---------- MDA ----------

122 Phase I Selections from the 11.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
Computational Physics, Inc.
8001 Braddock Road Ste 210
Springfield, VA 22151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 764-7501
Peter A. Rochford
MDA11-001       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Accurate Scene Generation of Target Characteristics Incorporating Dynamic Atmospheric Conditions using GAIA and OCEANUS
Abstract:The Ballistic Missile Defense System’s ability to detect and track enemy missiles against space, ocean, or terrain backgrounds, including any intervening clouds as well as atmospheric turbulence, requires prior knowledge of the environmental radiance conditions to support the development of optimal airborne sensors and detection approaches. To support sensor development there is a need for an accurate infrared scene generation capability that fully incorporates the impact of the background on the target signature. CPI has demonstrated a state-of-the-art capability for simulating UV/VIS/IR imagery for terrains and clouds with its Global-scene Architecture for Integrated atmosphere, terrain, and cloud Analysis (GAIA™) model, as well as for oceans with the Ocean Universal Scene Model (OCEANUS™). For this project, CPI proposes to enhance GAIA™ and OCEANUS™ to incorporate cloud motion, star backgrounds, far-field atmospheric turbulence, and accelerate scene generation using a graphics processing unit (GPU). The feasibility of modeling these atmospheric effects will be demonstrated using real-world airborne and satellite mission scenarios, and validated against satellite imagery. This will include error/uncertainty estimates using well-defined statistical measures. GAIA™ and OCEANUS™ will implement an architecture that can be efficiently and consistently interfaced with existing computer modeling environments, such as the FLITES or SSGM codes.

LRK Associates
6655 Palomino Circle
West Linn, OR 97068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 657-4623
Laurence Keefe
MDA11-001       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Combining wave effects with radiance transport for IR scene generation
Abstract:The identification and tracking of objects of interest to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) depends upon detection, measurement/classification, and visualization of the radiation emitted by these objects. Since BMDS operation is strongly tied to imagery, the input of synthetic imagery that resembles operational scenarios is one way to test its functionality. It is crucial that such synthetic scenes not only correctly simulate the original source characteristics that emitted the radiation, but also its subsequent propagation through the atmosphere. An existing software system for synthetic IR scene generation is FLITES. While it handles molecular absorption of radiation well, its facilities for describing the wave-based phenomena of refraction, scattering and diffraction, and non-molecular extinction phenomena in the atmosphere are limited. In this Phase I research LRK Associates proposes to demonstrate how a wave-based description of radiation propagation can be coupled to FLITES to handle large-scale refraction, diffraction and scattering by atmospheric turbulence, and general extinction phenomena.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 684-4100
Eric P. Magee
MDA11-001       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Accurate Scene Generation Including Atmospheric Effects
Abstract:Accurate synthetic scene generation is a critical capability required to support sensor development, software and hardware in-the-loop testing and pre-flight test analysis. Current \ac{IR} scene generation codes such as \ac{FLITES} and its predecessor \ac{CHAMP} are excellent tools for creating radiometrically accurate IR scenes including targets of various types. These tools, however, do not currently include the degrading effects of the atmosphere which will be inherent in any sensor based on an airborne platform. Such effects include near-field aero-optical disturbances, free-stream atmospheric turbulence, aerosol absorption and scattering (in terms of both a radiometric loss and reduction in image quality), scattering due to various forms of clouds in the line of sight, and refractive effects due to the earth's limb. Each of these effects is dynamically changing with engagement time and may vary spatially across an extended scene at a fixed point in time. For instance, one can easily envision an engagement for which only a portion of the scene is affected by clouds. MZA proposes a Phase I effort that will demonstrate the feasibility of implementing comprehensive atmospheric models to capture the effects that degrade airborne sensor performance.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
John Gruninger
MDA11-001       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Accurate Simulations of Clouds and Optical Turbulence
Abstract:Target detection and tracking by missile defense sensor systems on an airborne platform is affected by clouds and atmospheric turbulence. Clouds interfere with detection and tracking for viewing scenarios when clouds are in the foreground of the target. Turbulence phenomena can interfere with tracking throughout ascent. In addition to turbulence induced image dancing and blurring effects, turbulence induces fluctuations in propagated target radiance intensity and in the background and foreground atmospheric radiance. Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes in this Phase I SBIR to develop first principles, software modules for the accurate determination of backgrounds containing broken clouds and turbulence and for propagation images through turbulence. The cloud model will utilize a fast cloud and terrain module that is based on data bases derived by Monte Carlo techniques. The turbulence modules will build upon SAMM modules and utilize a 3-D model of turbulence fluctuations. A design of the Phase II architecture and integration will be performed. The modules will be designed to be integrated into MDA target simulations or scene generation applications to provide an accurate, efficient description of the battlespace.

ThermoAnalytics, Inc.
23440 Airpark Blvd P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9560
Alan Koivunen
MDA11-001       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Scene Generation of Target Characteristics as Seen by an Airborne Platform through Dynamic Atmospheric Conditions
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed Phase I research is to develop and implement tools to model the effects of the atmosphere on synthetically generated IR scenes to be used in ballistic missile defense system assessment.These effects include scattering, absorption and emission due to gases and aerosols, optical aberration and scintillation due to near- and far-field clear air turbulence and displacement of the apparent target location due to large scale gradients in the atmospheric index of refraction. These phenomena have signi_cant effects on imagery used in BMDS target detection, recognition and tracking and must be accurately modeled in order to support system hardware and software design and evaluation. In the accompanying document we propose the coupling of existing codes (MODTRAN for example) with codes to be adapted from other uses ( refraction modeling and optical turbulence modeling) to model the full suite of atmospheric effects on BMDS IR imagery. We further propose to develop and implement a proof of concept star background model to support calibration of synthetic scene generation capabilities. This model will rely on existing celestial ephemeris data and software as well as publicly available stellar spectral flux data.

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Neeraj Sinha
MDA11-002       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Scene Generation of Complex Target Plume Characteristics
Abstract:Plume signature phenomenology plays an increasingly important role in the development of a wide variety of missile defense technologies, both at the tactical and strategic levels. With the emergence of recent threats, plume signature phenomenology is increasingly central to Missile Defense Agency’s fundamental mission of development of a Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The Missile Defense Agency’s modeling and simulation directorate is developing, updating, improving, and validating end-to-end modeling and simulation capabilities for the entire missile fly-out scenarios. As part of this broad objective, the simulation of the effects of 3D plumes (for multi-nozzle systems or that created by flight at high angle-of-attack) on sensor systems has a great potential to enhance our defensive capabilities. The opportunity for MDA presented by this effort is to significantly improve 3D plume flowfield modeling approaches to better support testing of advanced BMDS sensing systems within high-level simulation environments. This effort will work out the details to correctly represent 3D plume flowfields and to provide an efficient mechanism to support incorporating these representations into the FLITES scene generation framework.

Metacomp Technologies, Inc.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-4880
Sukumar Chakravarthy
MDA11-002       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Scene Generation of Complex Target Plume Characteristics
Abstract:Metacomp Technologies, Inc. proposes a new 3D plume simulation tool to add another level of sophistication to MDA's IR scene generation capabilities. The new tool will provided an automated capability to obtain 3D solutions for relevant missile plume flow fields including angle-of-attack effects, verniers (with and without) gimballing, paddles, etc. High fidelity modeling techniques are used. The scope of the work begins with the treatment of steady-state simulations, but the infrastructure is intended to be extensible to transient flow simulation needs. Handoff capability to transfer the solution to DSMC codes, FLITES, SPURC, and other postprocessing tools will be provided.

Propulsion Science and Technology, Inc.
848 Town Center Drive
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(267) 276-0181
Margaret W. Taylor
MDA11-002       Awarded: 2/7/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Scene Generation of Complex Target Plume Characteristics
Abstract:Missile exhaust plume radiant emission is a key observable for any missile defense system using optical sensors. Scene generation has become an important component within MDA to assess the performance of the BMDS system, and accurate rendering of the target during boost is essential for proper testing of system elements. The objective of this effort is to extend the use of image morphing techniques from 2D radiance space to 3D plume flowfield space in order to interpolate or extrapolate 3D simulations to other conditions in near real time.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Matthew Braunstein
MDA11-002       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Advanced Hybrid Methods for Complex Target Plumes
Abstract:We propose to develop a new and innovative capability to model complex target plumes by upgrading the SOCRATES-P Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) high altitude plume signature code. This capability will enable SOCRATES-P to simulate 3D plume flowfields in a unified manner, from inside the nozzle to the far field, and include plume-plume, plume- body, angle-of-attack, and other complex target effects. This new capability is based on an advanced and highly accurate CFD/DSMC hybrid numerical method, called low-diffusion DSMC (LD-DSMC), which allows strong coupling between high-density continuum regions and more rarefied regions of the plume flowfield for both steady and time-dependent flows. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) chemistry and radiation effects, important for accurate rendering of radiation signatures, will be treated in a consistent and accurate manner throughout the flowfield by an innovative extension of LD-DSMC proposed here. Several computational speed-up procedures are also proposed, which do not compromise model fidelity. Because SOCRATES-P is 3D, parallel, and the DoD standard code for high altitude plume signatures through rendering by its own post-processor and through FLITES, the results of the proposed effort will be immediately useful to the BMDS community.

Cyan Systems
5385 Hollister Ave
Santa Barbara, CA, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 453-0582
John Caulfield
MDA11-003       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Extremely Large IR Scene Projectors
Abstract:The proposed Extremely Large IR Scene Projector (ELIRSP) approach is based on an array of Photonic Crystal (PhC) emitters as the key component. We have teamed with Sandia Labs and Nova Sensors to develop key components and believe our approach can meet all the requirements listed above to provide an effective test system for the next generation of sensor systems. Photonic Crystals are engineered optical materials with a tunable emission band, in both width and spectral region in the IR spectrum.

Imaging Systems Technology
4750 W. Bancroft
Toledo, OH 43615
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 536-5741
Carol Wedding
MDA11-003       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Developing Extremely Large IR Scene Projectors
Abstract:Under this SBIR Imaging Systems Technology will develop a large area IR scene generation system based on its Plasma-shell technology. Plasma-shells are tiny glass bubbles filled with gas. When energy is applied across the Plasma-shell the gas ionizes to form plasma. The Plasma-shells are applied to substrates to form large area arrays. The arrays are very rugged, and can be made very large. Plasma is an excellent source of infrared emission. The tiny shells have very little thermal mass, thus they can be updated very quickly to achieve 200 Hz frame rates.

Oleson Convergent Solutions LLC
246 Northridge Rd
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 708-5136
Jim Oleson
MDA11-003       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Developing Extremely Large IR Scene Projectors
Abstract:This program combines new optical innovations and advanced focalplane assembly techniques to produce an extremely large format, high performing and cost effective IR scene projector. The concept utilizes several small high performance, high yield emitter arrays in a modular format. Advanced optics design concepts are used to optically stitch the separate arrays into a single seamless focalplane. New interconnect technologies are implemented to provide large scale digital data input to the emitter array with a reduced number of wirebond interconnects. In Phase 1 OCS develops a modular emitter FPA format. This approach is compatible with many advanced emitter pixel architectures currently in production or development. Optics analysis and design will proceed during Phase I and a preliminary system demonstrated in the Phase I Option. Optically stitching small high yielding arrays promises to provide major performance, cost and risk benefits over other emitter FPA approaches.

Optron Systems, Inc.
235 Bear Hill Rd
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-3600
Michael Whitson
MDA11-003       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Large Format Membrane Mirror Light Modulator for Infrared Scene Projection
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will initiate the development of a large-format mid-wave infrared (MWIR) scene projector based on the Company's existing membrane-mirror spatial light modulator technology. The scene projector is based on a VLSI membrane-mirror light modulator (VLSI-MMLM) that uses a deformable membrane mirror to modulate an off-chip light source. Prototype infrared scene projectors of this type with 200x200 pixels have been demonstrated in the 3-5 µm MWIR band, and their operation at temperatures down to -35 C has been demonstrated. The goals of this project are to scale up the spatial resolution to 1024 x 1024 pixels, increase the contrast ratio to 500:1 and the framing rate to 200 Hz. In particular, the Phase I program will begin the VLSI driver chip redesign and simulation work to achieve an array of 1024 x 1024 chip electrodes with at least 40 V of output. The design scale up from the the current 20mm x 20mm chip to a 44mm x 44mm chip involves reticle stitching technology. In addition, the Phase I program will undertake the initial MEMS process and redesign optimization steps required to support the 40 µm pixels for high contrast. The optional program will also include preliminary work on the packaging, mounting, and interface electronics and hardware to support the new die size format. Future Phase II work would include the prototype modulator fabrication in the 1024 x 1024 pixel large-format die and ancillaries, integration into a coolable package, and demonstration of the resulting infrared scene projector.

Power Photonic
25 Health Sciences Drive, Box 111
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 983-4008
Boris Laikhtman
MDA11-003       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Developing Extremely Large IR Scene Projectors
Abstract:We have previously demonstrated mid-IR (lambda = 3.6 μm) 512 x 512 LED arrays for infrared scene projection (IRSP). With this Phase I effort we will be laying the ground work for moving these arrays (in Phase II) to 1024 x 1024 and then 2048 x 2048 pixels. The Phase I effort will entail the evaluation, characterization, and comparison of commercially available three and four inch GaSb substrates with the two inch substrates that we are familiar with. We will then (also in Phase I) grow LED test structures on all of the wafers, characterize the LEDs, and compare the results. A 1024 x 1024 LED array with 48 μm pixel pitch will fit on a 3 inch wafer, but it will be tight. In Phase I we propose evaluating the uniformity of the epitaxial layer close to the wafer’s edge. If both Phase I experiments are successful, we will be ready to fabricate 1024 x 1024 IRSP LED arrays early in the Phase II effort, with a move to 2048 x 2048 achieved later in Phase II as a result of a pixel shrink.

BKF Systems
2380 Emerick Rd.
Cle Elum, WA 98922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 857-2500
Boris Kovalerchuk
MDA11-004       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for a Partial Frame Correlation of Multiple Sensors
Abstract:Observing target objects from an airborne sensor is an important component of the overall process in assessing the performance of the BMD system. MDA is interested in investigating the use of “Image Chips” or partial frames in correlation of multiple IR sensors in conditions where correlation of object sighting messages proves difficult. Such knowledge is required for sensor assessment and pre-flight estimates in the BMDS. The objective of this project is to develop tools to investigate the use of partial frames in the correlation of multiple sensors.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 927-4774
Lauren Mailman
MDA11-004       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for a Partial Frame Correlation of Multiple Sensors
Abstract:An integrated picture of the ballistic missile defense battlespace is crucial for properly evaluating posed threats and executing an effective course of action. This integrated picture requires that advanced target identification, data fusion, and image registration techniques be employed to combine and correlate data from multiple sensors to obtain the best discrimination and tracking of threatening objects. Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) will leverage extensive and efficient modeling and track fusion approaches combined with GPU expertise to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using partial frames in complex image correlations. This advance in technology will be directly applicable for the correlation of large, multiple sensor data streams. This Phase I effort extends FTI’s research into the fields of image processing, track fusion, and GPU computation.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, INC.
5285 SHAWNEE ROAD SUITE 400
ALEXANDRIA, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 467-6767
Jorge O'Farrill
MDA11-004       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for a Partial Frame Correlation of Multiple Sensors
Abstract:In order to provide the highest level Quality of Service (QoS) for both tracking and discrimination functions it is imperative that information from all sensors be associated correctly. Due to potential bandwidth, latency and timeline impacts, it may be necessary to limit downlinked Airborne Infrared (ABIR) data to portions of the focal plane around exceedances of interest. As a result, we propose to exploit these partial frame chips to aid in the sensor to sensor correlation problem. The author proposes a novel set of algorithms that work in two phases. The first phase will provide robust sensor to sensor correlation in the absence of partial frames using a multiple hypothesis algorithm with the ability to flag cases where solutions are ambiguous. In the cases where ambiguous solutions exist, phase two will exploit the partial frame chips in order to provide a unique solution. The algorithm suite will draw from previously developed image processing algorithms to provide the best possible super-resolution of the partial frames and industry leading correlation algorithms specifically designed for EO/IR assets. Through the use of multi-hypothesis algorithms exercised on partial frames, it will be possible to overcome the ambiguities associated with the sensor to sensor correlation problem.

