advanced fighter assembly process, which will result in a dramatic acceleration in the aircraft assembly process and elimination of an existing production bottleneck. The technology also enables a significant reduction in touch labor and material waste while improving quality and repeatability of the manufacturing process. Beyond the advanced fighter program, every area within transportation, both military and commercial, is pushing to increase fuel economy, so the use of advanced composites will accelerate over the next several decades. The ILSAS technology is directly applicable to a tremendous range of applications within this manufacturing sector, fulfilling a key need for the rapid and precise application of adhesives.

Variation Reduction Solutions Inc
14901 Galleon Court
Plymouth, MI 48170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 637-7852
Scott Schafer
AF112-120      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Automated Liquid Shim Application
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Our team will develop a method for applying exact controlled amounts of highly viscous Liquid Shim material within established Production process specifications for aircraft structure through an automated direct mixing/dispensing application tool. Currently, liquid shim is applied using pneumatic Semco guns which are loaded with cartridges of premixed Hysol EA 9377. Once mixed, these materials have a short application window before they become unusable. The aircraft is masked, and then the liquid shim is applied. After application of the liquid shim, the panels are placed on the structure and excessive “squeeze out” is removed post-cure. The process is labor intensive and prone to quality control issues that may hinder full-rate production. We will provide a solution that utilizes electronic control systems and sensors to monitor the various material/process parameters and deliver a precise amount of mixed base and catalyst at an optimum rate to specified areas in exact, but variable, amounts required by a production specification. BENEFIT: The current manual process is labor intensive and prone to quality control issues that may hinder full-rate production. Our team will identify and define a viable approach for on demand mixing/dispensing of liquid shim that can meet quality criteria relating to thickness, porosity, and application time.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Jay C. Rozzi, PhD
AF112-121      Awarded:9/21/2011
Title:A Novel Power Skiving Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The skiving of gap and fastener fill materials is a critical process to maintain the proper Outer Mold Line (OML) of the F-35 during aircraft manufacture. This process must be completed for both long gaps that have been over-filled and for fasteners that have been filled with thermoplastic plugs. The skiving process must be completed to strict flushness and geometric requirements despite the complex and curved geometry of the part surface. Currently, the skiving process is completed using hand tools such as razor blades and represents a significant hand-touch operation for the manufacturing of the F-35 aircraft. Our innovation is a novel automated Flexible Power Skiver (FPS) that couples a compact, remotely driven, hand-held device with a unique flexible tool tip. This tool will enable effective gap filler material removal while conforming to the local surface geometry, thus providing a means to meet flushness requirements on difficult surface geometries. During the Phase I project, we will assemble the proof-of-concept FPS system, complete testing on relevant materials and geometries, and design the system for integration on the manufacturing floor. During Phase II, we will complete the FPS design, integration, testing, and transition. BENEFIT: Gap fills are required in numerous commercial applications including caulking, grouting, and durable goods manufacture. Because our technology enables selective, cost-effective gap filler removal, we expect that numerous commercial applications would benefit from the application of our innovative FPS.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
David Miller
AF112-121      Awarded:9/27/2011
Title:Pneumatic Height-Adjustable Skiving Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for an advanced power skiver tool, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an innovative Pneumatic, Height-Adjustable Skiving Tool (PHAST). The proposed device is based on combining proven material removal methodologies in practice today, innovative feed rate control, and the use of novel gear topology to create a lightweight, versatile, and accurate skiving tool. The innovation in tool design will enable PHAST to reliably trim loaded gap-fill material to a predefined height over a highly-varying surface contour, ensuring a smooth, consistent finish in a single pass. As a result, this device offers highly accurate and adjustable height regulation of a pneumatic- powered skiving blade, packaged in a compact, rotatable body, allowing easy manipulation in confined spaces, which directly addresses the Air Force requirements for an advanced skiver tool. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of PHAST by building a prototype tool capable of skiving gap-fill materials to precise heights, perform tests on samples with complex contours, and provide initial cost estimates for the device. In Phase II, POC plans to deliver a field-ready device capable of full-scale validation in a production-representative environment in addition to a detailed transition-to-production plan. BENEFIT: Meeting the technical and operational requirements set forth by the U.S. Air Force for an advanced power skiving tool will allow POC to develop PHAST for all types of assembly operations in both the military and commercial sides of the aerospace industry where outer mold line control is critical, including assembly and rework of stealth aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to gap-fill trimming, PHAST may be utilized in fastener flushness applications in which fastener holes must be filled and consequently trimmed to achieve low observable requirements. PHAST can also be used to trim shim buttons and cured liquid shim down to required heights in a single pass for proper skin alignment to reduce the cycle time and cost associated with achieving step and gap requirements. All of these capabilities not only apply to the military and defense side of manufacturing but to other commercial transportation areas as well, such as automotive and boating, where the use of composites and fill materials is increasing and the need for trimming materials to exact specifications is necessary to meet aerodynamic and fluid dynamic requirements.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
David B. Kynor
AF112-122      Awarded:9/22/2011
Title:Hole-to-Edge Measurement Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern military aircraft incorporate large numbers of holes located close to part edges to save weight and maximize performance. Accurate measurement of the distance between hole centers and the edge of the part is critical to ensure that structural integrity of the aircraft is maintained. Present measurement methods are extremely time consuming and difficult to apply to large numbers of holes. The goal of this project is development of an automated hole-to-edge measurement tool that is fast, easy to use, and highly accurate. Our approach relies on proven noncontact inspection technology that provides extremely high accuracy when used for making dimensional measurements of aircraft components. BENEFIT: The technology developed on this project will provide a new methodology for high-speed, easy to use measurement of hole-to edge-distances in aircraft assemblies. Use of this technology is expected to help ensure airframe integrity while significantly reducing F-35 production time and cost.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Andrew P. Brown
AF112-122      Awarded:9/23/2011
Title:Noncontact, Hand-Held Hole-to-Edge Distance Measurement Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Toyon Research Corporation proposes research and development resulting in production of a hand-held device capable of real-time fully-automated measurement of hole sizes and hole- to-edge distances for aircraft manufacturing quality assurance applications. The proposed product will be compact, hand-held, and easy to use, enabling improved efficiency for operators. At the heart of the proposed technical solution to the hole and edge measurement problem are advanced image processing algorithms capable of high-accuracy measurement of surfaces in 3D physical coordinates, based on calibrated stereo imaging. In Phase I, Toyon proposes algorithm development and implementation, test and evaluation, and system design and analysis to demonstrate feasibility of the technical solution to the non-contact hole and edge measurement problem. In planned Phase II development, the real-time, compact, rugged measurement device prototype would be developed and validated, and transition of the technology into Air Force quality assurance procedures would be pursued. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this effort will result in a new capability of rapidly, accurately, and automatically measuring hole sizes and hole-to-edge distances for aircraft manufacturing applications. There is the possibility of direct transition of this technology into Air Force and other DoD aircraft manufacturing quality assurance processes. The technology could also be transitioned into use in the larger market of civilian aircraft manufacturing quality assurance. There are many other similar applications in manufacturing to which the developed measurement device could be applied with minimal additional non-recurring engineering (NRE) cost. These include automotive manufacturing and other assembly line-based manufacturing applications where machine vision is, or could be, used for quality assurance purposes. In a more far-reaching application, the DOT would be interested in machine vision-based technology for assessing crack sizes in pavement, bridges, and other transportation infrastructure. Medical applications could also benefit from more advanced 3D surface modeling and measurement algorithms. Adaptation to some of these new applications might require considerably more development, but the potential return on the investment is substantial.

Innovative Micro Technology
75 Robin Hill road
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 681-2800
Chris Gudeman
AF112-124      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Heat Transfer Switching Devices
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose research & development efforts aimed at determining the technical feasibility of novel liquid-droplet-based thermal switches. Specifically, through combined modeling and experimental work, we aim to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving (1) On-state thermal conductance > 2000 W/m2 K, (2) Switching ratio > 10, (3) Switching voltage < 50 V, (3) Projected mass loss (evaporation) < 1% over 15 years, (4) Projected power consumption < 1 mW/cm2, (5) Insensitivity to launch vibration at up to 2000 g. BENEFIT: Although most research and development of thermal management tends to focus on “getting heat out” – for example, computer processor chips, automotive engines, building HVAC systems, and manufacturing plants – the retention of heat and the dynamic regulation of heat flow play very important roles, particularly when external heaters are required to compensate for cold operating conditions or large temperature swings, such as the current focus of the Air Force Operationally Responsive Space program. Virtually identical thermal management technology is badly needed by NASA, where the push to smaller and lower cost missions has become increasingly important. Commercial launches are scheduled to begin in 2015 to replace the constellation of satellites employed by Iridium Communications for truly mobile communications. 66 satellites are to be placed into LEO. CubeSat launches provide education and novel means of characterizing the earth. The importance of thermal management extends throughout the DoD, including predominantly Navy, where high efficiency translates into long unattended missions. Forward-looking applications of the Department of Energy and the Department of Transportation will require dynamic heat- retaining technology to improve automobile efficiency for both the internal combustion engine and fuel cell powered electric motors. Additional nongovernmental commercialization opportunities include nuclear power plants, transportation, oil refineries, chemical manufacturing, An estimate of the total available market (TAM), first consider US governmental space applications. DoD and NASA launch roughly 100 satellites per annum from Vandenberg, Kennedy, and Canaveral. This does not include the growing number of commercial spaceports include Kodiak, New Mexico and MARS (Virginia). Very roughly then 100 satellites are launched from US soil per annum. Thermal switch device fabrication costs can be estimated at roughly $5k/wafer, which is based on a 5 mask layer microfabrication process and will contain 4 devices. Note that this cost will decline steeply in higher volume. If each satellite requires 10 devices, plus necessary redundant devices (2x), the TAM is $2.5M/annum, not including additional devices for research and development purposes. This estimate is subject to large uncertainty of course, since designs and prototypes are yet to be constructed.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Oleg Galkin
AF112-124      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Ferrofluidic Thermal Switch
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a thermal switching device to provide temperature control of DoD system components for improved thermal management, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Ferrofluidic Thermal Switch (FTS). The proposed device is based on the novel dual use of a ferrofluid as a temperature conductive medium and magnetic actuation to control the position of the ferrofluid inside the thermal switch. The new system design and use of ferrofluid as a medium with high-thermal conductivity allow implementation of heat flow switches with a high switching ratio of 10 to 100. A novel magnetic actuation mechanism allows implementation of fast, low-power switching and reduction or total elimination of the number of moving mechanical components, which will increase the reliability and the lifetime of the FTS system. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of our FTS system by developing a system design, extensive modeling, and building and testing a proof-of-concept prototype. In Phase II, POC plans to develop two functional prototypes of the FTS system, demonstrate the system’s capability to function in the temperature range of -60 degrees C to +100 degrees C, and work with heat fluxes of 10 to 100 W/cm^2. BENEFIT: The POC FTS system will provide the Air Force with a modular, active, in-flight, configurable thermal switching device that will allow accurate control of thermally sensitive devices onboard spacecraft and satellites. Thermal switches have a potential to dramatically reduce the amount of analysis and testing required for the development of spacecraft, reduce the mass of the system, and provide a modular solution for heat control. The FTS device can also be incorporated by the Air Force into the thermal control systems of aircraft, which will benefit from the ability of the FTS system to control and modulate the heat flux from the critical temperature-sensitive components. The proposed FTS system will find direct application in a range of commercial applications that require accurate heat flow control. Such applications include thermal control of sensitive aircraft and ground vehicle components. The FTS system can also be used to provide better thermal control for structures and buildings to optimize energy consumption and heat regulation.

MRL Materials Resources LLC
3861 N Chalet Circle
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 469-0918
Ayman Salem
AF112-125      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Tailoring Titanium Microstructures for Reduced Oxygen Ingress during High Temperature Applications using a Novel Microstructure-Informatics Approach
Abstract:ABSTRACT: High temperature applications of titanium alloys are limited by their affinity to oxygen. In these alloys, oxygen absorption results in a brittle surface layer (i.e. alpha-case) that has a deteriorating effect on the mechanical properties of the material. Reducing oxygen ingress into these alloys at high temperatures is essential to their cost-effective utilization in both metallic thermal protection systems and hot structure applications. One promising approach to reduce oxygen ingress (without the application of additional surface coatings) while improving high temperature mechanical properties is to design or tailor the microstructure in the material surface layer through carefully selected thermo-mechanical surface treatments. The proposed work will develop and validate a new experimental-modeling framework for capturing the precise effect of the complex material internal structure (i.e. microstructure) on oxygen ingress. In addition, this novel framework will allow compact representation and visualization of microstructure evolution during selected thermo- mechanical processing routes, thereby enabling identification of new promising hybrid processing routes to realize enhanced performance characteristics. The proposed work is expected to contribute a central building block for the emerging Integrated Computational Materials Science and Engineering (ICMSE) infrastructure. BENEFIT: The result of this project will be the first commercially available Microstructure Informatics Database that objectively links the salient microstructure features, oxygen diffusivity, and thermomechanical processing in alpha-beta Ti alloys. The overall methodology and software tools developed by MRL may also be applied to nearly any other material system with crystalline components, with an economical number of tests and rapid characterization and analysis time. This will, in turn, open the door to the design and optimization of new high performance materials.

QuesTek Innovations LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 425-8221
Herng-Jeng Jou
AF112-125      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:High-Temperature Structural Material Process for Oxidation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Isothermal and cyclic oxidation at elevated temperatures could severely limit performance of high temperature materials and components for aerospace application. With ever increasing engine operating temperatures for better fuel efficiency, oxidation and its interaction with fracture & fatigue failure is becoming an important consideration for engine designer. Under this SBIR Phase I program, QuesTek Innovations LLC, a leader in the field of computational materials design, with the support from Pratt & Whitney and NASA, proposes to determine the optimal processes and suitable surface microstructure to enhance the oxidation resistance of high temperature materials, utilizing mechanistic and microstructure-based models. The primary focus is advanced aero-engine disk materials. Mechanistic oxidation models (structure-property) combined with disk alloy process models (process-structure) will be utilized to predict the surface oxidation behavior for several surface treatment procedures and their resulting microstructure, including grain size and precipitate dispersions in Ni-base disk material. The ideal microstructure and optimal surface treatment processes will be designed based on model predictions for improved oxidation resistance at relevant operating conditions defined by our project partners. Phase II efforts will experimentally validate the model predictions and further optimize surface treatment processing conditions to achieve optimal oxidation resistance. BENEFIT: By incorporating mechanistic and microstructure-based models, a key benefit of QuesTek’s approach is to reduce empirical experimentation, resulting in significant cost and time savings over a conventional empirical approach. With further development in Phase II, optimized processing and improved oxidation resistance in Ni-base aeroturbine disk alloys will be demonstrated and verified experimentally. As stated in the support letter from Pratt & Whitney, an increase in oxidation capability benefits the F135 JSF engine by improving performance and durability. In the long term, the mechanistic nature of the models will allow the interaction of oxidation with other mechanical properties, such as fatigue crack initiation and growth, to be directly incorporated into design, enabling a broader microstructure and processing optimization to achieve a balanced performance of disk components. Furthermore, the established capabilities can be used in the future to computationally design innovative disk alloy compositions, and their corresponding surface treatments, to further improve oxidation resistance, enabling higher operating temperatures and better fuel efficiency in future aeroturbine engines.

Hysitron Incorporated
10025 Valley View Road
Minneapolis, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 835-6366
Jason Y. Oh
AF112-126      Awarded:9/29/2011
Title:High-Temperature Microsample Testing System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A better understanding of the thermo-mechanical response, characteristics and properties of materials can lead to improved device performance as well as facilitate the design of new devices and materials for various applications. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro/nanomechanical testing techniques and tools over the last decade, commercially available tools do not provide adequate capabilities for investigating thermo-mechanical behaviors of micro/nano-scale samples at elevated temperatures over 600 °C. In order to extend quantitative thermo-mechanical property measurements to higher temperature applications, we propose the development of a high-temperature microsample testing system capable of temperature control up to 1100 °C. The proposed thermo- mechanical testing system can perform uniaxial compression and tensile tests inside a scanning electron microscope or under a high-resolution optical microscope and record real-time in-situ video images of the material deformation behavior. In this SBIR we will develop a heating stage capable of sample heating up to 1100 °C, a transducer capable of applying a maximum force higher than 5 N and a maximum travel range of 0.5 mm, sample holders capable of mounting multiple microsamples for compression and tensile tests, and a piezo-motor stage for sample approach, alignment, and precise positioning. Successful completion of this SBIR development will provide a high-temperature microsample testing system offering unprecedented capabilities for exploring relationships between temperature, mechanical properties, and structural behavior of materials. BENEFIT: The proposed system is intended for pioneering studies of the thermo-mechanical characteristics of micro-scale samples at high temperatures up to 1100 °C. The realization of the proposed high-temperature microsample testing system will provide an unprecedented thermo-mechanical testing tool to researchers interested in the quantitative exploration of the relationship between temperature, mechanical property, and structural behavior of materials. Many materials and devices are used and operated at high temperatures. The thermo-mechanical reliability and performance of these materials need to be fully understood through proper mechanical testing. Increasing the temperature control capability of the mechanical testing system to cover the sample material/device operating temperature range is critical. Material reliability data related to wear, fatigue, and material strength obtained from thermo-mechanical testing can be used to estimate the possible operational temperature range and life span in the high temperature environment. The proposed mechanical test system will introduce many new scientific findings especially to researchers interested in high temperature materials such as metal alloys, composites, and ceramics routinely used at temperatures from 600 °C to 1100 °C. The proposed system is compatible with in-situ optical/electron microscopy which can be used to investigate structure-property correlations and the influence of pre-existing defects on the mechanical response of

Nanomechanics, Inc.
105 Meco Lane Suite 100
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 978-6490
Warren Oliver
AF112-126      Awarded:9/29/2011
Title:High-Temperature Microsample Testing System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There has been growing interest in nano- and micro-scale testing of materials at increasingly elevated temperatures. However technological obstacles have limited the range of materials that can be tested and limited the temperatures that can be successfully reached for experimentation due to oxidation of the sample, thermal drift in the actuation and heat management of the system. For this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, “High-Temperature Microsample Testing System,” Nanomechanics Inc. (NMI) proposes to complete a conceptual design for a high-temperature microsample test system that can function in both tension and compression for samples from 500°C to 1100°C, with the purpose of completing a prototype of the system in Phase II. BENEFIT: The technology developed from this project will open up a new testing regime for those involved in micro- and nano-mechanical testing. High temperature, in situ testing will be possible for temperatures up to 1100 Celsius for nanoindentation experiments, as well as other microsample experiments such as tensile testing.

Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 764-2200
Christopher Rhodes
AF112-127      Awarded:9/26/2011
Title:High Energy Density VB2/Air Batteries for Long Endurance UAVs
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly important for the military and commercial sectors. Small UAVs used for surveillance of battlespace must be capable of long duration flights while providing the necessary data to aid military personnel. Current battery technologies have limited energy densities and provide small UAVs with ~1-2 hours of operational time, which significantly limits their capabilities. The Air Force is currently interested in operating small UAVs for 4-10 hours or longer, depending on the type of mission. To extend the flight time of small UAVs, Lynntech proposes to develop an advanced high energy density battery based on a unique vanadium boride (VB2) anode and an air cathode. Lynntech’s VB2/air battery utilizes a multiple electron electrochemical energy storage process which results in a battery with several fold higher energy density than existing batteries. The Phase I project will fabricate and test small scale VB2/air cells and determine projected metrics for full scale cells to demonstrate the ability to provide long endurance UAVs compared with those utilizing current batteries. During the Phase II, Lynntech will develop and test full scale cells for long endurance UAVs. BENEFIT: Lynntech’s high energy density VB2/air batteries have significant commercial potential based on their significantly higher projected energy densities compared with current primary and rechargreable batteries Specific benefits for DoD include extended duration unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight times, reduced carry weight for soldiers, and extended duration sensors. The battery has a dual use for both military and civilian applications. Military applications include UAVs, soldier power, communication systems, weapons systems, remote sensors, and surveillance systems. Private sector applications for Lynntech’s VB2/air batteries include consumer hearing aids, long endurance sensors, and a broad range of consumer electronic devices.

NOHM Technologies
PO Box 4869
Ithaca, NY 14852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 229-9088
Navaneedhakrishnan Jayaprakash
AF112-127      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Novel Electrochemical Couples for High Energy and Power Density
Abstract:ABSTRACT: For this SBIR Proposal, NOHMs Technology will design a safe, non-flammable, dendrite- suppressing electrolyte from a family of unique class of self-suspended hybrid nanoparticles for use in Li-S batteries. The three electrolytes to be explored are: (1) NOHMs Electrolyte, (2) NOHMs Cross-linked Electrolyte, (3) and Ionic-liquid Hybrid Electrolyte. These electrolyte compounds exhibit strong mechanical properties which frustrate lithium dendrite formation, are non-flammable / volatile, and 7x higher lithium transference than pure ionic- liquid electrolytes. The proposed electrochemical coupling of Li-S increases theoretical storage capacity from 0.6 kW/kg (for li-ion) to 2.3 kW/kg (for li-sulfur), yielding a dramatic 3-4x weight, size, and cost reduction for batteries in mobile devices, EVs, and utilities power storage. However, a commercially viable Li-S cell is yet to be realized. The technology has so far been hindered by poor electrical conductivity of sulfur and shuttling of higher-order polysulfides during charging (which seriously degrades performance). However, NOHMs proprietary nanostructured cathode material prevents higher order polysulfide shuttling between electrodes and facilitates electron migration within the highly conductive carbon. This novel proprietary method dramatically lengthens cycle life of lithium-sulfur batteries. These Li-S batteries offer longer cycling life, higher energy storage capacity, greater power density, and lower direct and life-cycle costs. BENEFIT: This technology could benefit the military by enabling small- to micro-autonomous UAV systems, armored vehicles and portable power systems. This technology could benefit the commercial sector by improving automotive and/or public transit systems.

MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
57 MARYANNE DRIVE
MONROE, CT 06468
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 874-3100
Shane Johnson
AF112-130      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Bayesian Reliability Assessment of Non-Destructive Evaluation (BRANDE)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aircraft structural components are prone to damage typically assessed by various NDE tools. Damage to the aircraft structural components decreases operational readiness and compromises safety if improperly maintained; however, frequent inspections and maintenance is expensive. CBM+ equipped platforms, when supported by models and simulations typically experience an increase in operational readiness in the five percent range. CBM+ requires accurate quantitative damage descriptors with the addition of statistical metrics to feed risk assessments. MTC proposes to develop a software tool for Bayesian Reliability Assessment of NDE systems (BRANDE). BRANDE detects different aspects of damage characterization with an embedded statistical framework to decrease maintenance workloads, increase fleet readiness, and decrease safety risk by accurately representing confidence in quantitative NDE (QNDE). BRANDE will employ a generic statistical approach for quantitatively assessing the reliability of NDE systems considering critical controlling factors. Two basic problems in QNDE are considered: damage detection, where the performance (capacity) of NDE systems is represented by the Probability of Detection (POD) and False Call Rate (FCR), and damage sizing/localization, where the performance (accuracy) of NDE systems is represented by the Error of Estimation (EOE). Correspondingly, the proposed BRANDE, using Bayesian methods, solves the NDE assessment problem by providing a set of useful statistical metrics to quantify the variations/uncertainties in POD/FCR and EOE which depends on controlling factors. BENEFIT: Applications of BRANDE for both Military and Commercial applications are numerous. BRANDE can be readily applied to applications in structural health monitoring to make maintenance scheduling decisions. For example, Health and Usage Monitoring Systems would benefit directly from the proposed software developments as wireless systems to investigate cracks and loose bolts in critical structural components are embedded into the helicopter. BRANDE is applicable civil infrastructure where an embedded NDE tool could be compromised during a catastrophic event or where the size of global damage is to be predicted from local measurements on particular structures. The statistical framework can be used to evaluate multiple additional military applications and even the automotive industry.

Victor Technologies, LLC
P.O. Box 7706
Bloomington, IN 47407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 339-8273
Harold A. Sabbagh
AF112-130      Awarded:9/20/2011
Title:Stochastic Reliability Metrics for Damage Characterization Based on Parametric and Voxel-Based Estimation Algorithms
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To achieve the objectives of condition-based maintenance plus prognosis (CBM+), and realize its potential, the location and size of damage at any length scale, e.g., either a crack or a microstructural perturbation, needs to be determined with statistical metrics to feed prognostic reasoners and risk assessments. Previous work by Victor Technologies has focused on developing estimation-theoretic metrics for model-based inversion algorithms in eddy-current NDE. In this research effort, we will develop and demonstrate a general statistical theory of uncertainty propagation with appropriate metrics, and apply the results to more challenging three-dimensional problems, including those in which sizing and location of flaws are required, as well as materials characterization. This will pave the way for a validation study using benchmark data during Phase II. BENEFIT: The technology that we develop in this proposal will be applicable to the aerospace, nuclear power, materials characterization and many other industries, so our research will have commercial benefits that extend far beyond military applications.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Basil Scott
AF112-132      Awarded:10/17/2011
Title:Integrated or Fused Multi-spectral Sensor Technologies for Missile Warning Sensors (MWS), Hostile Fire Indication (HFI), and Laser Warning (LW)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit’s M2IWS system (Multi-Spectral, Multi-Threat Integrated Warning Sensor) provides an integrated “triple threat” sensor that combines missile warning (MW), laser threat warning (LW), and hostile fire indication (HFI) in one integrated sensor. These functions are currently performed by separate systems. These multiple systems take up too much valuable space on aircraft, and for smaller platforms are simply too heavy. M2IWS uses custom infrared technology developed by Oceanit, combined with the latest commercially available technology, both COTS and GOTS, to achieve the most compact sensor possible. The system combines wide FOV staring for all threat classes with high- resolution imagery. This enables very rapid threat detection, battlefield surveillance, close air support to the battlefield, and intelligence support. M2IWS can be deployed in configurations ranging from a single sensor up to five. This allows for sensor configurability so that different packages can be available as required for different military aircraft and mission profiles. For example, a small attack helicopter could install a single sensor with 180° field-of-view. A larger aircraft might install four, 120° FOV sensors for longer range operation, and due to airframe obstructions. BENEFIT: M2IWS system is primarily a military product but has commercial applications, such as aircraft and vessel protection for military and civilian customers, both passenger and freight.

Technology Service Corporation
3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 800
Los Angeles, CA 90034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 754-4222
Bernard Rees
AF112-134      Awarded:12/1/2011
Title:Tracking Algorithms for Multi-Static Passive Radar Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Air defense systems using Passive coherent location (PCL) radars are a concern for the US Air Force because of the PCL receivers’ reduced vulnerability to electronic detection and precision weapons, and because of their potential for enhanced detection of low-observable US aircraft. The Electronic Combat Benchmark Tool (ECBT) is a detailed simulation of an integrated air defense system used by the air force for planning missions and developing electronic attack techniques. However, this tool is currently limited to monostatic radars. The proposed Phase I program will produce a comprehensive plan to upgrade ECBT to handle air defense systems that use PCL radars. The proposed work includes an assessment of the tool, and the development of algorithms and models for PCL radar simulation, including multistatic radar modeling, single-receiver tracking with multiple transmitters, and multiple- receiver integrated tracking. The proposed work draws on TSC’s extensive experience in bistatic radar simulation, design and testing. BENEFIT: The proposed program will outline the models and algorithms that are required to provide a complete tracking simulation for a ground-based passive coherent location (PCL) in the Electronic Combat Benchmark tool. These results will lay the groundwork for the implementation of this capability in a Phase II program.

ADVIS
176 Anderson Avenue
Rochester, NY 14607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 568-0100
John C. Liobe
AF112-135      Awarded:11/7/2011
Title:Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) Architecture Development for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Imaging Sensors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The employment of advanced digital image sensor readout integrated circuit (ROIC) technology will greatly enhance the functionality of the ACES-HY system. Specific improvements will be improved image quality resulting from the removal of existing electronic crosstalk artifacts and enhanced capability of the system to image small, fast moving objects. New digital ROICs will further extend system functionality by allowing electronic zoom, windowing/binning, adjustable frame exposure time, user controlled bit depth and extended intra-scene dynamic range by controlling gain on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The digital readout also enables integration of the imager with an on-chip image-processing engine to perform low-level image computations such as change detection, edge identification and wavelet transformation for JPEG2000 image compression and other video analytic computations. The proposed digital architecture, which employs a delta-sigma analog to digital converter at each pixel lets the user adaptively capture any desired level of scene information (resolution, field of view, bit-depth, dynamic range, and minimum light level) and it also provides reductions in size, weight and power (SWaP). BENEFIT: Adaptive digital image sensor readout technologies with pixel-by-pixel gain control will greatly enhance intra-scene dynamic range and thereby reduce scene failures, which are especially problematic in infrared imaging. The new digital read out technology proposed for this application also allows a direct tradeoff of image bit depth for exposure time and it is capable of capturing fast transient events simultaneously with longer exposure scene capture through post-processing of the the imager output data. These capabilities will have a number of commercial applications, especially where high frame rate is needed such as in industrial machine vision applications and high-speed photography.

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Adam Lee
AF112-135      Awarded:11/4/2011
Title:Improved Hyperspectral Readout Integrated Circuit
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Addressing the demands of high frame-rate, large-format hyperspectral imagers, the design of a custom readout integrated circuit (ROIC) will be developed. The hyperspectral imaging ROIC will feature flexible operating readout modes including row (wavelength) programmable (i) gain, (ii) integration time, (iii) charge skimming, and (iv) threshold settings, all of which contribute to optimizing the information recorded on the focal plane array. The ROIC also allows multiple region-of-interest readout so that specific wavelengths and spatial regions can be readout quickly and the unused portions of the imager can be powered down. The high level of parallelism in the ROIC reduces latency and allows real time processing of the hyperspectral data. The ROIC features event-driven, time-encoded digitization and parallel data access and readout. In Phase I the ROIC will be designed, laid out, and simulated and in the optional tasks a prototype circuit will be fabricated. In Phase II a large format hyperspectral ROIC will be fabricated, coupled with a detector array, and a fully-functional hyperspectral imager will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: There is an unmet need for hyperspectral readout circuits. Hyperspectral imaging has been previously applied mostly in military surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeting applications. It is now finding paths into other domains, such as manufacturing, industrial process control, medical diagnostics, and security. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery (HSI) has transitioned from government laboratories and research centers into the general marketplace in the areas of agriculture, forestry mineral exploration, oil exploration, natural resources management, emergency insurance, response/disaster management pollution and environmental monitoring, urban development and military surveillance. The innovation makes these applications possible by increasing the amount of scene and target information that can be stored on a focal plane and by providing parallel, real time access and processing of data.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mark V. Zagarola
AF112-136      Awarded:10/25/2011
Title:Low-Cost Hybrid Cryocoolers for Next-Generation Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Future airborne imaging sensors will utilize next-generation focal plane technology that must operate at temperatures from 25 to 30 K. Passive cooling techniques such as stored cryogens are heavy and logistically undesirable. Current airborne cryocoolers are too inefficient in this temperature range and space-borne cryocoolers are prohibitively expensive. On this program, Creare proposes to develop a two-stage hybrid cryocooler that meets the requirements for future airborne sensor systems. The cryocooler will be lightweight, efficient, reliable and affordable. On the Phase I project, we will develop a set of cryocooler requirements, design a hybrid cryocooler to meet these requirements, assess the production cost of the cryocooler, and measure the performance of a brassboard version of the hybrid cryocooler. On the Phase II project, we plan to build, assemble, and test a prototype cryocooler. Creare and our collaborators are well qualified to develop and commercialize this cryocooler technology. Successful completion of this program will enable advanced sensor systems for airborne surveillance and reconnaissance. BENEFIT: The result of this program will be a lightweight, efficient, reliable and affordable cryocooler that enables the usage of next-generation focal plane technology in airborne surveillance and reconnaissance systems. Commercial applications include cooling for sensors used in infrared astronomical and hyperspectral sensors, and infrared vision systems.

Front Range Engineering Company
8746 Streamcrest Dr
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 999-0527
Paul Hendershott
AF112-136      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Cryocooler for New Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed low-temperature, low-cost cryocooler meets a need for lower temperatures required by emerging airborne applications. Airborne platforms are adding infrared and hyperspectral sensors, which require cryogenic cooling to less than 77 K, in some cases as low as 25 K. The current state-of-the-art commercial/military cooler is designed to work at around 80 K and can operate without heat load at temperatures of 45-60 K. Other options for 25 K cooling include cryogenic dewars requiring cryogen availability and handling scenarios that tend to limit CONOPS flexibility. Besides meeting these airborne requirements, the low-cost cryocooler developed in this SBIR can be used for shorter (2 year) space missions in which high performance, provided at reduced cost, are essential. With cryocooler life testing, it is likely that the design developed in this SBIR will be capable of longer life (5-7 years). The Phase I SBIR will focus on cryocooler architecture trades and cryocooler systems requirements definition followed by verification testing of several key design elements. BENEFIT: A successful Phase 2 effort could lead to a large number of applications. Ball intends to market this cooler together with their cryogenic system expertise to sensor providers within Ball and other external providers. Such a cooler could eliminate the need for cryogens on airborne missions providing a significant CONOPS advantage. These sensors can be marketed to both Air Force, other military, NASA and commercial companies.

Signal Innovations Group, Inc.
4721 Emperor Blvd. Suite 330
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 323-3453
Jim Baxter
AF112-137      Awarded:10/13/2011
Title:High Range Resolution (HRR)-Surrogate SAR Target Identification
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force has invested considerable resources into collecting and synthesizing radar data for training and testing ATC/R systems. Significant cost savings may be realized if these existing datasets may be leveraged for training new sensors and modalities. Signal Innovations Group offers a new paradigm for automatically identifying statistically salient features for ATR systems from combined sources of existing surrogate and limited operational data. This approach departs from conventional techniques that attempt to compensate for numerous sources of degradation, through pre-processing, noise estimation, modeling and manual intervention in order to obtain perfect HRR template matches. Saliency analysis identifies sparse subsets of features (e.g. HRR range bins) that are both statistically significant for ATR and robustly manifested in data. Salient features have been shown to provide superior classification performance compared to full- dimensional HRRs. Additionally, SIG proposes migrating away from conventional HRRs to simple, compact sets of physics-based features, derived from EM phenomenology, which may be extracted independently from both SAR and MTI. This paradigm avoids reliance on complex pre-processing to compensate for distortion by utilizing statistical inference techniques to identify robust phenomenology. Adverse phenomena (e.g. multi-bounce or shadowing) are highly variable and will be rejected by the saliency analysis. BENEFIT: The successful program will result in a capability to automatically leverage data across multiple sensors and modalities for ATR development. A common database of physics- based features will be developed across families of sensors. This will reduce the costs of training new ATR systems and decrease the time required to deploy new capabilities. The Bayesian framework naturally supports the fusion of information from alternative sensing modalities such as optical, infrared, or hyper-spectral. The physics-based features in the radar regime may be combined with corresponding physics-based features in these alternate regimes, through higher-level Bayesian processes, to improve overall ATR performance. The sequential Bayesian inference framework for identifying salient features has potential extensions in both military and commercial applications. This framework may be applied to train new ATR systems, with very limited characterized data, using surrogate datasets from existing sensors. This applies to new sensors, including EO and IR, developed for military or geospatial applications as well as for medical imaging and diagnostic applications. For example, this framework may be applied towards improved tissue characterization and disease detection with medical imaging systems, automated facial recognition systems, genetic/protein structure and function determination for bioinformatics analysis, and next- generation internet search engine development.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Greg Arnold
AF112-139      Awarded:10/13/2011
Title:Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Frameworks for Layered Sensing
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this effort is to develop a framework to integrate data from various air and ground sensor systems employed in an urban environment to collect data on moving/stationary vehicles and dismounts. A Layered Sensing processing framework is needed that combines information, gleans meaning from the collected data, and re-tasks sensors in a timely manner to garner actionable intelligence. Tasking for the numerous sensory assets must be coordinated to support automatic cross-cueing so that the right information is collected at the right time and place. Initially, this effort will focus on jointly using wide-area motion imagery (RF and EO) and study how this can feed forward and back from a seeker deployed for a reconnaissance targeting mission. This will be a challenging proof-of-concept demonstration of a multi-sensor data fusion framework for layered sensing. Ultimately we envision this contributing to the Advanced Recognition Capability (ARC) Lab at AFRL and multiple ISR platforms. BENEFIT: The successful completion of Phase I will result in the generation of a general scheme for fusing data across multiple air and ground sensors. This will solve a technical challenge necessary for the development of Layered Sensing systems, a key enabler for many DoD missions such as battlespace awareness.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Patrick A. Toole
AF112-139      Awarded:10/13/2011
Title:Decentralized Asset Manager for Layered Sensing
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a decentralized asset management framework which will provide near-optimal dynamic cooperative control of diverse assets within the Layered Sensing Architecture. We propose to develop an asset manager which will perform allocation, assignment, vehicle routing, and sensor tasking for a collection of assets while taking into account other asset managers and assets. The proposed design creates a ‘team of teams’ behavior, which can accommodate large numbers of diverse assets with loose synchronization. Interfaces will accept information needs from multiple sources and will be ‘plug-n-play’ so that organic assets can come on-line at any time to help fulfill mission objectives. We will build upon Toyon’s existing fingerprinting, fusion, prediction, tasking, and routing algorithms and the Tracked Object Manager (TOM). In Phase I, we will develop the prototype asset manager, build a realistic contemporary operational scenario, and demonstrate real-time closed-loop plug-and-play operation of multiple asset managers controlling assets simulated using SLAMEM™. In Phase II we will advance the prototype asset manager and perform live closed-loop testing of the new decentralized control framework using multiple asset managers and real unmanned aerial vehicles at Camp Roberts. BENEFIT: The proposed decentralized asset management will provide loose closed-loop control of diverse sensor systems operating in a layered sensing architecture. The new technology will enable organic assets and sensor systems to simultaneously support a multiple missions and common operating pictures (COPS). The developed test cases used for evaluation can also be used by AFRL to evaluate other layered sensing concepts and technologies.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Tin M. Aye
AF112-140      Awarded:10/26/2011
Title:Sense and Avoid Insect Eye/Neuromorphic Sensor System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Sense and Avoid Insect Eye/Neuromorphic (SAVIEN) sensor system to address the Air Force’s need for an insect vision-based sensor system that will enable remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) to perform real- time reporting of other aircraft locations and collision threats. This proposed sensor system is based on a unique combination of a miniature staring multiaperture superposition compound eye with a high-sensitivity compact miniature IR and visible photodetector arrays and a neural network processor to detect and locate obstacles with high angular resolution over a large field of view. Infrared signal detection and data processing using a simple neural network support long-range detection with low false alarm rate for collision avoidance. This innovative combination results in a high-speed and high-performance system that ideally matches the stringent cost, size, weight, and power requirements of small-scale RPA. Phase I will include development of the SAVIEN system design to meet Air Force requirements, and a demonstration prototype to prove the feasibility of the concept. Phase II efforts will include system optimization and fabrication of a prototype that satisfies the requirements and interfaces to Air Force systems, suitable for performance testing through ground and flight demonstrations. BENEFIT: Because of its light weight, compact size, and low cost, the SAVIEN system can be installed in small remotely controlled ground vehicles for applications such as police surveillance and traffic control. Its low cost will also suit it for collision avoidance in automobiles, boats, and aircraft.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Ryan Miyamoto
AF112-141      Awarded:10/18/2011
Title:Optimization Algorithm to Enhance Antenna Array Beamforming for Radar and Early Warning (EW) Application
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit proposes to develop an optimization algorithm for phased arrays using highly efficient optimization techniques. BENEFIT: The proposed technique can be used in wireless communications.

S2 Corporation
2310 University Way Building 4-1
Bozeman, MT 59715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 922-0334
Kristian D. Merkel
AF112-142      Awarded:11/2/2011
Title:Hardware Based Broadband Ultra High-speed Digital Signal Processor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: S2 Corporation and subcontractor Research Associates of Syracuse aim to develop a broadband hardware based ultra high-speed signal processor for real time digital, broadband RF spectrum signal stream captures at greater than 10 GSPS for a countermeasure applications, and demonstrate digital algorithms to significantly advance the tactical capability through complete and immediate knowledge of the full RF spectrum for enhanced spectral situational awareness, with regards to the generally stated DoD goal of controlling the RF spectrum. This approach will mitigate the core problem of wideband digitizing as a unique union of photonic analog signal processing with digital results in real time, that will be integrated with proven RF signal processing algorithms and FGPA hardware to provide a real-time capability to detect and measure signals of interest across a broad bandwidth with low latency. BENEFIT: Extreme wideband spectral analysis over bandwidths of 4 GHz or greater delivered in operational hardware that can be scaled to >20 GHz, along with signal processing algorithms in real time digital systems that will perform SIGINT functions. The hardware has advantages over a conventional analog to digital converter based solution in all aspects, including performance, size, weight, power and cost.

B.E. Meyers & Co. Inc.
14540 NE 91st Street
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 250-4089
Roger Johnson
AF112-143      Awarded:10/21/2011
Title:Multi-Use Laser Sensors for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A subminiature laser sensor system operating at 1550 nm for use on micro-class unmanned air vehicles (UAV) is proposed. The system can be electronically reconfigured to function as a: laser designator, laser spot tracker, laser range finder and a proximity sensor. This modular system occupies less than 4 cubic inches and has a range of 0.5 km—2.5 km in a slightly larger version. A passive Q- switched laser is used as the optical source. The high amount of pulse jitter of such lasers is reduced by more than an order of magnitude to acceptable levels through electronic and optical means. The reduced jitter is a result of rapid change of the laser cavity loss/gain, and causes Q-switching to occur at a precisely defined time. BENEFIT: An electronically configurable subminiature eye-safe Q-switched laser system (designator and/or rangefinder) will find wide use on micro-class UAVs in ISR environments. It’s small size, low cost and extreme ruggedness also allows it to be used in SWaP constrained applications other than UAVs. The 1550nm wavelength makes it safe for the war fighter and also allows it to be used in future civilian UAV environments. Such a flexible electro-optical system could also be integrated with small Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) to improve their detection/marking capabilities.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
David B. Oakes
AF112-143      Awarded:10/17/2011
Title:Novel, Multi-Use Diode Laser-Based Sensor for Remotely Piloted Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this Phase I SBIR proposal Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) outlines the development of a scaleable, multi-use laser sensor with size, weight and power (SWaP) characteristics that are compatible with small, remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). PSI’s approach will result in a modular sensor that can be scaled to the requirements of a specific RPA and mission. Current range finder and designator technology based upon Q-switched solid state lasers is not compatible with the SWaP of small RPAs. PSI’s approach is to develop scalable source and optical system designs to meet the laser sensor specifications. In Phase I, PSI will develop a prototype design for the laser sensor that is compatible with a range of small RPAs. The design process will include: 1) laser source characterization and selection, 2) optical system design, 3) modeling of receiver signal levels for various mission scenarios to determine the optimum receiver characteristics and 4) preliminary design of a prototype laser design incorporating the laser source, optical system and receiver system characteristics. In Phase II the prototype will be built and tested, both in the laboratory and in the field. BENEFIT: The proposed laser sensor technology will provide the Air Force with unique laser sensors that can be applied to a broad range of RPA platforms to significantly improve their existing sensor capabilities. The compact, efficient characteristics of the technology will also benefit the development of lightweight laser rangefinders and designators that are used in other military and commercial applications.

ImSAR LLC
940 South 2000 West #140
Springville, UT 84663
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 798-8440
Gerald Wilson
AF112-144      Awarded:10/14/2011
Title:Advanced Radar Concepts For Small (Tier I/II) RPAs
Abstract:ABSTRACT: ImSAR LLC and Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) propose to leverage ImSAR's proven radar hardware and ground processing capabilities along with SSSC's expertise in radar signal processing, SAR-based GMTI, and automatic/assisted target recognition to advance the state of the art in dismount detection in small SWaP radars. BENEFIT: GMTI for small SWaP radars has the potential to significantly enhance battlefield commander tactical awareness. Non-military applications could include border patrol and search and rescue applications.

Trident Systems Inc.
10201 Fairfax Boulevard Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7781
Allan Dianic
AF112-144      Awarded:10/14/2011
Title:Advanced Radar Concepts For Small (Tier I/II) RPAs
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Tactical use of remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) has expanded rapidly, as the increasing reliability and performance of both the aircraft and their sensor payloads have significantly improved warfighter situational awareness (SA). A key capability required by warfighters, particularly in today’s asymmetric conflicts, is detection, identification, and tracking of widely dispersed dismounted adversaries. Recent evolution of radar system implementations down to sizes employable on small RPA platforms offers new capabilities in mission execution that hold potential for significant improvements in battlefield SA—namely, spectrum-agile EO/IR/SAR imaging & change detection dynamically cross-cued with effective GMTI. A minimum set of functionality, however, must be provided in order to enable an effective capability to the warfighter, so that the payload may produce timely, reliable reports of battlefield activity—this will require new operational concepts and innovation in real-time signal processing, all while adhering to the tight size, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints of small RPA platforms. Trident proposes the development of a complete sub- 10lb, multi-band SAR/GMTI payload based on our proven modular radar architecture. This work includes development of effective mission CONOPs, requirements analysis, architecture mapping, functional and SWaP allocation, algorithm selection, performance analysis, preliminary design, and Phase II prototype and test plan development. BENEFIT: The successful development of a multi-mode, multi-band small-SWaP RPA radar payload will significantly improve situational awareness for the battlefield commander by enabling the small RPA platform to provide persistent mover detection and tracking over a much larger area than with EO/IR sensors alone. The effective implementation of this innovative technology will provide this reliable, timely situational awareness information via existing and familiar standards-based messaging and communications methods, minimizing operational concept changes brought on by introduction of new sensor modalities and capabilities. These new capabilities are not only useful in the tactical military environment, but also in border security for homeland defense, and in emergency/disaster response and search & rescue applications.

