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445 Phase I Selections from the 13.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Arian Lalezari
AF131-001      Awarded: 6/11/2013
Title:Conformal Antenna Technology for Improved Signal Intelligence (SIGINT)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As the need for new airborne RF sensing capability grows, Air Force warfighters are increasingly interested in employing conformal antennas to their aircraft. Because conformal antennas minimize the impact to the flight performance of aircraft, they offer the possibility to install a greater number of antennas, or larger antennas, than conventional airborne antennas, which – in turn – enables increased sensor performance (e.g. bandwidth, gain, etc.). In order to enable tactical SIGINT exploitation of traditional and non-traditional signals of interest (NTSOI) on existing aircraft in a practical manner, FIRST RF proposes a suite of antennas designed to provide broadband coverage while simultaneously maintaining a conformal form-factor. The proposed approach leverages conformal antenna technologies already successfully demonstrated for a variety of applications, including broadband synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and body-worn direction finding (DF), to provide exceptional broadband RF performance. These proven antenna technologies use broadband loading techniques as well as novel materials currently under development by FIRST RF to deliver a conformal package requiring minimal aircraft modification during installation on existing aircraft. Combining these proven technologies with low-cost and lightweight surface treatments provides a low-risk path to realizing program goals, with long-term potential for reuse of antennas for multifunction applications, including transmit functions. BENEFIT: Although FIRST RF’s proposed approach focuses on antennas suited for low-profile receive-only applications like SIGINT, these antennas also have the potential to provide support of more comprehensive receive functions (like direction finding and geolocation). These technologies also begin to enable a path towards the support of a variety of transmit functions, including communications, radar, and even electronic warfare. With these potential benefits, the applicability of this technology extends beyond the scope of conformal airborne antennas, and has other military applications, including ground vehicles, fixed-site installations, and even dismounted personnel. Furthermore, these capabilities have direct relevance to a variety of commercial applications, including commercial wireless networks and even consumer electronics. First and foremost, FIRST RF looks forward to working with Air Force to explore the applicability of this technology to the near-term need for conformal airborne RF sensors.

Judd Strategic Technologies, LLC
2255 Ridge Road Suite 302D
Rockwall, TX 75087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 771-0166
Mano Judd
AF131-001      Awarded: 7/2/2013
Title:Conformal Antenna Technology for Improved Signal Intelligence (SIGINT)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Judd Strategic Technologies proposes to design, select, and demonstrate conformal antenna concepts and geometries that will enable tactical SIGINT exploitation of traditional and non-traditional signals of interest (“NTSOI”) for threat detection, avoidance, and targeting on the C-130. We will first identify and specify potential conformal antenna installation locations on the AC/MC-130Js. This objective will include identifying a number of possible areas and solutions for antenna placement and metal component replacement to facilitate the use of conformal loadbearing antennas (“CLAS” antennas). This will be followed by identifying and specifying relevant system components necessary to achieve high DF performance on the C-130 – such as receiver, processor, RF cable types, and navigation system, and predicting antenna performance as installed on the AC/MC- 130Js. Finally, we will identify SIGINT solutions for other platforms such as C-17, P-8, using the design results of the C-130 solution, including analyzing and highlighting structural and performance constraints to enable similar DF/SIGINT performance on other platforms, such as the C-17, P-8, and the RC-135 (Rivet Joint). BENEFIT: The primary anticipated benefit is improved SIGINT on legacy manned airborne platforms. The program aims to produce a technology and methodologies that provide low cost SIGINT capabilities on existing platforms.

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 891-2814
JAY KUDVA
AF131-001      Awarded: 6/10/2013
Title:Conformal Antennas for Improved Signal Intelligence
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Most modern military aircraft (F-22, F-35, B-2 and others) have integrated conformal antennas, resulting in significant system level benefits. On legacy aircraft such as the C-130 and its various versions, incorporation of conformal antennas pose special challenges, since the structural and material designs are fixed and only minimal changes can be made in terms of design modifications and retro-fitting. However the payoffs are significant; in fact the usefulness of older legacy aircraft will be severely limited unless new antennas are included to detect new threats, particular at lower frequencies – there is a dire need to develop and implement conformal antennas on aircraft such as the AC/MC-130Js to enable tactical operations. The goal of this SBIR is to develop conformal antennas which can be retrofitted on the AC/MC-130J. The frequency range of interest is 10 MHZ to 6 GHZ. Building on prior designs developed for the Comanche, F-18, and Basset UAVs, in Phase I we will develop structural excited antenna designs, identify potential installation locations, and validate performance by breadboard testing and simulation. In Phase II the design will be matured and performance validated by scale-model testing. Additionally, retrofit costs will be estimated and steps for retrofitting will be defined. BENEFIT: As antenna technology has improved over the years, and there are more sensors and RF signals in the modern battlefield, additional antennas are a necessity for any older aircraft vehicle currently in use. Even for modern variants of legacy vehicles there can be significant improvements in the SIGINT capabilities down to 10 MHz. Use of structural excitation CLAs antennas can provide vehicles the capability to detect, locate, and target threats in a frequency domain not envisioned when the vehicles were built. The proposed antenna elements will provide these capabilities covering both traditional and non-traditional signals of interest with a simple retrofit design, that has the potential to also improve the aerodynamics of the vehicle.

AYCN LLC
1644 Clay Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 964-9956
David Nixon
AF131-002      Awarded: 6/10/2013
Title:Aerospace Systems Efficiency Improvements for Legacy Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The expense in operating legacy aircraft is reduced if the aerodynamic performance can be improved. Many of these aircraft were designed before modern prediction methods and flow controls were available and it is probable that operating costs could be reduced if recent advances were used. Since a complete redesign is out of the question, the issue is whether relatively minor, and inexpensive, changes to the airframe might be advantageous. Since there might be a large range of design options that could affect the performance in an operational setting, the exercise is akin to conceptual design; many design options must be ranked. Any aerodynamic prediction must be computationally fast and accurate and, while classic panel methods meet these criteria, they are restricted to situations where potential flow is valid. This prevents application to many flow controls which may initiate a rotational, non-isentropic flow, possibly with energy addition. A recently developed theory allows the Navier Stoke equations to be written in a form similar to the classic panel method formulation. The proposed research will use this formulation to develop an extended panel method that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of flow control and other strategies to improve operational performance. BENEFIT: A successful research program will lead to the development of an advanced panel method that can represent much more complex aerodynamics, including flow controls, that are beyond the capabilities of current formulations. The resulting software will be of great benefit to the government (especially the Air Force) and all industries that need rapid estimation of aerodynamic forces; application include aircraft, ships, submarines, automobiles, wind energy.

Clear Science Corp.
PO Box 233 663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 844-9171
Henry A. Carlson
AF131-003      Awarded: 9/17/2013
Title:Evaluation of Unsteady Loading on Store Trajectories
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop and demonstrate accurate and computationally efficient analysis software for computing aircraft store trajectories and quantifying the risk of trajectory deviations resulting from unsteady flow in the weapons bay. The software will include physics-based, reduced-order models that predict six-degrees-of-freedom aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the store with hook ups to the Flowfield Influence Prediction Trajectory Generation Program (FLIP 4) and statistical analysis algorithms. The goal is more accurate evaluations of new aircraft/store configurations with quick turnaround times that account for all of the relevant aerodynamics including sensitivities to initial conditions (store release times) resulting from unsteadiness in the surrounding flow. These unsteady effects become more likely with gravity-dropped, lighter stores, and the likelihood of negative consequences increases in weapons that are designed for agility (neutrally stable or even unstable missile airframes). Negative consequences include collisions between the store and aircraft—either inside the bay or outside as a result of store orientation prior to firing. Targeted applications extend from initial screenings early in the weapon design and aircraft integration planning processes to final stores certification. In Phase I, the technology will be developed and validated using high-fidelity data for relevant aircraft-store configurations. BENEFIT: The commercial product to be developed is engineering software for analyzing store separation. The technology bridges the gap between comprehensive but lower-fidelity design tools that rely on simplified and/or empirical aerodynamic models and high-fidelity CFD models that are restrictive because of high computational overhead. Benefits include more reliable weapon systems with increased range, standoff distance and kill probability. The technology will reduce the risk of accidents in military aircraft, protecting crews and assets. Commercial opportunities for the store-separation analysis tool exist with military aircraft and missile manufacturers including Raytheon, Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, and Northrop Grumman. Customers also include U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Army engineers responsible for aircraft stores certification. Non-military applications range from airborne weather sensor deployment to cargo extraction on aircraft involved in search and rescue operations. Applications of the modeling technology extend from aerodynamics and store separation to structural mechanics, aero-acoustics, and guidance, navigation, and control in fixed-wing aircraft, rotorcraft, and launch vehicles.

Kord Technologies, Inc.
1101 McMurtrie Drive NW Building A
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 527-9148
Robert Tramel
AF131-003      Awarded: 9/12/2013
Title:Engineering Software for the Evaluation of Unsteady Loading on Store Trajectories
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop and demonstrate a rapid store trajectory analysis tool that uses pre- computed, highly-resolved Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data which has been compressed and stored in an easily reusable and distributable format. The tool will rapidly determine store+bay configurations that display large sensitivity to flow unsteadiness. The technique makes maximum re-use of high-fidelity CFD modeling by storing unsteady bay flow fields using efficient Proper Orthogonal Decomposition based compression techniques, and allows these data compressed flows to be shared and re-used over and over again for fast trajectory fly-outs using existing store trajectory software tools. The database will be adapted for use with engineering force estimation methodologies, such as the Multiple Distributed Airloads model as well as reduced domain unsteady CFD solver based methodologies and will be integrated with the FLIP 4 store-separation trajectory simulation code. This tool will be demonstrated by rapidly performing Monte Carlo type simulations using large numbers of store fly-outs, each starting at different times of the unsteady cavity flow library. In Phase II a master control/scheduler will be developed to run each trajectory on separate processors on DOD HPC resources and produce trajectory statistics, plots and animations from these runs BENEFIT: The schemes and software developed in this effort has applications to a variety of fields including aero-optics, flow control, combustion modeling and biomechanics. It will also be useful to many other areas where the interaction of unsteady flows with objects are important such as weather sensor deployment, relief-aid drops and search and rescue airdrops.

M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 981-7797
Kevin Roughen
AF131-003      Awarded: 8/21/2013
Title:Evaluation of Unsteady Loading on Store Trajectories
Abstract:ABSTRACT: M4 Engineering proposes to develop methods for rapidly identifying store/aircraft configurations at elevated risk for adverse separation events. The methods developed will require from the user only data that is typically available prior to detailed influence load collection. One of the approaches will make use of independent parametric information for the store, bay, and ejector. enhance the Phase I method for predicting store trajectory response subject to unsteady aerodynamic loads. The techniques developed in this effort will complement existing methods by prioritizing cases for investigation with more computationally expensive test and analysis methods. BENEFIT: M4 Engineering currently offers the Rapid Unsteady Store Analysis Tool to address the demand for a store separation analysis tool that considers unsteady aerodynamic effects. This software has been delivered to the Air Force Seek Eagle Office (AFSEO) for use on a demonstration basis. While ongoing discussions with the Air Force program customers reinforce the likelihood of this transition path the method contained in RUSAT represents a significant increase in the data collection effort relative to a standard store certification analysis. The methods presented in this proposal will address that issue by requiring substantially reduced data collection. The software product developed in this effort will augment the higher fidelity and more resource intense offering in the current RUSAT software product. The proposed effort will create a tool that will allow prediction of store separation performance with significantly reduced resource allocation in order to avoid unpleasant “surprises” during vehicle development and testing. Satisfying this existing demand provides a tremendous commercial potential for the developed software tool.

ATA Engineering, Inc
11995 El Camino Real Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-1116
Eric Blades
AF131-004      Awarded: 6/25/2013
Title:Aerodynamic Analysis of Deployed Bay Doors on Modern High-Speed Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR program seeks to more accurately evaluate the unsteady aerodynamics on the weapons bay door due to the weapons bay, transient surface motions, and fluid-structure interaction. The goal of the program is to develop a methodology that will allow the unsteady aerodynamic loads on deployed aircraft bay doors to be evaluated early in the design process such that designs can be optimized to avoid aeroelastic instabilities or fatigue induced failures. The program will leverage methods previously developed by ATA that facilitate fully- coupled, unsteady fluid-structure interaction simulation of flexible structures exposed to subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flows. The program will take a building block approach to gradually add complexity to the simulation of the deployed bay door, beginning with rigid CFD analyses at selected flight conditions and advancing to static and then dynamic fully- coupled FSI analysis by the end of Phase I. The methodology will be validated using flight test data and will lay the foundation for development of a unified capability in Phase II that can analyze a analyze a dynamic store separation with a fully flexible door undergoing cycling and predict sonic fatigue, buffet, limit cycle oscillation, and flutter. BENEFIT: The methods and tools that will be developed under this SBIR can directly impact the design of a variety of geometrically complex hardware that is deployed into, or otherwise exposed to, high speed, turbulent flow over a range of flight conditions and must be capable of surviving the harsh unsteady loads that result from that environment. This includes design optimization of weapons bay doors, landing gear doors, external fuel pods, attachment hardware for wing and fuselage weapons, control surfaces for supersonic and hypersonic vehicles, etc. The methods will allow engineers to accurately predict the dynamic response of these structures under the unsteady fluid dynamic loads and design them so as to avoid sonic fatigue, buffet, limit cycle oscillation, and flutter. The methods can also be applied to more general applications that benefit other industries. These industries may include the commercial aerospace, space, maritime, and automotive industries where the tools can be used, for example, to create optimal designs for any surfaces and/or cavities exposed to high-speed fluid flows.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4997
Robert Harris
AF131-004      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:High-Fidelity Analysis of Deployed Bay Doors on Modern High-Speed Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Unsteady aerodynamic loading and flow separation on modern high speed aircraft weapons bay doors can excite aircraft structural modes and lead to buffet, flutter, or fatigue-induced failures. Rigorous numerical simulations, wind tunnel and flight tests are typically carried out to investigate the aerodynamic loading on the doors, but analyses often only consider steady loads on rigid doors and neglect transient and aeroelastic effects. Higher fidelity multidisciplinary analysis tools are critically needed to better understand and characterize the effects of unsteady loads and to design measures for mitigating buffet, flutter, and fatigue. This SBIR project will deliver breakthrough technologies to significantly improve predictive capabilities. Hybrid RANS/LES methods with low-dissipation schemes and tightly- coupled fluid-structure interaction will be used for weapons bay flow simulation including unsteady loading and structural response. The proposed research enables: (1) Improved fidelity and multidisciplinary analysis; (2) Greatly reduced numerical dissipation; and (3) Improved acoustics modeling for weapons bay tonal content. The merits of the proposed approach will be investigated and demonstrated in Phase I for benchmark weapons bay problems. Limited wind tunnel tests will be conducted for computational model validations. In Phase II, a comprehensive experimental program will be executed, and the simulation capabilities will be refined and validated against experimental data and realistic targeted applications. BENEFIT: The proposed computational and experimental effort will provide a much needed high-fidelity prediction tool for low-dissipation aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction applications of high-speed aircraft over wide range of loading frequencies. This technology has immense potential in military and commercial aircraft sectors. Direct applications of this technology are in low-speed landing gear and speed brakes systems as well as high-speed weapons bay doors systems and for developing protocols for munitions delivery to achieve the desired impact. Other applications may include instrumentation cavities, control surfaces motion, and other moving parts. The proposed effort will have significant impact on improving reliability and safety procedures of weapons bay designs of tactical aircraft and will reduce dependence on flight and wind tunnel tests.

