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287 Phase I Selections from the 12.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ACENT Laboratories LLC
3 Scott Lane
Manorville, NY 11949
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 218-5561
Randy Voland
AF121-001      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:A Low Cost Modular Approach to Flight Testing of Hypersonic Systems
Abstract: Airbreathing hypersonic weapon systems utilizing ramjet/scramjet and/or combined cycle engines will open the door to many new capabilities for the warfighter. Applications include systems ranging from small tactical hypersonic missiles, hypersonic intelligence, surveillance & reconnaissance (ISR) aircraft, to upper stages for responsive space access launch vehicles. ACENT Laboratories and proposal teammates ATK and Kratos Rocket Support Services have a strong history in the area of hypersonic airbreathing flight testing and propose to develop a Low Cost Modular Approach to Flight Testing of Hypersonic Systems. The proposed architecture will have the following basic attributes: 1) A modular airframe structural core with known load capabilities and standard interfaces to accommodate required subsystems (internally) and to attach variable aero and propulsion configurations and thermal protection systems, 2) Flight-proven designs for major subsystems to reduce time and cost to flight with interfaces and processes to allow rapid integration of new/updated subsystems as needed, and 3) Pre-cleared trajectories and booster sets for different size and weight class payloads. These and other similar attributes will reduce time and cost to flight for new payload with the goal of achieving first flight in approximately two years from project start for a cost in the range of $5M. BENEFIT: The saleable product resulting from this research will be a low cost marketable test and evaluation capability not readily available for ramjet/scramjet powered vehicles. The traditional approach to full-scale hypersonic engine development often begins with subscale component development ground tests leading to full-scale engine ground testing prior to full-scale flight-testing. Moving from subscale to full-scale or ground to flight both incur significant costs. Our modular low cost flight test technique will permit developers of hypersonic propulsion systems to flight test their vehicle and/or engine in sub-scale early in the developmental cycle to assess thrust and operability performance among other things. In a synergistic application with computational simulations and ground testing, this crucial flight data will provide a clear path to full-scale flight testing and development with reduced risk and cost. In addition, our modular system could allow testing at more than one scale by moving up in booster class to determine any scale effects early in the program. Our primary target market for this test capability product is the developmental programs for hypersonic airbreathing propulsion systems that have recently started or will be starting. Expansion of the applicability of the technology beyond hypersonic airbreathing propulsion is a natural extension of this effort. Many technical areas including aerodynamic decelerators, re-entry vehicles, and other non-propulsion fields will benefit from the results of this modular design architecture and these customers will be actively pursued.

Astrox Corporation
3500 Marlbrough Way Suite 100
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 277-7319
Christopher Tarpley
AF121-001      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:Micro Scale Testing of High Speed Aircraft
Abstract: The Air Force has the need to advance high speed vehicle technology and experimental flight test methods quickly and cheaply. Heretofore, the Air Force test programs have consumed too much time (up to 5 years) and money ($10,000,000) for a single test flight. This puts too much pressure on program managers to succeed which in and of itself leads to the long program time and cost. It is a process that spirals out of control quickly. The work requested by this SBIR topic addresses that issue and asks for new ideas and methods for quick and cheap testing. A test vehicle and program that meets the goals will enable the Air Force to proceed efficiently to address the technology needs in the area of high speed flight. They are numerous and critical and require a test program that can fly often and that can be a part of daily life in the lab - like a flying wind tunnel. An engineer can count on having the flight resource available for testing new ideas and technologies. BENEFIT: Astrox will develop a vehicle design and a flight test program to provide the Air Force with a vehicle that can be used as a high speed test bed. The cost goal for the vehicle and first flight will be less than $5,000,000 and the time to launch will be less than 2 years. Using rapid prototyping technology to manufacture major parts will decrease cost and time to manufacture of the test vehicle. The use of a reusable vehicle decreases range costs because vehicle certification will be performed only once. Reusability and low vehicle cost will allow for a new paradigm in program risk reduction; flight envelope expansion can be done gradually with relaxed constraints on failure risk.

FarCo Technologies, Inc.
95 Joralemon Street Suite 1
Brooklyn, NY 11201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(646) 281-1868
Jamahl Overstreet
AF121-002      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:Intelligent Controller Development for Cooperative UAV Missions
Abstract: In this Phase I, we will develop system-level architectures, protocols, methodologies, and optimal cooperative planning techniques to effectively implement Cooperative Behavior Controls, methods for enhancing cooperation through learning, and demonstrate their performance by simulating distributed heterogeneous unmanned agents on a set of mission scenarios with changing dynamic environments and mission parameters. The proposed system provides a comprehensive solution for facilitating and managing cooperative behaviors amongst heterogeneous systems, with a focus on enhanced behavior through learning. Our solution addresses multiple groups and echelons of agents, with mixed levels of autonomy, on mixed--initiative mission sets. The construct proposed is robust, scalable and portable. To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and paradigm, we will leverage our existing software ingredients for Intelligent--Autonomous Mobile Systems (I--AMS) that can be quickly integrated into various platform types. These decentralized individual intelligent systems are then simulated together to evaluate their overall cooperative behaviors with respect to the applied learning methodologies. We treat cooperative behaviors merely as an extension of the decision making process, taking into consideration the probable decisions that neighboring agents would make, allowing for cooperation with minimal communication requirements; similar to how humans and other higher cognitive forms of life cooperate. BENEFIT: There are many military and civilian applications of the proposed cooperative behavior control system to automatically readjust mission objectives and tasks based on perceived changes in environments and mission requirements for cooperative unmanned systems. Such applications range from search and rescue, inspection and surveillance, reconnaissance, anti-terror surveillance, fire monitoring, pipeline inspection, traffic monitoring, disaster management and response to name a few.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
He Bai
AF121-002      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:Enhancing Cooperative Control with Hierarchical Intelligence and Learning
Abstract: Intelligent cooperative controller capable of continuous learning from offline and online experience is of sustained interest for a team of for unmanned aircraft to execute complex missions in a dynamic environment. Current cooperative control technologies are lacking of learning capability. Without the ability to learn, a cooperative system may not be able to react to unanticipated scenarios or adapt to dynamically changing environments in a correct and intelligent fashion, and therefore may lead to unsatisfactory system performance or even mission failure. In collaboration with Brigham Young University, UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC) proposes a hierarchical learning framework that enables multi-layer learning. A modular learning process is proposed, which takes as sensor observations, input prior information from offline training, mission objectives from higher level and learned information from lower level, to facilitate intelligent decision making. To demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed framework, we propose cooperative control and learning algorithms that learns to gauge the intent of a target using multiple observations and to guide a tracking mission based on the observed behavior of the target in a dynamic environment. The feasibility analysis and the demonstration will illustrate performance improvement and potential benefits of equipping cooperative control technologies with intelligent learning mechanisms. BENEFIT: In support of effective operations of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in increasingly complex and uncertain missions, the proposed technology will enable UAVs to learn and adapt to the uncertain environment and changes in adversary behavior. The solution will significantly increase the UAV-to-human ratio for successful operation reducing the overall deployment cost. The proposed learning framework will provide a team of UAVs with a set of tools to react effectively to changing environment, mission objectives and sensor characteristics. The new capabilities will allow the UAVs to complete the missions while flying safely, thus reducing costs due to possible accidents and mission failure. Within the commercial domain, the key technology areas and related applications that can potentially benefit from the proposed technology include surveillance around a critical or secure infrastructure, tracking of unknown targets and classifying their behaviors for border security, search of targets for rescue or surveillance, resupplying UAVs for aircraft carriers, Micro Air Vehicles and flying swarms for reconnaissance and remote monitoring, and civilian search and rescue. All of these applications require intelligent cooperation and decision making between UAVs, which will be enabled through our proposed hierarchical learning framework. UC has identified numerous product opportunities within the US Military modernization effort centering on implementing C4ISR (Command, Control, Computers, Communication,

American Semiconductor, Inc.
3100 S. Vista Ave., Suite 230
Boise, ID 83705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 336-2773
Richard Chaney
AF121-003      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:Conformal Load Bearing Antenna Structure
Abstract: American Semiconductor will develop and demonstrate structural integration of a conformal load bearing antenna structure (CLAS). Future aircraft will incorporate distributed electronics, sensors, and flight control transducers directly into the composite airframe. For near-term Air Force applications, adding RF electronics into the CLAS will improve the performance of a wide variety of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), communication navigation identification (CNI), and electronic warfare (EW) functions. Longer term, embedding electronics into the airframe will enable “fly-by-feel” optimization of aircraft for increased performance, better fuel efficiency, and improved reliability. In Phase I, American Semiconductor will integrate a Flexible MEMS Reconfigurable Antenna with Low Noise Amplifier into a composite stack such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic. This CLAS prototype includes a flexible electronic system composed of RF devices, active components and multi-level circuitry and will be analyzed for both mechanical and electrical performance. In Phases II and III, American Semiconductor will expand the program to incorporate large area, flexible CMOS digital circuits on polymer substrates suitable for flexible, autonomous micro-sensor integration. Combining high-performance flexible CMOS with the RF and substrates created in Phase I will allow for creation of complete, complex CLAS devices suitable for numerous Air Force missions. BENEFIT: The technology developed and proven in this SBIR has multiple benefits, starting with the immediate application of conformal load bearing antennas (CLAS) but continuing into other conformal, pliable, and/or structural electronics and ultimately into industrial applications and consumer devices. CLAS, by definition, integrates the antenna function into the structure in such a way that the antenna itself is a load bearing structure to improve gain, reduce drag, reduce system size and weight, and enable new system concepts. CLAS provides lightweight and cost effective solutions to very large aperture requirements, enables high performance radar capability on smaller vehicles, and lowers drag and weight to improve platform endurance and speed. The technology in this SBIR can also be extended to fly-by-feel applications for active sensing of the flight environment. Fly-by-feel vastly improves empirical models for control and analytical modeling for design, enables exploitation of phenomena that cannot be analyzed accurately, allows a reduction in factors of safety due to load uncertainty, and reduction in air vehicle certification time and cost. The direct benefit of this work is that Phase II will deliver a complete, functional prototype Flexible MEMS Reconfigurable Antenna (FMRA) in a CLAS. This effort will result in not only a working FMRA, but will also demonstrate a proven manufacturing capability for

Sciperio, Inc.
12151 Research Pkwy Suite 150
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 275-4755
Kenneth Church
AF121-003      Awarded: 5/2/2012
Title:Direct Printing of 3D Structural Radio Frequency Electronics
Abstract: Historically, fiberglass/composite manufacturing processes were focused on the fabrication of structural/mechanical subcomponents. For UAVs this would include components such as wings, fuselage, and panels. To accommodate electronic functions, appliqués are used with certain antennas. Cavities in wing or fuselage structures are provided to mount traditional electronic assemblies, with access provided via a cover panel. The problem with this configuration is the ability to interconnect between supporting electronics and external antennas and sensors. This is one of the technical objectives the work proposed herein will address. The Sciperio team will address these “packaging” challenges through innovative integration of composite-based additive manufacturing and direct printing, a process which is referred to as Direct Print Additive Manufacturing (DPAM). DPAM will both support the ability to co- process a multifunctional wing and serve as a post process in providing added functionality to legacy systems. The technology will be demonstrated through the fabrication of a MEMS based phase shifter which, through fabrication, will address the challenge areas identified in the AF121-003 solicitation. BENEFIT: Size, weight, and power (SWaP) are key benefits derived from the packaging technology developed under this SBIR. SWaP can certainly be applied to virtually all mobile platform, whether military or commercial. Coupled with the drag reduction benefits in embedding the RF electronics and sensors, two key application areas come to mind. First, space system like satellites and satellite delivery systems would have direct benefit of SWaP and drag reduction. Space encompasses both military mission needs and the country’s new commercial space initiatives. Space habitat systems would also be a beneficiary of the structural electronics capability, considering one of the largest challenges to these systems is that they are pressure vessels and ingress/egress are significant challenges. These same attributes can also be applied to underwater systems (habitat and mobile systems). These systems also have pressure issues; space equals vacuum, underwater equals water pressure. Underwater systems support military missions, homeland security, environmental research, and oil exploration. The consumer electronic industry generates billions of dollars in revenue annually, and this technology will revolutionize next generation products. The critical component of manufacturing RF electronics in any structure will enable the future of smart phones, tablets, and other wireless products. At the completion of Phase II, Sciperio will deliver a specified product to Raytheon and will also establish processes to specifically address wireless electronic structures.

Dragonfly Pictures, Inc.
PO Box 202 West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 521-6115
Basudeb Das
AF121-004      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:Intelligent Course of Action (ICOA) Generation for Air Vehicle Self-Defense
Abstract: We propose to research a real-time tool for Planning of Intelligent Course of Action with Learning (PICAL). PICAL will reason over the available resources, available maneuvers, current threats and potential future threats and will generate a course of actions to maximize the chances of mission success. This course of actions can then be presented to the pilot for approval and modifications if necessary. The challenges in building PICAL robustly are: (a) to be able to plan in real-time while reasoning over a large number of relevant factors and a large set of possible actions; and (b) to be able to predict in advance what resources (e.g., ammunition) the remaining portion of the mission will require. To address the first challenge, we build upon our recently developed Anytime D* planning algorithm – the first version of A* graph search that is both anytime and incremental. We will also build upon our recently developed concept of time-bounded graph construction designed specifically for planning with a large number of relevant factors in real-time. To address the second challenge, we propose to learn the desired level of remaining resources as a function of the mission type and environment and use it in the optimization process. BENEFIT: There are many reasons why a pilot cannot be expected to optimize manually in real-time the use of available weapons, counter measures and possible maneuvers in order to maximize the chances of mission success. First, people are generally not very good in searching for close-to-optimal strategies. Second, it is even harder to perform this optimization in real- time, and especially under attack. Third, people are not very good at estimating and manipulating the uncertainties which are inherent in missions that involve imperfect knowledge of threats and their capabilities. Unlike humans, computers are much better in dealing with all of these challenges. They are used abundantly to search for optimal and close-to-optimal solutions. Their performance is independent of whether the pilot is distracted. And finally, they are much better in numeric optimization under uncertainty. We therefore propose to build a real-time tool for Planning of Intelligent Course of Action with Learning (PICAL). For bomber pilots, PICAL will serve to conserve countermeasures to ensure that unique capability is not exhausted when alternative and more plentiful tactics could be used against threats. For general aviation pilots, PICAL will serve as training and/or a game. PICAL and its variants will serve the growing demand for Apps in the robotics, ipad, gaming, simulation, and artificial intelligence markets. For unmanned aircraft systems, PICAL already serves as the software engine for DPI’s family of highly autonomous unmanned aircraft systems for multiple military and commercial users.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Rob Smith
AF121-004      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:Intelligent Course of Action Learning System (iCOALS)
Abstract: SSCI proposes to create an Intelligent Course of Action Learning System (iCOALS), building on extensive past experience in learning advanced fighter combat maneuvers from simulation. By learning from repeated simulation, robust strategies can be constructed that allocate a complete action repertoire (including the mission-specific, limited range of weapons, countermeasures, associated maneuvers, etc.). By utilizing SSCI’s unique genetics-based machine learning techniques, these strategies take the form of rule sets, which can then be used for real-time reaction to evolving threats during mission execution. By evolving against a range of simulated mission conditions, the resulting rule sets will be robust against a corresponding range of IADS behaviors. This robustness can be further advanced by two-sided learning in the simulation, where the IADS also evolves strategy rule sets. iCOALS will encode strategies as rule sets that are highly human-readable. This will enhance the ability for human intervention in a semi-autonomous execution mode. iCOALS will also draw on recent advances in the genetics-based machine learning strategies utilized in the original fighter combat. These advances draw on information theory, and have demonstrated world-best performance on complex learning problems, while decreasing rule set size, improving accuracy, and improving human readability of resulting rule sets. BENEFIT: iCOALS can employ faster-than-real-time offline simulations with perturbations and realistic constraints to formulate a package of rules and parameters that react in real time to varying threats. Numerous threat tracks can be used in simulation to form a robust strategy that will react to different tracks in real time.The iCOALS action repertoire will include all these, and the simulation basis will insure they are evaluated in a vehicle-realizable context, including sequencing. A pre-planned route will form the fundamental constraint in the simulation from which iCOALS learns. Maneuvers must explicitly conform to this, and all other vehicle constraints. Allocation of limited resources is implicit in the learning of iCOALS strategies. By introducing different mission parameters and models into the iCOALS simulation, the system immediately adapts a strategy to that particular mission. iCOALS directly provides a “strength” for each rule, for real-time indication of threat priority. iCOALS basis in simulation and heuristic learning means that extensive computational models are not necessary. The human-understandability of iCOALS rule sets will facilitate user interaction for semi- automatic plan execution.

Gener8, Inc
535 Del Rey Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 940-9898
William K. Bischel
AF121-008      Awarded: 6/19/2012
Title:Satellite Quantum Key Distribution System
Abstract: We propose a novel new architecture for a quantum communications laser transmitter that is designed for free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) between a LEO satellite and a ground based system. The transmitter will operate at 778 nm, a wavelength that has previously been analyzed to be the optimum combination of atmosphere transition and detection efficiency by Si:APD detectors. Hybrid integration will be used to design and fabricate a compact, rugged, and power efficient module that can meet all of the demanding environment requirements for space based optical components. BENEFIT: Quantum key distribution (QKD) using polarization modulation with decoy states has increasing interest in the commercial marketplace as a method to enable secure encrypted data transfer. There are already three start up companies addressing this area at 1550 nm for fiber optic system. The proposed quantum communications laser will open new markets for free space QKD as well as continue to develop the planar waveguide hybrid integration technology that can be applied to many different applications that require the development of advanced optical components.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
David R. Scherer
AF121-008      Awarded: 6/15/2012
Title:Satellite Quantum Communication Using Narrow-Linewidth Atomic Line Filters
Abstract: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a free-space quantum key distribution link based on a narrow-linewidth atomic line filter in the receiver station. The improved spectral filtering of the atomic filter will improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the quantum communication link by increased solar background rejection, enabling both day and nighttime operation of a long-distance free-space quantum key distribution link between a satellite and an Earth-based ground station. In the Phase I program, PSI will develop and characterize the filter throughput and bandwidth under representative operational conditions. The outcome of the proposed work will be a characterization of the performance improvements of a quantum communication link based on a narrow-linewidth atomic line filter in the receiver. In the Phase II program, PSI will develop a portable transmitter and receiver module and characterize a free-space quantum key distribution link. BENEFIT: Quantum communication promises an unconditionally secure method for information transfer. Military, financial, medical, and other institutions with sensitive data will benefit from practical improvements to quantum communication links.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 781-7416
Dave Pechner
AF121-008      Awarded: 6/4/2012
Title:Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution
Abstract: The secure transmission of digital information is of extreme importance for military and commercial applications. The need for protecting information from hostile eavesdroppers has motivated the search for novel security schemes. A Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) approach promises to provide a final solution to the problem by insuring unconditional security based upon the laws of quantum mechanics. Numerous experiments demonstrating QKD have been conducted in both fiber and free space configurations. While the performance of these systems in terms of key rates and distance is below that seen in classical transmission of information, the security promised by QKD makes it an enticing technology. The last frontier for QKD is satellite to ground applications, where the need is great to have unconditionally secure method for communications. To address this potential, SA Photonics proposes to develop the Sphinx QKD system for ground-LEO applications. The Sphinx system will provide robust, high performance key distribution with increased secure key rates by employing the following techniques: Innovative DSS single-photon APD architecture; Polarization-based BB84 protocol and Low loss optical and fiber-optic components BENEFIT: SA Photonics will use our DSS architecture and polarization-based BB84 protocol to develop a high secure key rate and robust ground-LEO QKD system. There are multiple benefits to the Air Force: Low development cost; Proven polarization-based BB84 protocol; Improved secure key rates; Rugged and reliable; Low unit cost

Go Green Termite Inc., dba Bay Area Termite
6423 Poppyfield St
Gilroy, CA 95020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 337-1694
Mark Weeks
AF121-009      Awarded: 7/9/2012
Title:Uncued Faint Object Detection in LEO and GEO
Abstract: Novel LEO Search Approach: The proposed work will examine the utility and performance of a novel approach to uncued detection of faint objects in Low Earth Orbit. Our approach concentrates on the fundamental aspects of radiometry and how it impacts the detection problem. Rather than exotic computation algorithms, we have chosen to concentrate on collecting more useable photons, and making better use of the photons collected. We anticipate the approach will eventually scale to achieve 14th visual magnitude and be compatible with wide field of view collection strategies. The benefits of our technical approach are simple. We are proposing techniques that will allow the collection of more useful photons than competing approaches, and our optical architecture and processing approach will make more use of the photons collected. The benefits are obvious, uncued detection of fainter objects than competing approaches. BENEFIT: Through Phase 1 and potential Phase 2 efforts we intent to commercialize the results and ultimately build and market products to the civilian amateur and professional astronomical communities.

Pacific Defense Solutions, LLC
1300 N. Holopono St Suite 116
Kihei, HI 96753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 268-3793
Steven M. Long
AF121-009      Awarded: 6/26/2012
Title:Uncued Faint Object Detection in LEO and GEO
Abstract: This research plans to use existing MSSS sensors to investigate methods to detect and track faint objects (greater than or equal to 14th visual magnitude) in any orbit around the Earth using ground-based electro-optics sensors, without prior knowledge of the object's orbit. The basic technique is to image part of the sky with a wide field-of-view detector. Processing algorithms will be developed to detect objects in earth orbit as they pass through the image. Slow moving objects will appear as a short streaks or points in successive image frames. Faster objects my pass completely through a single frame leaving only a streak. An initial estimate of the orbit will be made from these images. Methods to increase the accuracy of this initial estimate will be studied. Possible methods include: tasking an agile telescope or looking for the track in another, nearby staring sensor. BENEFIT: PDS is leveraging their experience on developing operational dim object detection algorithms for wide field-of-view (WFOV) optical system, such as Pan-STARRS and the Air Force's Space-based Space Surveillance (SBSS) system. PDS's proposed innovative processing algorithms for dim object detection will benefit USSTRATCOM's Space Surveillance mission by increasing the awareness of the space volume with the capability of providing initial orbit determination for follow-on tracking of previously uncorrelated objects.

Emergent Space Technologies, Inc
6411 Ivy Lane Suite 303
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 656-9035
David Gaylor
AF121-010      Awarded: 6/15/2012
Title:Feature Identification from Unresolved Electro-optical Data
Abstract: As the number of objects in orbit about the Earth and the capabilities of satellites increase, it becomes more difficult to obtain true space situational awareness (SSA). In many cases, the small size or distance of these resident space objects (RSOs) further complicate this problem because it is beyond the capability of ground-based electro-optical sensors to resolve them. For that reason, novel ways to use time-resolved radiometric, photometric, and polarimetric measurements to estimate relevant characteristics of these RSOs are vital to SSA and protecting our assets in space. To that end, Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. and the University of Texas at Austin propose using Hierarchical Mixtures of Experts (HMEs) to process electro-optical measurements, including apparent magnitude, declination, and right ascension, in order to estimate the size, shape, configuration, attitude, angular velocity, and reflectivity of resident space objects. BENEFIT: Our goal is to increase the utility of unresolved electro-optical measurement data in estimating important characteristics of RSOs. Using the models and algorithms developed in Phase 1, we can estimate the size, shape, configuration, attitude, angular velocity, and attitude of an RSO. This improves SSA because the function and intent of an RSO is more easily inferred when these estimates are available. In Phase 2 we will develop and validate an operational prototype of our system and demonstrate it in the AFRL JMS Test Bed. A validated and tested feature identification system could be used not only by the JMS but by any commercial or government organization that uses optical observations of space objects to estimate their attitude or material properties. The HME could have commercial applications for collaborative GPS tracking applications in which multiple, distributed GPS sensors are operating in degraded environments. The HME may also provide an ability to accomplish integrity monitoring of GPS satellite systems for applications that are life critical and require the highest levels of navigation accuracy, such as in automated precision landing systems. This technology is also applicable to medical imaging, meteorology, and homeland security applications.

Pacific Defense Solutions, LLC
1300 N. Holopono St Suite 116
Kihei, HI 96753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 268-0985
Bobby Hunt
AF121-010      Awarded: 7/5/2012
Title:Feature Identification from Unresolved Electro-optical Data
Abstract: Space situational awareness is often limited by the ability of sensors to produce resolved data on space objects. Large objects cannot be resolved with small low-cost telescopes; objects in geo-synchronous orbit are too remote to be resolved. The best hope of ending these limitations is to make it possible to determine important features of space objects from unresolved data, typically the temporal light curves that are produced by measuring only the integrated brightness of the space object as it passes overhead a sensor on the ground. Both supervised processing (i.e., pattern classification) and unsupervised processing (i.e., Kalman filter) of light curve data have shown success in extracting space object features. In this proposal we set forth a system that combines the merits of both supervised and unsupervised processing to more fully automate the exploitation of unresolved space object temporal light curve data. BENEFIT: The successful results of this project will offer Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data from low-cost deployable telescopes that can travel to the world-wide locations where USA military assets operate and can benefit from the immediate response of the simpler SSA systems offered by this technology. The Potential Commercial Applications of this project extend to the construction and delivery, maintenance and upgrade of such worldwide assets, including delivery of workstations and full SSA packages, as well as cross-over applications in areas such as autonomous navigation.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Richard A Hutchin
AF121-011      Awarded: 7/5/2012
Title:Interferometric Tracker for Anytime Detection and Tracking of GEO and GTO Objects
Abstract: Detection and precision tracking of objects in space is critical to space situational awareness and response. This task is routinely carried out at night with ground-based electro-optical telescopes around the world. However, this capability needs to be extended to cover all times of day to detect and quantify less predictable spacecraft maneuvers and to enable effective search for new, lost or maneuvering vehicles and worldwide coverage of daytime space launches. An affordable, portable system would offer more flexibility and cost effectiveness. Optical Physics Company (OPC) is proposing a detection technique based on its proven interferometric tracker, resulting in satellite detection capability very close to the fundamental SNR limit. This type of tracker has proven accuracy of 50 nanoradians (3 sigma) leading to a track accuracy better than 1 microradian and 1 nanorad/sec for GEO objects with visual magnitude 15 during the day. A 50 cm aperture is planned which facilitates cost-effective and portable deployment options. Phase I will include a daytime track test of LEO objects using an available NIR tracker built for the Navy. During Phase II OPC will build a prototype of the GEO sensor and test it against GEO satellites at MSSS using the 1.6 m telescope available at that facility. BENEFIT: Space situational awareness (SSA) is an increasing priority in a complex space environment. The sensor developed here can be easily and cost-effectively mass produced for deployment around the globe. This will substantially increase our ability to detect and track new launches or follow maneuvering vehicles on orbit. This same technology can be easily scaled to detection and track of LEO objects during the day and terminator conditions as well as nighttime GEO detection and track down to visual magnitude 20 under full moon conditions. SSA from space represents an additional application without any sky background – just star clutter. Compact and high performance trackers in space can use the same technology base to provide detailed mapping of debris fields. Since all launches and nations will benefit from mapping the debris field, this sensor network might reasonably become an international project. OPC has already demonstrated success with transitioning technologies developed under SBIR funding to ongoing research and acquisition programs. In particular, OPC has become a preferred supplier of deformable mirrors for high energy lasers. In case of the interferometric tracker, there are multiple avenues for technology transition. Besides tracking dim objects of interest, the interferometric tracker can also be deployed in high

Pacific Defense Solutions, LLC
1300 N. Holopono St Suite 116
Kihei, HI 96753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 268-3793
Steven Long
AF121-011      Awarded: 7/5/2012
Title:Daytime Detection and Tracking of Objects in a Geosynchronous or Geo-transfer Orbit
Abstract: In this research PDS plans to use existing telescopes and sensors at MSSS with minor modifications to detect and track Geosynchronous or Geo-transfer vehicles during daylight. The main obstacle to viewing satellites in daylight is the bright sky foreground. The bright foreground problem has been solved in the field of LWIR astronomy where the foreground signal is due to thermal self-emission from the atmosphere and from the telescope’s optics. LWIR astronomers use short integration times to avoid saturation, co-addition of image frames to reduce photon noise and chopping and nodding to eliminate the background and reduce calibration errors. We plan to use these same techniques with minor modification to image dim satellites in the daytime. BENEFIT: Maintaining line-of-site custody of newly launched objects in a GEO Transfer Orbit (GTO) and then inserted into GEO orbit and accurately tracking the position of that object to determine its orbital path including maneuvers or change detection is a critical objective of USSTRATCOM's Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-Space) mission for space surveillance. PDS will utilize their past R&D experience on developing Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) optical sensors and leverage existing analytical tools for daytime modeling and simulation to design an innovative, low-cost daytime deep-space object detection and tracking solution that can be demonstrated at MSSS. PDS proposes a low cost design solution through algorithm implementation and innovative collection techniques using existing MSSS assets and infrastructure.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Rainer Dressler
AF121-012      Awarded: 5/30/2012
Title:Post-Maneuver Orbit Determination from Multi-Sensor Analysis of Plumes (PODMAP)
Abstract: Spectral Sciences, Inc., and subcontractor Pacific Defense Solutions (PDS), LLC propose a Post-Maneuver Orbit Determination from Multi-Sensor Analysis of Plumes (PODMAP) system, consisting of a thrust vector inversion algorithm that produces post-maneuver orbital elements from wide field of view plume imagery and plume photometry. The Phase I effort focuses on post-maneuver orbit determination of a GEO insertion burn using a solid rocket motor (SRM). A unique empirical SRM plume model is validated with existing field data of SRM insertion burns, and integrated in scene generation software, to produce a synthetic dataset to train the orbit determination algorithm. Image processing will be developed that extracts projected thrust vector, delta-v, and total impulse from the image data from which a new orbit and the space vehicle mass can be estimated. An innovative multi-sensor concept is proposed that extracts the three dimensional thrust vector and delta-v for higher accuracy orbit determination. A Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation (MMAE) data fusion approach is proposed to further refine the thrust vector estimates. The effort combines the SSI expertise in plume signatures, image processing, and remote sensing with the precision orbit determination, data fusion, and space sensing expertise of PDS. BENEFIT: A successful PODMAP system will generate post-maneuver orbital elements of newly inserted spacecraft in GEO in near real time. This will provide early warning of nefarious intentions to military satellite operators, and can generate collision avoidance warnings to all GEO satellite operators for the case of a failed insertion, for example due to an aborted burn. A successful Phase I project will result in a quantitative assessment of the limiting accuracy of a fast post-maneuver orbit determination algorithm, PODMAP, for SRM GEO insertions using existing SSN and AF research sensors. A successful algorithm in conjunction with effective sensing will determine within seconds after the maneuver what the targeted GEO resident position is, and/or whether it may present a collision hazard to US or other assets.

CBRITE Inc
421 Pine Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 722-1129
Chan-Long Shieh
AF121-016      Awarded: 6/30/2012
Title:Curved Flat Panel Microdisplay (CFPM)
Abstract: This proposal is to develop a curved flat panel microdisplay for the purpose of simplifying optics and reducing the weight of the optical system in near eye head-mounted systems, 3D and other projection designs. The curved image generation is achieved by fabricating AMOLED directly on the desired curve surface. The active matrix pixel electronics is implemented by metal oxide thin film transistor technology (MOTFT). The lithography for TFT fabrication is direct laser writing on curved surfaces. The metal oxide is deposited by sputtering which can be adapted to curved surface easily. Top emitting OLED will be used to improve the aperture ratio for AMOLED. In order to achieve small pixel size (less than 50 microns initially, with the final goal of less than 20 microns); the organic light generating layer will not be patterned. In Phase I, only the feasibility of white AMOLED on curved surface will be demonstrated. High pixel count AMOLED on curved surface and full color scheme using a single color OLED will be demonstrated in Phase II. BENEFIT: We anticipate that the proposed work will have an immediate impact on military and commercial applications. The curved display with spherical emission plane will revolutionize display devices with large FOV and with low weight and size. In addition to military applications, such a device will also find broad applications in next generation automobiles and portable electronics including mini-projectors.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Wayne Thornton
AF121-017      Awarded: 7/13/2012
Title:Maintenance Training based on an Adaptive Game-Based Environment using a Pedagogic Interpretation Engine (MAGPIE)
Abstract: Although Partial Task Trainers PTTs have been shown to have a cost savings of 60 percent over training on actual systems, they routinely cost the government in manpower, maintenance, and upgrades. Furthermore, PTTs are often designed for general use, failing to address the individual needs of maintenance personnel. Game-based training can provide a powerful, personalized approach to addressing individual training needs, while motivating participation. However, without accessible development and adaptation tools, updates to game engines can remain costly. The USAF needs more cost-effective and efficient game- based training tools to support maintenance training. To harness the full power of game- based training for maintenance proficiency, we will design and demonstrate Maintenance Training based on an Adaptive Game-Based Environment using a Pedagogic Interpretation Engine (MAGPIE). MAGPIE dynamically adapts both the scenario and the mechanics of the game to maximize training transfer based on the trainee’s performance, instructional design theory, and motivation theory. MAGPIE will contain four primary components: (1) a skill and motivation assessment model development tool, with a collection of template models for maintenance training; (2) a real-time scenario authoring tool; (3) a game development environment with template game constructs for maintenance; and (4) an agent-based game adaptation engine. BENEFIT: We will initially target transitioning MAGPIE technology to F/A-18 Immersive Virtual Environment Maintenance Trainer which was built using GLStudio® products. We will also explore transition with Government agencies that train their personnel using computer- controlled immersive scenarios (e.g., air traffic controllers, emergency responders, medical simulators) by pursuing licensing arrangements with producers of similar or existing training systems for these domains. Finally, we will also target opportunities in the multi- billion dollar computer game industry, and augment our own commercial product, AgentWorks™.

Sonalysts, Inc.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3902
Robert Kurzawa
AF121-017      Awarded: 7/13/2012
Title:Adaptive Gaming and Training Environment for Maintenance Operations
Abstract: Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to provide the Air Force with a low cost reconfigurable “Standard Adaptive Maintenance” (SAM) trainer that uniquely integrates game engine Artificial Intelligence (AI), real-time scenario generation, Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI), Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs), event management, performance tracking tools and event/goal trigger mechanisms for adapting content based on performance and level of underlying knowledge about the system or subsystem. The objective of Phase I will be the development of a SAM Trainer “Proof-of-Concept” that will demonstrate the feasibility of adapting commercial game technology to support adaptive training, as well as the codification of technical specifications based on Sonalysts’ CMMI Level 3 requirements and design phases. The Sonalysts research project team has pertinent experience in military operations, commercial gaming, advanced training, and IETM technologies. This research project will provide the U.S. Air Force with a new Continuous Learning capability that closes the current gap between the instructional adaptability and fidelity of current maintenance training systems and the complex demands of learning how to troubleshoot and maintain modern aircraft systems and subsystems. BENEFIT: This research project will provide Air Force with a new, lower cost, adaptive, standard trainer capability providing Air Force with the value of: • A reduction in development, delivery, and sustainment costs as a result of the use of a “standard,” reconfigurable training platform. • Improved underlying student and expert modeling approach to improve the adaptive context for learning – without the development of a full intelligent tutor – with the instantiation of learning adaptation based on game AI and real-time authoring. • A reduction in time/overhead spent developing physical representations of equipment through the use of common and mission-specific libraries. • The ability to leverage IMI and IETMs within a game engine framework. The ability to Reduce Total Ownership Costs (R-TOCs) in this fashion will demonstrate a direct benefit to other Air Force and DoD agencies.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Mike Browne
AF121-018      Awarded: 7/30/2012
Title:Color symbology in helmet mounted visors and heads up displays
Abstract: Color coding of symbology can improve operator performance and reduce workload by reducing display clutter and aiding visual search. Color coding stores indicators (fuel, weapons, chaff/flares) allows pilots to know status with a quick glance, without having to read the total number of units. SA Photonics proposes researching color sets that are resistant to being washed out by the color of the out the window (OTW) environment, be it a blue sky, desert scenery or setting sun. When the display is viewed against imager from a night vision goggle, the displayed color symbology must not be excessively skewed by the green of the night vision goggle. This color set must not conflict with cultural stereotypes, military displays, and especially other cockpit displays. The SA Photonics team will leverage its more than 25 years in research into color desaturation by high ambient environments and night vision goggles. We will demonstrate our color sets on a monitor, an HMD and a HUD with varying backgrounds and survey observers for subjective comments on the color set performance, setting the stage for a formal experiment in a Phase II effort. BENEFIT: The benefits of a color set that does not wash out due to exposure to high ambient environments or NVG imagery are: • Increased performance and situational awareness due to preservation of color cues • Uniform visibility across multiple backgrounds including blue skies and oceans, red sunsets, brown desert scenery and green vegetation

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Steve Savoy
AF121-019      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Handheld tactical multi-band advanced FPA system
Abstract: Nanohmics Inc., working in collaboration with Professor Gennady Shvets at the University of Texas at Austin, proposes to develop a handheld tactical imaging system for tunable band imaging based on a sensor array that can be fabricated directly on silicon, but uses a novel detection method that enables high selectivity/sensitivity over a broad spectral range – from ultraviolet to long wave IR. The device will be designed for lightweight, low-power imaging applications such as low visibility environments (e.g. dust clouds, fog, etc.). BENEFIT: The proposed device will provide benefits in the following applications: Security cameras for target identification Industrial process monitoring Feature inspection such as printed circuit board failure analysis Airport security and screening Chemical and biological advanced warning Stealth barcode analysis

Tanner Research, Inc.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9700
Sangwoo Kim
AF121-019      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:Multi-Color Uncooled FPA in Silicon
Abstract: Several airborne and ground-based applications require wide spectral imaging (spanning visible to LWIR) with a single uncooled FPA imager with performance metrics comparable to those provided by image intensifiers or cooled thermal imagers. A single-chip multispectral FPA is desired so that a pilot may electrically switch between the available bands, enhancing target discovery, while maintaining original sight and orientation information. It is also desired that the FPA be lightweight so that the camera can be integrated with pilot’s visor system. Unfortunately, existing technologies (ex. silicon FPA, intensifier tubes, thermal imagers, and InGaAs photodiodes) either have limited spectral response or lack spectral selectivity (thus require filters). Furthermore, the traditional bolometer trade space precludes the development of uncooled high speed and low noise bolometer devices at room temperature. Tanner Research is proposing to leverage recent developments in nanophotonics to circumvent the traditional spectral limitations and bolometer trade spaces. We propose the use of our demonstrated nanobolometer concept, and further develop it into a low noise, high- speed, multispectral, uncooled, silicon-based FPA imager in Phase II. In Phase I, we will provide proof of concept demonstrations in single devices that demonstrate the scalability of our technology across multiple detection bands. BENEFIT: Multi-color uncooled FPA in silicon will enable several surveillance applications from UAV and other lightweight platforms. Low-cost, wide-and-selective spectral response can enable advanced targeting munitions or countermeasures. Lightweight, head-mounted imager system could also benefit special operating forces, first-responders, and search-and-rescue personnel.

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
George Williams
AF121-019      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Wide Spectral Response Nanocrystal-Sensitized Focal Plane Array
Abstract: The printed nanocrystal detector technology will enable low cost, wide-spectral-response imagers. Phase I will use high volume synthesis methods where nanocrystal films will be fabricated and characterized. Solution processing allows nanocrystal films to be deposited or printed directly onto ROICs, so that high resolution (e.g. < 10 µm pitch) focal planes can be made at low cost, without the need for indium bump bonding. To demonstrate this capability, candidate visible, NIR, SWIR, and MWIR nanocrystal films will be printed directly onto large format, small pixel pitch readout integrated circuits (ROICs) and their performance demonstrated and characterized. In Phase II, fully-functional, wide spectral response, focal plane arrays will be fabricated and their performance characterized in field tests. BENEFIT: Applications include ground/air mission applications that require day/night imaging of scenes, active/passive imagers using continuous wave/pulsed sources in spectral bandwidths encompassing visible spectrum through long-wave IR, as well as aides for first- responder and search-and-rescue.

Design Interactive, Inc.
1221 E. Broadway, Suite 110
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 706-0977
Meredith Carroll
AF121-020      Awarded: 7/13/2012
Title:Development of the d-THREE Electronic Toolkit (d3ET)
Abstract: An opportunity exists to develop methodologies and tools to objectively assess the overall training effectiveness of a simulation and pinpoint specific system characteristics such as fidelity and training strategy support (e.g., measurement technology, feedback methods, etc.) which contribute to the training effectiveness or lack thereof. To address this, Design Interactive (DI) proposes to develop the d-THREE Electronic Toolkit (d3ET), a Training Effectiveness Evaluation (TEE) software support tool which allows users to: 1) determine how well existing simulators are addressing training objectives, 2) diagnose specific system characteristics (e.g., fidelity specifications, training strategy support) which impact training effectiveness, 3) develop recommendations for system certification (e.g., maintain, improve or decertify system), and 4) compare training effectiveness of different systems to determine the most cost effective system to train target objectives. The d3ET achieves this utilizing a hierarchical approach that focuses on performance-outcome requirements and has three levels of inquiry that lead to a comprehensive assessment of a system’s training effectiveness, including Cue Fidelity Evaluation, Training Performance Evaluation and Training Transfer Evaluation. The d3ET will facilitate a less resource intensive and more objective evaluation of training systems which is flexible enough to be performed anytime in the training system life cycle (design to deployment). BENEFIT: The d3ET software support tool has the potential to lead to significant benefits with respect to cost, schedule and performance. Specifically, d3ET has the potential to reduce costs by reducing the resources necessary to conduct a TEE and reducing training system costs by identifying most cost effective training system(s) to meet training objectives. d3ET has the potential to reduce schedule impacts by reducing the time it takes to conduct a TEE and the decision time for training system certification by providing objective and quantifiable metrics of training effectiveness. Finally, d3ET has the potential to improve performance through an increase in Training and Readiness Levels by increasing the quality of training simulators and thus opportunities for learning to occur while decreasing training time by eliminating simulation training which does not lead to significant gains in transfer performance.

Lumir Research Institute, Inc.
301 East Fairmont Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 773-5241
Lisa Holt
AF121-020      Awarded: 7/23/2012
Title:Performance-Based Simulation Certification (SIMCERT) System
Abstract: Lumir proposes to develop Sim MD, a multi-dimensional simulation certification system to easily assess training capabilities of LVC or DMO combat mission training and rehearsal systems. Sim MD will provide ready access to valuable training capability information without risk of technical, methodological or political challenges. At the core of Sim MD are ratings of training capabilities and diagnostic documentation of system deficiencies (a method that has been favorably received by ACC). Additional layers of supporting data will be collected with minimal time commitments from operational units. Sim MD will automate much of the data collection and make data readily accessible to decision-makers in the form of interactive reports that will facilitate data-driven decisions. Sim MD will put information directly into the hands of practitioners who make decisions about simulator certification and needed engineering modifications to maximize return on investment in order create an efficient and effective training environment. The Sim MD solution has a high probability for success. Given Lumir’s proven expertise in the areas of fidelity assessment and performance measurement. Lumir is confident that at the completion of Phase I, Sim MD will be the most complete, least risky solution available for immediate use by the US Air Force. BENEFIT: The primary result of the Phase I effort will be a fully-functional Sim MD prototype, a multi- dimensional simulation certification system to easily assess the training capabilities of LVC or DMO combat mission training and rehearsal systems. The ultimate Phase II solution will provide the following innovative capabilities: • Automated collection of core training capability and deficiency data via a secure, web-based survey • Automated collection of supporting mission-based assessments of simulator realism and proficiency via a secure, web-based survey • Automated collection of supporting objective profile information from the simulator network • Automated collection of supporting objective performance data from PETS • Automated interactive reporting functions including: o A high-level summary of capability data o Summaries of relevant supporting data with options for deeper exploration o Automated alerts to call attention to inconsistent supporting data o Data-driven, event-based certification recommendations (e.g., for RAP events, MEC experiences, EPs, instruments and mission types) Sim MD, with its vast, multi-dimensional dataset, will provide unprecedented research power for the US Air Force. Sim MD will enable a large variety of operational field studies, including objective studies of the effects of trade-offs with changes in simulator and live-fly training hours, studies of the optimal mix for LVC training, skill retention studies, transfer of

Battlespace Simulations, Inc
26525 Harmony Hills
San Antonio, TX 78258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 792-9556
J. Shane Carter
AF121-022      Awarded: 7/9/2012
Title:Debrief and After-Action Review Technologies for Electronic Warfare Simulation and Training
Abstract: Recent combat operations have not required significant traditional Electronic Warfare (EW) operations. This, coupled with the rapidly developing capabilities of some advanced threats, could leave our forces with atrophied EW skills - underprepared to achieve our national objectives. A quick review of many of our nation’s contingency operational plans demonstrates Electronic Warfare will be a critical aspect of potential future conflicts. EW training is crucial to military operations and the EW debrief is one of the most effective means to evaluate the effectiveness of our training. Current EW debrief tools often fall short in accuracy, completeness, applicability and most importantly, availability. While there are opportunities to asses actual employment results, much of the EW assessment from an exercise is a mix of data analysis and conjecture. Modeling and simulation offers a much more quantitative assessment of EW employment. This research will provide a systematic approach to answering a wide array of questions about EW effects while capitalizing on the valuable lessons learned and retaining known mechanisms from familiar and proven EW assessments. This research will evaluate data collection, analysis, and presentation methods to develop next generation capabilities to further EW expertise. BENEFIT: The pervasive need for effective EW debrief and after-action review tools has persistently existed throughout the DoD for many years. This research will provide a blueprint for advanced EW After Action Review which will offer the warfighter an unprecedented debrief capability that spans the realm of simulated to live EW employment. Throughout the world, where our forces do not have the opportunity to effectively evaluate EW training against advanced threat systems, this research will provide invaluable insight to develop capabilities to overcome shortfalls EW training. The results of this research will be applicable anywhere EW instruction takes place, whether in the U.S., Asia or Europe.

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Michael Painter
AF121-022      Awarded: 7/6/2012
Title:After-action Review and Debrief Intelligent Support (AARDIS)
Abstract: The goal of the After-action Review and Debrief Intelligent Support (AARDIS) project is to successfully develop and deploy advanced electronic warfare (EW) training methods and tools to: (i) reduce the cognitive workload of instructors, (ii) improved training effectiveness, (iii) accelerated improvements in student performance, and (iv) reduced costs. As such, the AARDIS technology is intended to augment and cost-effectively supplement existing high- fidelity AF EW training technology that is both easily configurable and readily adaptable to different platform training needs. BENEFIT: The primary benefits of the AARDIS research include: (i) significant improvement in the quality and effectiveness of training for EW crew member situation awareness, communications, and decision-making; (ii) significant decrease in the time and cost to provide EW training; and (iii) reduced life-cycle cost to support distributed mission operations (DMO) training support.

361 Interactive, LLC
408 Sharts Drive Suite 7
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 743-0361
Michael J McCloskey
AF121-023      Awarded: 7/2/2012
Title:A Cognitive Systems Approach to Supporting Airborne Persistent Surveillance Data Analysis
Abstract: Airborne persistent surveillance capability represents an evolutionary advance in Air Force intelligence analysis capabilities. With broad WAMI coverage areas, analysts can now monitor individuals, groups, and vehicles across space and time, allowing them to more accurately and effectively develop networks and patterns, and provide critical, time-sensitive information to customers. But with these capabilities come significant cognitive challenges. We propose an inherently analyst-centric approach to studying both current and future cognitive demands associated with real- and near-real time Air Force WAMI analysis. To identify current cognitive demands, we will complement our ongoing Blue Devil analyst study with a cognitive protocol specifically targeting the WAMI analysis process. To study future cognitive demands, we will develop and execute a cognitively-based simulation interview protocol, leveraging a 5x5 mile, color WAMI dataset collected specifically for this effort. The simulation will include both existing Air Force analysis tools and novel ones used by our partner, PSS, in their analyses. The simulation will also represent additional likely future Air Force capabilities planned for the next iteration of Blue Devil, and will incorporate simulated customer interactions, and critical cognitive elements. Candidate measures of effectiveness and analyst-aiding technologies will be developed, based on both current and future demands. BENEFIT: This effort represents an unprecedented analysis of both current and envisioned cognitive demands associated with Air Force WAMI analysis. Among the many transition avenues are the 495th EIS (specifically, Blue Devil and Gorgon Stare programs), NGA and DARPA, the Department of Homeland Security, and law enforcement. Any of the myriad government entities that are dealing with emergent airborne persistent surveillance capabilities will benefit from products and effectiveness measures based on cognitively-derived analyst requirements.

Radiance Technologies Inc.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 327-2514
Solomon Gibbs
AF121-023      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Cognitive Measures and Models for Persistent Surveillance
Abstract: Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) is a rapidly developing sensing modality characterized by the collection of Electro-Optical or Infra-Red (EO/IR) images with very large spatial extents. Exploitation of this motion image data is challenging due to the size of the geographic area covered by the sensor collection and the complexity of urban environments where WAMI sensors are typically employed. While WAMI shares attributes of other, well- understood, sensor data such as EO/IR imaging, Full Motion Video, and Ground Moving Target Indicator radar, it is a distinct modality and research is required to understand how it can be best employed. Accordingly, Radiance Technologies, Inc. proposes the development of an Operator Function Model (OFM) to facilitate the understanding of cognitive demands WAMI places on military imagery analysts. The operator function modeling methodology will allow us to target specific functions within in the analysis task and to design cognitive aides that directly address potentially problematic cognitive demands, heuristics, or biases. Our research will consist of three phases: original investigative research and analysis of existing work in analogous systems; development of an operator function model for WAMI analysis; and derivation of measures of effectiveness via expert understanding of human cognition as applied to the OFM. BENEFIT: Initial research and cognitive task analysis studies will directly benefit Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) analysts by identifying cognitive barriers and providing recommendations for overcoming them. Additionally, we anticipate broader applicability of our research in the general fields of information overload; dynamic, time-critical decision making; and trust in automation. These are topics of general interest within the intelligence community, and critical needs for WAMI analysts who have no choice but to rely on automated aides or face the dissolution of their attention in a scene too large and too detailed to fully attend. The knowledge developed as a result of our research will not only benefit the Air Force, but will be available for license to any WAMI data consumer. Our work in reducing the cognitive demands on WAMI analysts is directly relatable to WAMI system vendors. Further, Radiance has a robust software development capability and may choose to directly implement the concepts developed under this effort itself. We will develop a platform-independent solution that will allow us to bring validated human-machine interaction concepts to future experimental and Quick Reaction Capability (QRC) systems, as well as to our initial development environment. This will benefit the warfighter by establishing a higher baseline for analyst effectiveness in using QRC and experimental systems and will benefit system integrators in transitioning systems to fully operational use.

SA Technologies, Inc.
3750 Palladian Village Drive Building 600
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 565-9859
Cheryl Bolstad
AF121-023      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Cognitive Measures and Models for Persistent Surveillance
Abstract: The development of persistent wide area imagery surveillance systems for the Department of Defense is a huge step forwards for the Air Force intelligence capabilities. By providing continuous imagery updates across a broad field of view, these systems are expected to support both faster and more accurate warfighter decision-making. However, the human characteristics of the imagery analyst in terms of decision-making and information processing have not been factored into this equation. Our approach to this data overload and integration issue is to develop analysis techniques that take into consideration the task being performed, the amount of data to be analyzed, the information that needs to be extracted from the data, the required level of performance and the human capabilities to create adaptive analysis tools and techniques. By combining validated approaches of SA information analysis with human information processing theory and measures of performance (including impact of automation) we will create cognitive models that are reflective of the interaction between the ability of the warfighter and the varying task demands. These models can then be used to develop new and innovative guidelines and analysis approaches and techniques. BENEFIT: The TEAMS tools and techniques would be beneficial to organizations that utilize intelligence analysis, such as sensors, satellites and planes to support their operations. Within the military, this includes Tactical Operational Centers and intelligence analysts. Outside the military, potential customers include government organizations that support national security and disaster management, such as Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These organizations and its employees must maintain global SA by continually processing large quantities of data to assess task-relevant aspects of the operational environment. By creating a analysis tool that has as its foundation domain-independent models of information processing, decision making, and automation theory the TEAMS tools and techniques are valid for many different domains.

Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 362-0996
Hulya Demiryont
AF121-025      Awarded: 7/19/2012
Title:Flexible Semi-Conformal Displays for Data Access in Military Field Operations
Abstract: There are critical needs for the development of non-glass, ejection-safe digital display to replace printed paper maps and checklists on pilots’ knees in tactical cockpits and enable a large display to be rolled up for stowage. Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc. (Eclipse) proposes a fast inorganic electrochromic display system manufactured on plastic, as a solution to this need. The Eclipse technology will provide a precious metal-free, soft, thin paper-like flexible display that has a fast color switching rate and is viewable under sunlight, for rapid data display in field operations in air, land or sea. Eclipse flexible displays will support quick data viewing in field operations, night flying or driving conditions, on aircraft windows, rolled up/out as needed, in pilot garments, such as on sleeves, leg pouches or even in goggles. Eclipse currently produces inorganic electrochromics and transparent flexible conductors for a number of applications. The combination of the two materials will allow for rapid implementation and demonstration of pixilated display devices. BENEFIT: The field of flexible display is moving forward with many application and device types. As we have seen in the past with computer and TV displays, many display technologies are very competitive at the prototype level. With flexible displays or ePaper the same is true. At the moment there are many flavors of technology that are looking at the flex display market. Because electrochromics are so low cost, easy to fabricate, and use low power with good memory, they have an opportunity to prevail in applications appropriate to their performance. According to Displaybank (2010), e-paper Display market is expected to show 46.9% annual average growth rate from 260 M$ in 2010 to 2.1 $B in 2015 and 7 B$ by 2020.

Propagation Research Associates
1275 Kennestone Circle Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 384-3413
Jim Stagliano
AF121-026      Awarded: 7/3/2012
Title:High Range Resolution Radar for Flightline Boundary Surveillance
Abstract: Propagation Research Associates, Inc. (PRA) teamed with FLIR (previously ICx) proposes to leverage the work performed under a previous Phase II contract that involved clutter mitigation for ground based ground moving target radars. PRA plans to integrate automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms developed on the previous contract into the R-4400 commercial-off-the-shelf high range resolution radar (HRR) developed by FLIR (ICx). The proposed radar has a range resolution of 0.3 m (1 foot) that will be used to define flightline boundaries for intrusion alert and can detect targets at ranges from 300 m to 4.4 km. In Phase I, PRA proposes to iterate the modifications designed under the previous Phase II contract to improve system coherency, design the modifications to the automatic target recognition algorithms to included targets typically found in flightline operations, design the modifications to the detection and alert software to allow user defined boundaries and access points as well as suppressing alerts on targets within the boundary and based upon direction of travel (targets entering restricted areas will initiate an alert and targets leaving will not). With the automatic target recognition algorithms, the suspected target type will be identified and integrated into the alert notification. BENEFIT: PRA is proposing a modified high range resolution radar system for flightline boundary surveillance that can perform target classification. The completion of Phase I will result in a hardware modification design to currently fielded COTS perimeter surveillance radars providing value added Doppler capabilities for automatic target recognition algorithms. In addition, an iteration on the ATR algorithms introducing target classes associated with targets found on the flightline will provide real-time assessment of the intruder when detected. These hardware and algorithm designs will be ready for implementation in Phase II. For Phase II, PRA proposes a limited production run of the modified hardware circuitry, the implementation of the software modifications, and a field demonstration of the proposed system. In particular, PRA and FLIR will fully integrate the PRA processor in the loop (PIL). Currently the processor resides in an external personal computer mounted on a platform on the rear of the radar trailer. This configuration limits the surveillance region of the modified radar and has required the development and implementation of a “staring mode”, the radar points in a particular direction towards the target and collects data on the target. Integration of the PRA PIL into the embedded processor mounted with the antenna will step the modified system to full market capability. In Phase III, PRA and FLIR will design and implement a hardware and software upgrade option for potential Government and commercial customers that will identify specific boundary regions of interest for intruder identification. PRA believes that the collaboration with FLIR will produce a cost-effective radar that can be fielded in a relatively short time frame and is

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Martin Voshell
AF121-027      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:3D HMD Applications for improving performance and Warfighter Knowledge (3D-HAWK)
Abstract: In a growing number of current and near-future Air Force mission contexts, Head and Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) are providing critical information for pilots and warfighters. The recent availability of stereoscopic HMD technology provides an additional visual dimension to reduce clutter or call attention to time-critical information. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of this technology, we propose to design and demonstrate 3D HMD Applications for improving performance and Warfighter Knowledge (3D-HAWK). Four components characterize our approach. First, we will conduct a holistic analysis with fighter pilots resulting in a breakdown of tasks and perceptual constraints. Second, we will develop guidance and techniques for proof-of-concept displays linking known perceptual mechanisms to appropriate perceptual and cognitive tasks. Third, we will develop a toolkit for the rapid design and evaluation of simulated displays. Fourth, we will create a preliminary evaluation plan that combines perceptual and cognitive perspectives to test the efficacy of design concepts. The resulting information displays developed under the 3D-HAWK approach will reduce the potential for display clutter and allow pilots to efficiently see and effectively understand the complex information provided by the new sensor integration capabilities of the F-35 Mission System environment. BENEFIT: Initially, we will focus on transitioning 3D-HAWK to HMDs under development for the F-35 variants within the U.S. Air Force and other Armed Forces. The underlying information display design principles will also be applicable for guiding effective 3D HMD use in supervising remotely-piloted aircraft as well as augmented display devices for cyber operators. In addition, we see significant promise in the commercial application of novel 3D stereo displays; we therefore plan to transition into specific enhancements to our DRIVE™ visualization toolkit to increase its adaptability and suitability for HMD and cockpit display prototyping in commercial aviation, as well as in the entertainment industry.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Mike Browne
AF121-027      Awarded: 7/30/2012
Title:3D Stereo Binocular Head Mounted Display (HMD) Technology for Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Aircraft and Simulation
Abstract: A method is needed to help declutter the vast amount of information presented to the F-35 pilot and to call his/her attention to important information that may get “lost” among all the other information they are asked to process. One of the channels for conveying/emphasizing information is via stereo symbology. The binocular JSF HMD is the first tactical HMD with the potential to display 3D stereoscopic symbology, but we feel that most future HMDs will be binocular as well. Stereo symbology could help organize visual information and direct operator attention to improve performance and lower workload. Our concepts for stereo HMD symbology include offsetting a warning symbol in depth, modulating this change in depth as a function of time, grouping symbols and information in depth, and guiding the operator in 3D space. Eyestrain is unacceptable in the military cockpit, and any implementation of stereo symbology must demonstrate that this will not occur. SA Photonics has significant expertise in quantifying eyestrain and visual discomfort due to HMD viewing conditions, expertise that won us and our USAF teammates the best paper in the human factors section at the I/ITSEC conference. BENEFIT: We believe the benefits of stereo symbology, if proven effective, are: • Increased pilot situational awareness, with direction to target/friendly/wingman/base illustrated in 3 dimensions • Reduced accidents due to missed warning symbology presented on the HMD • Quicker and safer egress due to better “pathway in the sky” symbology • Reduced disorientation in poor visibility

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Kyle A. Stewart
AF121-028      Awarded: 7/2/2012
Title:Measurement of Interpupillary Distance for Binocular Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs)
Abstract: Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a passive stereo camera imaging system capable of being integrated into a helmet-mounted display (HMD), rapidly and accurately measuring interpupillary distance (IPD), and allowing actuation of the HMD interaxial distance for accurate stereoscopic imaging and individual customization to allow dynamic vergence correction. The proposed product will be compact, lightweight, low-power, and easy to use, enabling a single user with no additional or specialized training to implement; the user may don the HMD and the proposed product will automatically adjust to the user’s IPD without any user responsibility. At the heart of the proposed technical solution to the IPD measurement problem are advanced image processing algorithms capable of feature detection for pupil localization, as well as high-accuracy measurement of surfaces in 3D physical coordinates, based on calibrated stereo-imaging. In Phase I, Toyon proposes algorithm development and implementation, test and evaluation, and system design and analysis to demonstrate feasibility of the technical solution to the IPD measurement problem, as well as design of human factors experimentation to demonstrate solution effectiveness. In planned Phase II efforts, the real-time, compact, lightweight HMD-mounted prototype would be built for human factors experimentation to demonstrate accuracy, fitting time, and user comfort. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this effort will result in a new capability to rapidly, accurately, and automatically measure IPDs for adjustment of HMD stereoscopic imagery. There is the possibility of direct transition of this technology into Air Force and other DoD HMD applications, including the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) helmet and simulated flight trainers. The technology could also be transitioned into use in the larger market of civilian aircraft flight training. There are many other similar applications in vehicle simulation training to which the developed measurement device could be applied with minimal additional non- recurring engineering (NRE) cost, including automotive or tank training simulators. There are a plethora of other fields where stereoscopic helmet displays can be utilized for simulation training or augmented reality purposes, such as remote or robotic surgery or UAV/UGV remote piloting. Medical applications could also benefit from more advanced 3D surface modeling and measurement algorithms, as well as the possibility of using stereoscopic displays for surgical training or utilization in remote medicine applications. Measuring IPD is a standard optometric technique for fitting glasses for those in need of corrective eyewear, and this solution could potentially be transitioned into that market as a standalone device at competitive pricing. Adaptation to some of these new applications might require considerably more development, but the potential return on the investment is substantial.