SIGNAL PROCESSING, INC.
13619 Valley Oak Circle
ROCKVILLE, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 505-2641
Chiman Kwan
MDA11-004       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:A Novel and Locally Adaptive Approach to Correlating Multiple IR Sensors Using Partial Frames
Abstract:Correlating multiple IR sensors is challenging because IR images may have different sizes, different poses, different illuminations, and different translations. Moreover, the IR images may not be perfectly aligned even after image registration. We propose a novel and high performance system for correlating multiple IR sensors using partial frames. First, for one partial frame containing a region of interest (ROI), we propose a sparsity based approach that uses this partial frame to search similar regions in other sensors. We have applied this locally adaptive approach in several applications, including face recognition, target detection in hyperspectral images, and region classification in hyperspectral images. For face recognition, the Yale B face image database, which contains face images with different illuminations, was used to evaluate our algorithm. We achieved close to 100% recognition rate. We can also handle rotated and scaled face images. Second, it is important to emphasize that our proposed correlation algorithm is parallelizable. In the past, we have implemented image processing algorithms using GPU and multicore CPUs. We have applied our fast parallel algorithms to speech processing, image registration, image inpaining of large images with high missing data rates, and genomic processing.

Black Forest Engineering, LLC
12930 Morris Trail
Colorado Springs, CO 80908
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Steve Gaalema
MDA11-005       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Digital Readout Infrared Focal Plane Array
Abstract:Dual band infrared sensors are important components for future ballistic missile defense systems. Digital readout integrated circuits (DROICs), compared to analog ROIC architectures, allow on-chip processing, increased dynamic range and increased signal to noise ratio. Deep submicron CMOS provides low power digital circuitry with system noise immunity, and when combined with radiation hardening by design (RHBD) circuits, provides robust operation in the ballistic missile defense environment. On Phase I, Black Forest Engineering proposes to develop dual band 640x480 format DROIC circuitry with a 20 µm pixel pitch that achieves more than equivalent well capacity of 50 million electrons, read noise less than 200 electrons, full frame rate of 240 Hz at two-bands, and power consumption less than 200 mW. The DROIC design will be compatible with existing dual band sequential HgCdTe detector arrays for demonstration of a DROIC-enabled focal plane array (FPA) on Phase II.

Infrared Laboratories, Inc.
1808 E. 17th St
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 622-7074
Ken Salvestrini
MDA11-005       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Smart Infrared Focal Plane Arrays and Advanced Electronics
Abstract:The SBIR MDA11-005 posted a well depth requirement of up to 50 Million electrons for a pixel pitch of 12um~20um to achieve the targeted high dynamic range, low noise and high resolution imaging goal. Initial calculations, given a commercial 0.18um/3.3V process, and using the entire pixel area at the maximum pixel pitch (20um), yields 24 Million electron well capacity when all the pixel area are taken to lay out the storage capacitor, with a presumed 2V voltage swing. Obviously, the traditional approach which uses a capacitor to store the whole photon induced charges accumulated in the integration to conduct the charge-voltage conversion is impossible to meet the goal. The challenge doesn’t stop there. The further requirement is to achieve low noise while realizing the large well depth. With traditional analog pixel design, these two requirements are actually contradicting with each other.

QmagiQ, LLC
22 Cotton Road Unit H, Suite 180
Nashua, NH 03063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Mani Sundaram
MDA11-005       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:A Scheme to Reduce Dark Current in SLS FPAs
Abstract:Longwave infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on Type-II InAs/GaSb-based strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes show good performance at the current time. A key remaining challenge is the reduction of dark current, dominated by pixel surface leakage in FPAs and low minority carrier lifetime in the bulk material. We propose to address the former in this Phase I and develop a unique scheme to reduce dark current in small pixels by a factor of 10x, approaching bulk leakage values. In Phase II, we will apply the technique to make very large format FPAs.

Vega Technology & Systems Inc.
7980 Kingsbury Drive
Hanover Park, IL 60133
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 788-0306
Vincent Chow
MDA11-005       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Smart Infrared Focal Plane Arrays and Advanced Electronics
Abstract:We propose a smart ROIC design where one ROIC unit cell may service two FPA unit cells instead of the normal one-to-one relationship. This proposed approach, supported by Lockheed Martin, is based on a novel dual pixel design that consists of using pairs of adjacent FPA pixels connected in a differential configuration. This unique design preserves the spatial resolution of the array while enabling near-pixel signal processing that can significantly reduce demands on computer power and average data bandwidths. When this smart ROIC is combined with another smart pixel innovation from Vega Technology & Systems, Inc., it holds promise for faster target detection in many MDA applications from KV seekers to tracking within complex backgrounds. This smart technology is detector material agnostic, making it well matched to LWIR SLS, MCT, or QDIP and allowing it to work over a broad range of wavelengths from visible to far-infrared. This should permit the development of a new generation of low-cost, high-performance smart interceptors for both exo- and endo-atmospheric applications.

Blue Line Engineering Co.
525 E. Colorado Ave.
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 447-1373
Gregory H. Ames
MDA11-006       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:High Resolution Signal Processing Module for Precision Position Sensors
Abstract:A new generation of position sensors is proposed that will enable dramatic improvements in the performance of fast steering mirrors for both space and airborne platforms. Sensors with resolution of 1 part in 38,000,000 or better and 16 bit accuracy are feasible. This represents a factor of 5 to 10 improvement in jitter suppression relative to the current state-of-the-art for space-qualified hardware. These objectives are achievable with this new generation of signal conditioning electronics. Blue Line proposes to bring this technology to Technology Readiness Level of 8 by the end of Phase II. The result will be a functional building block that may be used with several types of sensors including both differential and single-ended position sensors, a new class of rotary position sensors, and edge sensors for segmented mirror telescopes. These products in turn will directly enable both commercial and government applications for more advanced mechanisms such as beam steering mirrors for high precision lead ahead pointing, new gimbal designs, platform stabilization systems, large segmented relay mirrors, self-sensing linear actuators and a host of unforeseen new opto-mechanical systems. This technology could prove especially important to the success of Airborne Infrared (ABIR) and Precision Tracking Space System (PTSS).

Gener8, Inc
535 Del Rey Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 520-7226
William K. Bischel
MDA11-006       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Radhard Fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope
Abstract:We propose a radical new approach for to the design, fabrication, and testing of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that is designed for Acquisition, Tracking and Pointing applications. A prototype will be fabricated that is then irradiated with 200 kev Gama radiation. Pre and post irradiation performance testing will give confidence that the environmental and radiation exposure requirements will be met in Phase II. We estimate that an order-of-magnitude better cost/size to performance ratio of IOG sensors and their corresponding assemblies can be achieved when compared to the conventional IFOG implementation.

Polaris Sensor Technologies, Inc.
200 Westside Square Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-0087
Arthur Lompado
MDA11-006       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Acquisition, Tracking and Pointing Technologies
Abstract:Current acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) technology typically incorporates algorithms, such as the Kalman filter, known to be poorly suited to the tracking of nonlinearly moving targets. Nonlinearities may be due to target motion (e.g., agile target) but targeting platform induced jitter also manifests as target nonlinearity. Current and future mobile MDA assets such as ALTB and ABIR will assuredly impart jitter to an image stream that must be compensated to ensure accurate ATP. Algorithms well suited to nonlinear targeting strategies, such as the particle filter algorithm (PFA), can be used to broaden the ATP application space but are computationally expensive (i.e., slow). Polaris Sensor Technologies proposes to advance the PFA by incorporating a filtering component based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) coupled to a Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. These algorithms are easily incorporated into the PFA framework and promise to improve both speed and accuracy of ATP tasks. The SIFT-RANSAC will remove jitter induced nonlinearities while the PFA will account for target nonlinearities. The combination has direct relevance to a number of MDA programs including legacy and future interceptors such as THAAD, SM3-IIB, and airborne surveillance assets such as ALTB and ABIR.

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 759-4048
William Dickson
MDA11-006       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Acquisition, Tracking and Pointing Technologies
Abstract:SA Photonics is pleased to propose our FALCON-HBS, High Bandwidth line of site beam Stabilization system for airborne sensor and laser systems such as ALTB and ABIR. Using SA Photonics ultra-compact 20Khz sample rate fiber optic gyroscopes for inertial reference, proprietary Fast Steering Mirror control system and innovative inertial stabilization control systems, HBS delivers > 1Khz sub-micro radian jitter stability to optical systems involved with Acquisition, Tracking and Pointing (ATP).

ANTEOS, Inc
105 Hartford Turnpike
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Sergei Krivoshlykov
MDA11-007       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Photonic Crystal Laser Diodes with narrowed emission line for DPAL systems
Abstract:ANTEOS, Inc. proposes to develop new generation of photonic crystal laser diodes with narrowed emission spectrum, improved thermal stability and overall performance for application in diode-pumped alkali vapor lasers (DPAL) systems. Already demonstrated proprietary process will be employed for holographic recording of relief-free gratings and photonic crystal structures with high refractive index contrast in close proximity to gain region of high power laser diodes in order to narrow their emission spectrum, increase spectral brightness and slope efficiency, improve thermal stability and beam quality. In addition, the developed process results in “cleaning” the gain region of laser diode from defects. The proposed technology is simple and cost-efficient because it does not require any change in a standard laser diode manufacturing process. It includes just one additional step of optical recording the photonic crystal structure in the gain region of laser diode chip before mounting it onto a heat sink. In Phase I we will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed technology, characterize the laser structure under optical pump and demonstrate the narrowed emission spectrum. The electrically pumped prototype photonic crystal laser will be developed and fabricated in Phase II of this project with final product delivered to DoD.

nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Bldg E
Vancouver, WA 98665
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 566-4460
Zhigang Chen
MDA11-007       Awarded: 3/1/2012
Title:Development of line-narrowed diode pumps sources for DPAL systems
Abstract:Higher power wavelength-stabilized pump sources operating in the 78x-nm to 79xnm band are expected to enable high-energy CW laser systems based on low pressure alkali gasses (such as Cs or Rb). Under the proposed program, nLight will design, demonstrate, and deliver to the MDA (or recipient of their choosing) a high-brightness, wavelength-locked, wavelength-tunable 780 nm fiber-coupled laser diode for use in diode-pumped Rb vapor alkali laser (DPAL) experiments. The anticipated maximum power of the module is 100W and it is expected to deliver >50% conversion efficiency as measured from the output of a 200 µm, 0.22 NA fiber. The module will be wavelength-locked to 0.05 nm FWHM. To achieve long- term wavelength stability, integrated wavelength tunability will be included to provide the user a center wavelength adjustment of up to ±0.3 nm, providing compatibility for closed-loop control of the wavelength.

OptiGrate Corp.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 381-4115
Christine Spiegelberg
MDA11-007       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:High power narrow line laser diode system for DPALs
Abstract:The overall goal of the proposed project is to develop a Volume Bragg Grating (VBG) controlled surface emitting laser for pumping of low pressure Rb vapor laser. This approach will provide dramatic decrease of specific volume of a pumping lase system and, therefore, will dramatically decrease the size of the whole system enabling 100+ kW operating range. The goal of the Phase I project is to demonstrate an opportunity to lock GCSEL at maximum pumping current to 10 GHz wide line with spectral contrast up to 30 dB.

Princeton Optronics, Inc.
1 Electronics Dr
Mercerville, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-9696
Jean F Seurin
MDA11-007       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Development of line-narrowed diode pumps sources for DPAL systems
Abstract:Megawatt class laser systems using Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPAL) could be possible because of their extremely low quantum defect which minimizes thermal loading and, like other gas lasers, the gain medium can be flowed to reduce thermal management requirements. One key to producing efficient systems is matching the absorption linewidth of the gain media to the emission bandwidth of the diodes. Absorption linewidths are typically on the order of 500 MHz while the typical edge emitting diode emission is on the order of a few nanometers. We offer a new technology of high power Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) which has intrinsically narrow linewidth and can be modified to dramatically improve the linewidth and temperature stability so that it can be used as a pump for DPAL Systems. In this program Princeton Optronics would develop the approach to narrow linewidth high power laser array. In phase I, they will prepare the plan which can be validated and prototypes can be built in phase II.

TeraDiode, Inc.
11A Beaver Brook Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 952-2501
Bien Chann
MDA11-007       Awarded: 2/15/2012
Title:Development of line-narrowed diode pumps sources for DPAL systems
Abstract:The diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) allows for a potentially scalable approach towards a MW-class high energy laser system. By using an alkali vapor gain medium, one overcomes the intrinsic thermo-optical limitations of more conventional diode-pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) media. High spectral brightness diode pump sources are proposed by TeraDiode as the enabling element for efficient, kW-class DPAL systems. We propose to develop a compact, narrow-bandwidth, high-power diode laser pump for DPALs.

Vega Wave Systems, Inc.
1275 West Roosevelt Road Suite 104
West Chicago, IL 60185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 562-9433
Alan Sugg
MDA11-007       Awarded: 2/15/2012
Title:Line-Narrowed Diode Pump Sources for DPAL Systems
Abstract:Laser diode arrays are a major component cost for advanced high-power laser systems such as the Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser, and numerous other military and industrial laser systems. The most critical design feature of diode pump arrays for Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers is the wavelength match of the absorption line and the linewidth of the pump. The linewidth required for efficient pumping of alkali lasers is very stringent and affects the system efficiency. The efficiency of the system drops dramatically as the linewidth of the pump array broadens to several hundred gigahertz. Linewidth narrowing methods involving external-cavity gratings have difficulty achieving this wavelength tolerance for laser diode arrays because of the “smile” in the laser bar. Other techniques are also impractical to manufacture, and integrated gratings suffer from low yield and high cost. A new technique is needed to meet the pump requirements of Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers. Vega Wave Systems, Inc. proposes to use a recently developed technology for laser diodes that promises to achieve the necessary wavelength stabilization with narrow linewidth at a greatly reduced manufacturing cost.