RBS Technologies, LLC
2703 Sycamore Ridge Ct
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-8189
George Lee
AF112-145      Awarded:10/26/2011
Title:High Resolution Wide Band Direct Conversion Receiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Rapid detection and analysis of signals over a wide frequency band in a dense signal environment continues to be an area requiring further research and development. Detecting low power time varying signals in the presence of strong interference over a wide frequency range in real time has proven to an elusive task. Advances in digital signal processing techniques and real time hardware implementation technology provide the basic tools for potentially realizing a receiver with the required dynamic range, resolution, bandwidth and flexibility to operate in a dense signal environment. RBS Technologies, LLC proposes to develop innovative signal processing algorithms and architectures for implementing a real time direct conversion receiver with the required resolution, bandwidth, and data processing/storage capability to operate in the projected dense signal environments. Emphasis will be placed on practical solutions that can be implemented in state of the digital processing hardware. BENEFIT: There is a broad range of applications in all branches of the military for a very wide band, high dynamic range direct conversion receiver for detection and analysis of RF signals. The commercial sector has similar requirements with wireless communications, global positioning systems (GPS), etc. operating in a dense signal environment with inadvertent or intentional interference.

Kalos Technologies, Inc.
10814 Waterbury Ridge Ln
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 626-2321
David Mycue
AF112-146      Awarded:11/3/2011
Title:Ultra-Wideband Radio Frequency (RF) Vector Signal Generator with Channel Emulation Capability via Frequency Sampling and Parallel Processing Technolog
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This project designs and demonstrates the feasibility of an innovative ultra-wideband radio frequency vector signal generator with channel emulation capability through frequency domain sampling theory and parallel processing FPGAs. Emerging RF applications, especially military applications, have been increasing their signal bandwidths and waveform complexity. To analyze and evaluate performances of such RF applications, it is highly desirable to have vector signal generators that can create precise digital representations of very complex wideband to ultra-wideband waveforms. Current off-the-shelf RF vector signal generators only offer a limited bandwidth (e.g., 50MHz on Tektronix Arbitrary Waveform Generators), making them not suitable for emerging wideband and ultra-wideband RF applications. This project studies the feasibility of a ultra-wideband RF vector signal generator that offers (1) high sampling rate (larger than 10 G samples/second); (2) ultra- wide bandwidth (larger than 3 GHz); (3) high center frequency (larger than 20 GHz); (4) capability of accepting both baseband complex (I & Q) input and passband real input (in analog domain and digital domain); (5) capability of emulating ultra-wideband RF channels. Frequency sampling theory is used to generate the wideband and ultra-wideband signals. Non-uniform Doppler shift distribution is exploited to emulate the wideband RF channels accurately. The proposed ultra-wideband RF vector signal generator is based on newly developed powerful FPGAs with parallel processing capabilities to generate the signal and to emulate channel effects and other distortion in real time. BENEFIT: This innovative ultra-wideband RF vector signal generator has many significant military applications as well as commercial applications. Such military applications include electronic warfare, military communication, ultra-wideband radar, cognitive radio, and cognitive radar. With the wideband and ultra-wideband signal generation capability, the proposed system has tremendous commercial market as well. As shown by the letter of support, a leading player in the signal generator and wireless testing solution market has shown strong interests in our technology and will collaborate with us in both technology development and market strategy development.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Ryan Miyamoto
AF112-146      Awarded:10/13/2011
Title:Ultra-Wideband Radio Frequency (RF) Vector Signal Generator for Early Warning (EW) Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an Ultra-Wideband Radio Frequency Vector Signal Generator for EW Applications leveraging state-of-the-art Digital-to-Analog Converters. BENEFIT: The technology can be a broadband wireless communication transmitter such as a cognitive radio transmitter.

Applied Quantum Technologies
3333 Durham Chapel Hill Blvd Suite D-100
Durham, NC 27707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 403-0926
Scott McCain
AF112-147      Awarded:10/14/2011
Title:Micro-camera Composite Focal Plane Array for Night Passive Persistent Surveillance
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A micro-camera composite focal plane array (CFPA) comprised of a primary optic and an array of camera//lens modules with high sensitivity, low noise CMOS image sensors provides a low cost, compact solid-state imaging system for wide area persistent surveillance across a range of lighting conditions from full daylight to clear starlight. Applied Quantum Technologies Inc. (AQT) in partnership with SRI International Sarnoff (SRI), proposes an imaging system architecture based on an innovative micro-camera composite focal plane array concept which meets or exceeds the announced performance specifications and offers a reduction in size, weight, and cost of conventional CFPA stitched or gapped mosaic configurations. AQT offers experience in micro-camera CFPA development, multi-scale optical design, and multi-aperture night vision prototype design and fabrication. SRI adds extensive expertise with advanced low-light CMOS image sensors for night vision, with high visible/NIR quantum efficiency and ultra-low noise. The phase 1 system design and performance analysis of the 16 megapixel micro-camera composite focal plane for day/night passive surveillance will include considerations of manufacturability, cost, as well as SWAP (size, weight and power). A preliminary design of a single prototype camera with performance and packaging specifications will be presented for fabrication and testing under Phase II. BENEFIT: Lightweight, low-cost, low-light camera systems would have profound impact on the military, industrial, and commercial surveillance markets. The civilian markets, currently exceeding $10 billion in 2010 revenues, will be significantly stimulated by imaging performance enhancements such as the introduction of cost-effective medium to large formats, and low- light and night vision capabilities. Scalable optical designs for manufacturing will accelerate penetration of civilian as well as defense (military and homeland security) applications. Intermediate growth is particularly indicated for surveillance of high profile events requiring wide area passive surveillance, and large population density locations such as cities, shopping centers, and transportation nodes. The introduction of medium to large format imaging will catalyze related technical innovation in image analysis, image transmission, compression, storage, and retrieval. In the longer range, markets for robotic and other unattended vehicle technologies will be enhanced by on-board imaging developments in persistent surveillance. In the distant future, advanced generations of the proposed research could have significant influence on the design of personal, hand-held platforms or attachments.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Jason D. Hannon
AF112-147      Awarded:10/18/2011
Title:3L (Lightweight, Low-Cost, Low-light) Focal Plane for Persistent Surveillance
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The military value of infrared (IR)-based, wide-area-motion-imagery (WAMI) collected from airborne platforms cannot be overemphasized. The unique capabilities of UAVs have resulted in commanders becoming increasingly reliant on them to conduct day-to-day operations. The need to further improve the situational awareness of these high value assets has led to a number of advancements in increasing the field of view (FOV) and resolution of these systems. Following these advancements is a growing demand to provide the same WAMI capabilities for smaller UAVs by reducing the cost, size, weight, and power (SWaP) of the currently available solutions. Toyon in partnership with Aerius Photonics, proposes to address this need by leveraging recent advances in large-format hybrid (CMOS/InGaAs) focal plane arrays (FPAs) and composite focal plane array (CFPA) technology. By taking advantage of low light conditions such as encountered in night time urban environments Toyon’s solution can eliminate the need for cooled thermal imagers and instead rely on the light-weight and lower-cost solution offered by InGaAs FPAs to develop a low-cost, SWaP (Size, Weight, and Power) optimized, high resolution imaging system capable of providing wide area persistent imagery within the near infrared (NIR) to short wave infrared (SWIR) spectrum. BENEFIT: At the end of the Phase I effort Toyon will have developed a complete candidate design for an 18 Megapixel, NIR/SWIR (near infrared/shortwave infrared), wide-field-of-view (WFOV) imaging system. The design will be composed of three subsystems to include the lens system, the CFPA assembly, and the signal condition/processing/data transport electronics. The Phase II work will lead to the development of a prototype camera based on the design established within the Phase I effort. Such a system will enable smaller UAVs to provide IR- based, wide-area-motion-imagery that historically only larger UAVs have been able to provide. In addition to being deployed in Air Force tactical networks, the main commercial prospect is in the field of commercial surveillance.

Aurrion Inc
130 Robin Hill Road, #300
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-0425
Greg Fish
AF112-149      Awarded:10/18/2011
Title:Integrated Optical Thresholder Function for Use in Optical Analog to Digital Converters (OADCs)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aurrion and Lockheed Martin will create an optical thresholding component that can be monolithically integrated in a silicon-substrate-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform. The ultimate goal is to realize PICs that can contain these nonlinear components in the same chip with other active (e.g. lasers, modulators, detectors) and passive (e.g. filters, delay lines, routing waveguides) components. The key innovations are in the concepts to enable the nonlinear effects on the established III-V-Silicon heterogeneous integration platform. BENEFIT: Aurrion will work with Lockheed Martin to demonstrate an all optical thresholder device using integrated silicon photonics. These components could be integrated with other optical components on a single platform to create fast, low power, compact and environmentally robust Optical Analog to Digital Converters (OADCs), an enabling technology for a scalable optical sensor network.

Auriga Measurement Systems LLC
650 Suffolk Street Suite410
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-1117
Qin Shen-Schultz
AF112-150      Awarded:10/20/2011
Title:20 Gigahertz (GHz) Radiation Hardened Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) for Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Downlinks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Auriga will produce an ultra-linear high-power, high-efficiency amplifier to be used in satellite communication systems. The innovative approaches are proposed and validated in Phase I. The enabling technology is Gallium Nitride (GaN) ,which is well-known for its power handling capability. State-of-the-art 0.15 µm gate GaN HEMT technology will be used in the design. The concept will be verified by device characterization, modeling and a prototype amplifier demonstration. MMIC amplifiers will be the final goal and will be fabricated in Phase II. Also, a proof-of-concept high-linear and high-power amplifier will be demonstrated in Phase I. Auriga will also evaluate the impact of radiation hardness for GaN HEMTs device in Phase I. BENEFIT: The successful outcome of the project will provide high-efficiency linear high-power amplifiers for use in satellite communications systems. The amplifier design methodology developed under this effort can be used in a broad range of military and commercial communications applications.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
James Schellenberg
AF112-150      Awarded:10/13/2011
Title:20 Gigahertz (GHz) Radiation Hardened Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) for Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Downlinks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To support high data rate battle field communications, future military satellite communication systems will be required to provide higher signal capacities by employing complex modulation schemes in closely spaced channels. To meet this requirement, a new generation of Solid State Power Amplifiers will be needed. This proposal is aimed at the development of radiation hardened, ultra linear, high efficiency, solid state power amplifiers operating in 20.2 – 21.2 GHz with key performance specifications: Pout >2W, PAE>35%, linear gain >23 dB, ACPR<-40dBc, for transmission of high data rate QPSK and 64 QAM modulation. To achieve high efficiency, State-of-the-art pHEMT or emerging wide bandgap GaN HEMT MMIC operated in Class E switching mode in push-pull configuration will be developed. To achieve high linearity without sacrificing efficiency, digital pre-distortion linearizer with envelope tracking and drain-gate modulation will be used. BENEFIT: The K-band radiation hardened, ultra linear, high efficient SSPA with Power output >2W, PAE >35%, bandwidth >2GHz, and ACPR <-40dBc do be developed will provide enabling technology for the development of high data rate, closely spaced multichannel high volume communication systems. The devices can be used not only for space, aircraft, UAV, and ground defense applications, but also for various commercial applications. By employing power combining techniques, the technology can be extended to higher power output applications. The technology can also be applied to the development of SSPAs for other frequency bands.

BT Engineering LLC
7718 Brass Creek Ct
Dexter, MI 48130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 417-3794
Jessica Boria
AF112-151      Awarded:11/21/2011
Title:Trusted Integrated Circuit Procurement for Space Assets
Abstract:ABSTRACT: BT Engineering proposes a three pronged approach to prevent and adversary from compromising military hardware and particularly space assets. This proposal deals primarily with preventing the means of triggering a malignancy built into the system. We propose three methods that, if used together, can severely frustrate an adversaries attempt to “find the kill switch” even if the surreptitious hardware has already been built into the system. Each of the means are small, lightweight, power efficient, and offer other advantages to the designer. BENEFIT: The means proposed to prevent the trigging of an engineered malignancy each have great commercial potential in their own right.

Computer Measurement Laboratory, Inc.
128 E Pine Avenue
Meridian, ID 83642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 884-2138
Jack L. Meador
AF112-151      Awarded:10/20/2011
Title:Enforcing Integrated Circuit Trust Via Unified Multi-Level Countermeasures
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This project will investigate the feasibility of an integrated multilevel system for protecting space assets from system hardware and firmware exploitation. The overall strategy is to provide greater collective system protection as a whole than would otherwise be available from the sum of the independent defenses. Rather than relying on a loose-knit collection of isolated point solutions that independently address specific hardware and firmware attack vectors, this project will investigate a coherent joint solution where multiple countermeasures work together to better protect an embedded system. The approach is to integrate co- operative firmware execution monitoring, interface mediation, logic configuration monitoring and electrical parameter measurement. The proposed work includes the adaptation of established and developing technologies as well as the development of a covert communication mechanism that facilitates defensive cooperation among the participating countermeasures. BENEFIT: This approach will better facilitate the use of lower cost off shore COTS devices in space- based embedded systems by increasing confidence that all levels of the firmware and hardware design are exploit-free. By detecting pre-deployment exploits it will reduce the cost of re-establishing a pristine design. It will also significantly reduce the cost of post- deployment exploit amelioration. Although this project specifically addresses space-based embedded system applications, there are a broad range of terrestrial commercial applications to which it could also be applied. Any critical terrestrial application of embedded and deeply embedded systems, for example, SCADA and Internet communication systems could also benefit from the results of this work.

Crossfield Technology LLC
9390 Research Blvd Suite I200
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 795-0220
Adam Jachniewicz
AF112-151      Awarded:10/14/2011
Title:Trusted Integrated Circuit Procurement for Space Assets
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Crossfield intends to develop a “Chip Firewall” that monitors the I/O (input/output) pins for a tamper circuit activation signal. Side channel attacks, in which one or more pins are forced into a non-legal condition, are a common technique for tampering with or activating a circuit. Using the concept of a firewall, Crossfield intends to monitor the integrated circuit I/O for any illegal condition and then force the integrated circuit into a known state where, 1) no damage is done to the circuit, 2) the circuit can recover more quickly, and 3) any operational condition of the tamper circuit is forced back into a state where it is harmless. Crossfield’s technical approach to implementing the Chip Firewall is based on two innovations, asynchronous logic and DRPs (doped resistance paths). The Chip Firewall can be implemented from standard cells during the trusted fabrication process and is unlikely/very difficult to be detected and/or disable by the entity inserting the tamper circuit. BENEFIT: Crossfield's anti-tamper approach has the benefit of being isolated from the circuit it is monitoring and protecting, so it cannot be easily spoofed itself. The technique does not rely on any information from the circuit itself other than some knowledge of the design at the time the circuit is fabricated. The anti-tamper circuit requires very low chip overhead and can be deployed as a drop-in macrocell. The user does not need to understand the inner workings in order to employ the technique.

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Triveni Upadhyay
AF112-152      Awarded:10/25/2011
Title:Navigation Warfare Compatible Small GPS User Equipment (SGUE)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this SBIR program is to develop a highly integrated Military GPS User Equipment that can provide accurate and robust position, navigation and timing (PNT) capability to size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C) sensitive military users operating in the emerging navigation warfare (NAVWAR) environment. In the emerging NAVWAR scenarios, the GPS receiver should be capable of mitigating the jamming threats from the enemy forces (Red Force Electronic Attack) as well as from the friendly forces (Blue Force Electronic Attack or BFEA) and provide situation awareness of the RF environment. A robust Electronic Protection (EP), Situation Awareness and a configurable BFEA filtering capability is thus needed to be integrated in the solution. Mayflower’s focus in the Phase I program is to perform feasibility analyses of the SGUE architecture and develop suitable interfaces to integrate the MGUE with the EP and other important subsystems to meet the Air Force objective of providing reliable PNT solution to the SWaP-C constrained platforms, namely, Soldier handheld systems and small UAVs. The Phase II program will build prototype components of the SGUE system to demonstrate feasibility of the design. BENEFIT: The proposed technology development will result in highly SWAP-C optimized NAVWAR compatible (integrated with EP, BFEA and other subsystems) Small GPS User Equipment (SGUE) that can be deployed in the disadvantaged Soldier handheld systems and small UAVs.

PreTalen Ltd.
12737 Rd R-11
Columbus Grove, OH 45830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(567) 712-7012
Benjamin Gerten
AF112-153      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Position Navigation and Time (PNT) Autonomous Negotiator Applying Cognitive Interference Analysis (PANACIA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: PreTalen’s Position Navigation and Time (PNT) Autonomous Negotiator Applying Cognitive Interference Analysis [PANACIA] system will provide a research asset and algorithms to quickly, quantitatively and confidently assess the vulnerabilities and capabilities of PNT systems. By applying automation algorithms and cognitive analysis, PANACIA will be an automated system for uncovering the PNT systems strengths and weaknesses. By using commercial off the shelf (COTS) simulators and coding the interfaces of the PNT systems, PANACIA will be a deployable asset that can be used by military and commercial entities for evaluating their PNT systems. This research asset will include the capability to catalog and quantify the effects from all known PNT threats as well as investigate future threats that may exist. PANACIA will include a database for input, output and analysis data so users can easily query results from vast tables of test data to quickly compile sound conclusions. PreTalen will include human factors engineering into our approach to create user friendly interfaces, simplify test setup and execution, and module design, making the system appealing to new users as well as seasoned Navwar engineers. BENEFIT: PANACIA’s module and easy to use design will make it a desirable test asset for all PNT commercial system developers, DoD test organizations, and military PNT systems. The knowledge and understanding gained by PANACIA will allow PNT system developers to create and design better future systems paving the way for even greater reliability in PNT applications. PreTalen foresees hundreds of PANACIA systems deployed both in CONUS as well as in allied countries to support Worldwide use and collaboration of PNT systems.

Qunav LLC
58 Linwood road
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(740) 541-1529
Andrey Soloviev
AF112-155      Awarded:10/14/2011
Title:Multi-Element Anti-Jam Reconfigurable GPS Navigation Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Qunav proposes to develop a Multi-element Anti-jam reconfigurable GPS Navigation Technology (MAGNT) that will enable state-of-the-art electronic protection (EP) by integrating space-time adaptive processing (STAP) into a signal processing part of a reconfigurable GPS receiver. MAGNT will result in an improved STAP solution that provides the maximum protection against emitters while minimizing distortions in pseudorange and carrier phase measurements and can be implemented in a real-time operational prototype. Unique features of the improved STAP solution include: 1) Ability to utilize various STAP implementations without redesigning the antenna electronics: STAP functionality is reconfigurable by modifying the receiver’s reprogrammable hardware (supported by field programmable gate arrays) and embedded software modules. 2) Combined pre and post-correlation characterization of emitters: Our improved STAP solution combines the traditionally used pre-correlation approach with a novel post- correlation threat detection via multi-directional beam-steering. STAP is optimized to suppress emitter signals found at pre-correlation and post-correlation stages thus enabling EP capabilities for conventional threats, as well as spoofing, meaconing and emerging threats. 3) Dynamically-reconfigurable anti-jamming solution that adapts to changing radio- frequency environments by on-the-fly selection of the STAP implementation option, which optimizes the ability to operate under a specific jamming scenario while mitigating code and carrier phase measurement biases. BENEFIT: MAGNT has a significant potential for both DOD applications and the private sector. Numerous platforms (both military and civilian) have a need for multi-element GPS processing to enable EP and high-sensitivity signal detection and tracking. The technology will be useful for enabling robust functionality in various emitter environments, as well as for indoor, urban, and foliage canopy applications where GPS traditionally has difficulty operating. For DOD applications, MAGNT will be mostly beneficial for precision navigation applications that require robust carrier phase measurements with electronic protection such as Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS) and Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR). For these applications, the optimal transitioning strategy includes a technology spiral insertion designed to add new MAGNT capabilities to existing navigation systems. From the prospective of private sector, the largest commercialization potential can be achieved if the MAGNT is combined with a multi-platform high-sensitivity signal processing and then applied for the market of consumer devices.

Alpha Omega Electromagnetics, LLC
24 Cascade Road
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 626-7682
Robert Schmier
AF112-156      Awarded:10/14/2011
Title:Multifunction X-band Phased Array Antenna for Air/Space Surveillance and Space Operations
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this Phase I SBIR effort is to develop and demonstrate a multifunction, multi- beam X-band subarray that is capable of simultaneously supporting communications for satellite operations and radar for air/space surveillance. Under this proposed effort, Alpha Omega Electromagnetics and Princeton Microwave will conduct both mechanical and electrical evaluations and analysis of several phased array architectures with the objective of developing and demonstrating a multifunction, multi-beam X-band subarray. The focus of the investigations will be at the antenna subarray level because the subarray will serve as the building block for a larger antenna array. Some of the primary elements of investigation will be the system architecture, triplexer performance requirements and potential architectures to achieve high isolation, compact low cost T/R channel design, aperture thermal performance and radiating aperture candidates. Results from this investigation will then be used to select a final candidate subarray architecture for design, fabrication and demonstration in a follow-on Phase II effort. BENEFIT: The results of this research will provide one of the critical technologies needed to support the realization of a large, hemispherical phased array antenna capable of horizon-to-horizon coverage. This array will be capable of providing multiple links to simultaneously support several control operations ranging from low altitude to geostationary satellites at different directions. It will simultaneously allow for radar surveillance operations. The resulting subarray technology should have far reaching applications including serving as a basic building block of an ESA for the air and space traffic control, homeland defense, cruise missile defense as well as satellite communication. An additional application of the aperture technology developed under this SBIR will be for mobile applications where the subarray (or groups of subarrays) alone will serve as the complete functional antenna.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Matthew Ferrara
AF112-157      Awarded:10/18/2011
Title:Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Aided Navigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this proposal is to develop an algorithmic framework for joint utilization of Global Positioning System (GPS)/ Inertial Navigation System (INS)/ Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in order to simultaneously improve the localization accuracy and integrity of an airborne sensor system’s navigation system. As stated in the topic solicitation, “the research needed includes derivation of both position update from SAR images as well as velocity updates which may be able to be obtained from the processing of SAR data.” To address the unknown-trajectory problem, we propose a robust combination of complimentary SAR-based approaches. Each of the of the approaches will be analyzed to quantify the system performance based on the environment sensed by the SAR sensor. The SAR-based location estimates will include estimates of the measurement integrity, which will be utilized in a tightly coupled joint GPS/INS/SAR estimate of the platform trajectory. BENEFIT: The primary benefit of successful completion of this effort is a new framework for integrating multiple sources of location information into improve overall location estimate accuracy and integrity. This capability has numerous commercial applications in various business sectors such as defense, shipping, logistics, and mapping.