Clear Creek Applied Technologies, Inc.
3000 Presidential Drive, Suite 185
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 912-5438
Charles Warren
AF121-029      Awarded: 6/28/2012
Title:Network Threat Monitoring, Intrusion Detection, and Alert System for Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) Operations for Space Training
Abstract: Clear Creek Applied Technologies, Inc. will develop the High Performance Intrusion Detection System (HPIDS) to provide threat monitoring, intrusion prevention and detection for LVC operations. HPIDS will utilize a multi-core PC and a specialized high-speed NIC card with firmware to distribute the network packet load to multiple processes. HPIDS will perform deep packet inspection for DIS, HLA and TENA protocol attacks, database logging and user interface functionality. BENEFIT: Intrusion detection and prevention systems have wide commercial, government, and academic utility. In addition to supporting LVC events for the DoD, the HPIDS will be useful to commercial and academic institutions that utilize DIS, HLA and TENA protocols.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Sonny Hoang
AF121-029      Awarded: 7/6/2012
Title:Adaptive Layers Protection for LVC M&S Environment
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for innovative tools to counter network attacks in a live, virtual, and constructive modeling and simulation (LVC M&S) environment, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Adaptive Layer Protection (ALP) system, consisting of distributed agents that reside at the network gateway; continuously monitor network traffic for potential network attacks; and detain the attackers to protect modeling and simulation functions. All agents collaborate with each other to establish a network security common operational picture (COP) for network administrators. The innovation in a novel distributed agent-based framework, layer protection, and hypothesis reasoning enables ALP to detect attacks with evolving dynamics. Therefore, ALP offers scalable implementation and deployment, timely response to adversarial attacks, low false alarm rates, and high-accuracy attack detection, which directly address Air Force requirements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ALP by designing its architecture, developing prototype software, and testing it with a Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)-compliant LVC environment using both simulated and real data. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a full- scale prototype system and demonstrate its performance and effectiveness in a realistic environment. BENEFIT: The proposed ALP system will protect the DoD’s IT systems and strategic and tactical networks against cyberintrusion and exploitation. Other applications of ALP include protection of information systems of government entities at any level such as those of intelligence operations, the Department of Homeland Security, law enforcement, transportation systems, and other critical agencies. Commercial applications of ALP include protection of critical information infrastructure of financial and health care businesses and scientific agencies, and complex global enterprise networks.

Assured Information Security, Inc.
153 Brooks Road
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 336-3306
Eric Thayer
AF121-030      Awarded: 6/28/2012
Title:Agent-Based Objective Performance Measurement Brief/Debrief and After Action Review Suite for Cyber Warfare Training
Abstract: AIS, Inc. proposes the Cyber Battlefield Training and Effectiveness Environment (CBTEE) project to develop a prototype training environment with integrated sensor technology tailored at training cyber warriors in rapidly evolving cyber battlefield. The CBTEE will utilize state of the art hypervisor technology to present users with a scalable and cost efficient virtualized training environment. Integrated sensors within this environment feed data to aggregation and analysis processes which are capable of identifying and scoring user progression towards a mission goal. The system is capable of presenting this material in a clear and concise manner for briefing, debriefing, and after action reporting purposes. Data from exercises is capable of being replayed and referenced at a later time to help optimize and refine the training process over time. BENEFIT: Given the advanced nature of cyber battle, and the presence of cyber attacks throughout every network worldwide, training environments for both offensive and defensive security professionals is becoming a major market. Major corporations responsible for delivering networking equipment, host protection software packages, and network security software conduct regular training exercises on their systems for customers daily. A system such as this can easily be productized as a tool for these organizations or others responsible for training users to augment and evolve their training process and environment.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Steve Brueckner
AF121-030      Awarded: 7/17/2012
Title:WITTS: White Team Training Suite
Abstract: To maintain superiority in the cyber domain, the Air Force is preparing the next generation of cyber warriors. Running trainees through realistic cyber exercises is a highly effective method for preparing warfighters for cyber operations. However, training platforms and cyber missions are numerous, varied, and rapidly-evolving. There is a lack of tools to assess individual and group performance in training exercise events that have the flexibility to work with this wide array of training environments. To improve the effectiveness of cyber exercises, ATC-NY will build the White Team Training Suite (WITTS), a flexible system for objectively monitoring cyber training events and generating briefings, debriefings, and after- action reports for instructors and trainees. WITTS uses agents deployed on an exercise network to collect exercise data, and features interactive dashboards that assist in planning and monitoring exercises, as well as analyzing their results. WITTS includes a number of innovations based on ATC-NY's proprietary remote forensic agent technology and cyber exercise monitoring technology. BENEFIT: WITTS employs a number of innovations in agent technology and monitoring interfaces to deliver an affordable, effective cyber training capability. Its modular agents support a wide variety of cyber platforms and missions, eliminating the need for expensive or inadequate custom-built solutions. WITTS can therefore cost-effectively improve the quality of cyber training events for any enterprise. Organizations from the DoD, government, critical infrastructure, commercial, and academic sectors all rely heavily on information and communications technology, and can all benefit from training their personnel with WITTS.

Perceptronics Solutions, Inc.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 788-4830
Amos Freedy
AF121-031      Awarded: 8/14/2012
Title:Enhancing Decision Making through Adaptive Trustworthiness Cues
Abstract: This proposal is for an Adaptive Trustworthiness Calibration Interface (ATCI) using real- time measurement and cognitive agent modeling. Our objective is to enhance an operator's decision making by providing trust cues so that the perceived trustworthiness matches the actual trustworthiness of the system, thus yielding calibrated trust. There are many issues of trustworthiness in the military, but the most pressing today is trust in intelligent machine systems as the military moves to a more robotic battlefield. The most important current robotic systems are Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and in particular systems of multiple UAVs. We will provide the operator with visualization tools to diagnose the actual trustworthiness of the system by showing the risk and uncertainty of the associated information. We will measure and model the trust of the operator in real-time, and adapt the display so that an operator who wrongly trusts too much is encouraged to trust less and an operator who wrongly mistrusts is encouraged to trust more. We focus on both individual operator’s trust and the transparency of the system. Three innovative elements are central to our approach: Trustworthiness Diagnosis Displays, Quantitative Modeling of Trust Calibration in Cognitive Agents, and Adaptive Trust Cueing and Real-Time Interface Calibration. BENEFIT: Three factors converge to create the need for a military decision-maker to assess the trustworthiness of information in automated systems; these are: uncertainty in data fusion, trust in advanced decision support, and ubiquitous situational awareness. These conditions require a human-machine interface that will enhance an operator’s decision-making, identify uncertainty in underlying information, and calibrate trust adaptively to the operator. The complete ATCI will provide an infrastructure and method for control decisions, with guidance based on both the benefits and costs of allocating resources to further uncertainty reduction, and on the value of specific collection and analysis options in terms of their potential impact on decisions and UAV mission outcomes. To ensure the utility of our solution we will include in Phase I a functional Proof-of-Concept Demonstration based on a relevant and realistic use case involving a single operator coordinating, monitoring, and controlling multiple cross- platform UAVs. Emphasis will be given to the user interface and enhancement of the usability of the integrated system. To achieve this we will conduct human factors and usability analysis of the system functions and user interface. Our approach is supported by an on- going Air Force sponsored SBIR Phase II effort to develop an Adaptive Interface Management System (AIMS) for the USAF Vigilant Spirit Control Station (VSCS).

SA Technologies, Inc.
3750 Palladian Village Drive Building 600
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 565-9859
Debra Jones
AF121-031      Awarded: 6/30/2012
Title:Enhancing Decision Making through Adaptive Trustworthiness Cues
Abstract: Gaining tactical advantage, ensuring safety, and completing missions are the main objectives of military operations. Accomplishing these objectives depends on the ability of military personnel to make quick, effective decisions. Systems must be developed that will provide users with assistance in quickly attributing an appropriate level of trust to individual data points as well as to synthesized data, thereby supporting users in quickly developing an accurate understanding of the situation and in making decisions that effectively support mission goals. This effort will utilize a multi-faceted approach called “Adaptive Calibration of Trust for Automated System Technologies (ACTFAST)” to address this challenge. ACTFAST will be comprised of the following components: (1) a mapping of the key factors of trust to the operator’s information requirements, (2) prototype design concepts for visualizing appropriate levels of trust in information, (3) adaptive interface strategies to aid operators in appropriately calibrating trust, (4) metrics for evaluating the level of human+machine trust, (5) metrics for assessing the effectiveness of the resultant ACTFAST model to enhance decision making, and (6) metrics to assess operator performance given their trust level and the effectiveness of ACTFAST. BENEFIT: Appropriate calibration of trust in system data and system recommendations is critical for efficient, effective decision making. The development of an adaptive GUI for supporting trust calibration across a variety of operational, system, and operator states would be a valuable contribution for any government or commercial organization that relies on automation for performance of critical functions. ACTFAST has commercial potential for any number of complex, operational environments that require operators or analysts to develop and/or evaluate trust as an element of their interaction with automation. Properly calibrated trust in automated systems leads to better situation awareness, which in turn leads to better decision making. Users of all automated systems need accurate and adaptable support for trust in the system and in the data it provides. Users that would benefit from an adaptable trust-support system include unmanned vehicle operators, cybersecurity analysts evaluating attack signatures, oil pipeline control room operators, and a variety of other domains in which the trustworthiness of the automation and the data from it must be assessed as part of developing one’s situation awareness. As such, ACTFAST is expected to appeal to both other government organizations and private sector targets. The majority of the development costs will be covered through the SBIR program, leaving acceptable levels of risk for any costs that must be assumed to modify and demonstrate the capability of ACTFAST in a new domain.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4815
Andrezj Przekwas
AF121-032      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Fast, Anatomy and Physiology Based Computational Tool for RF-Induced Thermal Response
Abstract: Military and industrial personnel are often exposed to RF electromagnetic energy which can cause thermal and electrokinetic biological effects. To understand these effects, AFRL is using computational tools to predict RF energy deposition and thermal effects in humans. Unfortunately, high resolution thermal simulations are computationally very expensive. The goal of this project is to develop fast anatomy- and physiology-based computational tools for predicting whole-body and localized thermal response of tissue due to RF exposure. We will develop a direct interface between AFRL anatomical models and electromagnetic solvers and CFDRC thermal, blood and tissue/organ models. To improve computational speed, GPUs will be used to accelerate linear solvers and Octree Cartesian mesh adaptation will be used to reduce computational size. The thermal solver will be linked to a multicompartmental model of systemic blood circulation, tissue perfusion and heat transport. The prototype software will be demonstrated on a human body model subject to RF exposures for less than 60 sec turnaround time on a PC. In Phase II, we will develop a GUI for model setup, run control & visualization. The thermal model will be extended to simulate effects of clothing, environment, autoregulation and to model physiological effects of RF exposure. BENEFIT: The integrated CEM-Thermal-Physiology modeling tools will be used by engineers and health physicists to study risks of accidental and job duty RF exposure, to design active denial systems, non lethal weapons and novel directed energy systems. The same tools will have immense civilian applications such as more powerful medical imaging and diagnostics, better hyperthermia cancer treatment, laser and cryosurgery, therapeutic hypothermia in cardiac and stroke conditions, thermal comfort analysis, transcranial E-M stimulation, and others.

HyPerComp, Inc.
2629 Townsgate Road Suite 105
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 371-7500
Dale Ota
AF121-032      Awarded: 7/2/2012
Title:Efficient Computational Tool for RF-Induced Thermal Response
Abstract: In this proposal we suggest a two pronged approach to obtaining fast and efficient solutions to whole-body thermal response of tissue to RF exposures. The first, is the application of high fidelity electromagnetics and heat transfer solvers using high performance computing tools and techniques to obtain fast individual solutions. A multiphysical CPU/GPU based unstructured mesh solver suite at HyPerComp named HDphysics will be used for this purpose. Transmission across different physical disciplines is facilitated by a single code approach, while a front end program to handle geometrical information is available. In the later part of phase-I and a potential future phase of this project, we seek to use reduced order modeling techniques and and an uncertainty based approach to cover a range of thermal outcomes across a wide range of geometries as well as RF exposure parameters. A software utility of this nature can address a long felt need in the community to make maximal use of high performance computing while at the same time cover a wide parameter space in a tractable manner. BENEFIT: In addition to serving the vital interests of the Air Force and DoD, the development proposed will be well suited for a number of commercial applications involving EM simulations. Some of these include patient-specific hyperthermia radiation treatment for cancer, study of long term radiation effects from cellular phones, the sensitivity of cellular phones to various positions in a metropolitan area, hazards from high power lines near residential areas, meeting the EMC specifications of high power microwave circuits, and modeling of waveguide problems. The advancements to be made in quickturnaround parallel processing using GPU/CPU clusters will significantly leverage any commercialization efforts.

Remcom Inc.
315 S. Allen St. Suite 416
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-1299
Yong Wang
AF121-032      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Efficient Computational Tool for RF-Induced Thermal Response
Abstract: A new thermal response module will be developed for the XFdtd® electromagnetic full-wave solver, building on versions that were available in prior releases of the software to incorporate accuracy and new features from the latest approaches in the technical literature. A user-friendly graphical user interface will also be developed in XFdtd 7 for setting up and executing simulations and visualizing results. The computational method behind the software tool is based on the accurate bio-heat transfer equation. The improved computational tool will be more accurate and efficient, and will better meet the needs of military and commercial users of XFdtd. Semi-analytical models will also be investigated and prototyped using accurate simulation results from the high-fidelity thermal module and will be integrated into the software. The development of a MPI and GPU accelerated version will greatly improve the efficiency and reduce the runtime. The goal of this research will provide a fast tool to predict both whole body and localized temperatures over time across a broad range of individuals and exposures. BENEFIT: Military Application: The software tool developed by this SBIR effort can be used by engineers and health physicists to study risks of accidental RF overexposure. It can also be used by military to predict potential of overexposure during engagement of novel directed energy systems. Commercial Application: This research effort will improve the temperature rise modules that were available in prior versions of XFdtd and allow us to integrate the new capability into our current version, XFdtd Release 7. The success of the proposed project will introduce a new and improved feature to Remcom’s XFdtd product which will allow for thermal and hazard analysis of biological bodies under RF exposure. This is also something that some of Remcom’s current and prospective commercial customers have asked for. The application includes but is not limited to the risks of accidental RF overexposure, hyperthermia treatment, human thermal comfort research, and the safety issues of MRI and wireless devices such as cell phones.

Stellar Science Ltd Co
6565 Americas Parkway NE, Suite 725
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(877) 763-8268
Shane Stafford
AF121-032      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Efficient Computational Tool for RF-Induced Thermal Response
Abstract: RF transmitting devices are found nearly everywhere today, ranging from lower-power cell phones to radar equipment to high-energy weapons systems. Accidental exposure of humans to the RF radiation emanating from these devices can cause harmful thermal effects including tissue damage or death. Modeling these thermal effects across a whole population of humans is difficult and time consuming using today’s tools and can constitute a very expensive phase during the design of RF transmitting equipment. We will reduce this expense by introducing two new thermal modeling tools: a fast, parallel finite volume thermal solver, and an even faster tool that solves a reduced system, phenomenological model of the human body. The former tool will use GPU and multi-core CPU architectures when they are available, combining a traditional finite volume approach with a novel recursive method of estimating maximum temperature rises in human tissues. The latter tool will be coupled to the former tool, acting as an ultra-fast surrogate model whose various parameters can be easily changed. Combined, these tools will provide fast, high-resolution results when necessary, as well as the capability to run broad parameter studies that are similar in total computational cost to a single high-resolution result. BENEFIT: These new algorithms and tools will enable the RF device manufacturing community to rapidly assess the possibility of RF overexposure caused by new device designs. They will be used in guiding new hyperthermia treatments for malignant tumors. The tools will immediately give feedback to physicians about possible under or overexposure of target tissues as well as the surrounding tissues, making the treatments more effective and safer for the patient. Our tools will also be used for thermal comfort design by the HVAC and technical fabric communities. In this context, the tools will help the designers evaluate the effects of design decisions on not just one thermal manikin, but across a whole population of individuals having different metabolisms, sweating rates, fat contents, etc. The third community that will benefit from these next-generation thermal modeling tools is the cell phone industry. Our tools will help cell phone tower operators to design safer operating and maintenance procedures when RF exposure may be necessary for the job. The tools will also be useful for determining temperature distributions in humans when they are using a cell phone. In particular, the fast speed of the tools will finally make it easy for manufacturers to predict and correct for exposure levels during the design phase of new cell phones, long before the FCC certification process.

ThermoAnalytics, Inc.
23440 Airpark Blvd P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9560
Allen Curren
AF121-032      Awarded: 7/2/2012
Title:Efficient Computational Tool for RF-Induced Thermal Response
Abstract: The ThermoReg thermal model was developed to solve for tissue temperatures resulting from radio frequency (RF) heating using a voxel-based, heterogeneous tissue description of the human body. Although ThermoReg has been parallelized to run on high-performance computer clusters, the time-dependent nature of a thermal solution (especially for tissue temperatures resulting from high-power, short duration RF exposures) can lead to excessive run times that subsequently limit the extent to which parametric studies can be conducted. We propose a set of tasks that build on the ThermoReg code base to dramatically decrease the run-times associated with RF-induced thermal response studies. The performance of these tasks will result in prototype software and associated work flows that will demonstrate substantial decreases in run-time while maintaining model fidelity. BENEFIT: The product of this SBIR will be a valuable tool for existing DOD activities directed at: 1) establishing health effects and safety standards for exposure to electromagnetic fields; 2) development of non-lethal weapons; and 3) evaluating human thermal comfort and health risks in extreme environments across a population of people. We have successfully marketed the use of human thermal models in a number of areas: Automotive and aircraft passenger thermal comfort and safety models; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) designs for vehicles and buildings; protective clothing design; and optimization of garment designs for thermal safety and comfort. The result of this SBIR will be a substantial reduction in run-times allowing potential customers to examine larger design spaces in the application areas listed above.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Terry Patten
AF121-033      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Mixed-Initiative Discourse Analysis System (MIDAS)
Abstract: Intelligence analysts across the Department of Defense identify and act on threats to national security. Their analyses must encompass both individuals and groups of potential interest, which analysts can identify by examining discourse in communications made by individuals through blogs, message boards, and other social media. Specific patterns in this discourse inform analysts’ understanding of emerging groups and their intent, although purely automated techniques separate the analyst from the nuanced information that is critical to effective understanding of human behavior. We propose to design a mixed-initiative approach that combines automated techniques with user-centered tools to allow analysts to: (1) express, explore, and share their own reasoning about emerging groups and how individuals align themselves with groups; (2) proactively identify groups and their intent; and (3) direct collection assets to confirm or deny analysts’ assertions. Such a capability will enable analysts to make more effective and efficient decisions about group behavior by combining automated discourse analysis with analyst-directed reasoning, and allow analysts to respond more rapidly and cost-effectively to current and emerging threats to national security. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits include the advancement of discourse analysis methods that map to social psychology features, and the use of these features to support analyst-centered reasoning in a mixed-initiative tool. Military and commercial applications of this effort include transition to the intelligence community, as well as elements of NASIC, AFTC, and MISO. Military applications include anticipatory ISR, COA analysis, influence operations, and stability and reconstruction operations. In addition, we plan to transition specific causal influence modeling features of the MIDAS system to our BNet® software suite to increase its commercial viability.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4629
Xiong Liu
AF121-033      Awarded: 7/13/2012
Title:A Text Mining System for Modeling Social Dynamics in Groups
Abstract: Text-based communication can reveal important information about people’s thoughts, motives, and relationships with others. However, developing objective, efficient, and unobtrusive tools to determine group intent and forecast future behaviors remains a significant challenge. We propose a novel framework for extracting metrics of group dynamics from discourses and producing predictive models of social processes among individuals and organizations. This framework is a large-scale, dynamic approach for maximizing the ability of intelligence analysts to analyze text-based communication to assess social dynamics for a given group and predict current belief states and likely intended actions. BENEFIT: IAI’s proposed technology can be directly applied to the military and intelligence contexts, such as domestic and international security regulations. The correlation and reasoning capabilities can help analysts understand and forecast group behaviors or regions that are prone to conflicts. Our methods can provide very fast and efficient markers of basic social dynamics, and these tools will help analysts understand past actions and cognitions of individuals and groups. In the commercial sector we anticipate that the resulting technology will have wide applications in remote event monitoring, crime identification and prevention, corporate security, law enforcement, and business negotiations.

Intelligent Models, Inc.
9710 Traville Gateway Drive
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 401-9746
Yuri Levchuck
AF121-033      Awarded: 7/16/2012
Title:Discourse Analysis for Insights into Group Identity and Intent
Abstract: Discourse plays a variety of functions in the lifecycle of human organizations, as it helps define collective identities, motivate and justify causes, outline roles, articulate ideologies, and supply language-based scripts that can be enacted. Discourse plays a significant role in creating and perpetuating both a climate of political violence and that violence, itself. Human societies consist of heterogeneous, evolving groups, some of which represent terrorist organizations. Narratives are vital to our understanding of these organizations, their functions, dynamics, and intent. To promote rapid acquisition of insights into identity and intent of various groups, we propose GAIN (Group Analytics and Intelligence from Narratives) system which automates the processes of: (1) reverse-engineering of discourse structure and semantics; (2) interpretation, inference, and analysis of texts; and (3) reverse-engineering of group identities, sentiments, indicators of moral disengagement, and intent. GAIN will deliver a novel text-mining, correlation, and reasoning engine, equipped with easy- to-use analytics, to help profile groups of interest and map out their shared mental attributes and likely intent. Ultimately, GAIN will help junior analysts to explore the regional Patterns-of- Life; detect the culture-specific indicators of impending hostility; initiate profiling of hostile actors and groups; and cue their in-depth monitoring with special-purpose ISR assets. BENEFIT: GAIN will benefit the U.S. military commanders by facilitating their understanding of individuals, groups, and populations in the region of interest. GAIN will do this by providing superior support to HSCB modeling efforts that enable prediction of behaviors of prospective enemies and noncombatants on and off the battlefield. GAIN will benefit the organizational research community by providing them with transparent automated ways to collect and analyze HSCB data that can be used to predict (and thus prepare for and/or preempt) hostile behaviors or events that threaten normal functioning of human societies. Ultimately, it will help stakeholders to better understand the dynamics of regional HSCB terrains.

Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc.
108 Bluffs Cir.
Williamsburg, VA 23185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 253-7511
Stephen Shellman
AF121-033      Awarded: 6/30/2012
Title:Discourse Analysis for Insights into Group Identity and Intent
Abstract: For this project, we propose to modify our existing natural language processing (NLP) techniques to conduct automated discourse analysis on original documents produced by the People’s War Group (PWG) in India. Using templates developed by Toman et al (2010) we will evaluate our ability to automatically identify and measure shifts in in-group alliance building, out-group distancing, and the cognitive complexity of PWG senior leadership, as expressed in their writings in the group’s newsletter the People’s March. If successful, these techniques will facilitate the development of prototype software that will allow analysts to monitor, assess, and forecast, in near real time, the consequences of shifts in rhetoric employed by insurgent and extremist organizations. BENEFIT: Commercial applications will involve a data and analysis subscription service for clients in the defense, intelligence, and diplomatic domains, along with customized analysis and training.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Xiaoqing Liu
AF121-033      Awarded: 7/17/2012
Title:Hybrid Discourse Analysis for Hierarchical Social Group Identification and Intent Prediction
Abstract: As military operations transition into urban environments, there is a shift in interest within the DOD to move from conventional to irregular warfare. To facilitate this shift, there is a growing demand to develop a broader and in-depth understanding of socio-cultural dynamics of groups, their intents and ensuing actions. Discourse contains vast amounts of information that could be used by military planners and automated decision support systems to gain greater awareness about a particular mission, the socio-cultural milieu where the mission is to be accomplished and in the final analysis the regional and world impact the mission may carve. To this end, UtopiaCompression (UC) is proposing to develop a hybrid discourse analysis system for hierarchical social group identification and intent prediction. UC’s solution (i) Takes the strengths of both statistical computational linguistic analysis and natural language processing for robust and accurate text parsing and analysis; (ii) models the intrinsic hierarchical social-culture group dynamics in a systematic and constructive way through utilizing a hierarchical graphical structure; (iii) provides probabilistic intent prediction/inference through a probabilistic causal belief network model and/or a meta- cognitive model. UC proposed system will greatly benefit military planners, decision makers, and intelligence personnel concerned with force protection and operations. BENEFIT: Through its collaboration with VRA and Raytheon (see letters of support included), UC and its collaborators (UC-E for short) are determined to demonstrate success with one of the military services as its initial Program Office and then expand its product offering to other service branches and agencies. Following Phase II development, UC-E will work closely with our esteemed Air Force program managers to identify military program offices to integrate the prototype technology into identified key intelligence and planning systems. DOD: The proposed technology will greatly benefit military planners, as well as other military and intelligence personnel concerned with force protection and urban operations, by improving the modeling of specified profiles or events based on combinations of real-world, intelligence indicators, such as real-time trends, social and environmental patterns, and historical events. This capability will significantly improve the ability to perform predictive analysis of complex relationships among large data pools. In this way, the proposed technology will facilitate the goal of predictive analysis in support of force protection – to expand peace keeping missions and to identify threats and warn leaders of threat actions in time to defeat or mitigate them – thereby resulting in overall enhancement of the effectiveness of the US military. Since 9/11, increasing attention has been placed on analysis of evolving scenes of interest to prevent further attacks and to facilitate operations in fields such as Iraq and Afghanistan. The proposed analytic modeling technology will be directly applicable to the Department of Defense Intelligence Production Program (DODIPP), the Army

Crossfield Technology LLC
9390 Research Blvd Suite I200
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 795-0220
Gary McMillian
AF121-036      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Ultra-Fast Transfer Techniques to Download Data
Abstract: Crossfield Technology proposes a high performance network interface to transfer data from ultra-high-performance data acquisition solid state disk (SSD) arrays to a secondary data storage system or a high performance computer (HPC) system using a pluggable, parallel fiber optic interface. The system architecture is scalable, supporting multiple SSD arrays with parallel connections to secondary storage or HPC. The proposed system architecture uses Fourteen Data Rate (FDR) InfiniBand technology, with host channel adapters and switches operating at full-duplex bandwidths of 56 Gbps to transport data between the SSD arrays and secondary storage. The secondary storage can range from a portable InfiniBand Network Attached Storage (NAS) device with SSD arrays or an HPC cluster with distributed SSD arrays. Crossfield proposes the development of a rugged network interface that can be used as a standalone SSD-to-network adapter or integrated into the SSD array. The network interface will provide a “plug-and-play” fiber optic network interface to secondary storage or HPC, operating at the fastest available network bandwidth. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will provide a network interface between ultra-high-performance solid state disk arrays and secondary storage devices or high performance computers. This technology will greatly benefit any industry capturing and processing large amounts of data, such as the medical industry (CT, MRI, X-Ray), entertainment industry, and seismic industry.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Gerald Sabin
AF121-036      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Ultra-Fast Transfer Techniques to Download Data
Abstract: RNET Technologies will develop a high-throughput multi-ported SSD drive to enable the usage of the proposed fast download SSD in existing data systems, while enabling ultra-fast post mission data downloading. This will allow existing SATA SSD RAID systems to transfer data to a storage system in a fraction of the time required to write the data over the SATA interface. This will be very useful in systems using a RAID array of SATA SSD drives during live missions, where the data needs to be efficiently transferred to backend systems at the conclusion of a mission. RNET will develop and fabricate the ruggedized multi-ported SSD board, and the associated software to enable efficient data transfer. The SSD board will contain high-throughput SSD controllers, multiple NAND memory devices, a RAID controller to parallelize data access, and a processing element (e.g., FPGA, CPU, Microcontroller) to provide “host mode” to enable post-mission data transfer. The board will also contain a standard SATA interface, and a high-throughput data interface. During runtime, the interface will be chosen automatically, enabling the SATA interface when the system is being used for data capture, and the high-throughput interface to automatically copy data from the device. BENEFIT: The product will find extensive use in the DoD surveillance platforms, and hence our plan is to transition the product to DoD Primes. We have made initial contacts with some of the Primes, who have provided a strong letter of support. We intend to interact with the Primes extensively after Phase I award.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4763
Kyung Joon Kwak
AF121-037      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Hyperspeed Mobility and Security Capabilities for Next Generation Airborne Networks
Abstract: Emerging advanced airborne nodes such as sixth generation fighters pose new challenges to the airborne network. Sixth generation fighters and bombers are envisioned to be capable of traveling at Mach 3 or higher speed and thus the duration of contact between neighboring airborne nodes may be extremely short (e.g., a few seconds). Such hyperspeed mobility combined with complex operational environments consisting of contested Radio Frequency (RF) communication and cyber intrusions (e.g., smart jamming), existing mobile ad hoc routing protocols may fail to provide secure and reliable connectivity due to the overhead and the delay of the authentication and route discovery processes. IAI proposes to develop hyperspeed mobile and security capabilities (HyperMSC) suitable for next generation airborne networks. HyperMSC will provide proactive handover, expedited authentication, and DoS mitigation while reducing the network overhead, the delay, and the pre-planning requirements of next generation networks. BENEFIT: The hyperspeed mobility and security capabilities in the proposed work can be applied in many different networks, e.g., airborne networks, other tactical networks, mobile ad hoc networks, cellular networks, and vehicular networks. Our initial focus on commercialization will be to transition the hyperspeed mobility and security capabilities to relevant DOD programs, with 6th generation fighter/bomber programs being a particular area of focus. The Air Force currently requires a minimum inventory of 2,250 fighter jets and by 2030 necessary retirement of older jets requires the timely development and production of significant numbers of 6th generation aircraft. The proposed framework, protocols, algorithms, and the developed HyperMSC solutions can be applied to various major programs like Airborne Networks, the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, JTRS, etc. Beyond DoD programs, we also plan to transition the technology to commercial applications. Many applications ranging from cellular communications, emergency networks, vehicular networks, and various consumer services experience significant topology dynamics.

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Seoung Bum Lee
AF121-037      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Autonomous Cognitive Topology Management for highly Mobile Airborne Networks (ACTMAN)
Abstract: Mayflower proposes autonomous cognitive technology for next generation MANET for aircraft, namely the Autonomous Cognitive Topology Management for highly mobile Airborne Networks (ACTMAN) to meet the objectives stated in the solicitation. ACTMAN represents a comprehensive technology that provides automatic topology discovery and topology optimization, provides sufficient level of security through rapid peer authentication, and provides effective measures to avoid jamming signals and RF interference through Cognitive MAC with MIMO. In addition, the proposed approach can cope with high speed mobility, persistent topology changes, and frequent membership changes. These technology components will be implemented with low overhead and will be interoperable with legacy airborne network systems. The ability to auto-configure the network topology, rapidly authenticate valid users, and improve RF communication quality against jamming and interference represents a key enabler in Network-Centric Warfare. BENEFIT: The autonomous networking technology, ACTMAN, can enable rapid deployment of the airborne networks without the lengthy mission planning. The ability to auto-configure the airborne networking assets without manual intervention can significantly shorten the network deployment time. This ability also allows the airborne network to merge and disconnect during these operations without any complex reconfiguration requirements. Also, ACTMAN can protect and enhance the mission-critical data against network dynamics. The ability to securely authenticate users can effectively fend off adversaries from cyber intrusion. In addition, the ability to avoid jamming signals from adversaries and mitigate interference can significantly improve the RF communication quality. There is significant interest in autonomous networking capability that can be readily deployed in the realm of disaster relief network where multiple parties may operate jointly with network merge and disconnect during the relief effort, requiring autonomous topology management, rapid authentication, and interference mitigation. The proposed ACTMAN system can provide a plug-n-play networking capability for these networks.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Arian Lalezari
AF121-038      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:Joint Aerial Layer Network High Capacity Backbone Antennas
Abstract: In order to provide modular, scalable, and flexible operational capabilities for future Joint Aerial Layer Networks, FIRST RF proposes developing a small, lightweight, robust, multi- band antenna concept that can be adapted to provide customizable “pick-and-choose” options, including spatial coverage, spectral support, polarization, and form-factor. This is dubbed the Modular Array of Multi-Band Apertures (MAMBA) concept. The MAMBA concept will provide the flexibility to support configurations including high-gain directional panel, omni-directional mast, and switched-beam directional antennas with the ability to mix- and-match support for frequencies across UHF, L, S, C, X, Ku, and Ka Common Data Link (CDL) bands. This variety of available configurations and frequency coverage options allows for support of a variety of communications protocols, including persistent/synchronous legacy CDL and directional time-division multiple access (DTDMA) protocols. Through the exclusive use of affordable, high-volume manufacturing techniques, FIRST RF’s apertures remain lightweight, durable, and reliable while reducing the reliance on discrete components and custom hardware. BENEFIT: As a result of this SBIR, this approach will generate both near-term and long-term cost savings for Air Force, ensuring that no new development of the baseline technology is required to support integration of JALN support on new platforms. There are numerous military applications for lightweight, directional, frequency agile, conformal antennas on land, air and sea vehicles for communication networks as well as point-to-point links. Directional antennas will find commercial application in the area of networking between commercial airliners and airborne internet access (especially over oceans).

Silvus Communication Systems, Inc
10990 Wilshire Blvd Suite 440
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 479-3333
Abhishek Tiwari
AF121-038      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Low SWaP Directional Terminals through Difference Co-array Processing
Abstract: Silvus Technologies proposes to develop low SWaP electronically steerable directional terminals through a combination of smart antenna processing and the use of recent fundamental innovations in difference co-array signal processing. Depending on antenna element placement, difference co-array processing has the potential to provably create O(N^2) spatial degrees of freedom using only O(N)antenna elements. This is a huge step forward from any state of the art system. The antenna arrays elements have non-uniform (aperiodic) spacing between them to achieve the above theoretical degrees of freedom (DoFs). However unlike traditional aperiodic antenna array design which depends purely on computational approaches, the proposed aperiodic array approaches have a closed form solution, enabling designers to cross validate experimental outcomes with theoretical predictions. In the phase I effort Silvus will evaluate the proposed approach in terms of beam pattern characteristics (main lobe gain, highest side-lobe level, beamwidth, ability to null jammers), wideband operations, SWAP-C, co-site interference mitigation capability. In Phase II Silvus will test a prototype system in an operationally relevant environment. BENEFIT: There are numerous applications of the ground breaking technology development enabling O(N^2 ) spatial degrees of freedom with just O(N) antenna elements in the fields of wireless communications (both commercial and military), RADAR, electronic warfare, RF geo- localization, Anti-jam equipment etc. Additional DoFs can be used to enhance spectral efficiency of tactical ad hoc networks by signaling in the spatial dimension, to compute direction of arrival of a large number of RF sources, to spatially null interference from jammers, to track a large number of targets using low SWaP RADARs etc. Today’s advanced computing platforms can easily fit the required signal processing to realize such gains in DoF. Example Air Force applications: The E-3 AWACS rotodome contains a large phased array radar. The proposed technology will enable creation of small form factor phased array radars. The rotodome causes unwanted drag, a reduced size rotodome will increase the mission life of E-3 AWACS on a single fuel tank. Commercial Applications: Multi-user downlink in cellular systems uses smart antenna beamforming. The innovations described in this proposal can provide considerably higher throughput with the same antenna arrays. Silvus’ expertise in MIMO and smart antenna processing is of particular value here as 5G cellular systems have adopted MIMO and cost effective and smart MIMO antennas are viewed as a future need.

Colorado Engineering Inc.
1310 United Heights Suite 105
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Michael Hammel
AF121-040      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Secure Processing and Data Management Cloud (.CRUNCH V3)
Abstract: Colorado Engineering, Inc. (CEI) proposes to develop transparent resource provisioning techniques with self-adaptive control and virtualization that support on-demand cloud computing for enterprise systems. Cloud computing facilitates shared and dynamic allocation of resources to reduce cost through multiplexing and to enable on-demand services. However, providing on-demand services and cloud computing imposes a few major challenging issues including: transparency, scalability, platform heterogeneity, and unstable network bandwidth. The work proposed here will address these challenges by making computing and storage resources location transparent, supporting collaborative applications in difference scales with little or no impact in performance. BENEFIT: CEI has developed software and hardware technologies for a variety of government programs, and the team has transitioned over 37 products to production for use in DoD and Government systems. CEI also has experience commercializing technology developed under Government-funded programs. Products are packaged as COTS items, listed on a catalog price sheet, supported with technical application notes and marketing materials, and made available for sale to both the commercial and Government markets. CEI will promote technologies developed under this effort as part of its standard commercial product marketing and sales activities. The technology being developed to support transparent and autonomic resource provisioning techniques with self-adaptive control and virtualization can apply to any government or commercial need for cloud computing, since such approaches hold the promise of reduced costs through the shared and dynamic allocation of resources. On-demand cloud computing would be of particular interest to large scale enterprise computing environments which would find the technology to be of great benefit when dynamically allocating computing resources across disparate organizational boundaries. Examples of applications that could benefit from this research include enterprise file sharing, online entertainment and retail, telephony and cable systems, and image and video processing pipelines. CEI will leverage its marketing/sales resources to target companies like Amazon, Disney/Pixar, Google, and HP.

System Fabric Works, Inc.
9390 Research Blvd. Building II, Suite 420
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 620-8757
Paul Grun
AF121-040      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Cloud/Grid/Virtualization Architecture for Air Force Weather
Abstract: Advances in the basic enterprise computing model have been proposed over the past several years with the stated aim of improving enterprise flexibility and resiliency. Despite serious advances in areas such as cloud and grid computing, creating a system-wide infrastructure capable of supporting a distributed enterprise requires solving the problem of achieving flexibility over long geographic distances. This is a significant challenge since the design of modern IT systems does not generally contemplate operation in a high bandwidth-delay product environment. Solving this problem requires us to examine all elements of the distributed enterprise ranging from IPC/RPC communication among distributed processes, to middleware and including compute resources, storage, file systems, communications systems and so on. These elements are all critical to the fundamental goal of allocating workloads among a set of distributed sites. We propose to begin by characterizing the workloads unique to a distributed enterprise. From here we develop a strawman architectural model and begin analysis of various technologies and products used to distribute these workloads, leading to the selection of components such as file systems, capable of operating in a WAN environment. Finally, we integrate these ‘WAN-capable’ components with the strawman model and analyze the resulting architecture. BENEFIT: Although certainly not trivial, the problem being addressed by this solicitation, the requirement for flexibility across broad geographical distances, is by no means unique to the DoD. For example, members of the financial services industry have a compelling need for systems that are able to operate in real time across WAN distances. This is not generally possible using present data center architectures, even though the key technologies, such as high performance WANs, are generally available today. Other sources of demand for such flexibility and agility include any global enterprise, or any enterprise with round-the-clock operations or for whom a disruption of service to its clients is unaccceptable. These all demand the types of flexibility over long distances, contemplated by this solicitation. Therefore, solving the problem of flexible allocation of resources over long distances is likely to accelerate adoption of cloud computing and other techniques designed to improve the efficient use of enterprise resources. Our discussions with members of the financial services industry, and with network providers confirm that demand for such services exists, provided we can describe a complete system capable fo providing such services.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4251
Justin Yackoski
AF121-041      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Mesh Enhanced Tactical Airborne Link (METAL)
Abstract: The effectiveness of current and future tactical aircraft increasingly depends on their ability to exchange information. Waveforms such as the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) must be enhanced with mesh networking capabilities to meet desired efficiency, flexibility, and reliability requirements. As a complicating factor, budget constraints and various other processes create the potential for some platforms to be upgraded after significant delays or not at all, requiring backward-compatibility from upgraded waveforms. This technology will greatly improve the communications of tactical aircraft during and after the upgrade process, and should be validated in high-fidelity hardware-based testing during development with early radio vendor cooperation. To address this critical need, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), along with our collaborators Harris Corporation and Analytical Graphics, Inc. (AGI), proposes to develop a Mesh Enhanced Tactical Airborne Link (METAL) designed as a minimally-intrusive enhancement to existing non-mesh topology waveforms such as MADL and CDL. METAL offers the advantage that the routing, topology management, and channel access methods are automatically and incrementally activated to improve network performance. This is done in part by allowing the legacy nodes to exist at arbitrary locations in the network instead of only at the network edge or communicating via special gateways. BENEFIT: With many DOD aircraft aging and their service life extending, combined with downward budgetary pressure, there is a need to cost-effectively enhance existing tactical aircraft instead of developing entirely new tactical platforms. The proposed METAL system can be added as a software-only upgrade to various aircraft current using MADL such as the F-35. The METAL system will create a significant improvement over legacy systems by removing mission constraints and communication limitations artificially imposed by current waveform design. METAL will retain direct communication capability with legacy nodes. This approach improves network connectivity and performance, instead of causing increased isolation or requiring gateways. In the commercial sector, many point-to-point and spoke- and-hub waveforms are used for cellular communications, wireless data, and other consumer services. Due to increasing consumer data demands, there is a similar drive in the commercial world to improve the efficiency of these networks without requiring new hardware at either the consumer or carrier end. One possible application of METAL is to ease the deployment of microcells and femtocells, small-scale cell towers (e.g. a few hundred meters) that extend coverage and improve spectrum efficiency.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Kerry Wood
AF121-041      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:SYNAPSE: Synergistic Airborne Networking Analysis, Provisioning, and Systems Assessment Environment
Abstract: As part of our proposed Synergistic Airborne Networking Analysis, Provisioning, and Systems Assessment Environment (SYNAPSE) effort The Design Knowledge Company (TDKC) will identify an approach for modeling and understanding the challenges, tradeoffs, and impacts of partial mesh architectures for military airborne networking. Specifically, TDKC will develop an assessment methodology and framework that will enable technology explorations and Phase II system development. In addition to the subject research (airborne networks), we believe that SYNAPSE will provide a template for future work involving functionality enhancement. Importantly, SYNAPSE’s math model and optimization-based approach will provide quantitative metrics that can be used to justify future funding and efforts. BENEFIT: The benefit to the Air Force can be concisely summarized by the need. As of 2011, the stealth assets in the United States Air Force do not have a low-observable, interoperable data transfer protocol. The Department of Defense clearly sees this as a pressing issue, as evidenced by their allocation of 900 million dollars of funding to address it. Much of the original and contemporary research conducted in this area has been in the domain of wireless networks (WiFi and sensor), and cellular networks. Directional radio-frequency (RF) communications provide benefits in a variety of metrics. For small-scale sensor nodes, directional communication can reduce power requirements, or increase transmission distances. SYNAPSE will be multi-objective, but in a military context will likely focus on low- observability metrics, followed closely by performance metrics like robustness, latency, and connectedness.

Radant Technologies, Inc.
255 Hudson Road
Stow, MA 01775
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-3866
Fredric Ziolkowski
AF121-042      Awarded: 5/11/2012
Title:V/W Band Airborne Radomes
Abstract: In order to obtain increased bandwidth, airborne satellite communication systems are planned for V/W band. The sufficiency of the half-wave solid designs, thin skin A-sandwich designs, and C-sandwich designs fails at V/W band, where the wave length decreases to nearly 0.125². The object of the Phase I effort for a V/W band airborne radome is twofold: first to determine wall designs that provide acceptable: transmission, cross polarization, stiffness, toughness, weight, and cost and second to fabricate sample coupons that demonstrate such wall designs are realizable with available materials . The thickness, stiffness, and bird strike resistance of the designs for V/W band radomes must be the maximum possible with an electrical thickness that is consistent with good transmission and low cross polarization. Flat panel model calculations are presented that improve the electrical performance of the half wave, quartz laminate skin A-sandwich which is hare defined to be the base line. The improved designs are denoted Multi-Layer #1, #2, and #3. These are described by flat panel transmission and cross polarization calculations, total thickness, areal weight ( PSF), and modulus-moment product (E×I) which characterizes stiffness. The objective is to provide an acceptable combination of electrical performance, stiffness, and weight. BENEFIT: The design strategy and the materials proposed for the V/W band radome design are applicable to all radomes that must operate at millimeter wave frequencies. Low dielectric, light weight, low cost materials become particularly important for the emerging millimeter wave, commercial aircraft and the more mature, military millimeter wave market. Formal acceptance of new materials for airborne applications (commercial and now probably military) for FAA structural certification requires extensive data, time, and cost. The structural data acquired by the proposed effort is directed toward that goal.

Rock West Solutions, Inc.
8666 Commerce Avenue
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 537-6260
Keith Loss
AF121-042      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:V/W Band Airborne Radomes
Abstract: Next generation satellite communications must address the issue of congested radio frequency (RF) airspace and the need to transmit dramatically larger quantities of data at very high data rates. A solution is to transmit and receive at higher frequencies in the V-and W-bands. Specifically, the Air Force has identified a receive band at 71 – 76 GHz, and transmit band at 81 – 86 GHz. Rock West Solutions is developing a class of tuning layers that can be added to the inner surface of solid laminate radomes or to sandwich radomes to achieve improved transmission over a broader range of frequencies and a wider range of angles of incidence. The concept can be applied to both new and retrofit radome designs. BENEFIT: Improved communications can be achieved both in data rate and quantity by transmitting/receiving at higher frequency bands. Traditional A- and C-Sandwich radomes often have high insertion losses over portions of the available high frequency bands limiting the benefits of using them. The challenge becomes more acute when the antenna rays intersect the radome at high angles of incidence. Rock West Solution’s specially designed tuning layers, when added to the radome inner surface, increase both the frequency bandwidth and angles of incidence over which low transmission loss are maintained enabling effective communications. The tuning layers provide an added benefit of relaxed tolerances on the material properties of the other layers comprising the radome. The concept can be applied to both new and retrofit radome designs.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5209
Julia Deng
AF121-043      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Long-term Sustainable Net-centric Framework for Space Surveillance Networks (LOSSLESS)
Abstract: The United States Space Surveillance Network is a critical part of United States Strategic Command's (USSTRATCOM) mission and involves detecting, tracking, cataloging and identifying artificial objects orbiting Earth, i.e. active/inactive satellites, spent rocket bodies, or fragmentation debris. the modernization of the SSN faces three challenges: 1) how to seamless upgrade SSN with modern COTS hardware without software porting; 2) how to improve the accuracy of tracking target by collaborating geographically spread sensors; 3) how to dynamically schedule tasks to respond to unexpected space events. To address these problems, Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a Long-term Sustainable Net-centric Framework for Space Surveillance Networks (LOSSLESS). LOSSLESS can run both legacy and new software on top of modern COTS hardware by leveraging state-of-the- art Virtual Machine (VM) technologies. With proposed distributed net-centric data fusion algorithm, LOSSLESS can significantly improve the tracking accuracy of current SSN. LOSSLESS can also respond to unexpected dynamic space events based on an innovative dynamic tasking algorithm. In summary, the proposed LOSSLESS framework can meet the future requirement of space target tracking for the United States Space Surveillance Network. BENEFIT: The proposed solution has tremendous applications potential in dynamic military applications. The legacy system (both hardware and software) of United States Space Surveillance Network requires major investment of capital to re-host and rewrite the software for the upgrade. Similar cases happened for many military weapon systems (e.g., F-16 general avionics computer, AC-130H gunship mission computer SKC-3007A, MH-60K mission computer AP-102A, etc.). Potential applications of our proposed framework include United States Space Surveillance Network and military weapon system. The market size of the upgrading military legacy system may grow rapidly as more and more weapon systems' legacy computer system cannot meet the new mission requirements. Beyond DOD programs, we also plan to transition the technology to commercial applications. Potential applications of our proposed approach include commercial avionics radars and weather monitoring systems. The size of the market is quite large and may grow rapidly with the commercial demand of upgrade the system with modern COTS hardware.

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Shean McMahon
AF121-043      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Dynamically Optimized Persistent Emulation of Legacy Systems Through Globally Adaptive Networks of Generic Resources
Abstract: To address the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Space Surveillance Network need for software separation in hardware resources to support legacy system upgrades, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new DOPPELGANGER (Dynamically OPtimized Persistent Emulation of Legacy systems through Globally Adaptive Networks of GEneric Resources) system. DOPPELGANGER is based on stand-alone interface standardization hardware and a modular hardware emulator software application that employs POCs resource-centric load balancing software routines. The innovation in interface standardization eliminates implementation complications inherent in proprietary legacy interfaces. The unique modular emulator design employs plug-in system profiles that allow a single emulator to canvass a wide range of equipment. The unique load balancing software natively supports dynamic tasking as well as net-centric operations, thus directly meeting the major USAF SSN requirements. In Phase I, POC will fabricate a proof-of-concept interface standardization box that translates between a few SSN unique interfaces and a common, standard interface. We will code a proof-of-concept emulator that can directly emulate a small number of legacy hardware instructions, thus proving the feasibility of the proposed technology. In Phase II, POC plans to fully develop an emulator for one SSN legacy hardware system and refine our interface standardization hardware. BENEFIT: Successful development of the DOPPELGANGER technology will benefit the United States by providing a low cost and low logistical tail upgrade path for legacy technologies. Nearly half of all state information systems in the United States are classified as legacy systems, with half of those being deemed mission critical. This same problem is seen by commercial and military concerns. Upgrading these systems by rewriting software to current specifications is simply not feasible considering the necessary time and financial investments. DOPPELGANGER averts this problem by offering an emulation and standardization solution that allows legacy software to be ported to new hardware. This directly benefits both commercial and government customers by eliminating the time and financial costs inherent in upgrading legacy systems.

InnoSys
2900 South Main Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 975-7399
Larry Sadwick
AF121-046      Awarded: 6/5/2012
Title:W-band Transmitter
Abstract: The Air Force has identified a need for efficient, lightweight, millimeter-wave transmitter development that supports future generations of bandwidth efficient military satellite communications and communications links between Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPAs), satellites and terrestrial terminals. As RPAs and associated battlefield sensors proliferates, requirements for additional military satellite communications capacity will continue for the foreseeable future. In order to provide Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance communications between the RPA, warfighter and analysts, to transfer command and control communications to the RPA, the Air Force is interested in utilizing the W-band frequency range (81-86 GHz). InnoSys proposes to develop high performance solid state vacuum device (SSVD) traveling wave tube 81 to 86 GHz power amplifiers to provide affordable compact, lightweight, highly efficient and linear W-band high power transmitters that meet or exceed the following specifications: bandwidth of +/- 3 GHz, ripple less than 0.4 dB, an input less than 1 mW, a power output greater than 50 W, gain higher than 49 dB, harmonics less than 10 dBc, a VSWR less than 1.3:1, weight less than 10 lbs, efficiency greater than 30 percent, an operating temperature range of -40 to +55C, and reliability consistent with typical airborne terminal life of 10^5 hours. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits and potential commercial applications for W-band power amplifiers and related applications include: radar, automotive radar, airborne radar, high data rate satellite communications, road condition detection, intelligent highway systems, imaging, vision systems, mm-wave landing systems, directed energy, active denial, radar imaging, UAV guidance, point-to-point/point-to-multi point transmitters and repeaters, communications, chemical sensing, sensors, cloud measurement systems, molecular spectroscopy, plasma diagnostic sensors, environmental sensor systems, amplifiers for “Comms on the Move”, high speed wireless internet, high speed data-links, secure communications, security and proximity detection and control, high altitude, and other rarified atmosphere applications, RF-based commercial satellite communications programs (e.g. Iridium™, Globalstar™ and Spaceway™), and commercial SATCOM broadcast programs including XM™ radio, Sirius™ Radio and DirectTV™. Future commercial applications for these source products also include monitoring and detection systems for all-weather, day- and-night operations (i.e., mm-wave imaging, airport surveillance, intrusion detection, and harbor traffic monitoring), fusion plasma research and thermal interactions and processing of materials, and a host of other fundamental scientific, academic, and research applications.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
Donald Kimball
AF121-046      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:W-band Transmitter
Abstract: MaXentric and the University of California propose using AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices, quasi-optical combining with meta-materials, and linearization techniques. MaXentrics millimeter wave electronics focus on a new and promising architecture called meta-material in a tiled or tray active array amplifier. Our approach borrows heavily from previously advanced quasi-optics concepts, which recognized and exploited the inherent advantages of free-space power combining as compared to traditional, planar power combining methods. Intrinsically three-dimensional, the tiled or tray active array amplifier relies on tunable, TEM waveguide structures enabled by engineered two and three dimensional metal-dielectric structures configured at meta-materials. BENEFIT: For unmanned systems, video data constitutes the only “eyes-in-the-sky” and thus the only link that a ground crew may have with what is actually going on in the vicinity of an unmanned air vehicle. A ground crew hundreds or even thousands of kilometers away, the video data link becomes absolutely critical to the safety and success of the mission. The W-Band Transmitter will solve these problems and meet the market needs. The W-Band transmitter is uniquely suited for higher bandwidth communication for multi-senor video streams and more complex command and controls.The 2012 budget for UAV predator and reaper modifications is approximately $325 million and from $475 million to $550 million for each remaining year of this decade. It is anticipated that a portion of these budgeted funds will be for SATCOM communication with the new WGS satellites, thus incorporating new W-Band transmitter into preexisting UAVs.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Wayne Thornton
AF121-048      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Reallocation and Cross-Domain Optimization using Relationally-Consistent Semantic Extensions (ReCOURSE)
Abstract: Real world uncertainties all but guarantee that execution will deviate from even carefully considered plans, and therefore any effective military command will assume that resources must be reallocated to achieve desired outcomes. Unfortunately, reallocation is typically a manual, reactive, and ad hoc process that results in sub-optimal use of resources and overall force effectiveness. To provide a system that can dynamically reallocate resources across air, space, and cyber domains, Charles River Analytics proposes to design, demonstrate, and evaluate Reallocation and Cross-Domain Optimization using Relationally-Consistent Semantic Extensions (ReCOURSE). Our approach consists of three primary thrusts: (1) build a semantically rich, logically grounded representational layer that can be used to model all world and plan states in a consistent fashion; (2) extend the representation layer with a computational inference layer that can input heterogeneous information and output analyses and projections of world states; and (3) build a multiobjective optimization layer as an extension of the inference layer to generate options and identify tradeoffs among possible plan elements. Together, these three layers form what we call a Semantic Type Engine. During Phase I we will instantiate our Semantic Type Engine in a demonstration prototype to illustrate the feasibility and benefits of our approach. BENEFIT: The research performed under this effort will have immediate benefit to Air Operations Center Weapon System (AOC WS) and its configuration across multiple regional and functional AOCs. Additionally, advances in this area of mission planning could help in other military domains across air, maritime, ground, and space operations. This research will also have direct application to enhance our commercial EAToolkit™ product, a software development kit for optimization using evolutionary algorithms.

Perceptronics Solutions, Inc.
3141 Fairview Park Drive Suite 415
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 342-4667
Elan Freedy
AF121-048      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:Dynamic Agent-based Reallocation and Tasking (DART)
Abstract: In this proposal, we present the set of steps and the technology needed to develop the Dynamic Agent-Based Reallocation and Tasking (DART) system for performing tasking and coordination operations of air, space and cyber assets in response to rapidly changing environments such as hurricanes. The significant disparities in the specific capabilities of the assets in these domians coupled with continually evolving life-threatening situations and uncertainty about the actual operating environment makes it particularly challenging for human planners to perform the resource reallocation activities in a crisis. Our response to this challenge is to develop DART as a system that can take human generated high level plans, with spatially and temporally distributed tasks and efficiently allocate and reallocate the available resources as the situation unfolds. To achieve this, DART will bring to bear an intuitive input specification module, a suite of state-of-the-art resource allocation algorithms and a novel meta-reasoning module to intelligently pick the appropriate algorithm based on the current situation BENEFIT: The DART system proposes to enhance the resource reallocation and tasking capabilities of the current air force decision support systems in the following ways: (a) Allocate and reallocate air-space-cyber resources efficiently across many situations and at many scales (b) Provide an intuitive interface that maps operator language and specifications to system language (c) Return multiple distinct but interesting options and perform mixed initiative planning, i.e., enable the operator to edit details of an option and have the system optimize around the edits. (d) Establish metrics to compare the various promising reallocation solutions and pick the best one (e) Allocate resources in a way that maximizes the ability of the system to handle both data and model uncertainty about the future, gaps in information and provide maximum tolerance to failures and unplanned contingencies. Our development efforts will be geared to enhance the network operations for DoD information technology systems, with potential extension to integrated command and control systems for synchronizing the air-space-cyber operations.

Institute of Medical Cybernetics, Inc.
12204 St. James Rd.
Potomac, MD 20854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 279-0213
Yan M. Yufik
AF121-049      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:Emerging Software Algorithms for Autonomous Sense Making Operations
Abstract: Autonomous sense making (understanding) distinguishes human cognition from that of the other species and underlies the dual capability of a) learning efficiently from the past experiences and b) coping efficiently with novel situations having no precedents in the past. Artificial Intelligence and cognitivist psychology have been downplaying the role of understanding reducing it to possession of knowledge and algorithms for applying knowledge. This reduction is due to limitations inherent in the information- theoretic/computational metaphor of cognition. A novel theoretical synthesis has been emerging grounding cognition in biophysical mechanisms responsible for self-organization and self-regulation in the brain. Evolution of these mechanisms culminated in the human brain where they acquired the form enabling construction and manipulation of mental models. Mental modeling is not algorithmic but serves to generate efficient action plans (algorithms) under unfamiliar conditions. Successful modeling is experienced as making sense of the new situation. This proposer pioneered and made some of the early contributions into the new synthesis. The proposed effort expands the theory and applies the results to inform the design of autonomous sense making systems. BENEFIT: Creating artifacts capable of autonomous sense making will bring about technological explosion comparable in scope with that produced by the computer revolution in the last century. In the military arena, the technology can create battlefield superiority comparable to that of possessing nuclear weapons vis-à-vis conventionally armed opponents.

M. Alexander Nugent Consulting
22B Stacy Rd
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 988-7016
Alex Nugent
AF121-049      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:Emerging Software Algorithms for Autonomous Sense Making Operations
Abstract: We propose an elegant network-building algorithm for sense-making applications capable of learning the spatial-temporal structure of applied input data. Through a combination of synaptic and structural plasticity our networks will dissect vast quantities of streaming information down to its natural building blocks and then spontaneously assemble a network structure that models the spatial-temporal structure of the information flowing into it, allowing the network to make predictions over time. By monitoring the internal changes in network structure our algorithm will detect anomalous activity. BENEFIT: Our sense-making algorithm will find use in applications needing analysis of spatial- temporal data for suspicious(anomalous) events. Examples of use include recognizing suspicious changes in a computer users activity on secured networks, anomaly detection in multi-spectral video, and classification of spatial-temporal patterns.

InferLink Corporation
326 Loma Vista St.
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 383-9234
Steven Minton
AF121-050      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Link Analysis of Knowledge Derived from Social Media Sources
Abstract: Social media has become an important part of the world’s communication networks. It has also become a resource for terrorists and criminals. In this project, we propose to develop a scalable technical solution for link analysis of social media data. Our work will consider the process of knowledge extraction, information integration and analysis. The goal is to design an integrated framework that will enable Air Force intelligence analysts to efficiently analyze data from online sources, including internet forums, blogs, and micro-blogs, in order to track potential threats. This software would have the capability to detect and link multiple aliases, document chronologies, and help analysts identify threats based on material harvested from social media sources. BENEFIT: The Web has made it easy to access an enormous amount of open source data from social media sources. The richness and size of this data has made it a priority to develop automated analysis methods that can help analysts predict, understand, and explain events around the world. This project will produce a scalable solution that will help analysts make sense of, and monitor, events being discussed or planned in social media. Analysts want to understand who the protagonists are, what they have done, and what they are planning. They have limited time and manpower available to do this by hand, but they also have expertise and commonsense that is far beyond the present capabilities of software to replicate. Thus, our approach is to develop semi-automated methods that analysts can intuitively interact with in order to do their job more efficiently. The software will not only be useful for government defense and intelligence analysts, but will also address the needs of the commercial background investigation industry.