Nokomis, Inc
310 5th St.
Charleroi, PA 15022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 483-3946
Patrick Fisher
MDA11-008       Awarded: 4/6/2012
Title:Alkali Resistant Windows for DPAL Applications
Abstract:Diode pumped alkali lasers have the potential to provide the required high efficiency for a laser-based missile defense system. However, traditional anti-reflective coating materials are not resistant to the alkali vapor environments associated with such systems, contaminating and degrading rapidly with use. Thus the solution to this challenge will almost certainly require the identification of materials that protects the window from the Alkali environment, functions in the lasing environment, and can handle elevated temperatures while still allowing for excellent optical performance. In this effort, Nokomis will demonstrate the potential of a new approach to this problem, demonstrating both the optical properties and alkali resistant behavior of the new materials.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Edward J. Salley
MDA11-008       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Novel, Alkali Metal Resistant Thin-Film Coatings for DPAL Windows
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a nanostructured, alkali vapor resistant, antireflective coating for use on Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) windows. The materials will be deposited from chemical solutions via dip coating. A dual layer AR coating design is proposed including a dense alkali impervious base layer and a porous non-reactive top layer. The result of the Phase I effort will be the fabrication of both quartz and sapphire windows with >98% transmission at the rubidium D1 and D2 lines that are compatible with a rubidium number density of 1013/cm3, an operating temperature of 200oC, and a pump power of 10kW/cm2. The Phase I Option will examine the effect of other alkali materials on the AR coating. The Phase II effort will demonstrate the ability to integrate these windows into DPAL systems, scalability of the coating process, and cost-effectiveness of the proposed technology.

TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2314
Michael D. Diener
MDA11-008       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Coatings for Rb Vapor Cells
Abstract:Diode-pumped alkali laser systems (DPALS) are under development for high-energy airborne laser defense systems due to their extremely high theoretical optical efficiency, efficient thermal management, and comparatively small footprint. However, traditional antireflection coatings for the optics used in the alkali vapor cell of the laser cavity are rapidly destroyed by the harsh chemical environment, creating large optical losses and severely limiting the observed efficiencies. TDA is proposing the only class of binary materials that can provide high performance optical coatings while indefinitely surviving both the extremely reactive chemical environment and the intense radiation of the operating laser.

TELAZTEC LLC
15 A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9905
Douglas S. Hobbs
MDA11-008       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Chemical and Laser Damage Resistant, High Performance AR Microstructures In Sapphire For DPALs
Abstract:Compact, efficient, mega-watt power level lasers are being developed by the MDA for the mission of destroying targets over a range of many hundreds of kilometers. A candidate laser technology with the promise of meeting this mission goal is based on alkali gas that is optically pumped by multiple, electrically driven diode lasers. One current problem limiting the potential operational lifetime of these Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers, or DPALs is that the windows of the cell containing the alkali vapor, become fouled with deposits or fogged by damage from chemical reactions with the gas, reactions that increase as the laser optical power is scaled up. In addition, DPALs cannot operate efficiently in the presence of laser cavity losses such as reflections from the gas cell windows, and therefore some form of anti- reflection (AR) treatment must be applied. Conventional thin-film material coatings designed to suppress reflections are typically less resistant to chemical attack from alkali compounds than the cell window material, and thin-film AR coatings suffer optical damage at laser power levels well below the mission requirements. A roadblock to major increases in the power output and reliability of DPALs can be removed by development of a more robust AR treatment for the windows of the gas cell. The innovative solution proposed is to eliminate thin-film coatings completely, creating the critical AR function by fabricating microstructures directly in sapphire windows that have been shown to be naturally resistant to alkali chemical attack. AR microstructures (ARMs) etched in sapphire windows have exhibited higher transmission and pulsed laser damage thresholds 2-5 times higher than thin-film AR coatings. This Phase I project proposes to demonstrate high transparency ARMs textures built in sapphire and other chemically resistant window materials suitable for DPAL vapor cells. Multiple ARMs design variants will be fabricated in sapphire coupons and subjected to standardized pulsed laser damage testing and alkali vapor exposure testing using the flowing DPAL system at Kirtland AFB. Additional ARMs treated vapor cell windows will be delivered to the Government for further evaluation. As part of a Phase I Option, a design for a microstructure-based, all sapphire output coupler will be investigated and prototyped as a means for eliminating other DPAL cavity thin-film coatings. Potential DPAL manufacturers such as General Atomics, Northrup Grumman, and Boeing will be engaged to enable the new robust AR treatment to be integrated into MDA test platforms during Phase II and Phase III commercialization projects.

BKF Systems
2380 Emerick Rd.
Cle Elum, WA 98922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 857-2500
Boris Kovalerchuk
MDA11-010       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Innovative Signature Exploitation for Long Range Object Discrimination
Abstract:The BMDS relies on the current and future sensor systems that include space-based, sea- based, ground-based, and airborne sensor systems for tracking, discrimination and fusion. MDA is interested in innovative algorithm concepts for long-range real-time discrimination of ballistic missile threats that use data collected by multiple sensors. The goal is to combine generic sensor data and exploit signature information extracted from sensor data to increase the probability of correctly discriminating objects in a complex debris and countermeasure environment. The overall objective of this project is improving the effectiveness of interceptor usage by increasing the probability of correct identification of target objects.

ExoAnalytic Solutions, Inc
20532 El Toro Rd Ste 303
Mission Viejo, CA 92692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 716-4290
Kristi O'Grady
MDA11-010       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Exploitation of Networked Sensor Phenomenology Involving Robust Estimation (ENSPIRE)
Abstract:One of the primary research objectives for multi-sensor data fusion within the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) is the development of novel techniques to enable robust target discrimination. While great strides have been made in recent years to advance capabilities through the use of features available from Forward Based Radars (i.e. AN/TPY- 2 and SBX) and emerging optical platforms (i.e. ABIR and PTSS), these algorithms remain coupled to a priori assumptions regarding the lethality characteristics of targets. In a world in which threat characteristics are constantly evolving, it is imperative to develop a target discrimination solution which explicitly separates these internal assumptions – the lethal hypothesis – from the estimation of physical attributes. In response to this technology need, ExoAnalytic Solutions Inc. proposes ENSPIRE: Exploitation of Networked Sensor Phenomenology Involving Robust Estimation. The objectives of ENSPIRE are: 1) to develop algorithms that adaptively define and solve hierarchical statistical models that link sensor feature data to target attributes through causal physics; 2) to develop an algorithm that combines target attribute estimates with a lethal hypothesis to perform discrimination; and 3) to leverage recent advancements in Information Theory to develop an analytical framework for conducting disciplined trade studies to assess the performance of ENSPIRE.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, INC.
5285 SHAWNEE ROAD SUITE 400
ALEXANDRIA, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 417-6779
Tad Janik
MDA11-010       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Innovative Signature Exploitation for Long Range Object Discrimination
Abstract:One of the principle challenges in developing a robust missile defense architecture is the characterization and classification of objects in a threat complex. The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) performance depends on data from diverse EO/IR and RF sensors. The objective of this proposal is to investigate innovative concepts for long range real-time discrimination of ballistic missile threats that exploit observations and sensor measurements collected by multiple sensors. We propose novel algorithms that identify and utilize discriminating characteristics of the objects using EO/IR and RF data collected in the form of short (several seconds) snippets and incorporating feature sets which are derived from fused Airborne Infrared (ABIR) sources. The goal is to classify (providing object’s class probability) numerous objects (raid environment) in the post-burnout phases of the flight. Proposed techniques are based on Sparse Bayesian Learning Theory [1-4] (Relevance Vector Machine classifiers) supported by results derived from Information Theory [5] (information-theoretic clustering using the minimum description length principle). To associate the exploitable information content with the underlying physics based measurements we construct context aware classification systems focusing on robust physical differences between classes including shape differences, non-uniformity in thermal distribution, and reflection effects.

SciTec, Inc.
100 Wall Street
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-3892
Theodore J. Slusarchyk
MDA11-010       Awarded: 2/13/2012
Title:Innovative Signature Exploitation for Long Range Object Discrimination
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency has adopted a Phased Adaptive Approach (PAA) to build up the BMDS system by incorporating existing and newly developed radars, EO/IR sensors, and interceptors to counter new threats, including sensors that are not owned by the MDA. Optimally utilizing these next generation of high fidelity Overhead Persistent Infrared (OPIR) and Airborne Infrared (ABIR) systems will include enhancing their capabilities to perform characterization and discrimination functions, in addition to precision tracking. SciTec, Inc. has extensive experience developing robust, signature based autonomous exploitation capabilities for data collected from EO/IR systems plus an understanding of the evolving BMDS infrastructure through our work with MDA’s Enterprise Sensors Laboratory. These capabilities are typically robust because they exploit features with a known causal relationship to the threats and the algorithms have been constructed using rigorous mathematical frameworks. We propose researching robust, signature based characterization and discrimination capabilities, identifying a viable concept for deploying these capabilities into the right combination of sensor and fusion processing systems to demonstrate how these systems can further enhance defense against complex raids.

Technology Service Corporation
3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 800
Los Angeles, CA 90034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 576-2384
Michael Thomas
MDA11-010       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Innovative Signature Exploitation for Long Range Object Discrimination
Abstract:Technology Service Corporation proposes an approach to placing object discrimination on firm foundations in a systems theory and mathematical framework. Using System Identification concepts, we establish the relationships among threat object characteristics and behaviors; rotational motion features, and sensor observations. The systems framework defines metrics and disciplined trade space in which the chief measures of effectiveness are bias, variance, complexity and uncertainty. Complexity has a direct influence on performance. The mathematical formalism also provides for a rigorous accounting of assumptions and usage of a priori information. In Phase I, the theory will be further developed from the preliminary foundations described in this proposal and signature-derived body rotational motion features will be demonstrated using single sensor data. In a proposed Phase I Option, the theory will be applied to investigating body rotation features that exploit multiple sensors. The product of the Phase I research and development will be a detailed report on the system theory framework design, and the evaluation of discrimination performance characteristics. The method benefits C2BMC by characterizing a disciplined trade space, providing metrics that are linked to a theoretical foundation, and offering a path to unify discrimination approaches and assumptions across diverse sensors and other elements.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4813
Olivier Toupet
MDA11-011       Awarded: 3/5/2012
Title:Coordinated Asset Tasking System for Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:In order to mitigate the increasing threat of multi-raid short and long range missile attacks from hostile countries and non-state terrorist groups on the U.S. and its allies, advanced, cutting-edge technologies for ballistic missile defense must be developed to ensure their protection and deter potential aggressors. One such key technology is real-time, optimized coordinated tasking and scheduling of BMDS’s diverse and distributed assets to dynamically allocate the best combination of resources when needed to support search, acquisition, track, discrimination, neutralization, and hit/kill assessments, in response to changing threat scenes, priority and complexity, subject to constraints of sensor availability, accessibility, and measurement capabilities. Aurora is proposing to leverage an innovative coordinated asset tasking and scheduling algorithm, the Coupled-Constraint Consensus-Based Bundle Algorithm (CCBBA), to provide a scalable, real-time solution to the complex asset resource management problem. In addition to adapting CCBBA to the scope and requirements of the ballistic missile defense problem, Aurora intends to implement a new extension to CCBBA which considers the network topology, and prevents and repairs disconnects. I will also leverage its information-theoretic technique for quantifying the value of combining distributed heterogeneous sensors for multi-target tracking, based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), to develop a scoring function for the resource allocation algorithm that accurately represent the asset management objectives.

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0782
Benjamin Tyler
MDA11-011       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Sensor Resource Management
Abstract:The expansion in the Missile Defense Agency’s mission to include emphasis on theater and regional missile defense necessitates the development of innovative concepts and techniques for employment planning and real time tasking of a variety of distributed sensor resources. Needed are algorithms in a number of closely coupled areas including: fusion of information from disparate and possibly heterogeneous sources, cooperative assignment/tasking/scheduling of sensors for optimally achieving overall mission objectives, and communication between the sensors. Such cooperative use of multiple sensory sources requires development of algorithmic strategies to optimally manage resources to cover multiple threat complexes in multi-raid scenes subject to sensors’ constraints in order to provide optimal quality of service, and increase likelihood of neutralizing missile threats. In response to this need, the Edaptive Computing team proposes STORM (Sensor Tasking for Optimized Resource Management), a research and development effort that will result in a unique and commercially viable innovation to optimizing resource management for ballistic missile defense. Specifically, we will be developing and demonstrating unique algorithms within the context of a multi-raid, multi-target scenario, which will provide real-time adaptive allocation strategies for a large number of distributed and heterogeneous sensors.

ExoAnalytic Solutions, Inc
20532 El Toro Rd Ste 303
Mission Viejo, CA 92692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 716-4290
Kristi O'Grady
MDA11-011       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Ontological Sensor Management and Real-time Tasking (O-SMART)
Abstract:Missile Defense Agency (MDA) recently adopted the Phased Adaptive Approach (PAA) to enhance the Ballistic Missile Defense System’s (BMDS) ability to counter emerging threats in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. PAA primarily focuses on fielding new sensor technology (e.g. AN/TPY-2, ABIR, and PTSS) and weapon technology (e.g. SM-3). As a result of these new systems entering the BMDS, Command Control Battle Management and Communication (C2BMC) functionality requires new algorithms for sensor resource scheduling. These algorithms must be capable of real-time adaptation to account for sensor availability and changing threat scenes, as well as ensure sufficient data collection throughout an engagement (i.e. acquisition, track, discrimination, and hit/kill assessment). In response to this technology need, ExoAnalytic Solutions Inc. proposes O-SMART: Ontological Sensor Management and Real-time Tasking. The objective of O-SMART is to develop a sensor management system that leverages recent advancements in semantic technology and Information Theory, as well as over 50 man years of BMDS experience by ExoAnalytic Solution researchers, to adaptively allocate sensor resources in a multi-raid and/or multi-target environment. O-SMART’s technical approach will emphasize diversity in sensor viewing geometry and phenomenology as a means to providing accurate, timely tracking and discrimination quality of services to BMDS weapon systems.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, INC.
5285 SHAWNEE ROAD SUITE 400
ALEXANDRIA, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 417-6741
Chris VanHouten
MDA11-011       Awarded: 4/6/2012
Title:Sensor Resource Management
Abstract:The task of managing employment planning and real time tasking of sensor resources in complex ballistic missile defense target environments demands innovative techniques. As the complexity of a threat scene grows, the resources required to survey the situation grow at an even faster rate. Sensor resource limitations require intelligent and deliberate management in a multi-raid or multi-target environment. One approach taken to solve this dilemma is to assign simple rules and priorities to various types of tasks to the sensors, but these approaches are often limited in applicability and suffer under varied conditions outside of the original, narrow design space. The innovative approach in this proposal relies on a fundamentally different approach to solving this problem. By applying a series of cost functions that address the key system performance drivers and utilize knowledge of the threat phenomenology, the costs and benefits of many potential sensor task assignment sets can be examined. From this analysis, a set of possible assignments can be found and evaluated, thus providing a multi-hypothesis solution forward in time. It is the intent in Phase I to prove this concept is feasible, technically sound, and performs well under highly complex threat scenes.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Shawn Herman
MDA11-011       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Sensor Resource Management
Abstract:The U.S. DoD has made defense against regional missile threats a top priority. In response MDA is pursuing a Phased Adaptive Approach, which includes new sensors, such as Airborne Infrared (ABIR) and the Precision Tracking Space System (PTSS). Recently, regional missile defense has focused on raid scenarios. Since the potential locations of terrestrial radars are limited, regional missile defense may depend on the ability of IR assets, such as ABIR and PTSS, to accurately detect and track threats. This is a significant challenge because production of high-quality tracks using IR assets requires a substantial degree of coordination. Therefore, in this Phase I effort we propose to develop (i) a Sensor Resource Management algorithm for an IR ground station that manages multiple IR assets, and (ii) a capability model for a collection of IR assets that allows network-level coordination of radar, IR, and OPIR sensors. Our approach addresses IR-specific challenges, such as the need to obtain stereo coverage, the effect of time-varying viewing geometry on target resolution, and limitations imposed by slew rates. As part of a potential Option effort, our SRM algorithms would be integrated into the BMD Benchmark, to enable a proof-of-concept demonstration using a realistic raid scenario.