Qunav LLC
58 Linwood road
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(740) 541-1529
Andrey Soloviev
AF112-157      Awarded:10/17/2011
Title:Integration of GPS, Inertial and SAR Data for GPS-Degraded Navigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Qunav proposes the development of GPS/INS/FeaTure-based SAR (GIFTS) integrated navigation architecture. The architecture exploits INS as a core sensor and applies GPS (when available) and SAR data to mitigate drift in inertial navigation outputs. Fusion of SAR and inertial data is implemented at two levels. Data fusion at the level of signal processing derives information about inertial error states from feature distortions in SAR images and applies this information for the INS error correction. Data fusion at the measurement level utilizes local and global feature-aided inertial mechanizations. Local aiding applies changes in parameters of features extracted from consecutive SAR images to update inertial navigation states, thus applying a tightly coupled version of velocity updates. Global aiding relates parameters of SAR image features to feature information extracted from a map of the environment in order to implement tight- coupling equivalent of INS position updates. Both local and global aiding are enhanced by integrity monitoring that removes outliers by a) exploiting INS-based feature matching; and b) redundancy in feature geometry. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the integration approach and will evaluate its performance characteristics in high-fidelity simulation environments. System architectural studies will result in the initial prototype design approach. BENEFIT: Phase I effort will create a basis for prototyping and transitioning of the GIFTS technology. Successful accomplishment of Phase I technical tasks will enable a) development of algorithms for the GPS/SAR/inertial integration; b) demonstration of performance characteristics; and, c) preliminary design of the technological approach for prototyping. These anticipated results will ensure that a strong foundation is created for technology demonstration and prototyping during Phase II. If successfully demonstrated, GIFTS has a significant potential for both DOD applications and commercial users. Numerous platforms (both military and civilian) that perform layered sensing using SARs will benefit from improved navigation robustness in GPS-challenged environments. GIFTS will enable a) precise reconstruction of the flight trajectory; and, b) accurate geo-registration of SAR images. In addition, the technology will enable the use of lower-cost inertial measurement units. This will provide a significant overall reduction in cost, weight, size and power consumption thus enabling the system’s functionality on small- size platforms and creating new application cases for SAR sensors.

Bodkin Design & Engineering, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 795-1968
Carson Roberts
AF112-158      Awarded:10/19/2011
Title:High Spatial Resolution Hyperspectral Sensor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Design and build a hyperspectral sensor that maintains high spatial resolution information. BENEFIT: To design and build a long wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral sensor system that is capable of placing enough pixels on target for shape-based target identification, while maintaining the ability to detect and identify the target material based on its spectral signature.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5209
Julia Deng
AF112-159      Awarded:10/24/2011
Title:Bayesian-based Trust Initialization for Reputation Management in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Trust and reputation management system has been proven to be an effective method to solve many security issues in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). A typical reputation management system evaluates the trustworthy of a sensor node based on historical interactions. However, trust initialization remains to be a challenging issue, as there are no historical interactions in the initialization phase of the reputation management system. In this effort, we propose to develop an effective Trust Initialization Mechanism (TrustInitM) based on Bayesian Fusion for evaluating the initial trustworthy of WSNs. The objective of this effort is to improve existing trust initialization strategy by taking a set of context parameters into consideration. Our final target is to build an advanced trust initialization strategy integrating with existing reputation/trust management system, so that we can successfully minimize the warm-up period and achieve the full advantages of the trust/reputation. BENEFIT: The proposed TrustInitM system provides a solid solution for robust, efficient and accurate trust initialization for wireless sensor networks. We expect to produce a software prototype equipped with distributed reputation management system for military as well as researchers in the networking community to investigate reputation management in dynamic wireless networks. First, the proposed TrustInitM solution has tremendous applications potential in dynamic military applications. Given the GIG vision, such heterogeneous and dynamic wireless sensor webs will be common and therefore secure, robust, efficient and timely routing solution is necessary. The proposed architecture, algorithms, and the developed software tool can be applied to various military networks for major programs like layered sensing program, surveillance network, Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, Future Combat System (FCS), WIN-T, etc. Second, due to the increasing popularity of ubiquitous computing technologies, our proposed solution can be applied into a large number of commercial network applications, such as industrial control networks, disaster networks, and border monitoring networks. The size of the market is quite large and may grow rapidly with the commercial demand in network reliability and availability.

Daylight Solutions
15378 Avenue of Science Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 432-7522
Edeline Fotheringham
AF112-160      Awarded:10/28/2011
Title:Mid-IR Spectral Beam Combining Using Volume Gratings
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Daylight Solutions proposes to develop volume Bragg gratings for the spectral beam combining of lasers in the mid infrared. High performance volume gratings exist for the visible and near infrared regions of the optical spectrum and are most easily produced by holographic methods. However, volume gratings do not currently exist as commercially available components due to a scarcity of holographic materials in the mid infrared. Daylight Solutions will evaluate the holographic potential of chalcogenide glass layers produced by inexpensive and straightforward methods. The fabrication of volume gratings will enable the demonstration of mid infrared laser combining and show the ability of these components to efficiently combine wavelengths that are close together as well as far apart in the 3 to 8 um range. BENEFIT: Military aircraft face an increasingly widespread threat from heat seeking missiles. These missiles can see and track the heat signatures of aircraft exhaust. Defeating the missiles involves confusing their tracking system with laser beams emulating the emission spectrum of the exhaust. Spectrally combining the signature wavelengths offers infrared counter measure systems a single high power and high quality laser beam to work with. This single spatial mode beam enables system architectures that side by side lasers cannot. Examples include easier beam shaping with refractive or reflective optics within a system or fiber delivery to various parts of the aircraft of a system’s output. Volume gratings operating in the mid infrared bring a high level of modularity for spectral beam combining systems not achievable with the conventional spectral combining elements of dielectric thin films and surface gratings. The practical number of layers realizable for thin films limits the minimum wavelength separation between combined beams. Surface gratings most efficiently combine lasers close in wavelength but cannot, in practice, be designed to efficiently combine wavelengths far part. With volume gratings, a single system layout can accommodate any collection of wavelengths by simply swapping out volume gratings and sources. This translates into modular, less costly combining systems. The development of holographic material to produce volume gratings will make the same material available for mid infrared holographic optical elements in general. Holograms can, for example, replace multiple lens systems, produce angle filter components, or superimpose multiple combining gratings in a material with enough dynamic range. As with their visible and near infrared counter parts, these holographic optical elements can drastically reduce the cost and size of systems built with their bulk component equivalents. With the emergence of laser sources filling the spectroscopy rich, mid infrared spectrum, these holographic optical elements will find widespread commercial uses.

OptiGrate Corp.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 381-4115
Vadim Smirnov
AF112-160      Awarded:10/28/2011
Title:Volume Bragg gratings for spectral and coherent beam combining in MWIR spectral region
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of the proposed research is to develop a new type of volume holographic elements that can operate in mid IR spectral region. To achieve this goal, research will be directed to a photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass which provides a photo-thermo-induced refractive index change while being transparent in the spectral range from 3 to 5 um, and to demonstration of the feasibility of fabrication of volume Bragg gratings from such glass for laser beam control and fine filtering in receivers. As a risk mitigation effort, a research will be extended to direct writing of volume gratings in several optical glasses that are transparent in mid IR spectral region. BENEFIT: Creation of holographic optical elements with low losses and high tolerance to laser radiation would be extremely beneficial for military application in the mid-IR spectral region because it would enable a dramatic increase in brightness of mid IR laser sources without an increase in weight, size, and energy consumption. Such diffraction gratings will provide unprecedented fine spectral and angular selection for both transmitters and receivers. This will enable development of high power, compact and robust lasers operating in the mid-IR window of transparency which should find wide applications for both DoD (effective missile sensor counter measures, night vision, and remote sensing) and commercial (micromachining and medical) needs.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Khurram Shafique
AF112-163      Awarded:10/26/2011
Title:Layered Target Reacquisition and Prosecution from Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) Cues
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project develops innovative methods for target handoff from WAMI to SUAV sensors in the presence of geo-registration errors and target ambiguities. The tiered computational framework provides increasing accuracy as a function of available computational power and communication bandwidth. The lowest tier with minimum complexity uses target geo-location, kinematics and features such as shape and size for target handoff. The second tier incorporates target appearance with geometric and environmental invariant/covariant target models. In the absence of truly invariant features or models, it selects the optimal features that are discriminative in the given scenario. The next tier exploits target context in terms of neighboring targets and scene information to resolve ambiguities. The highest tier uses a feedback mechanism from the SUAV to improve handoff certainty and to recover from association errors. The project further offers analysis of target handoff algorithms with respect to a wide variety of factors including sensor properties, communication parameters, environmental artifacts, available computational power, and scene elements. The Phase I effort will include: development of enabling algorithms, implementation of the framework, demonstration of proof of concept, and parametric and quantitative evaluation of the proposed technologies using real and synthetic WAMI/SUAV video. BENEFIT: Wide-area motion imagery has proven to be of tremendous use in exploitation and target tracking on ground as it offers coverage of large areas for long durations. Smaller UAVs, on the other hand, provide much better resolutions on targets but with limited field-of-views. Target handoff from wide-area motion imagery (WAMI) sensor to sensors on small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS) or weapons can provide autonomous collaborative and persistent surveillance and reconnaissance using networked unmanned platforms. However, it is a challenging problem due to variations of sensing geometries, sensor modalities, and imaging parameters, the uncertainties in sensor metadata and geo-localization of target in both WAMI and SUAS imagery, varying object density and dynamics, and environmental factors such as obscuration. The tiered approach presented in this proposal aims to overcome these challenges with the following benefits: • High resolution coverage of high-value targets in the scene. • Precision targeting in cluttered areas in the presence of accompanying targets. • Maximization of information content for situational awareness. • Collaborative sensing for timely and consolidated situational awareness and visualization. • Resource management by identifying the most suitable SUAV for tasking from a pool of available sensors.

Systems and Technology Research
14 Franklin Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 756-8083
Mark Luettgen
AF112-163      Awarded:10/18/2011
Title:Layered Target Reacquisition and Prosecution from Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) Cues
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Under this effort, we will perform system performance analysis, design tradeoffs, and prototype algorithm development for target handoff and long duration tracking functions in layered sensing systems that include wide-area motion imagery (WAMI) and one or more narrow field of view (NFOV) sensors, e.g. small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs) and/or munitions carrying high-resolution sensors. We will develop a detailed parametric model of the multi-sensor, multi-platform tracking and handoff process. Our model will account for detection and track geolocation errors, association performance based on the nature and quality of the target feature measurements, sensor cueing performance, data communications requirements, on-board vs. off-board computational requirements, and performance benefits for inclusion of additional NFOV sensors. We will leverage our existing models and prototype algorithms for feature aided trackers and sensor performance. We will validate key model components via comparison with measured data and ground truth. We will exercise the system model to explore the performance requirements for the component technologies, i.e. the sensors, tracking, association and resource management algorithms. At the conclusion of the Phase 1 effort we will have a system-level model of the long duration tracking and handoff process, parametric system performance estimates and recommendations for system architectures and algorithm development. BENEFIT: This effort will enable rigorous analysis of layered sensing system requirements and performance, and will develop layered sensing components supporting WAMI handoff and integrated layered sensing system long term track maintenance.

Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Yiping Liu
AF112-165      Awarded:12/7/2011
Title:A Conformal Packaging and Installation Technique for In Situ Sensors in Extreme Environments
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Sporian Microsystems Inc. has spent the last several years developing polymer derived SiCN sensor and associated packaging technology for application temperatures up to 1350C, and demonstrated them in the combustion environments of a range of commercial burner rigs and aerospace turbine engines. Based on our expertise in high temperature materials and packaging processes, we propose to develop a conformal packaging and "stick on" installation strategy for high temperature conformal sensors. Phase I will primarily include fabrication of conformal substrates, evaluation of thick film metallization, die attach, high temperature electrical interconnection, coating/encapsulation, and identification of advanced installation approaches. Simple proof of principle packaging prototypes will be installed on conformal surfaces and key aspects of the performance up to 600°C will be demonstrated. The ultimate goal of this proposed effort is to develop a genetic/standardized high temperature conformal packaging and installation technology for use in extreme aerospace environments, at temperatures ranging from -60°C up to 1000oC, and accelerations levels up to 56600g. Such packaging should be easily installed with no permanent changes to the engine components or surfaces, and sufficiently small and conformal to avoid disrupting aerodynamic flows. The packaging should be widely adaptable for many conformal sensor technologies with future development effort. BENEFIT: Aero propulsion turbine engines, communally used in commercial and military jets and rotorcraft, would benefit significantly by having a non invasive, small mass, conformal, on engine component sensors allowing for visibility of the conditions of the turbine engine. To enable such sensors, novel packaging technologies must be developed to interface the sensor with the sensed environment and with engine control and health monitoring systems. The conditions in this application are harsh, and packaging must be able to withstand high temperatures, high pressures, fuel and exhaust. The packaging technologies described in this proposal would allow exactly that, allowing sensing directly from the point of interest within the engine. Commercial applications abound for the successful results of this proposal in commercial and military jet and helicopter aircraft engine industries, which are made up of companies such as Pratt & Whitney, Pratt & Whitney, GE, Honeywell and Rolls- Royce. Additional potential market areas include: marine propulsion, rail transport, rocketry, land based power generation turbines, downstream crude oil refining, oil shale conversion, and government and academic laboratories.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Paul H. Sorensen, Ph.D.
AF112-166      Awarded:12/12/2011
Title:Improved Mass Balancing of Turbo Machine Rotors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The efficient, effective balancing of jet engine rotors and subassemblies continues to be a challenge for key aerospace applications. While manufacturing methods for balancing have improved significantly over the last ten years, measurement methods and procedures and fixturing have not advanced at the same pace. Modern jet engines require multiple parts and subassemblies to be balanced to ensure proper engine operation. In order to assure that these specifications are met, parts must be balanced separately and then as integrated assemblies during production and refurbishment. The goal of this project is development of an optical measurement system and procedures that overcome the primary shortcomings of existing methods, specifically (1) the need for more accurate measurement of displacement than is currently state-of-the-art, (2) the use of fixtures that contribute significantly to the time it takes to perform precision balancing, and (3) the inability to correct for inconsistencies in the balancing process. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of an optical measurement system that improves displacement measurement accuracy by an order of magnitude over currently available sensors and will develop methods and procedures to help mitigate the issues that extend the time and cost of balancing jet engine rotors and subassemblies. BENEFIT: The technology developed on this project will provide new instrumentation and methodologies for balancing jet engine rotors and subassemblies. Use of technology is expected to reduce part to part variability and dramatically reduce production time and cost for in-the-field and in-the-factory fabrication activities.

Artium Technologies, Inc.
150 West Iowa Avenue Suite 202
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 737-2364
William D. Bachalo
AF112-167      Awarded:12/7/2011
Title:Spatially and Temporally Resolved Imaging of Dense Sprays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Development of advanced multi-angle illumination and multi-dimensional image correlation strategies set forth in this proposal will be instrumental in revealing and gaining a better understanding of the complexities of fuel injection, spray formation and spray dynamics associated with modern propulsion and combustion systems. Implementation of evolving highly complex illumination and computationally intensive imaging and image processing methodologies promise to extend our observations and measurements into the depths of spray formation and dynamical processes in dense spray environments. From a phenomenological and physical point of view, it is evident that we must observe and understand the entire spray flow field including how the liquid breaks up to form droplets, the two-phase air-fuel mixing that takes place, vaporization and reaction of the fuel, and the formation of pollutants. Currently, coupling of the fuel spray fluid mechanics, gas phase mixing, and chemistry which are highly important aspects of the process remain poorly understood. There continues to be a growing recognition that attaining a greater understanding of these complexities in the dynamics of the spray formation and associated transient processes can lead to development of methods for attaining greater ignition reliability, combustion and propulsion efficiencies, combustion stability, and reduced emissions. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the successful completion of the Phase I, and Phase II programs will result in a functional prototype imaging instruments that can be used for spray formation in dense spray characterization. The Phase I effort will help establish the feasibility of developing an advanced and innovative multi-angular illumination, multi-angular imaging approach.

Taras Research, LLC
10110 Willingham Road
Huntersville, NC 28078
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 804-2778
Mikhail Slipchenko
AF112-167      Awarded:12/12/2011
Title:THREE-DIMENSIONAL HIGH-SPEED TOMOGRAPHY OF DENSE SPRAYS USING BALLISTIC IMAGING
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this research effort is to develop a next-generation time-gated ballistic imaging (BI) system for three-dimensional characterization of liquid breakup within dense fuel sprays. The temporal resolution will be varied using nonlinear time gating and pulse shaping techniques to optimize image contrast for a range of optical densities in sprays for propulsion applications, including augmentors, rockets, scramjets, and IC engines. The unique feature of BI is that it can circumvent the difficulties associated with propagating light through dense media by eliminating diffuse light that has undergone multiple scattering within the dense field of droplets. In contrast with X-ray or conventional tomography, BI greatly reduces the number of elements that must be reconstructed to satisfy the Shannon/Nyquest criterion and allows 3D reconstruction using discrete tomography. Borrowing largely from advancements in medical imaging and non-destructive testing, several inversion algorithms will be tested to solve the discrete tomography problem. This approach can potentially allow measurements with very limited viewing angles for high-speed 3D imaging of liquid breakup in dense sprays. BENEFIT: We anticipate that three-dimensional ballistic imaging tomography will provide new measurement capabilities for studying liquid-breakup dynamics in a variety of propulsion systems, including augmentors, gas turbines, scramjets, and rockets. This will enable improved fundamental understanding and modeling of dense sprays, which is of significant practical and scientific interest. The understanding developed from the proposed tomography system is critical for improving the speed and efficiency of the design process, ultimately helping to avoid and or solve problems associated combustion dynamics brought on by transient, non-uniform fuel-air mixture preparation. This measurement capability is applicable for military and commercial propulsion systems, as well as industrial furnaces and internal combustion engines. The increasing availability of compact, ultrafast laser systems indicates that a ballistic imaging approach based on these advanced laser sources will be commercially feasible.

Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Todd R. Quackenbush
AF112-168      Awarded:12/5/2011
Title:Adaptive Nozzle Technology for Mitigation of High Speed Jet Exhaust Noise
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Noise alleviation for tactical jet aircraft is critical for community acceptance of military operations. While new fixed-geometry engine nozzles can mitigate noise, adaptive concepts can adjust to multiple flight conditions and reduce noise without compromising other performance metrics. Recent work by the proposing team has identified first-generation actuation devices that can enable such a ‘smart nozzle’ capability using novel mechanical designs and rapidly maturing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials. However, these designs must be tailored to meet the needs for high actuation force, constrained volume and weight, and harsh operating environment typical of takeoff conditions. This effort will build on prior work on subscale SMA-actuated systems to demonstrate key elements of an adaptive smart nozzle that will combine active flow mixing with area variation. Implementation will feature novel mechanisms and recently-developed SMA materials that provide the required force, displacement, and temperature capability. Phase I will entail analysis and design activities as well as benchtop and wind tunnel testing to demonstrate individual elements at subscale. This will lay the foundation lead for aeroacoustic testing of an integrated demonstrator in Phase II and for eventual use in Air Force systems to alleviate noise while maintaining or enhancing thrust performance and reducing fuel burn. BENEFIT: By providing highly innovative concepts for propulsion system components for tactical, the proposed effort will directly support critical Air Force goals including noise reduction, maximization of engine performance. This will in particular support the noise alleviation, fuel burn reduction, and performance enhancement goals the ongoing Air Force ADVENT project. The chief technical output of the effort will be demonstration of enabling technology for variable geometry devices to replace the promising but limited current generation of fixed-geometry nozzle designs. In addition, the integrated aero/thermo/elastic models of actuator performance and aerostructural behavior to be developed will assist the development of concurrent engineering tools for analysis and design of smart-materials-based propulsion flow control systems.

SPIRITECH Advanced Products, Inc.
731 N US Highway 1 Suite 1
Tequesta, FL 33469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Mike Willard
AF112-168      Awarded:12/19/2011
Title:Revolutionary Technologies for the Reduction of Aircraft Jet Noise
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Phase I program proposes conceptual design and proof-of-concept acoustic testing of a unique nozzle concept for providing significant reductions in jet noise. These reductions are achieved through application of nozzle design features that address different jet noise reduction mechanisms, or physics, to provide an additive effect on the acoustic attenuation. Subscale models will be configured to meet the goal of 10 dBA reduction of jet noise compared to a conventional convergent-divergent nozzle with equivalent performance. In parallel to this jet noise test, effects of the proposed nozzle configuration on engine cycle, thrust, and fuel consumption will be analytically evaluated using accurate SPIRITECH- developed tools and industry standard CFD solutions. The Phase II program will further mature this concept or a derivative airframe-integrated exhaust system, and will include additional acoustic tests with more detailed models and external flow, extending Phase 1 proof of concept to component validation TRL 4 status. Performance assessments will be refined and extended to include installed aircraft characterization. Test and analyses results will then be used to quantify jet noise and integrated system performance trades. BENEFIT: The proposed nozzle concept and/or derivatives developed and validated in Phases I and II provide enabling technologies for achieving substantial jet noise reductions in future commercial and strategic military aircraft. As jet noise reduction associated with increasing bypass ratio approaches a limit, new techniques for further improvements will be needed. The proposed technology is sufficiently general to have broad potential for commercialization, with applicability to numerous types of jet propulsion systems. Potential end users include both military (Air Force, Navy, Army, NASA and DARPA) and commercial (aircraft and propulsion system) customers.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF112-169      Awarded:12/7/2011
Title:High-Bandwidth Laser-Based Measurements and Modeling for Thermoacoustic Instabilities in High-Pressure Combustors for Aerospace Fuels and Emerging Alt
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objectives of this Phase-I research effort are to perform various advanced laser-based measurements in a laboratory flame for various hydrocarbon fuels in order to identify suitable technologies as well as to develop a mathematical model for investigating various combustion instabilities with the aim of devising intelligent control strategies. This effort addresses the need for non-intrusive diagnostic approaches that can provide high-speed, planar, spatio-temporally resolved images of velocity, temperature, and species concentrations over data sets of several thousand images. The proposal also addresses the need for combustion instability model for various alternative fuels based on the high- bandwidth data acquired with non-invasive laser-based measurements. The feasibility of two unique modeling approaches (Flamelet Dynamics Model and Chaos Theory Based Model) will be carried out in order to determine their suitability in providing guidance on combustion instability and their growth phenomena with the aim of devising proper control strategies. These measurements along with the model(s) will pave the way for the development of a combustion instability model related to high-pressure combustors/augmentors utilizing alternative jet fuels during the Phase-II research effort. In particular, these experiments will shed light on to the influence of C/H ratio in modifying the dominant combustion instability behavior. BENEFIT: Instrumentation and instability models for measuring temperature and species concentrations in combusting flows has proven to be critical in the deployment of propulsion systems for the warfighter. Qualitative optical techniques, such as high-speed imaging, have, in some cases, proven to be instructive and have helped to guide measurement efforts. However, specific design details may require quantitative, spatio-temporally resolved information such as heat release rate, temperature, and equivalence ratios at a rate of 1 kHz or greater. Hence, the optical sensors and the instability models proposed here offer a significant potential impact through reductions in development time and the improved reliability of propulsion devices for the DoD mission. This research effort will lead to a new and improved design of advanced combustion systems for propulsion applications. The optical sensing technologies should be very valuable to various engine manufacturers as well as to power-plant manufacturers.