Securboration Inc
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 155
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Lee Krause
AF121-050      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Link Analysis of Knowledge Derived from Social Media Sources
Abstract: Warfare is being transformed from a closed, state-sponsored affair to distributed terrorist activities enabled by social media. Today’s terrorists are extremely internet savvy. They recruit, organize, seek advice, assistance and material support; and manage their illicit drug trade and money laundering operations using social media. An added benefit for terrorists is that gathering intelligence on social media communications has proven extremely difficult for the U.S. and our allies. To address the unique requirements of converting social media into actionable intelligence, Securboration has assembled a world-class team to develop the Link Analysis Knowledge Environment (LAKE). Securboration will leverage its existing suite of semantics-based content analysis software, and enhance it with algorithms for noise reduction to understand concepts and linkages present within social media data streams. Securboration has also identified a transition path for LAKE that provides for inclusion within the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) Integration Backbone(DIB) at the Joint Inter Agency Task Force South (JIATF-S Truman Annex in Key West FL). BENEFIT: LAKE provides significant benefits to both the public and private sector. In the DoD/Homeland Security public sector, the need for the warfighter is highlighted on a near daily basis (from Anwar al-Awlaki, the radical American-born Muslim cleric who became a leading figure in Al Qaeda's affiliate in Yemen and was killed September 30, 2011 in a drone strike; to Sami Osmakac the U.S citizen arrested in January 2012 and charged with plotting to attack Tampa-area nightclubs and a sheriff's office with bombs and an assault rifle to avenge wrongs done to Muslims). In both the public and private medical domain, link analysis can prove vital in combatting epidemics and pandemics by identifying social communities that may be exposed. In the private sector, there is significant opportunity for LAKE in the area of business intelligence. For example, ‘Competitive Link Analysis’ enables a business to understand why people are linking to their competitors. Link analysis can also help businesses improve customer retention, cross-sell and up-sell by enabling marketers to identify social communities based on relationships between customers, measure and segment customers based on social influence, and target customers based on changes within their social within their social communities. LAKE also is applicable to stock market analysis, where social media influences trading patterns.

Critical Technologies Inc
Suite 400 1001 Broad Street
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 793-0248
Stuart W. Card
AF121-051      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:Remote Attestation and Distributed Trust in Networks (RADTiN)
Abstract: Warfighters need to be able to trust the computer systems on which their lives depend, which includes every computer in or attached to the network. We can launch a trustworthy computer by booting from a Trusted Computing Base consisting of a Microvisor with capabilities security plus a Capability Proxy engine running in a Virtual Machine, all protected by a Trusted Platform Module. We can instantiate multiple VMs that communicate with each other only by means of Microvisor methods that enforce capability-based security, instantiate a Tahoe-LAFS grid in the VM server farm, and run Secure Multi-Party Computation on the VMs. We can use secure multicast communications protected by capability-based security using NORM plus DIPLOMA, instantiate multiple Tahoe-LAFS grids and run Secure Multi- Party Computation on multiple computers to make the network resistant to exploitation. We can share security information using publish-subscribe distributed blackboards. We can enable trust relationships between VMs and between computers using the Trusted Computing Group’s Direct Anonymous Attestation. We can use multi-factor authentication of the user to the computer. We can make it easy for users to do the right thing and difficult for users and adversaries to do the wrong thing by managing capabilities with Capability Middleware, which CTI will design. BENEFIT: The increasing prevalence of mobile devices in defense, law enforcement, industrial, and commercial markets has resulted in an increased need for scalable, flexible, comprehensive, and automated security of the devices and of the data they store and transmit/receive. Additional to the security of the data is the requirement for secure computing, as apps on mobile smartphones, laptops, and personal computing devices are more frequently targeted with malware, spyware, and DoS attacks, and are less prepared to thwart attacks, when compared to traditional (and still prevalent) fixed workstations. Thus, there exists an acknowledge market need (both in government and the commercial marketplaces, regardless of industry) for a method that will enable mobile data storage, mobile computing, and the security to use a mobile node to access a static network via any node, agnostic to that node’s attributes or status (vulnerable, infected, unknown, etc.) CTI foresees this solution developing not into a single point solution, but a product line of OEM component solutions, customized for multiple hardware platforms (beyond the proposed PoC MXI stealth USB drive) and user groups. The latest market size figures for such a solution range from five hundred million to one and a half billion dollars in annual sales (2 to 4 million units sold in the US with an estimated average unit price of $250 over several storage MB limits) by the year 2016, more than tripling in size over the next five years, and experiencing a compound annual growth rate of 5-17% as various international commercial markets are forecast to grow. Given the potential service bureau attached to the proposed product line (whose value is not being estimated above), the sales of this hardware and service package solution would

RAM Laboratories, Inc.
6725 Mesa Ridge Road Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Robert McGraw
AF121-051      Awarded: 5/9/2012
Title:Remote Attestation and Distributed Trust in Networks (RADTiN)
Abstract: Data sources or services residing in tactical or enterprise environments may be captured or compromised by an adversary for the purpose of attacking or disrupting armed forces, command and control, or business operations. As these networks are extended to accommodate mobile devices, external systems and guest users, there is a need for distributed form of trust assessment and remote authentication in order to ensure the trustworthiness of the new services being used to compose workflows. RAM Laboratories proposes to address this need by developing a Remote Attestation and Distributed Trust in Networks (RADTiN) solution that can be used to assess the trustworthiness of newly discovered services and data sources. The Phase I effort focuses on investigating the solution space for RADTiN by evaluating: the types of authentication and access control for handling distributed users, (2) techniques for delegation and reputation (trust) management processes for incorporating new sources/services that extend beyond access control lists, (3) trust metrics and protocols for evaluating and negotiating trust information, and (4) anti- tamper techniques for protecting trust credentials, security agents and protocols from adversarial threats. Additionally, this Phase I effort will evaluate the cost of implementing the most promising of these solutions. BENEFIT: RAM Laboratories will bring our commercialization expertise to bear on this effort, which will develop RADTiN, a tamper-proof remote attestation and distributed trust management solution for establishing trust in a multi-agent environment. RADTiN has the potential to fill a void that is critically lacking in the military and commercial trusted computing space. As systems fall under continual attack and subversion, their critical data (passwords, personal information, encryption keys) is subject to exfiltration and misuse in a manner that not only affects the system/owner in question, but potentially all nodes interacting with that device. Technologies are needed to not only attest to the trustworthiness of the system, but to also maintain the requisite tamper-proofing through deployment as close to bare metal as possible to ward off all adversary threats. The resulting solution can be employed in chipsets, software modules and operating systems for all areas of trusted and secure computing in the embedded computing space like mobile phones, trusted networking, and secure content management. The Chip Card and Security Segment is part of the overall semiconductor market. Key players in this market include Atmel, Broadcom, Infineon Technologies, and Intel among others. Additionally, the technology will be used to enable Digital Rights Management (DRM for solutions where vendor lock-out and anti-piracy technologies are especially needed to protect digital content (music, media, file-sharing). For instance, according to PRWeb, the market for DRM is expected to reach $2.5B by 2017.

Advanced Photon Sciences, LLC
PO Box 1567
Williston, VT 05495
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 659-4800
Brent Boerger
AF121-055      Awarded: 6/28/2012
Title:Graphene Memory Device
Abstract: A need exists for a reliable, low cost radiation-hardened digital memory in aerospace and defense applications and in long-life, high-speed memory for terrestrial and commercial applications. Present offerings can accomplish the objective, but only at the expense of performance, power, size, and weight with device redundancy and shielding. Recent focus on Graphene and its capabilities has inspired a flurry of research and exploration. Graphene is maturing quickly from its discovery and has exhibited a number of best of breed characteristics including conductivity, stability, and as a Hall Effect sensor material. It is generally agreed that Graphene is potentially the best material for many integrated circuit components; however the evolution of compatible process and large area, defect-free layers of the material has been elusive to this point. Our goal to incorporate Graphene as a critical element of a radiation hardened memory device will be done with a demand on par with present capabilities and will only strengthen as the underlying manufacturing of Graphene matures into modern devices. Further, we propose to research a method to bridge the gap between present laboratory-based Graphene coating efforts and the needs of the commercial market with a unique monolayer deposition method using unique monolayer deposition method using equipment and process which APS has been developing for VersuFLEX Technologies LLC. BENEFIT: This technology has immediate application in critical aviation electronics applications. It also poses a much needed improvement in lifetime for solid state drives in the commercial market.

Aneeve
22207 Linda Drive
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(773) 206-5612
Mark Zurbuchen
AF121-055      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Graphene Memory Device
Abstract: We aim to undertake a Phase I study on radiation hardened graphene memory devices for military and space applications. This project will focus on developing a nonvolatile single- layer graphene ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FET) memory device. This device incorporates non-volatility arising from a ferroelectric film component (generating hysteresis & non-volatility from correlated effects), coupled with graphene’s superior electron transport FET properties to provide transducer electrical read-out functionality. The outcome of Phase I will be an optimized graphene ferroelectric FET device design to be fabricated in Phase II. BENEFIT: Graphene-based nanoelectronics have emerged over the past several years, mostly funded in the promise of going beyond CMOS as contenders for logic and memory functionality. Graphene offers power dissipation advantages as well as fundamental material advantages over silicon, hence its attractiveness and candidacy for use in military and space applications. Its super high mobility and thermal conductivity are the highest of all materials. However, before graphene-based logic is viable for space and military applications, device design concepts must be developed and proven that are both robust and can leverage graphene’s feature size advantages into a much higher density device. Obstacles include devising a reliable and producible device design, selecting substrate materials, and achieving superior profound advantages such as radiation hardness.

Arkansas Power Electronics International, Inc.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Edgar Cilio
AF121-056      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Multi-Module, Scalable, High Power Density, Radiation-Hardened Power Converter Interface Systems for Space Rated Li-Ion Battery in Satellite Applicati
Abstract: To significantly reduce procurement overhead and recognizing the mission strategic importance of developing modular power electronics for interfacing the battery to the spacecraft bus, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a novel multi-module, inherently scalable, high power density, radiation-hardened, intelligent battery module. The proposed development will focus on the following main technology areas: 1) Rad-hard, inherently scalable, bidirectional power electronics for interfacing with spacecraft distribution bus—APEI’s patent pending inherently power sharing topology will be incorporated into a suitable switching converter to interface the battery to the spacecraft distribution bus. This technology will yield inherently scalable modules at the topological level. Overall design will utilize newly emerging rad-hard GaN FETs’ high efficiency, high switching frequency capabilities to yield unprecedented high power density. 2) Advanced cell level balancing and monitoring circuits— APEI will develop and experimentally corroborate a novel cell balancing approach based on selective cell charging through charge energy frequency spreading, and 3) Compact, structural, thermal, and electrical interface for use over a wide range of satellite programs—The objective is simplification in order to develop an elegant, standardized, and readily scalable core intelligent battery module “building block” which provides structural support, efficient heat removal, and straightforward electrical interconnection. BENEFIT: APEI’s converter technology stands out from other modular approaches in that the power sharing is accomplished without the need of inter-module communication; thus, yielding a master-less, fault-tolerant, scalable power converter building block. These converters inherently share current (and thus power) thanks to a novel, patent-pending power topology. APEI’s battery management power converters can be easily combined to form a multi-module arrangement for scalability and/or redundancy purposes. APEI’s advanced, seamlessly scalable, multi-module power converter technology is the key enabler to making the transition from traditional custom designed systems to a standardized battery/power module building block. Our technology will provide the aerospace industry with a fully modular, practical, ready-to-deploy standardized, intelligent battery/power management module. Additionally, APEI, Inc. has identified high voltage hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery packs as a commercial application of the technology. This application open up a path to non- military commercialization of the technology which can mean huge dividends for APEI, Inc. Specially, the selective charge of individual cells based solely on the frequency components contained in the charge power signal will minimize active device part count while yielding fast, dynamic response to individual cells’ state of charge. This approach has great promise not only for space battery applications but also for larger Li-ion cell stacks found in HEVs where 100’s of cells in a stack preclude most traditional cell-balancing approaches from

Physical Optics Corporation
Products and Engineering Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Eric Gans
AF121-056      Awarded: 6/29/2012
Title:Radiation-Hardened Adaptive Modular Power System
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for versatile satellite power electronics, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a new Radiation-Hardened Adaptive Modular Power (RHAMP) system. RHAMP is based on an array of sensor power monitors (SPMs) coupled with space-qualified lithium ion sources that adapt to the fluctuating power needs of the spacecraft electronics during LEO, MEO, and GEO. Each SPM (and associated battery array) is electromechanically linked to allow supplementing the 28 VDC power system when solar harvesting is insufficient to power onboard electronics. The RHAMP system is radiation-hardened both passively and actively to minimize damage during orbit while still maintaining spacecraft power requirements during/after fault events. In Phase I, POC will perform system-level analyses and conduct trade studies to validate the electronic circuit design, source selection, thermal and radiation shielding architecture, and overall power management concept of operations. We will demonstrate system capability with a TRL-2/-3 prototype and conduct in-house testing. In Phase II, POC will demonstrate numerous SPM units managing a variety of space-qualified battery sources and integrate necessary shielding on the component and system levels. Outside testing will include exposure to radiation sources to validate (TRL-5) RHAMP’s ability to withstand the rigors of spaceflight. BENEFIT: The RHAMP system provides a modular and flexible, radiation-hardened, power management system for a variety of satellite applications that will ultimately reduce high life cycle costs that are crippling current space programs. This technology has applications in a variety of military sectors including advanced Naval vessels (e.g., Next Generation Integrated Power Systems (NGIPS)) and power management of the myriad of wearable electronics currently used by the dismounted warfighter. Commercial applications include growing business sectors such as smart power grids for homes, offices, and hybrid and electric vehicles, which are extremely popular due to growing fuel costs around the globe.

Optical Coating Solutions, Inc.
2386 Grandview Drive
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 682-1922
S. F. Pellicori
AF121-057      Awarded: 7/30/2012
Title:Novel Environmental Protection for Multi-Junction Solar Cells
Abstract: Thin film flexible cells based on IMM architecture require a protective optical coating that maintains optical and mechanical integrity when rolled and unrolled. The new flexible multi- functional coating must be stable to temperature changes, ground-storage humidity, ionizing radiation, atomic oxygen, and also provide ESD and high thermal emissivity properties. Our team will apply the radiation resistant and/or space qualified deposition process and materials technology that we established and demonstrated on previous SBIR and other R&D projects to develop the new coating. UVR, AR, and ESD coatings developed in our previous work passed radiation and environmental testing, and samples on glass and flexible substrates were flown on MISSE-7. Sample substrates will be coated to meet the protective requirements and evaluated. Compatibility with cell integration and assembly procedures will be addressed. The new coating will be useful for all DoD, NASA, and communications spacecraft power, and terrestrial applications that employ flexible arrays. BENEFIT: The ability to package and stow solar cell arrays into small volumes by rolling them has large benefits in terms of launch resources expended. In the stowed configuration, power-per- weight and -per-volume are significantly reduced. Coupled with higher solar energy conversion efficiencies, flexible MJ IMM cells will soon replace conventional arrays. Our flexible optical and protective coating will maximize photon throughput to the solar cell and protect the assembly from the harsh space environment. The new coatings developed in the proposed effort can be applied to all DoD, NASA, and communications spacecraft power, and terrestrial applications that employ flexible arrays.

Wright Materials Research Co.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Seng Tan
AF121-057      Awarded: 7/31/2012
Title:Space Environment Durable and Flexible Coating for Multi-Junction Solar Cells
Abstract: The development of multi-junction solar cells enables more efficient capture of sunlight that enables them to achieve efficiencies of over 40% as compared to 20% for single junction solar cells. The inverted metamorphic (IMM) solar cell allows them to achieve the same conversion efficiency but at much greater flexibility, affordability and mobility. Lightweight, flexible multi-junction solar cells with high efficiency have great promise for spacebased applications where payload sizes are limited but energy demands are high. However, protective cover layers must be used to protect them from atomic oxygen (AO) and ionizing radiation attack, pre-launch humidity, and high-voltage discharge. It must also have high transparency in the wavelength that the solar cell is active. A number of currently used polymeric materials such as Kapton®, silicone adhesives, POSS, and polymer matrix carbon fiber composites that are used as carriers in solar cell construction have shown signs of deterioration due to these space environmental effects. In this SBIR Phase I project we propose to develop a space durable, flexible, highly transparent coating system for the protection of multi-junction solar cells. The coating will be applied to the multi-junction solar cells via a low cost technique. Preliminary space environment simulation tests proved that it has great performance. BENEFIT: The proposed space durable, flexible, highly transparent coating system will have numerous potential applications for coating of multi-junction solar cells for space and ground structures including communication spacecraft, NASA spacecraft, large-scale space- based transparent thin films, based material for deployable space mirrors, X-ray telescope, earth-observation radiometry, remote sensing, space-orbiting very-long-baseline interferometry, ground based laser relay mirror, space-based radar, and microspacecraft components.

Patz Materials and Technologies
4968 Industrial Way
Benicia, CA 94510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 748-7577
Nick Patz
AF121-058      Awarded: 7/19/2012
Title:High-Strain Conductive Composites for Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Deployable Antennas
Abstract: Deployable composite structures have the distinct advantage of minimizing weight and space consumed by satellites during launch. Standard conductive materials for antenna structures cannot function in the required strain levels for the deployable systems. A new material based on CNT sheets combined with novel resin technologies is proposed as a solution. BENEFIT: The resulting system will increase satellite efficiency and decrease the weight and consumed space of the payload.

Freedom Photonics LLC
90 Arnold Place Suite D
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 277-3031
Milan Mashanovitch
AF121-059      Awarded: 7/23/2012
Title:Wide Temperature Optical Transceivers
Abstract: Next generation defense and commercial satellites will acquire and process data at significantly higher rates than current satellites. This will necessitate the development of high speed fiber optic communications infrastructure for intra-satellite communications, including the development of highly reliable space-qualified transceivers. This work is expected to provide a very small form factor module for intra-satellite communications. Key aspects to the technology are wide temperature range operation, high bandwidth connectivity >10Gbits/s suitable for harsh environments. BENEFIT: This technology can be applied to a number of applications that require low swap, high performance communications. Next generation telecom, datacom, and free space applications will benefit from this technology.

NanoTechLabs Inc.
409 W. Maple St.
Yadkinville, NC 27055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 849-7474
Thomas Tiano
AF121-060      Awarded: 7/18/2012
Title:High Conductance Thermal Interface Material for Use in Space Applications
Abstract: In this Phase I Air Force SBIR program, NanoTechLabs (NTL)will develop a space- qualifiable, high-conductance, thermal interface material (TIM) for use in space-based flanged heat-pipe-to-heat-pipe joints or for mounting relatively small area units with stiff baseplates and high power loads. NanoTechLabs will exploit its novel carbon nanotube vertical array material and manufacturing process, and embed vertical nanotube arrays in a compliant low outgassing matrix. BENEFIT: This research would benefit commercial satellite programs requiring thermal management. The high conductivity TIM developed in this program would also have applications in computer processor heat sinks, commercial electronics, and personal/portable electronics.

Innoflight, Inc.
5850 Oberlin Dr. Suite 340
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 638-1580
Assi Friedman
AF121-061      Awarded: 8/7/2012
Title:Spacecraft Autonomy Through On-orbit Networking
Abstract: Spacecraft as operational nodes on the Internet is a significant means to enabling spacecraft autonomy. The use of Internet Protocol (IP) networking to support Space Operations is dramatically increasing through virtual users, distributed systems and enterprise or service oriented architectures which rely heavily on IP-based networks and systems. In fact, multi- domain command and control, distributed and virtual operations are essential to responsive semi-autonomous space operations and space protection – a fundamental tenet of the space control mission area. Using point-to-point serial communications within the USAF's Space Ground Link System (SGLS) framework seriously limits any ability to utilize these advancements related to modern networking. Innoflight has identified an opportunity to establish and demonstrate secure IP networking using the existing SGLS ground infrastructure as a means for a marked advancement in spacecraft autonomy and operations. The benefits of IP networking are well proven and effectively come to the spacecraft operator at no cost. The challenge especially in a multi-mission operations network environment is the higher level development of integration of applications designed to ensure that the network will provide its users the expected performance, configuration control, and most notably, active security measures to include awareness and mitigation. BENEFIT: Innoflight will demonstrate end-to-end IP networking through Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) remote tracking station and established Spacecraft Operations Center (SOC) infrastructure that are typically used for SGLS communications. We will also establish a full set of requirements along with a network architecture blueprint for IP-based spacecraft operations from the same SOC. Moreover, a detailed set of algorithm design definitions along with a testbed demonstration will be established for network management daemons that will enable cyber awareness and protection, network performance monitoring and control, scheduling and resource allocation, user authorization, and other network management features desired by the spacecraft operators. The network management framework and hierarchy of applications will be expandable and able to run concurrently with mission-specific applications on the same computing platforms. At the end of the Phase 1, the entire space C2 IP networking design framework will be ready for implementation. Prior to installation, Innoflight’s Spacecraft Operation Network Management Daemon applications will need to be written and thoroughly tested in Innoflight’s space C2 testbed. Once implemented at a SOC, the entire space industry will see a significant gain in spacecraft operations autonomy and flexibility through secure IP networking which will include a dramatic cost savings by doing away with custom and unique serial protocol translators and space unique systems.

Traclabs, Inc.
100 Northeast Loop 410 Suite 520
San Antonio, TX 78216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 461-7886
David Kortenkamp
AF121-061      Awarded: 8/1/2012
Title:I-HAMMER: Interactive Autonomy for Control of Space Assets
Abstract: The United States is increasingly reliant on space-based technologies for surveillance, communications, and navigation. However, our satellites face significant threats from external forces as well as the usual threats from failures, space weather, and orbital debris and must become more survivable. On-board satellite autonomy has been shown in several flight demonstrations to provide the ability to address these issues. Our approach leverages several decades of NASA and DOD research into autonomous systems. It includes a Mission Planner that takes as its input the current state of the satellite, the list of target observations and downlinks, and models of the available satellite activities and generates an ordered list of interdependent satellite actions with execution time windows. This is integrated with a Threat Response Planner that ensures that both the mission and the satellite are safe from failure and are responsive to opportunities. Taken together these components provide significant autonomous capability to the satellite. BENEFIT: The number of military satellites is growing quickly and they are critical to almost all military operations. The cost of operations of these satellites is also growing. Autonomy can reduce these operational costs if deployed progressively and if it is trusted. Military satellites also face increasing threats from space debris, enemy actions, and internal faults. Our system helps to mitigate those threats and allow for continued operation. Commercial satellites can also benefit from this technology once it has been proven by the DOD. NASA satellites and missions face demands for autonomy due to their distance from the Earth. We anticipate NASA uses for this technology as well.

Space Micro Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
Carl S. Edwards
AF121-062      Awarded: 7/31/2012
Title:Light Weight Shielding for Satellite Protection from Severe Space Weather
Abstract: Size and weight issues are routinely addressed by reducing the number of components and/or boards required to perform a given function. This attention to the electronics components can produce SWAP reduction, however, the electronics enclosures can also represent a significant fraction of the overall size and weight of a subsystem. Various design practices that employ traditional materials (aluminum is typical), can yield incremental improvements in the size, weight, and thermal and EMI performance of electronics enclosures. However, what is missing in traditional electronics miniaturization/lightweighting approaches is a broader effort to capitalize on novel materials. Research in novel materials is rich and wide-ranging; Space Micro brings an applications- oriented, product-minded focus to evaluating the state-of-the-art and applying it to new electronics enclosure methods. BENEFIT: New weight efficient ways to shield electronics systems enable the use of advanced microelectronics. Disruptive improvements in the performance, reliability, and affordability of military and commercial satellites. High payoff, largely untapped, potential in transitioning novel, multifunctional materials technology into electronics enclosures/subassemblies. The end applications for this technology and product include many DoD, NASA, civil, and commercial space platforms. Among these specific space programs are Air Force Lynx, NRO Colony, ORS missions, DARPA Phoenix, Tacsat family, AEHF tech insertions, DARPA F6 cluster, SBSS, STSS, advanced GPS, and several classified space projects. This technology and evolving Space Micro products will also benefit many commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat, Direct TV, XM radio, Orbcomm and Iridium Next telecom constellation replenishment, plus standard industry busses including Lockheed’s A2100, and Boeing’s HS-702. NASA programs include space science and earth science emissions, plus interplanetary missions to Mars and beyond. The new Orion CEV and advanced NASA space launch system (SLS) could benefit. Potential customers include university CubeSat programs as well as major U.S. space system suppliers, such as Boeing Space, Lockheed Martin, Space Systems Loral, Northrop Grumman Space, Internationally, subject to ITAR and export control, customers may include Astrium, Thales-Alenia, Toshiba, MELCO, and Alcaltel. Space Micro has established marketing channels for space hardware products including our

Tethers Unlimited, Inc.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Jonathan Wrobel
AF121-062      Awarded: 7/31/2012
Title:Versatile Structural Radiation Shielding (VSRS)
Abstract: We propose to adapt additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate multifunctional "Versatile Structural Radiation Shielding" (VSRS) components that provide multi-layer radiation shielding, multi-layer thermal insulation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI) shielding, and structural strength. Our approach of using additive manufacturing techniques, such as Selective Laser Sintering and Fused Deposition Modeling, to create multi-material, multi-layer structures enables more affordable and customizable radiation shielding that can be printed quickly at flight-ready quality and in geometries that serve multiple purposes. This game-changing technology uses the design freedom offered by additive manufacturing to make full use of the mass-savings of multi-layer radiation shielding, by being able to fabricate such multi-layer shielding in arbitrary geometries. This alone facilitates up to a 60% mass savings over single-material approaches. Further mass and cost savings are achievable by being able to produce radiation shielding structures that can serve multi-purpose functionality: the shielding can be designed to concurrently serve as structure, multi-layer thermal insulation, and EMI shielding. This new approach is expected to reduce both lead times and schedule costs due to the ease of manufacturing intricate structures with additive manufacturing.In the Phase II effort, sample testing in radiation environments will be pursued to characterize the performance and to qualify the technology. BENEFIT: Versatile Structural Radiation Shielding technology is targeted at meeting the needs of the DoD, NASA, and commercial missions who seek to extend mission life and improve performance through cost-effective radiation shielding. This new radiation-shielding technology will be able to be used at several levels: as stand-alone casing/shielding for electronics, as both structure and shielding, or as multi-layer insulation that also serves as structure, radiation shielding, and EMI shielding. Since nearly all spacecraft use MLI and many use radiation shielding, there is a large potential market for the Versatile Radiation Shielding. With the degree of flexibility inherent in VRS, it is appropriate for use in large communication satellites down to the CubeSat scale or smaller. The cost to implement the VRS technology scales with the implementation, making it affordable at all scales. This includes academia, private, and government satellite programs.

Echo Ridge, LLC
100 Carpenter Drive Suite 100
Great Falls, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 348-3167
John Carlson
AF121-063      Awarded: 7/20/2012
Title:Joint Processing of Multi-band Signals with Information Assurance
Abstract: Echo Ridge proposes to design and evaluate GNSS processing algorithms designed to provide high accuracy and spoofing robustness (information assurance (IA)) by exploiting diversity in radio navigation signals (frequency, location, bandwidth, format). We will extend on-going work in the area of multi-satellite, multi-frequency GNSS signal processing with novel and original algorithms to improve navigation performance. In addition Echo Ridge will apply a unique and highly efficient cross ambiguity processing algorithm which will improve robustness against multipath effects. The developed algorithms will be evaluated using a hardware-in-the-loop RF environment emulator, capable of synthesizing arbitrary signals both at digital baseband and at RF. In addition a characterization of performance will be carried out in realistic emulated propagation environments which include fading, multipath, and interference. BENEFIT: Commercialization opportunities for the subject navigation technology are numerous in the commercial location sector, the public services, and the DoD sectors. In the public sector, emergency first responder personnel lack a robust location system which hampers search and rescue operations. There are also equally compelling needs in the commercial sector, where wireless mobiles equipped with GPS for E911 positioning suffer from very poor yield indoors and in dense urban areas, even with “assisted-GPS” augmentations. The last few years have witnessed explosive growth for revenue-bearing location-based navigation technology and applications, all of which suffer from poor performance for the same reasons and ultimately cost companies in lost potential revenue. One of the most promising developments that will aid in bringing the subject research technology to broad commercial use is the increase in portable computing devices that now contain built-in GNSS and subsystems such as GPS, in addition to accelerometers, gyroscopes, WiFi, and multi-band radio frequency transceivers. Hosting robust navigation technology on COTS hardware has never been more appealing and cost effective, which greatly increases the chances of transitioning this technology into a commercialization success.

Nu-Trek
16955 Via Del Campo Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 477-1756
Jerry Knight
AF121-063      Awarded: 7/12/2012
Title:Joint Processing of Multi-band Signals with Information Assurance
Abstract: The Nu-Trek team will develop an “Assured Integrity (AI) GNSS Navigator”. The AI GNSS Navigator includes both the algorithms required to effectively interpret the GNSS signals with high degrees of accuracy and information assurance as well as the GNSS receiver that is required to effectively acquire the GNSS signals. Current GPS receiver designs utilize separate code and carrier tracking loops, one for each signal. However, tracking all GNSS signals from a joint tracking loop offers numerous advantages. Current GPS receivers also use separate, narrow band, front end electronics to track each frequency. To complement the coordinated tracking loop, a wide band, coordinated GNSS front end will be designed. The AI GNSS navigator will interrogate the GNSS signals and provide the user with several categories of operation status pertaining to the integrity and level of assurance of the navigation solution. In Phase I Nu-Trek will develop the information assurance methodology and algorithms, demonstrating the improved navigation accuracy and ability to detect and eliminate jamming and spoofing. A top level design of the correlated GNSS Receiver will also be performed. In Phase II a prototype receiver will be demonstrated with select algorithms. BENEFIT: The Nu-Trek team will develop an “Assured Integrity (AI) GNSS Navigator”. The AI GNSS Navigator includes both the algorithms required to effectively interpret the GNSS signals with high degrees of accuracy and information assurance as well as the GNSS receiver that is required to effectively acquire the GNSS signals. This is a very forward looking hardware and software development program, as in 5-10 years GNSS navigation will become commonplace. Also, the Nu-Trek approach, in which the algorithms are complemented with a dedicated AI GNSS front is very enabling, without such a front end the number of signals that can be utilized will be limited to a small fraction of the available signals.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
5777 Central Avenue, Suite 221
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 834-3475
Geoffrey Crowley
AF121-064      Awarded: 7/23/2012
Title:Small Satellite-based System for Active and Passive Sounding of the Ionosphere DC-HF
Abstract: Accurate specification of the ionospheric environment is critical to Air Force and DoD needs, because it impacts communications, navigation and surveillance systems. Most current ground-based ionospheric monitoring systems are expensive, large, and power- hungry providing poor coverage over ocean areas. To address the need for a small, inexpensive and low power instrument capable of on-demand global-coverage, we propose a satellite-based topside ionospheric sounder (TIS). TIS will measure the topside electron density profile and, by merging the instrument with a floating potential double probe, will also characterize the electric field vector. TIS will fit within an envelope of 10cmx10cmx10cm, weigh approximately 1 kg and consume less than 5 Watts of power. The Phase-I conceptual design effort will be led by Dr. Geoff Crowley who has significant experience as PI of the DICE Cubesat mission, with world-class Cubesat instrument development, and has led the development of the TIDDBIT HF sounder and a software-defined radio, dual fresquency GPS receiver. The collaborators include Dr. Chad Fish who has extensive experience with ground based radars and small satellite design ad Dr. Charles Swenson who’s team at SDL has significant experience with deployable booms and instrument hardware on the currently operating DICE CubeSat mission. BENEFIT: The TIS is a merger of two unique ionospheric sensors and takes advantage of the strengths of both instruments while providing unprecedented miniaturization and enabling flights on future CubeSat missions. TIS represents an advance in the state-of-the-art in ionospheric specification allowing for increased coverage and on-demand theater observation. This stems from the innovative approach taken by the proposal team which states that high power is not required to produce a high quality ionogram. By reducing the system noise and optimizing the sampling characteristics, the low power TIS is able to outperform its predecessors in terms of data coverage, sampling rate, and SWaP. The reductions in the SWaP allow TIS to be flown on CubeSats as well as large satellite missions of opportunity. By combining measurements of the topside electron density profiles with electric field specification, the proposed approach provides a more complete picture of the ionospheric behavior. The resulting observations can improve assimilative techniques which predict scintillation and validate numerical models of the ionosphere which are critical for DoD needs. The result is more than the sum of its parts providing not only a smaller and more cost-effective instrument but also novel capabilities for increasing space situational awareness.

Lowell Digisonde International, LLC
175 Cabot Street, Suite 200
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 735-4752
Bodo W. Reinisch
AF121-064      Awarded: 7/17/2012
Title:A Small Satellite-based System for Active and Passive Sounding of the Ionosphere, Direct Current (DC) through High Frequency (HF)
Abstract: The design of a new instrument for a small satellite is described that incorporates the specifications for an RF Topside Ionospheric Sounder (TIS) with Double Probe (DP) electric field sensors. Six 7.5-m booms, configured into three orthogonal 15-m tip-to-tip dipoles and 3 orthogonal double probes (DP), are assumed. The proposed “DPTIS” instrument can be flown within or above the ionosphere. The TIS design scans frequencies from 0.1 - 30 MHz and specifies the wave polarization (O/X) in the ionograms and the echo angle-of-arrival for ionospheric skymaps. The TIS design uses LDI/UML heritage from the IMAGER/RPI instrument and ground-based Digisondes and provides high programming flexibility to accommodate diverse S/C orbits. Ionogram/radio-skymap cadences of 10 s will provide high spatial resolution. Heritage autoscaling software can derive real-time electron density profiles from the S/C altitude to the F2-layer peak. The double probe measurements use isolated spheres mounted at the end of the 6 antenna booms. The DP will measure the field components from ~DC to 1 KHz. Outside the ionogram/skymap time windows the DP voltages are continuously sampled at nominally 4 kS/s. The DP design and processing is based on heritage instrumentation that UNH developed and delivered for the MMS and other missions. BENEFIT: The DPTIS design is sufficiently flexible to fly on research missions in the F layer, both above or below the F2 peak for detailed studies of equatorial spread F and scintillations, or on a fleet of topside surveying missions for the mapping of the global ionosphere. Accurate near real-time topside electron density profiles can be ingested into the GAIM model and will constrain the model in terms of foF2, hmF2, and accurate topside profiles to ~1,000 km altitude in all regions including those currently inaccessible with ground-based observations.

Invocon, Inc.
19221 IH-45 South; Ste. 530
Conroe, TX 77385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 292-9903
Eric Krug
AF121-065      Awarded: 7/30/2012
Title:Radiation Environment Monitor for Spacecraft (REMS)
Abstract: Invocon proposes its Radiation Environment Monitor for Spacecraft (REMS) as a method to provide real-time space radiation weather information for satellites and other spacecraft. REMS measures, stores, and communicates information about radiation dose, dose rate, and angle of incidence. It also differentiates between types of radiation including all particles composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. The small, low-power nature of REMS will have minimal logistical impact on its host platforms, and its ability to change measurement characteristics after deployment significantly increases its long-term relevance in the event of changing regulations and updated weather models. The real-time capabilities of REMS will enable ground controllers to mitigate the effect of significant weather events on satellites. BENEFIT: Invocon’s Radiation Environment Monitor for Spacecraft (REMS) is useful for monitoring satellites and other spacecraft to determine the real-time space weather to which they are subjected. This technology is small and low power making it useful for both large and small satellites. In addition to satellites, REMS can be deployed on other space vehicles for monitoring radiation exposure by equipment and personnel. Finally, it can be useful in measuring radiation on earth.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
5777 Central Avenue, Suite 221
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 641-4235
Irfan Azeem
AF121-066      Awarded: 7/2/2012
Title:Terahertz Radiometer Design for Thermospheric Wind Sounding
Abstract: The ionosphere and upper atmosphere play a major role in Air Force and DoD missions, including communications, navigation, surveillance, and satellite drag. Understanding how the ionosphere affects these DoD missions is tied in part to understanding its motion and variability. Thermospheric winds contribute significantly to the morphology and variability of the ionosphere. Despite the high priority placed upon thermospheric neutral winds by the Air Force, its ability to make persistent and accurate wind measurements with high resolution, global coverage, and frequent sampling is extremely limited. In response to the SBIR Topic AF-121-066 we propose to develop a conceptual design for a 2.0 THz Oxygen-line Radiometer (THOR2.0) for thermospheric wind sounding. The proposed instrument design will be consistent with the established CubeSat mass, fit/form, and power resources. The THOR2.0 instrument proposed here will use a design based on the highly successful NASA MLS and ESA Herschel/HIFI instruments. THOR2.0 will provide full diurnal coverage of thermospheric winds in the 90-150 km region as well as temperature and atomic oxygen density profiles in the 90-250 km region, thereby addressing the needs of the Air Force to satisfy Ionospheric Key Performance Parameters identified in the Air Force Integrated Operational Requirements Document (IORD) II. BENEFIT: The THOR2.0 (2.0 THz Oxygen-line Radiometer) instrument is a significant step toward miniaturizing submillimeter wave radiometer for CubeSat missions. The proposed instrument will be capable of providing day and night thermospheric wind profiles in the 90- 150 km region, not afforded by instruments operating in the visible or near-infrared wavelengths (e.g. Fabry-Perot Spectrometers or Interferometers). In addition, the spatial coverage in the vertical offered by the proposed instrument will be far better than can be achieved by any in-situ measurements. Thermospheric winds measured from the THOR2.0 instrument are expected to provide important inputs to ionospheric assimilative models being developed by the Air Force. It is expected that the unique capability of THOR2.0 to make day/night measurements and its robust yet small SWaP design will make it the instrument of choice for CubeSat missions dedicated to observing the thermospheric neutral winds.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Theodore L. Beach
AF121-066      Awarded: 7/19/2012
Title:A CubeSat-Compatible Neutral Wind Sensor
Abstract: CubeSats provide a new, low-cost platform for space weather missions. They enable new mission paradigms, such as the ability to perform multiple measurements of the same physical phenomena globally from several satellites, in contrast to high accuracy measurements of multiple phenomena on the same spacecraft. Flight-tested neutral wind sensors must be miniaturized to fit into these much smaller platforms. Creare and its partners propose to develop a CubeSat-compatible neutral wind sensor for making vector neutral wind measurements in the thermosphere from a single CubeSat platform. The proposed sensor builds on demonstrated sensing concepts and innovative technology, such as space-compatible field-emission microtips in place of heated filament electron sources, to significantly reduce size, weight, and power. Our proposed sensor will fit into a 1U cube (10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm) volume for integration into a 3U CubeSat, which would include all of the required subsystems necessary to obtain accurate vector neutral wind measurements from orbit altitudes between 90 and 500 km. BENEFIT: This technology represents a breakthrough advancement that will enable the gathering of scientific data about the neutral winds in the thermosphere that was previously very difficult or expensive to achieve. The payoff of this technology will enable improved modeling of satellite drag and radio wave scintillation as the neutral wind drivers are better understood. Potential spinoffs include application of innovative space-compatible field-emission technology to other space environment sensors.

EPIR Technologies Inc
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Silviu Velicu
AF121-067      Awarded: 7/18/2012
Title:Broadband High Operating Temperature Focal Plane Array (FPA)
Abstract: We propose the development of broadband, two-color focal plane arrays (FPAs) that will allow the detection of radiation in the visible and infrared (IR) bands from the same target points with registration within the optical limit. The first band will cover the 400 nm to 4 micron wavelength range and will be based on EPIR’s double-layer planar heterostructures technology. The backside-illuminated array will have the substrate removed to allow for visible detection. The second color will cover the 4-11 micron wavelength range and will be based on an Auger-suppressed architecture. This architecture will allow for dark currents similar to the ones observed in the first color (400 nm – 4 micron). The development of a broadband visible/IR FPA poses several challenges in the areas of detector design, material, device physics, fabrication process, integration and testing. The purpose of our proposed research is to address these challenges and demonstrate a high-performance camera system that incorporates an HgCdTe-based detector array. Phase I research will first focus on computational studies related to the proposed detector structure optimization. The results of the initial simulations will be used to guide the material growth process, and devices will subsequently be fabricated, characterized and delivered to the Air Force. BENEFIT: There are a wide number of applications for compact, low power detectors in areas such as spectrometry, thermometry, industrial manufacturing, and hotspot detection. Portable, handheld thermal imaging systems used for diagnostic detection are ideal candidates for lightweight, low power detectors. Moreover, large uncooled and thermoelectrically-cooled IR arrays have various uses in defense, astronomy, geology, law enforcement, remote environmental sensing, and emergency response. Improved high-performance HgCdTe detectors without cryo-cooling requirements are of great interest to the industry since many customers who may not have access to liquid nitrogen could benefit from having improved detection capability. The lightweight, low power design of the proposed detector would create a new market for the industry, which would significantly benefit from performance, uncooled detectors. Uncooled photodetectors designed for wide spectral detection can be used for high-sensitivity detection, particularly for low flux applications, and can replace, or be used in conjunction with conventional thermal detectors.

SK Infrared LLC
Lobo Venture Lab 801 University Blvd Ste
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 453-3349
Sanchita Krishna
AF121-067      Awarded: 7/16/2012
Title:Broadband High Operating Temperature Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays (FPA)
Abstract: In this proposal, SK Infrared LLC (SKI), a spin off from the Krishna Infrared Detector (KIND) laboratory at the University of New Mexico, is teaming up with Raytheon Vision System (RVS) to develop a flat top broadband high operating temperature mid wave infrared and long wave infrared detector based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type II superlattice detectors using unipolar barriers to decrease the dark current. At the end of Phase I, a hardware single pixel detector covering the MWIR and LWIR will be delivered to the Air Force to evaluate the performance for the required mission. The Phase II will focus on the demonstration of a liner array using a ROIC developed in collaboration with RVS. SKI and RVS have an established working relationship including three SBIR Phase I and are currently being considered for 2 SBIR Phase II awards. BENEFIT: The superlattices have emerged as a disruptive technology in the past five years. Broadband higher operating temperature detectors provide additional functionality for surveillance, space situational awareness and reconnaissance missions. The partner on this proposal, Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has significant experience in technology development for next generation of large format focal plane arrays (IRFPA) to develop the best solution for ballistic missile intercept systems such as SM-3 (IIA and future upgrades). These new IRFPAs are designed to provide improved system capabilities such as enhanced imaging for target discrimination, signature recognition, countermeasure, and clutter rejection. Integrated dual-band IRFPAs offer separate spectral sensitivity to two different IR wavelengths within each pixel. This effort can therefore provide risk reduction to current HgCdTe FPA approaches and be seamlessly inserted into future RVS IR&D demonstration activities. Most importantly, the results of this work can be directly communicated to Government customers including Raytheon Missile Systems (RMS) to facilitate technology insertion possibilities.

Design_Net Engineering LLC
16080 Table Mountain Parkway Suite 500
Golden, CO 80403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 462-0096
Louis Marketos
AF121-068      Awarded: 7/25/2012
Title:Common Bus Interface Adapter Chip
Abstract: A key problem in the rapid and lower cost development of spacecraft is that the various devices that comprise the spacecraft bus do not typically provide a single standard interface and/or communications protocols. This forces a design-to-order paradigm in which a spacecraft bus is developed on a per-mission basis with little reuse of existing software. Efforts such as SPA have defined an interface standard and a message protocol for hardware and software components so that rapid configuration and integration is possible. However, until device vendors adopt standards such as SPA, each device must have an interface adapter that translates between the native protocols and standard protocols. To date for SPA, that adapter has been an ASIM. While serving an important role in the early development of SPA, ASIMs are inefficient in their design due to the lack of an appropriate COTS device to fulfill the needs of this domain. They add significant power requirements, weight, cost and software development effort to a project. Design Net Engineering has developed a solution to the standard interface problem, enabling component manufacturers to create SPA-compliant devices rapidly with significantly lower power usage, mass, cost and effort than the existing alternatives BENEFIT: Space Plug & Play Avionics (SPA) has been designed to enable rapid, lower code development of spacecraft. Adoption of SPA by the wider industry to reach a critical mass of available components is vital to its success. The development effort, hardware cost, power usage and mass of existing SPA interface solutions have served as deterrents to wider adoption to date. Design Net Engineering’s solution provides a cheaper, low effort, low power and low mass solution to the problem thus enabling and encouraging component manufacturers to provide SPA compliance to their hardware with minimal impediments. This will enable wider adoption of SPA as a standard and allow the full benefits of using SPA to be realized, resulting in faster development and lower cost spacecraft for NASA, DoD and commercial spacecraft providers.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Peter A. Warren
AF121-068      Awarded: 7/24/2012
Title:Cost-effective Operationally Response Membrane Antenna (CORMA)
Abstract: ORS requires rapid delivery of low-cost payloads that meet the needs of unplanned and unanticipated spacecraft missions. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) will provide ORS, the Air Force, and other customers with a low-cost, rapidly-fabricated deployable antenna for use in a wide range of potential missions. The PSI team will use a combination of commercially available manufacturing techniques and a design-for-fabrication approach that will provide ORS with a versatile, scalable, deployable, high-gain antenna technology that can meet the needs of missions from 500 MHz to 8 GHz. During the Phase I program, PSI will fabricate a deployable antenna, demonstrate its stowage and deployment, and verify its RF performance. The Phase I testing data will be extrapolated to the antenna performance for a range of ORS missions. The manufacturing lessons learned will be extrapolated to the flight system production cost and schedule. During the Phase II program, the design and manufacturing tools will be matured and a representative antenna will built as part of a flight ready system ready for demonstration on a 3U cubesat mission. BENEFIT: The PSI approach is to develop an inherently low-cost and thus commercially viable antenna technology. The technology provides substantial benefits in both cost and schedule thus reducing overall program management risk. The early application to high gain cubesat antennas will provide a first market with a low threshold barrier and a track record of accepting novel technologies. Once the technology has been flight-demonstrated, the approach can be applied to larger, more-traditionally sized spacecraft for ORS and the Air Force as well as commercial spacecraft missions.

Chemat Technology, Inc.
9036 Winnetka Avenue
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Yuhong Huang
AF121-069      Awarded: 8/6/2012
Title:Advanced Space Energy Storage that Incorporates Long Cycle Life at High Depths of Discharge
Abstract: The goal of this technology development is to design, develop and test Li-ion battery cells with long cyclic life composing an advanced cathode. There are number of candidate cathode and anode materials are considered promising candidates for lithium ion battery due to their large capacity and relatively good rate capability, low self-discharge and relatively good capacity retention as well as ease of monitoring state of charge. However, their cyclic life is still far from satisfying DOD’s needs for space application as stated above. Main challenges for current cathode materials include considerable deterioration of the cycle stability due to structural changes, dissolution of transition metal and oxygen; formation of passive layer from decomposition of electrolyte, impedance growth; and thermal instability of cathode material. In this proposed research, we will develop, evaluate and validate advanced materials (including anode, cathode and electrolyte) for use in Li-ion battery. Phase I focus is to prove that the proposed battery chemistry and advanced material are promising for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) application. Phase I work will provide a very good base and direction for further development in Phase II towards the goal of fabrication of Li-ion battery with specific energy > 200 Wh/kg and demonstrate long cycle life (60,000) under 60-100% DOD LEO conditions. BENEFIT: Li-ion battery with high energy density and long cyclic life is essential for military and civilian space application, especially for low earth orbiting satellites. High energy density and long cyclic life are also highly demanded for daily life application, such as battery for lab-top computer and other portable equipments, such as medical devices—X-ray machine, ultrasound system etc.

Farasis Energy, Inc.
21363 Cabot Blvd
Hayward, CA 94545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 732-6600
Keith Kepler
AF121-069      Awarded: 8/3/2012
Title:Advanced Space Energy Storage that Incorporates Long Cycle Life at High Depths of Discharge
Abstract: Greater cycle life at higher energy densities are required from Li-ion batteries to address the demands of military satellite systems. A new high capacity cathode material will be developed and a novel cell design strategy will be demonstrated with the potential to double the current usable energy density of Li-ion cells for extended cycle life applications. BENEFIT: The technology will benefit multiple military power applications including satellites and war- fighter support systems. Commercial applications include use in advanced battery systems for HEV's and PHEV's.

Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0530
Robert C. McDonald, Ph.D.
AF121-069      Awarded: 8/2/2012
Title:Advanced Li-Ion Cell for High Cycle Life Satellite Application
Abstract: Giner, Inc. (Giner) proposes to use its 5-V battery materials to provide the desired cycle life and specific energy for this application. The cell uses electrolyte combinations of selected cosolvents to reduce or eliminate carbonate solvents for greatly improved electrochemical stability to enable cycling over a significantly wider voltage range of between 5V and 3V vs. 4.1V and 3V for currently lithium ion satellite batteries. The higher voltage stability is further enabled by the use of a high voltage cathode material, which is synthesized at Giner. This cathode material offers exceptional cycling life capability because of its wide voltage range, resistance to metal dissolution and favorable structural stability during lithium insertion/de- insertion. The wide range of potentials will permit the optimization of the charge and discharge limits to achieve large increases in cycle life, without resorting to very low DOD. Cathode composition will be optimized to demonstrate the trade-offs between energy, power and cycle life for advanced space energy storage. Cell-level cycle life testing will be used to predict the improvements in cycle life using these materials while maintaining >200 Wh/kg specific energy with the necessary capacity retention on extended storage. BENEFIT: The proposed cell development will enable the development of large lithium-ion batteries with improved energy and power density as well as improved consumer and device safety in large cell arrays used in electric vehicles. Improvements in cell power will permit wider application of lithium-ion batteries and cells in portable consumer devices.

Aeronix Inc
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd. Suite 200
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-1671
Ronald J. Capasso
AF121-070      Awarded: 7/25/2012
Title:Compact Type I Space Encryption Hardware
Abstract: There are a number of ongoing initiatives to develop smaller satellites that provide less expensive solutions in a more timely fashion compared to traditional spacecraft development while reducing the barrier-to-entry for participation in the space industry. The Office of Responsive Space, ORS, plans to use Plug-n-Play satellites and/or Micro-satellites to provide highly responsive space borne capabilities. These satellites must will be deployed expeditiously to support the DoD users who need real-time space support. The DARPA F6 is developing fractionated satellite architecture to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing traditional monolithic satellites with a cluster of wirelessly-interconnected modules capable of sharing their resources and utilizing resources found elsewhere in the cluster. A common requirement of these systems is the need for reducing the size, weight and power footprint of the National Security Agency (NSA) Type 1 End Cryptographic Units (ECUs). Aeronix proposes to develop a stand alone certifiable ECUs capable of supporting multiple encryption/decryption channels at 100 megabits/sec in less than 250-mW and within a 70x70x12.5-mm envelope. The ECU will have standard interfaces to enable satellite integrators to easily incorporate the ECU into their satellite system. The architecture will be designed to be NSA type 1 certified. A Radiation Tolerant/Hardened ASIC will integrates all the cryptographic functions into a single device and be able withstand the rigors of space environment. This Compact Space Crypto (CSC) ASIC will be comprised of an AES cryptographic engine and on board micro-controller to perform the key management and cryptographic configuration and status responsibilities. BENEFIT: The space crypto technology developed under this SBIR benefits the emerging class of smaller satellites in the commercial community as well as the needs of the DoD operationally responsive space intitiative.

Innoflight, Inc.
5850 Oberlin Dr. Suite 340
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 638-1580
Jonathan Wolff
AF121-070      Awarded: 7/10/2012
Title:Compact Type I Space Encryption Hardware
Abstract: DoD Type 1 encryption is almost always required for any space demonstration or mission and thus an incredibly key technology for space systems. When small satellites (ORS, tactical s/c, CubeSats, etc.) are considered, the technology becomes even more critical since Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) are at such a premium. Currently, there are no Type 1 certified encryption units that are small enough for use on CubeSat-size space systems, which greatly restricts the utility of their architecture. Over the past several years, Innoflight has developed a series of Encryption Control Unit (ECU) prototypes for CubeSat through MiniSat applications. This development has culminated with the production of the first Innoflight Miniature End Cryptographic Unit (MECU). This highly integrated ‘smart’ component is based on National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B cryptography using the AES256 algorithms. This first non-certified flight MECU is scheduled to fly on an Air Force weather nanosatellite, SENSE, early in CY2013. In this proposed SBIR project, Innoflight is leveraging multiple efforts both internally and externally to build on this existing development by updating and completing Type 1 certification of the MECU, optionally available with an integrated CCSDS/AFSCN- compatible transceiver, by the conclusion of Phase 2. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits: 1) Provide a low SWaP Type 1 certified cryptographic unit for small spacecraft by the end of Phase 2 2) Provide an integrated Radio Aerospace Vehicle Equipment (AVE) that is compatible with existing ground networks, including both AFSCN / SGLS and CCSDS ///// Potential Commercial Applications: 1) The MECU can be used to provide encryption or a full secure communications system for DoD CubeSats and virtually any SmallSat 2) The MECU also can be used for NASA small spacecraft, which represent national assets that require secure communications 3) Some commercial small space missions also will be interested in low-SWaP secure communications systems such as that provided by the MECU 4) Launch vehicles and missiles can utilize the MECU and integrated radio to provide secure communications at Low SWaP as well 5) This technology is directly applicable to similar remotely operated vehicles such as UAVs

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
23 Mauchly #109
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
Vladimir Markov
AF121-071      Awarded: 7/16/2012
Title:Advanced Tunable Laser (ATLAS)
Abstract: A multi-functional laser (MFL) is becoming an essential component of a prospective active laser system for tracking, characterization and discrimination of space objects. Low intensity, object-returned signals in combination with its large Doppler frequency shift requires novel solutions to address the issues necessary to facilitate steady-track conditions. This proposal outlines the AS&T approach in designing an MFL and the validation of a fast-tunable, frequency-controlled CW laser that is required for high MFL performance. This Phase I program will focus on performance analysis and proof of principle experiments of the proposed Advanced Tunable Laser (ATLAS) module. During Phase II of this program we will perform a prototype MFL system design including integration and laboratory validation. BENEFIT: The proposed ATLAS should support a number of applications including LADAR and laser tracking systems, high-density optical storage systems, optical non-destructive testing systems, high-resolution profilometers, and sensors based on fiber-Bragg gratings. Additionally, in combination with an amplifier stage, the described laser system would be an ideal pump source for narrowband optical-parametric oscillators (OPO) for the remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF121-071      Awarded: 7/20/2012
Title:Multi-function Laser Module (MFL) for Enhanced Space Surveillance
Abstract: SA Photonics is pleased to propose the development of the SENTRY multi-function laser system. SENTRY incorporates SA Photonics high energy fiber optic technology and AccuPoint beam control system to enable precision tracking of space debris BENEFIT: Orbital planes are getting increasingly populated with space debris. Objects as small as 1 cm can cause severe damage to satellites. SENTRY has the promise to to enable tracking of objects a small as 1 cm with to a range rate accuracy of better than 1m/s from ground based facilities. This enables the Air Force to implement evasive maneuvers before a critical satellite is damaged

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
23 Mauchly #109
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
Anatoliy Khizhnyak
AF121-072      Awarded: 8/2/2012
Title:Beaconless dual-mode wavefront sensor - BlessWFS
Abstract: The U.S. Air Force needs an electro-optical system capable of a mission critical, high- performance system capable of active or passive detection and characterization of the wavefront backscattered by an object of interest. In the novel AS&T solution to the Air Force requirements, a target-scattered coherent or incoherent complex optical field is detected by a dual-form optical sensor. Post-processing of this detected field allows retrieval and complete characterization of the corresponding wavefront. During Phase I AS&T will design and integrate the proof of concept testbed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed beaconless wavefront sensor. During Phase II, AS&T will extend the performance capabilities of the proposed system, design and build a breadboard for verifying and optimizing the predicted system performance, demonstrate and refine laboratory operation, and estimate the working envelope. BENEFIT: An important benefit of the proposed concept is the development of an advanced sensor with unique capabilities that allows detection and characterization of a complex wavefront from a coherent or incoherent illuminated object. The technologies developed under this effort can be applied to various intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance needs, including ground-based systems, airborne usage, or space deployment. In the commercial sector this technology can be applied to air-traffic control, astronomy, microscopy systems, and laser telecom.

Kestrel Corporation
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Paul Harrison
AF121-072      Awarded: 8/3/2012
Title:Curvature-Based Passive/Active Extended Source Wavefront Sensor for Space Surveillance
Abstract: Kestrel Corporation's Distorted Grating Wavefront Sensor detects can be used to sense against point source (classical active beacon) or passively against the image of an extended source. The DGWFS is more tolerance of harsh seeing conditions, such as scintillation, than Shack Hartmann sensors. The proposed Phase I work is to demonstrate (via modeling) performance of such a sensor under seeing conditions nominally similar to airborne, ground and marine space surveillance seeing conditions using an Air Fordce telescope. BENEFIT: The technology will benefit a variety of end users from improved performance in astronomincal telescopes to use on EO/IR platforms to COTS wavefront sensors. THe DGWFS, being more toleranct of poor atmospheric conditions, will enable the benefits of adaptive optics to be realized in a way that will increase the optimized availability of these surveillance assets.

Raydex Technology, Inc.
18 Eldred St,
Lexington, MA 02420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 583-2161
Frank W. Mont
AF121-073      Awarded: 7/25/2012
Title:Anti-reflective Coating for High-Efficiency Solar Cells
Abstract: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to develop a technology to enable broadband antireflective (AR) coatings for high-efficiency solar cells. Current, AR coatings use bilayers such as TiOx/Al2O3 that are sufficient enough to reduce reflectance losses. However, new materials and optical designs will be required to meet the need of future solar cells in which more of the solar spectrum will be utilized by the device. This requires broadband, omni-directional elimination of reflection especially for longer wavelengths. The proposed effort will develop materials that achieve this requirement while being robust enough to withstand encapsulation. The advantage of the proposed effort is that through material innovation and a new optical design, broadband AR coatings can be fabricated using conventional materials. The intellectual merit mainly lies in the technical challenges for realizing these materials and using them in an optical design. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of developing this technology include achieving record-level solar cell efficiency directly beneficial to satellite and space missions as well as contributing to our green energy initiative and our energy independence. Additionally, these coatings can be applied to numerous optical windows and sensors that require broadband AR coatings.

Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc
23 Mauchly #109
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 733-3355
Anatoliy Khizhnyak
AF121-074      Awarded: 7/11/2012
Title:Intra-Cavity Optical Amplifier (ICOA)
Abstract: This proposal plans to develop an Intra-cavity Coherent Optical Amplifier (ICOA). The Wide Field of View (FOV) High Gain Coherent Optical Amplifier is a critical element of electro- optical systems for detecting the scattered light for coherent imaging of remote objects. A fully developed ICOA will expand the use of coherent imaging systems for acquisition, tracking, identification and characterization of distant objects. The system key will be in designing a multi-path imaging amplifier operating in conjunction with an optical phase conjugation. The proposed architecture of IACO will provide a high level of amplification (up to 150 dB) at a single path low gain. Use of this approach should resolve issues associated with intra-cavity wave front aberrations caused by thermal load on the gain medium and super-luminescence effects in a high-gain amplifier. The phase conjugation is applied to compensate residual wave front aberrations, typical for intra-cavity amplification schemes introduced by thermal load and other source perturbations. BENEFIT: The proposed system will allow use of an amplified optical beam of a complicated structure, in particular a transmitted image. System applications include military areas of high-power lasers and remote target acquisition and tracking with low-level illumination. Commercial applications are in areas of weak image signal detection for dynamical visualization processes, which do not have high levels of illumination, such as medicine and biology.

PolarOnyx, Inc
2526 Qume Drive, Suites 17 & 18
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 573-0930
Jian Liu
AF121-074      Awarded: 7/25/2012
Title:Wide Field of View (FOV) High Gain Optical Rod Fiber Amplifier
Abstract: High gain fiber amplifiers with wide FOV have been considered to be an enabling technology to build active laser tracking system for future space surveillance and control. PolarOnyx proposes a novel approach targeting to make reliable and space qualifiable high gain Rod fiber amplifier at 1 um by using COTS components and employing our proprietary technologies in specialty fibers, spectral shaping and pulse shaping techniques. Space qualification will be addressed in laying out the pathway towards space deployment at the end of Phase 1. A prototype will be delivered at the end of Phase II meeting the requirement of reliability and radiation hardness. BENEFIT: In addition to space surveillance, the proposed high power fiber amplifier approach can also be used in other applications, such as space, aircraft, and satellite applications of LADAR systems and communications. PolarOnyx will develop a series of products to meet various requirements for military deployments. Other commercial applications include • Material processing. This includes (1) all types of metal processing such as welding, cutting, annealing, and drilling; (2)semiconductor and microelectronics manufacturing such as lithography, inspection, control, defect analysis and repair, and via drilling; (3) marking of all materials including plastic, metals, and silicon; (4) other materials processing such as rapid prototyping, desk top manufacturing, micromachining, photofinishing, embossed holograms, and grating manufacturing. • Medical equipment and biomedical instrumentation. The high power laser can be applied to ophthalmology, refractive surgery, photocoagulation, general surgery, therapeutic, imaging, and cosmetic applications. Biomedical instruments include those involved in cells or proteins, cytometry, and DNA sequencing; laser Raman spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, and ablation; and laser based microscopes.

Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc.
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4200
Nick Walmsley
AF121-075      Awarded: 7/31/2012
Title:Synchronized Modular Integrated Deployable Array (P-DoD12-003)
Abstract: Conventional deployable arrays of rigid solar panels use cables or added external structures to provide synchronized deployment, adding mass, volume and limiting applicability, and are custom engineered for each application with unique assembly and integration processing and fixtures. This SBIR develops a novel Integrated Deployable Array which uses a multi- functional modular rigid solar panel that provides both panel structural support and synchronized deployment. The integrated system engineering approach uses multi- functionality to reduce total mass, improve stowed volume, and provide flexibility in application to variety of panel sizes and number of panels. The approach adopts the advantages of modularity and standardization of the MOSAIC modular solar panel developed in a prior SBIR, with easy life-cycle processing, standardizing interfaces to the array assembly fixture, the Ground Support Equipment, the shipping container, the Hold-Down and Release mechanism, and the spacecraft integration fixtures. The Phase I effort completes the conceptual design of an Integrated Deployable Array including deployment mechanism and drives, performs preliminary static, dynamic and kinematic analysis, and optimizes the design for mass and volume. A proof of concept multi-panel deployment test article is assembled to demonstrate ease of assembly, modularity, and synchronized deployment under ambient conditions, in multiple configurations. BENEFIT: The development of a standardized, modular approach to rigid deployable solar array will significantly reduce non-recurring engineering, and its associated schedule and cost, which represents a significant fraction of the total cost for deployable arrays. Ease of assembly and ability to integrate into arrays of different sizes and number of panels provides the greatest applicability of the design. With standardization also comes improved reliability from improved qualification traceability and manufacturing process control. Commercial application is particularly suitable to small spacecraft with prime power requirements of 500- 5,000 Watts, where the non-recurring engineering costs and impacts of customized unique designs are a high fraction of total solar array costs.

Data Fusion & Neural Networks, LLC
1643 Hemlock Wy
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 469-9828
christopher bowman
AF121-084      Awarded: 7/31/2012
Title:Automated Distributed Data Fusion of Correlated Space Superiority Events
Abstract: To support the JSpOC Mission System, AFRL needs to develop and test intelligent process management software that integrates diverse sets of automated distributed data fusion tools for multi-source correlated space superiority events. These tools need to be assessed during their use and managed in near-real-time to maintain distributed consistency and improve their performance based upon operator and contextual feedback. To do this affordably AFRL needs to develop an intelligent (i.e., learning) system that performs Data Fusion-Process Assessment & Process Management (DF-PA&PM) of the space superiority system for co-orbital/proximity, NFL, RFI, and directed-energy scenarios. DF&NN proposes to deliver a prototype of such an intelligent distributed fusion management system operating on scenarios driven by space catalog, NASIC-based intelligence, GPS, ALPS, space weather (processed by DF&NN E-SAS/ACU/CAOS-D), and LMC provided WARGODDESS-based SIGINT, IMINT, & MASINT data, plus SBSS & SBIRS OPIR data. DF&NN proposes to deliver: 1. Space superiority scenario real and simulated data and/or events with truth events and relationship tracks and their characterizations 2. Multi-source distributed event and relationship fusion test articles based on DF&NN Bayesian Fusion Node and Charles River Integrated Mining Service 3. DF-PA&PM intelligent software 4. Performance Assessment and Management evaluation of these test articles on selected scenarios BENEFIT: There is significant need for the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) and across DoD for the intelligent assessment and management of distributed Data Fusion & Resource Management (DF&RM) systems that will enable each DF&RM system to adapt its capabilities over time to meet changing mission requirements. This research will provide the technical architecture functional decomposition of this capability and how it integrates with other higher level DF&RM functions. The software products of this work will include distributed multiple source entity and relationship assessment (i.e., Level-1&2 DF), DF- PA&PM Level-4 DF&RM, and Level-4 PAPM tools which will be extendable to other government and commercial applications. A prime example is the application to LMC government sites where such products can be used to cue multi-INT sensors and countermeasures. DF&NN also plans to extend this HLF Bayesian Fusion Node (BFN) and DF-PA&PM software to automated distributed fusion on law enforcement Computer Aided Dispatch systems. Without this interoperability, decision makers across jurisdictional boundaries are blind to the real time overall operational picture. The HLF and DF-PA&PM intelligent software will also provide these capabilities for Homeland Defense, counter-

ExoAnalytic Solutions, Inc
20532 El Toro Rd Ste 303
Mission Viejo, CA 92692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 716-4290
Kristi O'Grady
AF121-084      Awarded: 8/2/2012
Title:Semantically Enabled Event Reasoning
Abstract: Over the past twenty years, the United States and other nations around the world have become dependent on space technology for communications, precision tracking and many other applications, causing the space domain to become both contested and congested. To maintain Unites States space superiority, the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is responsible for tasking the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and maintaining a catalog of more than 22,000 man-made objects. This mission requires innovative technology to aggregate information from distributed, heterogeneous data sources to obtain Space Situational Awareness (SSA). To meet this technology need, ExoAnalytic Solutions, Inc. proposes to develop Semantically Enabled Event Reasoning (SEER) for the space domain. The objectives of SEER are: 1) to develop multi-sensor data fusion algorithms for correlating space events across heterogeneous data sources; 2) to develop a relationship estimation algorithm based on correlated space events; 3) to provide context for the estimated relationships; and 4) to develop an analytical framework for assessing performance of SSA Level 2 fusion algorithms. BENEFIT: SEER provides several key contributions to DoD. Most importantly, SEER will provide the JSpOC with a robust Level 2 fusion capability, necessary for accomplishing its mission. SEER can also play a valuable systems engineering role within Air Force Space Command (AFSPC). The SEER effort includes developing a performance assessment framework for the data fusion algorithms. This framework can be used by systems engineers to help define sensor specifications crucial to SSA and define new SSA quality of service metrics for use by JSpOC. Finally, algorithms and techniques are needed in C4ISR to fuse disparate sensor data for entity disambiguation and for uncovering terrorist networks with little to no a priori knowledge due to the adversary’s rapidly changing techniques. SEER’s technical approach, the inference algorithms that will be developed, and lessons learned, can also be leveraged to further applied research and technology development for data fusion in the C4ISR domain.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariners Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Terrance Goan
AF121-084      Awarded: 8/7/2012
Title:Forecasting Space System Threats: A Streamlined Approach
Abstract: The most critical limitations of existing approaches to threat detection and prediction is their inability to support the required knowledge modeling and continuing refinement under realistic constraints (e.g., few historic threat exemplars, limitations on the availability of subject matter experts, and the need for constant adaptation). Stottler Henke proposes to develop a new system, called Synth, that will directly address this shortcoming through three primary techniques. First, we abandon the typical consensus-driven modeling approach in favor of an approach that solicits asynchronous knowledge contributions (in the form of alternative future scenarios and indicators) without burdening the user with endless certainty or probability estimates. Second, Synth will enable knowledge contributions by personnel beyond the typical core decision-making group, thereby casting light on blindspots, mitigating human biases, and maintaining the currency of the developed threat models. Last, we employ novel machine learning techniques to avoid problems related to training and adaptability that plague other common approaches (e.g., neural networks); reasoning over the results and multiple intermediate hypotheses / threat models with a probabilistic model of evidence integration. Phase I development of a limited prototype will provide a solid foundation for the complete implementation of Synth in Phase II, and its eventual commercialization. BENEFIT: In addition to obvious benefits in military situation awareness, Synth will provide corporations with an early warning capability that allows them to monitor their competitors and the markets for changes that may signal impending threats. We are particularly excited about the prospects of integrating the proposed technology with Raytheon in their ongoing development of solutions, such as the Space Fence that is emerging from contracts awarded by the Air Force Electronic Systems Center, as well as other areas of the DoD and the Intelligence Community.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Jim McCracken
AF121-084      Awarded: 8/2/2012
Title:GIRAFE: General Integration, Relation, Association and Fusion Environment
Abstract: Our program titled General Integration, Relation, Association and Fusion Environment (GIRAFE) will establish an open framework to advance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) through the cooperative engagement of humans and machines. GIRAFE will effectively demonstrate the ability to detect and create associations from heterogeneous data sources in order to build a comprehensive picture of the space environment for the specific goal of threat detection and mitigation. The goal of GIRAFE is to facilitate the rapid identification of the optimal data sources to incorporate in order to generate the necessary piece of knowledge for the desired end state. The GIRAFE process walks through the various levels of data fusion to achieve an actionable end result. BENEFIT: TDKC projects that the commercial market place for situation awareness technologies and tools will significantly expand in the next 5 years as the $240B U.S. software industry expands. Not only is situation awareness technology critical for military and intelligence community applications, it has many non-DOD uses such as in support of Department of Homeland Security border protection, DHS and state level fusion centers, emergency management and first responder ops centers, and expanding commercial usage in retail, manufacturing, transportation, and utilities industries.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 927-4774
Thomas Murdock
AF121-085      Awarded: 7/25/2012
Title:Advanced Algorithms for Space-Based Next-Generation Infrared Sensor Exploitation
Abstract: Discrimination and tracking of low-observable targets within a cluttered viewing environment are major challenges facing the next generation of space-based wide-field-of-view (WFOV) electro optical visible and infrared (EO-IR) sensors. Low observable targets may consist of multiple, closely-spaced objects that are poorly resolved or non-resolved, objects whose signature is comparable to (or less than) the background against which it is observed, or in obscuring conditions. This effort addresses the processes by which the next generation imaging sensors will address the need for storing and processing large data volumes, while detecting and tracking the signature of interest which may occur on a few pixels at very low signal-to-background or signal-to-clutter levels. BENEFIT: The innovation resulting from this research will have direct impact on any program that has a need to track dim objects against a cluttered background, such as midcourse objects or airplanes. The innovations produced by this Phase I effort will be in the increased detection and discrimination of low observables and estimates of resources needed to implement detection and tracking onboard. In addition to the high visibility space-based surveillance, remote sensing and interceptor missions, FTI has identified civilian and military applications of aircraft and traffic monitoring or monitoring of space debris in low-Earth orbit as being potential immediate application targets for this technology.

G A Tyler Assoc. Inc. dba the Optical Sciences Co.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Curtis R. Vogel
AF121-085      Awarded: 7/11/2012
Title:Tracking Multiple Unresolved Targets in Noisy, Cluttered Environments
Abstract: This project addresses the difficult computational challenges that arise in space-based infrared object detection and tracking. We propose to implement a particular particle filtering technique which been demonstrated to robustly handle multiple, closely spaced, unresolved targets of varying intensities in high noise environments. This technique will be combined with signal processing methods specifically designed to suppress both stationary and rapidly changing clutter. The proposed technique will be implemented on massively parallel Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to allow real-time data processing, and they will be evaluated using the Fast Line-of-Sight Imagery for Target and Exhaust Signatures (FLITES) simulation package. BENEFIT: The problem of tracking multiple poorly resolved targets in cluttered environments is extremely important and has a large number of applications—both military and civilian. Applications with a very high potential for commercialization include space-based infrared surveillance, surveillance and target tracking for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and video surveillance for domestic security.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Berta Sandberg
AF121-085      Awarded: 7/25/2012
Title:Closely Spaced Low Observable Sensor Exploitation
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for detecting and tracking closely spaced objects from a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) orbit using infrared sensors, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Closely Spaced Low Observable Sensor Exploitation (CLOSE) algorithmic system, based on a novel integration of real-time clutter-mitigation method. The algorithm uses compressed sensing and associated Coded Aperture Keyed Expose techniques for super-resolution of the objects using both single and multiple frames of data within a limited bandwidth paradigm, and fast unsupervised region segmentation techniques to improve differentiation of closely spaced, low-visibility objects in real time. These innovations will enable the SBIRS satellite to detect and track low-visibility closely spaced objects meeting the Air Force need. In Phase I, POC will design, develop, and integrate CLOSE algorithms to demonstrate the feasibility to detect and track low observable closely spaced multiple objects by using available GEO satellite data with simulated objects. Phase I trade studies and feasibility analysis will identify critical technology challenges for Phase II. Phase II efforts will result in the realization of the CLOSE prototype algorithms designed to meet operational specifications through rigorous testing with real and simulated operationally representative data. BENEFIT: Military applications of the CLOSE system will mainly be detection and tracking of closely spaced objects from satellites orbiting the Earth. The CLOSE system can be incorporated by the Air Force into tracking objects using the STSS satellite system, which will benefit from CLOSE’s ability to detect and track closely spaced objects using compressed sensing and image segmentation techniques. Potential commercial use includes air traffic control and monitoring, as well as debris detection and tracking in low orbit. This system can also be used in biomedical research for detecting and tracking the life cycle of cells as they split into multiple cells and move through their ecosystem.

Scientific Systems Company, Inc
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Adel El-Fallah
AF121-085      Awarded: 7/10/2012
Title:Low-Observable, Closely-Spaced Targets Detector/Trackers
Abstract: The spaceborne IR detection and tracking of low-observable and/or closely-spaced (LOCS) space objects, presents a major theoretical and practical challenge. A significant number of space objects are not only closely-spaced, but are also embedded in a large number of other Resident Space Objects (RSOs) of various degrees of observability. Worse still, LOCS space targets will be obscured by a variety of background clutter sources due to terrain, atmosphere, cloud, and othe emissions. The LOCS problem will challenge the capabilities of conventional approaches such as multi-hypothesis trackers (MHTs). The Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) team proposes a foundational, unified statistical approach for the detection and tracking of LOCS targets. Our baseline approach is the cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) filter, which presumes a priori models of the clutter background. Beyond our baseline approach, we propose new "clutter agnostic" CPHD filters that do not require a priori knowledge of clutter statistics. Rather, they attempt to estimate the clutter background, on-the-fly, directly from the measurements, while simultaneously detecting and tracking targets. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of detecting and tracking low-observable and/or closely-spaced targets, during all phases of the project. BENEFIT: Resolution of closely-spaced targets, using all available sources of data, is of primary importance to the military to achieve information supremacy in both airborne and space environments. A potential transition is to the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) or the the Space Surveillance Tracking System (STSS). Commercial application exists in areas such as air traffic control and air security.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Andrew P. Brown
AF121-085      Awarded: 7/10/2012
Title:Advanced Algorithms for Space-Based Next-Generation Infrared Sensor Exploitation
Abstract: Toyon Research Corporation and Argo Science Corporation propose research and development of innovative algorithms for tracking multiple closely-spaced targets in space- based next-generation infrared imagery. The proposed algorithms are capable of automated detection and tracking of both bright and extremely dim targets in wide field of view image sequences based on advanced spatiotemporal clutter rejection, as well as near-optimal track-before-detect processing and multiple target hypothesis management in a Bayesian estimation framework. The proposed algorithms are capable of super-resolution separation of closely-spaced objects, with this processing applied judiciously within the field of view so as to maintain the capability of real-time processing. In Phase I, feasibility demonstration will be performed using physics-based imagery simulation and preliminary algorithm implementations, and analysis of computational requirements and suitable CONOPS will be performed in preparation for development and verification of a real-time prototype implementation in Phase II. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the proposed research and development will result in significant improvements in the ability to efficiently exploit next-generation satellite-based wide field of view EO/IR sensor data. The developed algorithms and software can be directly applied to real-time processing in SBIRS ground stations. The developed technology is also expected to be directly applicable to battle space awareness and technical intelligence, and is also well-suited for transition into the PTSS and SBSS systems. Broader applications include airborne EO/IR surveillance, including in wide area motion imagery (WAMI)/wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) EO/IR exploitation for systems such as DARPA’s ARGUS- IS and AFRL’s Blue Devil and Gorgon Stare. The proposed research and development will also lay the foundation for development of improved optical detection, tracking, and recognition technology for remote sensing and surveillance applications, as well as for search and rescue, law enforcement, homeland security, and boarder security. The technology could even potentially be introduced in home security systems to provide improved intruder alerting and tracking performance in low-light conditions.

Epsilon Lambda Electronics Corp.
396 Fenton Lane Suite 601
West Chicago, IL 60185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 293-7118
Robert M. Knox
AF121-086      Awarded: 8/9/2012
Title:Omni-directional Adaptive Imaging Sensor
Abstract: This topic is designed by the US Air Force to develop a space based space surveillance sensor to be mounted aboard an orbiting asset for protection. Proposed herein is a Dual Mode Sensor (DMS) system that: (1) Provides spherical WFOV situational awareness and threat object detection at sufficient range to allow defensive action to be taken to avoid an incident. (2) Provides both excellent range resolution and cross range resolution. (3) Provides 360 degree coverage in one plane and approximately 90 degrees coverage in the orthogonal plane. (4) Detects objects such as satellites, debris, deliberate missiles, etc. (5) Covers range as close as three meters to maximum range of ten kilometers. (6) Incorporates dual mode operating and tracking software and data fusion processor. (7) Incorporates threat assessment software. (8) Meets Size, Weight, and Power requirements. (9) Provides reconfigurable search (adaptive imaging), such that a wide FOV search is followed by a high resolution, fast update scan, which allows all detected objects to be tracked, mapped and characterized for threat evaluation. (10) Meets minimum specifications including: update rate of <30 Hz, angle resolution better than 10 micro-radians and scalable magnification factor from 1:1 to 1:25. (11) Limits vulnerability to counter-measures. BENEFIT: Phase I will primarily involve an important SBSP system trade study and test program to evaluate the ability of emerging millimeter radar technology and EO/IR sensor technology, operating in dual mode, to be used for threat object detection and tracking for input to the satellite flight control system for threat avoidance. Phase II development will include sensor fabrication including processor, lightweight millimeter wave radar and EO/IR sensor plus fused signal processing as part of the brass-board demonstration. An initial avenue to commercialization is for the defense application intended by the US Air Force in this solicitation. In the commercial/industrial markets are similar applications involving obstacle detection and avoidance for commercial communication satellites.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alexander Naumov
AF121-086      Awarded: 8/1/2012
Title:Agile Field-of-View Imaging Sensor
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for an omnidirectional imaging sensor with a reconfigurable architecture for space surveillance, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Agile Field-of-View (AFOV) sensor. The AFOV sensor uses the principle of mimicking the vertebrate eye, providing a global view with hemispherical coverage and capturing local details with high resolution in the direction of gaze. The AFOV sensor integrates a fisheye converter with hemispherical FOV and an innovative adaptive superlens, which enables smooth zooming to 1:25 of regions of interest (ROIs) selected anywhere within the global image without mechanical movement. The optical magnification of the ROIs allows us to reach resolution better than 10 microradians. Sensor operation is supported by proven computationally efficient algorithms for image quality enhancement, target ranging, and tracking. These abilities, with a compact design, low power consumption, and high radiation hardness, directly address the Air Force requirements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the AFOV sensor by laboratory prototyping, and evaluate its performance with distant ground objects. In Phase II, POC will develop a full-scale system prototype with full capabilities in image acquisition .and tracking of ground-based objects. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the AFOV sensor development will bring benefits to military surveillance; situational awareness; and navigation and aiming for missiles, cruise missiles, and artillery shells. The AFOV sensor can be applicable to all autonomous air, land, and sea vehicles where payload, size, and weight are at a premium. The improved video enables such platforms to produce high-resolution imagery, which is becoming vital to various DoD and commercial applications involving surveillance, situational awareness, and tracking. The POC solution can be adopted in commercial video surveillance systems because of its advantages in terms of coverage and cost. This approach greatly simplifies problems of data fusion in multicamera video surveillance systems, drastically reducing setup and maintenance costs, and computational complexity too. The distinguishing features of the AFOV sensor will make it commercially attractive in multiple civilian applications, such as academic research, training and simulation, virtual design, education, robot navigation, and biomedical imaging. It will also find application in airport security, car traffic surveillance, emergency management, and natural disaster relief.

Cybernet Systems Corporation
3885 Research Park Dr
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Glenn Beach
AF121-087      Awarded: 8/1/2012
Title:Automation of Satellite On-orbit Checkout and Calibration Process
Abstract: Today’s Air Force satellites require a time intensive on-orbit checkout process before placing the satellite into operation. The length of time depends on the specific payload on the satellite, but can last from weeks to months. In particular, the calibration of imaging sensor payloads can be very time consuming and require complex methodologies to complete. The Air Force desires a system to perform autonomous sensor calibration and satellite bus checkout in much less time than the current manual process. Cybernet proposes to leverage our past experience in both software and hardware automation, machine learning, and satellite systems to develop the automated satellite checkout process. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will meet the Air Force’s need to increase the speed at which satellite calibration and checkout can be performed. This capability will also be of interest to other agencies, such as NASA. The overall technology directly supports Cybernet’s automation business area and will be leveraged to enhance products and services for our current customer base.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 927-4774
Thomas Murdock
AF121-087      Awarded: 8/1/2012
Title:Automation of Satellite On-orbit Checkout and Calibration Process
Abstract: From the time that they are launched, space-based electro-optical infrared sensors are vulnerable to a wide variety of external threats and changes in on-board operating conditions (either forced by naturally occurring conditions or by man-made interference) that degrade the sensor performance so that it cannot provide calibrated data within the needed timelines. The focus of this work is to provide a comprehensive solution that involves rapid calibration with an automated response to changing operating conditions or situations that require rapid recalibration. This effort will construct a software process that automates the detection of conditions that require additional calibration activities and autonomously apply the correct calibration actions in real time in preparation for a hardware-in-the-loop demonstration. BENEFIT: The benefit to the remote sensing and target recognition communities of a robust autonomous satellite system that can intelligently manage on-orbit recalibration is that is enabling technology for “smart satellite” operations with minimal ground supervision or interaction. The “smart satellite” will have a process to recognize events that require recalibration, which would enable the satellite to continue its mission once the recalibration has been completed and verified in the face degrading situations that heretofore would have prevented the completion of the mission. This responsive technique will be applicable to a wide variety of platforms and event classes.

Anyar, Inc.
1169 John Sims Parkway East
Niceville, FL 32578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 678-1581
John P. Thomas
AF121-090      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Accelerated Blast Modeling for Synergistic Effects during Cooperative Strike
Abstract: When a structure breaks up following a blast event, it allows the blast wave to propagate through a new opening into another airspace; this continuation of the blast wave is called “secondary blast” and may cause damage to elements in the other airspace. Each step in this process is a candidate for some type of acceleration. Current assessment codes incorporate several Fast Running Models to speed up the calculation of the structural response to the blast wave, but the blast propagation and secondary blast are calculated using engineering equations, many of which are time consuming. In particular, the blast propagation step, performed by iteratively applying currrent blast propagation codes, must back up and restart when there are changes to the room geometry, as occurs when the wall breaks up. Consequently, further speed up of the structural debris step will not yield significant improvements in the total run time until the blast portions of the calculation are running faster as well. We propose to use linear wave propagation models supplemented with corrective adaptive neural networks to model accelerated synergistic blast calculations. BENEFIT: Outside the realm of lethality and vulnerability analysis, Anyar and our partners believe there may be a significant commercial market for a modified version of our physics solvers and the accelerated blast simulation technology that can be used for Department of Homeland Security. In a related field, advanced intelligent payload concepts that involve micro robot motion will require advanced physics solvers for simulating their nonsmooth behavior as they navigate and investigate building structures.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariners Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Dan Fu
AF121-090      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Modeling of Synergistic Effects for Cooperative Strike
Abstract: Many of today’s munitions effectiveness measures adopt unrealistic damage assessments, such as coarse granularity, state-less damage, and independent effects. We propose to build an effectiveness model inspired by effects-based operations. We will decompose targets into their constituent elements as well as dependencies among other assets. Weapon damage in this sense is viewed as against a target’s elements with cascading effects to other assets. The resulting effectiveness model will have finer-grained and accurate damage assessments. BENEFIT: Weaponeering and simulation tools will be greatly improved for cooperative strike scenarios regarding accuracy and trustworthiness.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Anup Katake
AF121-091      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Autonomous Lost on Earth Navigation System
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for a miniature high-altitude precision navigation alternative, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Autonomous Lost on Earth Navigation (ALOEN) sensor system. This proposed system is based on a new design that utilizes an amalgam of mature POC-developed components and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. This innovation in high-speed stellar imaging and local vertical estimation will enable the system to estimate the platform position in a geodetic frame of reference. As a result, this system offers position estimates similar to those of precision navigation systems while being compact and lightweight, which directly addresses the Air Force requirements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the ALOEN system by conducting extensive analysis, simulations, and combinations of laboratory and field tests of critical technologies. In Phase II, POC plans to continue development of the system, build a system-level prototype, perform extensive field testing to demonstrate navigation precision similar to that of GPS, and deliver the prototypes and a comprehensive report, including simulations, to the Air Force. BENEFIT: The proposed ALOEN system will provide a high-altitude platform with the capability to estimate its geodetic position with GPS-like accuracy in a GPS-denied environment. This will allow the platform to perform accurate and reliable mid-course navigation corrections to minimize target location errors. For military applications, this system could act as a backup to a GPS system on a weapon, UAV, or even a high-altitude manned aircraft. In the commercial sector, the proposed system could be used as a backup to GPS on passenger as well as cargo aircraft. NASA could use this system for its high-altitude vehicles, as well as for navigation on the lunar surface or surfaces of other planets where a GPS constellation has not been set up.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF121-091      Awarded: 5/3/2012
Title:Miniature High-Altitude Precision Navigation Alternative
Abstract: The ability to maintain precision navigation without periodic position updates from GPS is challenging. Adding to the challenge, the flight dynamics and operational environment of medium / high altitude platforms limit the availability and precision of traditional non-GPS positioning systems. Sun sensors and star-trackers lack the needed precision, while dense clouds and lack of features over flat terrain render ground-image referencing systems inadequate. To address this navigation challenge for transonic through hypersonic weapon systems and UAVs, SA Photonics proposes development of a highly stable, ultra sensitive, inertial measurement unit 100X more stable and sensitive than existing navigation sensors. Our IMU enables 3 meter accuracy with very low update frequency, with updates originating from a sparsely populated network of ground based reference stations. BENEFIT: Existing inertial navigation systems are capable of 0.5 to 1.0 nautical miles per hour positioning error, and are relatively expensive, as they are based on fiber optic gyros or ring laser gyros. Other MEMs gyro based INS are smaller and compact, but have 20 to 100X worse performance and rely even more so on GPS than the fiber gyro and RLG INS’s. SA Photonics proposed solution improves inertial sensor performance up to 100X over high performance INSs today, and uses technology that is more compatible with the need for lower cost and smaller packages required by smaller, unmanned air vehicles.

Systems & Technology Research
14 Franklin Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 684-2410
Joel Douglas
AF121-091      Awarded: 5/14/2012
Title:Miniature High-Altitude Precision Navigation Alternative
Abstract: Today’s advanced precision guided weapons rely on GPS/INS based solutions to provide accurate navigation data, enabling the munition to adjust its path to reach the target. However, GPS is susceptible to jamming, and therefore new approaches are needed that can provide the same level of navigation accuracy while operating in a GPS-denied environment. Under this effort, we will develop a sensor fusion system based on a Bayesian framework that combines the measurements from a set of complementary sensors, such as a star tracker, a magnetometer a horizon sensor, and signals of opportunity, to aid in navigation. We will develop efficient inferencing techniques that enable us to combine the measurements within the stringent time constraints of high speed munitions. We will perform trade studies to understand the relative impacts of each of the sensor types, and perform sensitivity studies to determine sensor performance specifications required to achieve GPS-level performance. We will compare these specifications to existing hardware, and perform an analysis of the size, weight, and power requirements. This will drive the Phase 2 analysis of specific weapon systems. BENEFIT: The resulting system will enable GPS-level navigation accuracy in GPS-denied environments. This has applicability not only to munitions, but also to UAVs and manned systems. It also has commercial potential for supersonic transport, and space applications.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Anthony Jensen
AF121-092      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:High-Speed Weapon Radomes
Abstract: In high-speed weapon applications, typical forward-looking RF antenna sensors must reside near the nose. Unfortunately, this is the location that experiences the greatest amount of atmospheric ram pressure and thus thermal loading. As more and more advanced hypersonic weapons are developed, the amount of atmospheric ram and thus thermal loading only stands to increase. Expected temperatures are up to 1250°K (977°C). This usually requires the antenna sensors to reside under a protective radome, as it provides an ablative heat shield. FIRST RF proposes a significantly different approach to the challenge of High-Speed Weapon Radomes by relocating the antenna sensors to alternate lower temperature regions of the weapons. The antenna element design then makes use of unique forward-looking, endfire antennas that may be constructed from conformal, more common high-temperature dielectric materials. Essentially, the radome becomes the antenna. The overall antenna design is implemented with low-cost manufacturing techniques that minimize scrap and unit failure because it allows the individual components to be manufactured and tested separately, before integration. The part count is low and the construction method is very simple and robust. This approach significantly lowers the overall cost, thermal, mechanical and performance risk of both IR and RF sensor systems. BENEFIT: Thermal management is the greatest challenge to this particular application. FIRST RF believes that we offer the most practical, lowest risk approach to solving the antenna design. It leverages proven radiator technology and minimizes thermal impact on the antenna. It also allows for use of more common, lower-temp, less-exotic construction materials, allowing for a quicker path-to-field. The specific benefits are: 1) Thermal impact on the antennas is lessened, while improving, or maintaining, overall platform capability and performance. 2) The antenna design is such that the radiation pattern is optimized and efficiency is maximized, while ensuring environmental operation.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Joseph Homitz
AF121-092      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Advanced Cooling Approach for an Aerodynamically Heated Weapon Radome
Abstract: A new generation of supersonic weapons will operate at Mach 3-6. Current radome materials are unable to withstand the heat generated at the temperatures associated with hypersonic flight. Mainstream Engineering is proposing an advanced cooling approach that helps to extend the performance of existing radome materials into the Mach 3-6 region. Making use of extensive CFD and thermal control experience, a solution will be developed that prevents structural and optical failure of the radome at the high temperatures experienced due to aerothermal heating. The proposed approach will be designed to minimize weight and volume impact on weapon configuration, allowing the radome to fit into existing architecture without significant modifications. At the completion of the Phase I effort, Mainstream will have completed a computational design of the radome cooling approach as well as an experimental evaluation of a subscale prototype. In Phase II, Mainstream plans to perform wind tunnel experiments on a full scale prototype based on the results of the Phase I. BENEFIT: Without the development of advanced cooling strategies for high-speed weapon radomes, missile performance improvements will be halted. With the advanced cooling approach developed through this effort, Mainstream will have a technology capable of mitigating the issues that come from aerodynamic heating in the next generation of advanced spacecraft and weaponry.

Karagozian and Case
2550 North Hollywood Way Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 240-1919
Kenneth B. Morrill
AF121-095      Awarded: 4/25/2012
Title:Mobile Target Secondary Debris (MTSD)
Abstract: Karagozian & Case (K&C) is pleased to submit this proposal for a nine-month Phase I project to demonstrate the feasibility of developing innovative experimental and modeling methodologies to quantify and assess the effects from secondary debris generated by mobile targets or nearby mobile non-targets. As stated in Air Force topic AF121-095, the secondary debris generated by disintegrating vehicles subjected to conventional weapons effects (CWE) can be lethal to personnel and can damage structure and equipment of collateral concern. The effect of secondary debris on collateral concerns is of great importance to the warfighter for effective planning and targeting and must be addressed in the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals (JMEM) Weaponeering System (JWS) tools. JWS is a target oriented system allowing users to determine the effectiveness of weapon systems against a specified target irrespective of the weapon delivery mode. The development of an engineering tool for JWS to predict secondary debris and enable lethality, risk, and collateral damage estimation will require methods for obtaining reliable and useful quantities to characterize secondary debris data. This necessitates development of experimental and instrumentation methodologies for accurate and economic collection of test data. BENEFIT: There is a great interest in the commercial market for the products that may be developed in this research project especially for agencies/industries that have particular concerns related to the risks engendered by car bombs. This includes secondary debris generated by a disintegrating vehicle or nearby vehicles due to an explosive event.

Skyward, Ltd.
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 418
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2710
John P. Haas
AF121-096      Awarded: 4/10/2012
Title:Next Generation Static Warhead Testing (NG-SWaT)
Abstract: Skyward, Ltd. proposes to utilize their years of experience in developing test data requirements and methods for meeting these requirements to identify and develop enhanced methods, techniques, and sensors to characterize and model the effects of a warhead as it detonates. The proposed method for designing and developing an innovative instrumentation suite, diagnostic techniques, and methodologies to quantify synergistic blast and/or fragment effects from a static detonation will utilize Skyward’s understanding of user needs and will involve an investigation of promising techniques for meeting these needs. Skyward’s methodology will take advantage of expertise in munitions modeling and simulation to develop requirements and a process for representing the important parameters of the blast/fragmentation event so they can be examined for other similar weapons and used in lethality estimates. Skyward’s approach divides the problem into key areas and focuses research on those areas that show the most short-term and affordable potential and will address unique damage mechanisms that have not been previously addressed. The result will be a recommendation for a robust and cost-effective instrumentation suite with a workable implementation plan for developing the suite, the supporting model approach, and update plan for tools currently used to guide such testing. BENEFIT: The goal of Skyward, Ltd. in this proposal is to design and develop a robust and cost-effective instrumentation suite and data collection/analysis process for characterizing warheads as they detonate. Utilizing this test design, along with a complimentary modeling approach also developed in this program, will enable the warfighter to examine and modify munitions to optimize lethality for our weapons and examine vulnerability reduction concepts to counter foreign weapon systems. The resulting system should also be useful in evaluating many hazards in commercial industry or terrorist acts for homeland defense, where explosives are involved.

Torch Technologies, Inc.
4035 Chris Drive Suite C
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-6000
Jim Burke
AF121-096      Awarded: 5/9/2012
Title:Next Generation Static Warhead Testing (NG-SWaT)
Abstract: Leveraging our extensive experience collecting and analyzing missile intercept data, Torch proposes designing/integrating an innovative instrumentation system along with automated data processing and data fusion algorithms to better characterize debris damage effects from static detonating weapon tests. Data from multiple high-speed cameras with customized optics will be correlated and fused to derive fragment three-dimensional state (position, velocity, angular momentum) and size information. A high-speed multi-band radiometer will collect data on fireball combustion dynamics that will be combined with pressure/impulse measurements to better characterize advanced weapon blast wave phenomenology. A heat flux model, not currently included in standard damage models, will be derived from the radiometer measurements. A plan to integrate these data products into the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual Joint Weaponeering System tools was also developed. Our Phase I work plan will focus on instrument design and the implementation of our automated data processing, correlation, and fusion algorithms. This numerical simulation architecture will address the feasibility of the measurement concepts, highlight the advantages of the proposed methodology, and provide a valuable pre-mission planning tool for live-fire data collections. Our proposed hardware/software approach will address critical debris data collection capability gaps in a timely and cost effective manner. BENEFIT: The proposed system will expand the amount of data being collected from current static warhead ground testing. It will also significantly decrease the amount of time and labor required to reduce this data into a format that can be used in effectiveness models. All existing Government and contractor operated warhead test facilities would benefit from this improved instrumentation. Potential commercial applications include any impact test facility such as those for automobile windshields.

ACTA Incorporated
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Gamage W. Wathugala
AF121-097      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Weapon Burial Secondary Debris (WBSD)
Abstract: Most of the air delivered air force weapons are designed to detonate inside structures. However, due to targeting inaccuracies and other reasons they may land outside a structure and could detonate partially or fully buried in soil. These events could result in collateral damage to people, vehicles in the vicinity. Air force would like to have a fast running capability to assess the risk due to these events in their assessment tools. It is also possible that they may want to target a road or an airport runway to disable enemy mobility but without causing civilian casualties in the vicinity. SBIR Phase I proposal to develop these fast running models (FRMs) using innovative testing (and instrumentations) and analytical simulation methods is presented here. BENEFIT: With the concern over collateral damage caused by a conventional weapon detonation, different types of damage mechanisms must be considered. One of these is secondary debris from ejecta when a conventional weapon is partially or completely buried. Secondary debris has the potential to cause damage/injury to collateral concerns that must be determined and minimized for all soil types. Additionally, if the weapon detonates underground next to a buried wall or structure or under a slab like a floor, sidewalk or runway; failure of that structure could result in additional damage or undesirable collateral effects. Current analytic and weaponeering tools are unable to estimate these types of damage or undesirable side effects. Successful completion of this project will result in an integrated approach to developing FRMs that can predict secondary debris due WBSD events.

Karagozian and Case
2550 North Hollywood Way Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 240-1919
Kenneth B. Morrill
AF121-097      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Weapon Burial Secondary Debris (WBSD)
Abstract: Karagozian & Case (K&C), along with Analysis Planning and Testing Research Inc. (APT), are pleased to submit this proposal for a nine-month Phase I project to demonstrate the feasibility of developing innovative experimental and modeling methodologies to quantify and assess the effects from secondary debris generated by detonation of partially or completely buried conventional weapons. As stated in Air Force topic AF121-097, the secondary debris generated from soil ejecta, roadways, or bunkers due to buried conventional weapons effects (CWE) can be lethal to personnel and can damage structures and equipment of collateral concerns. The Air Force requirement is to quantify secondary debris from all soil types. The effect of secondary debris on collateral concerns is of great importance to the warfighter for effective planning and targeting and must be addressed in the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals (JMEM) Weaponeering System (JWS) tools. JWS is a target oriented system allowing users to determine the effectiveness of weapon systems against a specified target irrespective of the weapon delivery mode. The development of an engineering tool for JWS to predict secondary debris and enable lethality, risk, and collateral damage estimation will require methods for obtaining reliable and useful quantities to characterize secondary debris data. This necessitates development of experimental and instrumentation methodologies for accurate and economic collection of test data. BENEFIT: There is a great interest in the commercial market for the products that may be developed in this research project especially for agencies/industries that have particular concerns related to the risks engendered by buried explosives. This includes secondary debris generated by ejecta from soil, roadways, or underground structures.

Advanced Technology & Research Corp.
6650 Eli Whitney Drive, Suite 400
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 766-7888
Charles McClure
AF121-098      Awarded: 5/3/2012
Title:Guided Munition Delivery Accuracy Methodology for Weaponeering Against Moving Targets (GuMDAM-AMT)
Abstract: The Advanced Technology & Research (ATR) response to SBIR solicitation AF121-098 is discussed; the title is: "Guided Munition Delivery Accuracy Methodology for Weaponeering Against Moving Targets (GuMDAM-AMT)”. The solicitation addresses the extension of JMEMS weaponeering methodology to the problem of Air-to-Ground (ATG) weapons going against moving targets. The end objective is to determine the best Standard Conventional Loads (SC) for close air support missions for the moving target scenarios. The goal is to permit the same type of automated and semi-automated planning for moving target scenarios as is currently used against stationary targets. The Phase I objectives are: (a) define the target sets, (b) develop methodology and parameter requirements to handle moving targets, (c) construct a roadmap for Phase I and Phase II, and (d) generate a final report. The proposal discusses how ATR plans to address the Phase I objectives. Target motion will affect factors such as detection and acquisition by a seeker and this dependence must be addressed. Motion will also affect the Target Location Error (TLE) and characterizing this will be a major part of the Phase I effort. BENEFIT: The end product for this program will be a software product that provides the best standard conventional loads for air craft involved in close ground support against moving targets. A successful Phase II effort would lead to a Phase III effort where the product is integrated into JWS. This would potentially expand ATR’s customer base; providing a new product area.

Radiance Technologies Inc.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 426-3064
Tom Florence
AF121-102      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Detection of Hostile Fire from the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)
Abstract: Mid-band, fast framing focal plane arrays have been demonstrated to provide military utility for hostile fire detection, classification, and geolocation. This class of systems has been demonstrated to perform in this role at altitudes up to 10,000 ft for a broad class of threat systems and within the size, weight, and power constraints imposed by a Shadow class remotely piloted vehicle. This research proposes to verify and demonstrate the value of augmenting an existing hostile fire system with additional sensing modalities to enhance the system discrimination, enable higher altitude operation, and perform correlation of hostile fire events with imagery formatted for human operators in real time to enable high confidence threat engagement. BENEFIT: The benefits of this project are improved hostile fire detection capabilities that will be relevant to both military and law enforcement users. The proposed system concept will lower false alarm rates, provide certitude in target classification and discrimination at longer ranges and in more cluttered environments, and eventually lead to systems with full hemispherical fields of view will a lower system life cycle cost through more balanced system design and utilization of lower cost components.

Solid State Scientific Corporation
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
Richard Nelson
AF121-102      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Hostile Fire Indicator for Remotely Piloted Aircraft
Abstract: Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) is pleased to propose the design of a multi-threat hostile fire indication (HFI) system for remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA). The HFI system consist of a wide field of view sensor head that employs small multi-spectral imagers in the short-wave infrared (SWIR), with the spectral bands selected specifically for detection of small arms fire (SAF), mortars, rocket-propelled grenades (RPG’s) and man-portable missiles (MANPADS). The system will feature innovative extensions of recently-developed HFI capabilities and incorporate new focal plane array technologies to extend the spectral band pass in the SWIR for the RPA application. The spectral imaging system will capitalize on existing algorithm strategies for SAF as well as exploiting spectral-temporal data already obtained by SSSC in order to model and design the system to classify energetic events based on their spectral, temporal, and spatial profiles. The entire system will be uncooled and occupy a small size, weight, and power envelope without a refrigerator. The development of this sensor represents a unique opportunity in the development of advanced aircraft survivability equipment. BENEFIT: The new sensor combines staring imaging technology, miniature spectral imaging technology, recent developments in digital signal processing and focal plane array technology, and commercially available products to produce an innovative multispectral imaging system. The ability of the new sensor to rapidly acquire temporally and spatially co- registered spectral data in the extended SWIR will provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate algorithms for real-time event detection and classification based on spatial, spectral, and temporal signatures. In addition, the small physical size of the sensor will demonstrate the possibility of portable spectral imaging as well as the ability to integrate onto helicopter, UAV and other airborne platforms. Finally, the sensor will demonstrate the ability to replace multiple stand-alone systems with a single, integrated sensor, saving size, weight, power, inefficiency, and cost. Specific applications for the proposed sensor include specific reconnaissance and cueing for RPA applications as well as self-protection for pilots and crew of rotorcraft from a broad spectrum of threats including guided missiles, unguided rockets, anti-aircraft artillery, and small arms fire. By combining sensor data with onboard navigation data, the sensor can provide real-time situational awareness, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for other air and ground crew in the vicinity. Other potential applications of the spectral imaging technology for defense purposes include real-time bomb damage assessment, airborne and distant target tracking, and remote chemical analysis of engine exhaust. In addition, we anticipate possible applications in law enforcement, homeland defense, industrial process monitoring, medical diagnostics, and medical imaging.

Crossfield Technology LLC
9390 Research Blvd Suite I200
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 795-0220
Gary McMillian
AF121-103      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:Remotely Operated Sensor, Beacon, and Navigation Aid for Deep Battlespace (Remote Sensing)
Abstract: Crossfield Technology proposes to develop a BEAcon with Robust Sensor suite (BEARS) for the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) dismount operators. Project BEARS will provide AFSOC with the ability to clandestinely gather information/intelligence in hostile territory, utilizing a full suite of modern sensors (meteorological, chemical, biological, radiological/nuclear, and imagery), precise location instruments (radio-location, IMU), data communication, and beacon/navigational aid (EO/IR/RF) capabilities. The proposed effort will address the growing needs for AFSOC personnel to gain real-time, actionable intelligence from a network of unattended ground sensors, in forward and deep battlespace environments, to meet the challenging AFSOC mission objectives, using methods that minimize detection and risk to US military personnel. The BEARS system will be designed to be cylindrical in shape, small and lightweight enough for precision delivery from an under-carriage Tactical Munitions Dispenser (TMD) from AFSOC small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) platforms. BENEFIT: Due to the nature of the sensor suite, the primary customer for BEARS is the DoD. BEARS will provide critical intelligence to forward operations activities, reducing risk to personnel, providing key intelligence, and supporting navigation in GPS-denied environments. A reduced version of BEARS with motion detection and video imagery only could be used for surveillance and security of industrial facilities.

McQ Inc.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Brent Roeder
AF121-103      Awarded: 5/10/2012
Title:UAS Air Dropped Remotely Operated Sensors
Abstract: McQ has over two decades of experience in the research, design, development, deployment, and support of advanced remote sensing systems. McQ has a DOD Phase II SBIR Commercialization Rating of 100; the highest possible rating. McQ will bring many technologies to the proposed research effort for this SBIR to develop an air dropped Remotely Operated Sensor Beacon, Navigation Aid, and Meteorological sensor. McQ is proposing a highly integrated, low power, low cost, common sensor module with Smart Transducer Plug Ins that provide flexible configuration of the sensor for specific missions. McQ will research and demonstrate the technical feasibility of this advanced sensor architecture that incorporates communication networking integrated with the UAS and UAS controller, Cognitive Sensor Management to provide deep Battlespace “information not data,” and a multisensor collaborative approach using a Feature Information Base architecture to provide dynamic target information. Research on precision air delivery and beacon navigation aids is coupled to the proposed sensor and communication architecture. McQ will develop advanced system and sensor concepts and demonstrate these in the Phase I effort. The research will lead to a Remotely Operated Sensor design that can that can be implemented in a Phase II prototype delivered to the Air Force. BENEFIT: As sensing systems and communications systems become more capable, many users are finding they don’t need more data but rather they need systems to provide information. McQ is proposing a solution for the Air Dropped Remotely Operated Sensor that uses fusion at each system level to provide intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance information. The benefits can be profound when integrated over a number of sensor systems. The emphasis on information and not data is not only more in line with the user needs but the proposed approach can lower power consumption, increase the system flexibility, enhance the UAS mission effectiveness, and provide mission support for more than requirement. This advanced approach to sensor deployment using air drop technology and incorporating multisensor collaborative operation with Cognitive Sensor Management will apply to many applications including the Air Force Mission. McQ is providing sensors to the Border Patrol (DHS) for the southern border, to DOJ for counter narcotics and terrorism missions, to DOE for protection of nuclear materials, to the U.S. Army for ISR missions, and to SOF for protecting FOBs. These are all immediate commercialization opportunities for McQ. The technology will also apply to law enforcement operations and it can be applied to crowd control, transportation problems when congestion develops, and disaster events to understand the extent of the impact.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Greg Arnold
AF121-104      Awarded: 4/30/2012
Title:Representation for Navigation
Abstract: Matrix Research, Inc. proposes to design, implement, and test novel feature representations in Multi-Agent Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (MA-SLAM) systems for enhanced navigation accuracy/reliability. Specifically, we will develop generic, yet compact, multi-modal feature representations, along with a methodology for their extraction in significantly variable conditions, which may include densely and/or sparsely populated dynamic scenes. The design of these local and global feature representations will be tailored for navigation applications in which low-bandwidth, low-rate communications between agents constrains data throughput. Our primary focus is the development of a novel, compact feature representation that enables efficient communication and exploitation by agents within the system. The feature representations, along with the associated mapping algorithm, will be general enough to support multiple sensing modalities for utilization in a multi-source navigation system. We will consider the question of how many agents are needed with respect to the available feature representations, bandwidth constraints, and mapping accuracy requirements. Our analysis will include algorithm simulations for proof-of-concept, as well as a system prototype and test plan for future development. BENEFIT: The primary benefit of successful completion of this effort is a revolutionary new capability for extracting features for mapping systems. This capability has numerous commercial applications in various business sectors such as defense, search and rescue, mapping, mining, and robotics.

Systems & Technology Research
14 Franklin Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 684-2410
Joel Douglas
AF121-104      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Feature Representations for Enhanced Multi-Agent Navigation Strategies
Abstract: Systems that perform autonomous mapping build their representations by extracting and matching feature descriptors from the environment. However, these systems are limited in their ability to adapt to significant changes in operating conditions, such as novel scenes or unexpected objects. While researchers have created many different feature descriptors, there is only limited guidance as to which features work best in different environments, how to balance computation complexity with the level of detail stored, and how to share information between multiple agents that are working jointly. In this Phase 1 effort, we will develop a testbed for systematic testing of descriptors in a range of operating conditions. Based on the results of tests on a wide set of features, we will develop a novel feature using a statistical hierarchical framework that combines multiple features to allow it to adapt to the environment, while also having a compact encoding for efficient storage and transmittal. We will evaluate the descriptor with multi-agent mapping applications, and, in Phase 2, we will build a number of prototype agents to demonstrate the enhanced multi-agent mapping capabilities in realistic scenarios. BENEFIT: This effort will create both a systematic evaluation of feature descriptors in a range of environments, and also a new feature descriptor that is designed both for adaptability to different environments, and compactness for sharing between agents. The new descriptor will have application to mapping, object detection, target recognition, and other autonomous recognition algorithms, from a variety of sensors. It will also have commercial application to emergency search and rescue, remote exploration, and other robotic applications.

Imaging Systems Technology
4750 W. Bancroft
Toledo, OH 43615
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 536-5741
Carol Wedding
AF121-105      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Infrared Panoramic Projection for Wide Field of Sensor Testing
Abstract: Infrared (IR) imaging and sensing is used extensively for military purposes. Evolving threats have motivated a drive toward sensor systems with multiple aperture and wide fields of view. As a result, there is a need to improve test capabilities for these new sensor systems. Large panoramic IR displays are required to fully test and develop new wide field of view IR sensors. IST is developing display technology that efficiently emits IR and can be scaled to very large sizes. This new display technology is based on Plasma-shells. Plasma-shells are hollow gas encapsulating devices. When the Plasma-shell device is energized the gas inside ignites into plasma. Proper selection of gas and shell material allows for efficient emission of light in ultraviolet, blue, green, red, or IR. The technology is suitable for both flat and conformable large area panoramic dome displays. Under this SBIR IST will focus on the challenge of large area geodesic dome displays using the Plasma-shell technology. BENEFIT: The proposed panoramic IR display technology is important to the military because it address a problem that previously was not solved. The proposed display will allow test and verification of wide field of view IR sensors in a realistic environment. Ultimately the technology can be expanded to multi-spectral test applications to allow testing of a full range of sensors simultaneously. Beyond military applications, the plasma based technology has commercial applications in digital billboards and signage. The proposed technology allows for large area multi color displays that are a fraction the cost of LED technology.

SensorMetriX
10171 Pacific Mesa Blvd., Suite 305
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 625-4458
Anthony Starr
AF121-105      Awarded: 5/1/2012
Title:High Speed Direct View Infrared Displays for Panoramic Scene Generation
Abstract: SensorMetrix is proposing to utilize previously developed metamaerial films with controlled emissivity to build a direct view IR panoramic dome display system. Metamaterial films are demonstrated near black body emissivity. The proposed approach will enable a polychromatic IR display system with low thermal mass and provisions for active cooling to enable high display frame rates and low stray reflections. BENEFIT: The proposed system will be used to provide a test environment for a range of IR sensors utilized in situational awareness, obstruction avoidance and ego-motion estimation applications.

Polatin Corporation
57 Janet Terrace
New Hartford, NY 13413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 797-7125
Paul F. Polatin
AF121-106      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Integrated Scene Imaging for Target Engagement (INSITE)
Abstract: This proposal outlines a plan for developing a fast, integrated simulation system that can be used to generate high-fidelity, time-stepped, imaging fuze sensor data for complex target engagement scenarios over the frequency regime extending from X-band into the hundreds of GHz. In Phase I we propose to produce a comprehensive concept paper addressing all of the requirements for the system architecture along with a roadmap for its development. At the end of Phase I, we would demonstrate a model of the architecture using individual software components to implement all of the major system functionalities. The Phase II work will be focused on developing the proof-of-concept design of the simulation environment, implementing it on an appropriate hardware platform, and validating it with scaled-velocity, target engagement data generated at a Government test site. BENEFIT: Millimeter-wave and quasi-optical sensors should be at the heart of the next generation of weapons and targeting systems because of their inherent high-resolution, low-power consumption and small footprint characteristics; and baseline cost considerations and development timelines are making large-scale, systems simulations a effective way of getting there as quickly as possible. Having a fast, integrated simulation environment available for active imaging sensor simulations will support a wide range of ongoing and future weapons development and testing programs. A significant component that is missing from most military sensor development work, especially in the trans-millimeter-wave regime, is an integrated scene modeling and target signature prediction tool incorporated in a hardware- based simulation environment. And this is going to be the case for a while because there are currently no commercially available tools for target signature prediction and large-scale scene modeling in the millimeter-wave and quasi-optical regimes. In addition to military systems, the fast, integrated sensor simulation technologies developed under this SBIR will be useful for a number of commercial applications. One important potential market for this kind of comprehensive sensor simulation environment is in the commercial sensor and avionics manufacturing community. The efficient synthesis of realistic sensor data for complex environments and scenarios would be of tremendous use in the design, development and testing of such systems. In addition, these tools could readily be incorporated into sensor simulators for use in training pilots and other key operational personnel. This potential exists in both the manufacturing and systems integration markets.

Technology Service Corporation
3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 800
Los Angeles, CA 90034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 754-4212
George E. Bohannon
AF121-106      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Autonomous Situational Awareness for Munitions
Abstract: TSC proposes to develop a software tool for modeling the dynamic multistatic coherent RF signatures of targets illuminated by munition fuze imaging sensors at sub-millimeter wavelengths. TSC will leverage a signature modeling tool that was developed by TSC for the Air Force under a recent Phase II SBIR contract. That tool uses time domain high- frequency RF modeling technology to accurately include effects of target and sensor translational and rotational motion, fine target details, and waveform characteristics. During Phase I, TSC will demonstrate the modeling concepts that will enable sub-millimeter wavelength modeling with execution times compatible with iterative sensor and algorithm design activities for metallic targets and non-metallic terrain. Also in Phase I, TSC will present the formalism for adding scattering from target rough surfaces and cavities. TSC will also design a graphical user interface and graphical display tools. During Phase II, TSC will develop the tools in software, train Air Force personnel in their use, and document the system from technical and user perspectives. BENEFIT: The results of the proposed Phase I and follow-on Phase II work will provide the Air Force with a tools for synthesizing RF signatures for use in development, testing, and evaluation of munition sensors and signal processing algorithms, including SAR, ISAR, and JFTA. Application of these tools will result in improved performance of munitions systems.

Corvid Technologies, Inc.
145 Overhill Drive
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Sean Treadway
AF121-107      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Kinetic Energy Control Technologies for Explosively-dispersed Fragments
Abstract: The US Air Force (AF) is increasingly being required to conduct operations in complex environments with friendly forces or noncombatants in relatively close proximity to targets. Currently there is no single weapon which can offer a satisfactory range of lethal effects on the variety of targets within urban and asymmetric warfare scenarios. To minimize collateral damage the current modus operandi is to carry multiple munition loadouts, or not engage the target until appropriate yield munitions can be brought to the battlefield, or completely forego engaging the target. Our innovation is to leverage Corvid Technologies’ patented shock attenuation structural material and computer modeling to design munitions that allow for selectable fragment patterns, reduced collateral effects, and does not leave unexploded high explosive on the battlefield. BENEFIT: The obvious commercialization lies in numerous military applications for the technologies. All forces engage urban targets where the potential for collateral civilian damage is high. Therefore, many platforms across all services could benefit from the small and adaptable selectable effects technology. Given the concept is adaptable to a given platform; Corvid would leverage its expertise in weapons effectiveness analysis to optimize the prototype device for other existing missions and weapon platforms. Licensing the technology to partners such as Textron or Raytheon or other prime weapon developer would be the considered path to full commercialization. The leveraging of porous metal materials for this effort offers an opportunity to gain insight into the structural merits of such non-standard materials. Corvid would gain knowledge in the use of these materials to control explosives and act as weight reducing structural materials. This potentially could open up other dual use applications beyond the select-a- yield applications. Structural reactives and even light weight strong structures can be developed from CDG material originally developed. A letter of support and interest from from a prime weapons developer is included in this proposal.

Energetic Materials & Products, Inc.
1413 Brandi Lane
Round Rock, TX 78681
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 380-1992
Dennis Wilson
AF121-107      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Kinetic Energy Control Technologies for Explosively-dispersed Fragments
Abstract: Our proposal involves enabling technologies to enhance the lethality of a directionally focused fragment warhead. Our concept involves three innovations to improve the lethality and reduce the possibility of collateral damage. The three innovations are: shock/shock interactions to increase the velocity (kinetic energy) of the fragments; incorporation of micro- fragments in the reactive material (RM) to produce a “two-stage” fragment field; and improved fragment liner material and architecture to produce a tightly focused beam pattern. The first innovation is designed to increase the shock pressure delivered to the fragments beyond the Chapman-Jouguet detonation pressure by using an energetic material architecture and initiation scheme to produce a Mach stem that impacts the fragment array. The objective of the second innovation is to enhance lethality by including high-mass density micro-fragments (or macro-particles) in the RM to create a “two-stage” focused fragment field. The final innovation is a new fragment liner with a high-density frangible retainer ring or cup. The primary objective is to produce a tightly focused fragment pattern and the secondary objective is to maximize the kinetic energy of the fragments by minimizing “blow- by” of the explosive products and hence optimize the momentum delivered to the fragment array. BENEFIT: Examples of dual-use commercial applications for the proposed research include: (1) low collateral damage explosive defeat of IEDs for domestic bomb squads; and (2) novel energetic tools and devices for down-hole perforation operations in the oil production industry

MATSYS, Inc.
504 Shaw Road Suite 215
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 964-0400
Tony F Zahrah
AF121-107      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Kinetic Energy Control for Reactive Fragments
Abstract: MATSYS proposes to develop high energy density reactive materials to enhance the performance of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT). We propose to develop the technology for small fragmentation warhead with high lethality and low collateral damage (LCD). We plan to achieve our goal using a powder metallurgy (PM) approach to fabricate a high reactivity, self consuming, controlled fragmentation warhead. Our design parameters include reactive material formulation, powder particle size, warhead case design, attenuation techniques and consolidation processes. The proposed material system will use a blend of several elemental or compound powders capable of participating in an energetic (exothermic) chemical reaction. The existence of different powder materials will allow for tailoring of the mechanical and reactive properties of the material through engineered variations of the volume fraction of each reactant and by adjusting their particle size. The consolidation will occur below the reaction initiation temperature to prevent any energy release during compaction and preserve the stored chemical energy of the exothermic reaction between the reactant powders. This effort will combine our unique expertise in powder consolidation with new approaches in reactive powder design to develop a new generation of small fragmentation warhead with high lethality and LCD. BENEFIT: The proposed program will have dual use applications in military as well as in commercial industries. The material can be transitioned into several Air Force hardware programs for military operations in urban terrain (MOUT) and other low collateral damage scenarios. Commercial applications include Homeland Security operations and law enforcement operations requiring low collateral damage.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 532-8498
Gregory Fetzer
AF121-108      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Direct Detection Ladar Pulse Processing
Abstract: Areté Associates proposes development of a novel ladar receiver in the combined Phase I and Phase II program. Areté will design and build a receive module for LADAR that captures target returns as well as a “copy” of the outgoing pulse. Collection of the outgoing pulse provides additional information for advanced signal processing. The module will be built with programmable real-time on-board processing. As a result modern signal processing techniques can be exploited to improve range accuracy, probability of detection and reduce false alarm rates. In addition Areté will provide software tools to program the onboard processor; develop a set of “factory” processor images to address several generic customer objectives; develop software to interact with the hardware so that the user will be able to collect, process and store the data products. In Phase I, Areté will develop a system design using a combination of modeling and simulation tools to investigate design trade-offs, develop signal processing algorithms and forecast system performance. In Phase II, Areté will produce a brassboard prototype of the receiver. The brassboard will be designed to augment ladar development research in the laboratory while demonstrating functionality and SWAP appropriate to ISR and seeker applications. BENEFIT: Development of a low SWAP ladar receiver has many applications in defense and commercial applications. High dynamic range real-time receivers are appropriate for both seeker and ISR missions that utilize small UAV’s. Successful completion of this SBIR effort will result in demonstration of a brassboard system that is readily adapted to multiple products to support DOD applications.