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Neeraj Sinha
AF131-004      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Aerodynamic Analysis of Deployed Bay Doors on Modern High-Speed Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This program will address the need for a cost effective way to evaluate unsteady aerodynamic loading on deployed aircraft bay doors so as to allow aircraft designers to evaluate/include them in the early design process. As part of it, we will conduct a wind tunnel demonstration of a “retrofittable” bay door that is integrated with an array of dynamic pressure transducers in order to quantify the unsteady surface loading on it. The door is part of an existing sub-scale weapons bay model representative of the Joint Strike Fighter. In Phase I, the unsteady loading on the doors due to different door scheduling configurations and that due to a store separation event will be studied, but Phase II will extend the mapping to door cycling events and also include structural response studies using Finite-element-modeling (FEM) software such as ABAQUS. The Phase I computational effort will perform simulations of the “empty” weapons bay in various configurations and compare/validate the results using the available experimental data. The proposed hardware and knowledge base will be developed with a “realistic” goal of eventual integration and use by existing air platforms such as the F- 35/Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and J-UCAS. BENEFIT: The proposed program is of direct relevance to the U.S Air Force and its prime contractors responsible for the design of weapons bay doors. The successful measurement and utilization of the unsteady loading data on the bay doors will significantly impact the design cycle via the identification of dangerous tones and undesirable flow field patterns that could trigger large amplitude vibrations in the structure that could lead to fatigue and failure. Details of the dynamic response of a structure to this unsteady loading data on it can be incorporated in to the design process at an early stage and thus help in the design of “better” doors. Also risk assessment studies on varying the door geometry, structure, or any flow control strategy can be easily evaluated using the easily retrofittable design of the weapons bay model. This will be particularly appealing to the U.S Air Force as it can facilitate a “quick” scoping out of the design modifications without full-scale, prototype implementation. This would result in significant cost savings to the U.S Government. At the conclusion of the SBIR effort, the commercialization strategy for CRAFT Tech would involve providing support to the Air Force and its prime contractors in the use of this weapons bay model that will form a test bed for design support as well as for potentially scoping out design modifications. Bay doors are of interest also in wheel wells of aircraft where landing gear is present and this presents an additional avenue for commercialization of the SBIR technology.

Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Todd R. Quackenbush
AF131-005      Awarded: 6/13/2013
Title:Aircraft Conceptual Design Capability with Fast, High-Order Aeromechanics Models
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Requirements for enhanced cruise efficiency and reduced noise for future Air Force mobility transports can be met using advanced propeller and propfan technology. However, identifying designs that balance performance and acoustics requirements for multiple flight conditions poses a serious analytical challenge, given structural constraints, weight considerations, and drivetrain interactions. Supporting conceptual and preliminary designs thus requires fast-turnaround models appropriate for analysis of a wide design and operational space without sacrificing physical fidelity. A first step in addressing this need involves development of a multidisciplinary design environment that captures key aerodynamic and acoustic interactions, building on the demonstrated capabilities of the CDI CHARM model in proprotor and propeller design. This model can capture complex unsteady interactions of multiple propellers and airframe components and includes a validated noise prediction capability. Extensions of this model for propellers in transonic flight and their integration with current-generation sizing and design tools will lay the foundation for a design capability that can address key performance and acoustics metrics. Phase I will demonstrate optimization of propeller performance subject to noise constraints in multiple flight conditions while incorporating realistic wing and airframe interference, laying the groundwork for a more general multidisciplinary model in Phase II. BENEFIT: Potential Air Force Applications Immediate applications of the projected technology will be the ability to refine designs of propeller systems for retrofit to current generation aircraft. Maximum impact will occur, however, with the application of the projected tools to design of new mobility platforms, including the Advanced Theater Transport that can enhance Air Force transport capabilities. Potential Civil Applications Increased fuel costs have revived interest in applications of advanced turboprop and open rotor designs in recent years. Acoustics goals to satisfy current and projected civil aviation noise standards are stringent, however; thus, the potential market for a high-fidelity, fast- turnaround propeller design optimization analysis is considerable if coupled to a validated acoustic prediction capability.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 795-4463
Peter Chen
AF131-005      Awarded: 6/25/2013
Title:Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Advanced Propulsion Systems (MDO-APS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this effort, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) in collaboration with the Stanford University proposes to develop a novel tool for advanced propulsion system design, in particular the open rotor system. The novel design architecture is an enhancement of the Collaborative Optimization technique. It allows discrete design choices and leverages on Variable Complexity Optimization to perform high-fidelity designs at moderate costs. The study of advanced propulsion systems is multidisciplinary in nature due to the aerodynamics, structures, acoustics and propulsion system coupling together, and recently there has been an emphasis on multi-design-point optimization. These are readily handled by the architecture. Moreover, since it becomes important to study the propulsion system design in context of the airplane (with the airframe integration an important challenge), such a design/analysis technology will be particularly useful. The architecture is completely modular in nature leveraging on our expertise in modeling and simulation and agent based systems, and allows any analysis code to be used for the different disciplines. The result of this study will help us understand the benefits of using open rotor technology compared to state of the art engines, and whether change of aircraft design itself will be required to realize the potential of such concepts. BENEFIT: The result of this proposed program is a design tool for advanced propulsion system design for use in all types of aircraft, including compound aircraft and civilian platforms, leading to improved performance and efficient operation across the vehicle performance envelope. The trade study conducted in this effort will also enable to make informed decisions about the feasibility of advanced propeller and open rotor designs which will be particularly beneficial to the airline as well as engine industry.

M4 Engineering, Inc.
4020 Long Beach Blvd
Long Beach, CA 90807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 981-7797
Tyler Winter
AF131-005      Awarded: 6/13/2013
Title:Innovative Propeller Multi-Point Multi-Disciplinary Optimization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal effort seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of developing and integrating a set of analysis modules into a multidisciplinary analysis and optimization (MDAO) process in order to enhance propeller design and efficiency across a range of multi-point flight conditions. Emphasis will be placed on defining the interdisciplinary interactions and corresponding effects on overall propeller efficiency. Next, each of the analysis modules will be validated against simulated or experimental data. A modern propeller configuration will be selected as the base demonstration application and will be optimized and assessed against current state-of-the-art propeller performance. Lastly, the software developed within this effort will leverage M4 Engineering’s significant experience with MDAO as well as several robust, open-source tools. BENEFIT: Potential applications will include the use of the developed software with any complex integrated system containing propellers/open-rotors. Generic to any system containing propellers/open-rotors, the developed software could be utilized by commercial companies such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Michael DeVore
AF131-006      Awarded: 8/5/2013
Title:Methodology and Tools for Certifying Autonomous, Cyber-Physical Systems-of-Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Barron Associates, together with subcontractor Rockwell Collins, propose to develop a new class of design and analysis tool that will significantly reduce the time and costs associated with V&V of complex cyber-physical systems-of-systems, and that will pave the way to certification of systems that were previously too complex to rigorously certify. The focus of this tool is on explicitly modeling and verifying the behavioral and interaction characteristics of all system components, and propagating them through successively higher levels of integration to uncover undesirable emergent behaviors that can appear anywhere within the larger system. The approach is based on an extension of the “design for verification” paradigm but applied in a multidisciplinary engineering setting, with detailed analyses of both the cyber and physical natures of the system. We will demonstrate the capabilities of this new tool on a realistic problem involving the design of autonomous multi-UAV systems within the context of a larger systems-of-systems application. The proposed team will take advantage of Barron Associates’ expertise in SysML, multidisciplinary engineering analysis, uncertainty propagation, and design of multi-UAV control software. It will also leverage extensive experience at Rockwell Collins in the use of formal methods for large, complex industrial applications. BENEFIT: The proposed effort will open up new opportunities for providing enhanced, advanced verification tools for cyber-physical systems-of-systems. By partnering with Rockwell Collins, the result of this SBIR effort and follow-on developments should be a powerful analysis tool that combines Barron Associates’ developed technologies with Rockwell Collins own suite of proven formal methods software tools. With recent wide interest in cyber-physical systems, potential commercial applications should increase significantly in the coming years in areas such as (1) future combat systems, (2) complex missions for unmanned air systems (e.g. AAR or terrain mapping), (3) NextGen air traffic management and autonomous operations, (4) internet networks, (5) power grids, (6) automotive and other complex machinery development, and (7) a number of industrial applications, such as autonomous manufacturing plants and automated warehousing management.

Dependable Computing LLC
2120 North Pantops Drive
Charlottesville, VA 22911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 962-7201
M. Anthony Aiello
AF131-006      Awarded: 8/5/2013
Title:Model-Based Compositional Reasoning for Complex Systems of Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed research will develop a technique to enable compositional reasoning about complex systems of systems. The core of the approach is to enhance a system modeling language with sufficient formalism to enable such reasoning at both the system and system- of-systems levels. The enhancements that will be developed are in three major areas: (1) a novel real-world type system and associated type-checking mechanism that will allow real- world attributes to be associated with the types of entities in system models, (2) rigorous specification of subsystem and system properties using pre- and post-conditions, (3) synthesis of system-of-system specifications from the specification of subsystem and system properties using specification-extraction technology, and (4) proofs of properties of system- of-system specifications using a theorem-proving system. BENEFIT: There is extensive potential for the application of the technology that will result from this research in many DoD and non-DoD applications. Complex systems of systems arise in many domains including: manned aircraft, unmanned air systems, medical devices, rail and other surface transport systems, nuclear power systems, weapons systems, and networked information systems. Development and demonstration of the technology within this project will provide an effective and efficient mechanism for reducing the risk of adoption of the technology in relevant domains. We will lever our relationships with industry and regulatory authorities to promote the application of the technology developed under the proposed effort by: (a) using the results developed under this effort as examples for others to examine, (b) adapting the results to illustrate the potential to engineers and managers who indicate interest in the technology, and (c) seeking development contracts to exploit the technology for new customers.

Vecna Technologies Inc.
6404 Ivy Lane Suite 500
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 864-0636
Andreas Hofmann
AF131-006      Awarded: 9/5/2013
Title:System of Systems (SoS) Certification Techniques
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Deployment of interesting autonomous capabilities has been hindered by the difficulty of validating and verifying such systems. Vecna will address this challenging problem by investigating and developing four key desirable characteristics of such systems: that they be declarative, generative, self-aware, and prescient. Declarative means that behavior is defined by declarative constraints, rather than by procedural code. Generative means that the system is built from separately validated components that interact within an inferencing environment to produce behavior. Self-aware means that the system is aware of its own internal state, including the functional status of its components. Prescient means that the system is able to predict the chances of success of a particular course of action. These characteristics, combined, have the potential to dramatically improve V & V for complex autonomous systems. Vecna will leverage significant, recent advances in the field of model-based autonomy to develop prototypes of systems with these characteristics. In order to ground the analysis, Vecna will use its own robotic systems, QCBot and RPR, as testbeds for evaluating the technology. QCBot is a hospital delivery robot, and RPR is used in warehouse logistics applications. BENEFIT: The technology proposed is useful to a broad range of government and commercial applications consisting of extensively networked automated systems comprised of many interconnected discrete deployments of software and hardware. Using this technology, customers will be able to monitor automated system components and diagnose component faults and failures, test systems for proper behaviors, upgrade individual components and verify uninterrupted performance, and optimize system parameters. For commercial markets, clear applications include: power grids and energy delivery infrastructure; cooperative teams of robots in healthcare and logistics; "smart" buildings with automated climate and electrical system control; and public infrastructure like sewage/water treatment and traffic control systems. Government applications include: coordinated unmanned robotic teams for aerial and ground reconnaissance, shipbuilding and painting, EOD disposal, and logistics/resupply/materials handling; automated airborne refueling control systems; automated weapons platforms; aerospace vehicles; and distributed command/control systems.