Area I, Inc
1590 N Roberts Rd Suite 203
Kennesaw, GA 30144
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 594-5227
Nicholas Robert Alley
AF112-170      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Development of an Extended Endurance Air-Launched, Tube-Integrated, Unmanned System (ALTIUS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Area-I team propose to leverage their expertise to develop an extended-endurance Air- Launched, Tube-Integrated Unmanned System (ALTIUS). ALTIUS, meaning “higher” in Latin, will provide a paradigm shift in the performance of small, tube-launched remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). Core features and capabilities of the ALTIUS UAS will include: 1) A state-of-the-art, high-energy-density power system that is robust to harsh environmental conditions, does not pose explosive hazards, and is storable for over six months. 2) A highly efficient, lightweight carbon composite airframe that is designed specifically to accommodate the advanced power system while fitting into a common 6- to 8- inch launch tube. BENEFIT: Small UAVs offer the ability to perform missions with a reasonably low cost. One limiting factor on mission objectives is the fact that their limited size and weight restrict the ability to integrate large power systems forcing operating time to be short, single missions. Extending endurance allows a small UAV to perform longer range missions. Additionally, the ability to perform multiple missions further increases the perceived value of the aircraft making it more attractive to military and civilian customers. Presently, small UAVs are used for remote sensing and communication relay applications. Both military and civilian customers will benefit from an easily launched, light, small, extended endurance UAV.

Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Kevin Harsh
AF112-175      Awarded:11/28/2011
Title:A Smart, High-Temperature Pressure Sensor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a growing demand for high-temperature pressure sensors for use in extreme temperature environments such as aircraft gas turbine combustion control. What is needed are reliable “smart” pressure sensors capable of measuring combustor/exhaust pressures (0 to 700 psi), a engine operating temperatures, with steady-state accuracy +/- .75% of point or +/- 0.5 psi, (whichever is greater), and a dynamic range of 100 Hz. As important, the sensor hardware should include signal conditioning and communications electronics such as to be able to communicate over a data bus to the full authority digital engine control. Sporian Microsystems, Inc. has established a solid track record of successful research and development of high temperature (up to 1350oC) sensors and packaging architectures for high temperature turbine engines. The proposed approach is leverage previously developed and demonstrated high temperature pressure sensor technology and advance the sensor electronics into a “smart” form suitable for engine control applications/use. For the proposed effort, Sporian will work with engine OEM Roll-Royce LibertyWorks® and commercial high temperature electronics developers to guide both the sensor and electronics development toward realizing a useful component with appropriate performance and interface characteristics. BENEFIT: In order for future engine systems to reduce cost and while increasing safety and performance, a new generation of control systems and associated sensors are necessary. Fixed wing and rotorcraft engines would benefit significantly by having a smart sensors to enable distributed engine control. The conditions in this application are harsh, and sensors must be able to withstand high temperatures, high pressures, fuel and exhaust. The technology and sensor product described in this proposal would allow exactly that, while existing sensors fall well short of the application’s demand. The technology described in this proposal would allow smart sensing directly from the point of interest within the engine. Commercial applications abound for the successful results of this proposal in commercial and military jet and helicopter aircraft engine industries, which are made up of companies such as Pratt & Whitney, GE, Honeywell and Rolls-Royce. Additional potential market areas include: marine propulsion, rail transport, rocketry, land based power generation turbines, downstream crude oil refining, oil shale conversion, and government and academic laboratories.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
James Szabo
AF112-177      Awarded:11/14/2011
Title:High Power Iodine Hall Thruster
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A high power iodine propellant Hall Effect thruster system will be developed for orbit raising and other in-space applications. This system will include a thruster, hollow cathode, and propellant feed system. The Phase I thruster will have a power level of 1-3 kW. The Phase II thruster will be tested at up to 20-kW, enabling near-term clusters of 80 to 160 kW. The estimated specific power (kg/kW) will be 1.3 kg/kW. A 100 kW Phase III system will also be designed, with even lower specific power. The thruster will be capable of specific impulse between 1400 s and 3500 s at constant power. Based on subscale iodine testing, the efficiency will be similar to that of existing high power Xe Hall thrusters, with the possibility for significantly higher thrust to power. Based on high fidelity testing of Busek’s existing 20- kW Xe Hall thruster, the efficiency will be greater than 60% across a broad throttling range of power and specific impulse. The iodine propellant will store at a density that is 2 to 3 times greater than xenon and at approximately one thousandth of the pressure. Passive long term storage of a fully fueled system will be possible. BENEFIT: The proposed system will be used for orbit raising and other in-space applications. The thruster will meet specific mass and performance targets set forth in the topic, including a specific impulse of 1400 s to 3500 s, and efficiency greater than 60% across a broad throttling range. Higher T/P than possible with Xe may be achieved. In addition, the complete system, including iodine fuel tank, will be far smaller than a xenon system, making it more suitable for high propellant throughput applications. The system will also be storable long-term on the ground or on orbit without any active temperature control due to the condensable nature of the propellant. The system will be low cost due to the elimination of high pressure tanks normally used to store noble gases at thousands of PSI, as well as the low cost of the propellant itself. Finally, due to the condensability of the propellant, the system can be tested at high power in ground facilities that would be incapable of testing xenon thrusters in a similar power range.

MSNW LLC
8551 154th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 867-8900
David Kirtley
AF112-177      Awarded:12/15/2011
Title:Ultra-Light High-Thrust Electric Propulsion with Magnetic Thrust Vectoring
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MSNW’s Electrodeless Lorentz Force (ELF) thruster will address the demanding combined requirements of light weight, high efficiency, and high thrust-to-power electric propulsion in a single device. As spacecraft power systems get lighter, traditional electric propulsion thruster, PPU, and gimbal masses become dominant. Moreover, the increase in available power enables efficient, rapid orbital transfers with sufficient T/P. The ELF thruster technology has demonstrated a wide range of specific impulse at high efficiency. The high plasma and power density of the ELF thruster, coupled with magnetic isolation of the plasma from thruster walls yields an ultra-compact and lightweight thruster package that is scalable to high powers. In addition to a lightweight thruster body, a new plasmoid Magnetic Thrust Vectoring (MTV) system will demonstrate +/- 30 degrees of low-weight, low-power gimbaling. The RMF-formed FRC thruster will be operated with a low-mass, high temperature pulsed inductive charging PPU (PCPPU) that eliminates DC-DC transformers and temperature sensitive components and operates up to 100 kW. Proposed is a program to design, test, and optimize a full-scale, 10 kg, 50-100 kW ELF-200 thruster operating at 1,400-3,500 seconds specific impulse with a low mass Pulse Charging PPU and Magnetic Thrust Vectoring system. BENEFIT: The ELF thruster is a highly-scalable, low specific mass (<0.5 kg/kW) and variable specific impulse (1,000-6,000 s) thruster technology. The ELF is also designed to operate between 25-100 kW in a single, integrated thruster system. Combined with a low mass pulsed inductive charging PPU and fully Magnetic Thrust Vectoring system, the ELF-200 becomes a formidable space propulsion system. These capabilities are highly valued by NASA, DOD, and their subcontractors in modern space propulsion systems for reducing spacecraft subsystem mass and increasing on-orbit capabilities as more advanced solar panel technology becomes available. This technology will be suitable to replace all current in- space electric propulsion systems greater than 10 kW. The ELF technology has application for satellite main propulsion and LEO-GEO transfer in earth orbit. Additionally, the high specific impulse operation of the ELF will have applications for large telecom and military satellite station-keeping as well as deep space NASA missions.

Analytical Services, Inc.
350 Voyager Way
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-2191
Joseph Sims
AF112-178      Awarded:12/1/2011
Title:Confined Submerged Jet Enhancement of Regenerative Cooling Heat Transfer Coefficients in Liquid Rocket Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In the proposed effort, ASI will demonstrate the feasibility of a practical, proven method for significantly increasing the heat transfer coefficient inside regenerative cooling channels. The technique, used in the electronics industry for high heat flux removal applications, requires one additional manufacturing step and a small change to the coolant inlet manifolding scheme. The technology has been shown to offer as much as a 3-fold increase in heat transfer coefficient, which would significantly increase the heat pickup of hydrogen coolant in an expander cycle engine. Such an increase would offer substantial increases in chamber pressure and thrust to future expander cycle engines. BENEFIT: Substantial increases in chamber pressure and thrust would result from the successful development of the proposed technology. Our commercialization goal is to insert our innovation into a future blcok upgrade to the venerable RL10 engine.

Science and Technology Applications, LLC
530 New Los Angeles Avenue, Suite115 # 122
Moorpark, CA 93021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 529-3800
Tedi Ohanian
AF112-178      Awarded:12/1/2011
Title:High Performance Cooling Methods for Liquid Rocket Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To meet the goals for future generation Air Force LOX/Hydrocarbon booster engines, improvements must be made in performance, operability, reusability, reliability, and cost. To date, operational LOX/hydrocarbon engines have used the fuel as the thrust chamber assembly (TCA) regenerative coolant, and have used fuel film cooling (FFC) as the TCA hot gas wall thermal barrier. The present hydrocarbon fuels show increasing coking behavior at high chamber pressures (Pc) and heat loads and have forced the development of highly refined propellants e.g. RP-2. An alternate path to the fuel cooling road-block is proposed by incorporating LOX regenerative cooling and oxidizer film cooling (OFC). This combination provides greater robustness and safety, and completely de-couples fuel characteristics from the thermally stresses components. Additionally, this cooling method enables the use of military/aviation grade kerosene. BENEFIT: The development of this technology will enable the full-scale development of a high Pc LOX/HC engine to meet the requirements of future military and commercial spacelift systems. The technology is applicable to Air Force Reusable Booster System program and can be adopted to commercial or government RLV and expendable launch vehicles.

ATA Engineering, Inc
11995 El Camino Real Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 941-4672
Scott Miskovish
AF112-179      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Fluid/Structural Interaction Tools for Liquid Rocket Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Liquid rocket engine (LRE) turbopumps operate in complex and often harsh flow regimes that range from cavitating liquid flows in pumps to shock-containing compressible flows in turbine components. The unsteady flow phenomena seen by structural components establish design limitations associated with mean loadings and cyclic fatigue. The current LRE design process simplifies the modeling of these phenomena due to the lack of fully-coupled fluid/structural interaction (FSI) analysis tools, potentially leading to excessive conservatism in the design. The current analysis methods used in turbomachinery tend to oversimplify the complex interactions between fluids and structures in that they are mostly “one-way” couplings. The proposed innovation is to move the state-of-the-art analysis of liquid rocket engine turbomachinery past the current one-way coupling schemes towards a fully-coupled FSI simulation. This goal will be achieved through the development of methods that allow the close coupling of commercially available nonlinear computational structural dynamics and computational fluid dynamics tools. Future enhancements can be implemented in these codes that are specifically tailored to turbomachinery. The objectives of the Phase I program are to demonstrate feasibility of tools and models and to identify potential verification and validation cases relevant to liquid rocket engine conditions. BENEFIT: Next-generation launch programs will require propulsion systems that deliver high thrust-to- weight ratios, increased trajectory-averaged specific impulse, reliable overall vehicle systems performance, low recurring costs, and improved crew safety. The development of a comprehensive set of validated FSI methods and tools provides a unique opportunity to optimize design, realize additional system efficiencies, reduce weight and/or cost, and increase part life in future generations of liquid rocket engine (LRE) designs. The benefits of the technology and potential commercial applications are not limited solely to the LRE industry. The methods developed in this SBIR can also be used to help optimize the design of military and commercial gas turbine engines and any rotating machinery that experiences significant fluid/structure interactions.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Nathaniel Demmons
AF112-180      Awarded:11/15/2011
Title:Electrospray-Based Propulsive De-Orbit Module
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Busek proposes to developed a self-contained electrospray thruster that (a) requires no pressurized propellant tanks or valves, utilizes analog-only electronics, and stores propellant as a stable solid; (b) is capable of operation after extended storage and inoperative periods of up to 15 years; (c) exercises full control authority over a spacecraft with capability to apply torque to the spacecraft in a de-tumbling mode and is capable of thrusts sufficient for de- orbiting; and (d) has minimal mass, volume, and power requirements, promoting ease-of- integration with spacecraft. The concept that Busek proposes consists of an electrospray utilizing a high melting point ionic liquid propellant, capable of stable extended storage with no leakage and requiring no valves. Thruster operation is initiated via a low-power heater that melts the propellant. Propellant distribution is accomplished via passive wicking, eliminating the need for valves and pressurized feedsystem. Thruster control shall consist of sun sensors and analog logic with simple instructions to perform retrograde firing into the sun following emergence from eclipse, while maintaining correct spacecraft orientation. This constitutes half of a Hohmann transfer maneuver, gradually lowering perigee of orbit to altitudes of increasing atmospheric drag and eventual de-orbit. BENEFIT: The risk of spacecraft collisions grows significantly with the number of items in orbit and is a particular problem for heavily used orbits, where debris density is highest and collisions cause further debris break-up. It is anticipated that future regulations on space debris management will eventually require all spacecraft to perform de-orbiting maneuvers at the end of life. The proposed propulsive module utilizes a high-efficiency, low power, electric propulsion module that will provide a stand alone, independent system capable of de-orbiting a variety of commercial and military spacecraft, without significantly impacting overall spacecraft design.

Exquadrum, Inc
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Philip Pelfrey
AF112-181      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Rocket Nozzle Thrust Diverter
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Exquadrum proposes a rocket nozzle thrust diverter to achieve an additional 2:1 throttle reduction above and beyond the throttle capability of the engine. The innovative thrust diverter operates separate from the engine and engine cycle, and therefore has no performance effect on the turbomachinery, thrust chamber, or nozzle. It is stowed away from the engine exhaust stream for re-usability and long-life, and is deployed using a single actuator, synchronization ring, and linkages. In Phase I, Exquadrum will document the requirements, use modeling and simulation to conduct design trade studies, generate a general arrangement drawing to document the resulting configuration, and perform a proof-of- concept sub-scale hot fire demonstration test. This test will also generate the initial data regarding loads, temperatures, and performance that will be useful in identifying risks for the modeling, simulation, and development efforts planned for Phase II. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits of this research includes the successful demonstration of the rocket nozzle thrust diverter system through a proof-of-concept hot fire test conducted at the completion of Phase I. This test will demonstrate the ability of the rocket nozzle thrust diverter to reduce the measured thrust 50 percent, hence demonstrating the 2:1 throttle requirement. Additional benefits of the rocket nozzle thrust diverter include using it as an uncooled nozzle extension for increased performance, as well as using its actuation capability to provide altitude compensation for improved off-design performance. These performance improvements have the potential to offset the added weight of the thrust diverter system. The rocket nozzle thrust diverter enables greater throttle range beyond the rocket engine throttle capability. Moving the throttling capability from the engine to the diverter reduces the operating range of the engine, which improves performance and reliability. Having an overall increased throttle range enables significantly lower thrust during stage separation for a booster engine and provides deeper throttling capability for upper stage engines. The technology is applicable to booster and upperstage with either bell, conical, or aerospike nozzles for Air Force, NASA, and the growing commercial space launch industry.

Dynsan
8000 Madison Blvd STE D-102/303
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 468-6458
Maciej Z. Pindera
AF112-182      Awarded:12/5/2011
Title:Hypersonic Propulsion: Improvements in Controls and Instrumentation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The project objective is to develop an integrated controller for optimizing operations of dual- mode scramjet combustors. The controller is intended to help prevent isolator unstart, maintain efficient flameholder cavity operations, and manage the overall thermal balance. Proposed research will consist of a blend of software-based virtual prototyping and laboratory based controller performance tests. Virtual prototyping will be performed using an advanced simulation environment that will allow full accounting of the sensor-controller- actuator-combustor dynamics, in an active flow control loop. Laboratory tests will be performed under a subcontract and will be performed in both Phases of this project. Phase I prototyping will develop and test a novel Model-Free Direct (feedback) Control strategy for all three tasks. Preliminary tests will be performed using software-in-the loop simulations. Combustor operation will be modeled using a CFD code. Laboratory experiment-in-the-loop tests will be performed to evaluate the controller under real flow conditions. Software version of the controller will adjust in real time actuators in an experimental flow loop, to produce specified flow conditions in the test section. Phase II work will oversee the controller refinement, implementation into hardware, and further laboratory testing. Phase III commercialization will seek to exploit the natural dual-use applicability of the developed hardware. BENEFIT: In addition to military use, the generality of the controller design will be suitable for multi-use applications. Immediate use relates to reaction zone stabilization, prevention of isolator unstart and thermal control and management in scramjet combustors. The numerical environment used in this research has substantial commercial potential in aviation industry where these tools will be directly applicable. Hardware implementation of the controller system will allow direct interfacing with actual combustor systems, and hence their use on control of engine hardware. It will also benefit area where distributed flow control is of interest including: aerospace (L/D and maneuverability optimization), maritime (wake signature minimization), and automotive (combustion efficiency maximization). Controller hardware will be interfaceable with personal computers using low-cost PCI boards. Such an interface will allow very efficient virtual prototyping of complete plant-controller system dynamics.

Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-4980
Jim Crafton
AF112-182      Awarded:11/2/2011
Title:Hypersonic Propulsion: Improvements in Controls and Instrumentation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Among the technical challenges associated with current Air Force scramjet technology development is coupling between the combustor and isolator that leads to isolator unstart. Performance is currently restricted because the engine is not actively controlled. While simple passive techniques such as cavities for shock capture exist, they result in increased drag. We propose a closed-loop control scheme that seeks to actively isolate the inlet from the combustor to prevent unstart while monitoring and minimizing the drag in the inlet using flow control. The shock trapping scheme is based on a cavity in the isolator section and the flow control system consists of arc filament plasma actuators coupled with skin friction sensors. When there is potential for unstart, the actuators will make the cavity a high drag cavity, which would act as a shock trapping device. In normal operation, the actuators will be adjusted to minimize the drag of the cavity. The skin friction sensors that are based on an existing Surface Stress Sensitive Film sensor hardened to operate in high enthalpy flows. The flow control scheme is based on a class of high amplitude and high bandwidth plasma actuators called localized arc filament plasma actuators. BENEFIT: Surface Stress Sensitive Films are being investigation for a variety of applications in aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and biomedical research. Skin friction is a quantity of interest in many aerodynamics applications such as validation of CFD, and investigation of hypersonic inlets. A point version of this sensor could be used for both ground test and flight test measurements of skin friction. Other applications include a sensor for feedback in closed loop flow control. The S3F sensor has recently been used to detect shear forces on tires and a means of using the system for predictive maintenance of fleet vehicles is underway. The sensor also has use in biomedical applications include ongoing research for identification and correlation of shear on the foot of diabetics. The formation of bed sores is believed to be related to shear stress, and therefore this would be a similar application of the technology. Other biomedical applications include shear stress on surfaces of artificial implants such as stints, hearts, valves, and assist pumps

Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0529
Cortney K. Mittelsteadt, Ph.D.
AF112-183      Awarded:10/12/2011
Title:Simplified Static Feed Electrolyzer for Hydrogen Refueling
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force has a need for a robust, portable hydrogen generator for the refueling of metal hydride hydrogen fuel canisters used in portable electrical power systems. Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) has developed a simplified, static-vapor-feed electrolyzer for energy storage and life-support oxygen generation in NASA applications. This system eliminates or greatly reduces in size much of the ancillary equipment that is used in traditional direct liquid-feed systems. These include large deionizing beds, recirculating pumps, phase separators, and driers. Reducing or eliminating these subsystems greatly reduces the size of the system while increasing robustness. This technology will be used in this Phase I program to build an electrolyzer sized for this application (9 g/h hydrogen at 500 psig). Qualification of the product hydrogen will be used to size post-electrolysis driers and/or polishers that may be necessary and a system prototype will be designed for Phase II. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the Phase I program will result in a static vapor phase electrolyzer with greatly simplified ancillary devices. These advantages are currently being sought by NASA to simplify electrolysis systems used in aerospace applications. Giner is the world’s largest supplier of laboratory electrolyzers for hydrogen generation, using traditional liquid- fed electrolysis. Utilization of this technology could greatly enhance the simplicity and reliability of these devices.