DSPlogic, Inc.
20271 Goldenrod Lane Suite 2008
Germantown, MD 20876
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 977-5970
Michael S. Babst
AF121-108      Awarded: 5/14/2012
Title:Direct Detection Ladar Pulse Processing
Abstract: Direct Detection LADAR technology is a utilized in a wide range of critical government and commercial applications including 3-D imaging, aerial mapping, weapons seekers, ISR, EW and navigation systems, atmospheric study, and ground transportation. The precision of range and intensity measurements made LADAR systems is limited by the non-ideal characteristics of lasers, detectors, amplifiers, optics, and power supplies. Manufacturing and calibrating these analog components for consistent, accurate performance is a difficult and expensive task. A more cost effective and robust solution may be to develop more sophisticated DSP algorithms to compensate for non-ideal component behavior, component variations, and time-varying behavior. The need to detect objects with a wide range of reflectivity and dispersion characteristics also requires a very wide dynamic range. Recent advances in ADC conversion technology allow DSP algorithms to directly process linear direct detection waveforms with pulse widths on the order of nanoseconds. Direct access to the pulse waveform allows DSP algorithms to perform more accurate parameter estimation as well as compensate for the non-ideal characteristics of lasers, detectors, and optical components. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits include: Improved 3-D LADAR imaging capability and improved pulse measurement accuracy. Potential commercial applications include: 3-D imaging, ground vehicle navigation, atmospheric sensing, law enforcement, aerial imaging

Applied Sciences, Inc.
141 W. Xenia Ave. PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Patick D. Lake
AF121-111      Awarded: 5/23/2012
Title:Lightweight Carbon Nanomaterial Sheetgood for Electromagnetic Shielding in Structural Composites
Abstract: Military aerospace assets must be able to survive electromagnetic pulse events including lightning strike, flash x-rays, nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as well as system- generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) events. Since most systems cannot afford parasitic weight gains, it is critical to provide the shielding in a multi-functional material that addresses structural requirements of the component or subsystem. As a solution for this need, Applied Sciences, Inc. (ASI) proposes to develop a lightweight, isotropic, continuous carbon nanomaterial sheetgood featuring high-Z materials intercalacted into the interior core of the hollow carbon nanofibers. Through careful selection of carbon nanofiber type(s) and by blending varying lengths of carbon nanofiber, and the concentration of the high-Z intercalant, ASI will produce low weight, high shielding CNF mat. The resulting material will be incorporated in fiber reinforced polymer composites and will be tested for electromagnetic shielding effectiveness, including EMP and X-Ray. In addition, the mechanical properties of the composites will be measured. The ASI CNF Mat has attracted interest from numerous Prime Contractors such as Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Lockheed Martin, and ATK. ASI will leverage this support in Phase I and II collaborations and through commercialization. BENEFIT: Carbon nanofiber mat is an emerging continuous nanomaterial product form that is attracting interest from numerous DoD Prime Contractors and in private industry for its low weight, multi-functional properties. Upon completion of the Phase I effort, a new functionality will have been developed and demonstrated in CNF Mat, enabling more applications. Current uses under investigation for CNF mat include: wind mill blades, fan cases, fan blades, structural composites for aerospace applications, advanced energy, and sporting goods.

Conductive Composites Company
357 West 910 South
Heber City, UT 84032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 654-3683
George Hansen
AF121-111      Awarded: 5/22/2012
Title:Lightweight Structural Materials for Broadband Electromagnetic Hardening
Abstract: Lightweight structural composite materials that provide exceptional shielding and hardening performance across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum will be demonstrated and developed. BENEFIT: Currently, the electromagnetic hardening requirements are met by the use of metals or by radiation hardening of components. The successful implementation of the proposed technology will immediately save significant weight and will eventually reduce manufacturing and materials costs. Furthermore, protection will now be provided at the enclosure level, reducing costly component hardening requirements.

Hill Engineering, LLC
3035 Prospect Park Drive, Suite 180
Rancho Cordova, CA 95670
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 635-5706
Adrian T. DeWald
AF121-112      Awarded: 4/30/2012
Title:Near-Surface Residual Stress Measurements for Aerospace Structures
Abstract: It is widely recognized that near surface residual stresses play a significant role in fatigue performance. Tensile residual stresses are of concern because they accelerate fatigue crack initiation and fatigue crack growth relative to what would occur in the absence of residual stress. Compressive residual stresses, on the other hand, have the opposite effect and can be used to improve fatigue performance. To effectively understand and predict residual stress effects on fatigue durability or crack initiation, which accounts for the majority of the total component life under high-cycle applications, accurate and reliable residual stress data are required in the near-surface region. The proposed work plan will develop improvements to a novel near-surface residual stress measurement technique and will demonstrate the effectiveness of this measurement technique under representative conditions. Phase I evaluation will include an assessment of measurement repeatability and accuracy. The measurement technique will also be validated during Phase I using independent measurement technologies. BENEFIT: The proposed residual stress measurement technique development is a significant improvement to existing residual stress measurement technology that would fill a critical gap in capability for near-surface residual stress measurement, enabling high-quality measurements in the near-surface regime under conditions typical of the aerospace industry. This technology is important to many industries as methods advance for assessment of fatigue performance in the presence of residual stress.

Hill Engineering, LLC
3035 Prospect Park Drive, Suite 180
Rancho Cordova, CA 95670
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 635-5706
Adrian T. DeWald
AF121-113      Awarded: 5/1/2012
Title:Residual Stress Engineering for Aerospace Structural Forgings
Abstract: Hill Engineering is committed to developing and expanding residual stress engineering technology. The proposed program will develop an approach for quality management of residual stresses in aerospace forgings and will demonstrate important elements of this approach on a representative forged component. The proposed quality management system will combine advanced computational process modeling and residual stress measurement technology to establish a robust system of production control. During Phase I, Hill Engineering will demonstrate the concepts of the quality system using an aerospace forging. The quality system will be evaluated for consistency and reliability and will be validated using independent techniques. BENEFIT: The proposed program offers a logical next-step in the continued improvement of structural engineering methods. Advances in residual stress technology over the past decade (or more) have resulted in improved tools for the analysis of residual stress effects on material performance. Technology is available, for example, to enable engineers to predict fatigue crack growth accounting for residual stress effects. By specifically accounting for residual stress effects in engineering analyses, designs can become more accurate and require lower safety margins. This leads to higher, more aggressive performance. One significant missing ingredient inhibiting the full accounting of residual stress in design is the fact that residual stress levels are typically not certified in the material supply chain. The development of a quality management system for residual stresses in forged aerospace components will enable material suppliers to certify the level of residual stress in their forged product, which will enable end users to specifically account for residual stress effects in design (and will result in significant positive benefit).

Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation
2545 Farmers Drive Suite 200
Columbus, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 451-8322
Wei-Tsu Wu
AF121-113      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Residual Stress Engineering for Aerospace Structural Forgings
Abstract: Manufacturing of jet engine and aerospace structural components involve a series of thermo-mechanical processes such as forging, heat treatment, machining and joining processes. During thermo-mechanical processing, bulk residual stresses in the components evolve which may lead to part distortion. Surface residual stresses impact fatigue life. Managing residual stresses in the part during processing and under service condition is therefore critical to optimizing component performance. As the aerospace industry embarks on introducing new material system and starts to push the performance limits on the components, design and material engineers would need robust, reliable and validated predictions of residual stress distributions in the part. In this proposed Phase I program, Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation (SFTC) is teaming up with Hill Engineering LLC and Proto Manufacturing Inc to work closely with AFRL and jet engine OEMs including Pratt and Whitney, GE Aviation and Rolls Royce to establish a framework for quality assurance procedure to link residual stress modeling predictions with measurements. DEFORM residual stress modeling predictions need to account for uncertainties in processing conditions, material data and boundary conditions. It is critical to identify factors impacting bulk and surface residual stress measurement accuracy, repeatability and reliability of measurements and quantifying measurement errors and variations. A proof of concept procedure for a combined residual stress modeling and measurements quality assurance plan will be demonstrated. A detailed verification and validation plan for residual stress quality assurance program will be developed during Phase I in consultation with AFRL and OEMs which will be executed in subsequent Phase II part of this program. It is anticipated that a validated residual stress quality assurance program linking modeling predictions and measurements will be beneficial to OEMs in qualifying first article forgings and verifying periodic cutups from the perspective of optimizing fatigue life and managing part distortion during thermo-mechanical processing of components. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that the proposed work will result in establishing a residual stress assurance plan linking residual stress modeling results with both bulk and surface residual stress measurements. This proposed work aims to bridge the gap between residual stress modeling predictions and measurements. It is anticipated that a quality assurance procedure linking residual stress modeling and measurements will help in qualifying first article forgings through an improved, reliable understanding of part distortion during subsequent machining process, fatigue life and risk assessment This project will lead to robust, reliable and validated predictions and measurements of

FBS, Inc.
3340 West College Ave.
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-3437
Matt Lindsey
AF121-114      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Lightweight Active Anti-Icing/De-Icing for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)
Abstract: FBS proposes to develop an ultra light-weight ultrasonic guided wave deicing/anti-icing retrofittable system for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA). This system will utilize a focusing/phasing technique to direct and focus energy along specified areas along the leading edge. An anti-icing approach using the actuators will also be explored, never allowing the ice to form would be of value while still being able to deice if conditions warranted. The anti-icing mode of operation would constantly agitate the leading edge with ultrasonic surface waves in such a way to never let ice form. In other areas of deicing interest for RPA such as the engine inlet lip and tail leading edge the same type of actuators can and will be used. FBS is working at the forefront of ultrasonic deicing of rotorcraft and will apply the knowledge and know how that has been learned to RPA aircraft. The concept behind the focusing/phasing and anti-icing is to limit the amount of hardware and ultrasonic actuators needed on the aircraft, therefore limiting weight and power consumption. Using an ice-phobic coating along with the ultrasonic actuators will be explored to even further reduce weight to a goal of 5 lbs or less for the total system. BENEFIT: Both the military and commercial aircraft will benefit from a retrofittable low weight and low power ultrasonic deicing system. Aircraft such as remotely piloted aircraft that have no ice protection system can utilize the cutting edge technology, along with aircraft currently using heavy high power systems. Aircraft and aircraft component manufacturers are constantly searching for technologies that will enhance performance and lower the cost of current systems.

Seashell Technology LLC
3252 Holiday Court Suite 115
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 638-0315
Benjamin Garcia
AF121-114      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Lightweight Active Anti-Icing/De-Icing for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)
Abstract: This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will enable the development of an active anti-ice system for use on remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). Seashell proposes to design, fabricate, and characterize an anti-ice system based on an electrothermal system that will be light weight, low power, and able to be retrofitted to existing RPA. Seashell will meet the weight, power, and retrofitting criteria by utilizing a high performance heating element and Seashell’s proprietary icephobic coating. The enhanced heating element will provide superior thermal conductivity and mechanical properties while lowering the overall film weight when compared to existing technology. The icephobic coating will make the system more robust to environmental icing conditions and lower the power consumption by making the removal of ice and water from the surface more efficient. The system will be tested over a wide range of icing conditions to ensure anti-icing performance. BENEFIT: As the use of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) continues to grow the need for an anti icing system to extend the environmental conditions in which they operate is becoming increasingly important. The lack of anti-icing equipment on RPAs limits the use of these aircraft to when specific environmental conditions are met that minimize icing risk. These environmental launch specifications cause unwanted delays and expense due to grounded aircraft and may have severe consequences for critical missions. Designing an anti-ice system that can be retrofitted to an existing RPA will eliminate environmental launch requirements and provide both economic and productivity improvements to the military and commercial RPA users. Outside of military use, the anti-ice system will be applicable for use on small planes. Most small planes in use today do not have an anti-ice system installed limiting their use to environmental conditions where icing is not a concern. Seashell’s proposed anti-ice system will be superior to other anti-ice systems on the market by providing a solution that is more robust to icing, lower weight, more environmentally friendly (no glycol fluids), and without extensive modification for retrofitting to the aircraft. The proposed anti-ice system will also be applicable for other non-aerospace applications (e.g. wind turbines, communication towers, radomes, etc.)

Maverick Corporation
11379 Grooms Road
Blue Ash, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 469-9919
Robert Gray
AF121-115      Awarded: 5/9/2012
Title:Fabrication and Process Optimization of Thick Laminates (= 40 ply) From High-Temperature Polyimide/Carbon Fiber Composites
Abstract: Polyimide carbon fiber composites offer performance benefits unlike any other organic matrix material as well as tremendous operational cost savings for both DoD and commercial aerospace applications due to their superior strength-to-weight ratio when compared to titanium. To take full advantage of the weight savings of polyimide matrix composites, a full understanding of the reaction kinetics, volatile removal, and viscosity profile for both the polyimide condensation reaction and addition crosslinking polymerization is required. The primary objective for this Phase I SBIR program will be the optimization of a robust process for fabrication of 40-ply thick polyimide carbon fiber composite laminates. Maverick will focus our efforts on MVK-14 FreeForm® as the polyimide resin system based on its processing ease and affordability, high-performance thermal oxidative stability at temperatures 500°F to 550°F and dual use capability for turbine engine components. Maverick and its team members have experience in developing such processes for MVK-14 FreeForm® as well as other polyimide systems including AFR-PE-4. A full characterization leading to computational models for all reaction kinetics, volatile removal and viscosity profiles will result in a robust process for the fabrication of complex MVK-14 FreeForm® carbon fiber composite components. BENEFIT: A successful effort of the proposed research would result in a full characterization and model generation for MVK-14 FreeForm® carbon fiber prepreg that would result in a robust set of processing instructions that could be used by any high-temperature parts fabricator. The increase in manufacturing capability for this material would allow designers at aerospace companies to use more polyimide matrix composites for their applications, reducing weight and increasing efficiency for DoD and commercial applications. The combination of a robust, low cost process and increased design capability will result in a significant cost savings to the Air Force. The results of this SBIR will also be of benefit to the high-temperature polyimide matrix composite community. The methodology for the characterization and overall understanding of the thick laminate processing problems for MVK-14 FreeForm® would apply to many other polyimide resin chemistries.

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
2711 Lance Drive
Moraine, OH 45409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-3713
Jason E Lincoln
AF121-115      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Fabrication and Process Optimization of Thick Laminates from Carbon Fiber/Polyimide Composites
Abstract: This Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program will develop and demonstrate improved high temperature polyimide processing for future realization in manufacturing thick, complex structures for commercial and military systems. In order to achieve the goals of the SBIR solicitation, we have assembled a team with unmatched experience in the key elements necessary for success: structural polyimide science, materials supply, process science, process modeling, and thick polyimide composite aerospace structure manufacturing. In this SBIR program, we will utilize our previous experience in manufacturing process development and the latest in polyimide prepreg technology. The methodology being developed in this work has broad applicability to manufacturing all PMR-type thermosetting polyimides as well as polyimide prepregs based on the poly(amic acid) route, and the process modeling elements are directly applicable to compression molded and autoclave manufactured thick structures. BENEFIT: Commercial aircraft structures, commercial aircraft engines, DoD systems

Aerospace Materials Processing LLC
3617 Hayden Ave
Culver City, CA 90232
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 614-6101
Siu F Dick Cheng
AF121-120      Awarded: 6/6/2012
Title:Automated Surface Preparation of Organic Matrix Composites for Structural Adhesive Bonding
Abstract: An automated surface preparation process will be developed for improving the adhesive bonding of organic matrix composites. The process will utilize high-speed atmospheric pressure plasma to yield the strongest bonds possible, i.e., 100% cohesive failure within the epoxy adhesive. The automated process will replace the unreliable, manual abrasion techniques that have been used for surface preparation in the past. Atmospheric plasma treatment is safe, reliable, low-cost and has no environmental, health and safety concerns. When implemented across the DoD complex, this process will save the government millions in manufacturing costs, and will yield lighter, stronger and faster warefighter systems. BENEFIT: Joining technology is a major concern in aircraft manufacturing and repair. Current abrasion techniques used to prepare organic matrix composites for bonding are unreliable and yield joints of low strength. A new surface preparation process is proposed that uses atmospheric pressure plasma to clean and activate the composite surface for bonding. This process is automated, completely reliable and generates joints of maximum strength. The anticipated benefits are a highly reliable and cost effective joining technology that can be used in the manufacture and repair of jet aircraft, helicopters, satellites, and many other aerospace systems. A direct benefit will be the production of lighter weight and higher performance aircraft for commercial and military applications

General Lasertronics
830 Jury Ct. Suite 5
San Jose, CA 95112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 947-1181
Robert L. Cargill
AF121-120      Awarded: 6/12/2012
Title:Surface Preparation of Organic Matrix Composites (OMCs) for Structural Adhesive Bonding
Abstract: General Lasertronics Corp. conducts research and develops laser systems for coating removal and surface preparation. Lasertronics has a laser process, which can be field deployed, that prepares the surface of OMCs for adhesive bonding. In trials for various aircraft manufacturing companies, the Lasertronics process has increased G1c bond strength by up to 75 percent and has reduced standard deviation of replicate measurements by 40 percent. This Phase I project will demonstrate these benefits for OMCs of interest to the Air Force. BENEFIT: OMCs are finding increased usage in military and commercial aerospace structures. Increased bond strength and reduced bond strength variability will reduce the cost of structures and the cost of aircraft operations by lowering aircraft weight while increasing strength.

Aerospace Materials Processing LLC
3617 Hayden Ave
Culver City, CA 90232
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 614-6101
Siu F Dick Cheng
AF121-121      Awarded: 4/16/2012
Title:Porosity-Free Molded Surfaces for Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) Composites
Abstract: The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative approach to mold preparation materials and/or processes for vacuum-bag-only composite processing. We will identify the mechanism that causes surface pitting and then develop a novel mold release for overcoming this issue in the preparation of Out-of-Autoclave composites. Preliminary experiments will be performed to demonstrate the potential of the new nonstick materials on a mold release Al tool. An OoA carbon/epoxy fabric prepreg, such as T650-35/5320-1 8HS fabric, will be laid up and cured in the Al tool, yielding initial results that show promise for eliminating surface pitting on the finished composite. BENEFIT: Commercialization of an effective mold release technology for producing Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) composites with smooth surface finishes will be a major advancement in aerospace manufacturing technology. It will produce aircraft structures that are lighter weight and with higher performance aerodynamics. This will solve a major problem with OoA manufacturing technology, and will accelerate its widespread use by the aerospace industry. The anticipate benefit will be much lower cost and higher performance aircraft for both commercial and military applications.

Mikro Systems, Inc.
1180 Seminole Trail Suite 220
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 244-6480
Michael Appleby
AF121-121      Awarded: 5/18/2012
Title:Advanced Tooling Systems for Out-0f-Autoclave Composites
Abstract: The U.S. Air Force has identified out-of-autoclave (OoA) materials as vital to achieving fast and affordable manufacturing for future military platforms. OoA materials are anticipated to deliver a 30-40% cost advantage over conventional autoclave materials, however several hurdles remain that prevent more widespread adoption of OoA material systems. One particularly challenging issue is surface pitting, caused by air entrapment between the laminate and tool surface, which the low processing pressures inherent in the OoA vacuum bagging system are unable to remove. While several workaround solutions have been attempted, they do not meet the necessary requirements for repeatable, affordable, high- volume manufacturing of OoA composites. To eliminate surface pitting, Mikro Systems will adapt its patented Tomo Lithographic Molding (TOMO) process to create tooling with engineered surface features and air transport pathways to remove the trapped air from the composite lay-up. Mikro’s tooling will be compatible with existing 2D and 3D composite tools, and will enable future tooling innovations to improve performance, quality, repeatability, and cost for composite parts. The TOMO process is inherently flexible and low-cost, allowing for multiple design iterations in one tool set. Most importantly, Mikro’s tooling system will provide a tool finish surface quality for the composite parts. BENEFIT: Mikro’s patented TOMO tooling technology will solve the current issues of surface pitting on OoA part surfaces, and will provide a platform for future OoA product enhancements and manufacturing cost reductions. Mikro’s highly-engineered, integrated tooling construct will help improve process repeatability, reduce incidence of springback effect and porosity, and reduce parasitic weight through elimination of surfacing films. The TOMO process will also significantly reduce OoA manufacturing cost through reduction of consumables, processing time, manufacturing rework and touch labor.

Paramount Industries
2475 Big Oak Road
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 757-9611
Luis Folgar
AF121-122      Awarded: 4/20/2012
Title:Advanced Process Control for Laser Sintered Thermoplastics
Abstract: Paramount has previously developed thermal controls for the SLS process and documented some of the required in-situ sensing capabilities to achieve full process stability. Paramount’s partners have previously modeled the laser energy density for the process and other composite manufacturing processes. SLS as an out-of-the-box technology does not have the required manufacturing controls to reduce the cost of process quality control and guaranteed the quality of parts. Therefore, a business opportunity exists to fully derive, validate and implement the required physics-based process-structure-property models that can direct the design and development of sensing capabilities and adaptive controls for the existing SLS technology. The findings and recommendations from Phase I alone will significantly increase the understanding of SLS within the defense community. These results will also provide the basis for an appropriate technology insertion roadmap for SLS within the defense aerospace manufacturing industry. Paramount’s approach increases the probabilities of implementing several of the proposed technology improvements for existing SLS systems that are already making parts for other DDM commercial applications. BENEFIT: Paramount’s Phase I objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of collecting process data and developing accurate physics based model that can be used to improve the quality control of the entire process and optimize the results in mechanical properties. Paramount Industries is confident that those objectives will be successfully achieved and anticipates the following results: 1. A set of individual process models that capture the important process phenomena such as laser energy density, thermal distribution, heat transfer, polymer consolidation, layer bonding, polymer degradation, and residual stresses. 2. An overall generic and flexible model, requiring only the basic material properties and details related to heat sources and laser energy inputs. 3. Demonstration of uniform heat distribution through adaptive thermal controls and sensing capabilities for the heat at the surface of the fabrication area and through the volume of the build envelop. 4. Preliminary Engineering designs and solutions for visual inspection of powder deposition and in-situ monitoring of true laser power.

Nokomis, Inc
310 5th St.
Charleroi, PA 15022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 221-3223
Patrick J. Fisher
AF121-124      Awarded: 6/12/2012
Title:Inline Material Sensor (IMS)
Abstract: Sheets, or ‘mats’ of EMI protective materials have critical value for many systems of strategic importance for the Department of Defense (DoD). It is of great importance that all such materials that are integrated into fielded systems are fully capable of meeting shielding requirements; however, detecting defects or flaws that compromise performance using current methods is extremely time consuming and expensive. Nokomis proposes to develop an RF-based automated system to detect faulty material during production, allowing for a great deal of savings as well as improvements in reliability of shielding material. Nokomis’ Hiawatha RF sensor technology has previously been customized for manufacturing settings, and this will serve as an advanced starting point for development supporting this application. BENEFIT: EMI protection or shielding is of the utmost importance in military and commercial aircraft operations. In order to maintain the integrity of aircraft functions, the materials that provide the necessary shielding need to be validated as meeting specifications. The potential of a robust, automated solution to detect the presence of defective materials during manufacturing processes to deliver cost savings to the Air Force is extensive. Therefore, Nokomis’ Inline Material Sensor (IMS) will be crucial in providing a much needed solution. Nokomis’ state of the art technology can bring many options to the table that will aid in the detection of defective materials in the manufacturing stage. The proactive solution has the potential to greatly reduce manufacturing cost while improving reliability associated with aircraft operation.

PaneraTech
2259 Village Crossing Drive Ste 302
Falls Church, VA 22043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 429-1208
Eric K. Walton
AF121-124      Awarded: 5/29/2012
Title:Inline Material Sensor (IMS)
Abstract: PaneraTech is proposing a very innovative Inline Material Sensor (IMS) and tagging system that utilizes broadband dual-polarized RF probes to real-time assess electrical performance of thin films and mat materials during production and prepregging. Our proposed sensor is also designed to detect any physical flaws such as voids, slits or cracks in the film to ensure 100% physical integrity of the film. Our preliminary studies show that we can readily detect any changes in electrical properties and also presence of any physical flaws. During Phase I, we will carry out a more detailed and comprehensive analysis to characterize performance of our proposed IMS sensor with various films of varying EMI shielding properties and various size of flaws and orientations in the film. BENEFIT: The proposed Inline Material Sensor offers significant benefits to DoD and aircraft manufacturers by ensuring expected shielding and electrical functionality of thin films and mat materials before they are used in various aircraft parts. This will also eliminate any re- work or scrape and thus save program costs. By ensuring that thin films and mat materials will not be delivered to the airframe integrator before they are checked for 100% electrical and physical compliance, we will eliminate and use of defective material in the aircraft and reduce the risk that defective material could be used in aircraft production.

Rugate Technologies, Incorporated
353 Christian Street
Oxford, CT 06478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 267-3154
Thomas D. Rahmlow, Jr.
AF121-126      Awarded: 5/3/2012
Title:Optical Filters on Thin Cover Glass
Abstract: Optical filters on solar cells can improve cell performance by maximizing light transmission into the cell and by helping maintain cell operating temperature with minimal added weight. Anti-reflection films reduce Fresnel reflection losses and maximize light transmitted to the cell. Reflection of below band-gap photons reduces the heat load on the photocell. Reflection of specific in-band spectra also allows for better maintenance of cell temperature and charge density within the cell under certain operating conditions. While anti-reflection coatings and structure surfaces are available for visible commercial applications, the development of high efficiency, multiple band-gap solar cells require coatings to operate over a broad spectral band. Reflection of below band-gap photons which would otherwise be absorbed by the cell as heat is needed to achieve high conversion efficiency. A tandem filter design, using interference and plasma filter layers, is proposed. The plasma layer provides long wavelength reflection while the interference filter provides good in band performance and rejection of specific bands. The below band-gap region beginning at 2.5 microns and extending to long wavelengths is a significant percent of the total spectrum. Since below bandgap photons are absorbed by the cell as heat, radiators are needed behind the solar cell panel to maintain the cells at their optimum operating temperature. BENEFIT: Satellite solar power solutions have both military and commercial applications. This includes space exploration, defense, intelligence, and global communications industries. The coatings could be used on panels from military satellites to communication satellites for cell phones. Further development in optical filters for solar cells would contribute to an increase in the desire for more efficient satellites and therefore create a market pull for the product. Optical filter development to improve the efficiency of solar cell components, for both military and commercial use, is a rapidly expanding market. In addition to improved efficiency, the filters can protect the cells from harmful radiation.

Table Mountain Optics
509 Marin Street Suite 125
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 496-7133
William Southwell
AF121-126      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Optical Filters on Thin Cover Glass
Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing optical filters on solar cell glass covers that will reflect multiple spectral notches that are in-band to the solar spectrum between 400 nm to 2500 nm while maintaining high throughput elsewhere for solar cell utilization. BENEFIT: Fills Air Force need for coatings with spectral notches on solar cell panel cover glass. Provides stress control for very thick optical coatings enabling optical filters with unprecented performance over current filters which are limited in thickness due to stress in the coating.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Steve Wu
AF121-127      Awarded: 4/25/2012
Title:A Novel Spatially Self-Controlled Optical Attenuator of High Transparence and High Extinction
Abstract: Agiltron, a leading commercial electro-optic component manufacturer, proposes to develop a simpler, lower-cost spatial controllable attenuator having all the required performance attributes for suppressing a bright source in the Field of View (FOV) so that the dynamic range of the sensor could be devoted to the lower intensity radiation from the scene. Our novel pixilated variable transmittance attenuator has a wide transmission range of 90% to blocking, continuously variable, sub-ms fast response, excellent spectral neutrality, fail clear, polarization independence, and consumes little power. The inorganic device is robust, lightweight, and thin, well suited for space application. The electrostatic attenuator device also does not have secondary reflections such as irising and scattering. The new device requires simple driving electronics that are self controlled. Agiltron novel spatially self- controlled attenuator potentially enables sensors to function even under direct sun blinding as well as provides them protection againsthazards such as laser and nuclear blast blinding. The feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated in Phase I. BENEFIT: Success in the Phase I effort will identify a viable manufacturing route for a novel variable transmittance flexible attenuator device. These devices have a wide range of “dual use” applications, from military aircrew personnel and sensor protection applications to commercial applications of laser safety and protection such as welders mask, sun attenuators, space suit helmet attenuators, race helmets, welding, eyewear, windows, automobile/aircraft/spacecraft windows, non-emissive displays etc.

Glint Photonics, Inc.
1455 ADAMS DRIVE SUITE 1288
MENLO PARK, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 646-4192
Peter Kozodoy
AF121-127      Awarded: 4/6/2012
Title:Spatially Controlled Opto-Fluidic Attenuator
Abstract: Glint Photonics proposes to develop the Spatially Controlled Opto-Fluidic Attenuator (SCOFA), a new type of optical element that can addressably and selectively block incoming light over arbitrary areas. The SCOFA is an array of shutter pixels, each of which contains a small droplet of liquid metal. Electrowetting actuation is used to draw the metal droplet into a thin flat channel, spreading it out to form an opaque shutter that reflects incident light. When the bias is removed, interface tension causes the liquid metal to recoil back into a droplet shape, re-opening the light valve. Liquid metal is an attractive material for shutter applications because it offers complete blocking of broadband light sources in a very thin film. Electrowetting actuation is expected to provide a facile means of switching the light valves. Phase I research will evaluate different electrowetting approaches and explore pixel design geometries BENEFIT: The Spatially Controlled Opto-Fluidic Attenuator (SCOFA) is designed to improve the imaging capabilities of airborne and space-based camera sensors in sun-facing orientations or high-glare situations. Optical sensors have a limited dynamic range, so the presence of bright sources in the field of view can prevent the sensor from resolving other, dimmer, elements in the scene. By selectively blocking out the light from bright sources, the SCOFA will allow sensors to devote their full dynamic range to the remainder of the scene. The ability to provide high-quality data in these difficult imaging conditions would expand intelligence-gathering and targeting capabilities, allowing US forces to operate with greater speed, flexibility, and accuracy. Numerous other applications are also possible, in both military and civilian uses. Airborne imagers are increasing used by domestic law enforcement agencies, and also find application in agriculture, forestry, and other fields. Each of these applications could benefit from the SCOFA in order to provide better imagery in high-glare situations. At sufficiently low price-points, the SCOFA could even be integrated into consumer cameras to provide spatially-controlled glare-suppression or to replace costly and delicate mechanical shutters.

Advanced Computational Technology, LLC
3301 Pinegrove Place
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 721-6786
Komal A. Masud
AF121-128      Awarded: 4/30/2012
Title:Simulation of Small-Scale Damage Evolution During Processing of Polymer Matrix Materials Systems
Abstract: This proposal presents two novel approaches for the modeling of interface and interphase phenomena in composite material systems. From the computational perspective new developments include integration of Discontinuous Galerkin ideas with the variational multiscale finite element methods for a precise description of the fiber-matrix interface. The second approach is developed for a mixture theory that is governed by a homogenized set of equations. A two-level split of the deformation map into an elastic component and a phase/damage evolution component leads to two-level description with embedded interphases and damage evolution, leading to fatigue and failure. These methods possess enhanced stability properties as compared to the standard Galerkin methods, and a built-in error estimation module that helps distinguish modeling errors from numerical errors, a feature that is not present in any of the competing numerical method currently available. Another significant feature of our methods is the notion of maximization of entropy production that yields the driving criterion for damage evolution. A third significant feature is that both methods accommodate p-refinement feature that leads to higher than quadratic convergence in the L2 norm with quadratic or higher interpolation functions. BENEFIT: test

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9003
Sergei Shenogin
AF121-128      Awarded: 4/30/2012
Title:Simulation of Small-Scale Damage Evolution During Processing of Polymer Matrix Materials Systems
Abstract: Addressing the problem of reliable prediction of the mechanical properties and durability of polymer composites, UES Inc. proposes developing multiple alternative commercially marketable computational tool that calculates macroscopic material properties based on chemical composition of matrix and filler, geometry of the filler, and manufacturing conditions. The calculations will be validated by available experimental results and existing computational solutions. This new modeling approach will greatly reduce the need for experimental input and include no empirical relationships or fitting parameters. The models will account for structural inhomogeneities and internal stresses that arise in the composite during manufacturing process; capture the effect of various manufacturing conditions and be able to suggest the most optimal manufacturing regime. The outcome of the models will be a set of numerical solutions that can be interfaced with commercial FEA software for accurate prediction of mechanical properties, fatigue lifetime, material aging and degradation, including the performance of parts with complicated geometry such as notches. The work accomplished under Phase I will test the fidelity of the new approaches and demonstrate the influence of interphase properties on macroscopic mechanical properties of composite materials. BENEFIT: The market for the modeling software that would target the specific properties of polymer composites is increasing, based on the growing number of composite materials being researched for DoD and commercial applications. There is large demand for the software that is able to predict damage evolution and the life for the composite based on the composition and processing technology, especially in aerospace and defense design which will be our primary target market. If UES can develop effective and useful software that will integrate with existing FEA packages, the estimated market for the final product is $3M in a five years following completion of Phase III.

Technical Data Analysis, Inc.
3190 Fairview Park Drive Suite 650
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 237-1300
Nicole Apetre
AF121-129      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Enhanced Nondestructive Evaluation via Model-assisted Ultrasonic Imaging
Abstract: The proposed research program will develop tools for the improved characterization of defects in complex aircraft structures. The resulting Structural Damage Sensing (SDS) tools are expected to provide at least a 20% improvement in detection capabilities. This will be achieved through the application of transducer arrays for generating, sensing and processing of ultrasonic bulk and guided waves. Phased arrays and distributed arrays will be considered along with adaptive imaging schemes updated by results from efficient numerical models also developed as part of the research. The study will rely on results and procedures which have been proven effective for the analysis of low-frequency ultrasonic waves and guided wave based imaging. These procedures will be extended to bulk waves for high-frequency, high resolution imaging. BENEFIT: Structural Damage Sensing (SDS) systems which will be developed during this work are important for safety, efficiency of maintenance, platform availability and longevity. Safety is related with the SDS potential to detect and assess hazardous rogue flaws before they become critical to the aircraft. Efficiency of maintenance is associated with the Department's of Defence (DoD) major objective to migrate to condition-based maintenance by improving maintenance agility and responsiveness for quicker turnaround times, increased operational availability, and reduced total life cycle ownership cost. The customizable SDS tool as envisioned in this effort could be used in many industries such as aerospace, automotive or machinery to significantly improve the reliability of various systems. Through the innovative theoretical developments and practical demonstration of these innovations, the Structural Health Monitoring/Nondestructive Evaluation/Prognosis and health management (SHM/NDE/PHM) technology under development here, offers a tremendous opportunity for accurate and rapid damage assessment.

Victor Technologies, LLC
P.O. Box 7706
Bloomington, IN 47407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 339-8273
Harold A. Sabbagh
AF121-129      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Nondestructive Damage Characterization of Complex Aircraft Structures by Inverse Methods
Abstract: Computational electromagnetics and inverse methods are the foundations of modern methods of eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In this project we apply these methods to the problem of characterizing, in three dimensions, damage in complex aircraft structures. As the maintenance of the structural components of aircraft moves from time- based maintenance to condition-based maintenance, there is a need to completely characterize damage in structural components made from such disparate materials as aluminum, titanium and steel alloys, and carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (cfrp), such as graphite-epoxy composites. Further, the structural environments can be quite complex, including compound curvatures and/or multiple layers that are fastened together, with potential damage being located in each of the layers. The methods developed in this project will address all of these issues, and will be applicable to the nuclear power industry, as well as civil infrastructures and materials characterization. BENEFIT: The technology that we will develop in this project will be applicable to the aerospace, nuclear power, materials characterization and many other industries, so our research will have commercial benefits that extend far beyond military applications.

Applied Optimization, Inc.
714 E Monument Ave Ste 204
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-5100
Anil Chaudhary
AF121-130      Awarded: 4/23/2012
Title:Computational Process Model Development for Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM)
Abstract: Applied Optimization, Inc. (AO) has developed computational process simulation for the prediction of temperature, residual stress, and melt pool control during the material feed DDM processes (e.g. LENSTM and EBFFF). The Phase I work plan is to extend this existing simulation technology for the prediction of temperature, residual stress and melt pool control in commercially available, electron-beam and laser based Ti-6Al-4V powder-bed processes. The Phase I will consist of three tasks. First task is to implement automated procedures to define the simulation model at the beginning of each layer and each time increment of the powder bed process. This will include set up of the material density distribution, material properties, boundary conditions and the finite element model. The second task is to extend the existing methods at AO for thermal and residual stress analysis to powder bed processes. The third task is to demonstrate feasibility of computational modeling of electron beam and laser-based powder bed processes by designing the input power, spot size and deposit geometry for deposit coupons as well as for a representative section of a jet engine component. Depositions will be made and the predictions for temperature, distortions and microstructure will be compared with the experimental data. BENEFIT: Benefits: (1) It will be feasible to perform hands-off automated simulation of laser and electron beam based powder bed processes for complex geometry parts. The simulated entities will include the distribution of temperature, shrinkage, residual stress and distortions. (2) It will become feasible to perform numerical trial and error in order to design process parameters for powder bed processes. Commercial application: This work will complement the existing commercial software at AO for the simulation of additive manufacturing processes. The powder bed simulation technology will become quickly available to the US Industry upon completion of this project due to the existing foundation of commercial work at AO.

Mound Laser & Photonics Center, Inc.
P.O. Box 223
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-3214
David Beeler
AF121-130      Awarded: 4/23/2012
Title:Computational Process Model Development for Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM)
Abstract: Powder-bed based additive manufacturing (AM) technologies typically involve rapid solidification after a laser or electron beam melts a region of powder. Although parameters can be optimized for lowest cost, highest precision, or optimum microstructure, these optimizations require trade-offs between scan rate, layer thickness, bed heating, and use of support materials. Input from Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagrams, thermo- mechanical boundary conditions, 3-Dimensional Finite Volume (3DFV) methodology, and part geometry in the form of an STL file, will be utilized in University of Louisville’s (U of L) Dislocation Density based Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Model (DDCP-FEM) to predict local and global strengths, grain morphologies, and other layer-by-layer interfacial characteristics. By coupling this model with a direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) development cell, constructed at Mound Laser & Photonics Center (MLPC), parameters determined by the software will be experimentally tested, validated, and used for input in the iterative model. Upon validation between model and development cell, a high aspect ratio feature of a OEM selected component will be fabricated using a commercial DMLS station at both the U of L and General Electric Aviation (GEA). BENEFIT: Due to the lengthy development time and cost found in current direct digital manufacturing (DDM) technologies, the proposed work would provide savings in cost and time for fabricating complex components from a digital design. Commercial propulsion and airframe applications stand to greatly benefit from improved DDM especially by the elimination of tooling, dies, and casting molds. The time savings for engineering development in the form of rapid prototyping of designs as well as complex geometries that do not lend themselves to conventional machining techniques would greatly benefit both commercial and military applications.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-9481
Jenny Ulyanova
AF121-131      Awarded: 5/18/2012
Title:Paper-Based, Multi-Fueled Enzymatic Fuel Cell with Passive Microfluidic Flow
Abstract: Our objective is to develop an enzyme catalyzed fuel cell to enable electrochemical power generation from several fuel types (i.e. sugars and alcohols), thereby delivering a state-of- the-art energy source for low power military and commercial systems. The proposed enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) will leverage ongoing research at both CFDRC and the University of New Mexico to provide a fully-integrated manufacturable and renewable power supply. In Phase I, we will demonstrate multiple enzyme electrodes capable of oxidizing sugars and alcohols simultaneously from one fuel mixture, as well as a multiple enzyme cascade for 2- step oxidation of ethanol. We will employ low-cost and flexible, paper-based passive fuel flow-through system for continual fuel delivery to EFC. Additionally, we will design, fabricate and test all components of the EFC system for maximal power density, In Phase II, we will further develop multi-enzymatic cascade design for complete oxidation of various fuels with stable and reproducible operation. The fully-integrated prototype will be capable of providing a proof-of-concept demonstration as a portable military low-power source in the intended unattended ground sensor (UGS) application. A multi-disciplinary team with proven expertise in electrochemical power sources, biomicrosystems, bioelectrochemistry, and system design has been assembled to accomplish these goals. BENEFIT: The major outcome of this project will be a completely enzymatic fuel cell coupled with a paper-based microfluidic flow-through system capable of utilizing a mixture of different fuels (ex. sugars and alcohols) to continuously generate power. The ability to use multiple fuel sources will significantly increase the applicability of the device. Additionally, high power density offered by the device will allow for recharge capabilities for various devices and may be appropriate for a wide range of military applications for remote monitoring, sensing, and surveillance. The fully integrated system will meet a critical need in many small, mobile military systems, which are typically limited by batteries, and their inconvenient replacement/recharge requirements. The high power EFC solution proposed here eliminates these limitations by taking advantage of readily available fuels, such as sugar sources, of more than ten times higher energy density in biocatalytic oxidation. Immediate military applications for the Phase I device include recharging of commercially available batteries and various low power-based devices, UGSs, and wireless surveillance networks. Additionally with some adaptation, the device could be suitable for the use in microbots and other higher-power demand devices. The Phase II program will be focused on development of a cascade-based enzymatic anode for complete oxidation of one fuel type. Additionally, this phase will be tailored to incorporate the requirements of lightweight, low-

Giner, Inc.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0573
Hui Xu, Ph.D.
AF121-131      Awarded: 5/18/2012
Title:Enzymes-based Passive Microfluidic Biological Fuel Cells
Abstract: A passive microfludic enzymatic biofuel cell platform is designed and evaluated. This micropump mimicks water transpiration from a tree roots to its leaves; in this way, biofuels are driven in a flow-through mode along microfludic channels in the biofuel cell substrate. Due to the nature of laminar flow, the anolyte and catholyte form two streams with minimal interfacial diffusion effect that leads to a membraneless fuel cell. The anode of the fuel cell is a metal sheet that is deposited with enzymes that may simultaneously oxidize a mixture of fuels. The cathode complexes facilitate direct electron transfer for oxygen reduction reaction. The configured system does not require exogenous power for fuel delivery, and demonstrates a simple structure and easy operation. This microfluidic biofuel cell will be engineered to provide sustainable, compact power sources for portable and medical electronics. BENEFIT: This research program will lead to a microfluidic biofuel cell that operates in a flow-through mode with zero exogenous power requirements. For medical applications, the implanted biofuel cell can power artificial heart and medical sensor–transmitters. For military application, the biofuel cells may power autonomous microrobots and other higher-power demand devices as the military relies on portable electronics for communication, command, surveillance and other applications.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF121-135      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Passive multi-spectral sensor for defense against hypersonic missiles (SAMs and A-A)
Abstract: SA Photonics is pleased to propose the EagleEye missile warning system for aircraft situational awareness. SA Photonics will team with the University of Arizona Optical Science Center (OSC) in the development of the compact, wide bandwidth flight qualifiable systems. The EagleEye combines the OSC expertise in advanced detection systems with SA Photonics expertise in compact advanced lens design, wide field of regard opto-mechanics, and space qualifiable electronics BENEFIT: The proposed development will enable the Air Force to have significant new capabilities in determining the early detection of surface to air and air to air missiles to enable utilizing counter measure techniques

QUASAR Federal Systems, Inc.
5754 Pacific Center Blvd. Suite 203
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 228-1704
Robert Dickey
AF121-136      Awarded: 4/19/2012
Title:VHF DF Antennas for SUAS
Abstract: The US Air Force has a continuing need for a VHF-band direction finding system suitable for deployment onboard Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS) such as the RQ-7 Shadow. However, traditional direction finding techniques used in this band present a significant challenge for the SUAS class of platforms due to the large antennas required. Over the past six years, QUASAR Federal Systems (QFS) has pioneered a new approach to radio frequency direction finding. We have previously demonstrated compact DF antennas that perform accurate direction finding with a fraction of the size required by traditional antennas. QFS has extensive experience integrating its custom systems into a variety of airborne platforms, including a small UAS. Phase I of this program will consist of evaluating prototype antenna design concepts to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, while in Phase II a complete prototype system will be built and demonstrated BENEFIT: The proposed system will offer the DoD a UAV-mountable, accurate direction finding antenna systems. Commercial applications exist in Homeland Security, Law Enforcement and First Response, while the general understanding of UAV mounted systems will contribute to technology QFS is developing for the resource exploration industry.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
P. Keith Kelly
AF121-137      Awarded: 4/19/2012
Title:High Gain Ka-Band Data Link Antennas with Wide-Field-of-Regard (WFOR)
Abstract: As airborne sensors become more prolific and more sophisticated, the amount of data they are able to produce overwhelms the current ability to offload that data based on the meager performance of ground station terminals. A high gain antenna supporting Ka-Band sensor data offload and Command and Control Uplink is required. Gimbaled reflectors are the standard choice, but their design requires very sophisticated gimbals and control algorithms. Phased arrays have been used to simplify the mechanical steering problem as well as reduce the height, but they are expensive, less efficient and suffer from scan loss at extreme angles from boresight. FIRST RF proposes a novel two-axis mechanically steered aperture system for the Wide Field-of-Regard (FOR) High Gain Ka-Band Data Link. This concept offers reliability and performance in a compact package that is compatible with ground-based fixed or mobile platforms. The proposed beam waveguide system enables precision tracking without requiring beam motion, such as with sequential lobe (or conical scanning) systems. To control risk to the program and the overall design, FIRST RF has budgeted to produce a prototype reflector based on the proposed design during the Phase I program. BENEFIT: The proposed antenna is orders of magnitude lower cost than phased arrays, with no scan loss. It is moderately lower cost than conventional two axis gimbaled reflectors, due to one key design parameter that influences the selection of motors: whereas conventional gimbaled reflectors have a center of mass that is out over the pedestal, the proposed antenna has a center of mass about the azimuth center of rotation, implying that much less sophisticated motors with lower torque and mass requirements can be used to drive the assembly. Further, our approach employs a stationary feed which does not require rotary joint. This substantially reduces cost compared to other reflector-based approaches. The proposed system maintains a compact size and footprint ideal for ground operations. The total swept volume of this design is not much larger than the swept volume of the diameter of the aperture .

Nuvotronics LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 341-2333
Anatoliy Boryssenko
AF121-137      Awarded: 4/18/2012
Title:High Gain Ka-Band Data Link Antennas with Wide-Field-of-Regard (WFOR)
Abstract: The Nuvotronics approach is to replace the traditional dish-based antenna technologies by batch fabricated micromachined electronically-scanned subarray modules. A number of such subarray modules are combined to form a conformal WFOR-ISR antenna system to operate across a selected portion of the Ka band. The array backplane will provide all signal, control and power connections to the subarray modules. Several architectures will be explored to optimize data downlink, data uplink and UAV tracking. To accommodate challenging operational requirements advanced solutions for array elements, subarray modules with TR components and overall array architecture will be developed. Comprehensive analytical and numerical studies will be carried out including full-wave electromagnetic modeling for aperture, beamforming and power distribution circuits. As a result of this work, a novel ground antenna system for UAV downlink/uplink data transmission will be developed with significant improvement in electrical performance and cost for both military and commercial applications. BENEFIT: The program addresses a broad spectrum of military and civil UAV platforms aimed to operate in real time through establishing and maintaining reliable, stable, high-bandwidth and long-range communication links between UAVs and ground stations due to UAVs mobility and broad flight ranges, speeds and altitudes. In military applications, high data transfer rates ≥ 1Gb/s will be provided for emerging wide-area electro- optical/infrared (EO/IR) motion imagery airborne surveillance to significantly improve: (i) commander’s real-time battlefield awareness, (ii) accuracy of firing power, (iii) troop maneuverability, (iv) situation and damage assessment and so on. In civil applications, these developments will enable monitoring areas that are inaccessible or dangerous for humans or delivering information to and from areas with no infrastructure (e.g., for environmental monitoring, border surveillance, emergency or disaster assistance and so on).

Applied Radar, Inc.
315 Commerce Park Road
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Marcos Bergamo
AF121-138      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Passive Airborne Radar Using Opportunistic Signals (PASSAROS)
Abstract: A key requirement for a practical/scalable airborne passive radar system using opportunistic ground emitters such as broadcast TV is the ability to effectively isolate the high-powered direct-path signals from much weaker target reflected ones. Previous passive radars rely on array antennas complemented by multistatic techniques and dedicate/agile decoders for every-possible-type of opportunistic signal which conflict with CSWAP-limitations of the airborne platforms. Our proposed Passive Airborne Radar using Opportunistic Signals (PASSAROS) provides a solution for these challenges as it requires a single receiver per platform without requiring detection of specific channels or features; uses simple correlation/synchronization techniques to cancel out the problematic direct-path while achieving high-quality measurement of target range and Doppler, and expands on novel technologies Applied Radar recently demonstrated for DARPA’s Surface Tactical Terminal Localization using Opportunistic Signals (STALOS) for multi-target sorting and triangulation. Our proposed PASSAROS research will focus on the important detection-and-tracking of aircraft flying at altitudes below the view of traditional radar systems. Specifically, Applied Radar will develop and simulated the performance of an airborne passive radar system in Phase I, and develop a testbed using mobile ground-based receivers emulating airborne platforms and demonstrate its performance to detect a low-flying aircraft target in Phase II. BENEFIT: Tracking and location for first responders to aircraft accidents. Federal Aviation Agency for surveillance and tracking aircraft and for air safety if transponders fail or are turned off. Drug Enforcement Agency for surveillance and tracking aircraft. A ground-based passive radar system could be used for non-towered airports. Passive sensors located along a perimeter fence could be used to detect and track intruders along a border.

Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.
52 Geiger Road, Suite 2
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 356-1661
Walter Szczepanski
AF121-138      Awarded: 4/25/2012
Title:Airborne Passive Radar
Abstract: The objective of this effort is to design and demonstrate a passive radar air to air detection sensor system for aircraft installation that can passively detect and track other aircraft. In Phase I, we will perform a technology feasibility assessment and deliver a description of the conceptual solution of an airborne passive radar system, data to support the feasibility of the proposed solution, and a brief outline of a Phase II effort. We will develop approaches for networked airborne passive radar systems which possess characteristics of size, weight, and power commensurate with fighter and bomber class aircraft without significantly diminishing the aircrafts’ performance envelope. The detection sensor system must demonstrate the capability to operate with both low false alarm rates and relatively high probability of detection under operational conditions. BENEFIT: The technology from this Phase I effort will become instrumental in the development a wide variety of current and future passive radar systems. Multistatic radar may enable enhanced surveillance capability, allowing high-value transmitters to maintain significant stand-off ranges. Airborne passive radar allows penetrating platforms to perform surveillance without transmitting RF energy that could reveal their presence. Military applications include bistatic adjunct applications for existing and future radar systems. In addition, many UAS applications will benefit from this technology. Commercial applications include Air Traffic Control of non transponder transmitting aircraft.

Information Systems Laboratories, Inc.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 647-0036
Jameson Bergin
AF121-138      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Airborne Passive Radar
Abstract: Radar sensors provide an important capability for combat missions involving air-to-air engagement of enemy aircraft. The main benefit of radar is the ability to detect targets at long stand-off ranges in all weather conditions. The main disadvantage is that radar transmissions are typically easily intercepted and provides a means for an adversary to both detect, track, and potentially target blue force aircraft. A new sensor system that exploits target illumination provided by commercial broadcast stations would provide an attractive air surveillance capability without the vulnerability of being intercepted that is inherent in traditional radar systems. Under this SBIR effort ISL will develop a new airborne passive radar system concept for air-to-air combat. BENEFIT: The new system will provide the Air Force will a capability for covert air surveillance by providing a new passive RF sensor for combat aircraft that can display air target detections and tracks with militarily significant coverage and geolocation accuracy.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Khurram Shafique
AF121-139      Awarded: 5/1/2012
Title:Improved Real Time Geo-Registration Techniques For Airborne Imagery
Abstract: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project develops simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)-based innovative methods for geo-registration and demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods for accurate geo-registration of wide area motion imagery (WAMI). The proposed methods are capable of dealing with noisy sensor metadata and do not rely on the availability of accurate and/or up-to-date geo- registered reference data. The key innovations in this effort are: i) development of efficient incremental SLAM based geo-registration to enable large scale estimation, ii) incorporation of visual odometry priors to handle non-smooth motion, iii) incorporation of priors from reference data for geographically consistent mapping and error handling, and iv) development of a distributed framework to enable airborne processing in SWaP constrained environment. The project further offers analysis of the algorithms with respect to a wide variety of system parameters, such as, types of pose constraints and their modeling, choice of features, choice of data association schemes, etc. The Phase I effort will include: development of enabling algorithms, implementation of a video geo-registration system, demonstration of proof of concept, and evaluation and failure mode analysis of the proposed technologies using real WAMI data. BENEFIT: Wide-area motion imagery has proven to be a critical asset for persistent surveillance and reconnaissance of large geospatial regions. However the utility and value of these assets to the analysts significantly depends on the quality of geo-registration. For example, the performance of common applications such as targeting, tracking of high valued targets, and activity analysis, all are a function of georegistration accuracy of the data. Hence the development of robust geo-registration technologies is critical for enabling truly automated real-time wide area surveillance and reconnaissance. The proposed technologies facilitate accurate geo-registration on large scale imagery in the presence of sensor noise and errors in geo-registered reference data while overcoming fundamental and operational challenges and enable many automated tools for the exploitation of WAMI data. These include: • Tracking and handoff of high-value targets to and from WAMI data. • Precision targeting. • Mission Planning • Automated Activity Analysis • Real-time monitoring, and • Forensic data analysis.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Andrew P. Brown
AF121-139      Awarded: 4/25/2012
Title:Improved Real Time Geo-Registration Techniques For Airborne Imagery
Abstract: Toyon Research Corporation proposes research and development of advanced algorithms to provide accurate real-time geo-registration of airborne imagery collected by EO/IR surveillance systems, including wide area motion imagery (WAMI) systems such as ARGUS, Gorgon Stare, and Blue Devil. The proposed algorithms perform tightly-coupled processing to fuse information from typical navigation system sensors with information derived from the EO/IR surveillance imagery. The proposed algorithms also fuse information from GPS and/or reference geo-registered imagery, to provide improved accuracy and robust operation in scenarios where GPS may not be available, or may be available only intermittently. The proposed development is designed to result in implementation of a Phase II prototype capable of real-time processing within size, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints of the airborne sensor platform. Integration and demonstration with Air Force and other DoD systems is also planned for Phase II. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research and development will result in improved capabilities for correlating, fusing, and exploiting multi-sensor EO/IR ISR imagery in a layered sensing framework. Significant benefits are expected in military applications where coordination among multiple airborne and ground assets is necessary and real-time performance is critical. In particular, this technology addresses the mismatch in precision between guided weapons and the target location systems used to select targets. Although the military is the primary customer with a need for precise location information from mobile sensors, smaller scale operations would be able to use these capabilities along borders, near ports, or along the coastline to monitor for illegal or terrorist activities. Potential commercial applications include many police or homeland security applications. Geo- registration is also fundamental to commercial augmented reality applications.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Timothy Perkins
AF121-140      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Airborne Hyperspectral Data Compression
Abstract: Operational airborne hyperspectral imagery (HSI) offers numerous advantages over traditional single or multiband sensing modalities for DoD intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks. Its extremely high information content, which captures unique spectral signatures of targets and materials of interest, can lessen the reliance on expert data analysts and improve response time. However, the enormous stream of data collected with continuously operating HSI sensors far exceeds the throughput of existing real-time data analysis and telemetry systems. Our proposed SBIR program will address the critical HSI data-processing needs of airborne platforms by developing algorithms and software for efficient, high-fidelity compression and storage that can be implemented in real time or near- real time, thereby eliminating existing bottlenecks that limit the timely utilization of these valuable data. Our compression system would feature lossless options for data archiving along with innovative lossy methods capable of providing compression ratios of order 50-fold. The data outputs would be recorded into structured files compatible with the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (NITFS) to maintain a standardized exchange format. In Phase II the software products would be implemented on flight hardware for use in ACES-HY and other military hyperspectral systems. BENEFIT: The product of the proposed SBIR effort, after Phase II, will be a data compression algorithm software suite for immediate use in operational DoD and commercial hyperspectral systems and software packages for data analysis. The software will enable efficient telemetry of the imagery to the ground, thereby overcoming existing bottlenecks that limit the timely utilization of these data and enabling efficient data archiving both on-board and on ground computing systems. Sensors include ACES-HY and the many other military, civilian and commercial hyperspectral sensors that are or will be transmitting data from space or air to ground over the next two decades. Potential applications are wide-ranging and include military operations, emergency and disaster management, environmental monitoring, medicine, and manufacturing process control.

Technical research Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 15278
Honolulu, HI 96830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 926-7179
Michael E. Winter
AF121-140      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Multi-Sensor Data Compression
Abstract: The compression of hyperspectral data is made more difficult by the requirement that the compressed data adequately serve a variety of diverse applications. Lossy compression methods will be evaluated with the requirements for tactical HSI analysis in mind. We propose to investigate two compression approaches, one based on sampling and reconstruction and the other on a fractal description. To determine their potential applicability to HSI, hyperspectral target detection and terrain classification algorithms will be used. BENEFIT: The development of a compression standard for tactical hyperspectral systems, will greatly increase the utility of the data by the military community. In addition, the development of compression techniques will have broad applicability for space-based and airborne commercial instruments.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
William Pierson
AF121-142      Awarded: 4/23/2012
Title:Unified Move Stop Move Combat Identification
Abstract: The research and development of systems for detecting, tracking, and identifying ground vehicles has historically followed separate paths based upon whether or not the vehicles are moving or stationary. As ground vehicles occur frequently in both states, any solution must address both conditions. For this effort, Matrix Research proposes the development of an approach for the simultaneous processing of moving and stationary vehicles using one radar waveform. In addition, we will investigate the use of electro-optic sensors to perform the same function. Including both radar and electro-optic data allows for a relative comparison of the two sensor modalities, as well as performance of a system that fuses the sensor data. Emphasis is placed on approaches for solving what we consider to be the most challenging issues. For radar, this is extracting ultra-high range resolution profiles from synthetic aperture radar data. For electro-optics, this is detecting stationary targets in video. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of this work is a unified approach for performing combat identification for ground targets that are both moving and stationary. This work will also likely result in extending feature aided tracking software to now include stationary vehicles.

Electromagnetic Systems, Inc.
108 Standard St.
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 524-9103
Brian M. Lamb
AF121-143      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) For Terrestrial Targets
Abstract: Electromagnetic Systems, Inc. (EMSI) proposes to apply our TRL 5 moving ground vehicle ISAR imaging technology, developed under ARFL/RIE SBIR funding, to Non-Cooperative Target Identification (NCTI), target classification, and Feature-Aided Tracking of time critical targets from Air Force WAS ISR platforms. Our air-to-ground moving vehicle ISAR technology reliably produces high-quality, wide dynamic range moving ground vehicle ISARs with minimal impact on sensor area coverage rate. EMSI has demonstrated that that these moving vehicle images can support feature-aided tracking and target classification with extremely high confidence values. We have commenced discussions with an Air Force airborne radar vendor and we are confident that we can transition our air-to-ground ISAR technology into Air Force Wide Area Surveillance (WAS) and strike platforms. BENEFIT: EMSI’s moving ground vehicle radar imaging technology has been described as “a key enabler for feature-aided tracking and a game changer for automated target recognition”. Air Force transition systems include JSTARS, F-15E Strike Eagle, Reaper, and Global Hawk. Non DoD transitions opportunities exist in airborne border security applications and drug enforcement activities.

Etegent Technologies, LTD
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Adam Nolan
AF121-143      Awarded: 5/1/2012
Title:ISAR-based Target Identification with Real and Synthetic Bandwidths
Abstract: This work addresses the feasibility of NCTI in a dynamic urban environment with moving targets to improve track fidelity through challenging scenarios. Unlike many previous NCTI efforts, this classification will not depend on a vast database of signature templates but previous measurements. The research will use crossrange scale invariant features to identify the vehicles due to the limitations of ISAR image formation and quantify the variability of these features between subsequent looks of a vehicle. In addition, the research will address the constraints of ISAR image formation derived from synthetic bandwidth based range profiles. BENEFIT: This research will provide the GOTCHA system with signature aids to the tracking of moving targets as well as the feasibility of ISAR image formation derived from synthetic bandwidth range profiles.