AET, Inc.
1900 S. Harbor City Blvd. Suite 225
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 727-0328
Glenn T. Hess
MDA11-012       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Solid State Gyroscope for Advanced Interceptors
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to develop a solid state gyroscope for use in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) hardware for current and next generation interceptor systems. The gyroscope will operate on the principle of inertial sensing by the manipulation of electron trajectory in a vacuum. Electrons emitted by a diamond cold cathode are attracted with a net directional velocity to an anode. In the absence of external forces, a steady-state flow of electrons to the anode will arise for a given electric field between the anode and cathode. However, the occurrence of an external force will alter the path of the electrons. By arranging multiple anodes in relation to the emission source, the external force may be quantified. These external forces may be G-forces (acceleration, deceleration, and inertial change). The proposed diamond solid state gyroscope will be extremely sensitive to the desired forces yet insensitive to temperature, radiation and other un-intended forces. In the proposed Phase I program, AET will design the solid state gyroscope and demonstrate feasibility through modeling, simulation, for various load and environmental conditions.

Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 565-9004
Behzad Moslehi
MDA11-012       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Ultra-Compact, High Performance Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes for Advanced Avionics
Abstract:Next generation interceptors require lighter weight, smaller, more robust and lower cost Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) components that can withstand stressing launch conditions and severe radiation environments without compromising their performance. In particular, rate sensors for Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) that can provide high- resolution Line of Sight (LOS) stabilization, more accurate inertial pointing and higher bandwidths needed to support planned early intercept avionics systems with much more compact and lightweight packages. IFOS, with a team having many years of pioneering experience in innovative Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs), proposes to develop an advanced FOG based on lower wavelengths and much smaller components that will enable producing a higher performance sensor from a drastically reduced package size that would also afford high degree of robustness against the shock and vibration that accompany launch. IFOS will exploit innovative techniques including new fiber components, coil production methods, robust packaging and advanced signal processing techniques that would allow the substantial reductions in weight and volume of interest to MDA. Phase I will focus on the feasibility study of such advanced concept and demonstration of the critical components (coil and modulator) required for such implementation.

Scientic, Inc
555 Sparkman Drive Suite 214
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-0865
Steven N. Renfrow
MDA11-012       Awarded: 3/12/2012
Title:Guidance, Navigation and Control Algorithms and Hardware for Advanced Interceptors
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to implement a customer tailorable GNC design and integrate that design with an existing, highly-scaled IMU solution. Advanced packaging techniques and electrical performance enhancement strategies will be applied to the integrated design, to achieve improved efficiency. Further, performance flexibility will be achieved via ring laser gyro selection to provide the customer with the ability to tailor performance to his specific need. Finally, radiation hardness will be addressed by applying hardening strategies already applied to the existing IMU design. Significant cost benefit will accrue by extending specific hardening and performance enhancement strategies already applied to the IMU design to the GNC as needed and by providing the user with the capability of tailor the GNC/IMU performance to his particular need. This inherent tolerability will avoid a point-design solution and extend the utility of the hardened GNC/IMU across a broad range of diverse system requirements.

Space Information Laboratories, LLC
2260 South Meredith Lane
Santa Maria, CA 93455
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 925-9010
Edmnd Burke
MDA11-012       Awarded: 2/13/2012
Title:Guidance, Navigation and Control Algorithms and Hardware for Advanced Interceptors
Abstract:Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Avionics systems currently used in the BMDS interceptors are too expensive, bulky, and heavy. They provide limited bandwidth, power hungry, and are sensitive to shock, vibration, radiation and EMI. This SIL technical proposal will describe in detail an innovative reduced SWAP, high performance and low cost GPS L1/L2 Receiver and Silicon MEM IMU GN&C system in hardware and Kalman filter software. SIL proposes a new modular and stackable avionics technology that can be upgraded and maintain Space Qualification thus significantly reducing GN&C development and life cycle cost for MDA missiles.

Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd.
The Millennium Centre 1142 Middle Creek Road
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Brian L. Gordon
MDA11-014       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Metal Matrix Composite DACS Components
Abstract:Touchstone proposes an innovative solution to the composite overwrapped helium tank that will lower the cost and reduce the weight. The current configuration consists of storage tank for the fuel, the oxidizer, and a gas that is used to pressurize the fuel and oxidizer. The gas tank design incorporates a polymer composite that is wound over a titanium liner. The polymer composite provides the strength and the titanium liner prevents gas leakage. This arrangement is expensive and heavy. In contrast, an aluminum metal matrix composite (Al MMC) tank design could lead to several advantages, including higher temperature application capability, impermeable liner with no rubber bladder required, and comparable strength to polymer matrix composites. The failure modes of the tank are also potentially more benign due to the ductile nature of aluminum, allowing for more strain until failure. It is the goal of the proposed work to develop a novel Al MMC helium tank for a liquid DACS that is low cost and lightweight to help increase the system delta velocity to greater than 1000 m/s and reduce the reaction time to less than 10 ms.

Utron Kinetics, LLC
9441 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Karthik Nagarathnam
MDA11-014       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Rapid Higher Pressure Combustion Driven Compaction for Near Net Shape Manufacturing of Higher Temperature Propulsion Components Using Advanced Refract
Abstract:In response to MDA’s innovative manufacturing approaches, we propose to fabricate and evaluate high strength, higher temperature W-25Re base alloys and their select composite materialsof Hf, HfC, TaC for erosion resistant throats (for second or third stage rocket motors. Required number of units are 100s to thousands and cost reduction in manufacturing and rapid delivery processing are critical. UTRON Kinetics proposes a cost- effective and rapid manufacturing (e.g., milliseconds of compaction time) method called high pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction (CDC) technology to fabricate fine grained (<50-75 microns) W-25Re based alloys and composites with Hf, HfC for solid rocket hollow throat applications. The major objectives of the Phase I SBIR effort will be focused on fabricating and scientifically characterizing W-25Re alloys and select composites with small % of alloying additions such as Hf, HfC, TaC in select geometrical shapes (mechanical test coupons, small scale disks and small scale throat (hollow cylinder) using UTRON’s innovative, cost-effective and compact Combustion Driven Powder Compaction (CDC) at high pressures (e.g., 150 tsi). The samples will be fabricated using commercially available fine powder as raw materials and geometries to be fabricated include 0.5 inch or 1inch diameter cylindrical disks, 3.5 inch long tensile dogbones as well as small scale hollow hollow throat using the available tooling. We will develop the key CDC process optimization for various proposed alloys, suitable sintering response in hydrogen or suitable environment (e.g., vacuum sintering), density changes, geometry/surface/part quality, select mechanical tensile properties at room and elevated temperatures (e.g., 4100-4500 degF or higher in consultation with MDA sponsor and subcontractors, microstructures and microchemistry. Based on the optimum process conditions, representative small scale hollow throat liner (Phase I) and other large thrust throat components will also be fabricated using a special die/punch assembly and scaling up in Phase II. Further process optimization on the most promising W-25Re alloys or the alloy composites, scaling up and rapid manufacturing strategies will be established and continued in Phase I Option and Phase II/ III.

AET, Inc.
1900 S. Harbor City Blvd. Suite 225
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 727-0328
Glenn T. Hess
MDA11-017       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Reliability Prediction and Assessment of Missile Electronics
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop innovative methodologies that will aid in the long term reliability assessment of missile electronics in support of the Missile Defense Agency’s Stockpile Reliability Program. AET, Inc. will perform a detailed study of existing electrical, physical and environmental tests that are commonly applied to accelerated aging and reliability prediction. New electrical, physical and environmental tests that may be used to determine reliability will also be proposed. These tests will be based on the possible physical changes that could happen to an integrated circuit over its lifecycle. As part of the environmental testing, AET will investigate radiation testing. The development of innovative systematic methodologies will be coupled with advanced techniques to assess the long term reliability of missile electronics. Proven methodologies for age acceleration testing of typical missile electronics such as in-situ sensors, health monitoring, and prognostic monitoring will be coupled with advanced reliability assessment techniques such as radiation testing to develop a cost effective approach to predicting missile electronics reliability and shelf life estimates.

Space Micro Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
Carl Edwards
MDA11-017       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Long-Term Missile Aging Reliability Prediction for Advanced Platforms
Abstract:Space Micro will develop an embedded technique to both predict and then monitor the long term aging effects in MDA fielded electronics. The primary failure mechanism for electronic parts e.g. (ICs) and PC board sis moisture causing corrosion. We will demonstrate by analysis in Phase I and by test in Phase II, the ability to determine, in advance, future failures in stockpiled dormant systems.

System Technology Associates, Inc.
120 Holmes Ave Ne Suite 401
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 512-0996
Harold B. Buie
MDA11-017       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Long-Term Missile Aging Reliability Prediction for Advanced Platforms
Abstract:GMD weapon elements have been developed primarily from test elements which have been modified through time, Politics, Budgets, Missions, technological advances to become the fielded defense system. Given the nature of GMDs approach to fielding the system and it’s ever changing Mission, GMD is using a phased developmental approach in order to focus on improvements that will create new system capabilities. This phased approach reusing old missile components, supplementing them with newer and improved capabilities creates the need for a longer shelf life for all missile components. Increasing shelf life for such a complex system which is comprised of complex systems is a very large task. The control of shelved parts, components, assemblies, which may be geographic disparity, would require a distributed system with access points for warehouser, manufactures, assemblers, integrators’, and testers. The system would provide for data processing, data logging, observation of shelved parts, and observation of parts under Accelerated lifecycle testing. Ultimately the data and its analysis would be used to identify parts that fail prior to the expected shelf life. This would allow for the correction of the failure at every point in the components life (production, test, depot, deployment). STAI’s proposal is a solution.

Five Stones Research Corporation
5767 Cove Commons Drive Suite 103
Hampton Cove, AL 35741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 541-9639
K. Lance Kelly
MDA11-018       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Anti-Tamper Technology for Missile Defense
Abstract:Our approach for protecting critical program information in US weapons systems from exploitation or reverse-engineering efforts is based on a new sensor technology. Utilizing advances in the field of nanotechnology and the sub-field of plasmonics, our design is miniscule in size and allows for flexible integration with MDA platforms.

Lewis Innovative Technologies, Inc.
P. O. 624 534 Lawrence Street
Moulton, AL 35650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 905-0775
James Lewis
MDA11-018       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Anti-Tamper Technology for Missile Defense
Abstract:LIT will develop Silicon Modification Sensor (SMS) circuitry that is capable of detecting FIB processing or unauthorized changes to Integrated Circuit (IC) silicon. The SMS circuits will produce key material to be used to decipher CPI data and software. The SMS system is intended to operate as a part of the LIT Product Authentication Sensor System™ (PASS™). The detection of modification by the SMS produces an invalid key. In the complete AT solution, the SMS circuits provide an additional layer of protection in case all other security methods fail or are compromised. In Phase I, LIT will develop Silicon Modification Sensor circuits in FPGAs and test against simulated FIB attacks. In Phase II, LIT will test SMS against actual FIB processing.

Nokomis, Inc
310 5th St.
Charleroi, PA 15022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 483-3946
Bogdan Pathak
MDA11-018       Awarded: 4/12/2012
Title:Electromagnetic Detection of FIB Facilitated IC Modifications
Abstract:Because Critical Program Information (CPI) is often embedded in integrated circuits, adversaries must now attack at the die level. As a result, Focused Ion Beams (FIBs) have become a preferred tool for reverse engineering. FIBs can bypass or create circuit elements at the lowest levels; however, they induce inherent, characteristic side effects when modifying a semiconductor die. The proposed countermeasure will utilize ultra-low level electromagnetic (EM) emissions to detect, identify, and diagnose the minute changes in the circuitry induced by FIBs. This relies on Nokomis’ customized antennas, its unique, ultrasensitive sensors, and its proprietary signal processing algorithms that enable substantially better than state of the art detection and diagnosis. During this Phase I, Nokomis will 1) demonstrate the collectability of identifying emissions from a representative device; 2) design and prototype a customized low-profile probe that will be used to tailor emission collection to that device; 3) modify the specimen device with an FIB to mimic possible attack vectors; and 4) demonstrate collection of repeatable modified identifying emissions. This will prove the technique’s ability to detect FIB induced modifications of semiconductor devices and the ability to tailor the existing, more general system to the very specialized needs of the anti-tamper community.

IntelliEPI IR, Inc.
1250 E. Collins Blvd.
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 234-0068
Paul Pinsukanjana
MDA11-019       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Development of High Performance SLS Epi Materials for IR FPA Applications
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR effort will develop robust and high performance infrared detector technology based on GaSb-based Type II strained-layer superlattices (SLS). The epitaxy development effort will focus on improving QE, reducing dark current, and reducing defects. The device design will be based on the NASA-JPL CBIRD structure. Advanced dual-band LW/LW design based on CBIRD will also be explored.

MP Technologies, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7208
Binh-Minh Nguyen
MDA11-019       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Reduction of surface leakage for high performance LWIR T2SL FPAs
Abstract:High performance infrared detectors in the LWIR regime are highly needed in a number of missile defense missions. In order to image targets from long distance, it is important that imagers have high sensitivity and high resolution. This leads to technical goals of having low noise, low dark current in small size pixels in large arrays. While saturated performance levels of traditional systems based on bulk semiconductors have not quite met the requirement of applications, it is expected that novel quantum systems will bring new development stage for infrared imagers. In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) has experienced significant development, from theoretical modeling, material growth to device processing and packaging. Performance of LWIR detector based on T2SL has become comparable, even better than that of HgCdTe. However, LWIR T2SL devices have been shown to be limited by surface leakage, especially at lower operating temperature. This proposed effort will address surface processes in order to suppress this bottle neck of T2SL technology. By correlating the influence of structural design and material quality on surface leakage and by utilizing the best etching, cleaning and passivation techniques, a high performance LWIR FPA with dark current below 1uA/cm2 at 67K will be demonstrated.

nBn Technologies
136 Wilshire Rd
Rochester, NY 14618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 355-5556
Shimon Maimon
MDA11-019       Awarded: 3/1/2012
Title:Develop and Demonstrate High Performance Infrared Focal Plane Arrays with Advanced Quantum Structures
Abstract:nBn Technologies will research the ability to make a new III-V compound alloy using InAsBi for long wave IR applications. The objective of the proposed research is to find a procedure for growing materials using Bismuth and characterize them by morphology, photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, hall, etc. For applications needing cutoff wavelengths of 5 um, 10um, 12 um and even up to 20um, a different and new material is needed, especially for use in the nBn concept [1]. It will be very desirable to grow the absorbent n material for nBn structures as an alloy that lattice matches the substrate for defect reduction, easier manufacturing, and higher yields. This alloy of course can be used in pn junction structures, too. It is desired to use the III-V material system, rather than II-VI. The absorber alloy needs to be made from InAsX material if we would like to use nBn devices. In such cases, we can use the barrier (already used for MWIR nBn) for blocking majority carriers, transferring minority carriers, and at the same time used as passivation.