Proton Energy Systems
10 Technology Drive
Wallingford, CT 06492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 678-2128
Luke Dalton
AF112-183      Awarded:10/14/2011
Title:Ruggedized PEM Electrolysis Hydrogen Generator for PEPSAE Recharge
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this proposal, a ruggedized proton exchange membrane (PEM) hydrogen generator based on Proton’s current laboratory products is proposed as a portable recharger for metal hydride storage canisters. The PEM technology enables simplicity in the fuel logistics stream for support Aeromedical Evacuation missions and similar forward operating scenarios. In addition, the PEM cells can be operated at differential pressure, eliminating the need for high pressure oxygen and providing significantly improved safety in the design. In Phase 1, Proton will leverage existing cell design capability in a variety of stack active areas, number of cells per stack, and output pressure to modify existing stack hardware for this application in order to demonstrate feasibility of meeting the requirements. In parallel, the system design will be analyzed for component robustness under the specific conditions of vibration, tilt, and other variables specified by the sponsor. The design will be ruggedized to meet shock, vibration, thermal, and other operational, transportation, and storage requirements. Components will also be analyzed for weight reduction or maintenance in order to balance any weight added to meet these requirements. BENEFIT: This project will contribute to Proton’s technology portfolio and commercialization pipeline in two key areas. First, Proton has fabricated near-commercial versions of an electrolysis product designed to interface with renewable power sources. This project offers the potential to further develop this capability and adapt it to other applications for renewable energy storage. We anticipate that the controls algorithms and power conversion architecture will scale well to support larger electrolyzer systems, and will therefore provide value to energy storage needs in the range of kWhr to MWhr. Secondly, the development of this small scale hydride recharging device has applicability to commercial applications for fuel cells as well. Proton has had discussions with several fuel cell companies who are developing portable power solutions offering metal hydride storage options. In each case, there was a perceived need for an inexpensive small scale recharging solution. Based on these initial discussions, we feel that Proton can offer the best combination of pressure, purity, and fill rate for metal hydrides with its PEM based electrolyzer solution. The electrolyzer system developed in Phases I and II of this program would provide a functional platform for a “commercial” variant that can be marketed to fuel cell providers that want to offer their customers a simple hydride recharge device as a companion accessory.

Mobile Mapping Corporation
758-I Kuskokwim Dr
Fairbanks, AK 99775
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(907) 474-6958
Keith Cunningham
AF112-184      Awarded:11/17/2011
Title:Volcanic Ash Analysis and Detection Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A refined volcanic plume model is proposed to evaluate improved forecasting of ash movement and dispersion. This refined model utilizes near real-time model calibration and validation, perspective satellite observation geometry, and future in-situ measurements for more accurate models and forecasts. BENEFIT: Aircraft safety utilizes coarse volcanic plume models and better models will allow improved operational safety margins.

Polartronix
POB 81264
Fairbanks, AK 99708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(907) 479-0370
Kevin Abnett
AF112-184      Awarded:11/30/2011
Title:Volcanic Ash Analysis and Detection Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal is to design an instrument that will detect and quantify volcanic ash hazards. A proof of concept model of the instrument will be constructed and tested. This instrument will measure overall density, particle size distribution and elemental composition. While the instrument in Phase 1 will not be certified to fly on a UAV, design elements will be incorporated for the goal of UAV integration in Phase 2. BENEFIT: This will benefit safety of air travel near volcanic hazards. Allow for reduced engine maintenance, and provide improvements to satellite based monitoring systems.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2727
Chris St.Clair
AF112-185      Awarded:11/9/2011
Title:Cooling Channel Diagnostic System (CCDS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: ORBITEC proposes to develop the Cooling Channel Diagnostic System (CCDS), a diagnostic tool for assessing the condition of rocket engine cooling channels. This system will be used to detect and locate any deposits which inhibit heat transfer between cooling channels and the hot-gas wall of the combustion chamber. The CCDS will detect and characterize any barriers to heat transfer which would degrade the performance of the cooling channels during engine operation, including coke buildup from hydrocarbon coolants, heavy layers of copper sulfide, channel-clogging debris, or other potential problems. Regions with coke buildup or other problems will be immediately detected by this diagnostic tool. In addition to identifying any such problems and pinpointing their location, the CCDS will also be able to characterize their severity. The CCDS will be a valuable tool for precisely mapping and characterizing any impediments to proper cooling. In Phase I, we will design, analyze, build, and test a subscale test article to demonstrate the operation and effectiveness of the CCDS. BENEFIT: The U.S. Air Force is the obvious first customer for CCDS systems once they have been successfully demonstrated and developed. The CCDS will also be an attractive diagnostic system for any other liquid rocket engines (reusable or single-use, hydrocarbon or hydrogen fuel) which utilize cooled chamber walls. Given the highly specific nature of the CCDS mission, we understand that the market for the technology will necessarily be limited, but nonetheless we feel that the CCDS will become an important tool for pre-flight test operations. During the Phase I and Phase II work, we will continually assess the market and work to build the relationships necessary for transitioning of this technology.

Reaction Systems, LLC
17301 W. Colfax Avenue #405
Golden, CO 80401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 352-7161
David Wickham
AF112-185      Awarded:11/21/2011
Title:A Novel Thermal Method for Rapid Coke Measurement in Liquid Rocket Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The surfaces of rocket engine thrust chambers, throats and nozzles are exposed to combustion products at temperatures ranging from 4000 to 6000°F and therefore engines must utilize a cooling mechanism to prevent metal failure. Unfortunately, regenerative cooling leaves coke deposits in the fuel channels which can lead to wall failure. Moreover, the recent interest in reusing launch vehicles increases the likelihood that over the course of several missions dangerous levels of coke would eventually be reached. Therefore, there is a need to develop a method to characterize the layer thickness so that engine lifetimes and service intervals can be predicted. Because of the complexity of the channel geometry and the very low levels of coke present, this is a difficult and challenging problem. However Reaction Systems LLC has identified a thermal approach that will rapidly and accurately map the coke deposited in all flow channels. The method is safe and easy to use and has no potential to cause damage to the engine or leave parts behind in the channels. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this project will result in enabling technology that will allow liquid fueled rocket engines to be reused safely. In addition, we believe this technology could find application in the chemical industry to map coke deposition on heterogeneous catalysts used in chemical process industry. Coking is a common catalyst deactivation mechanism in cases where the reaction is carried out under reducing conditions, for example fuel reforming, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, and fuel production reactions such as Fischer Tropsch (FT). Catalyst regeneration is an expensive task and developing techniques to identify specific reactor sections where the catalyst has lost activity due to coking would permit regeneration of only those portions of the reactor where it is required.

Calspan Corporation
4455 Genesee St P.O. Box 400
Buffalo, NY 14225
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 631-6882
Doug Stryker
AF112-187      Awarded:10/28/2011
Title:Wind Tunnel Model Force and Moment Measurement Capability with Corrections for Structural Motion Effects
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Wind tunnels are used as an important tool to understand the aerodynamics of aircraft. Wind tunnel models are typically instrumented with balances that are capable of measuring the forces and moments that an aircraft will be subjected. Along with measuring these forces and moments knowledge of the aircraft attitude is required in order to resolve the measured components from the balance into their respective aerodynamic coefficients. In particular measurement of the angle of attack (AOA) of the aircraft is critical. Instrumentation such as inclinometers has been used successfully for many years for this task. However, errors in the actual aerodynamic forces have suffered from the effects of model dynamics that produce a bias in both measured forces and AOA. It has been found that this bias can exceed the desired accuracy requirements. Various approaches have been taken to reduce this error and have shown promise. However, some of these approaches are not readily adaptable to all models. This proposal deals with this issue by developing the design of a sensor system that is compact in size and could potentially be integrated as part of the balance. BENEFIT: This research will develop a cost effective method for accurately correcting for inertial effects of measured aerodynamic forces and moments from a wind tunnel model experiencing dynamic conditions, providing the research community with improved data quality and a sensor system that is readily adapted to wind tunnel models and balances.

M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 981-7797
Kevin Roghen
AF112-187      Awarded:10/28/2011
Title:Wind Tunnel Balance Correction for Structural Motion Effects
Abstract:ABSTRACT: M4 Engineering proposes to develop a method for accurately correcting wind tunnel force measurements by removing the inertial component of load. This effort will effectively utilize novel sensors to determine inertial loads due to excitation of multiple structural dynamic modes resulting from a broadband loading environment. This work will include demonstration of the proposed technology on a hardware prototype CTS system. The proposed development will create an excellent compliment to modern test and analysis methods. BENEFIT: The proposed development has the potential to dramatically improve the wind tunnel testing process for aerospace vehicles. Demand for this capability will be found in the government and at major airframe manufacturers. Phase II development will result in a commercial package including sensors and processing software that satisfies this demand. Application of these methods to wind tunnel testing data will result in increased accuracy and therefore improved prediction of vehicle behavior during development, testing, and service. One commercialization strategy currently being pursued by M4 Engineering is combination of advanced data processing techniques and additional sensors with existing strain gage based balances. M4 Engineering has begun discussions with leading balance manufacturers as well as airframe developers on potential commercial offerings based on wind tunnel measurement technology developed at M4. Satisfying this existing demand will provide a tremendous commercial potential for this technology.

Optical Sciences Corporation
P.O. Box 8291
Huntsville, AL 35808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-1500
Thomas Cantey
AF112-188      Awarded:11/2/2011
Title:Off-Axis Rejection Collimation Assembly (OARCA) for Solar Lunar Exclusion Testing in Cryo-Vacuum Space Simulation Test Chambers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical Sciences Corporation proposes to demonstrate the feasibility and present a plan for developing the innovative Off-Axis Rejection Collimator Assembly (OARCA) for solar lunar exclusion sensor testing in cryo-vacuum space simulation test chambers. The OARCA merges an all-reflective collimator with a novel pupil optical relay design implementation and infrared quantum cascade laser sources. The external pupil will have a large irradiance test area for off-axis illumination of sensor under test apertures >10 inches in diameter. The OARCA all-reflective design can accommodate any wavelength between 1-20 µm in the infrared and is designed to be polarization insensitive. The cryo-vacuum compatible optical system will project this broadband radiation with the radiometrically correct inband solar lunar irradiance and a 0.5 degree angular subtense of the extended solar lunar source. The projection system and proposed technology is designed to meet or exceed the objectives outlined in the SBIR AF112-188 topic. BENEFIT: The product resulting at the end of the Phase II research will be an Off-Axis Rejection Collimator Assembly (OARCA) and will be a highly specialized OAR measurement illumination system suitable for use in confined space simulation facilities designed for the T&E of space sensors. The product will be compatible with cryogenic vacuum environments with demonstrated effectiveness by integration into an existing test chamber. The proposed OARCA system concept product could potentially improve solar simulator optical systems and represent the true angular subtense of the solar with low background scatter. This is a growing market with greater interest and proliferation of infrared sensors and the adoption of solar energy. Optical Sciences Corporation believes there are multiple avenues of commercial potential for a solar simulator in the different wavebands other than space sensor testing applications. The OARCA technology, in addition to space sensor testing applications, could have valuable utility in laboratory and field testing illumination applications, including solar cell testing, solar chromatography, active surveillance, remote sensing, complex illumination, and infrared counter-measure stimulation.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Fang Zhang
AF112-188      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Solar/Lunar Exclusion Projection System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a reduced-path-length solar/lunar exclusion sensor test capability that quantitatively characterizes off-axis rejection (OAR) of bright light sources for validation and calibration of sensors in a cryo-vacuum environment, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new solar/lunar exclusion projection (SLEP) system based on a novel integration of athermalized compact projection and polarization control optics and broadband light sources. The proposed SLEP design will deliver collimated source irradiance with known polarization characteristics over broadband infrared (1 to 20 micrometers) with a uniform intensity profile in a compact form operable in a cryo- vacuum environment. SLEP will measure sensor performance to nominally 1E-09/sr with a dynamic range of 14 orders of magnitude from 0 to 12 degrees with 0.1-degree angular resolution, which directly addresses the Air Force’s requirements for an OAR sensor test capability. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate SLEP feasibility by developing a concept design and proof-of-concept prototype that can operate in cryo-vacuum (80 K and 1E-6 Torr) conditions. In Phase II, POC plans to develop and demonstrate a fully functional engineering prototype that meets Air Force requirements for OAR sensor testing applications for space simulation chambers (30 K and 1E-6 Torr). BENEFIT: The proposed SLEP capability will address the need for a reduced-path-length solar/lunar exclusion sensor test capability that quantitatively characterizes off-axis rejection (OAR) of bright light sources for validation and calibration of sensors in a cryo-vacuum environment; therefore, it will meet Air Force space platform and test requirements (unlike current technologies) without requiring significant modification to existing hardware. The innovative system design allows reduced size, weight, and power (SWAP) and facilitates incorporation into an existing space simulation test facility. As a result, the SLEP technology will have cost and performance advantages over any competitors. These advantages include high resolution, wide spectral bands, and high dynamic range. Commercial applications of SLEP will include delivery and testing of advanced space systems. It will be applicable to on-board spacecraft systems and commercial space simulation test facilities. It can be used in many test facilities that operate at cryogenic temperature and need ground testing capabilities to characterize OAR sensors, such as in satellite industries.

GIRD Systems, Inc.
310 Terrace Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 281-2900
James Caffery
AF112-189      Awarded:10/31/2011
Title:Sub-Millisecond Internal LAN Time Synchronization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: High precision and low cost test data acquisition and analysis systems are of wide interest in both military and commercial circles today. These systems depend on accurate time or clock synchronization across the entire system in order to correlate individual data samples across multiple sensors. This proposal will outline a method to provide time synchronization across a network of computers using COTS networking equipment and general-purpose operating systems. Highly accurate time within 0.5ms will be available for direct use by data acquisition programs. This synchronization system will be flexible and scalable for future technology improvements through the use of industry standard time protocols. BENEFIT: The SW-only solution developed in this solicitation is highly attractive in both the DoD and the commercial sector due to its non-expensive and easy to setup property. This SBIR program obviously develops into a potential product for the military market, where accurate clock synchronization is required and time references may not always be accessible, such as DoD ground and flight test facilities, data acquisition systems, data fusion, internal aircraft or weapon system networks. Potentially interested parties, in addition to the Air Force, include all services of DoD. There is also a large market within the commercial sector where similar needs exist. That includes all data acquisition systems and any system requiring clock synchronization in API level.

McQ Inc.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Mark Winston
AF112-189      Awarded:11/1/2011
Title:Sub-Millisecond Internal LAN Time Synchronization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a sub- millisecond internal LAN time synchronization (SILTS) capability which does not require the use of external time references. It is also highly desired that the SILTS not require custom components such as hardware and drivers. The proposed SILTS solution will provide a reliable non-intrusive time synchronization system at the application program interface by employing a customized precision time protocol over a LAN. A secondary objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a network node capable of producing IRIG B (Inter Range Instrumentation Group) synchronization signals for distribution to legacy components. BENEFIT: There is a critical need for the ability to precisely synchronize data acquisition computers on a LAN for time stamping and controlling events. Typically computers are synchronized using external hardware such as GPS and IRIG B cards. These implantations are undesirable since they require long cables and external hardware which increases complexity and implementation/maintenance costs. A stand alone solution that doesn’t required the use of such hardware would be invaluable to the Air Forces data acquisition and test groups. There are many applications for such a system in commercial sectors such as industrial automation and control systems requiring precise control of timing and data acquisition.

Coherent Technical Services, Inc.
46591 Expedition Drive Suite 300
Lexington Park, MD 20653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 880-3341
Patrick Madorin
AF112-193      Awarded:2/8/2012
Title:Desert Fauna Detection and Tracking System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Identifying the presence of endangered and threatened species is crucial to complying with Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Each year military reservations spend large amounts of resources in time, materials, and manpower in identifying if endangered or threatened species are present. Current methods of capturing and counting endangered and threatened species are labor intensive and also cause stress and disruption to the species under study. In addition, based on the surveyor’s skill level, attention to following procedures, and record keeping, can introduce more unwanted variables into the reliability and accuracy of the field survey. An alternative method of species identification is needed to be more economical and increase accuracy, while being less intrusive to the environment. An acoustical signal identification approach that has proved successful in identifying marine mammals will be implemented for terrestrial applications. CTSi and the Bioacoustics Research Program, a unit of Cornell University’s Laboratory of Ornithology, have identified an innovative approach which will deliver accurate field surveys for any desired species that can vocalize, locate the position where the sound was emitted, use less labor, use ordinary people as survey scientists, and operate in rugged environmental conditions. Our team will provide a rugged autonomous acoustic data recorder system solution to consistently and accurately identify and track animals that emit sounds, while achieving reduced labor costs. This system will be placed in the field for 2 weeks, operate autonomously, and record species sounds that are emitted. At the completion of the survey the collected data will be processed and a species acoustical emissions map generated. These maps will use latitude and longitude coordinates for each acoustical emission for easy interpretation by the end user. Additionally, the approach can easily be expanded and adapted to many more applications. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of the development of an acoustical identifier system is to significantly reduce costs and improve accuracy while performing field surveys to identify if threatened and endangered species are present. This system can easily be expanded into other DOD and commercial uses such as, noise abatement compliance monitors, listening for low flying aircraft illegally crossing borders, perimeter monitors for military bases, listening for leaks in pipelines, monitoring vibrations in factories to identify faulty machines, study animal migration patterns, office and factory sound environment analysis.

ISCA Technologies, Inc.
1230 Spring Street PO Box 5266
Riverside, CA 92517
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(951) 686-5008
Agenor Mafra-Neto
AF112-193      Awarded:2/3/2012
Title:Desert Fauna Detection and Tracking System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Air Force Instruction 32-7064 require the Department of Defense (DoD) to manage the natural resources of each military reservation within the United States and to provide sustained multiple uses of those resources. Edwards AFB complies by preparing and implementing an Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP). The primary purpose of the INRMP is to use adaptive ecosystem management strategies to protect and administer the base’s natural resources in concert with the military mission. Preventing sensitive species from becoming listed species greatly lessens the impacts to the mission. The only way to convince the US Fish and Wildlife Service that listing is not necessary under the ESA is to have good data. ISCA proposes a disruptive concept and technology for autonomous audio detection, identification and tracking using rugged distributed, smart sensor nodes. ISCA SONOSCAPE SYSTEM builds on technology that our group of specialists has developed over the years, and are today’s gold standard in bioacoustics. The ultimate goal of this SBIR is to provide DOD installations and other federal agencies the tools to better understand the demography of sensitive species to prevent listing and lessen the controls and restrictions on the mission. BENEFIT: Current detection and cataloging of fauna requires specialists to spend countless hours to collect field data. The human presence in the field decreases the likelihood that species will be detected, especially reclusive and rare ones. The proposed passive ISCA SONOSCAPE SYSTEM will provide automation of audio monitoring systems for desert fauna detection and thus provide users with continuous field monitoring data without additional cost of time, money and resources needed for direct observation surveys. Activity maps showing individuals or species location over the area allow for better accounting of the fauna present in the target area, and thus allow for better management of activities. The ISCA SONOSCAPE SYSTEM will provide DOD installations and other federal agencies the tools to better understand the demography of sensitive species to prevent listing and lessen the controls and restrictions on the mission. The ISCA SONOSCAPE SYSTEM proposed automation is badly needed for the management of fauna around the world as well as to determine characteristics of the soundscape in urban and rural areas, a market estimated to be huge.

Sonistic L.L.C.
1214 w Church St
Champaign, IL 61821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 377-9698
Aaron Jones
AF112-193      Awarded:2/9/2012
Title:Desert Fauna Detection and Tracking System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Acoustic monitoring is very often the most cost-effective approach for the many species that vocalize. Highly time- and cost-intensive animal monitoring tasks include field observation, search for signs of species of interest, periodic field visits to service monitoring equipment, and post-recording data analysis. A uniquely capable solar-powered field recording system with wireless internet access through the cellular infrastructure for remote control and data download removes the need for periodic trips to the field for data recovery and supports real-time alerts. Microphone arrays coupled with accurate, field-proven localization algorithms based on breakthrough recent research can track animals by their calls and make spatial activity maps that guide biologists directly to locations of interest. Next-generation species and call-type detection and classification algorithms based on call spectro-temporal features or on more advanced speech recognition research will quickly sift through days of recordings to identify the acoustic events of interest to the biologist, with tremendous overall time savings. BENEFIT: Many sensitive or threatened species are fundamentally difficult to track or monitor. Since many of these animals use species-specific calls or songs to locate each other, acoustic detection is likely the best way to track them. Conservational Scientists and Wildlife Biologists all over the world are in need of a better solution to study these species more efficiently. Technological limitations of commercially available bioacoustic monitors have prevented widespread use and limited the growth of a market for such products. Features such as automatic call detection, call localization, and solar powered "place and forget" monitors with wireless data access would together drastically reduce all of the time-intensive tasks associated with tracking wildlife, thus greatly expanding the market as well as providing a superior solution. Government agencies including NPS and FWS devote millions of dollars in funding to study and preserve wildlife, especially migrating birds. The DoD and DIO have demonstrated a need for a more cost efficient solution to meet Endangered Species Act and Sikes Act requirements. The FWS projected birdwatching trip-related expenditures to be over $12 billion in 2006 indicating vast potential for worldwide commercialization within the

Anasphere, Inc.
106 Pronghorn Trail
Bozeman, MT 59718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 994-9354
John A. Bognar
AF112-194      Awarded:1/19/2012
Title:Miniature Air Launched Rawinsonde and Dropsonde (MALRD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Accurate, in-situ meteorological data are an essential part of any flight-test program or airborne weapon test. Present methods to gather such data are subject to drawbacks including spatial inaccuracy, asset availability, and simple inefficiency. An in-situ radiosonde system capable of deployment from nearly any military aircraft would solve this problem, by allowing for the spatially precise deployment of sensors in the test airspace without placing any undue burden on other range assets or requiring additional flight time from the test aircraft. The proposed solution is centered on the MALRD (Miniature Air Launched Rawinsonde and Dropsonde). This device will be compatible with common countermeasures dispensing systems and be capable of operation as either a dropsonde or upsonde (rawinsonde). It will measure meteorological variables including pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and winds, and return the data to either aircraft- or ground-based receivers. Phase I work will involve developing designs for upsonde, dropsonde, and combined variants of the MALRD. Key enabling technologies will be tested in the laboratory. Phase II work will involve building MALRD prototypes and conducting live flight tests. BENEFIT: The market need being addressed by this technology is the need to obtain meteorological data at a precise point in space and time. An aircraft-deployable sonde can be precisely deployed unlike any other in-situ sensor. The MALRD will have applications in both test and operational scenarios for all branches of the military. Derivatives of the MALRD may be deployed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, rockets, artillery shells, or other precision delivery methods. A radiosonde derived from the MALRD could be used as a ruggedized radiosonde for surface launches as well.