Systems & Technology Research
14 Franklin Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 493-0057
Mark McClure
AF121-143      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) For Terrestrial Targets
Abstract: Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) moving-target imaging algorithm development is a long-standing challenge that, to date, has proven most effective when applied to imaging of ships, aircraft and satellites where the kinematic motion of the target is well constrained over the required coherent processing interval. In the case of ground targets, the separation amongst features can be considerably less requiring proportionally higher resolution and fidelity. In particular, uncertain angular velocity modulus estimates lead to variations in the scale assigned to the cross range ISAR image axis. Often the target-class separation in this dimension can be less than the uncertainty leading to poor classification performance. STR’s approach to improving moving ground-vehicle ISAR imaging is to embed our ISAR processor in a closed-loop measurement, feature-aided tracking and sensor-resource management system. This architecture allows for relevant and accurate auxiliary data to be made available to the ISAR image formation process and allows for optimal planning of ISAR feature collections. Measurements obtained over the range of target states, e.g. SAR when stationary, HRR when moving linearly, track states, etc. can be used by the ISAR image formation and feature extraction/discrimination processes to refine uncertainties resulting from isolated ISAR data analysis. BENEFIT: If the proposed development approach is successful we will have developed a suite of algorithms that accepts as inputs radar range-pulse sequences and produces as outputs ISAR images of targets and extracted ISAR data-based features. These algorithms can be utilized by radar systems such as JSTARS and Gotcha to enable new moving target feature- aided tracking and classification capabilities.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alireza Shapoury
AF121-144      Awarded: 4/25/2012
Title:Machine Intelligent Nonstationary Clutter Excision
Abstract: To address the Air Force need to mitigate wind turbine clutter interference for existing terminal air traffic control (ATC) radar systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Machine Intelligent Nonstationary Clutter Excision (MINCE) system. It is based on adaptive processing and empirically verified mathematical modeling of nonstationary clutter. The solution, based on innovations in clutter modeling and statistical processing, will enable the system to mitigate nonstationary clutter from wind farms with a minimum of modifications. Hence, this system offers improved target detection with low probability of false alarms, improved target tracking performance, and reduced false targets, which directly address the Air Force requirements to enhance surveillance in the national airspace. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of MINCE by statistical and simulation analysis of wind turbine clutter and develop MINCE technology to mitigate wind turbines’ nonstationary clutter for existing ATC radar. We will improve the system based on objective metrics such as target detection, tracking, and constant false alarm rate. In Phase II, we plan to further refine the system and propose verification and validation methodologies via integration into a candidate ATC radar system to further optimize MINCE for real-world operational utility. BENEFIT: The MINCE system will be the first of a new generation of clutter mitigation systems that can be incorporated into several public and commercial radar systems ranging from the FAA’s ATC systems to terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) and weather surveillance radar (e.g., WSR-88D NEXRAD). The indirect benefit of the MINCE system is relaxing the stringent constraint on the wind turbine installations in the vicinity of “wind-rich” airfields, as it can declutter the nonstationary clutter signatures of wind farms. The MINCE also has applications in marine radar which are detrimentally affected by sea clutter and weather- related clutter due to dust, rain, snow, etc.

Systems & Technology Research
14 Franklin Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 493-0057
Mark McClure
AF121-144      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Wind Turbine Clutter Mitigation for Terminal Air Traffic Control (ATC) Radars
Abstract: Wind-turbine induced clutter is currently affecting air surveillance radar installations worldwide. The growing need for renewable energy sources will likely drive wind farm construction rates to increase over time. Energy department estimates indicate 2.3% of the current US electric energy supply is supplied by wind and estimates this to rise to 20% by 2030, representing an increase of nearly 10x the number of wind turbines. Wind-turbine induced clutter is fundamentally different from typical ground clutter in that the rotating turbines appear Doppler shifted to the radar in the same way as airborne moving targets. Moreover, wind farms present the radar system with a relatively high density of false targets. STR’s proposed approach to wind-turbine induced clutter mitigation is based on statistical characterization of the clutter followed by adaptive filtering to simultaneously suppress the clutter and preserve target responses. This approach is designed to address the problem of multiple turbines in a single range cell in which case the clutter characteristics are significantly more complicated than the range-isolated turbine case. BENEFIT: If the proposed Phase 1 approach is successful a software upgrade path for existing ATC radars can be designed that mitigates wind farm interference. This upgrade will allow for construction of wind farms near ATC radars without concerns for significant performance degradation.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
John Gwynne
AF121-145      Awarded: 5/2/2012
Title:HF Digital Receiver
Abstract: Matrix Research, Inc. is pleased to submit this Phase I SBIR proposal for the Air Force topic AF121-145: HF Digital Receiver. In this proposal, Matrix present a work plan to develop a high frequency digital receiver that is design to support the next generation of over the horizon radar systems. This receiver includes support for a 2D antenna array with MIMO radar modes, direct RF-to-digital conversion, and a large instantaneous bandwidth for multiband processing. The outcome of Phase I effort is a complete receiver design with modeled performance estimates. In Phase II, this design is to be prototyped and tested. BENEFIT: Matrix will pursue applications of the receiver in both military and commercial applications. In military applications, the proposed receiver offers use in radar and communication applications. In particular, applications that encounter measurement of small signal levels near large signals will significantly benefit from this high dynamic range receiver. In commercial applications, environmental sensing and surface wave oceanic radars could benefit.

Visor Corporation
1900 Embarcadero Rd, Ste 104
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 561-4141
Arlen Schmidt
AF121-145      Awarded: 6/25/2012
Title:HF Digital Receiver
Abstract: Advances in digital technology have made viable the migration of RF receivers from analog RF circuitry to digital gate arrays, with corresponding improvements in spectral accuracy, stability, reliability, and re-configurability. To realize a cost effective HF digital receiver, the challenges are: implementing computationally efficient digital filters under the constraint of limited hardware resources in Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), managing the effects of quantization errors on dynamic range and linearity, designing a cost-effective, low-noise, and high dynamic range analog front-end, and determining optimal bandwidth for narrow band operation while keeping ENOB to at least 24 bits. Visor will adapt its existing UHF digital receiver for HF application by developing new digital down-conversion logical blocks in the FPGA and demonstrating the result on a Virtex-6 prototype board. Visor will also finalize the specification of an HF digital receiver for over- the-horizon radar (OTHR), and complete a detailed design package (schematics, FPGA code, and system wiring diagrams) for a cost-effective digital receiver. We will then assess the risk factors in making prototypes for integration into an operational testbed for Phase II. With extensive radar design experience, including operational digital receivers, Visor will design and demonstrate an optimal digital receiver for OTHR applications. BENEFIT: 1. Evaluate and quantify the tradeoffs between performance and cost in HF digital receivers. 2. Identify opportunities for cost reduction in radar systems that use multiple antenna elements in an array. 3. Provide significant cost reductions for RF systems that operate in the HF band which will enable wider acceptance in commercial applications, such as remote sensing products.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Jay P. Giblin
AF121-146      Awarded: 4/24/2012
Title:Quantum Dot Based Optical Taggants for Combat Identification
Abstract: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a passive optical taggant that utilizes the absorptive and emissive properties of colloidal quantum dots (QDs). The device will be a flexible, robust, and low-cost QD composite that is deployable on vehicles and soldiers. The taggant device will emit from 3.9-4.1 um with quantum yields > 30% when excited by standard military laser designators. Preliminary feasibility calculations indicate the capability of detecting emitted photons from the proposed QD taggant with a FLIR camera from ranges up to 2 km. During Phase I, we will develop the synthetic conditions to produce QDs with the correct diameters and optimized quantum yields. We will use in-house lasers to excite the prepared quantum dots to demonstrate optimum emission wavelengths and quantum yields, as well as show detectability using a Mid-wave Infrared focal plane array. In Phase II we will develop polymer/QD packaging and produce deployable prototypes that will be extensively tested in realistic environments. In the Phase II program, PSI will scale up the optimized QD preparation developed in Phase I and work with a thin film manufacturer to develop roll-to-roll production of QD taggant devices. At the end of Phase II, we anticipate a TRL 6 capability. BENEFIT: A quantum dot based optical taggant will advance military combat identification because it does not require power and it can emit at precisely designed wavelengths in the Mid-wave Infrared (MWIR) spectral region. The proposed quantum dot taggants are well suited as passive components in emerging imaging based Blue Force Tracking Systems.

TIAX LLC
35 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 879-1231
William Barney
AF121-146      Awarded: 4/24/2012
Title:Passive Optical Taggants for Laser Designated Friend or Foe Identification
Abstract: TIAX will develop a passive (unpowered) optical taggant device that responds with a signal in the 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission band when probed with a short-wave infrared laser. The device will be suitable for Identification Friend or Foe applications for US military and allies. It will be low-cost, robust, and easy to install in the field in a variety of shapes or cross-sections. The emission spectral signature will be confined to a narrow band, and features to promote covertness and avoid spoofing are included. BENEFIT: The technology will provide a tool for fratricide prevention that is designed for air- or vehicle- based identification of friendly dismounted personnel. Many issues with previous technology are addressed. The device is unpowered, lightweight, easy to use and is easily detectable, but operates outside the range of common night vision equipment so that it does not compromise concealed troops. This device will provide a useful tool for avoidance of friendly fire incidents under many operating conditions.

JEM Engineering, LLC
8683 Cherry Lane
Laurel, MD 20707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 317-1070
James Lilly
AF121-147      Awarded: 4/17/2012
Title:Low Size, Weight and Power Direction Antenna for Common Data Link
Abstract: JEM Engineering proposes to develop a Ku-band Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL) Antenna System for installation on a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and providing near hemispheric coverage. JEM seeks to produce a high gain, low SWaP, low-profile, and low cost antenna concept. The new technology used to achieve this will be an efficient one- dimensionally steered beam instead of two-dimensionally steered beam. BENEFIT: Technical success on the proposed program will provide antennas for transmitting video or other high-bandwidth, high data rate applications, over longer ranges. In addition, this technology will be available for a wider range of airborne platforms.

ThinKom Solutions, Inc.
20000 Mariner Ave, Suite 500
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 802-4502
William W. Milroy
AF121-147      Awarded: 4/26/2012
Title:Low Size, Weight and Power Direction Antenna for Common Data Link
Abstract: Broader deployments of Common Data Link (CDL) LOS networking capabilities are becoming increasingly important as the Warfighter evolves to ever-increasing bandwidth (high datarate)and 24/7/365 availability demands in the modern Battlefield. CDL is a key component of this need and capability, but has been traditionally hampered by requisite CDL antenna size, bulk, and cost which has traditionally limited it’s practicality and availability to all but the most strategic platforms and missions. The proposed directional low-profile (< 2.5”H), low cost ($10K to $25K), high-performance (9”D parabolic equivalent) CDL antenna is targeted at enabling broader and more effective deployment of CDL capabilities to the field. Using proven low-cost high-efficiency Continuous Transverse Stub (CTS) array technology in an innovative form-factor, a new “universal” CDL antenna suitable for even the smallest platforms, is proposed. Starting with baseline Ku CDL capability, but with growth to dual-band and tri-band variants (while retaining the same cost and size advantages) the proposed antenna provides an attractive growth and “commonality” path to all CDL applications. In Phase I, ThinKom proposes to complete preliminary RF, mechanical, and tracking design and installation concepts for the proposed antenna, followed (in a contemplated Phase II effort) with further refinement, fabrication, test, and demonstration in a aeronautically-relevant environment. BENEFIT: ThinKom has already successfully fielded antennas at C, X, Ku, Ka, Q, E, and W bands, including dual-band and wideband variants. Further, ThinKom, alone, and in cooperation with various partners, is developing various SATCOM On-the-Move antenna systems, including pointing and stabilization subsystems, readily adaptable to CDL Line-of-Sight (LOS) needs. Current and potential applications for the particular proposed CDL-variant of the CTS antenna technology, include SATCOM, Point-to-Multipoint (PTMP), Point-to-Point (PTP), and various Asset-Tracking applications where a truly low-cost high-gain low-profile steerable antenna is a strong Commercial enabler.

deciBel Research, Inc.
325 Bob Heath Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-6124
Enrico Poggio
AF121-148      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Virtual Receiver/Exciter (VREX) Generalized Simulator with Selectable Waveforms to Support Radar and Software Analysis
Abstract: The design, development, test, and implementation of a Virtual Receiver/Exciter (VREX) Generalized Digital Radar Stimulator prototype – the HSSTM - needed to maintain and upgrade the capabilities of the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) dedicated ground based sensors, based on deciBel Research innovative, open source, common, modular, transportable, and high-fidelity radar simulation components - dBTools/dBLibs/dBSTM - is proposed in this effort. These tools have been used successfully to build both generic and very specific radar signature simulations of complex target and environment scenarios in support of the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) , the US Army, the US Air Force, and the JLENs Program Office. This toolset has evolved through the adaptation of advanced computing/processing technologies and the novel software techniques required to exploit such technologies. The HSSTM capabilities in illustrative SSN scenarios will be demonstrated in a proof-of- principle exercise. BENEFIT: The availability of tactical VREX stimulators allows for: a) the efficient, low cost, and expansive testing of new sensor concepts as they proceed through acquisition and mission acceptance, b) software IV&V and performance testing of new algorithms and techniques, c) expanded pre-mission planning capabilities, d) utilization in simulated ground test conditions and in pre-mission planning and analyses, and e) off-site testing of new software and functionality of persistent operational sensor assets. deciBel common, modular, transportable platform, using advanced software and processing tools will provide an opportunity to expand significantly its current Stimulator customer base. Completion of the Phase I, and eventually of a Phase II, effort will permit deciBel to have established a proven open architecture, portable, and modular VREX design and implementation. This should allow deciBel to position itself in developing VREX components for: a) all remaining Space Surveillance Network dedicated ground based sensors, b) The Air Force Space Surveillance System (Space Fence) radars, and c) other Data Collection Sensors. deciBel is also positioned to develop all of MDA sensor VREX/Stimulators in support of Independent Ground and Performance Testing, c) deciBel is also pursuing teaming up with Industry prime contractors to develop VREX/Stimulators for the Navy Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR). Finally deciBel will contacts NASA, SETI, and LLNL, MIT LL, other FFRDCs, and AFRL/RY address their sensor collection methods & techniques sharing requirements that can benefit from the operations of RF Stimulators

FishEye Software, Inc.
Two Clock Tower Place Suite 400
Maynard, MA 01754
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 461-0100
Peter Gowaski
AF121-148      Awarded: 5/3/2012
Title:Virtual Receiver/Exciter (VREX) Generalized Simulator
Abstract: A major challenge and expense of developing electromagnetic sensors is the custom hardware required to generate and receive electromagnetic spectrum. Radar sensors generate and receive electromagnetic waveforms through custom signal processing hardware called a Receiver / Exciter (REX). The REX is complex, expensive, and custom made. When sensor systems are built, the “back-end” signal and data processing software and the “front-end” antenna and REX hardware must be designed and integrated. The development of sensors is slowed and complicated by this separate but interdependent hardware and software. Furthermore, there is no capability to test software patches, configuration upgrades or waveform frequency changes without the expense of traveling to the operational site to connect with the sensor front-end hardware. This project applies the Module Open System Approach (MOSA) to develop a modular and open “Virtual” or VREX reusable subsystem. The VREX allows testing sensor software patches, configuration upgrades or waveform frequency changes without the need to modify, or access, the physical electromagnetic hardware. The VREX offers a reusable commercial- off-the-shelf REX module to accelerate radar innovation and lower the expense of developing, testing, and maintaining sensor systems. The VREX fills a crucial capability lapse in the current radar development and upgrade efforts. BENEFIT: Without radar front-end hardware, test centers can exercise the mission software with digital simulation but not the signal processing software. The VREX provides high fidelity radar system simulation and enables signal processing testing in the test center environment and without the expense of radar front end hardware. This innovative approach reduces the time required to test a new release and reduces the need for radar and test engineers to travel to remote radar sites. The VREX also provides a design tool for system engineers to experiment with various radar characteristics before making a substantial investment in building hardware. The VREX provides a commercial-off-the-shelf configurable tool supporting many radar types and thus is an inexpensive and innovative solution for designing radar.

Linearizer Technology, inc.
3 Nami Lane, Unit C-9
Hamilton, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-8424
Roger Dorval
AF121-152      Awarded: 7/18/2012
Title:W-band Airborne SATCOM Power Amplifier
Abstract: Power amplifiers (PAs), providing high linearity and efficiency, are essential for transmission of high data rate bandwidth efficient digital signals. Achieving this objective at millimeter-wave (MMW) is particularly challenging. LTI with L-3 EDD are teaming to develop a PA for 81-86 GHz with a linear output power of 50 watts, a PAE of 30%, and a weight of 10 lbs. Linear performance is based on an ACPR < -30 dB with 12/4 QAM. A goal is to achieve this ACPR at 3 dB OPBO. The PA will use a 100 watt EDD W-band TWTA scaled down in frequency from 94 GHz and optimized for efficiency. LTI will provide the linearizer. LTI has experience producing MMW linearizers and has demonstrated an ACPR < -45 dB with 16QAM at 7 dB OPBO. Based on this result, an ACPR of 30 dB at 3 dB OPBO looks quite achievable. In Phase I, EDD will determine changes needed for 81-86 GHz operation of their TWTA, simulate its performance, and begin design of the EPC and housing. LTI will design and test the linearizer, with the goal of testing with EDD’s existing W-band TWTA. BENEFIT: This technology has value for space-borne and airborne platforms, as well as ground-based systems. This work will result in the first W-band MPM ever produced. It will also provide a key component in the production of compact, efficient, linear power amplifiers to meet the needs of SATCOM and related space-borne communications, and for which no alternative solution currently exists.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
James Schellenberg
AF121-152      Awarded: 4/19/2012
Title:W-band Airborne SATCOM Power Amplifier
Abstract: We propose to develop a linear, solid-state power amplifier (SSPA), operating at 81 to 86 GHz, with an output power of 50 watts and a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 30%. This will be accomplished with a combination of SOA device technology and innovative circuit techniques. For the advanced device technology, we will team with a GaN MMIC foundry such a HRL, who is currently the industry leader in millimeter-wave GaN. To enhance the MMIC efficiency, we will implement two circuit innovations: 1) we will utilize a push-pull circuit configuration and 2) operate the MMIC devices in a switching mode (Class E). Neither of these techniques has been attempted before at these millimeter-wave frequencies. Simulations described in this proposal indicate that with these techniques, device drain efficiencies and PAEs of 60% and 38% respectively are possible. For the power combiner, we will implement a novel 2-tier combining system consisting of a 4-way H-tee combiner and a 16-way radial combiner. Finally, we will linearize this amplifier/combiner with an approach that employs both envelope tracking (ET) and digital pre-distortion (DPD). It is the goal of this work to develop a high-efficiency, 1-watt power MMIC operating at W-band, combine approximately 64 of these MMICs and linearize the resulting amplifier/combiner. BENEFIT: Future SATCOM terminals require linear, high-efficiency power amplifiers for transmitter up and down links at 81-86 GHz and 71-76 GHz respectively. Linearity is required in order to handle advanced spectrally efficient modulation schemes such as 32-QAM, and high- efficiency is required both for power consumption reasons and to reduce self heating. In addition to UAV uplink applications, this technology is directly applicable to the downlink at 71-76 GHz. Other applications include broadband RF cross-link communications in constellations, as well as airborne, including very high altitude long duration reconnaissance UAV, and terrestrial applications. Specific examples include the Joint Arial Layered Network (JALN) and AISR architectures. Further, this linear, high-efficiency SSPA can be readily applied to other military missions at adjacent frequencies such as V, E and upper W-band. QuinStar is currently producing the W-band transceiver for the AARGM missile program, and we have recently been awarded a contract to develop a W-band transceiver for HALS. This W-band SSPA technology is directly applicable to the transmitter for both programs, potentially reducing the cost and improving the performance.

Bridge 12 Technologies, Inc.
37 Loring Drive
Framingham, MA 01702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 674-2766
Jagadishwar R. Sirigiri
AF121-153      Awarded: 4/19/2012
Title:V-band Microwave Power Module Based on an Overmoded TWT
Abstract: We propose to develop a V-Band Microwave Power Module (MPM) based on a overmoded high power TWT amplifier with an overmoded interaction circuit employing multiple beams. The higher gain and output power provided by this novel TWT will enable highly linear operation with power added efficiency exceeding 30%. BENEFIT: The proposed TWT amplifier or the MPM can be employed for commercial satellite communication and high bandwidth digital radio links. The innovative overmoded circuit will also enable the scaling of TWT technology in to the terahertz frequency range where a number of scientific applications are currently being pursued.

PRINCETON MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INC
UNIT C-10 3 NAMI LANE
MERCERVILLE, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 586-8140
Daniel Bechtle
AF121-154      Awarded: 4/18/2012
Title:Low Noise Amplifier with Noise-cancelling for Satellite Communications
Abstract: Low Noise Amplifiers covering the 81-86 GHz band with ultra-low noise figures of less than 2.0 dB at the module’s flange level are proposed. There is a need for front-end components to exploit the available 5 GHz bandwidth for both space and terrestrial government and commercial communications links. Recent noise-cancelling methodologies for multi-octave bandwidth amplifiers where the common-gate noise of a common-gate/common-source input is cancelled will be investigated. The baseline approach, for comparison, will use reactively- matched methodologies with common-source input for the 81-86GHz band. The proposed baseline technology, 50 nm InP MHEMTs grown on GaAs, shows the lowest noise and highest gain in W-band. The linearity, power consumption, gain, and dynamic range will be investigated. Gating criteria include operation over -40 oC to + 80 oC and a path to space- qualification. Applicability of the noise-cancelling approach to full coverage of the 74 – 110 GHz band, and linearization techniques will be investigated. BENEFIT: The proposed ultra-low noise amplifiers will enable efficient use of the 5 GHz available bandwidth across 81-86 GHz in receiving QAM and QPSK with high linearity. Government and military applications include satellite uplink reception of spectrally efficient waveforms, satellite-to-satellite links, 70 – 110 GHz weather and ice-coverage observation, battlefield communications, and secure communications. Dual-use applications include 5 GHz wide point-to-point links in crowded environments, and easily-licensed, quickly-deployed overlapping communications. The technology is transferrable to the other E-bands: 71-76 GHz and 92-95 GHz.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Andrew Gray
AF121-154      Awarded: 4/19/2012
Title:Low Noise Amplifier with Noise-cancelling for Satellite Communications
Abstract: The proposed effort seeks to develop an innovative ultra low noise amplifier (LNA) operating at 81-86 GHz. The integrated circuit technology features an optimized noise figure, enhanced linearity, and reduced power consumption. This will be accomplished by a combination of state-of-the-art (SOA) device technology and innovative circuit techniques. The key to achieving the noise performance is active device technology integrating noise cancellation techniques that have successfully been employed at lower frequencies. The technology targets migration path to space communications products where the reduced noise figure, increased linearity, and reduced power consumption have significantly leveraged benefits for the space system. These benefits include reduced mass and complexity, via reduced: 1) antennas sizes and/or transmitter power requirements, 2) distortion compensation hardware, and 3) thermal managements systems. The result is a less costly and more reliable space communications system. In summary, to achieve the significantly improved LNA performance and the resulting system benefits, we are proposing to utilize one of several parallel common source techniques to actively reduce noise and a cascode circuit configuration to improve the amplifier linearity while simultaneously reducing power requirements. The combination of these techniques has never been attempted at these frequencies. BENEFIT: The proposed LNA products target migration to space communications systems where the reduced noise figure, increased linearity, and reduced power consumption have significantly leveraged system benefits. These benefits include reduced mass and complexity, via reduced: 1) antennas sizes and/or transmitter power requirements, 2) distortion compensation hardware/software, and 3) thermal managements systems. The result is a less costly and more reliable satellite communications system. These benefits are applicable to both military and commercial space systems. Although the commercial market does not currently utilize space communication links at these frequencies, migration to this band is anticipated eventually. The specific LNA products or the innovative circuit techniques applied to other W-band amplifiers will provide leveraged economic benefits in air-to-ground or ground-to-ground (e.g. building-to-building) communications systems by reducing the cost of other system equipment, e.g. antenna sizes may be smaller and lower cost and/or transmitters may be lower power.

Scientic, Inc
555 Sparkman Drive Suite 214
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-0872
Scott von Laven
AF121-155      Awarded: 4/18/2012
Title:Next Generation vacuum Nanoelectric Device
Abstract: Scientic, Inc. will team with Vanderbilt University to produce innovative new vacuum field emission (VFE) devices developed from Vanderbilt proprietary laterally configured VFE triode configurations. As a prototype demonstration device, Scientic and Vanderbilt will develop a novel low noise/low distortion VFE differential amplifier, which achieves the properties of ultrafast switching speed and insensitivity to temperature and radiation. This VFE differential amplifier will be valuable for targeted applications requiring temperature- immunity and radiation-hardness such as advanced telecommunication, military, and space microelectronics. The differential amplifier is the most widely used circuit building block in analog ICs and, as such, is an ideal candidate for this application. The implementation of VFE triodes in a differential amplifier configuration will promote the development of VFE ultrahigh-speed ICs, logic gates, and systems. This program will establish the technology and the roadmap that will lead to the manufacture of efficient, compact E-band vacuum nano- electric devices based on our cold cathode nanostructure material technology. BENEFIT: The developments at Vanderbilt University with diamond, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and nano-diamond have led to VFE diodes and triodes with high gain and stable emission current demonstrating the potential for manufacture of next generation space hardened, temperature independent electronics derived from a non-solid state/non-semiconductor approach with nano-vacuum emitter devices that have numerous applications in military and commercial systems. These nano-electronic devices will replace transistors, providing electronic functions that are radiation and temperature insensitive; the nano-diamond electron [cold cathode] sources will have numerous applications in military and commercial systems.

Xidex Corporation
8906 Wall Street, Suite 703
Austin, TX 78754
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-0608
Vladimir Mancevski
AF121-155      Awarded: 6/1/2012
Title:Vacuum Nanoelectric Triode with CNT Wedge Emitter
Abstract: Xidex Corporation proposes to demonstrate a compact E-band capable vacuum nanoelectronic device with parameters such as high power output, low gate voltage, high cut-off frequency, and low power consumption, that are competitive with parameters of conventional solid state transistors. Our approach to reaching this objective is to fabricate a CNT-based field emission triode with wedge shaped cathode that can operate in the 70-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz frequency ranges. All the electrodes comprising the device are made in a single plane and where the electrons emit laterally parallel to the substrate. The main advantage of this innovative lateral field emission triode is simple and controllable manufacturing. In vertically oriented field emitter designs there is a requirement to make multiple masks and layers to fabricate the layers of anode, gate, cathode, and the insulator in- between each layer. The cost of fabrication and the difficulties of precisely controlling the vertical gaps and openings make this approach prohibitive for commercial manufacturing. With a planar electrode design a single mask can be used to lithographically make the all the electrodes (anode, cathode, and gates) at once. In addition, using lithography the electrode gaps can be fabricated with great precision and in a highly scalable manner. BENEFIT: Vacuum nanoelectronic devices resulting from the project will be commercialized as new products targeted for entry into important military and commercial markets for power electronics. Electronic warfare applications include amplification of incoming signals from enemy radar or communications systems to enable threat-protection systems for ships, aircraft and high-value land assets, active decoys such as airborne repeaters and high- power off-board decoys for protecting naval assets, and non-lethal weapons operating at long range with minimal risk of injury. Military communications systems, including satellite communications, will benefit from the radiation and temperature insensitivity of vacuum nanoelectronic devices. Communications also represents one of the largest commercial markets for power amplifiers, driven by rapid growth of RF power amplifier and transceiver components as a result of current and anticipated demand for wireless handsets and infrastructure.

Isocline Engineering
710 McrBryde Dr
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 629-8251
Michael Henry
AF121-156      Awarded: 6/7/2012
Title:Power Efficient Software Defined Radio (SDR) Mobile Architecture Technology for Handheld Devices
Abstract: To meet the demands of next generation military GPS handsets, as well as growing commercial demand for low-power GPS, we propose a GNSS baseband receiver that is flexible for both current and new waveforms, and highly energy efficient. We achieve flexibility through the design of a programmable spreading code generator that is highly compact, yet able to generate all publicly known GPS and Galileo waveforms. Careful attention is also paid to the acquisition and tracking modules to ensure they can handle variable sample and integration rates, as well as newer modulations such as BOC. We achieve energy efficiency through the use of ultra-low voltage operation. Using recently established design principles that allow circuits to operate at voltages near the threshold voltage, along with parallelization of the on-chip microprocessors and baseband circuitry, we plan to demonstrate a receiver that consumes orders of magnitude less power than current flexible receivers. Special attention is paid to the acquisition module, which must be able to acquire long-coded military signals, while consuming very little power. We propose using a newly developed style of ultra-low voltage asynchronous logic to produce such a module. BENEFIT: Of all of the military technology that has dual civilian and commercial use, GPS is perhaps the most successful. It is now being used in a wide variety of commercial applications, has already become a multi-billion dollar industry, and has spawned additional GNSS constellations from other counties. The technology proposed in this project is useful for almost all applications that use GPS. For surveying equipment, there is a desire not only to reduce the power consumption of the equipment and lighten the load, but also support multiple constellations and frequencies, which can greatly increase measurement accuracy. For asset tracking and shipping, ultra-low power portable GPS tags that can store and communicate their location real-time would ensure that freight and critical assets are never lost. Every day users of cell phones can even benefit: almost everyone who has ever used a smartphone's GPS functionality notices how the device heats up and the battery drains quickly. By accomplishing our objectives, we can produce a baseband and navigation processor that can greatly lower the power consumption of global navigation, which will make these applications more feasible, and open the door to new ones.

Quantum Dimension
15061 Springdale Street, Suite 202
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 893-6004
Michael A. Enright
AF121-156      Awarded: 4/19/2012
Title:Reconfigurable Low Power Mobile SDR for GNSS Integrity
Abstract: The traditional approach of SDR is to provide flexibility and allow for longer lifecycles by employing FPGAs. These devices have the advantage that they can be reprogrammed to support different waveforms, but have been limited to applications not constrained by size and power as they are power-hungry and not well suited for mobile applications. From a military perspective, another critical disadvantage that results from FPGA based design is that any reconfiguration requires hardware changes. Unlike a simple software change, this requires a costly and time-consuming procurement process to secure the needed technology update. Quantum Dimension has envisioned a true SDR platform based on today’s efficient low power processors. Here changes can be made via software-only. With such an architecture, a suite of powerful products can be developed to allow the integration of advanced GNSS signal processing with SWaP optimized mobile design. Specifically, we will leverage our existing architecture for GNSS signal processing in this research. Our proposed research effort will encompass multiband GNSS/SoOP integrity algorithm development, optimization and real-time software developmentA hardware architecture for a small form factor device that that can utilize these processors and evolve into a device that supports the CGM size is a key outcome. BENEFIT: There are multiple commercial applications of this research for GNSS integrity. Beyond the usage for the CGM, most military GPS applications would benefit from the enhancement to GNSS integrity. Additionally, there are multiple civilian applications for GNSS enhancements including the following industries: agriculture, fishing, surveying/mapping, homeland security/first responder etc. There will continue to be an explosion in the growth of these types of applications for the cellular user who would like access to locational or navigational data for everyday requirements.

Echo Ridge, LLC
100 Carpenter Drive Suite 100
Great Falls, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 348-3167
John Carlson
AF121-157      Awarded: 4/25/2012
Title:Quantitative assessments leveraging effects based analysis for degraded PNT
Abstract: Echo Ridge together with George Mason University proposes to develop a hardware-in-the- loop (HITL) test asset capable of efficiently and automatically testing the effects of degraded position, navigation and timing (PNT) on host systems. The key innovation to this research is the development of an adaptive, automated test scheduler based on multi-dimensional optimal search algorithms coupled with a rule-based expert system to rapidly search through the universe of test cases. The system will quantify degraded PNT performance in the presence of current/future and intentional/unintentional interference. The test asset will: automatically collect data: emulate GNSS; emulate secondary PNT such as IMUs, other RF sources and assistance data such as A-GPS; emulate interference signals; emulate RF paths between GNSS/interference and PNT systems including complex urban multipath profiles; emulate PNT system host platform effects including 6 DOF motion; and emulate antenna patterns including multi-element steerable antennas. The test asset will be based on a platform already developed through Air Force and Army Phase I and II SBIR funding entitled DYSE, or Dynamic Spectrum Environment emulator. DYSE emulates RF environments by converting RF to/from digital samples, and synthesizing RF sources and environmental effects in the digital domain. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that direct benefits from this project will come in improved PNT systems able to effectively operate in degraded conditions. Indirect benefits come from the automated hardware-in-the-loop testing functionality that will serve the greater wireless industry. Wireless systems, for both the DoD and commercial market places, have increased functionality, applicability, capability, complexity and adaptability. Mobile ad-hoc networks with MIMO antenna technology and cognitive radio networks, capable of carrying voice and data through packet services, are a good example of the trends. Another excellent example is the emergence of multichannel/multi-antenna GPS receivers. There is an established and growing need to comprehensively test and evaluate the performance of these new devices and systems prior to general availability and approval for service use. Traditional test methods are increasingly stressed by the proliferation and diversity of the devices and systems. This project provides a new testing approach able to produce realistic results using a scalable, flexible and affordable test fixture. Advantages including reduced testing costs, shorter time-to-service development schedules, and improved testing.

PreTalen Ltd.
12737 Rd R-11
Columbus Grove, OH 45830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(567) 712-7012
Benjamin Gerten
AF121-157      Awarded: 4/30/2012
Title:Quantitative assessments leveraging effects based analysis for degraded PNT
Abstract: PreTalen recognizes that an ongoing challenge facing the Department of Defense (DOD) and civil/commercial PNT users is the understanding of how integrated systems are impacted by degradation of key information. PNT information is a cornerstone technology that supports increased operational efficiency, productivity, precision, and safety. Because Global Positioning System (GPS) provides such a low cost and accurate method for determining PNT information, our reliance on GPS systems is critical. While some users may understand the need for a backup system, there is no clear method to determine requirements for a backup system to achieve graceful degradation. The problem is confounded by the multiplicity of applications and use of PNT information in each system that is reliant upon GPS. A clear understanding of how the integrated system (host and PNT) uses this data and the resulting effects from a degraded situation requires an in-depth investigation to fully comprehend potential impacts. Currently there is no tool or standardized methodology to evaluate or accomplish these types of assessments. The Quantitative assessments leveraging effects-based analysis for degraded PNT [QUALE-PNT] system will fill this void. This HITL test asset includes algorithms for parametric setup and autonomous analysis across numerous degradation types affecting PNT systems. BENEFIT: PreTalen is looking forward to the QUALE-PNT system becoming a reality as the prospective users are growing daily. PreTalen would like to start with demonstrating QUALE-PNT to Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and their PNT system providers. PreTalen also expects that many test organizations (746, Eglin, JNWC, GPSD, Spawar, Allies/Joint activities) would be likely users as they also currently perform similar tests manually and would see incredible return on investment from acquiring QUALE-PNT capabilities. PreTalen estimates that over 50 QUALE-PNT systems would be required by just the DHS and test organizations and many other state and federal agencies (NASA, OSD, CIA, FAA, etc) would also be interested in these capabilities. While PreTalen is a small company, our employees have been in the Navwar community for decades and have relationships with those that would be interested in the QUALE-PNT systems.

Cognitive Radio Technologies, LLC
147 Mill Ridge Rd, Suite 212
Lynchburg, VA 24502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 230-6012
James Neel
AF121-158      Awarded: 5/3/2012
Title:GPS Enhanced Dynamic Spectrum Access
Abstract: DSA and alternate positioning systems have natural synergies. Phase I will identify the most promising application(s) that leverage the synergies between DSA and alternate positioning systems, quantify and characterize expected performance, operational constraints, and limitations to those application(s) to show that the identified applications are feasible, design a prototype system in Phase II that will enable further study and development of the identified applications. BENEFIT: The results of this work could be applied to any DSA-enabled system to provide greater resiliency in the GPS-denied environments and greatly extending the deployment scenraios that positioning services could be deployed. This could be applied to 802.22, 802.11y, 802.11h and many other commercial DSA systems as well as military radio systems planning to integrate DSA.

Echo Ridge, LLC
100 Carpenter Drive Suite 100
Great Falls, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 348-3167
John Carlson
AF121-158      Awarded: 4/27/2012
Title:GPS Enhanced Dynamic Spectrum Access
Abstract: Echo Ridge and partner Wright State University (WSU) propose to develop and evaluate novel performance enhancing signal processing algorithms enabled by dynamic spectrum access (DSA)-based cognitive radio (CR) and GPS navigation functionality operating on a common software defined radio (SDR) platform in a cognitive network (CN) (Elemental SDR-hosted Cross Application Performance Enhancements, ESCAPE). We will exploit functionality and information traditionally present in each organic application to provide mutual-benefit through tightly coupling measurements in the multifunction common SDR- cognitive network context. ESCAPE benefits will include improved communications and reduced primary user (PU) interference performance for DSA radios, improved position, velocity and time (PVT) performance for GPS, and improved robustness to unintentional and intentional interference for both applications. The development and evaluation activities produce both a comprehensive trade space-based review of performance enhancing options, and a detailed evaluation of specific algorithms with the greatest technical merit. BENEFIT: Echo Ridge and partner Wright State University (WSU) propose to develop and evaluate novel performance enhancing signal processing algorithms enabled by dynamic spectrum access (DSA)-based cognitive radio (CR) and GPS navigation functionality operating on a common software defined radio (SDR) platform in a cognitive network (CN) (Elemental SDR-hosted Cross Application Performance Enhancements, ESCAPE). We will exploit functionality and information traditionally present in each organic application to provide mutual-benefit through tightly coupling measurements in the multifunction common SDR- cognitive network context. ESCAPE benefits will include improved communications and reduced primary user (PU) interference performance for DSA radios, improved position, velocity and time (PVT) performance for GPS, and improved robustness to unintentional and intentional interference for both applications. The development and evaluation activities produce both a comprehensive trade space-based review of performance enhancing options, and a detailed evaluation of specific algorithms with the greatest technical merit.

Auriga Measurement Systems LLC
Two Executive Drive Suite305
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 452-7700
Cheryl Liss
AF121-159      Awarded: 4/11/2012
Title:Monolithic S-band Multichannel Transmit/Receive Module for Communication Phased Array Antennas
Abstract: Phase I tasks will produce a full-duplex, multi-channel, S-band transmit-receive (T/R) module design and the associated panel structure for integration into large communication phased array antennas. An RF section featuring advanced, two-chip Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology will replace the large number of discrete RF components in existing systems and an integrated command microcontroller will provide internal protection and built-in test capability. Design of the module will include interconnection and distribution circuits as well as the mechanical and thermal configuration. The anticipated advantages of this approach are size, weight, and cost reductions and maximized manufacturability, reproducibility, flexibility, and ease of replacement. Initial small- and large-signal simulations using foundry design kit models with associated layouts have been incorporated into the receive (Rx) and transmit (Tx) MMIC simulations presented in the proposal to show the feasibility of this approach. In Phase I, the design will be completed including electromagnetic simulations to account for parasitic coupling and to optimize performance and circuit integration. The module capability will be verified in Phase II with prototype fabrication and demonstration in a scalable 4x4 sub-array of a module supporting full-duplex, multiple simultaneous communication links. BENEFIT: This technology is applicable to military and commercial communication and radar systems. Commercial application: High performance, affordable, satellite and mobile communications.

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 652-0008
Joe Ahadian
AF121-159      Awarded: 4/11/2012
Title:Monolithic S-band Multichannel Transmit/Receive Module for Communication Phased Array Antennas
Abstract: This proposal teams a successful module manufacturer, Princeton Microwave, that has a proven discrete design, with and RF integrated circuit (IC) design team with a history of first-pass success on complex System-On-Chip (SOC) designs to integrate a low cost transmit/receive integrated circuit that meets the stated module cost targets easily. To accelerate the design transfer and integration, it is envisioned that Princeton Microwave will also take up some of the integrated circuit design tasks and also, Jazz Semiconductor has expressed interest in providing demonstrated IC IP blocks if they meet the block design parameters articulated in the SOC RF transmit and receive chains. BENEFIT: We have identified two key objectives that will drive our technical approach. The first is cost reduction, as clearly laid out in the solicitation. The second objective that has emerged in consultation with the developers of the existing discrete TR solution, Princeton Microwave, is the reduction of power dissipation. As outlined in the proposal, we address these challenges with innovations in the areas of chip architecture, test, and packaging that SIGNIFICANTLY reduce cost and power requirements

Agiltron Corporation
15 Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Wayne Weimer
AF121-160      Awarded: 5/21/2012
Title:Compact Laser Based ReEntry Plasma Diagnostics System
Abstract: In this program, we will build and test a compact, multifunctional laser based plasma optical analyzer to characterize the interaction between a laser and the plasma sheath that envelopes air vehicles during hypersonic air travel in the Earth’s atmosphere. The analyzer will quantify the effects of the plasma on the direction, phase, intensity, polarization and scattering of an incident laser beam. The plasma sheath will be simulated in the laboratory using a DC arcjet air plasma system. BENEFIT: The principal near term military application for a laser based plasma diagnostic optical analyzer is for hypersonic air travel development efforts endeavoring to solve the communications blackout problem. The optical analyzer developed in this program will improve our understanding of the effects air plasmas induce on laser beams thereby accelerating technical progress for a solution to the blackout problem. This analyzer, therefore, will reduce the time for hypersonic air travel to be realized.

MetroLaser, Inc.
8 Chrysler
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Jacob George
AF121-160      Awarded: 4/25/2012
Title:Flow Characterization of Plasma Field Using Filtered Rayleigh Scattering and Its Optical Characterization Using Shack-Hartmann Sensor
Abstract: A varying density field in a plasma chamber is diagnosed using filtered Rayleigh Scattering (FRS) to obtain spatially and temporally resolved densities in a planar field. By tuning a narrow band laser light to the absorption line of a molecular iodine cell, unwanted light scattered from the windows in the path of the laser beam is blocked from reaching the detector. To test this proposed flow diagnostics, a plasma discharge facility that creates a variety of density conditions and with excellent optical access will be fabricated. The measured density fluctuations and their distributions enable the characterization of flow field, information that is needed towards the development of onboard optical sensors, and for transmitting high-quality communication signals. To gauge the effects of the plasma field on the quality of an optical beam, a laser beam is traversed through it and the wavefront distortions are measured with fast temporal resolution using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that employs a high frame-rate camera. BENEFIT: With renewed interest in hypersonic flights, Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV) and Reusable Launch vehicles (RLV) represent the future of space applications. The proposed flow diagnostic using FRS is quite easy to implement and integrate, and can be made compact and modular to be easily integrated aboard space vehicles. With private enterprises besides US Air Force and NASA entering the space launch vehicle market, there is a growing need for modular optical instruments that can interrogate flight environment under harsh conditions and thus enable the passage of high-quality communication signals.

Black River Systems Company, Inc.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Paul Rivkin
AF121-163      Awarded: 5/4/2012
Title:Performance Prediction for Airborne Multistatic Radar
Abstract: Development and deployment of airborne multistatic radar systems and the algorithms that control them can be greatly aided by accurate modeling and performance prediction. Capturing physical, electromagnetic and environmental real-world effects of multistatics in a simulation capability is imperative to achieve the desired benefits of this effort. Highly parameterized transmitter and receiver models with well-defined command and feedback interfaces, which are capable of real-time simulation, offer great utility to sensing system and control algorithm designers. Past, present, and future multistatic sensing systems can be modeled and controlled to assess performance capabilities in real-world scenarios. Providing the ability to simulate the wide array of situations multistatic systems have to face (ex. varying transmitter cooperativeness, limitations on available emissions, hostile environments where passive operation is critical) allows for critical design decisions to be assessed. Extensive performance metrics must be developed and utilized to handle the complicated task of predicting the value of decision trades in radar design and algorithmic control. The results of this effort will demonstrate the capacity to achieve measured results comparability through accurate and efficient simulation. BENEFIT: An accurate and efficient simulation capability of airborne multistatic systems will aid in the development and deployment of radar systems and their intelligent control algorithms. Benefits to applications such as passive sensing, commercial transmitter exploitation, electromagnetic interference modeling and accountability, intelligent exploitation of emitters of interest, and passive imaging can be achieved for government and commercial needs.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Lee Patton
AF121-163      Awarded: 4/27/2012
Title:Performance Prediction for Airborne Multistatic Radar
Abstract: Matrix Research proposes to develop a modular and extensible airborne multistatic passive radar performance prediction tool that allows for varying degrees of fidelity. In conjunction, Matrix Research proposes to develop an illumination selection manager that produces a rank-ordered list of preferred illumination sources based on the output of the performance prediction tool. BENEFIT: Matrix Research anticipates a number of potential benefits and commercial applications of this tool. First, the tool can be used to assist fundamental research & development of passive multistatic radar systems, including signal processing algorithms. Secondly, the tool can be used to design passive multistatic radar experiments. It can also be used as in intelligence asset to assess the performance of threat systems.

Freedom Photonics LLC
90 Arnold Place Suite D
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 277-3031
Milan Mashanovitch
AF121-164      Awarded: 4/12/2012
Title:Conformal Coherent Optical Sensor
Abstract: Currently, typical LIDAR (Laser RADAR) systems single-aperture is limited by the size and weight of the necessarily large optical aperture. During targeting the camera/imager is quickly extended and then retracted to minimize the time the LO of the aircraft is impacted. In a distributed aperture system, several receiver sub-apertures may be combined to form an effective single larger aperture, with a resolution determined by the size of the effective aperture rather than the sub-apertures. In this work, a highly integrated photonic circuit is proposed to realize a low SWAP distributed aperture system. BENEFIT: This work will significantly reduce the SWAP and allow for sensors that are conformal to an airframe. Coherent receivers have many commercial applications for high bandwidth telecom applications.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Tin M. Aye
AF121-164      Awarded: 4/12/2012
Title:Conformal-Coherent Aperture Planar Lens Array Optical Sensor
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for a conformal coherent optical sensor, Physical Optics Corporation (POC), proposes to develop a new Conformal-Coherent Aperture Planar Lens Array (CAPLAR) optical sensor. The proposed CAPLAR sensor system is based on a unique combination of a conformal planar lens array, a coherently combined diode laser array, planar waveguide optics, a high-resolution CMOS sensor array, and real-time image processor electronics. The innovation in using the coherent arrays of thin planar lenses and laser diodes together with planar waveguide optics allows the CAPLAR sensor to be utilized as a long-range coherent imaging ladar with a large effective conformal aperture of minimum size, weight, and power. By electronically correcting and combining the optical fields of the coherent planar lens array, high-resolution imagery can be achieved. In Phase I, POC will develop a preliminary design of the CAPLAR sensor and evaluate its effectiveness by modeling and demonstrating feasibility of fabrication using a laboratory prototype. In Phase II, POC will develop and test a prototype CAPLAR sensor system and demonstrate its capability to measure complex fields and provide high-resolution long-range ladar images. A path toward a conformal sensor, along with performance improvement, will be identified. BENEFIT: The CAPLAR sensor system, with its conformal structure, will drive the ladar imaging system toward a thin sensor system with drastically reduced volume, making it more easily applied to a wide range of aircraft platforms. As a result, high-resolution long-range ladar imaging could be easily obtained with a smaller lower-cost system. Commercial applications include homeland security, law enforcement, astronomy, space exploration, aerial surveillance, agriculture, and geospatial imaging.

Systems & Technology Research
14 Franklin Road
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 699-3752
Tom Pollard
AF121-165      Awarded: 5/2/2012
Title:4D Dynamic Scene Modeling for Situational Awareness
Abstract: We propose to develop a systematic framework for integrating the dynamic automatic generation of 3D scene models from aerial EO/IR video data with the extraction of moving targets in the scene. Our proposed system ingests raw aerial video and outputs a dynamic and compact 4D model combining the 3D scene background and the dynamic activity in the scene. This 4D model not only reflects the 3D background structure and the overlaid dynamically moving targets, but also represents the coupling between the movers and 3D scene at the appropriate level of detail. The coupling between the movers and scene includes both spatial constraints that impact the trajectories of the movers as well as the visibility constraints that explain limitations in the detection/tracking processing. The key enabler for this 4D modeling concept is the Volumetric Inference Engine. This engine, which dynamically and continually reconstructs the scene, is an enhanced version of the volumetric modeling approach developed by Pollard and Mundy. As part of its operation, the Volumetric Inference Engine also performs 3D motion detection which facilitates high- performance tracking by reliably detecting movers with very few false alarms, since parallax and glints are explicitly discounted. BENEFIT: The automated development of 4D models from persistent aerial video data will enable high performance ISR applications in complex urban and high terrain relief environments. The integration of 3D scene modeling with target detection/tracking processing will lead to improved exploitation results and the combined spatio-temporal data will provide analysts and downstream processing systems a compact and illuminating representation that elucidates how targets are moving through a 3D scene and how the 3D scene is constraining target trajectories and limiting or enabling sensor abilities to clearly see them. A practical tool for creating the 4D model that is part of the image analyst workstation will thus significantly enhance the analyst's productivity and quality of exploitation results.

Vision Systems, Inc.
72 Water Way
Barrington, RI 02806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 427-0860
Vishal Jain
AF121-165      Awarded: 5/2/2012
Title:Uncertainty-based 3-d Fusion of Multi-Sensor Aerial Imagery
Abstract: Multi-sensor fusion is a key capability required for effective inferences for timely and accurate strategy and tactical planning. A multi-sensor fusion technology needs to appropriately weigh different image streams according to the uncertainties and errors across different inputs and parameters such as GPS and INS measurements, sensor model parameters, inherent ambiguities of the data such as localization for featureless region and errors due to registering data in a common frame in each source of data for effective fusion. Vision Systems, Inc. propose to fuse aerial imagery via 3-d models using subjective logic to represent and account for various uncertainties. Additionally, the 3-d models will be registered by computing a 3-d to 3-d transformation. BENEFIT: Remote Sensing, surveying, evacuation and emergency planning, visualization and navigation.

Accel-RF Corporation
4380 Viewridge Avenue Suite D
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 449-9750
Roland Shaw
AF121-166      Awarded: 6/18/2012
Title:Low Cost Universal Reliability System On-A-Chip for Multi-Channel Characterization
Abstract: As more and more RF systems push for higher frequency and faster bit-rate application, the capability to perform RF reliability testing on new devices and integrated modules will have a drastic impact on technology insertion, standards for circuit and process evaluation, and product application assurance. Indeed, system reliability concerns are imperative to future military sensor, electronic warfare, and communication systems. In essence there remains one primary and significant issue that limits the widespread implementation of RF reliability assessment on a large scale. The issue is cost. One way to reduce cost is to integrate functions in fewer boxes or packages. Possible implementation architectures would most probably combine a system in-a-package (SIP) mother-board with a group of system-on-chip (SOC) monolithic building blocks specific to frequency, power level, and DC bias/sensing requirements. By segmenting circuit functions by semiconductor technology-attributes it is possible to create universal “building-block” monolithic devices. This Phase I effort will focus on implementing a universal reliability system configuration that has a goal of significantly reducing the cost per site of RF accelerated life test systems. BENEFIT: Development of low cost Power Amplifier Module reliability test system. Applicable to RF- HTOL and performance degradation assessment. Turn-key, automated accelerated life test system platform for technology and device reliability assessment.

Nu-Trek
16955 Via Del Campo Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-2172
Wais Ali
AF121-166      Awarded: 4/17/2012
Title:Low Cost Universal Reliability System On-A-Chip for Multi-Channel Characterization
Abstract: Nu-Trek, in partnership with ASU and Lockheed Martin, will develop a Universal Reliability (URel) System that includes a URel system-on-chip (SOC) and URel software (SW). The URel SOC provides high frequency test signals (1-10 GHz) to the device under test (DUT), receives the signal at each test point in the DUT signal chain, and converts the amplitude of the signal at each point in the DUT to a DC signal through the use of an RF peak detector. The URel SOC measures the DC current, gain, and compression point of each test point in the DUT signal chain and sends the test data to the URel SW processor. The URel SW determines not only what issues the DUT has at the time of the test, but also projects what reliability issues will develop over the lifetime of the DUT. In Phase I Nu-Trek will develop system and sub-block requirements, design the URel SOC, and collaborate with ASU to define the diagnostic/reliability algorithm. The compact, low price URel SOC enables device testing over long periods of time, under stress conditions, and while in operation. The URel System provides unprecedented insight into expected performance over the DUT lifetime. BENEFIT: Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) typically used to test devices is very large and costs hundreds of thousands of dollars. This constrains the amount of testing that is possible and affordable, often limiting it to pass/fail determinations. In the proposed work, Nu-Trek, in partnership with ASU and Lockheed Martin, will develop a Universal Reliability (URel) System that includes a URel system-on-chip (SOC) and URel software (SW). The compactness, robustness, and low price point of the URel SOC enables device testing over long periods of time, under high temperature and other environmental stress conditions, and while in operation. The URel SW provides unprecedented insight into expected performance over the lifetime of the device.

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 652-0008
Joe Ahadian
AF121-166      Awarded: 4/12/2012
Title:Low Cost Universal Reliability System On-A-Chip for Multi-Channel Characterization
Abstract: Close-in sensors can be used to embed reliability and functional RF test capability directly on to RF chips in order to reduce the cost and complexity associated with carrying out reliability studies and product characterization. Recent advancements in silicon technology have enabled the development of close-in sensors and stimulus components ranging from direct current (DC) to RF signals. One can envision a universal reliability system on-a-chip (RFRELIC) for RF characterization where DC and AC sensors/stimulus may be implemented monolithically to realize a low cost system. This proposal proposes a suite of test structures, stimuli and sensors to embed test capability directly into integrated circuits. BENEFIT: This technology has potential to revolutionize assessing complex electronics for military use. Integration of voltage regulation to supply the necessary voltages and waveforms to multiple channels; on-chip RF sources for input stimuli; and digital controllers and monitors to coordinate testing activities such as supplying power to the Device Under Test (DUT) and capturing device performance simultaneously as the stressors are being applied is possible. Beyond HTOL and acceptance testing on-chip, on-chip Built-In-Test (BIT) has other applications to increase system reliability. An integrated circuit can monitor and report state of health. In the event that a circuit within a chip has failed, the chip would re-route to an alternate parallel path and greatly extending the reliability of the chip. For example if an amplifier failed, you could switch to a parallel amplifier. If a duplicate circuit does not exist, the signal could still be re-routed to an alternate path which might yield result in a soft failure versus non-operating condition. The additional cost/size of Built-In-Test (BIT) and parallel paths in RF integrated circuit processes will be minimal given today’s scale of integration.

Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Hooshang Heshmat
AF121-169      Awarded: 5/29/2012
Title:Bearings for High-Speed Cruise Missile Engine
Abstract: The overall objective and scope of this proposed effort includes determining bearing requirements for a high performance 1000 lbf thrust class gas turbine engine; a review of materials suitable for extreme environment bearings; preliminary trade studies to assess thrust bearing design; preliminary design of a conventional and novel journal bearing and simple test to compare performance of both designs. The scope includes assessing and ensuring the suitability/scalability of the bearing technology for super or sub sonic engines for cruise missile or long range strike engines. Under Phase I MiTi will, with its engine subcontractor establish high temperature bearing requirements for a candidate advanced 1000 lbf thrust class cruise missile engine including items such as engine speed, non- operating and operating vibration environment, loads, pressure, temperature and space envelope as well as secondary airflow. In assessing axial bearing requirements, the limitations of and/or engine modifications needed to make the technology suitable for use in engines will be identified. MiTi will identify candidate high temperature bearing alloys needed to permit operation at higher temperatures and will identify possible alternative approaches to meeting the requirements. A material will be selected and recommended for Phase II. Using the properties of the recommended high temperature material, MiTi will prepare potential radial and axial bearing designs. For the radial bearing MiTi will prepare two designs and provide a ranking of each approach identifying pros and cons. Similarly for the established axial bearing designs, concepts will be ranked according to performance, reliability, cost and weight. Preliminary testing will be included. BENEFIT: This effort will directly support the US Air Force initiative for propulsion systems and components to enhance advanced gas turbine engine performance normalized to cost specifically directed at advanced cruise missile engines. Research performed during this SBIR will result in new design capabilities and methodologies for wide ranging applications such as Integrated Power Units (IPU), gas turbine engines for use in UAVs, missiles, drones and both General and Regional Aviation aircraft. Key markets for the foreseeable future that will be served by foil bearings will include energy and environmental areas, including turbine powered generators as well as waste heat recovery systems and compressors for transportation and delivery of natural or/or hydrogen gas. This technology will also support MiTi®’s current oil-free compressors, blowers for wastewater treatment and high speed drive motors.

R&D Dynamics Corporation
49 West Dudley Town Road
Bloomfield, CT 06002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 726-1204
Giri Agrawal
AF121-169      Awarded: 5/23/2012
Title:Foil Gas Bearings for High Temperature Gas Turbine Engine
Abstract: An oil-free bearing system can increase the reliability and decrease the cost and weight of high-speed cruise missile engines. Out of various oil-free systems the foil air bearing technology is the most suitable. Though foil air bearing technology is highly successful for lower temperature applications, they have not been demonstrated to meet the harsh conditions of high-speed gas turbine engines, which operate at high temperatures. In order to develop and demonstrate the foil air bearing technology for high speed cruise missile engines, R&D Dynamics has teamed with a turbine engine manufacturer. The hot end journal bearing will be designed and demonstrated in this program, with applications to thrust bearings in future programs. In Phase I a foil bearing concept will be designed for high temperature foil bearings. A bearing meeting the operational requirements of the engine will be designed, requiring a novel support structure and new materials to withstand the high temperatures. Bearings will be fabricated and tested on existing rigs at ambient conditions to demonstrate operation of the new design and materials. Materials will be demonstrated separately at engine operating temperatures. In Phase II, bearings will be demonstrated at full temperature in rigs and in an engine. BENEFIT: DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military Application - Supersonic propulsion systems and technologies are applicable toward various time-critical weapons systems and small strike/reconnaissance vehicles. Commercial Application - Enhancing higher temperature operation and/or reducing manufacturing and operating costs both apply to small uninhabited aircraft vehicles and uninhabited aircraft.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4798
Karl Kulling
AF121-170      Awarded: 6/11/2012
Title:Persistent Engine Condition Estimation System (PECoES)
Abstract: Certain remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) use propulsion systems derived from commercial systems not designed for harsh environments. Operating experience and reliability data obtained in benign environments does not necessarily apply to engines operated in harsh environments, thereby invalidating existing propulsion health management (PHM) methods. There is a need for improved PHM systems for RPA using advanced artificial intelligence approaches being developed by Aurora Flight Sciences. RPA operations produce data that can be used to autonomously develop the needed experience base for engines used in harsh environments. Capturing, in an engine model, the extensive available data organizes it in a useful manner. Furthermore, by using a model of the RPA and engine, probabilistic predictions can be made about the engine’s future state, enabling preemptive maintenance. Aurora proposes the Persistent Engine Condition Estimation System (PECoES) to solve the estimation and data management problem presented above by applying advanced estimation algorithms and other artificial intelligence methods to the sparse data available over communications links and from operations personnel. Using these methods creates a consistent, structured, and robust framework for extracting and storing engine information. PECoES will integrate with the ground station, thereby easing certification work, and making critical data available to ground personnel. BENEFIT: Successful execution of this program will demonstrate the feasibility of the Digital Twin concept for propulsion systems and Aurora’s Persistent Engine Condition Estimation System (PECoES) concept. A Propulsion Digital Twin will enable advanced PHM capabilities for engines operating in harsh environments where operating experience is limited. PECoES, through its models, estimation algorithms, and data management technology, serves as a structured way to accumulate and store the operational and health history of an engine. With information about each engine of a certain type in the Air Force, even more advanced engine health analysis is possible through cross-comparison of the information stored in PECoES. In keeping with its strategic focus, Aurora Flight Sciences will concentrate on commercializing PECoES for use in military and commercial propulsion systems. Initially, the technology will be marketed to manufacturers of relevant current-generation RPA propulsion systems. Aurora has a working relationship with and a letter of interest from Rolls-Royce, so the AE3007H engine on the RQ-4 Global Hawk will be a prime target of our new PHM system. Other RPAs with engines that have limited PHM and onboard sensing capability could benefit from the technology. At the conclusion of Phase II, PECoES will be ready for integration into current-generation RPA systems. Aurora sees integration work on the Global Hawk system being performed during the first 2 years following the Phase II effort,

Management Sciences, Inc.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Kenneth Blemel
AF121-170      Awarded: 5/21/2012
Title:Embedded Cognitive Bayesian Prognostic Health Management for RPA Propulsion Systems
Abstract: MSI has an impressive history of developing aircraft propulsion system health monitoring systems. We have developed a new technology, a “smart connector” which reduces the size from a circuit card assembly to a small module that fits inside a rugged mil-spec 38999 propulsion system electrical connector. We have support of a military RPA propulsion system manufacturer and propose a SBIR effort that will prototype and demonstrate an embeddable Propulsion Health Management (PHM) approach utilizing the Smart Connector. Our focus will be to exploit the advanced diagnostic and prognostic algorithms used in Smart Connectors for PHM systems of military ground vehicles, and aircraft structural and avionic systems to legacy RPA propulsion systems, controls, and vehicles operated under harsh or off-design conditions. BENEFIT: The use of RPA by the military and commercial has increased over time as they assuming greater operational roles CONUS and OCONUS. Because of its low weight and cost dual use applications for the embedded technology will have large dual use potential. For the military applications include RPA with small and Large RPA Engines. For commercial and non-defense the product will have application in drones, RPA and heavy lift unmanned helicopters used by law enforcement, search and rescue, oil and gas companies, and many more that employ or will employ RPA with large engines. The technology is not limited to unmanned aircraft and has similar application to ground and on-line commercial aircraft PHM Systems.