Zipton Labs
1475 N SCOTTSDALE RD STE 200
Scottsdale, AZ 85257
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 490-0454
Charles Allen
MDA11-019       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Develop and Demonstrate High Performance Infrared Focal Plane Arrays with Advanced Quantum Structures
Abstract:In contrast to conventional type-I multiple quantum wells or superlattices (SL), the interband optical transition in type-II superlattices (T2SL) is spatially indirect. Therefore, its effective bandgap can be narrower than that of any of the single constituent materials. In general, there are two categories of type-II alignments for heterostructures, broken-gap alignment and staggered alignment (see Fig. 1). Such a unique property of T2SL has made it a good candidate for infrared photodetector applications. Significant progress has been made recently in the research on long-wavelength IR InAs/InGaSb T2SLs. These IR detector materials have potential to outperform existing materials such as HgCdTe and InSb. In the past several years, impressive achievements have been demonstrated by several research groups in the US with strong support from MDA. This effort proposes to improve on the state of the art InAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattice devices with better interface characteristics, better reproducibility, and better carrier transport than existing technologies.

Advatech Pacific, Inc.
560 E. Hospitality Lane Suite 400
San Bernardino, CA 92408
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 598-4005
Scott Leemans
MDA11-020       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Consolidation, Functional Integration, and Optimization of Composite Missile Structures
Abstract:The primary focus of the Phase I effort will be the Path Finder Study for the development of a Proof-Of-Concept (POC) weight reduction effort to support simultaneous materials & processes selections, parts consolidation, and functional integration. Advatech will perform the POC study on a representative missile configuration to be determined in cooperation with the sponsoring organization. Substantial weight savings can be realized by eliminating joints and consolidating the individual parts of a structural assembly into a single unified structure. Significant gains can also be realized through the integration of the functions of peripheral hardware into the structure. The key tenets of the approach are the use of trade studies, identification of key parametric sensitivities and interactions using Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques; with robust optimization of the consolidated and functionally integrated structures as the Phase I Option Task. In doing so, we will satisfy the objectives of the program to provide solutions to reduce weight, reduce procurement cost; lower life cycle cost; lower operational maintenance; reduce lead times; enhance mission reliability; and improve manufacturability for low-rate, non-labor intensive production for BMD systems.

inVision Technology LLC
PO Box 23190
Seattle, WA 98102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 499-1548
William Rodman
MDA11-020       Awarded: 4/6/2012
Title:Composite Structures for lightweight missile components
Abstract:This proposal's primary technical objective is to develop core mateials, to build and test a high temperature manufacturing and engineering demonstration article using inVision's cellular core technology, and to fulfill the solicitations specific objectives of proposing full scale concepts, investigating benefits, performing a manufacturability analysis, and to prepare for a Phase II project.

San Diego Composites, Inc.
9550 Ridgehaven Ct
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Christine Benzie
MDA11-020       Awarded: 3/1/2012
Title:Light Weight Divert and Attitude Control System Propellant Tanks for Missile Defense
Abstract:Phase 4 of the Missile Defense Agency’s Phased Adaptive Approach will include the deployment in 2020 of a land based Aegis missile to provide early intercept capability. The Liquid Divert and Attitude Control System (LDACS) in the interceptor payload has been identified as an excellent component for weight reduction through the use of composite materials. One potential configuration of the LDACS employs a flattened spherical shape propellant fuel tank. Traditionally, an elliptical shape tank is made with metal materials. San Diego Composites, Inc. (SDC) is proposing a program to demonstrate a lower weight Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessel (COPV) for a low aspect ratio propellant tank with application to the SM3 Blk IIB LDACS. The goal is to show a weight reduction compared to an all metal tank and to achieve TRL/MRL 4 of the COPV approach at end of Phase I, TRL 6/MRL 7 at end of Phase II. In the Phase I project, SDC will develop the COPV design, perform analysis, build test articles, burst test articles and correlate test results with predictions. Technology insertion will be achieved at the end of the Phase I program in which SDC will provide the data package to each and all Prime Contractors for evaluation during the Concept Definition and Program Planning phase of the SM3 Blk 2B program.

San Diego Composites, Inc.
9550 Ridgehaven Ct
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Christine Benzie
MDA11-020       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Lightweight Nosecone Manufacturing Technology for Next Generation Interceptors
Abstract:In 2009, the White House provided Ballistic Missile Defense Review (BMDR) policy priorities to the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). From the policy, MDA enacted a Phased Adaptive Approach (PAA) for BMD interceptors over the next 10 years. Phase 4 of the PAA will include the deployment in 2020 of a land based Aegis missile to provide early intercept capability. MDA has identified several technology needs for meeting the next generation requirements. One of the technology needs is a higher performing Nosecone. To address that need, San Diego Composites, Inc. (SDC) is proposing a program to use industry- available composite materials to develop a reduced weight and lower cost clamshell composite Nosecone. The goal is to achieve a Technology and Manufacturing Readiness Level (TRL/MRL) 6 by the end of a Phase II program. Technology insertion will be achieved at the end of the Phase I program in which SDC will provide the data package to each and all Prime Contractors for evaluation during the Concept Definition and Program Planning phase of the SM3 Blk 2B program. The low cost Nosecone technology will also be made available to the Arrow-3 program for consideration.

Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Victor M. Arrieta
MDA11-020       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Lightweight, High Temperature, Insulating Composite Structures
Abstract:The Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) Block 2B missile defense system is confronted by needs for higher performance, including enhanced acceleration, extended flight duration, and greater aerothermal heating endurance, all of which lead to requirements for lighter weight and higher performance materials. Such materials would preferably also provide improved producibility and cost-effectiveness. Low-density composite materials and structures that would provide both improved thermal insulation and multifunctionality (i.e., insulation plus structural capability) would be highly desirable to address these objectives. In this project, Ultramet will demonstrate the feasibility of applying innovative composite materials and processing technology for the production of extremely low-density and thermally insulating carbon aerogel-filled carbon foam composite insulators as key components of the SM-3 Block 2B kill vehicle divert and attitude control system (DACS) to support program needs for lightweight and compact missile and propulsion structures. The project will build on composite insulating materials that have undergone fundamental development by Ultramet in previous work for the Air Force and NASA. Emphasis will be placed on defining specific MDA applications for the technology, assigning metrics to assess the capability of the technology with regard to MDA needs, demonstrating that the technology will meet those needs, and assuming success, inserting the technology into an MDA application. Success in the Phase I project would lead to a Phase II follow-on effort that would advance the technology to TRL 5+ in time to meet expected SM-3 Block 2B schedule requirements for technology insertion into the program.

Vector Composites, Inc.
3251 McCall Street
DAYTON, OH 45417
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-1444
Karl Gruenberg
MDA11-020       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Multi-Functional Nano-Composite Materials and Manufacturing Processes for Interceptor
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency is planning to develop a Next Generation AEGIS Missile (NGAM) as a Ballistic Missile Defense system for deployment in 2020 for defense against threat reentry vehicles. The NGAM system requirements for longer range intercepts and higher velocity leads to the NGAM requirements for lightweight subsystem components including the guidance section (GS) electronic components. The conventional materials solution for missile electronic structures is aluminum for enclosures, a lightweight and relatively low cost approach, and beryllium for heat sinks, a lightweight, but expensive approach. An alternative lighter weight materials solution is continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (“CFRP”) composite materials, which is about 40% lighter than aluminum for equivalent strength and stiffness and weight-competitive with beryllium for innovative designs. However, CFRP composite materials solutions typically must use very expensive, continuous high thermal conductivity pitch-based graphite fibers to provide the thermal management capabilities of aluminum or beryllium and lightweight designs. Thus, lower cost composite materials and manufacturing processes are needed to provide lighter weight and cost- competitive alternatives to aluminum and beryllium for missile avionics boxes and electronic support structures. The proposed solution is lower cost nano- composite materials, carbon nano-particles combined with lower cost discontinuous or continuous graphite fiber CFRP composites, and lower cost out-of-autoclave composite manufacturing processes, which meet both the lightweight as well as lower cost goals for NGAM electronic structure components. The Phase I program will develop and demonstrate lower cost nano-composite materials and manufacturing processes to provide enhanced thermal and electrical properties for lightweight missile electronic subsystem structures. A Phase I option task will generate a materials properties design database to support a follow- on Phase II program to design, fabricate, and demonstrate full-scale prototype missile electronic structure components using the nano-composite materials systems.

Sienna Technologies, Inc.
19501 144th Avenue NE Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 485-7272
Ender Savrun
MDA11-021       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:High Performance Thrusters for DACS Propulsion
Abstract:This SBIR program will develop a lightweight, high performance ceramic matrix composite thruster for DACS propulsion. The Phase I program will identify the sealing and joining materials, and demonstrate the processes that are suited for construction of advanced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) thrusters for advanced monopropellants and bipropellants for DACS propulsion. We will seal CMC surfaces and join CMCs to each other and to refractory metals. We will experimentally evaluate Sienna’s ultra-high temperature, oxidation resistant joining compounds through joining experiments, microstructural examination, and shear strength measurements both at room temperature and 1100°C. Simple test thrusters will be fabricated and tested by Aerojet-Sacramento at high temperature and at high pressure at sea-level laboratory tests.

Synterials, Inc
318 Victory Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-9310
Alan Grieve
MDA11-021       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Hot gas components for lightweight missile components
Abstract:Divert attitude control systems (DACS), employed on modern Ballistic missile defense systems, have very sensitive on-board electronic systems whose performance is dependant on how well it is protected from the harsh operating environment. Good structural insulator materials are critical for reliable performance. Ceramic matrix composite materials are potentially attractive materials for this application. However, to date, none of the materials produced have had the ideal combination of low weight and high strength combined with good insulating properties at an affordable price. The aim of the proposed program is to address these shortcomings through the development of an affordable, yet high strength, matrix material based on silicon nitride. The approach used for generating the matrix is well known. However, there are some unique process differences that should help overcome some of the issues typically associated with producing silicon nitride matrices. The resulting matrix should have fewer cracks and, as such, stronger than matrices produced using more established methods for CMC manufacture yet remain affordable to manufacture

WASK Engineering, Inc.
3905 Dividend Drive
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 675-2795
Paul Phillipsen
MDA11-021       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Hot gas components for lightweight missile components
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) propulsion systems are seeking to maintain stringent performance requirements and simultaneously expose materials to severe operating conditions while reducing weight and power consumption while maximizing fast response times. This requires innovative actuation and valve technologies to minimize the response time for fine attitude control and pointing for divert and attitude control systems. MDA is seeking materials and components that demonstrate improvements in producibility and cost reduction for application to solid and liquid propellant divert and attitude control systems (DACS). Specifically, MDA is seeking valve technology with reduced part counts and complexity while achieving very fast response times for valve opening and closing. Very fast valve response is challenging for magnetic devices of any size, but is particularly problematic as size increases due to higher flow rates and spring forces increase to seal-off higher pressures. Limited electrical power will constrain solutions further as coil resistance lower limits are set by the maximum amperage specification. In this research, WASK Engineering, Inc. will apply piezoelectric actuation to the cold gas ACS thruster so as to: 1) enable ACS throttling, yielding proportional control of ACS thrusters and the attendant potential for game changing improvements in sensor pointing, target acquisition and target tracking; 2) eliminate magnetic coils and magnetic materials, resulting in greater operating temperature range through the use of materials with higher temperature capability; 3) eliminate magnetic actuation and the attendant electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated when a high performance magnet is energized; 4) reduce part count, resulting in lower manufacturing cost and potentially higher reliability; and 5) maintain or improve response times previously demonstrated.

InnoSense LLC
2531 West 237th Street Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-2011
Uma Sampathkumaran
MDA11-023       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Calibration-Free and Reliable Early Warning Leak Detector for Hypergolic Hazard Mitigation
Abstract:The overall goal of this project is to develop a low-cost, reliable and lightweight hypergolic leak detector, HyperAlarm2™, with at least four years of operational life without calibration in a canister environment. Existing hypergolic propellants and oxidizers are highly toxic and flammable, posing health and fire hazards in the event of a leak during transportation, storage and stand-by mode. Missile defense in Europe calls for increased Aegis sea-based missiles in the Atlantic fleet. Prior to shipboard deployment, leak mitigation and safety measures must be addressed. Specifically in Phase I, InnoSense LLC (ISL) will demonstrate technical feasibility by developing a self-referenced, optical leak detector using proprietary sensing chemistries and optoelectronic design. The detector would trigger an alarm upon detecting 50 ppm MMH or NTO. Two DOD prime contractors have provided letters of technology support. In Phase II, ISL will optimize the leak detection capabilities and build a compact prototype for integration and testing in simulated environments. In Phase III, we will focus on the initial product as directed by MDA. A highly proficient engineering team has been assembled to carry out the project successfully at various phases of the project for DOD procurement purposes.

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 263-6360
Manal Beshay
MDA11-023       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Intrinsically Safe Hypergolic Optical Leak Detection System
Abstract:Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop an intrinsically safe hypergolic leak detection system using its well established, optical based sensing techniques. Highly stable, sensitive, reversible colorimetric indicators will be used to detect monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Considerable work was conducted to develop new sensors for hydrazines and nitrogen dioxide, specifically to address shortcomings such as slow response and/or recovery time, long-term chemical instability, sensor irreversibility, and unacceptably high power requirements. However, despite tremendous promise, none of the approaches studied to date have met all the objectives for a remote and widely deployable, low-cost sensor. The proposed detection platform incorporates reliable shock, vibration, humidity, and temperature sensors to build additional capabilities specifically required for the safe storage, transportation, and deployment of liquid hypergolic propellants, and operational capability of the DACS and the missile system overall. The proposed optical leak detection system will offer a miniature, lightweight, low cost, low power, reliable sensing solution for ballistic missile defense interceptors. IOS, in collaboration with Northrop Grumman will achieve the optimum design and performance criteria to accomplish safety standard requirements. Phase I will demonstrate the chemistry selected for the fiber sensors, as well as determine safety issues and requirements for system design.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Richard T. Wainner
MDA11-023       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Hypergolic Fuel Leak Sensor
Abstract:Long range interceptor missiles rely on divert and attitude control systems (DACS) powered by liquid hypergolic propellants, a fuel and an oxidizer. Specifically, the present generation of SM-3 missiles employs monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO). Sensors, able to detect <50 ppm of these propellant vapors in their transport, storage, and deployment canisters, are needed to protect personnel and infrastructure from explosive and toxicological hazards should a leak occur within a missile. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to adapt our near-infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) sensors to meet this need. The TDLAS sensors are based on a mature technology platform used in our commercial natural gas leak detector products. They offer small size and power consumption, fast response, high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The Phase I effort will demonstrate that these sensors can be configured as sensitive hypergolic propellant leak alarms, and can operate reliably, unattended, with little power consumption, for extensive periods.

Sporian Microsystems, Inc.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Kevin Harsh
MDA11-023       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:A Miniaturized SERS Based Sensor Technology for Liquid Hypergolic Propulsion Systems
Abstract:Hypergolic fuels such as monomethylhydrazine, and oxidizers such as nitrogen tetroxide are attractive for use in divert and attitude control systems (DACS) for variety of reasons. However, due to their toxicity, corrosivity, carcinogenicity, and flammability, hypergolic fuels and oxidizers are corrosive represent a significant safety hazard in the event of leaks. Given the potential need to transport and deploy systems containing hypergolic propellants there is a need for safety technologies to be incorporated to detect potential hypergolic fuel related hazards. An ideal such sensor should: detect MMH/NTO leaks inside canisters to the levels of less than 50 ppm, have a standalone lifetime >4 years, be small, light weight, and low power, operate without providing false positive readings, provide “smart” sensor functionality, and facilitate logistically advantageous data transfer. The objective of the proposed work is to develop such a sensing module, based on the combination of a miniaturized surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy concept, and existing low-power wireless sensor network hardware. This Phase I effort will include: working with OEMs to define requirements, conducting chemical kinetics/degradation analyses, the evaluation of the sensing module hardware/packaging design concepts, and the construction and proof of principle demonstration of first generation hardware.