WINTEC, Incorporated
220 Eglin Parkway SE Suite 4
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 664-6203
Fred Benedick
AF112-194      Awarded:1/19/2012
Title:Miniature Air Launched Rawinsonde and Dropsonde (MALRD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The opportunity exists to leverage readily available F-16 aircraft equipped with AN/ALE-40 and -47 Countermeasures Dispensing System (CMDS) to support vital monitoring of atmospheric conditions using rawinsonde and dropsonde sensor technologies. In addition to providing direct in-situ measure of pressure, temperature, humidity and wind-vector (PTU + wind) data, this radiosonde data is fundamental to development, validation, and initialization of numerical atmospheric-prediction models essential to forecasting weather conditions and phenomenology. The proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of designing an air-launched rawinsonde and dropsonde compatible with an F-16 aircraft equipped with an AN/ALE-40 or AN/ALE-47 CMDS using the MJU-12/A flare magazine and MJU-7/B flare configuration. Central to our approach is leveraging current and previous capabilities that satisfy many of the MALRD requirements. The existing and flight-proven Micro Air- Launched Expendable Meteorological Sonde (MAXMS) provides the core sensor and electronics package to accomplish many of the requisite MALRD requirements. Focus will be on key research areas that will fulfill all MALRD requirements. BENEFIT: The benefits derived from accurate atmospheric sensing and forecasting by the Government greatly contributes to both military and civilian communities in promoting the overall defense and economic welfare for the Nation. In addition, air-launch of MALRD sondes opens new markets for alternative launch of various miniature sensor and electronics instrumentation or micro-munitions payloads on platforms equipped with the AN/ALE-40 or AN/ALE-47 CMDS.

Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc.
101 Industrial Blvd.
Turners Falls, MA 01376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 863-0200
Mark C. Beaubien
AF112-194      Awarded:2/10/2012
Title:Miniature Air Launched Rawinsonde and Dropsonde (MALRD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We describe miniature, highly rugged environmental dropsonde technology capable of four dimensional in-situ atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity and Global Positioning System (GPS) wind speed/direction real time measurements. A primary goal is to provide accuracy while simultaneously withstanding the severe launch shock environment of ALE-47 Electronics Countermeasure Dispensers (ECD); past SBIR-funded R&D efforts using ECD deployment destroyed thermistors due to high initial acceleration. Our design will be capable of long periods of dormancy, yet will obtain a rapid GPS 3D lock immediately after launch, and we will use standard UHF ground support receiving equipment. To alleviate issues of thermodynamic cooling of the thermistor by rain, we plan to provide two independent methods to measure air temperature. First, a unique mechanical support will protect the fragile precision air temperature thermistor during the 100+ G launch initiation. Next, we will design an optical limb pointing infrared sensor that uses atmospheric infrared radiance arising from water vapor (humidity) in spectral absorption bands. The latter technique will provide a reliable surrogate for air temperature even when the thermistor is wetted by precipitation and experiences evaporative cooling errors. This effort includes not only hardware/firmware prototype development but also successive flight tests conducted at DoD. BENEFIT: The initial benefit is to provide real time PTU+winds data to DoD flight performance evaluation of new and existing air platforms. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models run by AF and Navy weather agencies (MM5 and COAMPS) will each benefit from leveraging sounding data collected by “flights of convenience”; the thousands of ALE-47- equipped aircraft ferrying personnel and materiel to remote continents will profile the upper air in remote regions, providing data to initialize NWP models in data sparse regions such as the eastern Pacific. Next, the hurricane communities, particularly the USAF’s 53rd will benefit from additional soundings via the C-130Js they fly into active hurricanes, by removing the need for a manual dropsonde operator. DoD squadrons tasked with precision air drops as well as new P8 high altitude ASW aircraft requires dropsondes to obtain wind that enable precision emplacement of assets such as expensive sonobuoy assets. Finally, scientific research on our earth’s changing climate will benefit from increased frequency, accurate 4D atmospheric measurements.

Compass Technology Group
4790 Converse Ct
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 461-9654
Kathleen Cummings
AF112-195      Awarded:12/28/2011
Title:Ultra High Performance Radar Absorbing Material
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Traditional anechoic chamber wall treatments have consisted of geometrically tapered carbon loaded foam, which provides good near-normal incidence absorption of specular energy. While this material has served the testing community well over the last few decades, it is fundamentally limited because of the high level of diffuse scatter (tip diffraction), that increases the overall noise level in a chamber. To reach the reduced noise levels necessary for modern aircraft avionics and antenna testing, a new paradigm in anechoic chamber absorber is needed. The research program outlined in this proposal addresses this need by applying recently developed computational tools and design methodologies for electromagnetic materials. Through full-wave computational design, the material performance will be optimized over the full range of angles and frequencies needed in this application. Unlike traditional pyramidal absorber, the proposed absorber concept has an inherently low amount of diffuse scatter while improving specular performance over the traditional materials. The proposed concept also leverages current materials technologies and manufacturing methods so that anticipated manufacturing costs should be in line with current pyramidal absorber materials. BENEFIT: While the BAF is the primary near-term customer for the proposed HEPA-RAM, there are numerous anechoic chambers at DoD facilities across the United States. Because the performance specifications are significantly beyond the existing state-of-the-art in pyramidal absorber, The HEPA-RAM promises to be a game-changer in terms of increased measurement capability at these ranges. Furthermore, the ubiquitousness of wireless consumer electronics has lead to a large demand for RF testing by commercial companies as well. Large corporations such as Motorola and Apple, operate numerous anechoic chambers for testing commercial products, and the HEPA-RAM concept is directly applicable for increasing their measurement capabilities as well.

Microwave Measurement Systems, LLC
2597 Clyde Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-2323
M. Brandon Buscher
AF112-195      Awarded:1/19/2012
Title:Ultra High Performance Radar Absorbing Material
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a need for ultra-high performance RADAR absorbing materials (RAM), with performance characteristics superior to that offered by current technology, to be implemented for the testing and evaluation of aircraft level avionic and electronic warfare (EW) systems in an electromagnetically quiet environment at the Benefield Anechoic Facility (BAF). Current RAM implementations for anechoic chambers are capable of reducing specular reflection by up to 50 dB while handling incident power densities of up to 10 W/in2. This level of reflection reduction performance has, until recently, been acceptable for testing, but new technology, incorporating evermore sensitive electronics, requires new materials which meet strict performance criteria. Modern materials may offer a solution for increased performance of RAM. Using metamaterial absorbers (meta-RAM), an anechoic chamber with flat walls could potentially be realized. This would offer a much more convenient facility for installation of devices to be tested, mitigating the potential for damaging RAM. The use of materials such as the canonical metamaterial, the split-ring resonator (SRR), offer a convenient platform for creating absorbers as they are both electrically very small, with physical sizes smaller than the wavelength at resonance (~0.1 wavelengths). This proposal discusses the feasibility of implementing a metamaterial based RAM for use in the BAF. BENEFIT: This proposed RAM has the potential to realize anechoic chambers without large fragile foam pyramids to be damaged, opening the door for a wide array of applications for low-cost absorber implementations. This implementation also offers the customization inherent from the use of metamaterials with potential designs for a wide range of frequency bands based on the addition or subtraction of layers, each tuned for a specific band.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Ryan Miyamoto
AF112-195      Awarded:12/27/2011
Title:Ultra High Performance Radar Absorbing Material
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit proposes to develop an advanced radar absorbing material that can be used for electromagnetic testing of modern EW systems and RCS of aircraft. BENEFIT: The porposed RAM can be adopted to test commercial wireless communication and medical devices.

SI2 Technologies
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5300
Randall Lapierre
AF112-195      Awarded:1/4/2012
Title:Ultra High Performance Radar Absorbing Material for Anechoic Chambers (1000-200)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes to design and develop a high performance, structural radar absorbing material (RAM) from Direct Write printed product, for use in the Benefield Anechoic Facility (BAF). SI2’s innovative RAM is manufactured using a digital process which enables the creation of 3D absorbers of any size, shape or geometric orientation to be manufactured. The Direct Write process also allows different concentrations of resistive material to be deposited within the absorber, further increasing the design space by enabling multi-tiered or layered designs. In Phase I, SI2 will design and model a RAM structure that integrates with the Direct Write process to not only meet the electrical and fire resistance requirements for use in the BAF but also to provide robust structural and damage resistant properties, due to its unique design. In the follow-on Phase II, SI2 will build on the Phase I results to refine and optimize the design of the RAM. Prototype RAM articles will be manufactured to support RF evaluation in an anechoic chamber. BENEFIT: The initial assessment of the proposed structural RAM, manufactured from Direct Write inkjet printed material, indicates the potential of the technology to be used in applications beyond those targeted for the BAF in this Phase I effort. With the continued evolution of low observable requirements on legacy and future aerospace vehicles, new technologies are required to push the design and manufacture beyond state of the art as new threats emerge. LO designs are frequently limited by the ability of manufacturing processes, such as dip or flow coating, to create the proper impedance matching due to their inherent inability to locally tailor the RF response. SI2’s use of Direct Write deposition to manufacture complex, highly tailored, net shape RAM will enable designers of low observable structures almost limitless design options.

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Robert Kunc
AF112-199      Awarded:3/7/2012
Title:Crash Hardened Airborne Overhead High-Speed Video System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for airborne high-speed video (AHSV) capability in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Crash-Hardened Airborne Overhead High-Speed (CHAOS) video system. This system is based on a POC-proprietary segmenting hardware, parallel image acquisition, FPGA- based processing, high-speed cache memory, and ruggedized flash memory that can store 16 sec of AHSV. The innovative system design results in 5-W operation off a 12-18VDC power source and a 2000 fps, 1920-pixel x 1080-pixel imaging capability using parallelized CCD and memory trains. No additional cooling is needed, and elimination of complex optics results in a <250 g package suitable for overhead imaging of weapon blast events from small (e.g., Pointer, BAT3) UAV platforms. In Phase I, POC will survey existing micro-HSV systems and design a complete prototype AHSV camera system to replace existing Sony block cameras. We will also validate the use of our optical segmenting hardware in tiled imaging applications and fabricate a proof-of-concept prototype to demonstrate our results. In Phase II, we will refine our design per client input and fabricate a complete production- ready CHAOS video system. BENEFIT: The proposed CHAOS video system will make possible new classes of imaging technologies, such as high-resolution, high-speed, low-cost imager systems. Conventional approaches to fabricating large imaging arrays have either been based on stitching of smaller arrays or actual physical construction of large arrays. Both approaches have drawbacks that are directly overcome by the CHAOS video system, thereby allowing POC’s CHAOS to directly extend the capabilities and lifecycles of military and commercial imaging technologies. A unique feature of CHAOS is its capacity to fuse sensor devices in a manner that improves overall performance. The CHAOS video system can employ lower-cost, poorer-performing imaging components to provide high-performance operation. This breathes new life into these mature technologies, and directly reduces fabrication and design costs of various technologies.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Edward DeHoog
AF112-201      Awarded:3/7/2012
Title:UV IR Image Combiner
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a spatial and spectral beam combiner that integrates separate collimated ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) sources into a single co-aligned image identical to the size and shape of both input image with spectral characteristics of both, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new UV IR Image Combiner (UIVR). This proposed UIVR system is based on a new integration of dispersive optics and broadband relay optics. The innovation in combining dispersive components with optical relays will enable the UIVR system to conjoin separate extended IR and UV sources into a single image containing spatial and spectral features of both inputs. As a result, UIVR offers >80% optical transmission and <20% variation in spectral uniformity with minimal ghosting and resolution of 10 urad at 60 cm, which directly address the Air Forces requirements. In Phase I, POC will provide a detailed design modeling of key elements, layout of optical design, and discuss materials, coating, and optical layout. In Phase II, POC plans to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype, and validate the spectral and spatial goals of the 6- inch aperture UIVR device combining a minimum of one UV and one IR image. BENEFIT: The UIVR system will be useful for many commercial applications, such as multiband sensors for gas plume detection, high-power laser beam delivery systems, such as laser eye surgery, hyperspectral projectors and displays, and imaging spectrometer systems, as well as differential absorption LIDAR for measuring volatile organic compounds, aerosols, particulate matter, and other pollutants. UIVR also has potential for fluorescent imaging of cellular structures and biological tissue, industrial inspection equipment for product verification and test, laser machining and drilling, microlithography, tissue welding and wideband imaging systems. Potential customers include aerospace, biomedical, pharmaceuticals, environmental testing and monitoring, and other industries in the hyperspectral sensor market.

Reynard Corporation
1020 Calle Sombra
San Clemente, CA 92673
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 366-8866
Rob Sczupak
AF112-201      Awarded:4/17/2012
Title:Multiband UV/IR Combiner Development
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Third Generation infrared (IR) images utilize a dual-band design to take advantage of the unique information found in the distinct bands. With the success of this development in the infrared, other areas of sensing are looking to combine information in other wavelength bands. However, test instruments are unavailable that can create such combined images. In this proposal, Reynard Corporation is presenting a way to combine an ultraviolet (UV) band collimated image and an IR band collimated image into a single, highly resolved image. By utilizing a pellicle as the optical combiner, along with custom-designed, precision thin film coatings, the resulting image will have negligible ghosting. A pellicle solution also allows for a very light-weight final instrument. Phase I will demonstrate the ability to use a pellicle to combine the images into a single image. Phase II will further enhance the design, address testing, and demonstrate a fully functional deliverable unit. Our expertise in thin film coatings will allow this same footprint and concept to be used for other wavelength bands, with minimal effort to change only the applied thin film coating. All coating and testing will be done in-house at our San Clemente design and manufacturing facility. BENEFIT: Dual-band IR imaging has greatly enhanced our ability to see not only in complete darkness, but also to see information that is hidden from our normal vision. Having a modeling and simulation environment that can help accelerate the development of new imaging products in other wavelength bands is greatly desired, saving in both time and development cost. The same technology developed in this IR/UV solution can be used for IR/IR, IR/Visible, or Visible/UV scene generation. The goal is to reduce the cost of multiband detector and system development testing. Doing so will bring new products to the market more quickly and at lower cost, enhancing capabilities in areas such as meteorology, micro-machining, eye surgery, and forensics.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
William T. Laughlin
AF112-203      Awarded:6/5/2012
Title:Laser-Generated Fire Model for Fuel-Backed Composite Structures
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc. with the assistance of their partners SURVICE Engineering and ITT Engineering propose to build a Laser Generated Fire Prediction Model (LGFPM) for laser irradiated aircraft composite fuel tanks. Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs) are a new potential threat to our combat aircraft, and a major concern is lasers that could penetrate fuel tanks and ignite fuel. A working model for laser beam propagation, fuel tank damage and fuel ignition is needed for aircraft survivability analysis. The proposed program will define and model the physical mechanisms for laser initiated fuel ignition to create a model that will support current survivability analysis tools. BENEFIT: The proposed work will be the beginning of the crucial task of survivability analyses and the possibility of retrofitting and reengineering of Air Force weapon systems to make them less vulnerable to an adversary’s DEWs. We will begin with a working verified model for laser initiation of aircraft fuel fires. This will lead to retrofitted thermal protection materials, and to modest design changes in current weapons systems, and then ultimately to the design of future weapons which are inherently resistant to DEW radiation. The PSI, SURVICE, and ITT team’s experience in laser effects and laser lethality, weapon system survivability, and RF weapon lethality against aerospace targets will provide valuable support to the US weapons builders, helping them to design and build weapons which are highly resistant to DEW attack.

SURVICE Engineering Company
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-9914
Jim Tucker
AF112-203      Awarded:3/30/2012
Title:Laser Material Survivability Model
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Leveraging 30 years of dedicated aircraft survivability design, test, and evaluation, SURVICE Engineering brings a system engineering approach to researching and developing an engineering level tool to predict and assess laser initiated fire for composite aircraft fuel tanks. The code will simulate all phases of laser engagement conditions, composite damage, fuel leakage, ignition, and sustainment. Existing community accepted laser damage and fire prediction code methodology will be leveraged were possible and acceptable. BENEFIT: Development of a laser initiated fire prediction tool will support development and evaluation of mitigation technologies, support for test and evaluation, and overall system vulnerability evaluations. Initial applications include DoD aircraft, ground vehicles, and ships where not only laser initiated fire is of a concern, but also fire sustainment and subsequent damage. Further commercialization potential exists outside of DoD for commercial aircraft.

Green Revolution Cooling
5555 N. Lamar Ste D111
Austin, TX 78751
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 771-2902
Christiaan Best
AF112-205      Awarded:1/6/2012
Title:Improved Energy Conservation for Data Centers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This phase I proposal will support exploratory research and development to lower the cost of our fluid submersion cooling technology for data centers by 20%. The research will focus on increased efficiency of coolant flow and expanded server capacity for our system. The end goal of Phase I is to design and build a cooling system with the researched improvements, and conduct field trials at a third party facility to verify both the cost and energy savings. BENEFIT: Data centers use nearly 3% of US electricity, up from 1% in 2000. Nearly half of that is driven by cooling - which includes both exterior cooling as well as internal server fans. Green Revolution Cooling (GRC) can lower complete cooling costs by 95% by moving to a much more efficient cooling solution, fluid submersion cooling. Also, because the remaining server power is turned into heated fluid at up to 125° F, Green Revolution Cooling can reuse the remaining power in the form of hot water to heat a building or water supply, for a near net-zero data center energy usage. This makes it the only proven technology that can eliminate nearly all of the power in a data center, regardless of hardware or workload run. GRC's technology is being adopted in the high performance cooling segment due its superior cooling performance for high density applications, and this proposal will drive costs down to also appeal to the cost-conscious low and mid density data centers, which make up the bulk of US data centers. Once this technology is widely adopted, data centers will drastically reduce their energy consumption and be seen as models of efficiency.

Morris Technologies, Inc.
11988 Tramway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 618-5267
Steven Rengers
AF112-206      Awarded:1/19/2012
Title:Machining Parameters for Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) of Aerospace Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Morris Technologies, Inc of Cincinnati, Ohio, proposes a Phase I SBIR investigating proper grinding parameters for direct metal laser sintered [DMLS] components. This research is necessary to continue in the commercialization of DMLS, a high detail resolution direct digital manufacturing [DDM] technique. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the viability of the DDM, beginning with the DMLS process and developing grinding parameters which will not alter the DMLS part microstructures. Metrics will be defined for measuring the effectiveness of such grinding parameters, proposed standards and grinding methodology. An intelligent optimization scheme, concept analytical tool, will be researched and prototyped with the intent of determining viability of reducing qualification cost and times. Anticipated results include complete parameter sets [grinding wheel type, material, speeds, feeds, coolant types, etc...] for two commonly used aerospace superalloys: Titanium and Inconel. Like castings, forgings, and bar stock components, DDM components will require grinding processes to meet he tight tolerances required of the aerospace industry. The unique short grain structure of DMLS parts is different than that of conventionally manufactured parts and requires study. Safe grinding parameters will accelerate the acceptance of additive manufactured components in the aerospace and defense industry. BENEFIT: Safe parameter sets for the grinding of DMLS direct digital manufactured parts. The guidelines are necessary for the commercialization of this exciting additive technology. Safe grinding methodologies will ensure that metal microstructure and material properties are not adversly effected by industrial grinding.

POM Group, Inc.
2350 Pontiac Road
Auburn Hills, MI 48326
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 409-7900
Joohyun Choi
AF112-206      Awarded:1/18/2012
Title:Machining Parameters for Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) of Aerospace Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) of aircraft metallic components is an emerging and innovative manufacturing process, which can create or repair metallic parts directly from powder metal. DDM promises cost, time and efficiency benefits over traditional machining processes (in which material is removed using cutting tools) in the area of low production volumes, processes involving constant design iterations and manufacturing parts that have relatively complex geometric shapes. For conventional materials, machining processes and material irregularities they cause are well known and any potential failure points or induced stress points that could result in failures have corrective actions to take (e.g. Heat treat). But the newer technologies of additive metal fabrication materials are unknown. We are proposing a research of the required machining processes (Turning, milling, grinding) for final machining of DDM parts and the standardization of these processes to eliminate stress build up or failure points. Phase I research will be restricted to demonstrate the viability of the DDM process by developing machining parameters that will not alter the DDM part microstructures and define metrics for measuring the effectiveness of implementation of the machining parameters and proposed standards, the methodology used, and concept analytical tools produced. BENEFIT: Worldwide market for titanium alone is estimated at $225bn for 2008-2009. Aerospace, being the single largest user in this market, constitutes 56% of the market segment. 16% is for military aerospace market, while commercial aerospace market is the rest 40%. Non- aerospace market, such as medical devices, chemical, automotive, sports industry together constitutes the rest 44% of the titanium market. Last year alone, 5000MTon of titanium has been used in USA in aerospace applications and 90% of this is structural application. Largest single use of titanium is in the aircraft gas turbine engine. In the most modern jet engines, titanium-based alloy parts make up 20% to 30% of the dry weight, primarily in the compressor. The potential market for this technology, specific to metallic aircraft parts for defense application is estimated to be more than $100 millions annually within Northrop Grummen alone, and more than $500 millions industry-wide. Since DMD, a leading DDM process, integrated with proposed machining parameters, achieving improved dimensional accuracy and material integrity described in this proposal, is enabling and certified, it is expected that fundamentally new design concepts and applications could expand the market well beyond $1 billion.

Anautics, Inc.
2360 NW 32nd
TRI-CITY, OK 73065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 392-3012
Michael Johnson
AF112-208      Awarded:12/21/2011
Title:Proactive Methodology for Identifying Problem Aerospace Parts
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The engineer will be guided through the creation of criteria, alternatives and evaluation techniques in order to make a better decision. BENEFIT: The engineer will be guided through the creation of criteria, alternatives and evaluation techniques in order to make a better decision.

VG Enterprises Inc.
2417 Red Elm CT
Edmond, OK 73013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 821-1051
Vivet George
AF112-208      Awarded:12/21/2011
Title:Proactive Methodology for Identifying Problem Aerospace Parts
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal proposes to develop an agile methodology to identify bad actor parts to proactively address part performance. The methodology with algorithms and models will be developed by merging ideas from different areas of Science and Engineering. Some of the algorithms and models to researched for methodology development are ranking models, record-linkage algorithms, Hidden markov Model, and Soft-testing. Results will be documented in the final report to Phase I. BENEFIT: Accurate identification of bad actor airfraft parts will be very beneficial to Air Force and DoD for cost containment, reduction of flow days, and efficient use of human resources. The proposed methodoly will be useful to engineers, equipment specialists, and supply chain managers and system engineers. Potentially, the algorithms and models developed will be applicable to other industries such as financials and semiconductor.

JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
David Grundy
AF112-212      Awarded:3/26/2012
Title:Landing Gear Fatigue Damage Detection and Tracking Using MWM-Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The high-strength steels (HSS) used for landing gear components have a relatively low fracture toughness, and, therefore, once a crack is formed in a HSS component, it may grow rapidly, potentially leading to catastrophic failure of the part and potential loss of the aircraft. This SBIR program will demonstrate the feasibility of using JENTEK Sensor's MWM-Array flexible eddy current technology to detect early stage fatigue damage in high-strength steels used for landing gear. In Phase I, fatigue tests will be performed on HSS coupons to demonstrate the MWM-Array's capability to image precrack and/or early crack formation based on changes in an electrical property (e.g., magnetic permeability) of the HSS. Early fatigue damage identified by MWM-Array imaging will be verified using methods such as scanning electron microscopy and fractography. A simple scanning fixture will be adapted for MWM-Array imaging of a landing gear component to show feasibility of scanning on an actual landing gear component. BENEFIT: Landing gear is a critical, non-redundant system in military and commercial aircraft. The capability to inspect for early fatigue damage with the MWM-Array technology is expected to enable reduction in inspection frequency, increased margins of operational safety, transitioning to a condition-based maintenance paradigm and the corresponding life extension of landing gear components. These benefits could be achieved on both military and commercial landing gear and any other application with high value HSS components. The technologies developed will be readily adaptable to rotorcraft, ship, and ground vehicle drive trains, and ferrous steel structural elements. Because maintenance and support tasks account for the largest portion of total ownership costs, significant savings can be realized over the lifecycle of these systems with condition based maintenance.

Advanced Global Services
6420 Inducon Drive
Sanborn, NY 14132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 748-1778
Gennady Yumshtyk
AF112-213      Awarded:3/27/2012
Title:In-Service Fatigue Loads Data Gathering with CSG ™
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Landing Gear (LG) is one of the few critical elements which are not redundant and failure usually results in catastrophe. Current inspections center on macro aspects of fatigue in that they are only applicable during the crack propagation phase and fail to identify and sense stages of crack initiation on a micro-level to allow prevention and prognostication of critical breaks and failures. The Chameleon Skin Gauges (CSG®) have been developed as part of Prognostica™, a novel fatigue-sensing technology and demonstrated their capacity to determine fatigue life and damage on any component they are adhered to, regardless of its shape or material composition. This technology will be further developed to demonstrate its ability to accurately prognosticate the fatigue damage and crack propagation specifics on high strength steel LG components. BENEFIT: The Prognostica™ system possesses the capability to provide simple, real-time measurement of critical structure fatigue status and remaining life within design life cycle. Such information is thought to be of considerable significance to those responsible for the planning and execution of Integrated Logistics Support. Successful development and integration of Prognostica™ technology on Landing Gear components will allow its transition to other critical systems of the Aircraft as well as other Air Force and DoD weapon systems. Anticipated results in development and testing during Phase I will be of immediate use in advancing the inspection for LG component fatigue damage data gathering and providing recommendations for the extended full-scale testing.

MicroStrain, Inc.
459 Hurricane Lane Suite 102
Williston, VT 05495
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 862-6629
Steven W. Arms
AF112-213      Awarded:4/2/2012
Title:In-Service Fatigue Loads Data Gathering
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Structural monitoring of the landing gear of fixed and rotary wing aircraft is of critical importance to the Air Force. These structures are subjected to repeated large dynamic loads that are highly variable in nature. In order to track these structures’ fatigue over time, the magnitude and direction of load events and the number of fatigue cycles must be recorded. Smart, embedded multi-directional load sensors can provide this information. We propose to demonstrate this capability by combining a network of time-synchronized wireless load sensors with integrated microelectronics for static and dynamic loads sensing, data recording, communications, and energy harvesting. Our sensors possess major advantages, including: sealed stainless packaging, full calibration prior to installation, and rapid installation without modification to existing landing gear structures to enable full computation of landing gear forces and moments. Embedded firmware within a wireless sensor data aggregator (WSDA) will automatically detect landing gear deployment, and each node will commence high speed, time synchronized data recording. Data shall be collected prior to, during, and after landing by the WSDA. In Phase II, the WSDA will be programmed to host fatigue algorithms. Energy management combined with energy harvesting will be included to eliminate sensor node battery maintenance. BENEFIT: Our proposed wireless sensors are small, completely self-contained, and may be calibrated independently of the landing gear structure. They may be installed on existing landing gear without any modifications to the gear itself. Working system demonstrations under this SBIR program will lead to significant opportunities aboard Air Force, Navy, Army, Marines, Coast Guard, civil, and commercial aircraft. The potential benefits of our approach are substantiated by the strong support already provided to us by a major US aircraft manufacturer.

(ES3) Engineering & Software System Solution, Inc.
550 West C Street, Suite 1630
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 926-1150
Richard Vander Straten
AF112-214      Awarded:2/13/2012
Title:Non-Line of Sight Coating on High Strength Steel Substrate
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a current need to remove the use of EHC on landing gear component bores (non- line of sight). EHC has been utilized on landing gear components for numerous years. There are many benefits to EHC such as providing an excellent wear surface, a good corrosion barrier and it allows for surface restoration to dimensional tolerances during the repair and overhaul process. EHC also provides a good sealing surface for hydraulic fluid as well as nitrogen. However, due to EHC environmental and health hazard risks, the Under Secretary of Defense has directed all DOD Military Departments to invest in appropriate research and development on EHC substitutes and approve the use of alternatives where they can perform adequately for the intended application. ES3 has been under contract with the USAF executing a large scale, multi-year effort implementing HVOF thermal spray coatings on HSS landing gear line of sight applications. However, landing gear components are still required to utilize EHC on non-line of sight areas and is in need of technology which will replace EHC for this application. There are three unique technologies that ES3 will explore for the Phase I feasibility study. The three technologies are: • Rotary Plasma • Magnetron Sputter • HVOF-ID The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying a wear and corrosion resistant coating to HSS-IDs for the purpose of removing EHC. More specifically, numerous tests will be performed on the applied materials to show that the applied coatings possess the qualities necessary to make it an acceptable material. The chosen system and material can be specified for standard maintenance at USAF Air Logistic Centers (ALC’s) and Navy Air Depots. BENEFIT: Research conducted to develop a coating process which can restore steel IDs of worn or damaged land gear components, focuses on military applications; however, benefits will be similar for all commercial & military landing gear that need IDs restored to original dimensions. ES3 expects the following benefits from Rotary Plasma, Magnetron Sputter, or HVOF ID systems restoring the ID of steel landing gear components based on both industry and in- house research: • Non-line of sight surfaces of worn or damage IDs can be restored to serviceable condition

DRS Research
1917 W. 234th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 263-4002
Rashmi Dixit
AF112-214      Awarded:2/16/2012
Title:HVOF Coatings on Internal Diameters of High Strength Steel Tubes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The main goal of the present Phase I proposal is to examine the feasibility of applying the HVOF ID gun process to coat the internal surfaces of the landing gear components. HVOF is an environmentally friendly process compared to hard chrome plating in terms of hex-Cr elimination and avoiding hydrogen embrittlement. Due to their excellent erosion, corrosion and high temperature wear resistance, HVOF WC-Co based coatings will be carried out in Phase I. Various HVOF guns such as HVOF JetKote, Thermico’s ID Cool Flow gun and Merlyn (A-Flame)briefcase ID gun will be tried. Hence, in this phase I SBIR program, DRS Research in collaboration with Plasma Technology Inc. and General Dynamics team, intends to demonstrate the feasibility of use of modified HVOF process technology for effective realization of WC-17Co and WC-10Co-4Cr based coatings in ID bores. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the phase I program will set the stage of commercialization of the ID coating technology to not only landing gear applications, but also to automotive industry, oil and gas exploration industry etc. Deep hole drilling tubes face not only excessive wear due to sand and other particulates, but also are exposed to corrosive media leading to heavy wear. ID gun coating technology developed during this program will address these problems for the multi billion dollar deep hole exploration industry.

Nanotrons, Co
15 Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Je Kyun Lee
AF112-217      Awarded:2/2/2012
Title:Advanced multifunctional hybrid corrosion resistant coating system
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force requires an advanced corrosion resistant coating system which significantly mitigates the destructive effect of oxygen, for military aerospace and infrastructure preservation applications. The proposed program will develop an advanced multifunctional hybrid corrosion resistant coating system by uniformly embedding self-healing nanoparticles into a superhydrophobic perfluoroalkylated phthalocyanine (PPC) based fluorinated polymer system. The proposed new corrosion resistant coating system is expected to exhibit extremely low energy surface, surface self-cleaning feature by photo-generated singlet oxygen, no electron loss by encapsulated metal regulation, minimal oxidative destruction due to less hydrocarbon bonding, self-healing functionality by incorporation of corrosion inhibitor loaded nanocontainers, long-term active corrosion resistance by robust coating component, and high film durability by incorporated temperature stable polymer. This advanced coating system will also provide improved insulation film formability and enhanced thermal stability and processability due to the proven polyurethane polymer system. The key innovation in this approach is the unique design and synthesis of superhydrophobic main anticorrosion coating resin, which is fluorinated polymer prepared by covalently bonding of PPC groups to the backbone of fluorinated polyurethane polymer, and the incorporation of self-healing mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). The proposed advanced corrosion resistant coating system can be economically scaled up for volume manufacture. BENEFIT: The proposed high performance multifunctional hybrid corrosion resistant coating system will provide significantly increased corrosion resistance property and the lifetime of military aircrafts, thereby significantly reducing corrosion related operation and maintenance costs. The proposed corrosion resistant coating system can be applied to other military helicopter and rotorcraft, aircraft carriers, warships, armored vehicles, other land vehicles, and engineered structures where similar performance is needed. Also, the ability to form superhydrophobic coatings surfaces will have a huge effect on commercial applications such as anti-corrosion, antifouling, commercial marine structures/vessels, and automotive, commercial aircraft and vehicles, civilian infrastructure, and other consumer applications.

Porter Scientific, Inc.
719 Old Main Road PO Box 1359
Pembroke, NC 28372
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(862) 485-5352
Sergiu Gorun
AF112-217      Awarded:2/21/2012
Title:Advanced Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Preservation of Aerospace and Infrastructure Systems Used in Military and Commercial Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A new knowledge-based approach is proposed to mitigate the corrosion of metallic surfaces. The approach is based on the rational design of molecular coating materials based on a new class of phthalocyanines. While these materials resemble fluorinated polymers in their capacity to prevent the intrusion of moisture associated waterborne ions and the diffusion of oxygen to the metallic surface, they also exhibit additional beneficial properties unavailable to fluorinated polymers. Characteristically, all residual C-H bonds of classical phthalocyanines are replaced by C-F bonds via the inclusion of perfluoroalkyl groups insuring a high thermal and chemical stability of the materials. The molecules are designed to bind metal ions. The combination of metal ions and the extremely electron withdrawing perfluoroalkyl groups results in the suppression of oxidation (electron loss) and adhesion to metal surfaces via the formation of bonds between the metal center of the proposed molecules and the oxo groups (precursors to rust) present on metal surface exposed to the environment. Taken together the above features insure water repelling (high hydrophobicity) as well as electrochemical suppression of the deleteri-ous effects of oxygen. In addition the coatings resist acids (acid rain) and other harsh chemicals due to the exclu-sive presence of C-F bonds. BENEFIT: An added feature is the facile manipulation of molecular structures aimed at introducing intermolecular interactions via ð stacking that will enhance the cohesion of films and possibly their adhesion to metallic surfaces. A wide battery of solutions and solid-state experimental techniques will provide insights at both molecular and solid state (film) level, while additional tests to be performed in collaboration with the corrosion group at the US Army Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, NJ will reveal corrosion impor-tant properties such as surface energy (hydrophobicity). The experimental effort will be supported by a detailed computational analysis. The target molecules will be investigated using computational chemistry methods designed to complement the experimental results and to predict properties that will enhance the corrosion resistance of these materials. At a molecular level, several properties have been recognized in the corrosion literature as contributing to overall stability of molecules: 1) electron density distribution and atomic charge; 2) energy of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecu-lar orbitals; 3) permanent dipole moment and polarizability; and 4) total (internal, potential and kinetic) energy. Inasmuch as the target materials represent a new class of corrosion inhibitors, computational methods will be used to probe specific properties of the fluorinated phthalocyanines. As these phthalocyanine materials will be applied as surface coatings on solid materials, their bulk and thin film properties will be examined by classical mo-lecular dynamics. The synergistic interactions between theory and experiment will insure a solid scientific base for the proposed exploratory development of a new type of corrosion resistant coating, as well as for future optimiza-tion and development efforts.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-0148
Fritz Friedersdorf
AF112-218      Awarded:2/10/2012
Title:Instrumented Test Coupons and Monitoring System for Improved Material Performance Evaluations
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Luna will develop cost effective, extensible, and multimodal instrumentation for real time monitoring of materials subjected to accelerated corrosion tests. The sensor system will include continuous recording of environmental conditions of the corrosion tests for quality assurance; while establishing mechanistic correlations between environmental conditions and material response. The corrosion test monitoring system will include test coupon designs for evaluating aircraft alloys and coating systems subjected to mechanical loading during accelerated and sevice environment testing. Luna will utilize low cost electrochemical transducers to continuously monitor the barrier properties and inhibitor effectiveness of coatings over the duration of a test. The system will be capable of detecting alloy loading and monitoring loss of residual strength due to localized corrosion processes in both laboratory and outdoor test environments. The monitoring system for accelerated corrosion testing will provide for improved material performance comparisons. The system will include the data acquisition and analysis software, network interface, and graphical user interface. BENEFIT: Accelerated laboratory and service environment exposure testing is performed as part of the development and qualification process for materials. The instrumented corrosion test coupons and monitoring system would improve the development and selection of alloys and coatings with enhanced corrosion resistance. Nearly all industrial coatings and structural materials are tested for environmental resistance before being used in aerospace, marine, automotive, white goods, and infrastructure applications. With ever increasing demands on product performance and the need to eliminate materials with environmental, health, and safety risks, there is a need for improved methods to evaluate materials for corrosion resistance in nearly every industry that utilizes coatings to protect structural materials. The instrumented coupons and monitoring system will have broad commercial application in the development of inhibitors, coatings, alloys, and composite materials, and in industry laboratories for qualification and selection of durable materials. The development and use of more durable products, enabled by this technology, will have long term economic benefits to both Military and commercial users.

Energy Quest Technologies Inc.
307 W. McNair St
Chandler, AZ 85225
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 861-8496
Dewey Benson
AF112-219      Awarded:5/7/2012
Title:Multi-Source Integrated Cooling Heating and Power System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed project would design a 10-ton multi-energy source, integrated cooling, heating, and power system, including the solar collectors, with the capacity to produce 8kWe of back-up electrical power. The system is a single integrated cooling, heating and power generation unit. It is similar in size and cost to a traditional commercial packaged heating and cooling system, and can operated off of solar energy, stored energy, natural gas, or grid power, allowing every Air Force building to become more energy efficient, more energy independent, and less susceptible to energy interruptions, saving up to 100% of the building’s energy costs. Additionally, a small scale demonstration system will be developed and tested as part of Phase I to prove system operation and component performance. BENEFIT: A case analysis tailored for weather in Macon, GA is presented which shows a 93% reduction in energy costs, an annual CO2 reduction of 63,673 lbs, an incremental installation cost payback of 4 months, and initial cost payback of 3.5 years.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Paul Yelvington
AF112-219      Awarded:5/8/2012
Title:Solar-Powered Environmental Control Unit for Commercial Buildings
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Using solar energy to drive air conditioning systems is logical since the sun is present when air conditioning is needed the most. Unfortunately, the payback period for installing photovoltaic solar cell arrays to electrically drive the air conditioning system is unacceptably long, at least two decades. However, solar collector (fluid heating) and absorption air conditioning cycle efficiency, cost, and reliability have improved sufficiently over the past decade to allow direct replacement of electric-powered vapor-compression cycles with solar heat-driven absorption cycles. Mainstream’s proposed Solar Environmental Control Unit (SECU) uses solar energy to power an absorption air conditioning system when cooling is required, or circulates the hot, solar-heated fluid to heat the indoor air directly at moderately cool outdoor air temperatures. When the heat input by solar irradiation is insufficient for either cooling or heating the building, supplemental heat is supplied by efficient, clean-burning natural gas. Applying the assumptions detailed in this proposal, Mainstream’s SECU has a payback period of about 10 years when compared to a 13 SEER vapor-compression cycle in Warner Robins, GA. Renewable energy rebates/credits or waste-heat utilization could also reduce the payback period substantially BENEFIT: Mainstream’s SECU system will substantially reduce electricity costs for building heating and cooling. The total life cycle cost (installed + operating costs) for heating and cooling is also reduced. Additionally, reducing energy consumption for environmental control during the peak hours will minimize peak power grid burden. Greenhouse gas emissions from consumption of non-renewable electrical power for heating/cooling are also minimized.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
David B. Kynor
AF112C-117      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:Non-Contact Inspection System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Inspection of machined composite laminate parts is currently performed using a precision milling machine (PMM) to maneuver a touch probe. When performed on complex parts, this inspection process is extremely time consuming and ties up the PMM for longer time periods than the actual machining. PMM throughput needs to be increased to achieve the F- 35 FY2017 program goal of one aircraft per day. The goal of this project is to increase production rates by performing part inspection and verification during milling operations. Our approach will increase production rates, provide automated quality assurance, and enable on-line verification of machine accuracy. BENEFIT: The technology developed on this project will provide a new method for automated, real-time measurement of the key features of these composite laminate parts (e.g., inner mold line surface and edge profiles and holes). Use of this technology is expected to significantly reduce F-35 production time and cost.

MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
57 MARYANNE DRIVE
MONROE, CT 06468
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 874-3100
Yogesh Mehrotra
AF112C-117      Awarded:9/28/2011
Title:PROSI: PRECISION OPTICAL-GPS METROLOGY FOR SIMULTANEOUS MACHINING AND INSPECTION
Abstract:ABSTRACT: At present, the common practice in the fighter aircraft industry is to use touch probes as secondary measurement systems to maintain tight machining tolerance control. The current touch-probe inspection process renders the typical milling machine idle while features of the machined part are slowly and intrusively being inspected, one feature at a time, over 1.5 to 3 hours per part. To meet the demand of one aircraft per day on the F-35 JSF program by FY2017, it is imperative that this time consuming inspection process be replaced with more efficient, accurate and rapid non-contact inspection methods. To address these immediate Air Force needs, Materials Technologies Corporation (MTC) and its team members propose PROSI: PRecision Optical-GPS Metrology for Simultaneous Machining and Inspection, based on our patented Retro-Grate Reflector (RGR) technology. During machining, the PROSI system independently verifies PMM movements and completely eliminates the need for the separate inspection step. At the end of the Phase I program prototype PROSI system will be demonstrated and hence achieve MRL 5. The program is tailored to provide MRL 7 level system at the end of the Phase II program. BENEFIT: Secondary verification of machining tool movements provide benefit to any application for high-precision, large work volume motion. Examples include civil aircraft manufacturing and fabrication of turbines and other high-precision machinery. If integrated into machine tool controls, the PROSI system can provide temperature compensation for precision machine tools.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Edward Patton
AF112C-117      Awarded:9/26/2011
Title:Rapid Advanced Non-Contact Measurement System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force (and Northrop Grumman Aerospace System) need for a rapid, advanced noncontact measurement system that automatically makes critical measurements of as-machined features of F-35 skin panels in the existing Droop+Rein Precision Milling Machine (PMM) at Northrop, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the Rapid Advanced Noncontact Measurement System (RANMS). The proposed system is based on an innovative combination of an existing POC-developed metrology tool (Low Coherence Interferometric Scanning System) with commercial off-the-shelf metrology tools from Hexagon Metrology, the world’s largest metrology company. The innovative combination of these established metrology tools along with a unique software integration that provides seamless interaction with the established Northrop Manufacturing Engineering and QA/QC databases will enable the RANMS to take all critical measurements on a pallet completely covered with skin panels in no more than 10 minutes additional PMM machine time versus the current extra three hours, directly addressing the requirements in the solicitation. In Phase I, POC and Hexagon will demonstrate RANMS at MRL 4 within 6 months of the start of the program. Phase II will culminate in an MRL 7 demonstration of RANMS at Northrop’s facilities in El Segundo. BENEFIT: POC’s LCISS measurement system is revolutionary in industrial metrology—nothing with its capability exists on the market today. The speed and precision of LCISS are unsurpassed and the automation and time-savings that can occur in every large-scale manufacturing sector in the world due to LCISS will put U.S. precision high-rate manufacturing back in the forefront of the globe. Our burgeoning relationship with Hexagon Metrology (who owns Leica) with Hexagon’s market presence being the largest metrology company in the world, and POC’s LCISS system, which is revolutionary in metrology, puts the POC/Hexagon team in the cat- bird seat in large-scale industrial metrology. Literally millions of current metrology systems stand to be upgraded to POC’s LCISS metrology system, making U.S. manufacturing again competitive with all other areas of the world.

RCT Systems, Inc.
1745A West Nursery Rd MS4018
Linthicum, MD 21090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 500-4803
Gerald K. Foshage
AF112C-176      Awarded:12/2/2011
Title:High temperature electro-magnetic actuators (HTEMA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: RCT proposes a design and validation effort resulting in a high temperature, high reliability class of all electromagnetic actuator designs with minimal/no heat load on aircraft cooling systems. Size and weight are consistent with aircraft engine limits and are applicable to manned and unmanned vehicles. Actuator designs are consistent with military specifications and are anticipated to replace JSF engine nozzle actuation hydraulic actuators. Actuator performance requirements identified with the Air Force and RCT partner(s) will provide a basis for design and optimization trades, followed by a point design selections and detail design efforts consistent with aircraft engine applications. At the end of Phase I, design validation by analysis enables a Phase II proposal for laboratory hardware demonstrations, risk reduction and commercialization roadmap. Hardware interface will be consistent for integration into engine test stands for Phase III testing/transition. Key technical aspect includes actuator power, weight, size, efficiency, speed, stroke, force/torque, , thermal and mechanical robustness (margin), reliability, life cycle cost, failure modes and effects, and maintenance needs. BENEFIT: Commercial opportunities include more reliable electromagnetic actuators which can be used in down hole drills, high temperature industrial actuators, nuclear fission and fusion reactor actuators and geothermal power conversion systems.

Sprung-brett RDI Inc.
Baird Research Park, Suite 102C 1576 Sweet Home Road
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(917) 701-4010
Cecil J Brewster
AF112C-176      Awarded:11/22/2011
Title:High Temperature Electro-Magnetic WARP Actuators (HTEMA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal is the fusion of two major Phase II efforts with NAVAIR and AFRL. Innovative Electro-magnetic motor actuation is merged with a proprietary adaptive thermally dynamic shielding system. BENEFIT: High Temperature (extreme environment) tolerant electric actuation that can potentially replace pneumatics and hydraulics is an enabling technology. This technology if successfully developed would enhance distributed actuation systems design and architecture leveraging the design advantages of Sprung-brett's technology set and proprietary design methodology. The proposed system will replace the fuel-draulic actuator system currently employed on the STOVL 3BSD actuator. Thus reducing the thermal load on the F-35 STOVL system.