Directed Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 296-3678
Susie Eustis
AF121-171      Awarded: 5/25/2012
Title:Optimizing Coating Processes and Chemistries for Enhanced Hot Section, Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) Life
Abstract: Environmental protection coatings are required to provide oxidation and hot corrosion protection to hot section turbine components. Unfortunately, the current generation of such coatings can degrade the fatigue resistance of the coated alloy. It is increasingly recognized that, due to the detrimental effect of the coating on low cycle fatigue (LCF) performance, the LCF life of a coated superalloy, not the stress/creep rupture strength, limit the design of a turbine component. As a result, the development of a new generation of environmental coatings optimized to not only provide oxidation and corrosion resistance, but also to limit any detriment to the fatigue performance of the alloy would greatly improve the current state-of- the-art. Thus, a strong need exists to develop novel environmentally protective coatings that are also relatively ductile and strong, as well as coating deposition processes that provide defect-free and dense microstructures. In this work, advanced environmental coating compositions having high strength and toughness will be developed and applied onto engine components using an advanced vapor deposition approach. Additionally, the use of thermodynamic modeling approaches will be used to enable the coating compositions to be chemical activity matched to minimize inter-diffusion with the underlying substrate and retain performance during service. BENEFIT: The development of a strong, fatigue resistant, environmental coating that matches the temperature capabilities of third- and fourth-generation Ni-base alloys will allow reduced cooling flow in airfoil designs providing improved overall engine efficiency/higher thrust designs and hence, reduced specific fuel consumption (SFC). It will also provide improved component durability. Payoffs with a 50°F temperature capability increase as sought in this program are considered to be highly significant by the gas turbine engine companies. Such an increase has been historically been achieved only after 10 to 15 years of extensive development effort in both design and material technologies. Several government and industry funded programs are aimed at developing turbines within the next ten years that will operate at firing temperatures about ~300°F higher than the current generation of high- performance gas turbines. Such temperature requirements can be significantly aided by reducing to fatigue debit of the current environmental protection coatings to enable the current generation of nickel-based superalloys to be used to their full capability. This will lead to turbine engine performance benefits in future gas turbine engines resulting in very significant SFC reductions. Civilian transportation and power generation sectors will be aided as well as air and sea based military vehicles.

IBC Materials & Technologies
902 Hendricks Drive
Lebanon, IN 46052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 482-9802
Solomon Berman
AF121-171      Awarded: 5/21/2012
Title:Plasma Electrolytic Diffusion Coatings for Enhanced Hot Section Life
Abstract: Increasing temperatures, combined with an accelerated demand for reducing weight in the engine, is creating new problems that require innovative solutions. As temperatures increase, oxidation and hot corrosion of compressor, combustor and turbine section components are becoming increasingly acute, limiting the effectiveness of current aluminide coatings on nickel alloys. Salt-deposit-induced hot corrosion in particular has become an intensive area of emphasis for OEMs, as at increased temperatures, combined with mechanical stresses, new chemical reactions with both environmental coatings and metal substrates creates an accelerated corrosion condition. In order to provide a more complete solution for both oxidation and hot corrosion performance of modern high-temperature superalloys, IBC Materials and Technologies proposes a completely new approach to diffusion coatings based on its revolutionary Plasma Electrolytic Diffusion (PED) process. IBC Materials, in partnership with the University of Pittsburgh, will use a combination of computational modeling and experimental development to develop novel diffusion coating chemistries with the PED process. Because of the unique diffusion kinetics of the plasma electrolytic processes, it will be possible to deposit non-equilibrium surface chemistries not able to be achieved with conventional processes, achieving a “super- saturated” diffusion layer with a high degree of compositional control and uniformity. BENEFIT: IBC’s advanced Plasma Electrolytic Diffusion (PED) process will solve the current uniformity and standard thermal kinetics limitations that are inherent in conventional coating processes. The ultra-high energies associated with the PED process will allow for far-from equilibrium coating compositions that are not achievable using conventional deposition routes, providing significant improvement in oxidation and hot corrosion performance for high temperature alloys. The non-line-of-sight PED process will provide uniform coatings on complex geometries such as disk rim slots and other critical features. The versatility of the PED process allows for the multi-deposition of elements and flexible morphology control with a low temperature, environmentally benign process.

Control Vision Inc.
PO Box 1547
Sahuarita, AZ 85629
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 523-5506
Daniel Crawford
AF121-172      Awarded: 5/25/2012
Title:In Situ, Real-time Monitoring of the Properties of Engine Part Coatings
Abstract: During this Phase I effort Control Vision, Inc. will focus on developing an In-Situ, Real-Time optical sensor for thermal spray process monitoring on gas turbine engine components. Several innovative optical test schemes will be tested both in the laboratory and in thermal spray production environments. Feedback from the thermal spray coating production industry from the beginning of the effort ensures the resultant sensor will work in the production environment. Multiple tests both in the laboratory and thermal spray booths allow a data driven assessment on various measuring techniques for coating thickness, their practicality, cost, and limitations. The final result of the Phase I program will be a clear understanding of the pluses and minuses of the various techniques both from a technical and practical view point. BENEFIT: Thermal spray is a highly complex process where numerous interrelated variables must be controlled to produce a reliable coating. While a great deal of energy has been focused on controlling these variables and understanding their connection there are still many unknown factors which can affect desired coating properties. Real time In-Situ measurement of coating properties would increase confidence in reliability and is the next logical step in producing “prime reliant” coatings. Furthermore, our proposed In-Situ measurement capability would have significant economic value, increasing booth efficiency by reducing the amount of booth time required to spray a component. In addition, all present methods of measuring coating thickness require a process interruption. This increases process variability which could be eliminated by measuring coating thickness during the coating process.

ReliaCoat Technologies, LLC
Long Island High Technology Incubator 25 Health Sciences Drive Suite 123
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 739-8818
Wanhuk Brian Choi
AF121-172      Awarded: 5/31/2012
Title:INNOVATIVE APPROACHES FOR IN-SITU ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL SPRAY COATING PROPERTIES ON AERO- ENGINE COMPONENTS
Abstract: ReliaCoat Technologies, LLC, a Stony Brook University based spin-off, in conjunction with program collaborators GE Aviation, Sulzer Metco, Argonne National Lab and Stony Brook University, proposes to develop innovative approaches for in-situ measurement methodologies and tools on real parts and components. The in-situ measurement of coating properties on real engine parts is perhaps the most significant capability for the thermal spray industry, yet the implementation of such technology was not possible due to high financial risk and difficulty in implementation. The proposed innovation is based on collaboration of extensive ex-situ thermal spray coating property measurement experience with expert knowledge in laser-based measurements and thermal imaging because conductivity measurement (Argonne National Laboratory). The in-situ component property measurement system will be incorporating coating physical measurement (thickness), relevant coating property (thermal conductivity) and subsequent data validation through ReliaCoat curvature based in-situ coating property sensor. Through the multiphase SBIR program, the team will demonstrate both in situ thickness and in situ thermal conductivity measurement on engine component within a thermal spray booth with transition plans to OEM approved spray shops and air force overhaul depots. Exploratory evaluation of more complex laser ultrasonic based modulus measurement system will also be considered. BENEFIT: Thermal spray coatings are crucial to economic, safe and reliable operation of gas turbine engines used for propulsion and energy generation. Both US military and commercial turbine industry uses a vast array of thermal spray coatings both in original equipment manufacturer, and in overhaul and repair. This represents a multi-billion dollar industry in the US. However, lack of in-situ sensors for relevant property measurements at the component level has impeded the advancement of TS coating to prime reliance. Incorporation of simple coating thickness sensor in each production booth will provide fast part turnaround time by eliminating torch on-off period. Furthermore, in-situ thermal conductivity sensor will empower both coating engineer and applicator with the ability of measuring each and every parts that will greatly reduce the part rejection rate, resulting in cost savings associated with reduced rework, increased efficiency and productivity. These enhancements in in-situ sensor technology will benefit to both military and civilian applications of thermal spray coatings.

Etegent Technologies, LTD
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Chris Larsen
AF121-173      Awarded: 5/11/2012
Title:Engine Health Management of Mechanical Systems for High Performance Turbine Engines
Abstract: While ODM is a reliable detection method for faulty gears/bearings, it cannot determine which component is damaged. Vibration data can isolate the faulty component based on expected frequency content; however, vibration measurements of turbine engine main bearings are generally too poor to do this reliably. Etegent's innovative sensor design addresses this issue. BENEFIT: Vastly improved vibration data in hot or difficult-to-access environments

GasTOPS Inc.
4900 Bayou Blvd Suite 112
Pensacola, FL 32503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 478-8512
Roy Langton
AF121-173      Awarded: 5/16/2012
Title:Engine Health Management of Mechanical Systems for High Performance Turbine Engines
Abstract: Engine bearing failures are a major safety concern and a significant cost driver for the DoD and Air Force. Most of the costs associated with a bearing failure are associated with secondary engine and aircraft damage after the bearing has reached a critical failure. Oil Debris Monitoring (ODM) has proven to be a reliable and effective indicator of early bearing distress. Vibration monitoring has the potential to provide fault isolation. The combination of these two technologies into a single system capable of providing early detection of bearing distress as well as indication of fault location may prove to be an effective health management approach for advanced turbine engines. The fusion of ODM and vibration data has been demonstrated in laboratory testing but not yet transitioned to actual engines. This SBIR will address this issue and will result in the design and implementation of an Engine Health Management (EHM) system consisting of data processing hardware and sensors which will provide advanced bearing health condition indicators based on the fusion of oil debris and vibration data. The EHM system developed through this SBIR can be directly applied to improving health monitoring of bearings on the F119/F135 and other advanced turbine engines. BENEFIT: The approach of fusing ODM and vibration data and the resulting system developed from this SBIR is directly applicable to improving the state of the art for health monitoring on both military and commercial turbine engines. In addition, since the concern of bearing failures and the associated cost and safety implications are common across other turbine engine applications there is also an opportunity for the technology developed under this SBIR to be applied to other DoD applications such as remotely piloted aircraft, transport and cargo aircraft, ship propulsion, as well as industrial applications such as power generation and process applications.

Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6103
Xudong Tang
AF121-174      Awarded: 5/2/2012
Title:Adaptive VCS Condenser with Integrated VCHPs for Aircraft Thermal Management
Abstract: Next-generation aircraft are experiencing increasing thermal challenges due to heat generation from avionics, as well as requirements to lift this heat to temperatures high enough for rejection from the platform. Efforts have demonstrated vapor compression systems (VCS) offer a cost-effective cooling solution to lower temperature avionics heat loads. An aircraft VCS is required to utilize all available sinks, including fuel and ram air to effectively manage aircraft thermal loads. However, temperature, flow rate, and pressure of each heat sink vary throughout a mission, meaning that the ability of the VCS to adapt by selecting the most appropriate heat sink will be of critical importance. Advanced Cooling Technologies (ACT) proposes to develop a passive adaptive condenser with integrated variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) for an aircraft VCS. The condenser utilizes a highly integrated design that combines a fuel-cooled heat exchanger with an air-cooled heat exchanger. The fuel-cooled heat exchanger adopts a design similar to a typical flatplate heat exchanger but uses high conductivity (HiK) plates as refrigerant and fuel interfaces. The refrigerant is thermally linked to the air-cooled heat exchanger via VCHPs, which passively response to time-variant air flow conditions and controls the heat rejection to the air heat sink. BENEFIT: The potential market penetration point for the proposed technology will likely be the VCS thermal management system in Air Force aircraft. This application presents thermal management requirements that cannot be easily met by the competing technologies. For the military market, the ultimate customer is the DOD. The direct customers for the proposed technology are the defense systems OEMs. Outside of the military market, the commercialization strategy for this technology covers multiple thermal management markets where the VCHPs and HiK plate can be utilized. The proposed HiK plate with embedded VCHPs, as a stand-alone technology, can be utilized in many military, aerospace and commercial electronics cooling applications that require a tight temperature control and an isothermal cold plate, such as electronics in NASA Mars Exploration Rover WEB or NASA's Scientific Balloons. One of the commercial applications for VCHP heat exchangers are fuel cell reformers where operating temperature of the reactors must be closely controlled to maintain their chemical equilibrium, despite changes in the fuel cell electrical load and the resulting changes in reactant flow rates. A VCHP heat pipe heat exchanger can passively adjust the heat removed, and maintain the feed streams and the output stream at a constant temperature.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Weibo Chen
AF121-174      Awarded: 5/3/2012
Title:Compact Adaptive Condenser With a Built-in Thermal Switch
Abstract: Next-generation thermal management systems in advanced aircraft must utilize all available heat sinks, including fuel, ram air, and bleed air flows to effectively manage aircraft thermal loads. To this end, we propose to develop a compact, highly integrated condenser to prevent heat rejection capacity reduction in very hot environments. The condenser has a built-in thermal switch. When the cooling air is cooler than the fuel, the thermal switch is turned on to allow the air flow to cool not only the refrigerant, but also the fuel that serves as thermal storage. When the air is warmer than the fuel, the thermal switch is turned off to insulate the air stream from the refrigerant and the fuel, while allowing only the cool fuel to absorb heat from the refrigerant. The proposed condenser also has unique features to enable a lightweight structure to withstand large fluid pressures. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of our approach by defining a complete set of specifications for the condenser, designing and building a proof-of-concept condenser, and demonstrating its performance. In Phase II we will design, build, and demonstrate a laboratory prototype under prototypical conditions. BENEFIT: The proposed condenser will prevent heat rejection capacity reductions in very hot environments. Military applications include heat pump systems for high power electronics and advanced weapons platforms across all the armed services. Commercial applications include thermal management systems for commercial aircraft, air-conditioning systems, and thermal management systems for computer farms.

Directed Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Derek Hass
AF121-175      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:Hydration Tolerant, low Thermal Conductivity (K) Thermal Barrier Coatings
Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems are desired for gas turbine engines. These coatings will increase the durability of hot-section engine components to significantly improve the time “on-wing”, safety and readiness of these engines. In this work, research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of modifying the composition and architecture of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to enable enhanced resistance to hydration induced TBC spallation while retaining or improving overall system performance. To achieve this, novel coating synthesis techniques will be employed which enable the deposition of advanced compositions and architectures to achieve a comprehensive thermal barrier coating system that provides vastly improved resistance to damage from moisture attack. A low cost, high throughput processing approach for the application of this TBC system is also envisioned. The proposed Phase I effort will identify the failure mechanisms of current and advanced TBC systems exposed to high moisture containing environments through the use of both coupon and component scale testing. The successful completion of the Phase I work will lead to a follow-on Phase II program focused on down-selecting candidate approaches for optimization and applying the new coating onto real aircraft components BENEFIT: This research is anticipated to result in a thermal barrier coating system that provides significantly enhanced durability in moisture containing environments. This work will also improve the durability of TBC systems in general to enable the realization of advanced gas turbine engine designs while leading to several percent thrust improvement or specific fuel consumption reduction for current turbine engines. These advances will not only benefit military engines and aircraft, but also commercial gas turbine engines. In addition, the innovative approach proposed here will reduce the time and expense for refurbishing and repairing blades during engine overhauls, thus improving military readiness and reducing the cost of maintaining commercial aircraft.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
HeeDong Lee
AF121-175      Awarded: 5/14/2012
Title:Hydration Tolerant, low Thermal Conductivity (K) Thermal Barrier Coatings
Abstract: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to develop a new diffusion barrier layer that allows for a hydration tolerant thermal barrier coating (TBC) system, along with an outstanding oxidation resistance of the bond-coat. TBCs have been applied to the hot sections of aircraft turbine engines to increase engine efficiency and to extend the life of metal components; however, they have not been fully integrated to the engine design due to the potential catastrophic failures at the interfaces where crack formation takes place. Moreover, the state-of-the TBC system seems vulnerable to moisture, leading to spallation of the top TBC layer, termed moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS). Due to this fact, current efforts are focused on developing new alloys or barrier coatings, but only minimal advancements have been achieved. We propose the development of new barrier coatings based on yttrium aluminates. The project is composed of the development of a robust coating process and experimental verification of water and oxidation resistance, as well as chemical inertness. BENEFIT: TBCs are used for the aircraft engines but are currently limited by unpredictable lifetimes and poor reliability. A new diffusion barrier coating based on yttrium aluminates could significantly reduce the adverse effects of water, such as moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS), as well as TGO growth. The reliability and life of the TBC can be improved, and full incorporation into commercial engines will be expected.

NCC Nano LLC dba NovaCentrix
200-B Parker Dr Suite 580
Austin, TX 78728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 491-9500
Ian Rawson
AF121-181      Awarded: 5/24/2012
Title:Low-Temperature Sintering Processes for Ceramic-Coated Heat Exchangers
Abstract: An innovative high power photonic curing process incorporating broadband light including ultraviolet (UV) is proposed for low temperature sintering of ceramic materials on metallic substrates. New high power ultraviolet (UV) flash lamps developed and integrated with a system that permits complex pulse forms in which pulse energy, duration, and frequency are controlled. By delivering a series of high power flashes having durations as short as 30 microseconds, energy densities in excess of 15 kW/cm^2 can be produced with minimal heating of the underlying substrate. This technique has been used to sinter high temperature metals printed on polymer and paper without damage to the substrates. The innovation of new UV flash lamps and process settings will allow sintering of ceramic materials such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that have low absorption at longer wavelengths put out by currently available flash lamps. For demonstration of technical feasibility, the UV photonic curing process will be applied to functionally graded coatings deposited via direct-write printing. Coatings consisting of a gradual transition from 316 stainless steel to ceramic YSZ will be printed on 316 SS substrates. The new enhanced-UV photonic curing process will then be applied. Coating quality will be characterized in terms of density, strain, and grain size reduction. BENEFIT: Photonic curing has been used to sinter metal inks on low temperature substrates, however, the process is not currently suitable for use with many ceramics whose optical absorption at wavelengths above 500 nm is poor. A primary benefit of this effort is that high power UV photonic curing will allow these types of ceramic materials to be rapidly sintered with minimal heating of the substrate. Technical challenges associated with conventional (equilibrium) thermal sintering approaches, such as cracking and delamination from high temperature thermal expansion, can be minimized. The process is sufficiently rapid for direct coupling with most coating and material printing processes, hence it has potential for use in high volume commercial applications such as heat exchangers, solid oxide fuel cells, and thermal barrier coatings.

nGimat, LLC
2436 Over Drive, Suite B
Lexington, KY 40511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(859) 259-3637
Stephen Johnson
AF121-181      Awarded: 5/8/2012
Title:Flame-Assisted Flash Sintering of Ceramic Coatings for Heat Exchangers
Abstract: nGimat proposes to develop a novel technique to sinter ceramic films deposited onto metallic substrates by combining two efficient and inexpensive techniques: flame sintering and field- assisted “flash” sintering. The creativeness of this approach lies in the concept to use a flame as both a heat source and a conductive medium. Compared to conventional thermal sintering, this new technique that we call Flame-Assisted Flash Sintering (FAFS) has the potential to reduce sintering temperatures and processing times, thereby leading to a substantial reduction in cost. Equally as important, the reduced processing temperatures will improve the performance of heat exchangers and solid-oxide fuel cells by avoiding high- temperature-induced effects such as film delamination and/or strain-induced defects. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of FAFS to sinter a model ceramic material (such as 8% yitttria-stabalized zirconia) on austenitic stainless steel substrates up to 160 cm2 in area. In Phase II, we will scale up our FAFS processing equipment to accommodate full scale production levels and substrates > 160 cm2, as well as experiment with other ceramic materials. The end result of the entire SBIR effort would be reduced costs for the Air Force and enhanced performance of components constructed via the FAFS technique. BENEFIT: The proposed flame-assisted flash sintering (FAFS) technique will reduce the sintering temperature and processing time of ceramic coatings on metallic substrates, thereby substantially lowering their manufacturing costs. Commercial applications of the research and development executed during this SBIR effort is not limited to ceramic heat exchangers, but also includes components used in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Iouri Kompaniets
AF121-182      Awarded: 5/16/2012
Title:Miniature Infrared Turbine Engine Detection Camera
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for a miniature infrared camera that is capable of providing image-based quantitative measurements of gas turbine engines at high-temperature (HT) and high-pressure (HP), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Miniature Infrared Turbine Engine Detection Camera (MINC). POC’s proposed MINC system is based on a simultaneous and parallel multispectral filtering method combined with an HT&HP survivable infrared optical assembly and an infrared sensor. Innovations in optical design and data analysis enable the MINC system to provide quantitative measurements, determining surface temperatures and the characteristics of reacting and non-reacting flows inside the combustor. As a result, this system offers capabilities such as high temperature and pressure operation (2200 K, 10 atm.) with simultaneous imaging within 6-8 narrow spectral bands and speeds faster than 1 kHz, directly addressing the USAF Engine Test facilities requirements. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative imaging by computer model and laboratory burner flame. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a prototype to be used in a turbine engine combustor for measuring HT casing material temperatures and gas interactions, providing a camera that is beneficial to government and private industry. BENEFIT: In addition to the primary Air Force application, the MINC has several other military applications that include tank/vehicle engine testing and development, military rocket engine design and test, and battlefield methane gas leak analysis. The capability of MINC in measuring physical quantities of high temperature gas flows results in its applicability in numerous commercial applications. These include commercial aircraft jet engine testing, power plant turbine measurements, auto engine design and quality control, forest fire gas and flame sensing, gas pollutants remote sensing, incinerator gas emission testing, rocket engine design and test, underground coal mine methane gas sensing.

Wavefront
7 Johnston Circle
BASKING RIDGE, NJ 07920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 558-4806
Jie Yao
AF121-182      Awarded: 5/15/2012
Title:High Temperature InAsSb Short-Wave-Infrared (SWIR) to Mid-Wave-Infrared (MWIR) Photon-Counting-Integrated-Circuit (PCIC) Miniature Lipstick Camera
Abstract: Infrared thermography has been increasingly used for the measurement of surface temperature and convective heat transfer characteristics of combustion engines. The infrared thermometry technique is particularly advantageous for resolving spatial and temporal surface temperature distributions non-intrusively, especially when the surface temperature changes rapidly both in space and in time. Such measurements shed light on a range of other spatially and temporally varying physical quantities in the turbulent combustion flow, and are critical for the understanding and optimization of the propulsion systems of aerial vehicles. At present, most infrared thermometry measurements of the combustion process are made from outside the combustor, due to the large size and low operating temperature of the infrared camera. We propose an infrared FPA imager with much reduced size and higher operating temperature, as well as a thermography probe for the high-temperature high- pressure harsh environment inside the gas turbine engine combustor. During Phase I, we will design, fabricate and characterize individual pixels in the Photon- Counting Integrated Circuit (PCIC) InAsSb Focal-Plane Array (FPA) for thermography. During Phase II, we will fabricate and characterize the InAsSb PCIC FPA imagers and incorporate them into thermography probes, to be delivered to DoD laboratories for evaluation and demonstration. BENEFIT: Besides MWIR sensing for engine combustion, the proposed multi-color camera is ideal for surveillance and target recognition, thermal infrared night vision, infrared security cameras, border patrol, scientific instruments, biomedical imaging, ecosystem monitoring and protection, wildlife conservation, and environment monitoring and protection.

Sinmat Inc
1912 NW 67th place
Gainesville, FL 32653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 334-7270
Rajiv Singh
AF121-183      Awarded: 7/18/2012
Title:Novel Silicon Carbide Epitaxy Process for Dramatic Improvements to Material Characteristics, Cost, and Throughput
Abstract: Silicon carbide electronics technology has several advantages over conventional silicon electronics and it finds its application in several power electronics applications. However, the manufacturing of reliable SiC power devices is a critical challenge because of the degradation of the forward current gain or voltage drop attributed to the propagation of Shockley-type stacking faults (SF) which are nucleated by basal plane dislocations (BPDs) present in the epitaxial layers. The current state-of-the-art SiC epitaxial methods are less successful in eliminating such defects, hindering the commercialization of this technology. Sinmat, in collaboration with University of South Carolina, plans to investigate a novel defect capping and planarization assisted growth (DC-PAG) process that is expected to reduce the defect density (inclusive of BPD and other defects) by at least two orders of magnitude, thereby resulting in virtually BPD-free wafers. This novel method uses a novel polishing process to impede the propagation of defects during growth. Such a technical enhancement will lead to high performance, reliable and reproducible SiC based power devices and can lead to rapid insertion of SiC devices in military, automotive and renewable energy sectors. BENEFIT: TThe DC-PAG technology will enable the SiC applications in high power and alternative energy applications. Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices can be used in applications such as solar inverters, power convertors for computing and network power supplies; industrial motors and hybrid electric vehicles. The SiC power device can also be used in high-power, high frequency, high temperature military and aerospace applications.

Altex Technologies Corporation
244 Sobrante Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8315
Chinmoy P. Saha
AF121-184      Awarded: 6/6/2012
Title:Thermal Management for Military Aircraft High Performance Electrical Actuation System
Abstract: Aircraft electromechanical actuators are dispersed throughout the aircraft and cannot utilize existing ECS or PTMAS for cooling. They must be cooled by passive thermal management system to maintain component reliability and longevity, particularly in high ambient temperature environments. Conventional cooling approaches fall short of performance, weight, compactness and cost requirements. Altex has identified an advanced air cooling approach that can meet electromechanical actuators cooling needs that are installed inside various aircraft bays. Preliminary tests have shown the heat transfer and pressure drop potential of the concept that supports successful application to a range of military and civil aircraft. Under the proposed Phase I project, the concept will be adapted to a simulated standard military aircraft electromechanical actuator; and the performance and cost benefits of the concept will be determined by classical and numerical analyses and limited laboratory testing. These efforts will show the feasibility of the concept for aircraft electromechanical actuator cooling applications of interest. BENEFIT: By implementing the special NISHEX heat exchanger concept, heat exchanger weight, volume, power consumption and cost would be reduced by approximately 60%, 80%, 67% and 60% respectively, relative to conventional heat exchanger approaches. This will lead to improved reliability and longevity of aircraft electromechanical actuators and associated missions, as a result of better passive thermal management. Furthermore, the concept can also be adapted to large civilian aircraft electromechanical actuator cooling, avionics and cooling, vehicle ECS, and even HVAC markets. These applications would result in cost savings to the public of $300 million per year.

Rini Technologies Inc
582 South Econ Circle
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 359-7138
Daniel P. Rini
AF121-184      Awarded: 5/2/2012
Title:Thermal Management of Electrical Actuation System via Enhanced Air Circulation and Thermal Energy Storage
Abstract: In the proposed Phase I program, we will validate and optimize a thermal management (TM) concept for High Performance Electric Actuation System (HPEAS). The TM system does not interfere with the Environment Control System (ECS) nor the Power and Thermal Management System (PTMS). The concept is based on enhanced forced convection and thermal energy storage (TES). It is expected this approach can address essentially all scenarios encountered in electrical actuation of flight control surfaces. The TM system can function in a wide range of environmental temperature and pressure, and under a variable gravity situation. During most of the flight time, forced convection and radiation are sufficient to transport the waste heat from the HPEAS to the bay wall or wing skin for rejection to ambient air. Phase change material (PCM) will absorb heat during periods of peak power and/or when the ambient condition is not suitable for heat sinking. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed concept will be demonstrated by performing experiments with a full-scale lab prototype simulating an electromechanical actuator (EMA). The experimental data can also be used to validate a numerical model which is essential for design and optimization of TM systems. In the Phase II program, TM systems will be designed, fabricated and applied to flight quality EMA hardware in collaboration with a prime aerospace company. BENEFIT: The primary benefit of the proposed technique is to greatly increase the heat transfer effectiveness from EMAs to ambient air under various flight conditions and body force. By significantly enhancing air circulation in bays, EMAs located there can operate at much higher power without overheating. The numerical model developed in this program can be used to optimize heat removal by air surrounding complex-shaped heat sources. It is anticipated the proposed TM system can find application in the cooling of electric motors and generators in hybrid and electric vehicles. The technology developed can also be applied to many types of portable systems such as personal cooling systems, etc.

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 831-0166
Christopher Doktor
AF121-185      Awarded: 6/1/2012
Title:Detecting, Diagnosing and Predicting Impact of High Priority Faults in Electromechanical Actuation (EMA) Systems for Next- Generation Military Aircraf
Abstract: Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) supported by the Moog Aerospace Group will develop and demonstrate PHM technology that will perform real-time prediction of faults, failures, and anomalies in Electro-Mechanical Actuators. The FTI solution is based on anomaly detection technology that has successfully identified seeded faults in flight-configured EMAs using alternate configurations of sensors and data sources. FTI will use data received in real-time from nominal and faulty EMAs in a laboratory environment to demonstrate accurate and timely detection, diagnosis and impact analysis of faults, failures, and anomalies while minimizing false alarms. The architecture is modular and extensible so that it can be embedded in the EMA or mission control computer or within a ground sustainment system. This architecture enables the technology to be used in a wide set of actuators, control systems and mission/operational profiles with minimal changes. The demonstration uses hardware in the loop to show the satisfaction of the Phase I objectives for real time analysis of flight EMAs and provides a low risk transition to the Phase II requirement for a demonstrable system in a realistic operational environment. This Phase I effort extends FTI’s development of anomaly detection, fault isolation and predictive analysis for electronics and electro-mechanical systems. BENEFIT: The innovation resulting from this research will have direct impact on any enterprise that is dependent on and needs to improve the operation of EMAs. Implementation of new maintenance strategies such as CBM requires the ability to determine the condition of the EMA, predict degrading or failing conditions and determine RUL. The technology will provide the ability to incorporate diagnostic and fault predictions into actuation systems to improve safety, maintainability, and serviceability while reducing cost. Because the system uses existing system data to provide the models used for analysis of system states and RUL it is easily extended to variety of EMAs and applications. The ultimate result is optimum use of the EMA while minimizing unplanned failures and reducing impact on mission or business success. FTI has identified the following areas as being immediate application targets for this technology: fixed-wing aircraft (military and commercial), rotorcraft, unmanned systems, and ground vehicles.

Qualtech Systems, Inc.
99 East River Drive
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 761-9341
Sudipto Ghoshal
AF121-185      Awarded: 6/1/2012
Title:Prognostic Health Management (PHM) of Electromechanical Actuation (EMA) Systems for Next-Generation Military Aircraft
Abstract: Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) in collaboration with Moog Inc., and Lockheed Martin Corp. (Mission Systems & Sensors – Newport Operations) proposes development of a hybrid PHM scheme for real-time detection and diagnosis of faults; reliability estimation; and forecasting of failures and performance degradations in Electromechanical Actuation (EMA) systems. The proposed scheme will utilize a set of advanced signal processing, feature extraction, detection, classification, trending, and forecasting techniques from both data-driven and model-based health management paradigms. A Multifunction Dependency Model-based diagnostic approach will be used for failure source identification. For Phase-1 work, the QSI team will perform a range of degradation experiments using a test rig on a ‘ball screw’ driven EMA. These experiments will function as the major source of information for developing the PHM scheme. The proposed effort will also leverage data obtained from flight experiments from NASA-ARC’s FLEA (Flyable Electro-mechanical Actuator) Test Stand for initial development and testing of the resulting PHM scheme. A demonstration on the test rig will validate the real-time fault detection, identification, diagnosis, prognosis capabilities of the PHM scheme. The QSI team will mature the scheme, and in Phase-II, will demonstrate it on an embedded EMA controller and actuator under realistic operation condition. BENEFIT: This project, at the end of Phase-II, is expected to result in a plugin module to QSI TEAMS toolset that will be capable of comprehensive real-time diagnostics and prognostics of Electromechanical Actuators. Of specific target is to make the module effective for PHM of the EMAs planned for sixth-generation energy optimized aircraft. The PHM solution will be versatile and can be easily customize or tuned for various different types of actuation systems, by means of changing the specs and usage conditions. We plan to make this module a part of TEAMS-RDS® Enterprise level software which provides among other capabilities a comprehensive fleet-level as well as individual system level health status and allows the user to monitor and effectively manage those systems. This will allow monitoring, real-time diagnostics, and prognostics of future EMAs on multiple platform from a single or distributed customer site in a concerted manner. Such usability will likely improve the commercialization potential of the outcome PHM technology. Simultaneously, it will make the solution more useful for the defense customers.

Lickenbrock Technologies LLC
4041 Forest Park Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 615-6921
Tim Holmes
AF121-187      Awarded: 6/20/2012
Title:Reconstruction Algorithms for High-Energy Computed Tomography Images of Rocket Motors
Abstract: High Energy X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to inspect and evaluate the integrity of solid rocket motors (SRM’s). The driving purpose of this proposal is to improve the detection of defects in special cases where the defects are obscured due to limitations of the CT images. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which is a relatively new CT imaging algorithm, increases resolving power for showing defects more clearly. Lickenbrock Technologies has developed a variant of the EM algorithm and other software algorithms for improving fidelity of CT images. The limitation is long computation times with large image volumes involving 100's of CT slices. An approach to accelerating the computation speed significantly involves the utilization of many parallel graphical processing units (GPU’s) and many parallel core central processing units (CPU’s) on one computer system. Phase I will involve prototyping test versions of the EM and the other related algorithms, measuring processing times on representative scaled-down computer architectures, investigating the price and performance of a variety of high-end computer architectures that are commercially available and projecting processing times on each of these architectures based upon the measured times and relevant formulas for translating these time projections between computer architectures. BENEFIT: The benefit to the Department of Defense will be the capability to deploy improved computed tomography (CT) algorithms for improving defect detection in solid rocket motor inspection. Commercial and other inspection applications, involving CT, that may benefit include automotive components, baggage handling at airports, and micro CT for small animal and small materials imaging.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Joseph Yadegar
AF121-187      Awarded: 6/18/2012
Title:Reconstruction Algorithms for High-Energy CT Images of Rocket Motors
Abstract: X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an ideal non-destructive inspection (NDI) technique that enables detailed examination of the internal 3D structure of an object. CT can be used for examining a wide range of materials including metals, ceramics, plastics, wood and composites. X-ray CT has a wide range of NDI applications such as quality control, i.e. ensuring that a manufactured part agrees with its blueprint within allowed tolerances, reverse engineering the structure of a competitors' product and condition monitoring and surveillance of solid rocket motors (SRMs) and other critical machines. X-ray CT is also used extensively for medical diagnosis. Conventional CT images are obtained using modified Filtered Back-Projection algorithms that are fast but prone to noise and several image artifacts such as streaking, false edges and cupping due to beam hardening. We propose an advanced iterative reconstruction algorithm that inherently produces artifact free images and suppresses noise while simultaneously preserving the detailed object structure. Our algorithm uses an accurate model of the entire X-ray imaging process. We will use a theoretically optimally fast optimization algorithm and GPUs to achieve the target of reconstructing a 4096x4096 slice in less than a minute. In phase II, we will extend it to model polychromatic X-ray sources to suppress cupping artifacts and investigate methods to reduce image capture time. BENEFIT: Commercialization Strategy To ensure a successful transition of the CT Reconstruction technology, UC will pursue an aggressive partnering strategy during Phase I and Phase II to guide the technology in a direction that will fill the immediate needs of ongoing prime contractor partner (Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems) programs. UC will fully leverage these relationships to secure optimum involvement and support of the prime contractors for the proposed technology. Product Opportunities within Defense UC is determined to demonstrate success with the Air Force as its initial customer and then expand its product offering to other service branches and agencies. Following Phase I efforts, and while proceeding with Phases II and III development, UC will work closely with both the Air Force and major vendors to gather technical requirements and business use cases for the proposed technology. UC has identified numerous product opportunities within the Government sector. Specific programs which would benefit from use of UCs proposed technology include the production of the Trident II D5 SRM motor sets, the EELV strap-on SRMs, NASAs new Space Launch Vehicles, and other missile defense and tactical missile programs. The UC team is focused on strengthening its strong partnership ties with mature vendors such as Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin to reach a maximum of potential end-user customers.

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Ashvin Hosangadi
AF121-188      Awarded: 6/21/2012
Title:Techniques to Suppress Cavitation in Liquid Rocket Engines
Abstract: Next generation liquid rocket systems, envision novel designs for cryogenic turbopumps that exhibit high suction performance with low inlet pressures, operate at high tip speeds to reduce size and weight, and can be throttled over a wide range of low, off-design flow conditions where the inlet flow quality is poor with large backflow. These are extremely demanding flow regimes which make the inducer susceptible to a range of cavitation instabilities that can lead to performance loss and potentially catastrophic damage due to large dynamic pressure loads. To mitigate these instabilities design strategies that employ cavitation suppression devices have to be explored to achieve robust performance over a wide operating range. The innovation proposed here is the development and maturation of a comprehensive numerical framework, CRUNCH CFD® as a design support tool to understand the physics and operation of cavitation suppression devices. The resulting products at the end of the Phase II effort will be both a practical cavitation suppression device that is demonstrated to function for the flow regimes of interest, and a well-validated analysis tool, CRUNCH CFD®, that can be used to predict performance and optimize designs of these devices. BENEFIT: This framework can be used as a design support tool for upper stage engines in the Next Generation Engine (NGE) program and would help reduce design cycle times. It would also support technology development efforts for NASA’s SLA program where new boosters that have a heavy lift capability will be designed. It is anticipated that this product will be of interest as a design support tool to the aerospace industry. In addition, a broader market exists, comprising industrial pump designers who would be interested in using this product for designing high-energy systems such as boiler feed pumps and fuel injection pumps. In these applications, the pumps are required to perform at off-design conditions over extended time periods. They typically are required to be certified for a specified durable life operation (e.g. 40,000 hours) and have stringent vibration level requirements, making it critical that cavitation effects be eliminated or mitigated.

Concepts ETI, Inc.
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Jct, VT 05001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 280-6183
Kerry Oliphant
AF121-188      Awarded: 7/10/2012
Title:High Flow Gain Inlet Cover Treatment for Inducer Cavitation Suppression
Abstract: Cavitation which leads to head falloff and feed system instabilities are a constant source of problems for the low net positive suction head (NPSH) pumps that are needed for advanced liquid rocket engines. Head falloff limits the pumps capability to deliver propellant at the required pressure and cavitation induced instabilities are a significant source of structural failures in rocket propulsion systems. The instabilities are particularly pronounced at low flow off design conditions and can cause severe cavitation-induced surge or oscillations in the propellant feed system, leading to mission failure. The high mass flow gain inlet cover in Figure 1 delays cavitation induced head falloff and it eliminates cavitation instabilities at low NPSH conditions for all flow rates, but is particularly effective at low off-design mass flows. The cover pulls the blade tip vapor cavity and vortex away from the blades to delay head falloff and improve flow stability. The high recirculation flow rate or gain through the cover maintains an optimal flow field on the pump inducer inlet for stable operation, even down to near shut-off conditions. BENEFIT: Significantly improve the suction capability, stability, and flow range of rocket turbopumps operating with a wide range of fluids including liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. In particular the technology will eliminate the need for boost pumps, reduce turbopump stage count and weight, increase efficiency, increase margins of safety and reliability, and reduce propellant tank weights through lower pressurization requirements. The technology will open up the turbopump/engine/vehicle design trade-off space by moving the pump suction performance constraint and allow for a better optimal total launch system design. The cover treatment can also be used in other commercial industrial applications that require stable high suction performance like LNG transfer pumps, two-phase pumping for electronic component cooling, supercritical CO2 power generation cycles, and boiler feed water pumps.

Exquadrum, Inc
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Philip Pelfrey
AF121-189      Awarded: 7/10/2012
Title:Novel Upper Stage Engine Cycle
Abstract: Exquadrum, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative and advanced, low-cost, high- performance, cryogenic upper stage engine cycle. The SLATE engine is a variant of the dual-bleed expander cycle that maintains state of the art performance while enabling significantly reduced weight and cost, increased reliability, improved operability, and scalability. The engine cycle enables lower pump discharge and system pressures for high- reliability and reduced weight. Additionally, the engine uses a thrust chamber and nozzle arrangement that overcomes the historical limitations of expander cycle engines inability to scale to high thrust. The proposed engine concept is significantly smaller and lighter than historical engines. The low-cost thrust chamber provides improved stability over any existing conventional thrust chamber of comparable engine size. In Phase I, Exquadrum will conduct trade studies to optimize the engine cycle, generate a vision engine conceptual design, and develop and demonstrate the low-cost thrust chamber at full scale. In Phase II, Exquadrum will conduct engine testing to demonstrate the advantages of the engine cycle and quantify engine performance. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits include increasing the thrust-to-weight, reliability, and operability of upper stage engines while significantly reducing cost. Additionally, this engine cycle enables a scalability not possible with current engines enabling it to fulfill a wide range of applications. Potential commercial applications include the growing commercial launch industry, and their need for low-cost, high-performance upper stage engines.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2732
Martin Chiaverini
AF121-189      Awarded: 6/21/2012
Title:High Performance Hybrid Cycle for Advanced Upper Stage Engines
Abstract: ORBITEC proposes to develop a hybrid cycle to improve the overall performance and reduce the cost of advanced upper stage engines. Upper stage engines using the High Performance Hybrid Cycle (HPHC) will have the benefits of compact design, high thrust-to- weight, and high Isp. Once matured, such engines are expected to display low cost and high reliability. In Phase I, we will conduct detailed trade studies, develop preliminary designs of the major engine components and overall engine system, quantify the benefits of the HPHC vs. current state-of-the-art cycles, and develop a detailed risk reduction plan. BENEFIT: The USAF will be the initial primary customer for the HPHC technology, followed by NASA. There is a clear and immediate need for an advanced upper stage liquid rocket engine to replace existing engines. The RL10 engine supply is expected to be depleted later this decade. A new, affordable upper stage engine for the Delta and Atlas launch vehicles, and/or their successors that uses modern manufacturing approaches to reduce cost is highly attractive for enabling DOD missions. NASA will most likely also soon require an advanced upper stage engine or engine cluster for its exploration missions. Therefore, a significant demand for HPHC-based upper stage engines within this decade and beyond is anticipated. The market for this area is very large, in the billions of dollars.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Daniel J. Micka, Ph.D.
AF121-191      Awarded: 6/12/2012
Title:Passive Optical Combustion Sensors for Scramjet Engine Control
Abstract: Dual-mode scramjet engines must operate over a wide range of flight Mach numbers. Closed loop engine control is necessary to maintain thrust and flame stability while preventing unstart over the large flight envelope. High-frequency sensors and actuators will be a key component of future scramjet Full Authority Digital Engine Controllers (FADECs) due to the short time scales associated with these engines. These sensors and actuators must be rugged, simple, lightweight, low power, and minimally intrusive. In the proposed effort, Creare and the University of Michigan will develop passive optical heat release and equivalence ratio sensors and control schemes which utilize them for closed loop scramjet engine control. These sensors are high frequency and rugged and will be easy to integrate with flight engines. In Phase I, we will build and test these sensors in a laboratory scramjet combustor and determine how the signals could be used to predict unstart and maintain flame stability for some key engine transients. In Phase II, we will optimize the sensors for scramjet conditions and develop and test active control schemes for preventing unstart and maintaining flame stability using the sensor input. BENEFIT: Technology derived from this program will be in the form of high-frequency passive optical sensors optimized for scramjet conditions and closed loop engine control schemes which utilize these sensors for feedback. These sensors and control schemes will enable optimal performance of scramjet engines over a larger flight envelope.

Physics, Materials & Applied Math Research, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 862-1795
Nathan Tichenor
AF121-191      Awarded: 6/25/2012
Title:High-Frequency Energy-Deposition Actuators for Effective Scramjet Control
Abstract: Hypersonic propulsion systems, such as supersonic combustion ramjets (scramjets) are generally expected to operate from Mach 3.5 up to Mach 7-8 and are designed for specific flight Mach numbers to achieve optimum performance. However, realistic flight vehicles will experience a wide range of flight conditions during a typical mission. These off-design flight conditions degrade the performance of the hypersonic propulsion system because the engine is not actively controlled. In an effort to increase engine performance, while simultaneously enabling system weight reductions, PM&AM Research, in collaboration with University of Arizona and Texas A&M University, propose to demonstrate the feasibility of depositing energy using “plasma” actuators within a hypersonic propulsion system. BENEFIT: If successful, this solution would allow increased thrust and robustness. Military applications for this innovative system include high-speed propulsion systems and technologies applicable toward various time-critical weapon systems, strike/reconnaissance vehicles, and space launch applications. Additionally, commercial applications include enhancing current scramjet system designs to enable access to space applications to compete with existing rocket platforms.

ArmorWorks, Inc.
305 N. 54th Street
Chandler, AZ 85226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 598-1523
Jay Taylor
AF121-192      Awarded: 7/20/2012
Title:Wireless Power for Battlefield Airmen Operation
Abstract: ArmorWorks will develop an airman’s personal power distribution system that employs inductively coupled power transfer at connection nodes to portable electronic equipment. The system reduces battery logistic burdens created by the use of airman mounted electronic devices and will continue to be ever more practical as advances in power management reduce peripheral device power requirements. BENEFIT: The airman’s personal power distribution system developed in this program can be used for soldier-portable power transfer to recharge and/or power battlefield computers, hand held radios, GPS’s, thermal imaging devices, and laser designators and range finders. Commercial applications include Wireless battery chargers, power electronic devices carried by border patrol, homeland security, and search and rescue personnel.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Jeremy Bowman
AF121-192      Awarded: 7/12/2012
Title:Wireless Power for Battlefield Airmen Operation
Abstract: The continually expanding role technology plays on the modern battlefield is resulting in Warfighters having to carry more batteries. This increased battery weight puts additional strain on the Warfighter and increases logistical burden. In response to these issues, the Air Force has created a power generation and management system (PG&M) that acts as a central power source that can be used to recharge multiple devices. Currently, devices are attached to the PG&M system via conventional cables and connectors. These cables and connectors represent the weak points in the system in that connectors can become damaged or fouled to the point of not being useable, and cables represent snag hazards and hard points. Infoscitex (IST) proposes to develop a system that will integrate wireless power transmission capabilities into the user’s gear and will negate the issues associated with the conventional connectors currently in use. The system will integrate the required coils and conditioning electronics into a cradle or docking station configuration that will serve to maintain coil alignment and spacing, ensuring the most efficient wireless transmission possible. BENEFIT: The benefits of the proposed system will include improved system reliability by replacing cables and connectors, with minimal additional system weight. The proposed solution will be adaptable to virtually any electronic device that can be worn by the battlefield airman. The commercial applications for the proposed technology include use by law enforcement and first responders, as well as outdoor enthusiasts, for powering or recharging multiple body-worn electronic devices from a central power supply, therefore saving on battery weight and storage space.

En Urga Inc.
1291-A Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 497-3269
Yudaya Sivathanu
AF121-193      Awarded: 6/20/2012
Title:Mapping Liquid Mass Fractions in Optically Dense Rocket Combustion Chambers
Abstract: This Small Business Innovation Research Phase 1 project will evaluate the feasibility of utilizing X-Ray tomography to map liquid mass fractions in optically dense sprays. High fuel flow rate nozzles are ubiquitous in rocket propulsion, power generation, and transportation. In these high flow rate nozzles, the local mass fraction of fuel is directly proportional to the local heat release rate, and therefore it impacts both the combustion stability and engine efficiency. However, it is not currently possible to fully elucidate the structure of these dense sprays, particularly in a reacting environment, where conventional optical diagnostics is impossible. During Phase I, En’Urga Inc. will demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing X-Ray tomography for obtaining the structure of fuel sprays in a non-reacting environment. During Phase II, a prototype system will be developed and evaluated in hot fire condition. There are two issues of intellectual merit that will be addressed during the Phase I work. The first issue is the development of an X-Ray tomography system to measure path- integrated extinction from high mass flow rate sprays. The second is the development of an advanced algorithm that will provide local mass concentrations from the path integrated measurements. These two novel features enable an accurate characterization of liquid mass fractions in optically dense sprays. BENEFIT: There are two primary commercial applications for the proposed spray diagnostic. The first is in the characterizing the near injector structure of dense sprays prevalent in the automotive and aerospace industries. Characterization of near injector structure is extremely important for the development and evaluation of newer fuel injectors, which provide greater efficiency and lower pollution. Typical customers in this area include aircraft engine manufactures such as Rolls-Royce, GE, and Pratt and Whitney, as well as automotive manufacturers and their suppliers such as GM, Eaton, Ford, Bosch, Cummins, Chrysler, Detroit Diesel, Caterpillar, John Deere, etc. The second commercial application for the proposed diagnostics is in industrial burners. There are several high flow industrial burner nozzles using fuels ranging from coal slurry to furnace oil. These nozzles cannot be currently evaluated due to the fact that they produce sprays that are very dense. The proposed system will make the fuel flow pattern from such nozzles amenable to investigation for the first time.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF121-193      Awarded: 6/12/2012
Title:X-Ray Tomography and Structured Light Topography of 4-D Fuel Mass Distributions in Rocket Sprays
Abstract: The primary objective of this research effort is to develop a next-generation X-ray tomography and surface topology imaging system for four-dimensional (4-D) characterization of liquid mass distributions within dense fuel sprays. This will be accomplished through high-speed 3-D imaging, providing information on both temporal and spatial variations of fuel mass distribution. The overall technical objectives of the research program are to (1) resolve the 3-D liquid breakup process in dense sprays using X-ray radiography with multiple lines of sight and discrete tomographic reconstruction, (2) capture two or more 3-D X-ray images at rates of 10 kHz or greater, (3) minimize uncertainties due to changes in X-ray energy distribution along the absorption path, (4) enable studies of practical fuels with high soot loading, high temperatures, and high pressures, and (5) capture breakup dynamics of liquid-core and liquid-sheet structures by mapping 3-D liquid- surface topologies at 10 kHz or greater using structured light imaging. The proposed diagnostic systems will be optimized for image contrast over a wide range of optical densities to cover both gas-centered swirl coaxial and impinging-jet rocket sprays, which should also cover a wide range of applications in propulsion, including gas-turbine, augmentor, and scramjet combustion systems. BENEFIT: We anticipate that four-dimensional (4-D) X-ray tomography and surface topology imaging will provide new measurement capabilities for studying liquid-breakup dynamics in a variety of propulsion systems, including rockets, augmentors, gas turbines, and scramjets. This will enable improved fundamental understanding and modeling of dense sprays, which is of significant practical and scientific interest. The data provided by the proposed research program will enable propulsion engineers to design and optimize liquid rocket injectors to improve stability, performance, and maintainability. The understanding developed from the proposed diagnostic systems is critical for improving the speed and efficiency of the design process, ultimately helping to avoid and or solve problems associated combustion dynamics brought on by transient, non-uniform fuel-air mixture preparation. This measurement capability is applicable for military and commercial propulsion systems, as well as industrial furnaces and internal combustion engines, leading to significant commercial applications.

JMSI, Inc. dba Intelligent Light
301 Route 17 N 7th Floor
Rutherford, NJ 07070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 460-4700
Earl P.N. Duque
AF121-194      Awarded: 5/14/2012
Title:EPISODE: an Extract Plug-In Scalable Order-reduced Data Environment
Abstract: JMSI Inc (DBA Intelligent Light) proposes to develop EPISODE - a new large scale data management tool that enables an engineer to more readily extract knowledge and insight from their large scale physics based simulations and experimental data. The Extract Plug-In Scalable reduced Order Data Environment, EPISODE, shall consist of a highly scalable data Extract Plug-In Components Toolkit (EPIC Toolkit) for use with any CFD solver or with experimental data. EPIC shall consist of standard extracts such as primitive variables on grid surfaces but it also shall include Reduced Order Models (ROM) such as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), Fast-Fourier Transforms (FFT) and Wavelet Analysis. The user shall be able to utilize the EPIC tools in their solver, interact with it through the EPISODE User Interface and dynamically change the extract information. With a simple “click”, an EPIC enabled solver would output data extracts with a user specified number of eigen modes; all without stopping the solver or manually managing datafiles. The EPISODE User Interface shall be based upon JMSI’s well known FieldView post-processing software and shall allow the engineer to explore the design space predicted from unsteady simulations using a neural network tool known as “Self Organizing Maps”. BENEFIT: EPISODE and the EPIC Toolkit allow the user to explore the design space predicted from unsteady CFD and experimental data. It can be used to perform design studies utilizing unsteady simulations and experiments for a large range of design issues such as increased reliability and efficiency of turbomachinery and internal combustion engines, improved transport aircraft handling qualities in landing configurations and reduction of fluid- structures acoustic unsteady loads in nuclear power plants.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Sukesh Roy
AF121-194      Awarded: 5/16/2012
Title:Spatio-temporal Dynamical System Analysis Tools for Very Large Data Sets
Abstract: This Phase-I research effort will enable propulsion engineers to design and control high- pressure combustors/augmentors operating on various aerospace fuels and emerging alternatives by developing a set of nonlinear analysis tools that can achieve two overarching goals: efficiently analyze large numerical or experimental data sets and provide advanced data mining techniques to more quickly identify relevant dynamical system behavior. This will be accomplished through four key technical objectives: (a) to remove noise from large data sets thereby reducing the quantity of data needs to be further analyzed by separating the noise from nonlinear dynamics, (b) to remove redundant information from large sets of data to reduce the equivalent of 1 TB of raw data to ~200 GB depending on the reacting flow conditions, (c) to identify dynamically significant information within a very short amount of time to understand the underlying physics of the spatio-temporal dynamical systems, and (d) to develop a set of dynamical invariant tools to compare experimental and numerical data in order to influence the development of next generation war fighters as well as extending the life of existing war fighters. The development of the data analysis tools are required to exploit the current state-of-the-art laser-based measurement systems, which routinely provide 2D temperature and species concentration measurements at a rate of 10 to 50 kHz, as well as to analyze reacting flow data generated by state-of-the-art supercomputers. The proposed research effort will focus on analyzing 1 TB of imaging data within a day using standard laptop computers, or even faster using high-bandwidth GPU processors, thereby enabling real-time engineering analysis, design, optimization, and control. BENEFIT: This research effort on the development nonlinear spatio-temporal data analysis tools would allow investigation of turbulent reacting flow phenomena in a real-time basis. This tool set should also allow devising intelligent control strategies for the development of intelligent engines and will have a major impact on understanding of high-speed time-evolving phenomena related to ignition, flame growth, and stability in turbine engine augmentors/afterburners. Hence, this research effort along with methods to analyze high- speed planar and tomographic images will make the concept of real time sensing and control of combustion phenomena a reality. The proposed software system could be easily integrated with any on-board sensing and control system, which would have a significant impact on engine health and stability for the war fighter. Furthermore, in the modeling of reacting flows related to combustors and augmentors, it is of great importance to study the interactions among various temporal and spatial scales to understand and predict the complex behavior under turbulent conditions. This understanding requires information on local flame-front phenomena, global heat release, and acoustic feedback at frequencies of 5 kHz or greater. The objective of this effort is to develop various nonlinear analysis tools for the interpretation of high-bandwidth (generally 5 kHz or greater) numerical data for

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Thierry Carriere
AF121-197      Awarded: 8/16/2012
Title:Fire Suppressant Transport Modeling
Abstract: Fires initiating in engine nacelles and dry bays are the most common causes of loss of aircraft. However, since the Montreal Protocol restricting the production of Halons, a replacement has not yet been accepted by the aircraft survivability community despite numerous testing programs. The costs and limitations of designing new systems based primarily on live testing can be mitigated by modeling. ADA Technologies is partnering with ARA to propose the development and preliminary validation of a fast-running, physics-based, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for mapping the concentration of clean agent fire suppressants in obstructed environments such as dry bays. At the core of the simplified approach is the focus on the low-Mach number equations, describing phenomenon happening in the subsonic regime. This is appropriate for dispersion of fire suppressant exiting nozzles at velocities smaller than Mach 0.2. Our approach contains three steps: acquisition of relevant experimental data in our lab, modeling of the experiment with a fast code on a PC, and comparison of the results with the output from a comprehensive CFD code running on a computer cluster. As a result, the product of this project will be an experimentally validated code. BENEFIT: A fast-running CFD code modeling the dispersion of Halon replacements, also known as clean agents, would allow optimization of new fire suppression designs by minimizing the amount of suppressant to be carried on-board an aircraft while ensuring satisfactory extinguishment performance. Limiting weight is always a primary concern in aircraft applications. Finding an effective and environmentally friendly replacement for Halon 1301 in dry bay systems would be greatly aided by such a validated CFD code. This code would be applicable to a variety of fire suppression applications looking for optimized Halon replacement systems. Beyond military aircraft, commercial aircraft is a natural fit for the code, as the FAA is struggling with the same issue. Outside aerospace markets, weight and cost optimization of the protection of other obstructed volumes is another commercialization opportunity. For examples, light armored vehicles in the DOD market and server rooms in the commercial sector represent promising business prospects for the future code.

SURVICE Engineering Company
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-9914
Jim Tucker
AF121-197      Awarded: 7/30/2012
Title:Fire Suppressant Transport Model
Abstract: SURVICE Engineering is proposing the development of an innovative fire extinguishing suppressant flow simulation model that meets solicitation requirements. Our proposed approach includes integration of a previously developed, exceptionally fast running, engineering level computational fluid dynamics core model that was originally developed for programs supporting the Army in blast analysis prediction, and the Navy for shipboard fires and structural failure. The core computation code will be enhanced specifically for suppressant agent transport and mixing within a cluttered dry-bay environment. A verification program will be conducted as well as initial validation to prepare for a detailed Phase II development and validation program. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this SBIR will provide the Air Force and DoD with the capability for rapidly evaluating fire extinguishing suppressant flow through complicated aircraft (and other vehicle) dry-bays and compartments. The DoD already has a large community to whom the new code would apply immediately. Both defense contractors and commercial manufactures of fire extinguishing systems are another natural market. Risk engineering firms that evaluate fires and damage are a potential market. NATO allies, and other allies, are also a potential market.

Physical Optics Corporation
Information Technologies Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Sergey Sandomirsky
AF121-199      Awarded: 8/7/2012
Title:Terahertz Thermal Imager
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for real-time measurement of aircraft tire tread crown temperature to generate temperature profiles (tread surface to inner liner) of an aircraft “radial” tire under dynamic loading conditions, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Terahertz Thermal Imager (TTI). It is based on the capability of terahertz irradiation to penetrate rubber, and the thermal dependence of terahertz irradiation/absorption defined by blackbody models in the terahertz spectral range for temperatures from 32F to >200F. This new use of a terahertz source for remote thermal measurement, and a new system design integrating a dual-wavelength terahertz source with a synchronized terahertz imaging detector, will enable the TTI to measure, in real time and in noncontact mode, the thermal profile in the tread crown of a rotating dynamically loaded tire. Therefore this system offers the Air Force an innovative instrument, improving safety-of- flight predictions and evaluation of aircraft tire performance. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of a TTI system prototype in laboratory experiments on a tire tread crown model. In Phase II, POC plans to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype measurement device that will be integrated with an existing internal drum dynamometer. BENEFIT: Immediate benefits from the TTI system will be received by the Air Force landing gear testing facilities as well as Army and Navy aviation directorates and commands for noncontact testing of the performance of aircraft landing tires to enhance landing safety and make better predictions in future tire design. In addition, testing facilities for military ground vehicle tires will benefit from implementation of the proposed TTI system. The TTI technology also has wide applicability in commercial markets, especially in the tire manufacturing industry. Such tire OEMs as Goodyear, Michelin, and Goodrich would be potential customers for the TTI system technology.

Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC)
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
William Hallidy
AF121-201      Awarded: 7/24/2012
Title:Massive Parallel SAR Scene Simulator
Abstract: Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) are critical to surveillance and weapons applications. Due to the complexity of such systems, adequate testing typically involves the need for active fight testing which is extremely expensive. There is a need to be able to generated a laboratory SAR simulation environment to provide system testing and optimization that can provide $Ms in test and evaluation cost savings. In order to address this problem, in Phase I of this contract Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) will leverage its expertise in the development of Digital RF Memory (DRFM) based scatterer generators to create a design for a highly innovative SAR Scene Simulator (SSG). SPEC’s FPGA/software defined architecture enables generation of thousands of complex RF scatterers, each with realistic motion, amplitude, range and Doppler. The capability developed with have applications in a variety of military and commercial weapons and communications test environments. BENEFIT: SSG capability will provide millions of dollars in test and evaluation cost savings in military systems requiring near real-time processing of scene coefficients, such as SAR scene generation for testing of RF weapon sensors in HITL, phased array radars, radar ground mapping and clutter data. Commercial applications for this technology include satellite image processing, phased array radars, ultrasound image processing, communications channel modeling, radar ground mapping, etc.

Technology Service Corporation
3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 800
Los Angeles, CA 90034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 754-4215
Ray Durand
AF121-201      Awarded: 7/20/2012
Title:Massive Parallel SAR Scene Simulator
Abstract: The Air Force has a requirement to test Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems in an RF Hardware-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation. The simulation requires that a large number of computations to determine the simulated target and clutter signals be performed in a short amount of time to adhere to the timeline requirements. The current method of generating the target and clutter signals employs a mix of analog and digital processing. The recent technological advancements of high-speed, high-density Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) now allow for an all digital solution. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) proposes to develop a SAR Scene Simulator (SARSSim) system using an FPGA-based architecture to meet all of the Air Force’s requirements. TSC will first define the SARSSim system requirements. The computations required to generate the desired signals will then be defined. Next, TSC will develop a top-level architecture to meet the system requirements. Critical portions of the architecture will be evaluated using an FPGA-based demonstration board. The results generated in Phase I will be used to generate a development plan for a Phase II Proof-of-Concept SARSSim system. BENEFIT: A demonstrated SAR Scene Simulator (SARSSim) system Proof-of-Concept system should be of great interest to RF Hardware-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation facilities in the Air Force, Army, and Navy. Such a system could be utilized by the HITL facilities to perform the many real-time computations that are required. Commercial SAR companies will also benefit, since this technology could be used onboard aircraft to generate real-time SAR imagery allowing immediate imagery analysis to be performed.