Environetix Technologies Corporation
20 Godfrey Drive
Orono, ME 04473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 866-6551
Donald McCann
AF131-007      Awarded: 8/22/2013
Title:Strain Measurement System for Operation in Extreme Environments
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. Air Force has a critical need for new robust strain sensors capable of accurately measuring the strain of structural components in high temperature harsh environment applications. During Phase I, Environetix will leverage extensive experience in wireless high temperature sensor materials, devices, packaging, and data acquisition, to develop and lab- test a prototype surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensor. The technology uses licensed, patented SAW devices fabricated using stable high-temperature films, LGS substrates, and proprietary sensor attachment methodology. Environetix will perform extensive testing and evaluation during Phase I, using numerous first generation prototype sensors to investigate current limits of LGS SAW strain sensor technology, and then develop a next generation prototype LGS SAW sensor design to optimize strain sensitivity, accuracy, and dynamic range. Preliminary sensor packaging will be designed and tested with sensor attachment to candidate high-temperature metals and ceramics. A complete sensor prototype including a LGS SAW strain sensor, sensor packaging, and attachment will be fabricated, and calibration protocols will be developed. Feasibility of Environetix’s LGS SAW strain sensors will be demonstrated by testing in laboratory furnaces up to 1600°F (870°C) to obtain data for sensor performance characteristics including reliability, accuracy, resolution, dynamic range, and response time. BENEFIT: Environetix will adapt the commercialization strategy used for its initial commercially available product, the EVHT-100 Wireless High Temperature Sensor System, to demonstrate, commercialize and deploy a LGS surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) strain sensor system. The strategy involves developing several generations of prototype sensor devices and making them available to the Air Force to validate advanced structural concepts and technologies for hypersonic flight applications. It is anticipated that successful strain sensor technology demonstrations during later stages of Phase II will lead to license agreements between Environetix Technologies Corporation and several key aerospace structure OEMs, turbine engine OEMs. Environetix will deliver initial quantities of sensor systems to the Air Force, and will interact with supply manufacturers to deliver sensors in production-scale quantities to meet USAF needs. The Environetix strain sensor system will provide data that has far-reaching benefits for the USAF including allowing increased thrust-to-weight ratios, decreased fuel consumption and engine validation costs, and material data that could be used by life prediction models for better component health management practices. In addition, OEMs will use this technology for aero-frame, turbine engine and material development, since it provides sensing data not yet available to the industry. The importance of this enabling technology goes beyond DoD applications, and will quickly find its way into the commercial aerospace industry, turbine engine testing industry, power industry, and several industrial control processes that operate in harsh environment conditions.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 558-1696
Matthew Davis
AF131-007      Awarded: 7/15/2013
Title:Extreme Environment Stress and Strain Sensing System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Luna Innovations Incorporated is proposing to develop an extreme environment stress and strain measurement system capable of operating at temperatures >900ºC (1652ºF) and streaming static and dynamic data at 5kHz. The system will consist of a multichannel readout system, extreme environment transducers, and different, but easily applied, methods of attachment for a metallic and a composite substrate. Accurate high temperature strain measurements are critical in the development and characterization of modern aerospace materials and validation of vehicle and component performance models. These models are used in determining design parameters and material selection for high speed flight vehicles and component life prediction. Without accurate strain data in the presence of both high temperatures and large loads, the safety and reliability of the system can be placed in jeopardy. Currently there are no methods capable of accurately providing such data. During Phase I Luna will design and demonstrate the feasibility of a prototype readout system and sensors. During Phase II the system will be optimized to meet the performance requirements needed for the Air Force and a prototype delivered for testing. Phase III will transition the technology to the Air Force and commercial industry through Luna’s Product Development Division. BENEFIT: The proposed system will meet the Air Force’s needs for an extreme environment strain measurement system capable of providing accurate static and dynamic data at high speeds. Other agencies such as NASA, DARPA, and the Navy which are performing research on extreme environment materials and systems will also benefit from the technology developed during this program. The system and sensors will enable high temperature, extreme load data to be taken in the presence of high electro-magnetic fields to verify turbine and scramjet engine performance, composite heat shield material characterizations, and airframe dynamic response. These capabilities will also make the system desirable to airframe and engine OEM’s to enable performance monitoring and qualification testing which will improve the safety and reliability of commercial transportation. In addition to safety improvements through improved material selection and design, the system will enable structural health monitoring and the collection of remaining useful life data which will reduce maintenance overall ownership costs of commercial transports. Once the technology has been transitioned to the Air Force, Luna will work with commercial partners to complete civilian qualifications and begin marketing the technology for commercial applications.

Prime Photonics, LC
1116 South Main Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 808-4671
Russell May
AF131-007      Awarded: 8/9/2013
Title:High-Temperature Strain Gage for Static and Dynamic Tests
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Characterization of the mechanical properties and performance of advanced structural materials at high temperatures is critically important for the development of materials that will enable the next generation of military aircraft, including hypersonic vehicles. Instrumentation that can survive the high temperature environment while delivering accurate measurements reliably is needed to support validation of new materials such as high-temperature intermetallics and composites. Prime Photonics, teaming with researchers at Virginia Tech, proposes to develop a new, robust fiber optic strain gage system capable of accurate strain measurements under both dynamic and static loading of test samples at high temperatures. A novel glass system will be used to manufacture the strain gages so that they can withstand higher strain levels than fused silica, up to 20,000 microstrain. In addition, an interrogator (signal conditioner) based on a new optical architecture will be developed to enable the use of the fiber optic strain gage for both static tests and dynamic tests with strain rates exceeding 1000 microstrain per millisecond. BENEFIT: The initial target product application for the proposed high temperature fiber optic strain gage will be for high temperature materials and structures testing, marketed to DoD and NASA, university and commercial laboratories. Beyond fiber sensor applications, the novel low modulus glass system will be marketed for specialty optical and electrical insulator applications. Additionally, the novel static/dynamic Fabry-Perot interrogator will have widespread sensing applications including temperature, pressure, and vibration measurements and will be marketed by Prime Photonics as part of the existing VectorLight product line. During the Phase I, Prime Photonics will work closely with US Air Force stakeholders and company commercial contacts to identify candidate applications and candidate acquisition programs and transition partners. Prime Photonics will utilize existing contacts within the military and commercial gas turbine engine community to identify and develop transition targets and business plan for the high temperature strain gage and dynamic/static interrogator products.

Compass Systems, Inc.
21471 Great Mills Road
Lexington Park, MD 20653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 737-4640
Bill Dunkin
AF131-008      Awarded: 6/11/2013
Title:Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Postern Sense and Avoid (SAA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR pursues and identifies approaches to achieving postern (rear-looking) sense and avoid (SAA) for remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). After idenfiying and assessing the approaches, this effort develops the most promising and commercially viable candidate. The effort concludes with a demonstration of performance and capability in a relevant environment. BENEFIT: This technology can potential increase aircraft and UAV safety from a sense and avoid scenario. Further, a proven system will accelerate UAV integraiton into the U.S. National Air Space and globally.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Ofir Garcia-Salazar
AF131-008      Awarded: 9/4/2013
Title:Sense-and-Avoid Postern Insect Eye/Neuromorphic Sensor System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Addressing the Air Force’s need for a rear-looking sense-and-avoid (SAA) system enabling remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) to perform real-time reporting of mid-air-collision (MAC) threats, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new SAA Postern Insect Eye/Neuromorphic (SAPIEN) sensor system. SAPIEN is an electro-optical sensor for non- cooperative SAA based on the unique combination of multi-aperture superposition compound eyes with a high-sensitivity, compact IR laser ranger, photo-detector array, and a custom algorithm to detect and locate obstacles with high angular resolution. The innovative use of multi-aperture infrared signal data processing will enable SAPIEN to warn of impending MACs. The result is a commercially viable design in the postern field of view providing detection, localization independent of forward looking SAA, airframe vibration and exhaust hindering mitigation, collision hazard recognition, attitude, heading, airspeed estimation, timed warning, day/night operation while minimizing cost, size, weight, and power of Group 2-4 RPA. In Phase I, POC will identify and determine requirements, candidate architecture, equipment and components. Feasibility will be established through modeling and simulation and laboratory prototype testing. In Phase II, POC plans to finalize the SAPIEN architecture, validate models, and mature algorithms prior to fabricating and testing a prototype SAPIEN system in a relevant environment. BENEFIT: Recent (1991-2000) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) statistics indicate that most (80%) mid-air collisions (MACs) occur when one aircraft overtakes another from the rear hemisphere (postern collision). Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs) are no longer limited to intelligence and military operations outside FAA regulated airspace. Unmanned aircraft are making their way into commercial arenas like aerial photography, land surveying, and crop monitoring. Additionally, RPAs fly slower, and MACs are expected to rise. When the regulations governing UAV flight in National Airspace (NAS) are in place in 2015, the demand for reliable autonomous postern see-and-avoid systems will surge. Because of its compact size, lightweight, and low cost, the SAPIEN system can be installed in small, remotely controlled aerial vehicles for applications such as police surveillance and traffic control. Its low cost will also make it suitable for collision avoidance in automobiles and boats.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Vijay Venkataraman
AF131-008      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:A Visual Perception System for Postern Sense and Avoid
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Mid-air collisions (MAC) in manned aircrafts primarily occur when one aircraft overtakes another. In the case of remotely piloted aircrafts (RPA), their small size, slower cruise speeds and climb rates exacerbate the probability of their involvement in a MAC. Therefore, there exists a need for a postern sense and avoid (SAA) capability that will enable RPAs to maneuver away from the path of an intruding aircraft approaching from the rear. UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC) proposes to develop a high resolution color EO sensor based visual perception system for detection, alerting and avoidance of postern air traffic. Sensor placement on the RPA will be determined by considering trade-offs between minimizing: 1) the field of view obstruction by the airframe, 2) effects of airframe vibration, and 3) occlusion of air traffic by engine exhaust. The system will perform robust detection and tracking of air traffic, passive ranging to estimate range and range rates, predict impending collisions, issue collision alerts to postern air traffic and if necessary, execute avoidance maneuvers. The algorithms will be run on COTS massively-parallel computing subsystems to facilitate the use of multiple visual sensors and will be designed to meet the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) constraints of RPAs. BENEFIT: UtopiaCompression's (UC) passive color EO sensor based postern sense and avoid system can enable the national airspace integration of group 2 to 4 UAS by providing an effective solution to mitigate the risk of MAC from overtaking aircraft. Specifically, for non-cooperative UAS, a passive system that meets the SWaP constraints can provide a rear view mirror capability to detect, alert and avoid air traffic from behind. For cooperative UAS, the proposed passive system can augment on-board active systems by providing postern data at higher resolutions (frame rates and bearing angle resolution). Additionally, the same system can be used on-board cooperative and non-cooperative piloted aircraft to trigger an alert for overtaking traffic. Finally, UC envisions the adoption of a successful SAA capability as a pilot advisory system by the commercial aviation industry. Such a capability, that can detect collisions over a much larger volume of sky than a human and is never distracted, will improve pilot situation awareness and therefore, safety of the flight. Raytheon will support the transition effort of UC’s passive postern SAA technology into their future remotely piloted platforms. UC will work with Raytheon to transition the proposed postern SAA for the UAS programs by inserting the technology into the existing SAA transition plan being executed by Raytheon. The UC team will maximize the likelihood of successful transition by working closely with Government stakeholders throughout the program process. Beyond military applications, the UC team believes that critical traction is being gained through the efforts of this SBIR program in a primary market with broad economic potential - the UAS market. The combination of UC's postern SAA system, Sense

Beck Engineering
1490 Lumsden Road
Port Orchard, WA 98367
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 876-9710
Douglas S. Beck
AF131-009      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:High-Efficiency Waste Heat Removal System (WHRS) for Low-Observable Heat Rejection from Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop for the Air Force a high-efficiency Waste Heat Removal System (WHRS) that removes large amounts of waste heat from aircraft with negligible impacts on signature and aerodynamic performance. Our WHRS absorbs heat from aircraft thermal loads, including a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that absorbs and stores heat from the cooling system of a High Energy Laser (HEL). Our WHRS consumes no electrical power, so our WHRS adds no additional electrical loads to aircraft generators. Our WHRS requires no heat exchangers to reject heat, so our WHRS has negligible impacts on signature and aerodynamic performance. In Phase I, we will generate a preliminary design of our WHRS and project its performance. In Phase II, we will build and demonstrate a subscale prototype WHRS. In Phase III, we will demonstrate our prototype WHRS on a compatible aircraft with a suitable directed energy system or surrogate heat source. BENEFIT: Our high-efficiency Waste Heat Removal System (WHRS) is attractive for rejecting heat from aircraft heat loads, including waste heat from the cooling systems of High Energy Lasers (HELs). Our WHRS is also attractive for rejecting heat from condensers of VCSs on Air Force tactical aircraft and for similar applications on commercial aircraft. Our WHRS is also an attractive alternative to VCSs for Air Force tactical aircraft and commercial aircraft, because our WHRS is compact and lightweight, and our WHRS requires no heat exchangers to reject heat to the ambient environment.

SPIRITECH Advanced Products, Inc.
731 N US Highway 1 Suite 1
Tequesta, FL 33469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Eric Gamble
AF131-009      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Low-Observable Heat Rejection from Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: An innovative approach for removing low-quality (<40C) waste heat generated by directed energy and other electrically based technologies from aircraft is proposed. The proposed innovation removes heat from air platforms in a manner that will allow the system to meet size, weight, and power constraints and not significantly impact survivability or aerodynamic performance. This is accomplished through use of a gas expansion process powered by the low pressure third stream flow of an advanced, three stream engine. By expanding the third stream flow, its temperature is reduced to a level that accommodates removal of low quality heat. This innovation provides a low pressure source for expanding the third stream air to maximize its ability to absorb heat. Performance losses are minimized by introducing the expanded air into the exhaust nozzle to generate thrust. Preliminary assessment indicates that steady-state heat removal in excess of 100kW is attainable with this system. Coordination with OEMs will ensure that the resulting system meets Power and Thermal Management System (PTMS) requirements for 5th and 6th generation fighters. BENEFIT: This SBIR effort (Phase I and II) will result in the development and implementation of a heat rejection system capable of removing large, low quality thermal loads applicable to fighter, bomber, and gunship platforms. Work being conducted for the JSF (F-35) in the JAETMIS and AETD programs is exploring use of advanced, variable three stream engines in later production blocks, providing an excellent opportunity for integrating this heat rejection system within future blocks of the JSF. The heat rejection system also provides a potential thermal management solution for other aircraft, such as Small, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUASs), and Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs). This provides an important contribution as an enabling technology for achieving the thermal management goals of the DoD.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
James Gorman
AF131-009      Awarded: 10/22/2013
Title:High Z-Conductivity Composite Structures for Low-Observable Aircraft Heat Rejection (1001-951)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Triton Systems Inc., in combination with our partner Northrop-Grumman Corporation proposes to develop a high performance composite heat exchanger system that can be integrated into airframe structures of unmanned and manned systems to provide thermal management for aircraft systems and/or mission payload. The key ingredient of the composite heat exchanger is a novel technique for piercing 2-D composite laminate with ultra-high thermal conductivity rods and/or fins, allowing the construction of sandwich or cellular constructions having internal and external fins for efficient heat transfer to and from the working fluid. For the airborne laser application, two distinct configurations are proposed: 1) a flush mounted sandwich heat exchanger, in which a large array of pins penetrate the outer skin and intrude into the working fluid channels to efficiently pull heat from the fluid to the airframe skin, and 2) a set of surface mounted vanes in a surrounding duct, where the vanes communicate thermally with high conductivity pins immersed in the heat exchanger working fluid. During the Phase I effort up to six trial heat exchanger panels will be evaluated in a wind tunnel, with the best configuration reproduced in a prototype test article representing the key features of the aircraft installation. BENEFIT: The basic development proposed is a greatly improved fluid:air or air:air heat exchanger, fabricated from ultra high conductivity composite materials and would therefore be immune to corrosion degradation. The basic airframe thermal management concept could be applied to battery cooling systems for electric and/or hybrid vehicles, as well as high performance internal combustion engine cooling, replacing conventional brazed copper tubing/fin radiators. The rapid pace of automotive high performance/extreme fuel economy internal combustion engine development provides an excellent opportunity for commercialization of high performance thermal management systems such as is proposed here.