InvenTek Corporation
320 Willow Street
New Lenox, IL 60451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(815) 483-9564
Thomas D Kaun
MDA11-024       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:New thermal battery chemistry and construction for Interceptors
Abstract:Based on recently-developed InvenTek intellectual property, an opportunity exists to facilitate a revolutionary increase in power and energy for reserve battery with molten nitrate electrolyte that can be operated as a thermal battery. Simply put, there is an opportunity for advanced thermal batteries that are an analog of Li-ion batteries with the substitution of molten nitrate salt electrolyte. The technology provides many options for reserve battery design and operation. The nitrate molten salt brings much reduced thermal input to initiate at lower temperature of 160-200oC with the low thermal mass Li-ion configuration. The proposed SBIR initially taps aspects of conventional Li-ion battery chemistry and manufacture with some new materials. InvenTek will push the boundaries of voltage, temperature, and compositions of adapting conventional Li-ion to nitrate molten salt electrolyte cell operation. For meeting ultimate MDA performance goals, a new high voltage (4.5V), high capacity (200mAh/g) Li-ion cell chemistry (Prof. Jai Prakash) is coupled with the very thin components typical of Li-ion batteries. The revolutionary battery performance relies on Li-ion chemistry and configuration. Selected prospects are adapted to the nitrate salt electrolyte to give it thermal battery functionality of long-term, inert stand. Not with standing the reserve mode of thermal battery application, Inventek will demonstrate a robust design to enable temporary (hours duration) secondary battery operation for periodic testing and reuse (recharge) of the nitrate electrolyte thermal. Both specific energy and power can be doubled over conventional thermal batteries with high power/energy Li-ion chemistry and reduced cell mass via very thick separator (20-25 micron). The combination of very thin and nitrate electrolyte/metal oxide electrode (4.5V) can approach 200Wh/kg and 10kW/kg in battery configurations typical of Li-ion. Robust design and manufacturability make this approach viable for commercial applications (always important for cost-effective production). Phase I will provide a proof of concept demonstration of the nitrate cell technology and provide a basis to project the revolutionary thermal battery performance required for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) interceptors. In Phase II, Inventek will collaborate with prime contractors (and component providers) to narrow options in design, and pursue qualification of a thermal battery configured for a targeted MDA SM3 application. Innovation of thermal battery cells using Li-ion with molten nitrate electrolyte can improve performance reliability and lower cost for missile defense systems, such as SM3IIB. The addition of conventional battery design for thermal battery aids in design flexibility to shorten time to production. With a basis for volume & packaging efficiency and high current capability, a Li-ion analog has the ability to achieve high voltage levels (>200 volts), safety and reliability for the intended use in interceptor vehicles.

LithChem Energy / Div. of TOXCO, inc.
1830 Columbia Avenue
Folcroft, PA 19032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 637-1200
Novis Smith
MDA11-024       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Advanced Power Storage Systems for Interceptors
Abstract:LithChem Energy (LCE) has developed a very high power (>12,000 W/kg) reserve battery for use in interceptor missiles such as the SM3-IIB where weight (power density) is very critical. This battery can be 100% checked and cycled before actual mission use to ensure 100% reliability and can be turned on before launch. The LCE reserve battery (cell voltage 3.6 V) performs in the normal ambient temperature range of standard rechargeable lithium batteries without needing high temperature for performance as the currently used thermal reserve batteries. In this proposed program, LCE will develop improved charge/ discharge cycling at 100% depth of discharge for this new battery chemistry from about 100 cycles to 500 cycles, maintain the power density and at the same time significantly increase the energy density of this battery. This will further increase the performance capabilities of this reserve battery from about 90 Wh/kg to possibly 200 Wh/kg while maintaining the power density to > 12,000 W/kg. Cell packs of the improved version will be made on an automated cell pack assembly line built by LCE for lower cost and high reliability battery batteries. The overall goal is to develop the most powerful (lightest weight) all purpose reserve missile battery.

Yardney Technical Products, Inc.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Joseph Gnanaraj
MDA11-024       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Advanced Power Storage Systems for Interceptors
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a high-energy and high-power hybrid system consisting of a lithium ion (Li-ion) battery in conjunction with an ultracapacitor (UCAP) for advanced power storage systems for interceptors. Yardney Technical Products (YTP), the world leader in cutting-edge Li-ion battery technology proposes to design, develop and test new improved materials for several cell components to provide higher energy density, better low temperature (below -20C) performance, higher DoD in life cycling without significant loss of cycle life. The program first optimizes then characterizes the energy density of Li-ion. (>275Wh/kg). These results are then used to design the capacitor system. The proposed space-quality high energy and high power density hybrid system can accommodate long duration missions for Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) applications.

Digital Solid State Propulsion LLC
6150 Sunrise Meadows Loop
Reno, NV 89519
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 696-5354
Russell Carlson
MDA11-025       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Precision ACS (PACS) for DACS Low Level ACS
Abstract:Our Precision ACS (PACS) while combined with either a Liquid or Solid DACS delivers high precision Kinetic Weapon (KW) attitude control for long range target discrimination and acquisition. The PACS features multiple pulse Electric Solid Propellant (ESP) thrusters that are either individually pulsed controlled for very small impulse BIT’s or controlled in parallel for larger ACS thrust. The PACS takes full advantage of the inherent IM (1901a) and “Green” attributes of the new ESP technology. The result is an extremely light weight, simple and low cost ACS subsystem that, when combined with a Liquid or Solid extinguishment DACS, enables the KW to operate for 500 to 1000 sec.

Exquadrum, Inc
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Kevin E. Mahaffy
MDA11-025       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:High Energy Low Molecular-Weight (HELM) DACS
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to high performance and highly controllable solid rocket motor propulsion for advanced Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS). The proposed propulsion approach is capable of delivering a high level of specific impulse performance and a very large number of on/off pulse cycles. The technology will be experimentally demonstrated during the research program.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2812
Millicent Coil
MDA11-025       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Non-Toxic Propulsion Systems for BMDS Applications
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to develop non-toxic propulsion systems to replace hyradzine-derivative systems in interceptor applications. In ongoing work, ORBITEC has been developing high- performance ionic liquid fuels. These inherently non-volatile fuels promise safer, less sensitive systems while providing specific impulse comparable to MMH and density specific impulse 10-15% higher. Because the ionic liquid fuels ignite and combust differently than vintage hypergols, they require special hardware to full realize their benefits. The objectives of the proposed program are to design and test thrust chamber assemblies specifically tailored to these fuels. The results of the Phase I program will be a thorough understanding of the combustion of the ionic liquid fuels, a set of injector and chamber hardware optimized to the fuels, and a strategy for scaling up the designs. The Phase II program would scale up the hardware and target an interceptor application. The ultimate result of this SBIR program will be the development of propulsion systems appropriate to BMDS and a host of other tactical systems and will offer high performance, improved safety, and cost savings.

Streamline Automation, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Roberto Di Salvo
MDA11-025       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Innovative Propulsion Technology for Missile Defense Interceptors
Abstract:Novel propellant formulations that are the product of an evolutionary rather than a revolutionary approach are needed to achieve MDA objectives within the 2-3 year increments specified by the Phased Adaptive Approach. Gelled propellant technology provides a path toward meeting mission requirements in a fiscally sustainable way over the long term. Gel propulsion systems combine the best characteristics of solid and liquid propellants. Although gel systems store like solid propellant and flow like a liquid when pressurized and have solved some of the problems associated with the toxicity and reactive properties of hypergols, the addition of gelling agents has lead to lackluster combustion efficiency and engine stability issues. In Phase I, C3 Propulsion will synthesize and screen ionic liquids (ILs) as gelling agents for hypergolic propellants. In Phase II, the effort will be to characterize and evaluate IL–based fuel and oxidizer gels for propulsion testing. We will involve our technology transition partners in the early phase of the project to maximize Phase III potential. Moreover, to drive our technology transition, we work with SBIR technology brokerage services to help align small business innovation with industry technology gaps.

Ventions, LLC
1142 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 543-2800
Adam London
MDA11-025       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:High-Performance, Pump-Fed Propulsion for Missile Defense Interceptors
Abstract:To-date, the realization of high-performance rocket propulsion systems in small thrust classes (~100lbf) has largely been limited by the inability to create small-scale, regeneratively-cooled, pump-fed engines. Ventions proposes to overcome this limitation by using a novel fabrication technique to realize significant weight and volume savings in a baseline interceptor with high T/W for MDA missions requiring large Delta V and acceleration.

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Neeraj Sinha
MDA11-028       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Characterization and Incorporation of Vernier Engines within the Plume Modeling Process
Abstract:Plume signature phenomenology plays an increasingly important role in the development of a wide variety of missile defense technologies, both at the tactical and strategic levels. With the emergence of recent threats, plume signature phenomenology is increasingly central to Missile Defense Agency’s fundamental mission of development of a Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The Missile Defense Agency’s modeling and simulation directorate is developing, updating, improving, and validating end-to-end modeling and simulation capabilities for the entire missile fly-out scenarios. As part of this broad objective, the simulation of the effects of vernier engines plumes for liquid propulsion systems on sensor systems has a great potential to enhance our defensive capabilities. The opportunity for MDA presented by this effort is to significantly improve flowfield-modeling approaches to better support testing of advanced BMDS sensing systems within high-level simulation environments. This effort will work out the details to correctly represent vernier interactions within plume flowfields and to provide an efficient mechanism to support incorporating these representations into the FLITES scene generation framework.

Metacomp Technologies, Inc.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-4880
Sukumar Chakravarthy
MDA11-028       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Characterization and Incorporation of Vernier Engines within the Plume Modeling Process
Abstract:Metacomp proposes the development of a new class of efficient methods to incorporate the 3D and transient effects of vernier deployment into a base plume flow field. The methods are based on a hierarchical approach. Members of the hierarchy will be evaluated to establish their efficiency versus fidelity in the corresponding signature predictions.

Propulsion Science and Technology, Inc.
848 Town Center Drive
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(267) 276-0181
Margaret W. Taylor
MDA11-028       Awarded: 3/1/2012
Title:Characterization and Incorporation of Vernier Engines within the Plume Modeling Process
Abstract:Vernier engines operating at the same time as the main missile engine can change the overall structure of the engine exhaust plume. This SBIR focuses on the modeling of this interaction using techniques that do not require the use of high fidelity 3-D CFD computations. The proposed approach will develop a simple, overlaid 3-D mixing code, using locally linearized differential equations techniques, that will be used in conjunction with current axisymmetric models.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Jonathan Grot
MDA11-028       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Using 2D Axisymmetric Flow Field Models to Capture 3D Plume-Plume Interaction Effects
Abstract:Rapid simulation of threat missile plume signatures plays a critical role within the Missile Defense Agency’s (MDA) modeling and simulation framework for many applications. Fast simulation of systems utilizing vernier engines presents a challenging modeling problem because the interaction of the vernier and main engine exhaust flows produces a complex, 3D flow field. While high fidelity 3D flow field models exist, they require extensive computational resources, often days of computation time for a single flow field simulation. The challenge addressed here is to utilize much faster running axisymmetric flow field codes to capture the key 3D vernier-main interactions impacting the plume signature. To meet this challenge, we propose a novel approach, dubbed AAPPSS (Axisymmetric Approximation for Plume-Plume Signature Simulation) that involves stitching together azimuthal slices from multiple axisymmetric flow fields to capture the key 3D features of the vernier-main interaction flow field. The overall Phase I objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of the AAPPSS approach. We will develop an AAPPSS prototype and apply it to a representative vernier system. Phase II will feature development of fully functional AAPPSS software, extensive validation against field data, and delivery to MDA.

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Brian J York
MDA11-029       Awarded: 2/21/2012
Title:Advanced Particle Treatment in Modeling Rocket Exhaust Plumes
Abstract:The proposed Phase I effort involves the formulation of improved models to accurately simulate the particles that are present in rocket exhaust plume flowfields with the goal of obtaining improved plume signature predictions. While the modeling of the exhaust plume flowfield is a relatively mature technology, the sub models that are utilized to describe the behavior of the particle phase are in need of improvement. In Phase I, methods will be investigated to replace the current “binning” approach that is utilized to approximate the particle size distribution and the practicality of employing a probability density function (PDF) method will be assessed. Another area where improvement is needed is in the modeling of soot produced in hydrocarbon based liquid propellant systems. The current modeling of the combustion of soot as a “pseudo gas” has been shown to be inadequate and models that treat the combustion in the solid phase will be investigated. The resulting product will be a first principles based CFD model that can capture these complex processes. This is a critical requirement for the accurate generation of active and passive signatures.

IllinoisRocstar LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 542-8123
Bono Wasistho
MDA11-029       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Advanced Particulate Sub-Models for Rocket Motor Exhaust Plumes
Abstract:IllinoisRocstar LLC will develop and commercialize an innovative multiscale computational framework that predicts the behavior of aluminum particles as they evolve from the grain surface, combust, pass through the nozzle, and into the plume exhaust. Based on high- fidelity, physics-based simulations of complete SRM internal ballistics using our Rocstar Simulation Suite, a continuous probability distribution sub-model for the particulates entering the SRM nozzle will be developed. Highly resolved, three-dimensional simulations will be performed to understand the effects of turbulent inlet conditions on the nozzle particle field, as well as the effects of nozzle vectoring on the particle behavior. Accurate characterization of the particle field entering and leaving the nozzle is critical to capturing the particulate evolution in the exhaust plume and ultimately the plume signature. Our strategy will produce results with better fidelity than those generated using current industry practice, and will provide important insights into multiphase issues for plume signatures of importance to MDA and other DoD mission agencies. The SBIR product following Phase II will be commercial-quality software modules suitable for incorporation in MDA and other plume signature codes. Further, we will continue the validation of the IllinoisRocstar Rocstar Simulation Suite.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Allan Dokhan
MDA11-029       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Experimental and Modeling Investigation of Particle Interaction in SRM Exhaust Flows
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc., proposes to measure and model the particulate behavior in the exhaust flow of SRMs. In Phase I, we have proposed to characterize the particle interaction within the exhaust nozzle and in the plume flow field of SRMs. Our experimental measurements will allow mechanistic understanding of the particulate behavior within this accelerated flowfield and the development of a comprehensive suite of models that captures these phenomena. We have proposed a program which will ensure successful integration of our models into MDA’s signature models.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Jason Cline
MDA11-029       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:A Toolkit for Enhanced Particulate Simulation (EPSilon Toolkit) in Plume
Abstract:Radiation from particulates can often be the dominant source of radiation in rocket plumes. Particulates such as soot and aluminum oxide emit and absorb light differently depending not only on their composition but also their size, temperature, and state of aggregation. These properties are influenced by a variety of external and physical phenomena that merit specialized attention. The Toolkit for Enhanced Particulate Simulation (EPSilon Toolkit) is a suite of physics submodels that includes the particulate specific details and will interface as a database generator and through a software library into the MDA plume signature codes. In Phase I Spectral Sciences teams with Corvid Technologies to bring the capability to compute from first principles the light scattering and extinction properties of multiphase particulates such as partially-molten or soot-coated alumium oxide. In Phase II this and other physics submodels will be integrated into the final software library and databases.

AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
410 Jan Davis Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Dannie Cutts
MDA11-030       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Intelligent Adaptive Needs Characterization for M&S Systems Engineering
Abstract:This proposal investigates the use of semantic analysis to improve the requirements collection portion of the systems engineering process. Specifically, it addresses those tasks associated with the development of a complete and unambiguous definition for each stakeholder requirement (a.k.a. stakeholder need). To ensure a robust design, The AEgis Technologies Group, Inc (AEgis) will begin with an “expert system” that performs a similar task, and modify it to accommodate the systems engineering processes for needs characterization. The final product will be a tool that intelligently aids systems engineers in capturing sufficient requirements objectives (to describe the context, function, information and performance), while also accommodating the characterization of stakeholder needs relative to their priority and relevant Models and Simulations (M&S). AEgis also proposes the development and population of a metadata database (or other appropriate construct) to improve interactions between this requirements tool and applicable documentation, such as other stakeholder requirements, solution architectures, and vernacular dictionaries.

ISSAC Corp
6760 Corporate Drive Suite 110
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 237-6878
Ray Deiotte
MDA11-030       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Intelligent Adaptive Needs Characterization for M&S Systems Engineering
Abstract:The first, and arguably the most important, step in systems engineering is gathering stakeholder needs. Being able to elicit accurate, actionable needs from a stakeholder is nearly an art and is very difficult to standardize as each set of stakeholders may have drastically different needs. It is the intent of this effort to develop a process and set of algorithms that will provide rigor to and aid the needs elicitation process. The ISSAC Corp Systems Engineering Toolset (SETs™) is a complete Systems Engineering life cycle management integrated process. This nine step process relies heavily on successful completion of the three first steps: use case identification, needs definition, and understanding the Operational Environment. This is critical for any SE program. We will propose a solution to gathering and managing these requirement definitions using a novel approach, using technology and art to identify the needs with the multiple stakeholders and managing this information in a single repository enabling semantics analysis techniques, use of algorithms to manage and associate the data, and help the engineering teams solicit the correct information from the stakeholders.

Modus Operandi, Inc.
709 South Harbor City Blvd., Suite 400
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 473-1446
Kent Bimson
MDA11-030       Awarded: 2/13/2012
Title:Inception
Abstract:Modus Operandi proposes to develop Inception, a collaborative intelligent wiki for searching, gathering, interpreting, validating, capturing and documenting the characterization of stakeholder needs for Modeling and Simulation systems. The first phase or the inception phase of the systems engineering process performed by the MDA Directorate of Engineering, Simulation Architecture (MDA/DESA) is the most elusive and dynamic concept of the system development life cycle. The results of this phase, referred to as “stakeholder needs” or scope” include context, functional objectives, informational objectives, performance objectives, and priority as they are relative to M&S. The scope is then used in the next phase of the systems engineering process to develop “build-to” requirements. The lack of a clear scope often leads to unrealistic life-cycle cost estimates and inadequate scheduling which may result in inefficient planning and execution, limited oversight, and increased cost and performance risks. The Inception tool will increase the quality of documented project scopes and decrease the cost of creating a well written project scope through an innovative combination of wiki and advanced semantic analytics technology.

Computational Physics, Inc.
8001 Braddock Road Ste 210
Springfield, VA 22151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 764-7501
Karan Elliott
MDA11-031       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Model-Driven Optimistic Modeling Language (MODOL)
Abstract:Optimistic modeling techniques are being exploited in modeling and simulation architectures that model the complete Ballistic Missile Defense System. Optimistic modeling allows event based simulations to take full advantage of parallel processing by distributing models across all available processors and allowing them to run at full processing speeds while maintaining correct sequencing of events and truth states. However, this efficiency comes at the cost of reconstructing prior model states when straggler events arrive at a logical processor. The simulation is forced to roll back to a prior known state, and reapply events up to the current simulation time. This process can be time consuming and error prone thus defeating the initial intent of the optimistic model. CPI and Monument Software propose to reduce the effort required to write optimistic codes and eliminate the difficulty in finding rollback errors by defining a domain specific language for the representation of optimistic simulation features. We will also develop a code generation capability to generate optimistic code components from the metadata representations. Features such as checkpoint and rollback will be abstracted at a sufficiently high enough level to allow implementation details to be code generated, thereby reducing manual labor and programming errors.

deciBel Research, Inc.
325 Bob Heath Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-6135
Greg Bacon
MDA11-031       Awarded: 3/1/2012
Title:Improved Techniques for Optimistic Modeling
Abstract:Traditional approaches to synchronization in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) are time- stepped or discrete event-based. These conservative techniques can impose serious penalties in runtime and in opportunity cost where very expensive hardware spends valuable time waiting on results from other processing nodes. The Missile Defense Agency’s M&S Directorate (MDA/DES) advocates use of optimistic methods where speedier components can “work ahead,” but this approach requires programmers to write complex rollback logic that can result in difficult bugs. The team of deciBel Research and Galois combines successful track records in missile-defense modeling and cutting-edge research in computer science. In Phase I, the team will demonstrate an Optimistic Software Development Kit (OSDK) proof of concept by converting from discrete-event to optimistic a portion of deciBel Research’s existing dBTools radar-simulation suite. In Phase II, the team will develop a more general TimeWarp-based OSDK and use it to integrate the full dBTools suite into MDA’s Optimistic Modeling Framework (OMF).

EDAptive Computing, Inc.
1245 Lyons Road Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0792
Randall King
MDA11-031       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Improved Techniques for Optimistic Modeling
Abstract:Our proposal specifically addresses the stated requirements of the solicitation; we will develop and deploy tools, methods, and models for improving optimistic modeling techniques. The proposed EDAptive® PROMOTE solution builds on previous Edaptive Computing, Inc (ECI) knowledge and technology – itself innovative – to reduce and diagnose rollback errors in optimistic models and convert non-optimistic models into optimistic models. The resulting capabilities will result in a reduction of effort for developing optimistic models. Prior experience and new research has already shown that ECI’s innovative tools suite will be clearly adaptive to optimistic modeling.

Metron, Inc.
1818 Library Street Suite 600
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 794-3518
Jim Brutocao
MDA11-031       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Improved Techniques for Optimistic Modeling - MP 75-11
Abstract:Optimistic processing is the key enabling technology for parallel performance of major MDA M&S projects ever since the Synchronous Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation (SPEEDES) was introduced to the MDA in 1997. However, writing rollbackable models as required for optimistic processing has proven difficult. The innovative opportunity is to automate the task of making code rollbackable by creating a standalone compiler. Metron, the sole developer of SPEEDES since 1996, proposes to build a compiler that takes model source code as input, generates equivalent source code that is rollbackable, and finally produces object code from the generated source code. Metron has identified an open source, freely downloadable technology that enables the building of such a compiler called ROSE. Metron will create a general use solution applicable to any optimistic framework, initially focusing on making SPEEDES models rollbackable. This effort will lead to considerable savings in development and debugging labor hours for those who currently write optimistic models, as well as making optimistic simulation much more reliable and robust, since it would essentially eliminate rollback errors. Such a compiler can automate many aspects of optimistic model development beyond rollback capability, such as event scheduling and event message packing.

Carr Astronautics Corporation
6404 Ivy Lane, Suite 333
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 286-8834
James Herald
MDA11-032       Awarded: 2/21/2012
Title:Star Background Model enabled by the VAO
Abstract:The most up-to-date measurements of astronomical sources are accessible through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO), which is constantly fed by ongoing modern sky surveys while also having access to older static catalogs. We propose to produce a software package that will leverage the ever expanding and improving data accessible through the VAO to aid in cataloging and classifying astronomical sources to create the integrated database called for in the topic. Implementing the package as a front-end that interfaces with the VAO will ensure these classifications are based on the most recent and best measurements available. Then, based on those classifications, the package will assign an appropriate synthetic model of the UV-IR Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) for the stellar sources. Another innovation is that the proposed system will use SEDs from the ATLAS stellar atmosphere models, which provide more realistic representations of the stellar flux than black-body models.

ExoAnalytic Solutions, Inc
20532 El Toro Rd Ste 303
Mission Viejo, CA 92692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 716-4290
Douglas Hendrix
MDA11-032       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Stellar Track and Radiance Simulation (STARS)
Abstract:ExoAnalytic Solutions proposes to develop a star catalog and in-band irradiance simulation by leveraging our in house star background model called STARS (Stellar Track And Radiance Simulation) v1.0 and the Exo6Sim optical focal plane scene generation simulation. STARS v1.0 uses a stellar spectrum fit to the SWIR point source data in the 2MASS database. Stellar spectra are inferred via a maximum likelihood fit to over 3,000 sample spectra in the Hubble ATLAS9 reference spectra database. To meet the requirements for this solicitation, we will develop an upgraded model called STARS v2.0 that will improve fidelity by expanding the number of databases used, take advantage of stellar spectral type databases, and render extended sources as well as point sources. We will also upgrade our spectral inference and in-band integration as required by the solicitation by identifying and resolving data gaps and including effects such as Doppler shift and interstellar medium extinction to provide the highest fidelity in-band signatures for stellar and non-stellar objects from 0.2 ¡V 15 ƒÝm. Validation of the model will be performed using our telescope observatory, camera and advanced algorithms and software tools. Architecture for integration into MDA simulations such as FLITES will also be developed.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 927-4774
Thomas Murdock
MDA11-032       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Star Background Model
Abstract:Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) is pleased to provide a solution to SBIR topic MDA11-032 with the proposal of the Encompass software tool. Encompass will consist of three components: the Encompass Catalog, a unified, scientifically rigorous star and celestial background catalog; the Encompass Stellar Model, a spectral irradiance calculation tool capable of providing predictive irradiance over 0.2-15 µm for all cataloged stars; and the Encompass Scene Generator, a tool that combines stellar predictive irradiance, the diffuse background, and the specific environment of the measuring sensor to provide realistic stellar background for simulation and calibration of ground and space-based sensors. Encompass will provide the ability to calculate in-band irradiance at the sensor aperture in user-defined spectral pass bands with user-defined relative system spectral response from a position either space-based or within the Earth’s atmosphere. Encompass will also provide a probable uncertainty associated with the calculated in-band irradiance along with full traceability of the calculation. Spectral bands for space-based sensors have different constraints than those for sensors within the atmosphere, so the Encompass tool will be able to address both cases. With these features, Encompass can become the industry standard for realistic simulation and calibration planning for UV-IR remote sensing missions.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Rosemary Kennett
MDA11-032       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Star Background Model
Abstract:We propose to develop a new and innovative capability to model the contribution of stellar sources to the background radiation detected by EO/IR sensors. This Star Background Model would comprise a new comprehensive database of known objects outside the solar system, both stellar and non-stellar, together with a means of estimating their in-band radiances for any waveband in the 0.2 to 15 µm range. Software will be produced to access this database and provide FITS format images showing the objects and radiances for user- selected fields of view and wavebands. A fully functional interface to FLITES will be developed.

Black Knight Technology Inc.
PO BOX 7374
Fredericksburg, VA 22404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 644-8001
Wesley Cooper
MDA11-033       Awarded: 2/16/2012
Title:Downstream Test and Analysis AutomationTools enabled by an Analytical Model
Abstract:Automated test and analysis provides an opportunity to offload the demands on SMEs while increasing the scale and fidelity of test assessment results. Black Knight is proposing the tools to develop Analytical Models of complex systems to capture system functionality as logical computation nodes, and link these nodes to data definitions and system artifacts. This produces a self-characterizing model containing all the information to drive downstream automation tools independent of the system the model represents. By leveraging Black Knight’s Analysis Tool Framework, plug-ins can be developed and applied to rapidly field automation capabilities driven by the schema of the Analytical Model rather than requiring constant software updates. Plug-ins can wrap existing organizational tools to provide powerful and reliable tools to be integrated into the automation process, and provide for the development and automation of non-standard capabilities such as system health monitors and capture playback in near-real time. By linking only the Analytical Model to system artifacts and driving automation capabilities through it, downstream processes become system independent. This enables reuse of tools, and simplifies severing the links of an Analytical Model from one system to use it as a template to be applied to a new system.

Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dean Mumme
MDA11-033       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Automated Process Mining and Cause-effect Analysis for Systems Testing of Net-centric Software
Abstract:In a computer network, current methods of testing network-wide software generally require manual analysis of event logs from each network node. This manual process takes excessive time, is error prone, and greatly limits percentage coverage and confidence in the target software. To expedite software evaluation and enhance its reliability, the Missile Defense Agency’s (MDA) Multi-Element Integration Test (MEIT) framework has a critical need for a network-wide, software-test framework that has enhanced coverage of the intended functionality, and provides results in real-time or near-real time. In a computer network, current methods of testing network-wide software generally require manual analysis of event logs from each network node. This manual process takes excessive time, is error prone, and greatly limits percentage coverage and confidence in the target software. To expedite software evaluation and enhance its reliability, the Missile Defense Agency’s (MDA) Multi-Element Integration Test (MEIT) framework has a critical need for a network-wide, software-test framework that has enhanced coverage of the intended functionality, and provides results in real-time or near-real time. To meet the MDA’s need, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes the Consolidated Open-Software Test Automation and Real-time Regression System (CO-STARRS), which is a net-centric, event-modeling tool that automatically extracts process structure from event logs. CO-STARRS provides the software developer with consolidated graphical displays of the causal links between the program structure, and structured events.

Innovative Defense Technologies
4401 Wilson Boulevard Suite 810
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 807-0055
David Ponticello
MDA11-033       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Automatic Test and Analysis (ATA) Tool
Abstract:Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems today are largely software based and growing in complexity. However, despite the advances in development practices and tools, the goals of accelerating the rate at which systems can be delivered and reducing their costs cannot be met by simply writing software faster. Delivering faster, less expensive, and higher quality software will only be met with comparable improvements in the methodology and tools used for testing and analysis. The opportunity exists under this SBIR to develop and engineer an integrated technology suit to accomplish MDA’s Multi-Element Integration Test (MEIT) goals. Developing automatic testing capability across the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) will allow for execution of complex tests and verification of the results in near real- time. These Phase I efforts will provide a significant advancement in BMD MEIT execution, and supports MDA’s desire to deliver capability to BMDS at a faster pace within a fiscally challenged environment.

deciBel Research, Inc.
325 Bob Heath Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-6193
Geoff Pendleton
MDA11-034       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Mitigation of the Effects of the Ionosphere on UEWR
Abstract:A model of ionospheric scintillation affecting the performance of the UEWR Thule radar is needed to determine the impact of ionospheic scintillation on the Thule radar’s ability to perform its mission as an element of the fielded missile defense system. The scintillation mitigation effort is recognized by the MDA Sensors Directorate as a Critical Engagement Condition (SN-CEC-13). Quantitative estimates of the frequency and severity of ionospheric disturbances and their specific effect on Thule radar functions are necessary to assess their impact on the overall missile defense system performance. The strongest scintillation effects observed by Thule are correlated with strong solar storms that are currently being observed by several satellite missions, including GOES, POES, and STEREO. In this effort the latest heliospheric and geomagnetic observations will be correlated with Radar scintillation observations to provide optimum prediction capability and high fidelity assessment of scintillation effects on the Thule UEWR radar as we approach the maximum in the solar storm activity.