Bodkin Design & Engineering, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 795-1968
James Daly
AF121-202      Awarded: 6/21/2012
Title:High-Speed, Multispecies Sensing in Gas Turbine Engines and Augmentors
Abstract: Measurements of combustion and gas dynamic properties inside gas turbine engines and augmentors are needed to aid in engine development, performance testing and evaluation, and for verification and validation of combustion modeling codes. Advanced instrumentation and flow-field diagnostics that combine the advantages of both intrusive and non-intrusive measurement systems are needed measure the transient gas chemical species characteristics and thermodynamic behavior in the combustion environments. Bodkin Design & Engineering (BDE) proposes to demonstrate a multi-modal sensor system with capability to measure multiple species concentrations (including free radical species such as OH, CH and NH), local fuel/air ratios, heat release, and fuel/air mix temperature inside a gas turbine engine or augmentor. The system will use fast, compact spectral measurement instruments operating simultaneously at both ultraviolet (UV/vis) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) wavelengths. Additionally, the system will be capable of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at both UV/vis and MWIR wavelengths. Measurements will be made using small, unobtrusive light pipes to observe the engine’s interior. This light pipe as well as the spectrometers can be configured either as point sensors or imaging sensors. BENEFIT: Passive sensors capable of measuring temperature and species concentrations of hot, reacting gas mixtures may be useful for development of commercial jet and turbine engine control systems for improved fuel efficiency and improved pollution control. Sensors of this type may also be useful as process control sensors and feedback controls for industrial processes ranging from metal and glass processing to pyrolytic ceramic coating to semiconductor fabrication as well as plastics and composites fabrication.

Kestrel Corporation
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Boyd Hunter
AF121-202      Awarded: 6/4/2012
Title:Novel, High-speed and High-spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Multispecies Sensing in Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract: The purpose of this proposal is to develop a new instrument capable of meeting the Air Force’s priority requirements for measurements of combustion and gas dynamic properties inside gas turbine engines and augmentors. To meeting these needs, Kestrel’s proposed Imaging Hyperspectral Radiometer (IHSR) solution can provide both spatial and spectral information about the combustion processes inside engine/augnentor combustion chambers. In addition to the continuous radiometric observations, the proposed instrument will provide continuous spatial and spectral imaging of combustion processes and byproduct development. Kestrel's solution addresses the Air Force’s need for a sensor capable of collecting high frequency spectral and spatial data in the 1900 to 5300 nm range with a small, lightweight, robust, calibrationally-stable instrument, usable within the harsh environment found in the combustion chambers of gas turbine engines and augmentors. The technical objective and challenge of this effort is to design and build a multi-band, short-wave infrared (SWIR), through mid-wave infrared (MWIR) hyperspectral sensor system that is capable of placing enough pixels on target for shape-based identification (where in the combustion chamber/flow), while maintaining the ability to detect and identify the combustion materials based on their spectral signature. BENEFIT: The Air Force’s missions can benefit greatly from this novel, easy-to-integrate, stand- off/non-contact, combustive flow analysis system which can provide both high-spatial resolution and high-temporal resolution reactive flowfield data. The proposed solution offers a complementary dimension to standard suite of instruments and is, therefore, believed to have significant potential as a new, highly capable information source with the capability of providing unique information for the user. The relatively new interest in “green” and alternative fuels and optimizing engines for their use, along with understanding their performance and emission creation might make this instrument especially attractive in the very near future. In addition to jet engine combustion, the technique would apply to any high speed combustion environment, including hypersonic aircraft and rocket engine performance monitoring. The solution would also lend itself to use as an active feed-back/control-loop circuit for engine control, allowing engines to operate at maximum performance and safety. The solution’s ability to support high spatial and spectral measurements allows AF scientists and engineers to see and objectively measure high resolution events occurring in the flowfield. Outside of the Air Force there are a number of likely commercialization paths for an

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Neil Goldstein
AF121-202      Awarded: 6/12/2012
Title:Fast Passive Optical Sensor for Jet Engine Applications
Abstract: We propose the development of a high-speed, passive, in-situ, hyperspectral sensor system and its integration into engine-scale augmentor test program at AEDC. An optical probe would be integrated into an existing mechanical probe to provide multiple views of the emission coming from various locations in the augmentor flow path. The light would be routed to an innovative adaptive spectral imager, which uses computer-controlled spectral filters to monitor concentrations of multiple combustion product species at data rates of 50 kHZ. The spectral filters can be changed on the fly at rates of up to 20 kHZ, allowing the system to make a variety of different types of measurements in rapid succession. Temporally- and spatially-resolved measurements are to be processed to yield combustor properties such as fuel/air ratio and heat release on a time-scale fast enough to resolve the evolution of the flame sheet as it passes between the fields of view of the probe. The time resolved data can be processed into a number of data products for direct comparison to fluid dynamic models. BENEFIT: The immediate result of the proposed program would be a prototype sensor system for ongoing augmentor testing at AEDC and a general purpose high-speed hyperspectral readout for general application in combustion research.. The sensor system is aligned with the AFRL roadmap for advanced augmentor development, which includes advanced sensors for experimental validation of augmentor models and augmentor performance. The sensor readout will serve as a diagnostic tool that can be combined with a variety of experimental techniques, including tomographic reconstruction to provide further insight to augmentor physics. The experimental verifications provided by the sensor will facilitate further model enhancement and establish confidence for advanced CFD techniques in design applications. The prototype adaptive spectral readout would be portable, simple to use, and could be readily reproduced for application in a variety of research and land-based combustion measurement applications. Given the unobtrusive, passive nature of the system, it would be applicable not just for augmentor measurement, but also to any application requiring monitoring or control of combustion dynamics. The prototype could be used directly by commercial engine manufacturers and aerospace companies in component tests, engine tests, and in land-based installations.

Rock West Solutions, Inc.
8666 Commerce Avenue
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 845-8880
Neal Carron
AF121-203      Awarded: 6/4/2012
Title:Modeling and Simulation for Combined Space Environment Chambers
Abstract: The overall objective for the Phase 1 Program is to develop a physics-based source engineering code that predicts effects of the STAT ion source primary incidence and scatter, secondary backscatter, and residual source effects on targets of interest. The code will be developed in a software framework that is modular and extendible, thus enabling growth for additional STAT sources, targets of interest, and chamber effects in future developments. BENEFIT: Modeling codes for energetic particle use in testing, industrial applications, or commercial manufacturing processes.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Jason Cline
AF121-203      Awarded: 6/5/2012
Title:Space & Chamber Effects Simulator (SPACES)
Abstract: There are many components to the space environment, both natural and man-made, that can adversely affect spacecraft performance. Their relationship is often complex and nonlinear, making scientific modeling essential. We propose to produce a structured network of physics-based computer models that will allow a trained test engineer to knowledgably set up and interpret chamber tests that are relevant to a given orbital condition. The SBIR program proposed includes several levels of complexity, from the fundamental parameters and physics-based effects codes to full multi-physics chamber simulation codes. The Phase I program will focus on establishing the framework for the models and show capability for modeling atomic oxygen in a chamber test environment. A rarefied gas flow solver that can model the chamber and its contents will be integrated into the Phase I framework of models. Phases II/III will incorporate many physical models into the multi-physics framework, such as models for high-energy laser impingment, and will involve more scientific investigation into the nonlinear synergies between the effects. BENEFIT: The models in the multi-physics framework will facilitate accurate ground testing of satellites and spacecraft without requiring expensive on-orbit testing. There are many interactions between the space effects that do not add linearly, and a major function of this model will be to elucidate what parts of a test will behave nonlinearly, to what extent, and what the effect will be. This technology will facilitate rapid, accurate ground testing of spacecraft and satellites. It will also allow for more scientific quantification and interpretation of the combined effects of environmental components as the model matures. A fully mature product has the potential to become a predictive spacecraft environmental interaction model and design tool, just as computational fluid dynamics and materials response codes are used predictively for wind tunnels.

Morris Technologies, Inc.
11988 Tramway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 733-1611
Dustin Lindley
AF121-204      Awarded: 5/20/2012
Title:Fabrication Process for Small, High-precision Aerodynamic Balances
Abstract: The proposed research seeks to establish DMLS as a process in which 15-5 PH powder can be used to grow an aerodynamic balance with the appropriate material properties, geometric tolerances, and surface finish required. Phase I will be focused on developing DMLS manufactured parts with external features representative of current and future aerodynamic balance design as well as demonstrate homogeneity and similarity to the material properties of 15-5 PH. The approach in Phase I will be to establish the feasibility of the metal alloying process of the material formation and demonstrate the resolution of the formation process. BENEFIT: Determination of the viability for the development of DMLS scanning parameters producing; optimal surface finish, porosity and absence of micro or macro cracking. A report summarizing metallurgical findings that establish the feasibility of 15-5 PH SS as a DMLS alloy meeting industry engineering standards. Representative parts summarizing the achievable dimensional tolerances.

Global Neighbor, Inc
84 Compark Rd
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 285-0990
Jon Jackson
AF121-207      Awarded: 7/2/2012
Title:Floral Disruptor - Directed Energy Weed Abatement and Prevention Tool
Abstract: Global Neighbor, Central State University for the past 5 years collaborated to develop and commercialize chemical free weed control for residential applications. Having completed research into UV/IR directed energy, super-heated steam at the root, and thermal weed control; GNI has successfully commercialized products from this effort. The GNI/CSU team is ready to use this experience and develop new techniques to solve the Air Force’s requirements. For groomed areas such as grass, we envision an automated weed identification sensor used to position our UV/IR directed energy weed control, working in tandem with equipment that is already in use. For non-specific, broad area weed abatement such as clearing an area, we envision using the UV/IR directed energy applied uniformly over the previously mowed area. For this effort, we need to complete the Phase 1 effort to establish effective levels of exposure and appropriate algorithms for the sensor to discriminate weed from plant. Our goal for phase 1 is the ability to create a mobile solution that is convenient for the AF to implement and extendable to residential and commercial applications. BENEFIT: Reduce Air Force's use of chemical based herbicides while providing a platform for automatic chemical free weed control for residential and commercial building applications

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Christopher Sullivan
AF121-207      Awarded: 7/9/2012
Title:Floral Disruptor - Directed Energy Weed Abatement and Prevention Tool
Abstract: Leveraging expertise in plant physiology, biology, electro-optics, rf, electrical engineering, physics and signal processing, Oceanit proposes to develop an innovative device to prevent and control unwanted plants and weeds. BENEFIT: Oceanit's directed energy weed abatement and control system will provide a non-toxic method to effectively kill and stop the growth of unwanted plants. Oceanit's innovative approach will rival the speed and cost of existing herbicide treatments.

Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Peter Thompson
AF121-208      Awarded: 5/31/2012
Title:System Identification and Modal Extraction from Response Data
Abstract: To address the needs of the Air Force regarding improved flight control room tools, Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) proposes the development of a software toolbox suite for real-time aeroelastic aircraft system identification and modal extraction using flight test data. Modal extraction includes accurate identification of system modal frequencies, damping ratios, and aeroelastic mode shapes. Since high-performance aeroelastic aircraft are significantly driven by unmeasured atmospheric turbulence, a primary goal of the suite is identification of modal properties using only measured output data assuming no measured inputs. STI will leverage extensive experience in the field of aircraft system identification that utilize both the time and frequency domains to produce robust algorithms specialized for high-performance aeroelastic aircraft. These methods will exploit modern system identification approaches including subspace-based time domain identification and frequency domain decomposition that take direct advantage of data from distributed aircraft sensors. In addition to the core algorithm development, STI proposes a prototype visualization interface to aid flight test engineers in the control room. The visualization interface will include the ability to track – in real-time – system modal frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes with the ability to compare results directly with known analytical models in a clear and straightforward manner. BENEFIT: The capability and technology resulting from this research will specifically address the needs of the US Air Force Flight Test Center and similar DoD labs. The algorithms developed from this work will provide enhanced capability to the flight test engineer for use in the control room. Specifically, the analyst will have to ability to monitor, in real-time, the aeroelastic modal properties of a test vehicle in flight. Tracking modal frequencies, damping ratios and real-time mode shapes will allow on-the-fly assessment of the aircraft aeroelastic properties at flight condition including the impact on flying qualities and the proximity to the flutter boundary. The proposed visualization interface will allow the analyst to directly compare the flight test vehicle modal properties to existing models, presenting the information in a complete, clear and straightforward manner for efficiency and allowing for improved model validation and confident decision making for safety. Following a successful test, data can be used with the algorithms and visualization tools in off-line mode to update and enhance existing analytical models. Outside of the government, the proposed toolset can be utilized for aeroelastic certification and clearance by commercial aircraft manufacturers as both an on-line control room tool and an off-line analysis tool.

ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 945-9988
Darius Sarhaddi
AF121-208      Awarded: 5/17/2012
Title:Real-Time Mode Shape and Aeroelastic System Identification Toolset for Flight Test
Abstract: The ability to ascertain rapid and accurate aeroelastic system stability margin as well as the ability to extract flight test structure mode shapes for on-the-fly investigation of aero- structure interactions are some of the real challenges facing control room engineers during flight testing of aircraft. The proposed developments in this Proposal aim to meet these challenges through the application of a non-linear system identification methodology applied to uncoupled single-degree-of-freedom generalized modal coordinates (GMC) used to identify aeroelastic stability via application of the Hilbert Transformation (HT) and a Covariance-Driven Stochastic Subspace (CDSS) approach to extract flight test structure mode shapes. ZONA Technology, Inc. will extend its commercially available ZONA Aeroelastic Model Simulator (ZAMS) product under the IADS flight test display environment and build upon its framework to establish new IADS displays that will clearly address these challenges. The proposed IADS displays will provide real time display of: (1) flight test derived and analytical overlaid mode shapes, (2) aeroelastic system frequency and damping time histories, (3) an aeroelastic system damping meter, and (4) modal participation plot. Two successful proof-of-concept studies based on these methods have been conducted. Once developed, these toolsets will significantly enhance the flight test control rooms decision making capability through better gauging of aircraft stability. BENEFIT: The proposed research and development effort will enhance flight test control room personnel's capability to gauge the flight test aircraft aeroelastic stability margin and to correlate flight test mode shapes with those computed from finite element analyses. By tracking trends during flight test, this tool can help to predict the onset of large amplitude oscillation that occur during flight (e.g., Limit Cycle Oscillation). For example, tracking of the system damping meter time history during maneuvers can establish thresholds when recorded amplitudes of oscillation exceed pre-determined terminate values. These thresholds can then be used as a predictor gauge during follow-on maneuvers. The mode shape correlation display, in conjunction with the aircraft aeroelastic response displayed in the ZAMS tool, will help identify how the structure modes interact with the aerodynamics throughout all flight conditions. In addition, this tool can be used to validate the finite element analysis model, typically done through expensive Ground Vibration Testing (GVT), by correlating the extracted flight test modes during low speed flight (i.e., where aeroelastic effects on the structure are minimal). Use of the proposed tools will help to minimize aircraft fatigue thereby reducing maintenance costs as well as provide valuable insight into the aero-structure interaction phenomenon that can lead to reduced flight testing. Mode shape correlation can alleviate costs and burden

Bodkin Design & Engineering, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 795-1968
Gideon Coltof
AF121-209      Awarded: 5/30/2012
Title:Low Background Blackbody
Abstract: The Air Force has a need for a wide-range, differential blackbody to test IR surveillance, targeting and tracking systems in the -40°C to 100°C range. Thermal controlled MRTD test blackbody will be developed that can operate over the full temperature range using thermal electric elements. The proposed design will eliminate condensation problems associated with low temperature operation. BENEFIT: The research and development program addresses a problem seen across industries wherever thermal characterization across a broad range of temperatures is required. The technology developed under this program has broad application in the military and commercial worlds. The device that results from work conducted under this program will be transitioned into BD&E’s product line and help us support the Air Force by further expanding our toolbox of proven technologies.

LGarde, Inc.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Arthur L. Palisoc
AF121-209      Awarded: 5/14/2012
Title:Low Background Blackbody
Abstract: The sensitivity of tactical mid-wave imaging sensors has been shown to be extremely sensitive to background temperature. In our approach we cool down a 1m x 1m panel with a hole at its center through which a blackbody cavity simulator can radiate through. The front panel and blackbody cavity temperatures are controlled independently of each other. The blackbody cavity simulator system is hooked up to a PC which controls and maintains all the thermal parameters during the tests. During the Phase I study, (a) the blackbody cavity geometry will be optimized to produce an effective emissivity as close to unity as possible and (b)a proof-of-concept sub-scale engineering test unit will be built and tested. BENEFIT: A successful Phase I study will provide the jumping off point for a Phase II. During Phase II, we will perform a detailed design of the low-background blackbody system and build and test a prototype unit. Because all the components are off-the-shelf, the design activity is minimized and the fabrication, simplified. A successful Phase II will provide the user community with a low-cost low-background blackbody system that the Air Force and other branches of the military can use for the test and calibration of their midwave tactical imaging sensors. Research institutions and academia are also potential users of this technology as well as the commercial sectors. After all development work has been done, the community will have an inexpensive device for use in low-background blackbody test and measurements

GasTOPS Inc.
4900 Bayou Blvd Suite 112
Pensacola, FL 32503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 478-8512
Allison Toms
AF121-212      Awarded: 7/23/2012
Title:Re-evaluation of Oil Analysis Program
Abstract: The United States Air Force Oil Analysis Program goals are to improve operational readiness and economy of US Air Force equipment through oil analysis and to analyze technical data in order to increase the effectiveness in diagnosing oil condition and equipment failures. Current limits, practices and procedures are almost 20 years old. The proposed SBIR project will review current practices and research best approaches for a more efficient oil analysis program which may include modifications to sampling frequency, updating test equipment, and other improvements to cost and effectiveness of testing. To accomplish this, the AFOAP data will be evaluated to determine what components are failing, what failure modes are dominant, what frequency samples should be taken to provide advanced trending/warning, what particles/contaminants in the lubricating fluid will provide an indication of the failure or performance degradation and whether current testing is detecting all faults. Different approaches to oil analysis will be reviewed to determine the best approach and ROI for fault detection and operations. A tiered defense may be most effective, utilizing different approaches: on-line for faults with rapid failures (bearing and gears), at-line for quick fluid and debris checks and off-line for long-term fluid condition. BENEFIT: The work accomplished in this SBIR will lead to a better, more efficient oil analysis method including more appropriate frequency of sampling, updated equipment, and updated comprehensive results. The review and analysis process for evaluating the current effectiveness of the AFOAP program and resulting recommendations developed from this SBIR are directly applicable to improvement of other DoD oil analysis programs as well as commercial oil analysis programs. Worldwide, there are millions of complex, oil-wetted mechanical systems operated by thousands of customers. These customers often maintain their machinery using outdated, isolated laboratory or monitoring techniques that have carried over from legacy equipment and methodologies, hence there is a substantial potential for the application of the concepts developed under this SBIR program to modernize/optimize other oil analysis programs.

Spectro, Inc.
160 Ayer Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 431-1140
Robert Yurko
AF121-212      Awarded: 7/18/2012
Title:Joint Oil Analysis Program: Future Vision
Abstract: The Joint Oil Analysis Program (JOAP), since its inception in 1968, has played a role in avoiding countless equipment failures via oil analysis being carried out according to its guidelines. During every decade of its history, analysis protocols have been refined to meet the need for effective oil analysis of new and aging assets. Currently, JOAP is in a position where its protocols, relative to the needs of the Warfighter, need a detailed review. The proposed effort provides this using a team of industry leaders. The key goals of the proposed effort center on three main thrusts: (a) determining how to enhance the existing capabilities and predictive power of oil analysis by providing more specific linkage between the analysis itself and suspect asset components; (b) examining the existing JOAP architecture and its technology pieces; and (c) establishing new overall oil analysis protocols for specific assets via (a), (b), input from industry best practices and cost/benefit optimization, which may be beta-tested during the Phase II effort. The goal is to streamline the entire oil analysis process. A successful Phase I effort will result in testable solutions for JOAP which can provide the Warfighter with significantly enhanced asset protection tools. BENEFIT: As a result of a successful Phase I effort, the Spectro Team will provide DoD with immediate, comprehensive oil analysis solutions for beta testing on selected assets. The goal in targeting these assets will be to demonstrate, through a sampling of the vast variety and needs of DoD assets, concrete solutions that are scalable to the whole of assets monitored by JOAP. It is anticipated that these solutions will provide JOAP with a template for a carefully managed but transformative future thrust.

Aspire Solutions, Inc
323 W Spring St
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 966-4381
Randy Kirk
AF121-213      Awarded: 6/1/2012
Title:Condition Based Maintenance: Planning and Implementation
Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to develop new techniques for addressing dynamic scheduling needs of a production environment in the MRO (Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul) industry where unknown repair issues force continuous schedule modifications. The existing techniques involve detailed work cards set by planning with both skill set and work hours. Changes to these variables require time consuming updates that hinder management's capability to impact change and direct the workforce. This research will focus on several key areas. First, identify the key elements required to dictate delivery dates. Second, determine the key what-if capability needs so changes in requirements can predict both manpower and skill set needs. Third, catalog financial impacts in terms of overtime and potentially other key elements such as expediting costs to determine financial impact of schedule changes. This research will utilize human based processing theory, sequencing and scheduling strategies, optimization techniques to enable the OC-ALC to reduce its production lead-times and minimize both schedule impacts and overtime costs of unidentified schedule changes. BENEFIT: The ultimate goal of the research is to provide a scheduling tool that will enable simulation like capabilities in a real-time production environment so unidentified work requirement impacts can be understood both in terms of delivery impacts and workforce costs including an easy to utilize graphical environment. The research will achieve this goal by: • Identify key requirements that impact workforce scheduling • Determine key "what-if" capabilities requirement needs to provide management necessary data for decision making • Catalog financial needs in terms of overtime, expediting costs, etc • Reduce time consuming nature of planning requirements to provide near real-time impacts of schedule changes to improve production level decision making • Minimize the variation of scheduling decisions with understood impacts both up and down stream within production Within DoD there is a huge opportunity to expand the impact of the research due to the long service hours and battle damage equipment and the unknown nature of the repairs because of the uneven service lives. Within the private sector, there is also a large opportunity due to the aging infrastructure within utilities such as electrical, gas, and water.

Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Michael Graul
AF121-213      Awarded: 6/1/2012
Title:Essential, Closed-Loop Planning, Scheduling, and Execution support tools (ECLiPSE)
Abstract: Knowledge Based Systems, Incorporated (KBSI), proposes to transform aircraft depot maintenance by providing Essential, Closed-Loop Planning, Scheduling, and Execution support tools -- ECLiPSE. ECLiPSE is comprised of the following elements: collaborative task planning (scripting) support; collaborative, simulation-based dispatch planning and scheduling; shop floor data capture and execution management support tools; back-shop support coordination and management support methods and tools; metrics designed as part of a comprehensive organizational architecture strategy, supporting enterprise performance optimization; and a clear way forward, leveraging upon the experience of Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) first line supervisors. The proposed effort addresses several critical voids in the depot MRO systems architecture that have heretofore been largely ignored. Among the innovations that are reflected in this approach are the following: recognition and clear articulation of critical differences in the depot MRO domain that dictate unique solutions; extensive reuse and leverage of previously developed sustainment technologies; application of both rule-based and discrete event simulation elements to support dynamic shop floor task planning and scheduling; robust characterization of the data, information, and knowledge elements needed to support shop floor event capture; and a strategy supporting the goal of depot transformation toward a responsive enterprise. BENEFIT: The proposed effort addresses several critical voids in the depot MRO systems architecture that have heretofore been largely ignored. Among the innovations that are reflected in this approach are the following: recognition and clear articulation of critical differences in the depot MRO domain that dictate unique solutions; extensive reuse and leverage of previously developed sustainment technologies; application of both rule-based and discrete event simulation elements to support dynamic shop floor task planning and scheduling; robust characterization of the data, information, and knowledge elements needed to support shop floor event capture; and a strategy supporting the goal of depot transformation toward a responsive enterprise.

American Science and Technology
1367 West Chicago Avenue
Chicago, IL 60642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 692-3800
Chris Mouw
AF121-214      Awarded: 6/26/2012
Title:Wireless Technology for Probes and Accessories for Nondestructive Inspection Testing Instruments
Abstract: In an effort to improve nondestructive inspections (NDI), American Science & Technology (AST) is developing wireless capability for specific pieces of NDI equipment in the areas of eddy current and ultrasonic technologies. Traditionally, this equipment requires a cable connection from the host controller to the handheld probe. AST’s work would develop an attachment for the host controller as well as for the probe which would simulate the communication process achieved through a direct cable connection. This project is unique from other wireless adapters in that it would be specifically engineered to work with NDI equipment. Specific circuitry to drive NDI probes, high-speed wireless communication between controller and host, and integrated impedance-matching hardware would all be incorporated to ensure the most accurate representation of wired communication. The major advantage to this system would be its ability to be incorporated into pre-existing equipment without the need for purchase of new, modified NDI equipment offering a cost-savings aspect over other approaches. BENEFIT: Wireless communication with the NDI equipment will result in eliminating the need to run NDI cables throughout an aircraft or engine; therefore, removing the possibility of the cables damaging the structure. This will also drastically improve NDI efficiencies by reducing inspection times. There will be no need for a technician to spend time running cables into tight and hazardous areas of an aircraft or engine. Third, a significant cost savings will occur since damaged cables will no longer need to be replaced. Furthermore, unlike the cables, the wireless communication device will be repairable should they become damaged. This technology will be easily transferrable to the airline industries where NDI is widely used. Locally, the technology can be applied to the Air National Guard fleet in Sioux Falls and to military aircraft stations at Ellsworth Air Force base in Rapid City, SD.

JENTEK Sensors, Inc.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Yanko Sheiretov
AF121-214      Awarded: 6/26/2012
Title:Wireless Eddy Current Testing Instrument
Abstract: Recent innovations in wireless communication protocols have made practical the implementation of a wireless parallel architecture impedance instrument capable of maintaining high data rates with many parallel channels. The motivation for this Phase I is to meet the needs of the Air Force for wireless instrumentation used in Nondestructive Inspections (NDI) by adding a wireless capability to JENTEK's GridStation Eddy Current testing technology. This effort will be coordinated with ongoing miniaturization and instrumentation development, demonstrating a high performance, multiple channel, wireless eddy current testing instrument for aircraft NDI. The instrument will support a wide range of applications including bolt-hole inspection, landing gear inspection, wide-area composite inspection, special coating characterization, and embedded sensors for fatigue and corrosion monitoring. In addition to improving system performance by eliminating cabling and associated cable noise, the wireless system will increase the inspector's efficiency and provide easier access for tight quarters and wide area inspections. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this Phase I SBIR will provide the Air Force with a powerful wireless inspection tool that can support a wide range of applications including bolt-hole inspection, landing gear inspection, wide-area composite inspection, special coating characterization, and embedded sensors for fatigue and corrosion monitoring. The new tool is expected to improve performance compared to existing implementations by virtue of eliminating all cabling and associated cable noise and the wireless operation will increase inspectors' efficiency, reducing time and cost of each inspection.

Aero Systems Engineering, Inc.
358 East Fillmore Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 220-1207
Peter Chu
AF121-215      Awarded: 6/11/2012
Title:Alternatives to Gold-Plate Engines for Test Cell Correlation
Abstract: The traditional approach to establishing test cell correlation factors is expensive and time consuming requiring multiple engine runs to establish a parametric database for comparison. While a complete alternative to this process, is unlikely, it is clear that there are procedures and tools that can be implemented to minimize the cost and expense of the actual correlation process. The objective is to identify and evaluate these concepts for possible integration into the correlation process. To aid the process of cell correlation work will focus on the one dimensional flow model which has been in continuous development over the last 30 years for use as a design verification tool. This model will be adapted for use in determining correlation values for existing test cells. A comparison of the analytically derived thrust correction factors can then be compared to actual factors established for those cells through the traditional methods. BENEFIT: A method of reliably predicting or monitoring test cell correlation factors, i.e. test cell health, is frequently discussed with commercial test cell owners. Owners and potential owners are very interested in reducing the financial risk associated with test cell correlation and re- correlation. A link between analytical test cell correlations and overall test cell health monitoring is envisioned to develop a performance predictor for both commercial and military markets. Overall, it is believed that strong market demand can be created for a product that demonstrates ability to improve operational efficiencies of engine test cell throughout the world.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Vladimir Gilman
AF121-218      Awarded: 7/23/2012
Title:Process Friendly Soap for Washdown of Work Areas Where Hexavalent Chrome Paints/Primers are Applied
Abstract: Exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) poses significant health risks to personnel involved in processing chromium containing materials. Therefore, thorough cleaning of residues of material containing Cr(VI) is extremely important. The soaps used currently to clean the areas contaminated with Cr(VI) negatively affect with processes of heavy metal recovery from washdown and waste waters. This is caused by competitive binding of the active soap ingredients to the heavy-metal ions; thus, the chelating agent and ion exchanges cannot react with the metal cations. In order to mitigate the problems created by the use of regular soaps, a designer soap, that is process friendly, allows complete removal of the Cr(VI) materials from contaminated surfaces, and does not reduce the efficiency of heavy metal collection from washdown and waste waters needs to be used is needed to be used in the designated work areas. In response to this problem, Infoscitex Corporation (IST) has developed a concept for a novel designer soap that will • Efficiently remove Cr(VI) contamination • Be inert towards recoverable heavy metal cations • Be environmentally friendly and inexpensive BENEFIT: Military Application: Most DoD paint/depaint operations run their waste water thru an industrial waste water treatment plant for treatment to remove regulated wastes. Each DoD facility would benefit from such a soap. Commercial Application: Commercial paint and depaint facilities could benefit from a designer soap that would not interfere with the treatment of metals at the industrial waste treatment facilities.

TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2357
C. Brian France
AF121-218      Awarded: 7/25/2012
Title:Air Force Designer Soap for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Abstract: Industrial cleaning operations produce waste streams that must be treated to remove toxic industrial contaminants such as dissolved heavy metals. Standard commercial cleaners are effective but contain chelating agents to help mitigate hard water scaling. These chelating agents are incompatible with industrial wastewater treatment processes because they the prevent recovery of dissolved heavy metals, demanding additional processing before the water can be discharged. The Air Force requires a cleaning product for industrial work surfaces that is compatible with the industrial wastewater treatment process. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) and our partners, with DoD support, have developed a surfactant blend for the routine cleaning and decontamination of military aircraft. Extensive tests have documented the product’s ability to clean surfaces loaded with grease and particulate soils. The surfactant blend has shown excellent materials compatibility and corrosion prevention performance. It has a long shelf life, heat and cold stability and is biodegradable. The product contains no chelating agents and preliminary testing has shown good compatibility with industrial wastewater treatment processes designed to remove dissolved heavy metals. During this Phase I effort, TDA Research proposes to test this surfactant blend in laboratory scale industrial wastewater treatment processes to assess its applicability as an effective industrial surface cleaning compound that is compatible with the wastewater treatment processes. If modifications to the formula are required, TDA and our team, as the original developers, have the expertise to reformulate for optimum performance. BENEFIT: Ongoing work on TDA’s surfactant blend is directed towards a dual purpose product, as a routine aircraft cleaning compound and a chemical and biological warfare decontaminant. A likely outcome of this project would be demonstration that the current formulation is equally effective for industrial cleaning processes, thus providing a single soap that can meet multiple DoD needs. Even if modifications are required it would result in a closely related family of soaps that could be used interchangeably if necessary but which were each optimized for different uses. Benefits to the government include simplified ordering, reduced stocking costs, simplified logistical demands, reduced overall government inventory and reducing costs of the cleaning compound through efficiencies of scale.

Cache Environmental Laboratories, P.C.
1405 Mount Logan Drive
Logan, UT 84321
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 994-0905
Michael McFarland, PE, BCEE
AF121-219      Awarded: 6/18/2012
Title:Chemical Treatment of Metal Finishing Industrial Wastes and Wastewaters in the Presence of Chelating Substances
Abstract: Regulated heavy metals are typically removed from industrial wastewater through a metal hydroxide precipitation and sedimentation process. Complicating the treatment of these waste streams is the presence of commingled chemicals such as detergents, surfactants and other chelating substances associated with the metal finishing and electroplating processes. During wastewater treatment, these chelating substances form highly stable complexes with heavy metals thus inhibiting them from being removed. Oxidation of chelating substances using a variety of strong chemical oxidants is a financially expensive and potentially hazardous approach used to overcome the negative effects of heavy metal complex formation. Development and implementation of innovative redox chemistry offers numerous advantages over chemical oxidation in treating industrial wastewater impacted by chelating substances. By completely eliminating the need to remove the chelating substances, the new redox chemistry method reduces both the chemical treatment costs as well as the capital costs associated with installation of unit operations required to support chemical oxidation. Moreover, with the reduction in chemical use, implementation of the new redox chemistry method significantly reduces the facility’s operations and maintenance costs as well as increasing the protection of worker health and safety from hazardous chemical exposure. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits in developing and implementing cutting edge redox chemistry for the treatment of industrial wastewaters impacted by chelating substances include the following: • The ability to consistently and reliably achieve legally enforceable wastewater discharge standards for heavy metal pollutants in the presence of strong chelating agents. • Reduction in wastewater treatment operation and maintenance costs needed to support chemical oxidation of chelating substances. • Reduction in wastewater treatment capital costs associated with installation of new physical unit operations and flow separation. • Increase in the protection of worker health and safety associated with hazardous chemical exposure. • Technology is completely compatible with current facility wastewater treatment operations and associated infrastructure.

METSS Corporation
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Kenneth J. Heater
AF121-219      Awarded: 6/22/2012
Title:Chemical Treatment of Metal Finishing Industrial Wastes and Wastewaters in the Presence of Chelating Substances
Abstract: The Hill AFB Industrial Water Treatment Plant typically uses metal hydroxide precipitation to remove heavy metals from the waste stream. However, there are numerous chemicals found in common cleaners and other products in the wastewater that interfere with the precipitation process, rendering it useless and putting the base in a position of violating its water discharge permit limits. The only current method to avoid this is to segregate the wastewater and undertake expensive and potentially dangerous secondary treatment. Under the proposed Phase I SBIR program, METSS intends to investigate both commercial and newly developed treatment technologies to remove the heavy metals even when in the presence of these interfering chemicals. Many of the technologies have already been proven to one degree or another in civilian applications. This approach will involve commercial industrial support and thus, if fully successful, provide an effective path to provide the product to the Air Force. BENEFIT: A treatment technique that works in the presence of interfering chemicals will lessen the likelihood of non-compliance with wastewater permits. In addition to wastewater treatment, the results of the proposed program could impact other industries (e.g., oil and gas) where treatment of hevay metal laden waters is of significant concern.

Caldera Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
278 DP Road, Suite D
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 661-2420
BENJAMIN
AF121-220      Awarded: 8/13/2012
Title:Physiological testing for Hexavalent Chrome exposure in the human body
Abstract: Caldera Pharmaceuticals proposes to develop physiologic biomarkers requested by the US Air Force to quantify workplace exposure to hexavalent chrome (Cr+6). Exposure to Cr+6 is dangerous and unwanted, because it is a primary carcinogen (class 1 International Agency for Research on Cancer / IARC) and a known lung cancer carcinogen. Chromium (Cr) exists in several valence states, the most prevalent states are hexavalent Cr (Cr+6, which is associated with industrial exposure and toxicity) and trivalent Cr (Cr+3, which is stable and a biologically active form). Cr+3 is an essential nutrient for humans and shortages may cause heart conditions and metabolic disruptions or diabetes; it is classified as IARC Group 3. Although a limited amount of Cr+3 is necessary, large amounts may be hazardous. Cr supplements are taken readily and are available as trivalent Cr in chloride (CrCl3) or picolinate (CrPic) salt forms, but associated health effects are unknown. If ingested in large amounts, both Cr+3 and +6 can cause gastrointestinal problems and ulcers, or kidney and liver damage. There are no physiologic biomarkers for exposure to Cr+6, especially those that differentiate between various Cr species in vivo. Caldera XRpro(R) Technology will be used to screen for Cr-selective biomarker aptamers. BENEFIT: Military personnel are an important cohort that is exposed to Cr+6; accurate and inexpensive biomarker assays developed in the project may also be used for mitigation of exposure effects to personnel, and environmental monitoring/abatement. These increase the commercial appeal of the products. XRpro® offers reagent availability and low cost that are key to the success of the products. Biomarker agents developed in Phase I have multiple usages including environmental monitoring and abatement, markers of exposure in vivo, therapeutic chelation of only dangerous metals, without harm to useful elements such as zinc and selenium. Drug and biomarker discovery/development costs are extremely expensive. The proposed project solves this problem by using low cost and better data acquisition methods provided by Caldera XRpro® screening. Library screening is less expensive and provides better, full elemental data, resulting in more available, stable, and effective formulation, selectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. Many cellular factors are regulated through variable phosphorylation, metallation, and glycosylation. XRpro® simultaneously assesses metal cofactors, collecting quantitative data on 24 elements such as sulfur (S, from peptides), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), etc. No other available technology screens for metal selectivity so rapidly.

Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South
College Station, TX 77845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 764-2200
Jinseong Kim
AF121-220      Awarded: 8/13/2012
Title:Label-free Immunoassay-Based Assessment for Chromate Exposure
Abstract: Several million workers worldwide are estimated to be exposed to chromium compounds. At present there is a medical test that can determine the total amount of chrome in the human body. There are no known physiological tests to determine the exposure of the human body to hexavalent chrome which is a human carcinogen and exposures are regulated by OSHA standard. Lynntech proposes (i) to determine physiological markers for exposure to hexavalent chrome, and (ii) to develop a physiological testing system to determine the exposure of human body to hexavalent chrome using innovative immunoassay platform technology. This system does not require interference-prone colorimetric device or labeling agents like chemiluminescence, fluorescence, nanoparticles, dyes, etc. In addition, the assay platform is simple and not labor intensive, thus, it can be modified to detect multiple antigens simultaneously. It is envisioned that entire system be automatically controlled. During the Phase I project Lynntech will establish the feasibility of the testing system determining the workplace exposure to chromate using biomarkers identified. BENEFIT: Lynntech’s physiological testing system quantifiably determining chromate exposure has significant dual use commercialization potential to the federal government and private industries. Military applications include determination of exposure of personnel to chromate and mitigation of exposure effects to personnel screening. Civilian applications include screening/confirmation of public & agricultural workers exposure to chromate.

Hal Technology, LLC
7970 Cherry Avenue, Suite 303
Fontana, CA 92336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 202-6205
Gregor Waldherr
AF121-222      Awarded: 3/26/2013
Title:Compact, dual-use, in-situ/remote coherent lidar system for real time measurement of aerosol emissions
Abstract: We propose a handheld, dual-use optical system that combines our high-precision optical particle analyzer and coherent lidar system. This system will be capable of real-time measurement of both local and standoff particle emissions with compliance to EPA standards. Our innovative in-situ optical sensor is capable of accurately measuring interrelated aerosol properties such as particle size, size distribution, and mass concentration while our miniature lidar sensor based on a unique heterodyne scheme can provide similar capabilities in remote detection. Both sensors will be fully integrated into a small package that is capable of making local and standoff PM measurement up to 300 meters. Both measurement methods, the optical particle sensor for PM measurements and lidar for opacity measurements from stationary sources, also have prior U.S. EPA approval. The technology developed by this proposal would significantly advance next-generation particle measurement instruments and achieve high accuracy and remote sensing capability. In Phase I, we will demonstrate feasibility of a compact sensor/system concept that is capable of measuring local and standoff particle emission in real time. In Phase II, we will develop and build a system prototype that will be ready for field operation assessment and data gathering for regulatory approval. BENEFIT: The technologies developed under this SBIR project could potentially lead to a compact, low- cost, dual-use sensor or system to measure higher accuracy local and remote air particles and PM emissions under regulatory standards. In addition, for military, industrial, and commercial applications, the sensor and system platform could also become other derivative standoff instruments such as LDV, laser range finder and wind meter. Extension of the technology could become commercially viable for other handheld or portable air pollution instrument including detection of chemical pollutants.

Physical Optics Corporation
Photonics Systems Division 1845 W. 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Sivanesan Ponniah
AF121-222      Awarded: 3/22/2013
Title:Handheld Size-Resolved Particulate Monitor
Abstract: To address the Air Force need for a low-cost real-time particulate-loading sensor technology, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Handheld Size- Resolved Particulate Monitor (HASPAM). This proposed technology is based on size separation of visible emissions particles in a micro-virtual impactor and real-time load measurement by integrated quartz crystal microbalance mass sensors. The innovative design of the multistage micro virtual impactor and the integration of quartz crystal microbalance sensors enable the HASPAM to measure size-selective mass concentration in real time. As a result, this technology offers the capability to provide data on the particulate size and mass of visible emissions in support of cost-effective air regulatory reporting, which directly addresses the Air Force objective. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of this technology by assembling a portable prototype using both custom-developed and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and conducting proof-of-concept experiments at a POC laboratory. The experimental validation will include particle characterization of visible emissions. In Phase II, POC plans to build a portable and field- deployable handheld prototype with remote operational capability and test its performance in characterizing airborne particulates. BENEFIT: In addition to air quality monitoring near DoD stationary and mobile visible emissions sources, the HASPAM technology can be used, with minor modifications, by the DoD for real-time monitoring of airborne chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosive (CBRNE) events. The HASPAM can be incorporated by other government agencies for detecting and monitoring indoor/outdoor air quality and airborne threats in strategic buildings and locales. Major commercial applications of HASPAM include use by manufacturing, agricultural, and other industries that generate visible emissions and are required to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air regulations. The HASPAM can also be used by environmental protection agencies to monitor the dispersion of harmful chemical and biological agents and dusts in the atmosphere. In situ measuring instruments are increasingly sought for the control and operation of chemical plants and coal power plants. The main advantages of the HASPAM over existing airborne particle analyzers include the simultaneous measurement of the size and mass of particles at a much lower cost. The proposed HASPAM, with minor modifications, will have other commercial applications, including terrorism-related chemical-agent monitoring and wastewater monitoring near chemical and biological waste disposal plants.

Chesapeake Technology International Corporation
44427 Airport Road, Suite 100
California, MD 20619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 322-9105
Eric Petersen
AF121-224      Awarded: 1/13/2013
Title:Common Global Information Grid Interface for Electronic Warfare systems
Abstract: Chesapeake Technology International’s (CTI’s) proposed solution for the Common Global Information Grid Interface for Electronic Warfare systems small business innovative research (SBIR) program provides a comprehensive Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) that will leverage the connectivity of the GIG to enable interoperability and collaboration between Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and authorized users. This SOA will provide a flexible, automatically reconfigurable architecture for the tasking, authorization, authentication, and Situational Awareness (SA) of EW systems. The solution will also provide a process for the incorporation of legacy systems into the SOA. This architecture will be used to develop a concept demonstration for Phase II that will assess of the feasibility of the system to operate in a real airborne EW environment. To provide this solution CTI will use its extensive EW experience to research and develop an innovative SOA and set of data schemas that are applicable to the widest possible classes of EW systems. CTI will also leverage our development of a similar SOA for the USMC Air Ground Task Force EW (MAGTF-EW) to provide lessons learned and ensure a robust architecture. BENEFIT: The use of a SOA to enable the connectivity of Air Force EW systems will provide many of the same benefits realized by the business IT community through its' widespread adoption of SOA concepts and practices. These include greater interoperability, increased re-use, more agile business processes, improved visibility, and reduced maintenance costs. In the Air Force EW domain, these benefits will translate to the ability for users to see and control a wider range of EW assets through the use of a common service provider and SA interface, providing for collaboration and enhancing effectiveness. The common service interface will also provide for the more effective use of existing assets through the use of service composition and decomposition and optimized routing services. The costs of integrating new and legacy systems into the network are also greatly reduced. While the specific data schemas developed for this SBIR may not be directly applicable to commercial applications, the technologies and architecture can be readily utilized to enhance existing and future commercial SOA applications. By incorporating new and innovative methods for handling the SOA in a transient heterogeneous network, many payload and sensor control and monitoring applications could be improved. Potential beneficiaries of this technology would be first responders and emergency personnel, law enforcement, border patrol, fishery and wildlife monitoring, and other military, defense, and commercial applications.

Cybernet Systems Corporation
3885 Research Park Dr
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Kevin Tang
AF121-225      Awarded: 1/31/2013
Title:Just In Time (JIT) Aircraft Maintenance System
Abstract: Inefficient handoffs and limited fault evaluation prevent the Air Force from achieving high daily rates of touch-labor maintenance and rapid return-to-service. We propose to research the best concepts in the commercial and military arenas to enhance existing aircraft maintenance capabilities, and develop the concept demonstration for an Automated Aircraft Maintenance Prediction System (AAMP). The AAMP system will be designed to (a) discover the relationships and dependencies of subsystem faults; (b) leverage the knowledge of these relationships to enable the detection of new faults; and ultimately (c) determine the recommended maintenance actions without crew debrief. The concept AAMP system will demonstrate the capacity to do the following: Analyze the current and historical data of C-130 aircraft health and maintenance records to learn the inter-relationships and nominal state. Perform root-cause analysis on system faults to detect future faults that require flight line maintenance. Employ an open architecture design for the interface between aircraft subsystems and the ground based databases to manage maintenance records. Incorporate wireless technology to automatically transmit aircraft data to the depot, so priority and sequence of maintenance actions will be scheduled prior to aircraft arrival. Utilize other existing computing and software technologies. BENEFIT: Besides flight light maintenance for the Air Force and commercial airlines, this technology has direct applications to other highly urgent line maintenance settings including ground combat vehicles. The AAMP system could be used to help insure the reliability of systems used on military vehicles and improve the performance of in-theater vehicle maintenance.

Williams-Pyro,Inc.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 870-1500
Eddie Hinojosa
AF121-225      Awarded: 1/31/2013
Title:Just In Time (JIT) Aircraft Maintenance System
Abstract: The Air Force’s High Velocity Maintenance (HVM) initiative aims to better emulate industry’s high daily rate of touch-labor maintenance and rapid return-to-service. One barrier to HVM is scheduling of the maintenance. Currently, once an aircraft arrives at the depot, it spends time in the maintenance queue waiting for the problem to be identified, which requires a crew debrief and manually downloading on-board fault identification data. Once the faulty subsystem is identified, the aircraft can then be routed to the appropriate repair station. Williams Pyro proposes a system that will constantly monitor the aircraft’s systems, store pertinent information, and allow for a quick, error free transfer to the service depot’s computer. The transfer will be done over a secure wireless connection when the aircraft is in range of the system’s wireless access points. Software running on the depot’s computer system will efficiently store current flight data and recommend maintenance or repairs. The software will also analyze historical data from multiple aircraft stored in its database and make suggestions on preventative maintenance and on part ordering, specifically parts with long lead times. The wireless communication, server software, and data mining algorithms all make up Williams-Pyro’s Maintenance and Repair Aircraft Diagnostic System (MaRADS). BENEFIT: The benefit to the MARADS system is that maintenance information is transmitted to the depot prior to the aircraft arriving. This allows the maintenance debrief to start earlier than the current method. Hangers can be assigned and people and the tools can be routed to the proper area. This speeds up the time the aircraft gets to the hanger and also minimizes down time of resources (people and tools). A less obvious benefit is the Maintenance and Repair Learning Algorithm (MaRLA) that takes historical data from all connected depot servers and determines preventative maintenance schedules, trends, and recommends repair and maintenance parts in anticipation of long lead time for delivery. This benefit allows the aircraft to remain in service for longer durations, to have shorter downtimes for maintenance, and to possibly have a longer lifespan. All these benefits lead to lowering the cost of total aircraft ownership. Potential commercial applications include: - The 250 existing C-130J aircraft plus 2000 other C-130 variants, with approximately 50% converted to the “J” spec. - Maintenance data collection and trending for the L-130J civilian version of the military C-

Advanced Rotorcraft Technology, Inc.
635 Vaqueros Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 523-5100
Hossein Saberi
AF121-226      Awarded: 1/14/2013
Title:Next Generation Aircraft Simulation Technology
Abstract: There is a need to utilize mobile computation devices to extend flight training from centralized facilities to remote field stations. Current limitations in the computational capabilities of mobile computing devices require that the software be partitioned between a more powerful centrally located host and the mobile computing devices. This requires simulation software that supports flight training applications to be modular and scalable to take advantage of a distributed architecture. Advanced Rotorcraft Technology,Inc.(ART) has pioneered the development of modular, scalable simulation software to support reconfigurable simulator applications. ART’s existing Boeing 737-800NG avionics training simulator can be adapted to utilizing a remote mobile computer for the instrument displays and pilot inputs, providing a convenient prototyping system to evaluate software and hardware architectures for mobile computer training applications in Phase I. A trainee at a remote facility with a mobile computing device can then select any display or switch panel from a cockpit overview and render a full size image on the touch screen to exercise procedural training with that display. In addition, ART’s authoring tool supports embedding interactive displays and switches with the training tutorial, allowing a remote student access to interactive training from a tutorial on the mobile computing device. Under Phase I, potential architectures for a variety of training applications for mobile computing devices will be examined, including weapon system training, maintenance training, and collective mission training using a distributed simulation communications protocol. BENEFIT: Extending effective training simulation to mobile computing devices can tremendously expedite training, allowing centrally located computers and instructors to support students in the field with a mobile computing device. ART can provide a central computing facility for downloading required applications to support the training exercises. Simulation software can be purchased, leased, or accessed on a “time-required” basis as a business model. The modular, scalable design of the simulation software will also enable the configuration of multiple mobile devices into training devices with varying levels of sophistication to support a wide range of training applications.

Information Systems Laboratories, Inc.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 647-0036
Jameson Bergin
AF121-227      Awarded: 12/26/2012
Title:Common Operational Specific Emitter Identification (SEI) functionality for sustained Electronic Warfare (EW) systems
Abstract: The global proliferation of modern “digital” radar systems has resulted in a two-pronged crisis for traditional electronic intelligence (ELINT) emitter identification (ID) methods: (1) the sheer increase in radio frequency (RF) emitters sharing similar characteristics and of course spectrum and (2) ever increasing digitization of radar front-ends including solid state transmitters, digital arbitrary waveform generators (DAWGS), and active electronically scanned arrays (AESAs). The former exacerbates the need for higher precision SEI while the latter unfortunately makes it much more difficult to accomplish reliable SEI using classical methods. Under this SBIR program ISL will develop new SEI techniques that overcome these problems and provide the Air Force with a capability to engage emerging emitter threats in complex RF environments. BENEFIT: The proposed SBIR program will provide the Air Force with the capability to identify and engage emerging advanced digital radar systems in complex RF environments.

Research Associates of Syracuse
111 Dart Circle
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 339-4800
Brian Moore
AF121-227      Awarded: 12/26/2012
Title:Common Operational Specific Emitter Identification (SEI) functionality for sustained Electronic Warfare (EW) systems
Abstract: This SBIR develops and evaluates innovative Specific Emitter Feature (SEF) techniques using multiple algorithms for “Operational Specific Emitter Identification (SEI)”, aka Specific Emitter Tracking (SET) or Combat Identification (CID), to provide a common functionality for sustained Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The effort leverages RAS multi-technique extraction and fusion algorithms addressing modern emitters and the Multi-Technique SEI Test-bed (FPGAs and C/C++) developed for AFRL. In Phase I, existing and new government and RAS concepts are investigated and performance assessed in resolving ambiguities among emitters of the same type operating at the same RF, Mode and “beam”. Automatic, adaptive feature extraction, match algorithm selection, and provisional library updates minimize operator interaction and provide high confidence reports. Representative, stressing conventional, very narrow, long pulse width and intentionally modulated signals are investigated and characterized. A demonstration concept for assessing the feasibility of implementing SEI technology into current EW systems is formulated. In Phase II an SEI/SEF enhanced subsystem prototype is developed, integrated with a candidate EW system, and demonstrated in a laboratory environment using real-world emitter data to show increased identification performance. After Phase II, RAS will work with platform primes and the government to provide a technology demonstration on an operational tactical platform. BENEFIT: The key benefit provided to the government by this SBIR is improved situational awareness, thereby providing enhanced survivability, of which several cases can envisioned. Examples include ambiguity resolution between emitters of the same type at the same RF, PW and PRI; enhanced threat warning and self-protection against radar-guided airborne and ground- based threats; reduction in lost and fragmented tracks; friendly signal interference recognition and mitigation; proper correlation of RF agile emitters; and proper assessment of raid count thereby providing more efficient allocation of resources to counter the threat. Other possible benefits include tracking specific platforms suspected of carrying contraband, WMD or supporting GWOT, enhanced spectrum management, identifying particular platforms (air and surface) from day-to-day in theater enhancing real-time EOB and PIN update accuracy, and finally in supporting kill removal, damage assessment and EOB updates when a particular signal is no longer observed over time. Improved Emitter ID is obtained with the proposed approach as automatic intentional modulation on pulse (IMOP)

Compass Technology Group
4790 Converse Ct
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 461-9654
Kathleen Cummings Maloney
AF121C-123      Awarded: 5/7/2012
Title:Microwave Mapping-Transparency Sensor System
Abstract: Compass Technology Group (CTG) proposes to develop a new concept in microwave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in support of the Air Force’s requirement for transparent conductive canopy coating testing. The offered design specifically addresses the need for high-fidelity measurements of defects in aircraft windows in both manufacturing and in- service (depot and field) environments. This recommended concept can be easily automated while still providing improved sensitivity over a broad frequency range when compared to existing measurement methods. The research program will investigate a modified free-space method that leverages recent near-field probe and free-space materials measurement technology. Full-wave computational modeling will be used to refine the measurement architecture during phase I, and computational-based antenna optimization methods will be used to design the probe configuration to maximize both bandwidth and probe efficiency. Unlike recent resonant probe designs, the proposed CTG solution uses wide-band antenna technology for optimal sensitivity without sacrificing bandwidth. Additionally, the proposed common architecture will be ideally suited for use in both manufacturing environments where quality assurance measurements are needed, as well as in depot or field environments (e.g. on installed cockpit canopies) where installed performance and damage assessment is the desired quantity. BENEFIT: If successful, this program will fulfill a critical Air Force need in manufacturing and maintenance of the next generation of conductive transparency systems. Such a development could also strongly impact other DoD services as well, since conductive windows and canopies exist across numerous platforms. Furthermore, other materials in use on DoD platforms require QA methodologies during manufacture, so the technology developed in this effort could very well be adapted to other similar materials manufacturing efforts for edge treatments and coatings on these vehicles. In Phase I, the proposed approach is intended to result in a viable design that meets the desired technical specifications for enhancing canopy and window performance while minimizing replacement rates and ultimately platform maintenance costs. The computational modeling tools and experimental demonstrations that will be applied by the Compass team will establish at a high level of fidelity, the feasibility of our proposed approach.

PaneraTech
2295 Village Crossing Road Ste 302
Falls Church, VA 22043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 429-1208
Yakup Bayram
AF121C-123      Awarded: 5/29/2012
Title:Transparency Sensor System (TSS)
Abstract: PaneraTech proposes a holistic approach to develop two different Transparency Sensor Systems for use in manufacturing line/Egress shops and in depot/field. Primary objective of the Manufacturing TSS is to extract surface resistance over the entire surface of the transparency to determine whether they have required minimum amount of conductive coating. On the other hand, the field/depot TSS aims to detect degradation in the conductive layer, scratches/cracks/nicks and pinholes on the transparency coating layer and assess their impact on the aircraft shielding performance. PaneraTech partnered with two premier research organizations, a major transparency manufacturer and an airframe integrator to jointly develop this technology and successfully transition to the market. BENEFIT: TSS sensor has tremendous applications in both military and commercial markets. This project will develop a sensor system that can significantly reduce number of rejects to the airframe manufacturers thus reduce delays and program costs. Field/depot sensor can quickly detect flaws on the transparency while on the aircraft and determine proper course of action. This significantly improves mission performance because this will eliminate any risk for compromised aircraft shielding performance. This technology also offers significant benefit to commercial airliners as they can also detect any damage to windshields and take necessary precautions to avoid any adverse interference to the on-board electronics due to compromised shielding performance of the windshields.

Etegent Technologies, LTD
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Thomas Sharp
AF121C-125      Awarded: 6/8/2012
Title:Inlet and Exhaust Damage Registration Sensor
Abstract: The US Air Force is continuously challenged with developing capabilities to quickly and effectively assess damage inflicted on aircraft during routine training, combat, and maintenance activities. Demanding operational tempos require near real-time assessment of the aircraft’s operational status. End-of-day and end-of-week inspections are utilized to log new damages and defects on the aircraft exterior surfaces and to determine their impact to the operational status of the aircraft. This is important for identifying damage to both the aircraft structure and non-structural coatings. This proposal will build on Etegent’s experience and success developing and deploying structural damage mapping systems for the Navy and will apply this experience to non-structural coating damage mapping situations. BENEFIT: The goal of the automated damage registration system is to reduce inspection time and to improve accuracy over the current baseline trace and transfer approach. Reductions in inspection time lines will benefit the US Air Force by reducing Direct Maintenance Man- Hours per Flight Hour (DMMH/FH), ultimately reducing the overall lifecycle maintenance costs.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4252
David Handelman
AF121C-125      Awarded: 7/11/2012
Title:AUTO-SCAN: Inlet and Exhaust Damage Registration Sensor
Abstract: Current methods for inspecting aircraft engine inlet and exhaust cavities are labor intensive and error prone. Airmen crawl into ducts looking for defects, trace suspected sites on Mylar sheets noting their position relative to cavity features, and manually enter the data into an aircraft assessment system. Technology that can reduce inspection times and eliminate sources of human error will benefit the Air Force by significantly increasing aircraft reliability and availability while reducing lifecycle maintenance costs. To address this critical need, Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to develop AUTO-SCAN, a damage registration sensor that will automatically detect, characterize and register defects in the aircraft coordinate system. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the AUTO-SCAN concept through the design, development and testing of a Phase I prototype. Phase II will develop the AUTO-SCAN system to TRL/MRL 7 maturity and integrate it with current aircraft health assessment systems. BENEFIT: The key advantage of the proposed sensor is to automate the process of defect detection and analysis to decrease inspection time, improve accuracy and eliminate sources of human error. This inspection technology will benefit the Air Force by significantly increasing aircraft reliability and availability while reducing lifecycle maintenance costs.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 558-1668
Evan Lally
AF121C-125      Awarded: 6/1/2012
Title:Self-Referenced 3D Coating Inspector for Aircraft Engine Inlets/Exhausts
Abstract: Ensuring the safe and optimal operation of high-performance fighter aircraft is vital to the U.S. Air Force. Necessary maintenance includes inspection of engine inlets and exhausts for coating damage and defects that may compromise safety and optimal operation of the aircraft. Evaluating and logging details of the damaged areas is currently labor intensive and highly reliant on the performance of human inspectors. An automatic inspection system could reduce the time and increase the accuracy of damage characterization and registration, but the lack of recognizable features in engine cavities poses a potential detriment to any automatic system that relies on stiching of individual images or measurements to determine defect position. Luna Innovations proposes to design, build and test a self-referenced surface damage characterization and registration system for high- performance aircraft engine inlet and exhaust cavities. Through a unique combination of 3D surface mapping and Luna’s patented fiber optic shape and position sensing technology, the proposed 3D coating inspector can locate, characterize, and automatically log the absolute position of surface defects in three dimensions. Integration of Luna’s shape and position sensing fiber into a tethered inspection vehicle enables the system to make accurate absolute position measurements without relying on image stitching. BENEFIT: Luna’s proposed self-referenced 3D coating inspection system has the potential to transform aircraft maintenance and inspection procedures across the U.S. Air Force’s entire fleet of high-performance fighter aircraft, ultimately improving safety and efficiency. Automated inspection, characterization, and logging of damage on critical components will allow aircraft operators to maintain more accurate, detailed maintenance models while reducing the amount of time and effort spent collecting data. Additional military applications include Naval and Marine aircraft, and international platforms, such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. Successful development may eventually result in the demand for multiple automated inspection systems at major domestic and international Air Force bases, Naval airfields, and aircraft carriers. Luna has identified a number of additional applications in which the proposed technology can be adapted to meet civilian commercial and security needs. A remote inspection vehicle with 3D mapping and self-localization capabilities could prove valuable in mining and energy exploration, search and rescue, and counterterrorism applications.