Imaging Systems Technology
4750 W. Bancroft
Toledo, OH 43615
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 536-5741
Lee Cross
AF131-010      Awarded: 9/27/2013
Title:Transient Electromagnetic Simulator for EMP Survivability Analysis of Packaged Electronic Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This project advances the fundamental design practices (e.g., electromagnetic compatibility countermeasures in designing electronic systems in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces) with a strong potential for breaking the barriers in terms of computer aided design (CAD) simulation accuracies and capabilities. It furthers the art of exploiting available engineering knowledge for simplifying electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) simulation. Ultimately, the proposed research aims to develop, implement and test a unified platform which includes new hybrid methodologies and schemes based on surrogate models (e.g., artificial neural networks, ANNs) and statistical models combined with stand-alone solvers in an integrated fashion to solve problems of higher complexity and to enhanced high power electromagnetic pulses/electromagnetic compatibility (HPEMP/EMC) analysis. The development of surrogate and statistical models is necessary to mimic the behavior of complex HPEMP scenario. Such models bridge the gap between the experimental and the analytical expectations. BENEFIT: IST will commercialize the proposed modeling methodologies through the sale and support of the envisioned approaches as an HPEMP/EMI/EMC software package interface compatible with the existing CAD tools. The developed methodologies will support IST’s ongoing internal and previously DoD-funded research on plasma-based HPM/EMP structures. Furthermore, it supports UT’s research objectives on developing efficient large EM structure analysis and complex board-level simulation methodologies. IST, Inc. has a history of successfully developing and commercializing innovative technologies. Over its 13 year history, the team at IST has designed, developed, and deployed several commercial electronic products including automotive test systems, image processing boards, and a family of large area touch screens.

Stellar Science Ltd Co
6565 Americas Parkway NE, Suite 725
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(877) 763-8268
John McIver
AF131-010      Awarded: 9/27/2013
Title:Computer-aided Design (CAD) Tool for Modeling of High-Power Electromagnetic Interference (HPEMI) Effects on Conductive Paths
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Data integrity is essential for accurate and deterministic decision making in diverse military and commercial digital systems, and the most common cause of electronic data corruption for many of these systems is electromagnetic interference (EMI). Unexpected and unmitigated EMI, especially from high power systems (HPEMI) can cause deleterious effects ranging from subtly incorrect calculations to catastrophic systems failures. To reduce overall design cost due to re-spins, design tools are required to support EMI/HPEMI immunity studies at the initial stages of the design. We propose to develop the first flexible, fast multi-transmission line (MTL) simulation and analysis tool to model the effect of HPEMI in standard circuit simulation tools, and perform this analysis within a graphical computer- aided design (CAD) tool to provide near-real-time interactive EMI feedback during the design process. Coupling fast MTL analysis tools with an interactive graphical interface will reduce the time spent in design while increasing the overall accuracy of the resulting model. BENEFIT: This project will develop a fast high power electromagnetic interference (HPEMI) multi- transmission line (MTL) simulator with a seamless interface to the Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE). The system will include a computer-aided design (CAD) interface capable of editing the design’s mechanical properties and displaying simulation results in near real time. This tool will benefit the military by enabling accurate prediction of EMI/HPEMI effects on foreign or domestic electronics systems, and will benefit military as well as civilian system designers by guiding them to appropriate levels of shielding and protection to avoid undesired EMI/HPEMI effects. Having an interactive design tool to predict effects in near real time will shorten development times and reduce the costs of the resulting systems.

TechFlow, Inc.
2155 Louisiana Blvd., NE Suite 4200
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 903-6847
Walter Clover
AF131-010      Awarded: 9/27/2013
Title:Transient Electromagnetic Simulator for EMP Survivability Analysis of Packaged Electronic Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: High-power electromagnetic (HPEM) interference can disrupt normal operation of aircraft electronic systems and cause mission abort or even endanger the crew. HPEM energy couples into these systems mostly through the conductors in the power distribution network (PDN) of packaged chipsets. This process needs to be better understood. Modeling and simulation (M&S) of the HPEM interaction with the PDN is needed to identify problem areas through sensitivity studies, and to evaluate possible solutions. Multi-conductor transmission line (MTL) simulations can model this process. Simulation inputs include the circuit geometry, so the tool interface must be computer-aided design (CAD)-based to represent the system geometry in three dimensions. The TechFlow Scientific team has an extensive background in HPEM effects on electronics, from hardware testing to M&S. We have experience with each step of the solution, including the circuit layout, CAD interfaces, transient MTL simulation, and HPEM coupling to electronics. We also have experience using, integrating, and augmenting the specific tools we plan to use in the solution. We understand HPEM interference and are at the forefront of research into how it causes effects. We will leverage this solid background to develop a CAD-based transient MTL simulation tool for modeling HPEM interactions with the PDN. BENEFIT: The completion of this software will be of great benefit to the whole of the HPEM directed energy (DE) community, in that it will help us better understand the HPEM interactions with IC chipsets that lead to HPEMI on electronic systems, currently the least-understood part of the problem. The Joint Radio-frequency Effectiveness Model (JREM) software is a mature tool that has been through a formal Verification and Validation (V&V) process. It models RF propagation very well, and uses either the DREAM tool or empirical data to represent the effect on target systems. The overall JREM tool will benefit greatly from the availability of a transient MTL simulator and automated connection to SPICE modeling to calculate the interactions with more fidelity, leading to a better understanding of HPEMI, weapon lethality, and system vulnerability. Military agencies will be interested to use the comprehensive HPEMI analysis tool to do system designs of packaged electronics with reduced HPEMI susceptibilities, provide analysis of possible effects. The tool will also be of interest to the commercial space industry to provide HPEMI susceptibility analysis for their systems. The widespread current need for this kind of software tool, and the even greater future need, make the probability of success in this venture very high.

nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Bldg E
Vancouver, WA 98665
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 566-4460
Kirk Price
AF131-011      Awarded: 9/25/2013
Title:Multi-kW Fiber Lasers Based on Novel Light Guide Combiners
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The efficient coherent beam combination of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system requires a reduction in non-linearities of the power amplifier sections. Fiber non- linearities, such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), provide an upper limit on the operating power of kW-class fiber laser systems. These non-linear effects can be reduced with the use of short fiber lengths, which requires high brightness pump sources and efficient pump/signal combination methods. Wavelength stabilized 976 nm pump sources allow for maximum pump absorption and reduced quantum defect, improving performance and stable operation over a wide range of temperatures. Such advances are required to enable field-able directed energy weapons. To achieve these goals, nLIGHT proposes the development of a novel “Light Guide” combiner that results in minimal pump brightness loss and minimal power loss, enabling high power CW fiber lasers for DE applications. A key design aspect for these kW-class fiber laser amplifiers for directed energy applications is the reliability, robustness, and manufacturability of the pump/signal combiner as well as the fiber amplifier system. This SBIR proposal addresses this need by providing a pump/signal combiner that optimizes the brightness preservation of the pump lasers. A unique feature of this combiner is that it enables the use of robust glass-clad fiber, thereby addressing the most common source of fiber failure in high-power fiber laser systems. BENEFIT: nLIGHT is actively pursuing kW class CW fiber lasers, which will also be based on its advanced fiber technologies. This direction of research will enable improvements in nLIGHT’s understanding of handling high average powers in fiber lasers, which will ultimately tie to power scaling as well. Commercial roadmaps also call for further improvements in the output power and beam quality of nLIGHT’s commercial products, pushing towards multi-kW CW fiber lasers. The advanced fiber combiners developed under this effort will enable CW fiber lasers to be co-propagation and counter-propagation pumping of CW fiber lasers, improving the output power and beam quality achievable before the onset of nonlinear effects such as SRS. Finally, fiber architectures and knowledge gained in the pursuit of this effort will inform the ability to design similar fibers based on dopants other than Yb. Such fibers, based on Er or Tm dopants will allow CW fiber laser systems at wavelengths in the eye-safe regime, which are of potentially great commercial utility as well as having clear applicability in ranging and other applications of interest to the Air Force.

Optical Engines Inc
842 S Sierra Madre St STE D
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(815) 383-8303
Donald SIPES
AF131-011      Awarded: 9/26/2013
Title:Mode Adapting Etched Air Taper Fiber Optic Pump Combiner
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Etched Air Taper Combiner as fist proposed by the US Air Force Academy has the advantages in that the input fiber bundle, the combining section, and the output to the gain fiber can be individually improved and optimized and then the components are spliced together to create the finished device. Pump efficiencies of over 96% and power handling capabilities of 1.5kW have been demonstrated as well as both co and counter pumped designs. When the input and output signal core fibers are the same a 99% signal core efficiency has been demonstrated. The problem arises when transitioning from a LMA SIF type fiber to a PCF type fiber involving large core transition. Past efforts have relied on a step transition between the two fibers. In this proposal a continuous mode adapter between a 20um LMA fiber and a 40um PCF core will be developed and demonstrated. In the Phase 2 program this mode adapter will be built into a multiple copies of a finished high power, ruggedized combiner for delivery to the Air Force for integration and testing. BENEFIT: To enable the development of MOPA based directed energy systems by providing low loss fiber optic pump combiners with optical signal feed throughput that allow for the low loss, low scatter transition from LMA to PCF type fibers.

SUB-MICRON ENGINEERING CORP
P.O. BOX 509
MARLBORO, NJ 07746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 881-4211
Eric Mies
AF131-011      Awarded: 10/1/2013
Title:Fiber Optic Amplifier Pump Combiners with Signal Feed Throughput
Abstract:ABSTRACT: For this SBIR topic, we have proposed a novel high-power optical fiber pump combiner design that addresses the specific challenges associated with counter-pumping large- mode-area (LMA) double-clad gain fibers. Based on modeling and design optimization, we will fabricate kilowatt capable power combiner prototypes for pump coupling to double-clad Yb-doped polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber. We will characterize the prototype feed- though combiners using both axial refractive index profiling and a newly developed fiber- mode-analysis (FMA) measurement technique. This characterization will be used to determine the signal loss and modal transformation through the device. These unique characterization techniques will be used to fully understand and optimize the design and manufacturing processes for this new class of high-power feed-through pump combiners. BENEFIT: The successful completion of Phase I will validate the proposed novel design concept for high-power feed-though pump combiners. It will also establish unique characterization techniques that can be used in a subsequent Phase II effort that will optimize and develop the design and manufacturing methods required for reliable deployment in future military and commercial applications. High-power, feed-though fiber combiners are a critical enabling technology for the implementation of advanced multi-kilowatt fiber laser systems, for which there are numerous military and commercial applications.

Translume
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 528-6337
Ali Said
AF131-011      Awarded: 11/5/2013
Title:Micromachined Fused Silica Pump Combiners with Signal Feed Throughput
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to fabricate a high performance signal and pump combiner for high-power fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers. We will use advanced glass micromachining processes that will alleviate the fabrication challenges associated with either tapered fused fiber couplers or side-pumped fused coupler. A central robust fused silica structure will be micromachined. The pumps and signal fiber will be inserted in precision-machined pockets found in that structure. This will provide for a very accurate way of positioning the various fibers relative to each other. The fibers will be permanently bonded in place using a high optical quality glass-brazing process. These fabrication processes are very reproducible and are cost- effective in volume production. Compatibility with different types of fiber will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: The demands placed upon pump and signal combiners in high power fiber amplifiers are severe. The combiner must introduce very little optical loss, should not affect the beam optical characteristics, and operate steadily while subjected to significant temperature transients. We are proposing to address these design challenges by developing a micromachined fused silica combiner that will accurately position the various fibers and will optimize the transfer of power from the pump lasers to the gain fiber. We expect that this high-power signal and pump combiner will gain wide acceptance among fiber laser manufacturer. The proposed combiner can easily be adapted to various types of fibers, including fibers of various diameters, which should increase the commercial opportunity.

MV Innovative Technologies LLC (DBA: Optonicus)
711 E Monument Ave Ste 101
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 666-5908
Josh Raker
AF131-012      Awarded: 9/24/2013
Title:Advanced Phased Array for Conformal High Energy (APACHE) Weapons Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a low SWaP, conformal, phased array laser beam director designed for airborne platforms, Optonicus proposes the development of a new Advanced Phased Array for Conformal High Energy (APACHE) weapon systems. The APACHE architecture, based on an a thermalized conformal optical design and novel electronic beam controls that accommodate all necessary acquisition, pointing, and tracking functions, will provide a new system suited for an airborne platform’s unique vibration, thermal, and operational environment. This development will leverage Optonicus’ expertise in high power phased array design. In Phase I, Optonicus will demonstrate feasibility through detailed optical design, preliminary mechanical design, and analytical modeling. In Phase II, Optonicus will demonstrate application of APACHE to an airborne platform utilizing extensive thermal and vibrational modeling, detailed mechanical design, and assemble a laboratory prototype. In Phase III, Optonicus will integrate the APACHE into a functional laser phased array system, demonstrate APACHE in the field, and explore commercialization of APACHE technology for free space laser communication and astronomical use. BENEFIT: The Optonicus APACHE system will enable placement of conformal, compact, high energy laser weapons on DoD airborne platforms. The technology has additional military applications for DoD land and sea based platforms and, in a lower power configuration, free space laser communication. Commercial applications include high-power fiber laser welding, cutting, precision hole drilling, and materials processing. Additionally lower- power versions of the system can be used in free-space laser communications, and in civilian astronomical use.

Nutronics, Inc.
4665 Nautilus Ct. S. STE 500
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-2002
Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF131-012      Awarded: 9/25/2013
Title:Conformal Laser Weapon System Beam Director Development (CLAWS-BDD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Nutronics, Inc. proposes to develop a detailed conceptual design for a general purpose, rugged, compact and lightweight beam director design for high energy laser phased array weapon systems. Our expertise in target based phase measurement approaches provides us with a unique insight into the basic requirements of both the subaperture for a phased array weapon system beam director and for the full phased array beam director. Examining the basic requirements for each of the candidate target based phase sensing method reveals a common set of requirements that can be met by a Generalized Phased Array Weapon System Beam Director (GPAWS-BD). The GPAWS-BD is comprised of (1) a common subaperture optical train; (2) a rigid full-array superstructure; and (3) subaperture beam steering. Our program proposes to evaluate 3 subaperture beam steering approaches, each of which has different potential strengths and weaknesses. Nutronics, Inc. will apply our thermal and vibration modeling tools to evaluate candidate initial opto-mechanical designs and utilize these results as inputs to our rigorous covariance analysis tools to develop performance predictions for the different approaches and will trade these against risk, cost, and size, weight, and power. BENEFIT: The proposed effort has numerous potential benefits and commercial applications, including (but not limited to): laser communication, space situational awareness, astronomical ground based imaging, laser radar, laser rangefinding, aircraft self defense (both commercial and military), air-base defense, ship self-defense, and tactical precision strike.