NorthWest Research Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 3027
Bellevue, WA 98009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 582-4906
Dennis Knepp
MDA11-034       Awarded: 2/13/2012
Title:Mitigation of the effects of the ionosphere on UEWR
Abstract:UHF radars at high latitude observe significant perturbations in measurements of amplitude, phase, range, and Doppler, caused by ionospheric disturbances. Without mitigation of these effects, there is no doubt that the natural ionosphere is a major issue in the performance of the important radar functions (detection, track, classification, intercept support) of the Thule Upgraded Early Warning radar (UEWR). This work will develop signal processing techniques to mitigate the effects of the perturbed polar region ionosphere on the radar track function. This will be accomplished through the development and application of a high fidelity desktop simulation that includes the combined effects of both large and small scale ionospheric structure. These efforts will be rooted in real-world data, namely that taken as part of the MDA/Raytheon Ionospheric Data Collection (IDC) program and also polar region measurements of total electron content using two-frequency (Transit) satellite beacon data observed at a receiver stationed near Thule.

Propagation Research Associates
1275 Kennestone Circle Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 384-3418
Bonnie Valant-Spaight
MDA11-034       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Mitigation of the effects of the ionosphere on UEWR
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes to utilize its unique capabilities in atmospheric effects characterization, atmospheric effects mitigation, and track processing to characterize and improve tracking and object classification under conditions of ionospheric scintillation for polar Upgraded Early Warning Radars (UEWR). To this end, PRA will implement a numerical simulation of radar signal propagation through scintillation within its existing radar simulation tool developed under MDA Contracts W9113M-07-C-0052 and W9113M-08-C-0149. PRA will partner with JPL to create a climatological model of polar ionospheric scintillation over the duration of a solar cycle using data sources including radar and GPS data. PRA will also investigate applying turbulence mitigation algorithms that were successfully applied to tropospheric turbulence under the above contracts to the particular effects of ionospheric scintillation on UEWR performance. In Phase II, PRA will benchmark its radar simulation against data from the Thule UHF radar and then use that simulation and the ionospheric climatology to evaluate the performance of the radar’s current tracking algorithms over the course of one solar cycle. In addition, PRA will apply its ionospheric mitigation algorithms to Thule data and determine the improvement that could be expected in track initiation, track, target identification, and handover functions.

Wavelet Technologies, Inc.
664 Pike Avenue
Attleboro, MA 02703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 222-6676
Robert Hohlfeld
MDA11-034       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Mitigation of the effects of the ionosphere on UEWR
Abstract:Wavelet Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a model of polar ionospheric scintillations to support UEWR operations. This model will begin with a basic model of solar activity through the solar cycle and empirical correlations between solar activity and ionospheric disturbances with monthly resolution. Additional inputs modifying this baseline prediction will incorporate near-real-time indices of geomagnetic disturbance and (HF) ionosonde data. These measurements do not directly address ionospheric scintillations, but can be the basis for a Bayesian model of probabilities. The baseline model will use a statistical model for a phase-changing screen (generated by the baseline model and Bayesian modifications) from which scintillation statistics can be estimated by a propagation model. The statistics of the phase-changing screen can be adjusted (particularly in disturbed ionospheric conditions) by information from tracking of RCS calibration sphere(s) and perhaps by opportunistic observations of space debris. The inverse problem required to update the statistics of the phase-changing screen will be treated by a wavelet-based regularization technique to obtain an estimate of scintillation statistics in disturbed conditions to inform waveform and scheduling decisions. It is expected that these models can be developed based on archived ionospheric data combined with observations of orbiting RCS calibration targets.

deciBel Research, Inc.
325 Bob Heath Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-6163
Andrew Harrison
MDA11-039       Awarded: 2/8/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Assessment of Target Characteristics
Abstract:Accurate knowledge of a target's radar signature is a critical issue in assessing the performance of the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMDS) system, and digital signature models continue are used extensively in simulation of BMDS elements. Though existing predictive signature codes are fast, they are limited in their ability to model non-specular scattering effects and dielectric materials. The need therefore exists for software codes that will correctly model these, while producing data quickly at the needed sampling rates. We propose to develop a predictive signature code, using the Method of Moments (MOM) and the Fast Multipole Method (FMM), that will address these issues. A key element of this new code will be its use of hardware and software acceleration strategies, leveraging threads, CPU vector instructions, and GPU computing. In Phase I, we will develop a proof-of-concept prototype software, and verify its validity using electromagnetic theory and measurements. The prototype software will be further developed and refined during the Phase II effort.

HyPerComp, Inc.
2629 Townsgate Road Suite 105
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 371-7556
Vijaya Shankar
MDA11-039       Awarded: 2/9/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Assessment of Target Characteristics
Abstract:Building on HyPerComp’s strengths in developing high order physics-based solvers in multidisciplinary technologies in electromagnetics and fluid dynamics, we have now embarked on a new high order framework (being named High Definition-Physics (HDPhysics)) for solving time-domain Maxwell’s equations based on the nodal discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation. This new framework has many new features that make it more attractive for achieving the levels of computational efficiency required to solve electrically large-scale problems of interest to MDA and DoD. Under this proposed effort for MDA, HyPerComp proposes to make significant strides in advancing the state of the art in physics-based computational electromagnetics (CEM) methodologies in the following areas: 1) high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin (DG)-based algorithms with error control depending on basis order and grid resolution, 2) uncertainty quantification based on a chaos polynomial expansion procedure, 3) a reduced order-basis method (RBM) in time-domain for greatly minimizing the computational burden of generating large data domes, and 4) exploiting the advances in GPU computing for dramatic speed-ups in computation over conventional central processing unit (CPU) type computing.

IERUS Technologies, LLC
2904 Westcorp Blvd Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-2026
Daniel L. Faircloth
MDA11-039       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Assessment of Target Characteristics
Abstract:IERUS Technologies will provide a unique capability to the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) allowing dramatic enhancement of simulation speed and accuracy for RF signature characterization of missile defense targets. Not only does IERUS have a detailed understanding of the Missile Defense RF signature modeling problem, but IERUS is on the cutting edge of RF prediction software. IERUS personnel have many years of experience in target signature characterization. IERUS has developed a detailed understanding of the limitations posed by current packages and the impact of the resulting limitations on BMDS M&S. IERUS is prepared to address them by enhancing and commercializing our computational electromagnetics package. Designed for optimal performance on modern COTS hardware, our approach solves electrically large problems, rigorously and expeditiously. With this software package, MDA will be able to predict the RF signatures of complex targets with complex features. Unlike current COTS packages, our proposed approach will be able to produce X-band models in a reasonable run time (comparable to Xpatch) without the large computational footprint.

Mathematical Systems & Solutions, Inc.
685 Busch Garden Dr.
Pasadena, CA 91105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 441-2782
Timothy Elling
MDA11-039       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Methodologies for Accurate Assessment of Target Characteristics
Abstract:We propose development of accurate and efficient exact-physics computational electromagnetics (CEM) solvers for accurate evaluation of RF signature characteristics of complex targets of interest to MDA. For accuracy and modeling flexibility the proposed codes combine novel fast, high-order frequency- and time-domain algorithms put forth in recent years—which can accurately and efficiently resolve both low- and high-frequency behavior while accounting for scattering, transmission and absorption. These solvers have provided some of the most efficient PDE solution methods in existence: in some cases, our algorithms are up to one-thousand times faster, for a given accuracy, than some of the best alternative solvers. Our novel parallel CPU and GPU implementations of these algorithms, in turn, demonstrate a high degree of efficiency, and, in particular: perfect parallel efficiency for the time-domain algorithms, 50%-to-70% parallel efficiency for integral equation algorithms, and nearly optimal GPU speedups, by a factors as high as 90, from the corresponding CPU implementations (for single Tesla C1060 GPU). Existing partnerships with relevant industries will help secure a significant customer base for the forthcoming software products. In all, our company is favorably positioned to deliver a powerful software tool for analysis of RF missile signatures as described in Topic MDA11-039.

Virtual EM Inc.
3055 Plymouth Rd, Ste 200
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 222-4558
Tayfun Ozdemir
MDA11-039       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:A Scalable Full-Wave Method for Accurate Assessment of Target Signatures Using Fast Algorithms and Hardware Acceleration
Abstract:A computational tool will be developed for predicting scattering from target candidates suitable for missile defense such as missles and decoys. Fast algorithms will be employed as well as hardware acceleration (for multi-core CPUs and GPUs) for speeding up computations. The tool will be modular for allowing future enhancements for handling larger numerical problems.

IERUS Technologies, LLC
2904 Westcorp Blvd Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-2026
Daniel L. Faircloth
MDA11-040       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Telemetry Impact Reduction for Target Objects
Abstract:MDA is tasked with the developing and fielding missile defense systems capable of defending theaters, regions, and nations. During testing, ballistic missile target are designed to represent certain threat(s). In order to use flight test data to anchor M&S, data must be collected from the flight, resulting in significant instrumentation on the target. This instrumentation is, in and of itself, non-threat representative. A primary source of impact to the BMDS observables results from the RF signature and IR signature perturbations caused by antennas. IERUS proposes the development of compact antenna elements for BMDS telemetry bands whose RF signature has been minimized in the BMDS radar bands (S and X-bands). The compact nature of the antennas limits the surface area of the antenna structures minimizing the impact to all signature spaces. To achieve this innovative goal, IERUS will leverage our expertise in global optimization and antenna design.

MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
7 Flowerfield Suite 28
St. James, NY 11780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 686-5710
Huey-Daw Wu
MDA11-040       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Low Radar Cross Section Conformal Antennas for Target Objects
Abstract:The Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate the feasibility of innovative frequency- selective-surface antenna designs that have low impact on target object signature and can be manufactured using MesoScribe Technologies Inc. state-of-the-art conformal Direct- Write technique. MesoScribe Technologies Inc. in partnership with The Pennsylvania State University and Lockheed Martin propose an integrated strategy combining design, fabrication and commercialization to implement the low radar-cross-section conformal antennas described in the MDA’s SBIR initiative MDA11-040. The MDA11-040 program will serve as a platform to meet the project objectives as well as validate a new approach to integrate conformal antennas within a variety of commercial and military systems.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
Bradley Davis
MDA11-040       Awarded: 2/8/2012
Title:Novel HybridSil™ Materials for Low-Profile, Reduced Signature, Multifunctional Conformal Antennas
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will encompass design, simulation and construction of miniaturized conformal low-profile antennas for application in GPS, Telemetry and Transponders; the designs would encompass multiband and ultrawideband elements along with aperture structures to reduce signature. NanoSonic has created a team with a unique combination of engineers, chemists and materials scientists capable of design, simulation and fabrication of this product. As a high performance, survivable and reliable antenna solution, NanoSonic would construct covalently bonded substrate layers from customized nanocomposite HybridSil™ customizable dielectric substrates and unparalleled HybridSil™ erosion resistant and thermal barrier coatings in order to optimize antenna performance and reliability. The HybridSil™ materials are novel high performance RF and microwave substrates developed for rigorous and harsh environments including temperature extremes and UV stability. NanoSonic would pattern antennas on the HybridSil™ materials or incorporate these directly into the airborne vehicle’s skin drawing on our expertise in structural electromagnetic composites. Preliminary antenna testing would also be performed in-house with NanoSonic equipment. The NanoSonic PI is antenna engineer with many years’ experience in both hardware implementation and simulation software construction. NanoSonic would team with a defense prime to promote insertion.

Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC)
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
William Hallidy
MDA11-040       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Development of a Low Observable, Multi-Band Antenna System
Abstract:Targets for the BMDS must maintain signatures that resemble specified threat targets with high validity while simultaneously providing telemetry to the ground. Current telemetry systems distort the target RCS which substantially reduces the validity of test signatures. Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation, teaming with Ohio State University Electro Science Laboratory and with ITT is proposing the development of a Low Observable, Multi-band Antenna System capable of supporting Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) telemetry needs, while simultaneously providing minimal impact to target signatures. The SPEC team’s design will result in a multi-band, low observable antenna system for MDA targets that will yield an ultra-low Radar Cross Section (RCS) in the S and X bands, while supporting telemetry requirements in the L, S and C bands. As a current provider of MDA target/countermeasure subsystems and with personnel involved in ballistic missile targets and countermeasures for over forty years, SPEC is very familiar with the need for accurate and high fidelity threat objects. The SPEC team provides world class antenna design capability, matched with comprehensive target design, development and production capability—an array of capabilities which are essential to the development of Low Observable, Multi-Band Antennas.

IERUS Technologies, LLC
2904 Westcorp Blvd Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-2026
Daniel L. Faircloth
MDA11-041       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Passive Techniques for Flight Reconstruction Data
Abstract:MDA is seeking means of performing post-flight reconstruction without negatively impacting the threat-representative nature of host object signatures, using telemetry bandwidth, or inordinate expense. Current techniques using ground assets can provide 3 degree of freedom (3DOF) style trajectory information but lack the ability to reliably discern angular rates and positions for most geometries and objects. IERUS proposes the development of resonant features tuned to BMDS test range radar assets. The unique radar characteristics of these features can be used to reconstruct angular position and rate data. By selecting the correct ground assets and carefully designing the features, they can have a negligible to non-existent impact in both BMDS bands of interest while exhibiting a highly resonant characteristics to ground sensors. The IERUS solution, can be manufactured cheaply and applied to a wide-variety of objects. The features could be printed on materials using conducting inks.

nLogic, LLC
4901 Corporate Drive Suite H
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-2521
Neil Miller
MDA11-041       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Passive Techniques for Flight Reconstruction Data
Abstract:In our Phase I effort, we propose to develop a technique for passively enhancing target scene object orientation detection for support of post-flight reconstruction. This passive solution will enable dynamic rate reconstruction for pitch, yaw, and roll at rates that range from sub- Hz to 100s of Hz. The solution that we propose provides a way to get accurate truth data on the orientation and rotation of each target object without having to provide on-board electronic instrumentation and telemetry. We propose to use a small set of narrowband reflectors tuned to different wavelengths for each object. We propose to place these reflectors in longitudinal and latitudinal patterns on each target object. These reflectors will be small enough such that they do not affect the object’s radar, optical nor IR signature, but could be illuminated from an airborne platform. A platform, such as HALO, will illuminate the reflectors using a narrowband, tuned wavelength laser that can serially project light at the different reflector wavelengths. The platform will record the visible/IR reflections for later post mission analysis to yield the rotational truth data. This system has the benefit of operating both in day and night time, provide the rotational information, and also discriminate between the different objects since they will have different wavelength reflectors on each object.

Control Vision Inc.
PO Box 1547
Sahuarita, AZ 85629
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 523-5506
Daniel Crawford
MDA11-042       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Optical Sensor Suite for Anchoring Debris Models
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency is seeking debris ejection data during the post burn-out period of a solid rocket motor in an exoatmospheric environment for the development and verification of analytic models. Currently little is understood of the debris ejection during this phase of the solid rocket burn. Control Vision, Inc. proposes utilizing its current imaging and measurement technologies to gain an understanding of the debris during ground based solid rocket burns. A sensor suite will then be developed by combining current imaging techniques with innovative new approaches.

IERUS Technologies, LLC
2904 Westcorp Blvd Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-2026
Jason M Keen
MDA11-042       Awarded: 2/1/2012
Title:Techniques for Anchoring Debris Models
Abstract:MDA is working to validate models for ejecta generated by solid motors. Minimal test data exists to validate current understanding of the phenomenology. MDA requires a means of anchoring detailed models for the generation and ejection of debris in a flight environment. IERUS proposes the development of an imaging system using lightweight sensors paired with advanced techniques for image generation which can be tested in a ground test and flown on flight vehicles. The IERUS imaging system will enable the use of fewer sensors than traditional imaging systems and can provide detailed imagery of both motor internals and debris exiting the nozzle. The proposed components are typically smaller, lighter, and cheaper than X-ray or other radiation based systems. Further, the IERUS system will provide full three-dimensional imagery, unlike an IR based system.