Optical Physics Company
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Richard A Hutchin
AF131-012      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Bidirectional Beam Director for Conformal HEL
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical Physics Company (OPC) is proposing to design and prototype a full function beam director suitable for all current phased array control technologies. The proposed beam director significantly simplifies the design of HEL phased arrays by presenting a complete beamlet tracking and steering in an extraordinarily compact design. A full 50 cm diameter beamlet array steerable over a 100 deg cone will have a volume of only 0.037 cubic meters. Given the thickness of the beam steering unit of only a few centimeters, the beam director can transmit out a window only slightly larger than the laser beam itself, even over a 120 degree cone of regard. This window can be curved to match the contour of the aircraft to minimize aerodynamic drag and turbulence. Additional advantages are that the beam director works identically on all polarization states, has an area fill factor around 98%, and eliminates Venetian blinding phase shift between beamlets of up to 14,000 waves/second due to a fast slewing target. The Phase I effort will design and evaluate the beam director in the context of a complete beam control system for an HEL phased array with acquisition, tracking, pointing and steering functions ready for Phase II prototyping. BENEFIT: Tactical and long-range HEL systems are set to transform military operations in all services in the next 10-20 years. Conformal designs, such as those enabled by the proposed bidirectional beam director, promise extremely lightweight, high performance, and cost- effective options for HEL weapons. The target application is a conformal HEL system in a jet fighter. One can also foresee deployment on remotely piloted armed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The beam director, beam control and steering methods developed during this project are also applicable to ground based space object imaging, laser rangefinders, as well as commercial aircraft and ship defense. OPC has already demonstrated success with transitioning technologies developed under SBIR funding to ongoing research and acquisition programs. In particular, OPC has become a preferred supplier of deformable mirrors (DM) for high energy lasers. Our endeavor into DM manufacturing is part of a more comprehensive Strategic Plan to take a variety of high end optical system and sub-assemblies that employ our know-how in high precision optics and atmospheric turbulence compensation to market. The beam director we will build under this SBIR project is well aligned with this Strategic Plan.

i2C Solutions, LLC
686 S. Taylor Ave., Suite 108
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 289-7381
Michael Hulse
AF131-013      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Conformal Thermal Ground Plane for Fiber Amplifier
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In response to the U.S. Air Force’s need for fiber cooling and pointing in high power fiber amplifiers of 1kW and up, i2C Solutions propose the development of a conformal thermal ground plane (TGP) technology to interface with heat sinks integrated into the active precision pointing fiber support structure. The result is a highly efficient thermal management solution, with respect to both volume and thermal performance, that is seamlessly integrated with precision pointing capability. Ultimately, the successful implementation of the developed technology will enable the use of revolutionary next- generation airborne laser weapons systems and allow the US Air Force to maintain future air superiority. BENEFIT: If successful, the proposed thermal ground plane technology will allow for higher performing and more reliable high power fiber amplifiers. Beyond the proposed fiber amplifier, the proposed conformal TGP technology could be applied as an improved thermal management system to a broad array of high power electronic systems. Military applications could include unmanned aircraft systems, manned aircraft and directed energy weapon systems among numerous others. Commercial applications could include consumer electronics (e.g., cell phones and laptop computers).

MV Innovative Technologies LLC (DBA: Optonicus)
711 E Monument Ave Ste 101
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 238-1166
Tom Tumolillo Jr.
AF131-013      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Fiber Array cooling & holding Management System (FRAME) for HP Fiber Laser Apps
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need to accurately hold and cool the end of a high power fibers used in (>1 kW) fiber amplifiers, Optonicus proposes the development of the FibeR Array Cooling and Holding Management SystEm (FRAME) for high power laser applications. The FRAME system is based on a new circularly symmetric cooling configuration that combines the functions of fiber fixation and cooling in a integrated design. The circular symmetry and material used solve the problems of stress and the subsequent polarization effects generated by current V-groove based approaches. The architecture proposed is scalable from single to multiple fiber configurations. An active control technology is used enable tilt in two dimensions making the system useful for close packed arrays of fibers in HEL beam director applications. In Phase I, Optonicus will develop a proof of concept design, including materials development, for a single fiber FRAME and verify packaging using thermal and mechanical finite element analysis modeling. In Phase II, Optonicus will build a deliverable prototype of the FRAME system for a single fiber, which will be validated and delivered to AFRL/RDLA for evaluation. Optonicus will also present designs for multiple fiber FRAME. BENEFIT: The Optonicus FRAME system will enable scalability of fiber arrays at high power without adverse thermal effects and provide actuated tilt control. Successful completion of the FRAME system development will bring benefits to military HEL weapon systems enabling high power systems to be developed. Commercial applications include high power laser welding, cutting and materials processing.

Equinox Corporation
57 West 57th Street, Third Floor
New York, NY 10019
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(646) 416-7951
David Goldberg
AF131-014      Awarded: 9/26/2013
Title:Aimpoint Maintenance of Ground Targets by Airborne Laser Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose an algorithm for aimpoint maintenance that is robust to large changes in target aspect as well as scintillation and atmospheric turbulence. The approach makes use of flexible, parametrized vehicle models that are capable of representing a vast array of potential targets. Information about the platform orientation collected from on-board sensors and minimal user input provide initial constraints, and the model's structure parameters are refined during the course of the track. As the structure parameters converge, the motion of the target is tracked by comparing the model to the camera output in order to determine the relative position and orientation of the target. During Phase I, we will develop a prototype implementation of the algorithm and demonstrate its efficacy on imagery provided by the government. BENEFIT: This technology will be useful for the engagement of ground and maritime targets in military and law enforcement. Suppression and surveillance applications are possible.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard Blvd. SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 684-4100
Eric P. Magee
AF131-014      Awarded: 10/1/2013
Title:Target Rotation and Aimpoint Correction using Enhanced Reconstruction (TRACER)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Laser weapon systems on tactical airborne platforms face many issues with tracking targets and pointing of the laser weapon. Even in an environment free from the effects of the atmosphere, there is still the issue of pointing the laser weapon to a specific hit point when there are no features in the required direction. Even if there are features in the desired hit point direction, it is likely that the effects of the laser weapon on the target will obscure this feature. Add in the effects target illumination (scintillation) and the problem is confounded even more. Tracking features in the target scene under these conditions is difficult because the apparent motion of the illumination is construed as motion of the tracked features. Even more difficult than tracking under these conditions is the process of estimating the target pose. MZA proposes to develop an aimpoint maintenance algorithm based on target rotation estimates from enhanced image reconstructions. We will develop this algorithm for operation in an airborne beam control and pointing system. The algorithm will be robust in that it will operate under active target illumination and while the target is changing pose. BENEFIT: Improved imaging and beam control techniques have broad applicability throughout the government and private sectors. We will be able to use the demonstrated robust aimpoint maintenance algorithm to revolutionize the way beam directors and imaging systems are designed for aircraft weapons support, thus broadening MZA's DoD customer base. Another ready application is laser communication from commercial or private aircraft to satellite or ground-based receivers or transmitters, facilitating robust broad-band communications that do not interfere with aircraft navigation systems. Without effective compensation of atmospheric and aero-optics disturbance, bit-error rates of such communication systems will be limited. The demonstration of aimpoint maintenance to be conducted in Phase I will serve as a breadboard prototype for a commercial laser system that could be used on military or civilian aircraft to reduce optical disturbances associated with laser communication to and from these platforms.

Tempest Technologies
Suite 506 8939 South Sepulveda Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-1677
Yun Wang
AF131-014      Awarded: 11/5/2013
Title:Aimpoint Maintenance of Ground Targets by Airborne Laser Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Laser-based directed energy systems are often identified as being game-changing technologies in advancing the mission of the Air Force. Precision efforts, minimal collateral damage, rapid response, and nearly unlimited ammunition are compelling advantages to laser weapon systems. Among the primary challenges to development and deployment is beam control, identified in the 2007 report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons and the more recent 2010 US Air Force Chief Scientist’s Report on Technology Horizons as a necessary focus for science and technology research. This Phase I proposal offers a robust system for simultaneous tracking and aimpoint maintenance in advanced laser weapons systems. BENEFIT: Potential commercial applications will be of a military nature, as the effort proposed herein is heavily focused toward advancing strategic and tactical laser system capabilities. Military applications such as target locating and unmanned vehicle guidance will benefit from tracking and aimpoint maintenance algorithms developed herein.

HOLOEYE Systems, Inc.
1620 Fifth Avenue Suite 550
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 446-5639
William P. Bleha
AF131-017      Awarded: 7/1/2013
Title:Color Ultrahigh Definition Microdisplay (CUDM)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is an opportunity to advance liquid crystal on silicone (LCOS) microdisplay technology to meet the next generation Head Mounted Display (HMD) requirements and pave the way for practical real time holography for holographic video displays and near to eye displays for defense, industrial, medical and consumer applications. LCOS builds on two dominant technologies that have created the modern world of electronics and displays: IC and liquid crystals. The economic importance of these developments has fostered massive funding for design, development, and production. This has created a dynamic LCOS industry that addresses the requirements of projection and holographic displays by taking advantage of the latest technological advances. HOLOEYE Systems, Inc. (HSI) is a leader in the development of high resolution, small pixel pitch LCOS microdisplays. HSI already has a 3.74 µm pixel pitch 4096 x 2400 pixel microdisplay coming out in Q2 2013. In this proposal we lay out the study to take this basic 3.74µm design and configure it into a 5 Mpixel 2500 x 2000 microdisplay with a diagonal of ~12mm for HMD applications. The research will also detail the path to 12 bit dynamic range and 180Hz operation. BENEFIT: Highest resolution and contrast imagery benefiting a multitude of applications including digital night vision, 2D and 3D onsite and remote medical visualization, military and commercial surveilance analysis, and all applications requiring real time holography.

Magic Leap, Inc.
3107 Sterling Road Suite 102
Hollywood, FL 33312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 422-1927
Brian Schowengerdt
AF131-017      Awarded: 7/3/2013
Title:Ultra-High Resolution Scanning Fiber Display for HMDs
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Magic Leap, Inc. proposes to develop a novel full-color, ultra-high resolution microdisplay for pilot Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) incorporating scanning optical fibers. The single mode optical fiber preserves the coherence of the light source, enabling a diffraction-limited spot to form each pixel--enabling a pixel pitch less than 2.7 microns for high resolution in a small footprint. The proposed solution will address the resolution, frame rate, color depth, contrast and field of view (FOV) requirements for next generation HMDs. BENEFIT: Magic Leap anticipates that the proposed Phase I SBIR will result in a preliminary design for a color, ultra-high resolution micro-display based on our Fiber Scanned Display technology. The preliminary designs developed in Phase I will lead to proof-of-concept prototypes in Phase II. These prototypes will be used to further study the performance of the design concepts, and allow us to analyze in greater detail the real world performance characteristics of the displays. A high-pixel density Fiber Scanned Display will enable high angular resolution over a wide field of view in pilot head-mounted displays, enhancing situational awareness. In addition to working with the DoD to address defense applications, Magic Leap is working to commercialize low cost, compact, high field of view, high resolution consumer wearable display systems.

Silicon Micro Display, Inc.
1 Cambridge Center 6th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 694-5182
Michael Jin
AF131-017      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Scalable One-Panel LCoS System for 4k2k and 8k4k Resolutions
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current HMD systems fall short of the desired 20/20 visual acuity due to resolution limitations of the microdisplays utilized. A high-performance, low-cost microdisplay system is proposed, based on a 4096 x 2240 resolution (4.5um pixel pitch) mixed-signal LCoS backplane developed for Digital Cinema Initiative (DCI) applications, capable of nominal 240 fps (80fps/color) operation and beyond. Digitally-controlled analog pixel signal architecture allows for system-specific color performance varying from 10-18 bit, without overloading the interface bandwidth between the driver board and the backplane, which limit all-digital microdisplays beyond 1080p resolution. Phase I will implement conventional DisplayPort architecture to support deep-color 4k2k content inputs, utilizing the experience with 3-D 1080p consumer product (ST1080) release. Firmware and support software development for frame-buffering, color correction, and basic OSD (On Screen Display) features for system implementations will be completed. Phase I will also address the feasibility of further pixel reduction to 3.6 um pitch based on an innovative pixel architecture for 8k4k (33 Mpx) microdisplays for next-generation visual acuity and FOV HMD applications. BENEFIT: A glass-type wearable prototype evaluation consisting of 4k2k resolution microdisplay for each eye will be fabricated, establishing a solid foundation for a highly-scalable microdisplay system comprised of microdisplay, driver board hardware/firmware, and mixed-signal high- bandwidth cabling for Phase II effort where customizable flexible microdisplay system for specific high-resolution military (HMD) and commercial (medical, industrial, cinema, etc.) applications will be fine-tuned and prototyped.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Jason Holmstedt
AF131-018      Awarded: 5/17/2013
Title:Sensor-Fused Multispectral Adaptive Low-Power Low-Weight Enhanced Resolution Helmet-Mounted Display
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a multispectral imaging system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new clip-on Sensor-Fused Multispectral Adaptive Low-Power Low-Weight Enhanced Resolution Helmet-Mounted Display (SMALLER-HMD) system. This proposed system is based on compressed sensing of advanced low-power multispectral sensors and an adaptive fusion algorithm that overlay multispectral digital imagery with symbology, presenting the resulting image in real time to the user on a low- profile HMD. The innovations in SMALLER-HMD include optical tiling of visible/NIR and SWIR images using small on-helmet multi-aperture common optics with bandwidth reduction and improved signal recovery using coded aperture techniques supplemented by adaptively fusing these images with tactical symbology using ASIC fusion hardware in a 40-degree FOV with 100% binocular overlap and 1:1 magnification. The compact and low-power SMALLER-HMD will result in a versatile integrated day/night/adverse weather visualization system. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SMALLER-HMD by providing a laboratory demonstration of a full-color HMD with fused imagery containing at least SWIR, LWIR, and symbology. POC plans to develop in Phase II a high resolution (2560x2048 pixels) SMALLER-HMD clip-on prototype that meets the space, weight, ergonomics, power, performance, and integration (SWEPPI) requirements for current and next-generation helmets. BENEFIT: Military applications of the SMALLER-HMD system will include multispectral fused imagery for use in both fixed-wing and rotorcraft fleets, as well as Special Forces operations. As an integrated day/night visualization system the SMALLER-HMD can be incorporated by the U.S. Air Force into the current F-22 and F-35 fighters, the HH-60 Pave Hawk search-and- rescue helicopter, and ground vehicles using SWIR headlamps that only the driver/passengers can see. Additionally, the SMALLER-HMD technology has attracted the attention of primes including Boeing and DRS. We anticipate widespread appeal of the SMALLER-HMD technology for such nonmilitary applications as Homeland Security adverse weather search-and-rescue operations, firefighting, gaming HMD, flight simulators, and other immersive display systems, including medical and CAD/CAE 3D image displays and virtual reality displays for endoscopy/laparoscopy.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Michael Browne
AF131-018      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Digital Multispectral Binocular System (DMBS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Over the past 30 years, night vision goggle technology has enabled American fighter pilots to “own the night”. As night vision goggle technology has matured, we have required more from pilots and are asking them to fly multi-role extended missions that may occur in degraded visual environments. Pilots need a visualization system that enables day/night/adverse weather operations and that is digital. Currently fielded night vision and day vision technologies are not integrated and do not work as well as needed under many illumination conditions. By developing a Digital Multispectral Binocular System (DMBS), pilots can be provided with imagery from on-helmet VIS/NIR and SWIR sensors that can be augmented with aircraft mounted sensors. Because it is a totally digital system, sensor fusion and symbology overlay will be possible, providing even aircraft that do not have a HUD with heads-up symbology. Our DMBS will allow pilots to replace two separate systems (their night vision system and their day targeting system) with a single system that is more capable than either existing system. Digital, high resolution sensors and displays will replace analog image intensifier tubes and high voltage miniature cathode ray tubes (CRTs). MTBFs will be improved as will functionality and situational awareness. BENEFIT: SA Photonics’ DMBS has the following technological innovations to ensure user acceptance and programmatic success: • Innovative see-through, low-profile optics • Very high contrast, daylight readable OLED microdisplays • Minimum head-borne weight and a neutral center of gravity (CG) for reduced user fatigue and greater display stability in a dynamic training environment. • VIS/NIR and SWIR sensors with the ability to overlay external MWIR and LWIR sensors • Improved MTBF due to an all-digital architecture

Sage Technologies, Ltd.
One Ivybrook Boulevard Suite 190
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 658-0500
Wesley Sheridan
AF131-018      Awarded: 5/21/2013
Title:Digital Multispectral Binocular System (DMBS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed DMBS System is a binocular helmet mounted imaging system that features dual short wave infrared (SWIR) cameras, an embedded image processor and dual digital displays to present the imagery to the pilot. The SWIR cameras offer high resolution and high frame rate FPAs (1280 x 1024 & 60Hz) with accommodation to 2560 x 2048 FPAs when they become available. The system has an external data interface that allows imagery collected outside the cockpit such as FLIR, LIDAR, or synthetic imagery to be fused on a pixel by pixel basis with the imagery captured in real-time ( 1 frame latency) from the SWIR sensors. The system is designed to be light weight and with a component distribution to minimize the moment arm on the helmet. The unit is intended to support sophisticated image processing with adaptive fusion, and the integration of external aircraft systems to include sensor imagery, embedded symbology and other aircraft/mission data. The system is fully digital allowing a variety of cutting edge image enhancement algorithms in addition to the image fusion. The DMBS is attached with a quick release bracket, and attached to the helmet via the standard banana clip on the HGU-55 helmet. BENEFIT: The DMBS system is being developed as a replacement for night vision goggles that will also facilitate the integration of other sensors and systems that are part of the pilot’s cockpit and mission operational environment. In addition the development approach is structured to accommodate the technology advances of the sensors and displays in order to realize the performance enhancements afforded by the technology evolution in those respective areas. These advances will all serve to promote the improvement in situational awareness for pilots in their respective missions. Introduction of the concept to other services and mission profiles has been met with enthusiasm. The DMBS will be applicable to virtually all military and government pilots engaged in night and low visibility flying. The current and near term high cost of the DMBS components will likely limit its application to non-commercial clients in until volume cost reductions occur.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 490-8011
Leah Swanson
AF131-019      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Test-bed for Collaboration, Assessment, and Planning (T-CAP)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force command and control consists of distributed team members who must effectively collaborate to synchronize collective mission planning, briefing, and debriefing activities. To improve collaboration among distributed crews, technologies must manage training activities and evaluate collaborative performance. Current mission planning and evaluation systems fail to effectively communicate performance results. Thus, Aptima proposes to develop the Test-bed for Collaboration, Assessment, and Planning (T-CAP), a generalizable test-bed for measuring and assessing: how well distributed mission crews collaborate on mission planning; the effectiveness of specific mission planning, briefing, and debriefing technologies; and methods for delivering collaborative technologies and visualizing individual and crew performance during training. T-CAP will leverage existing measurement approaches and technologies to assess collaboration and mission planning, briefing, and debriefing performance, the results of which are effectively communicated to instructors and trainees via intuitive visualizations. When fully implemented, T-CAP will maximize training effectiveness by balancing the needs of training exercise managers, training managers, and trainees, and enable them to tailor subsequent training given the assessment of the distributed team and to tailor the use of enabling technologies given any assessed deficiencies and strengths during the training event BENEFIT: T-CAP will be a generalizable test-bed for measuring and assessing: how well distributed mission crews collaborate on mission planning; the effectiveness of specific mission planning, briefing, and debriefing technologies; and methods for delivering collaborative technologies and visualizing individual and crew performance during training. In support of collaboration among distributed teams, T-CAP will enable training managers to assess the effectiveness of collaborative mission planning tools on collaborative performance as well as how well the crews collaborate on mission planning activities given enabling technologies. This in turn will allow them both to tailor subsequent training given the assessment of the distributed team and to tailor the use of the enabling technologies given any assessed deficiencies and strengths during the training event. While we will develop a test-bed customized to meet the needs and challenges of Air Force operational training, our approach is designed to be generalizable and applicable to other DoD agencies and commercial organizations who face similar challenges and require improved performance measurement and assessment techniques, and technologies that possess the flexibility to meet future assessment needs. This product will be initially designed for AOC and ISR Analysts, but is proposed to be generalizable to any organization that engages in mission planning, briefing and debriefing activities, End users will benefit by receiving real-time feedback on the efficacy of various planning/briefing/debriefing technologies and enabling future mission planning sessions to be conducted with greater precision.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4750
Bob Pokorny
AF131-019      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Integrated Collaborative Mission Planning, Briefing and Debriefing Tools for Crews and Teams in LVC Operations
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Team training and performance assessment have been explored for decades. However, modern distributed mission operations, i.e., LVC operations, are getting increasingly complex, exceeding the traditional capabilities of separate component solutions, such as mission planning, briefing, debriefing and performance assessment. The key challenges are the disconnection of the aforementioned mission capabilities and the lack of an integrated distributed collaborative software environment to facilitate the aforementioned mission capabilities. We propose to employ our experience and expertise in collaborative systems, distributed mission planning and scheduling, data distribution and integration to develop Web of Expertise for Collaborative Learning and Planning – We-CLAP, which connects previously disparate capabilities into a seamless whole. We will focus on the following aspects: access, distribution, connection/conversion, indexing and synchronization of data from various related LVC systems, and data presentation to human users. The proposed effort includes carrying out a trade study of candidate technologies, evaluating the potential employment and integration of selected technologies to form a reasonable problem solving and decision support process, conducting system design and software implementation to demonstrate a proof of concept in suitable scenarios, and finally exploring the connection and applicability of We-CLAP to existing and novel systems within AFRL and other agencies. BENEFIT: Collaboration tools are increasingly important as the world becomes smaller. We see the product that we’re producing, Web of Expertise for Collaborative Learning and Planning (We-CLAP), as an important contributor. We-CLAP will support teams that must work collaboratively. Large-scale events like severe weather disasters or military response operations always exhibit the characteristics of being complex, continuous, persistent and distributed. Thus, decision makers need (a) dynamic resource reallocation and tasking capabilities and (b) distributed data distribution/visualization/interaction capabilities, in order to deal with mission dynamics, uncertainties and contingencies. By the end of Phase II, We- CLAP is expected to mature into a full-scale prototype that has been demonstrated to provide such capabilities for LVC environments. We will also seek to connect We-CLAP with existing programs, such as PETS, DCS Logger, PFPS, JMPS and LNCS. Additionally, We-CLAP will be applicable in a variety of other domains. The immediate (human) users include warfighters, cyber operators, commanders, military planners, and decision makers at different echelons. Potential customers include AFRL and other U.S. defense agencies that are facing a similar challenge of large-scale resource reallocation and data sharing in rapidly changing environments. Specific programs may include C4ISR of various defense organizations, JSpOC and CAOC of joined and allied forces, Air Force Distributed Mission Operations (DMO), Army Tactical Operation Center (TOC) programs, Navy Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO), MDA C2BMC, etc. The civilian sector may

TechFlow, Inc.
2155 Louisiana Blvd., NE Suite 4200
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 903-6847
Walter Clover
AF131-019      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Integrated Collaborative Mission Planning, Briefing and Debriefing Tools for Crews and Teams in LVC Operations
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Mission planning, briefing, and debriefing in live virtual constructive (LVC) exercises has become a distributed operation. These exercises produce mission data that must be disseminated to all local and remote players for instructional and research purposes. The warfighter’s ability to modify and distribute this mission data is currently limited. A fully distributed and automatically managed mission recording and playback capability is needed for mission planning, briefing, and debriefing in both crew and team mission areas. Significant advancements in software technology and automation for data management, fusion, and dissemination, as well as online learning, web-based visualization, and software decision support tools can be put to use in meeting this current need. The TechFlow Scientific team has an established background in web-based technology and automation for data management, fusion, dissemination, and visualization in providing situational awareness and decision support tools to the Army and the Air Force. Our team also includes subject matter experts in mission planning, briefing, and debriefing. We will leverage our solid background in mission planning and our experience with development of web-based interactive tools to design and develop an online tool for distributed mission planning, briefing, and debriefing in LVC exercises. BENEFIT: The software developed under this SBIR will have broad applicability to online team collaboration in both the military and the private sector. Any military agency that is involved in mission planning could benefit from using this software to bring geographically distributed mission planning teams together. We could also apply the developed tools and techniques in this software to the general problem of comprehensive team collaboration for events or complex tasks for other military teams or private sector business. Army and Navy aviation mission planning units could benefit from the application of this tool to their mission planning, briefing, and debriefing processes. We will also investigate other possible groups in the Army and Navy that have mission planning, briefing, and debriefing processes that are not aviation-oriented, and offer to adapt our tool to benefit their processes. Major commercial airline carriers could also benefit from using the developed toolset for flight planning, as a way to automate the processes of evaluating routing changes and flight planning modifications. We can also apply the developed toolset to help automate large team collaboration on event management for large commercial organizations, from planning to post-event review. This will offer a much-needed tool in a time when events have become very complex operations, and efficiency and liability are important considerations. The widespread current need for these kinds of software tools, and the even greater future needs, make the probability of success with our product set very high.

HOLOEYE Systems, Inc.
1620 Fifth Avenue Suite 550
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 446-5639
William P. Bleha
AF131-020      Awarded: 7/2/2013
Title:Curved Waveguide Visor Display (CWVD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Advancements in waveguide optics technology offer the chance to drastically improve upon currently deployed head mounted displays. In addition to size, weight, and power shortcomings, current systems also fail to provide the high acuity and fields-of-view that are desired by today’s war fighters as well as commercial users. When laser eye protection is incorporated into classical optics HMD designs even more mass is added thereby compounding the problem. To solve these problems a novel approach is needed based on advanced optical design techniques. HOLOEYE Systems, Inc. (HSI) and our partners have extensive experience with waveguide optics and HMDs, having designed and manufactured both monocular and binocular planar waveguide HMDs. HSI will design a binocular, wide FOV, high resolution holographic waveguide whose specifications will exceed that which is currently available with micro-CRT and classical optics. Additionally, HSI’s cutting edge LCOS microdisplays are ideal for designing a high brightness and high resolution projection engine. This will result in an HMD design addressing each of the shortcomings of the current systems. Additionally, we will address the challenges of curved waveguide structures and their manufacturability, while also looking at pathways to color. BENEFIT: Increased pilot situational awareness in both military and commercial aerospace, including enhanced simulator environments. Augmented reality applications for dismounted soldiers, as well as in commercial and consumer markets.

Luminit, LLC
1850 W 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Fedor Dimov
AF131-020      Awarded: 6/26/2013
Title:Curved Wave-guided Holographic Display (CWHD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for developing methods and techniques for optimizing a curved transparent holographic waveguide optical visor for potential integration with combat pilot helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a novel Curved Wave-guided Holographic Display (CWHD) for pilot visors. This system will be based on a unique ZEMAX design, amended with MACROS, for thick reflection guided holograms. By fine-tuning the parameters of the waveguide, integrated holograms, and image source, high- resolution excellent image quality with a wide field-of-view and large eyebox is achieved in the design. In Phase I, Luminit will research and analyze the feasibility of the CWHD military human systems technology and will design and develop a proof-of-concept CWHD. The successful demonstration of the proof-of-concept CWHD and the relevant simulation and test results will lead to the further development of a full-functioning binocular Phase II CWHD prototype that will support color images with parameters satisfying the Air Force requirements. Since CWHD is based on well-established Luminit waveguided HMD technology, the successful Phase II development will lead to further development and production of a reliable product for military applications that replaces classical optics in HMD systems with curved, thin, light, ergonomic diffractive optics. BENEFIT: The CWHD offers many competitive advantages such as cost-efficiency, compactness, light weight, low power consumption, high brightness, and fully see-through. This advanced design will benefit the optical and HMD industry. Monocular and binocular CWHDs will find numerous commercial applications in real-time 3D virtual reality, medicine, avionics, education, CAD, portable computing and communication devices, industrial human system interfaces, law enforcement, firefighting, space exploration, video game markets, and the entertainment industry.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Jason Holmstedt
AF131-020      Awarded: 5/24/2013
Title:Multi-Layer Aberration-Compensated Guided Image Conformal Head Mounted Display
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a wide FOV, lightweight, waveguided helmet-mounted display, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new see-through Multi- Layer Aberration-Compensated Guided Image Conformal Head Mounted Display (MAGIC- HMD) system based on advanced waveguide volume diffractive optics in photopolymer material layers on curved and transparent polymer visor substrates. The innovation in the MAGIC-HMD includes a new thin diffractive optics waveguide design that allows seamless extension of the device pupil to a very large size, the use of a spatial and angular multiplexing technique to enhance the FOV, and dispersion compensation to provide color imagery. The compact and lightweight MAGIC-HMD can be integrated into any helmet system for use by aviators and dismounted battlefield airmen. In Phase I, POC will develop a baseline design of the MAGIC-HMD system with at least 40 deg FOV and demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating wide-FOV diffractive waveguide optics on curved visor substrates that supports 20/20 visual acuity through display tiling and an eyebox approaching 30×30 mm. POC plans to develop in Phase II curved see-through MAGIC HMD scalable prototype system with binocular color with a FOV approaching 120 deg (horizontal) x 80 deg (vertical), demonstrating the capability to support higher resolution displays. BENEFIT: Commercial applications of the MAGIC-HMD will include the replacement of current classical optics- based HMD systems and head-up display (HUD) systems with a thin, light, and low-profile HMD system that can provide more capable, ergonomic, digital vision systems. Due to its extreme compactness, the MAGIC-HMD technology can be expected to have a variety of commercial applications, including use by Homeland Security and for aerial firefighting, highway patrol, medical, commercial aviation, space exploration, personal displays, and gaming/entertainment systems. Other than the U.S. Air Force JHMCS application, major military applications for the MAGIC-HMD include Distributed Mission Training, pilot and combat vehicle crew HMDs, thermal weapon sights, Soldier's Integrated Protective Ensemble (SIPE), and logistics and training. DHS and the State Department can benefit from the MAGIC-HMD technology as well for security operations.

5-D Systems Inc.
1 Chisholm Trail, Suite 3200
Round Rock, TX 78681
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 238-9840
Bennie Ray Kirk, Jr.
AF131-021      Awarded: 6/17/2013
Title:Vision Processor for Helmet System (VPHS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: 5-D Systems (5-D) has developed a concept for a state-of-the-art Vision Processor for Helmet Systems (VPHS) that will provide significant performance improvements over currently deployed systems. Our concept will achieve the government’s performance requirements and address the two most challenging technical issues for practical helmet- mounted displays (HMD) - power consumption and weight. Our concept will allow multiple, high data rate video sources to be combined and pre-processed for presentation to pilots via a high resolution HMD. 5-D’s unique approach uses pipelined, distributed processing spread across multiple FPGA/processor chips mounted to a semi-flexible circuit board. This approach minimizes the overall power consumption of the processing system relative to a monolithic, single-core design and creates a lightweight, physical form factor that is ideal for both internal and external helmet mounting. In Phase I, 5-D will develop a plan to design and fabricate a VPHS based on our approach and will analyze the performance of our initial design. 5-D’s key personnel will apply their extensive experience developing high-speed data processors using cutting-edge FPGA and microprocessor technology to achieve the Phase I objectives. BENEFIT: Our VPHS will provide the performance necessary to realize next generation HMD systems while maintaining a minimal footprint and power requirements. The performance achievable with our design will enable ultra high resolution systems employing multiple high resolution sensors and microdisplays. The potential applications for this technology expand beyond military HMDs into the commercial markets for simulators and training, to the medical field for remote diagnosis, and even into the high end gaming market.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 888-0587
Jim Davey
AF131-021      Awarded: 6/14/2013
Title:Vision Processor for Helmet System (VPHS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Digital binocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) systems are now available that allow high resolution wide field-of-view (WFOV) digital imagery to be displayed on high resolution microdisplays. These digital HMD systems require sensor preprocessing, optical distortion correction, and image processing between the sensor inputs and the microdisplay outputs. Sensors on the helmet can be visible near infrared (VNIR), short-wavelength infrared (SWIR), long-wavelength infrared (LWIR), or millimeter wave sensors and can have their images fused to provide a composite multispectral image. This fused image can provide increased situational awareness by combining the significant features from each sensor into a composite fused image presented to the eyes. Currently there are no vision processors that perform all the necessary computation for sensor image fusion within the size, weight, and power constraints required for a helmet mounted system. What is needed is a small, light weight, low power, vision processor for helmet systems (VPHS) so the entire digital vision system can be helmet mounted without impacting helmet ergonomics. The SA Photonics VPHS system will be implemented on a seventh generation device with size, weight, power, and cost (SWaPC) savings. The VPHS system will perform image processing for at least two sensor inputs and two microdisplay outputs. BENEFIT: There are multiple benefits to the Air Force in having a Vision Processor for Helmet System (VPHS). • Implementation of seventh generation devices • Complete helmet mounted digital vision system with <1 frame latency • Reduced size, power, and weight compared to previous generation processors • Up to four high resolution sensor inputs • Up to two high resolution microdisplay outputs • Graphics engine for symbology overlays • System data link to platform using single link • Additional object detection and feature detection

Sage Technologies, Ltd.
One Ivybrook Boulevard Suite 190
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 658-0500
Wesley Sheridan
AF131-021      Awarded: 5/30/2013
Title:Vision Processor for Helmet System (VPHS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed VPHS (Visual Processor for Helmet Systems) is an advanced technology image processing engine that is designed to provide the image processing requirements of helmet mounted imaging systems. The VPHS will input high resolution image data from imaging sensors, process that data to yield enhanced visualizations and output the imagery to operator displays. The VPHS will employ imaging algorithms to provide for digital fusion of the sensor imagery and other sophisticated image processing functions. The VPHS will support sensor resolution up to 2560x2048 formats and up to 96Hz frame rate with less than 1 frame latency. The unit will specifically target minimum SwaP to meet helmet mounted system requirements. BENEFIT: The VPHS will be developed primarily for man portable applications with the helmet systems being the primary application. The advanced technology image processor will support hosting the most sophisticated image processing algorithms, affording users the ability to “see” at night and during period of impaired visibility. The technology is projected to provide a general purpose application architecture, and with minimal impact on the size, weight and power requirements of the target systems. The open source nature of the VPHS will allow it to be integrated into a host of systems and application environments.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Jason D. Hannon
AF131-021      Awarded: 5/21/2013
Title:Vision Processor for Helmet System (VPHS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The unique capability of multispectral image fusion to provide high spatial and spectral information in a single image makes it an invaluable asset to the military. Although providing this capability for helmet mounted display (HMD) systems poses a significant challenge to developers. HMD systems based on previous processor technology have been unable to perform the required low-latency processing needed to ingest video from multiple high resolution sensors, but recent advances in integrated circuit (IC) process technology and small form-factor printed circuit board (PCB) design have opened up new opportunities. Toyon plans to exploit these technology advances to dramatically improve HMD processing capabilities. Toyon proposes to develop a high-performance, SWaP-optimized helmet vision processor (HVP) based on the latest in 28-nm Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)/System-on-a-Chip (SoC) process technology. To achieve the highest level of performance in the smallest possible SWaP package, Toyon will utilize advanced high-level synthesis tools to obtain accurate estimates of the hardware resources required to run the fusion-based image processing algorithm chain. Toyon will also employ the latest in high- density, small form-factor part selection and PCB design and fabrication practices to ensure that the overall system design meets SWaP requirements. BENEFIT: At the end of the Phase I effort Toyon will have developed a candidate architecture and established SWaP estimates for the HVP. As part of the Phase I effort a synthesizable model of the HVP image processing chain will be developed to aid in estimating hardware resources. This modeling and simulation effort will also enable development of a prototype HVP capable of meeting the solicitations requirements. Such a system would represent an enabling technology allowing the use of true multispectral fusion for not only HMD applications but for any SWaP critical application. In addition to being deployed in HMD systems another potential application is in small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs).

HOLOEYE Systems, Inc.
1620 Fifth Avenue Suite 550
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 446-5639
William P. Bleha
AF131-023      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Holographic Video Display (HVD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Progress in digital display technology, real time holography, and computational power present the opportunity to advance 3D displays to a new level of performance. HOLOEYE Systems, Inc. (HSI) is actively involved in the development of ultra-high resolution Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulators (SLM) and associated optical systems. HSI is also involved in designing true 3D real time holographic displays based on sub- hologram display technology. In particular, the combination of HSI high resolution, fine pixel pitch SLM phase modulators and sub-hologram technology will allow a true holographic 3D monitor/work station to be realized. The real time true holographic display will add a new sense of realism for users without eye fatigue not achievable in standard stereo displays. In this program HSI will study and design key components of this system. As it evolves this holography development will provide new realism to displays including near to eye, multiuser monitors, and projection displays. BENEFIT: Drug creation, medical imaging, oil exploration, virtual conferencing, mathematical analysis, airport security and product design.

TIPD, L.L.C.
1430 N. 6th Ave.
Tucson, AZ 85705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 360-8907
Lloyd LaComb
AF131-023      Awarded: 6/17/2013
Title:Holographic Video Display Using Novel Guided-wave Scanning System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: TIPD, LLC proposes to design and construct a 3D visualization system that would implement a 3D database capable of ingesting, conflating, and aligning a wide range of static and dynamic data. The system will implement a massively parallel computation and display engine capable of generating fringe information and directly “writing” fringes at video rates. A novel display system employing acousto-optic modulators and electro-optic phased array scanning will generate holographic images and optical wavefronts which provide the operator with a full set of visual clues. This approach can be scaled to larger displays with higher angular resolution based upon the roadmaps of the underlying components. The proposed system will address the shortcomings of the current technologies by providing improved 3D visualization tools to assist the operator in critical situations such as deconfliction, line-of-sight analysis, and satellite control. Current 3D displays cannot provide the level of detail and comfort needed because the displays contain unacceptable visual artifacts, absence of full parallax, require special headgear, and induce nausea in many users. The current visualization systems also do not have the capability to fuse static digital data with incoming LIDAR or video or allow the analyst to view the battles space form arbitrary points-of-view BENEFIT: The proposal will enable a number of critical holographic display applications based on its here-to-fore undelivered combination integrated 3D database, massively parallel computation engines and the packing of the system optimized for small size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements. The holographic system will deliver a true holographic display generating a light field with vergence and accommodation clues aligned. Currently available 3D displays cannot provide the level of detail and comfort needed because the displays contain unacceptable visual artifacts, do not provide full parallax, require special headgear, and induce nausea in many of the users. The benefits of the improved display system allow will intelligence analysts to assist war fighters in critical situations such as deconfliction, line-of- sight analysis, and air space and satellite control. The system design can be extended to dual use applications in medicine by allowing radiologists to view holographic displays of CT and MRI images, in scientific visualization for 3D engineering drawings and multidimensional data display. Other dual use applications include visualization of cultural heritage sites, holographic special effects for the entertainment industry, and holographic teleconferencing (telepresence) applications.

Zebra Imaging, Inc.
9801 Metric Blvd Suite 200
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 583-1224
Thomas Burnett
AF131-023      Awarded: 6/17/2013
Title:Holographic Video Display (HVD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Zebra Imaging’s proposed Holographic Video Display solution will be based on proven research, technology and prototypes to meet the HVD objectives and will allow for the natural viewing of streaming 3D data from a variety of sources without the need for glasses, head tracking or any other supporting devices. Zebra Imaging's light-field technology is based on the concept of a 2D array of light-emitting holographic elements (“hogels”), which reconstruct a full-parallax light-field above and below the emission surface of the display, allowing the viewer a perspective correct visualization within the display view volume. Interaction within the visualization volume can occur with a number of off-the-shelf (OTS) devices including gesture input devices, 3D wand pointers, depth cameras, ball mice and touch panels. Overall, the display architecture and systems will be designed in a modular fashion allowing for a sustainable roadmap of evolving capability and performance. BENEFIT: Aligned with the HVD solicitation Phase III "Dual Use Application" goal, Zebra Imaging's primary commercialization strategy is to design and build a display that is data and application agnostic and that can be used for a variety of purpose. Such is the case with a 2D monitor which can be connected to any computer or gaming console through a standard interface, Zebra Imaging's objective is to define the interface for 3D holographic displays and build the first commercially viable light-field display to that standard. A particularly good example of this multi-use strategy exists with a collaborative display that can be used for commercial sports and events visualization as well as battlefield training, monitoring, and planning visualization for the DoD. The two use cases require wide angles of view for seated and standing viewers, 30hz update for live action viewing, natural and unencumbered interactivity and portabilityfor placement in a variety of locations from public venues to forward operating bases.

Aerosol Dynamics Inc.
935 Grayson St
Berkeley, CA 94710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 649-9360
Susanne Hering
AF131-024      Awarded: 7/11/2013
Title:Portable Sensor for Airborne Nano-Materials
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Proposed is a miniature sensor for real time measurement of nano-particle number concentration, surface area and size distributions, and for time- and size-resolved collection of these particles for off-line analysis. This instrument combines two novel technologies: (1) a self-sustaining laminar-flow water condensation particle counter and collector developed by our firm and (2) the opposed migration aerosol size classifier developed at the California Institute of Technology. The self-sustaining water condensation counter provides single particle detection, does not require liquid fill reservoirs, and can be operated in any orientation. This condensation technology also provides concentrated particle deposit that is amenable to elemental or chemical analysis. The opposed migration aerosol classifier provides particle size-selection based on electrical mobility in an inherently more compact form than commercial mobility size classifiers. Both technologies are compatible with devices small enough to be wearable. This Phase I project aims to demonstrate the precision and accuracy of the combined technology, and that it may be made to be unobtrusive, battery operable and suitable for personal monitoring, reporting nano-particle number concentration, surface area, size distribution, while providing size- and time- resolved samples for off line analysis. BENEFIT: This instrument will provide a means to monitor, on a routine basis, human exposures associated with airborne synthesized nano-materials.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF131-024      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Development of a Personal Aerosol Collector and Spectrometer for Detecting Airborne Nanomaterials in an Operational Environment
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Personal filter-based samplers are traditionally used to assess inhalation exposures to particles. When inhaled, however, engineered nanomaterials (NMs) can elicit adverse cardiopulmonary health outcomes that scale more closely with particle number or surface area rather than the conventional metric of mass concentration. Real-time monitors that provide output by number or surface area are ill-suited for personal sampling and cannot distinguish NMs from other airborne particles. As a result, exposure assessment tools are inadequate to evaluate the health risks posed by engineered NMs in the workplace and deployed environments. The objective of this Phase-I proposal is to combine available technologies into a novel, prototype personal monitor—the Personal Aerosol Collector and Spectrometer (PACS). The work proposed under Task 1 involves the design and construction of a prototype PACS to collect particles and to directly detect particle number and mass concentration by size. The firmware needed to translate the real-time PACS data to particle number, surface area, and mass concentration will be developed and tested under Task 2. These studies will pave the way for the Phase II studies that will integrate wireless capabilities into the PACS firmware and test the robust nature of the PACS under field conditions. BENEFIT: The prototype monitor that will be established through this work will represent a way, for the first time, to assess personal exposure to airborne particle concentrations by different metrics across a wide size range in near real-time. It will also allow speciation of collected particles to determine the size range associated with specific particles of interest, such as NMs apart from background aerosol. Such a personal device will be valuable not only for air force personnel in deployed and domestic situations but also for assessing community exposures in environmental settings (e.g., indoor and outdoor) or worker exposures in occupational settings (e.g., in-plant exposures during engineered nanoparticle production). We anticipate that this device will be used extensively in routine monitoring and in epidemiological studies investigating the relationship of particle exposures to adverse health effects in these settings. In addition, this new monitor will fit well within the framework of an advanced platform that we are developing—the individualized Health Status, Environment, Activity, and Location (iHEAL) platform. This platform gathers—in a time frame that captures the exposure-effect relationship— personalized information on health status, environmental exposures, physical activity, and location. The iHEAL queries these data in real-time looking for patterns in that lead to adverse health status, making possible alarms to warn patients or health care providers of potentially hazardous situations. Lastly, we will work towards miniaturizing the monitor upon successful completion of this work. We anticipate that a monitor smaller than a cell phone and worn like and ID badge will be possible in the future.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Aniruddha Weling
AF131-024      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Portable Sensor for Monitoring Airborne Nanoparticle Acitivity (1001-969)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Airborne engineered nano-particles (NP) are not detectable in an operational environment without sensitive aerosol monitoring instruments, and even dilute concentrations can be linked to health hazards. Without a means to detect airborne NP exposure, there is a potentially hazardous delay in implementation of exposure control protocols. Currently employed NP monitoring sensors rely on light scattering or mass recognition, techniques that do not allow for detection of key NP properties related to their potential toxic effects, including surface area, reactivity and chemical composition. Triton Systems proposes to develop a novel GPS-enabled wearable personal sensor that will provide the capability to monitor airborne NP concentration as a function of size, surface area, and surface activity. This sensor combines efficient NP collection and size discrimination with real-time monitoring of surface area and activity. Our proposed technology will enable real-time classification of NPs in terms of size and surface chemistry. The product platform will combine efficient NP collection with NP characterization. BENEFIT: A functional portable sensor that would allow for the ability to detect the size and surface area of nano-particles in the environment in real time and capture these particles for more complex off-line laboratory analysis would find numerous commercial applications in industrial hygiene and occupational safety. The ability of such a sensor system to transmit collected NP data in real-time to a remote source will be critical in both military and civilian building infrastructure monitoring as well as bio-warfare agent detection.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Martin Voshell
AF131-025      Awarded: 7/1/2013
Title:Next Generation, Multirole Fighter Instruction and Rehearsal Environment (GeMFIRE )
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Although next generation, military aircraft offer a wealth of technological capabilities and can adopt multiple roles, pilots are now presented with an extraordinarily complex set of tasks to master in comparison to third and fourth generation aircraft. Ensuring pilots are comprehensively trained across these complex, interrelated tasks is simply not economically feasible in live exercises. To effectively, efficiently, and economically prepare our nation’s pilots for next generation, multirole aircraft, we propose to design and demonstrate a Next Generation, Multirole Fighter Instruction and Rehearsal Environment (GeMFIRE). Three core activities characterize this effort. First, we will leverage existing analyses of pilot tasks and workload in multirole aircraft to develop a Probabilistic Training Model, which does not limit pilots to only those scenarios defined by an instructional designer. Second, we will develop a scenario creation tool to allow trainers and SMEs to create, alter, compose, and deploy components of multirole exercises that employ our Probabilistic Training Model. Third, we will integrate these capabilities within an existing distributable flight simulation environment and extend that environment to adaptively include commercial devices that enable simulation features that mimic the cockpit environment of the multirole fighter. BENEFIT: The primary benefit of GeMFIRE will be in supporting cost-effective training and rehearsal for next generation, multirole aircraft pilots. However, we recognize considerable benefit for other forms of aircraft (e.g., UAVs), particularly those with multiple mission sets (e.g., ISR versus strike). We also plan to enhance our user-friendly agent development environment, AgentWorks™, with authoring capabilities that will increase its appeal in the simulation- based training market as well as in the entertainment (e.g., video game) market.

GameSim Technologies Inc.
12124 High Tech Avenue Suite 160
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 688-0587
Stephen Eckman
AF131-025      Awarded: 7/24/2013
Title:Tactical Training and Rehearsal Environment
Abstract:ABSTRACT: GameSim is proposing the development of a proof-of-concept Tactical Training Rehearsal Environment (TTRE) built upon Prepar3D, a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), visual simulation platform. Lockheed Martin, the developer of Prepar3D and the prime contractor for the F-22 and F-35, will be supporting GameSim with fifth generation aircraft subject matter expertise. A detailed mission analysis of relevant missions for multi role aircraft will identify the specific mission to be presented in the proof-of-concept. The specific assessment and sensor needs for that exemplar mission will be used as requirements during Phase I development. In addition to the proof-of-concept, our team will deliver a roadmap for the entire TTRE, as well as documentation detailing how information was collected for the roadmap. BENEFIT: GameSim intends to commercialize the technology that results from this SBIR in two ways. First, GameSim intends to promote the fifth generation tactical training and rehearsal environment and associated GameSim customization services to the U.S. Navy and Marines. We then intend to expand the target market internationally to the nine partner countries that have agreed to purchase F-35s, starting with the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy of the United Kingdom. Second, GameSim intends to reach out to our large publishing partners to secure funding for a video game adaptation of the technology.

Sonalysts, Inc.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3770
Daniel Bowdler
AF131-025      Awarded: 8/2/2013
Title:Game-Based Tactical Training and Rehearsal Environment for Next Generation Multirole Fighters
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Adapting our next-generation game engine to the complex realm of today’s multi-role fighters, we will create a high-fidelity, easily-deployable flight simulator to provide a training and rehearsal environment for next-generation multi-role aircraft. Built on COTS hardware, the tactics, techniques, and procedures trainer will offer the user a high-fidelity mission training and rehearsal environment while providing a useful instructor control interface, scenario management tools, and student performance tracking. The proposed effort will begin with a mission analysis of the next-generation multi-role fighter domain. Using this mission analysis as a foundation, we will create scenario content for a proof-of-concept and investigate various technological solutions to most effectively recreate the multi-role fighter’s environment and stimuli, at the same time keeping the training package easily deployable and affordable. The work accomplished in Phase I will be used as a baseline for further investigation in a follow-on Phase II effort. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits of the proposed technology include providing a high-fidelity, cost- efficient training solution for deployed operators and low-cost pilot preparation to maximize limited training time and funding. This affordable system will make it possible for end-users with limited budgets to obtain a quality mission rehearsal environment and a tactics, techniques, and procedures trainer in a scalable hardware solution. The proposed multi-role fighter simulator’s game engine is also capable of being adapted to numerous training applications, including other airframes, naval platforms, or disaster relief operations.

Third Dimension Technologies
11020 Solway School Rd Ste 104
Knoxville, TN 37931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 896-0036
C. E. (Tommy) Thomas
AF131-025      Awarded: 7/31/2013
Title:Game-Based Deployable Trainer with True 3D and High Acuity Display
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address Air Force’s need for high fidelity training and rehearsal environments in next- generation multirole aircraft, Third Dimension Technologies (TDT) proposes to develop a new low-cost Warfighter 3D Gaming Environment (W3DGE). The W3DGE is a game- based, networked, reconfigurable trainer that can travel anywhere and be assembled in hours. An innovation of W3DGE is a unique quick-change display—true 3D or high acuity—depending on training needs. The true 3D (unaided, naked eye) display is a new variant of TDT’s Angular Slice 3D Display (AS3D), a holographic stereogram-based display that recreates all human visual cues, including no-glasses-required stereopsis, head-motion parallax and matched vergence-accommodation (viewer’s eyes are focused where they are looking—contrary to typical stereo 3D displays). TDT is partnering with Lockheed Martin to integrate W3DGE with Prepar3D, a professional training and simulation environment, and thereby directly addresses the Air Force’s requirements for training, evaluating and preparing personnel on fifth-generation aircraft. In Phase I, TDT will analyze relevant fifth-generation missions, then design the W3DGE for training these missions and demonstrate feasibility with a proof-of-concept testbed. In Phase II, TDT will optimize the design and fabricate a full low-cost prototype to evaluate and quantify training effectiveness and mission readiness. BENEFIT: An anticipated benefit of the W3DGE (Warfighter 3D Gaming Environment) platform is the ability to simulate all human visual cues, including stereopsis, head motion parallax and vergence-accommodation, for unaided, naked-eye (true 3D) visualization. The W3DGE uses the new Curved AS3D (Angular Slice 3D Display), which is a major technology innovation as it reduces system complexity (lower cost) and improves rendering budgets (better performance) without loss of fidelity. Thus, the W3DGE, as an affordable game-based platform, offers a major cost-savings opportunity for the Department of Defense (DoD) in simulation, modeling and training. The ability for no-glasses-required true 3D viewing opens new avenues of DoD research and development in supervisory control interfaces, battlespace visualizations, immersive and collaborative environments, human factors, human vision, etc. Additionally, commercial applications in medical imaging, 3D CAD engineering, scientific visualization and over the long term entertainment (gaming and movies) are highly probable offshoots of this technology.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2489
Jeanine Ayers
AF131-026      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:Performance Assessment and Tracking System (iPATS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Great strides have been made regarding the integration of training within Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) environments. Gateways and data translation specifications assist different systems that use different communication protocols in cross-platform communication at an engineering level. However, little work has been conducted to ensure that derived human performance data are developed and can be communicated in a common, integrated manner. As a result, it is nearly impossible to effectively and efficiently capture, store, model, and report human performance data in a way that is usable both within and across LVC environments and systems, thus hindering current efforts to fully assess trainees’ readiness. To overcome these challenges, we will develop the integrated Performance Assessment and Tracking System (iPATS). Work under iPATS will include development of a common integration framework to describe the type, structure, and content required for integrating performance data across training environments and systems. When complete, iPATS will include a data warehouse for extracting and storing performance data, a mechanism for enabling the distribution of data across LVC environments, as well as a “dashboard” for effectively presenting integrated performance data to trainees and instructors, supporting instructor analysis of trainee readiness and training gaps. BENEFIT: iPATS will enable trainers and training researchers to (1) identify persistent gaps in readiness for trainees within and across training environments; (2) modify and provide more refined training events targeted at ameliorating shortfalls in readiness; and (3) identify, longitudinally, the training value (impact and payoff) associated with each of these environments individually, and combined.

Lumir Research Institute, Inc.
301 East Fairmont Drive
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 946-2171
Brian Schreiber
AF131-026      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:PATTRN: Predicting, Analyzing and Tracking Training Readiness and Needs
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The capability to routinely collect, assess, format, predict, and track readiness, performance, and proficiency data from live aircraft, instrumented ranges, and distributed mission operations simulation environments is represents a unique and critical capability for the Air Force. Lumir Research Institute proposes to build the Predicting, Analyzing, and Tracking Training Readiness and Needs (PATTRN) tool, a software suite that will provide access to performance data from various environments regardless of the native format. PATTRN will collect data from various environments, translate the data from its native format into a common format, store the data, routinely assess and track readiness and predict future readiness or future training proficiency fall offs. PATTRN will enhance the capabilities of existing data processing tools by providing access to data from a wide variety of environments, and in a wide variety of formats, along with linking raw data to performance measurement and readiness models. The ultimate goal of PATTRN is to provide a data framework that is both site- and protocol-independent, thus enabling readiness and future proficiency assessment across environments. PATTRN will not only enable longitudinal studies of performance across a wide variety of environments, but will also contribute to the ongoing efforts to achieve greater interoperability. BENEFIT: The proposed PATTRN system will provide the following benefits: • Data translation capability from esoteric data formats to a common data format. • Interoperability with existing data processing tools. • Standardized means of tagging data across discrete environments. • Routine assessment of trainees’ proficiency across multiple environments. • Routine performance measurement evaluations across multiple environments. • Predicting future training proficiency falloffs. The proposed PATTRN system has the following potential commercial applications: • The system architecture will be applicable in other domains where multiple independent data formats exist (e.g., Navy). • The capability to predict future proficiency gaps will be applicable to industries where the time required for a human to complete a routine task (such as UPS loading a truck, or an auto mechanic changing a transmission) are dependent upon the frequency at which the task is performed. • A common data format is the gateway by which existing commercial systems may share data with DoD systems.

Tier 1 Performance Solutions, LLC
100 E. Rivercenter Blvd Suite 100
Covington, KY 41011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(859) 663-2114
Ryan Meyer
AF131-026      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:Predictive Proficiency and Readiness Evaluation (PrePARE)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In order to make flight combat training more efficient and effective, many strides have been made in the areas of role-based competency definition through the use of Mission-Essential Competencies (MECs), live-virtual-constructive (LVC) simulation for realistic practice and assessment in various environments, and performance data capture for after-action review. To take full advantage of these capabilities, a solution is needed that will integrate them into a holistic end-to-end system, mapping from performance data gathered in various assessment environments over time, to competency proficiency ratings and role requirements; ultimately resulting in accurate prediction of readiness and an optimal development plan. To address these challenges, our team proposes to develop the PrePARE (Predictive Performance and Readiness Evaluation) system, a solution that incorporates a standardized mechanism for defining performance metrics that can be applied across operational environments; a performance data warehouse for gathering measured performance data across assessment modalities such as simulations, live flight ranges, and even game-based environments; a mechanism for mapping this data to competency proficiency ratings to predict current readiness; and an analysis tool that can utilize this data to help make informed decisions about optimal learning paths and selection. BENEFIT: With the PrePARE system, the U.S. Air Force will have the capability to track current readiness against competency standards and optimize training event planning by predicting future proficiency fall offs. While portions of this capability exist in limited contexts today, they are not integrated into a holistic system that cumulates and evaluates performance measurements across training, exercise, test, and evaluation contexts over time and maps that measured performance to predicted competency proficiency ratings. By providing this capability, the PrePARE system will provide the insight necessary to target future training events to an individual’s specific needs and optimize the time spent in training to maintain readiness—saving training costs and returning valuable time to our nation’s warfighters.

Adastral
4801 Pacer Way
Flower Mound, TX 75028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 391-4125
Jeremy Fisher
AF131-027      Awarded: 7/3/2013
Title:Retrofittable Tactical Head Up Display (RTHUD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Adastral is proposing an innovative approach to the development of a low cost retrofittable head up display. We have designed a optical system with a minimal number of elements that can readily be reconfigured to fit multiple cockpits without modifying the core optical elements. It meets the requirement to reduce power space and cooling by 25% compared to current HUDs. Our Phase I study will survey the available state of the art in HUDs and components, and will match the modular design to the required cockpits. We will also study the fit into the cockpits to maximize the available field of view and at the same time match the required eye motion box and other specific airplane cockpit requirements. This will include matching any collimation and bird strike specific requirements. BENEFIT: This modular HUD will fit a low-cost HUD into the full range of tactical aircraft, with a significant improvement in reliability, and a reduction in acquisition and life cycle costs.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 888-0587
Jim Davey
AF131-027      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:Retrofittable Tactical Head Up Display (RTHUD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Currently tactical Head up Displays (HUD) are expensive both in cost of acquisition and Life Cycle Cost. In addition, retrofit of a more capable HUD into an existing airframe is complex and the bulk of the HUD competes with other display systems for valuable cockpit volume. The objective of this program is to develop a new approach to the HUD architecture that will show significant improvements in all areas of performance when compared to legacy systems. In addition, the new HUD concept will include design features, including increased modularity, which will permit easy retrofit into existing airframes and will offer a significant reduction in Life Cycle cost, both by reducing cost of acquisition and by increasing reliability. This project will achieve its ends by reviewing state of the art technologies that can be applied across all areas of the HUD functionality including data and video processing, image generation and optics and selecting those most supportive of the project objectives. A conceptual architecture will be developed incorporating the selected technologies. The performance and cost metrics estimated for the conceptual architecture will be used as the basis for a business case analysis to demonstrate the viability of the approach. BENEFIT: Large numbers of current tactical aircraft and tactical trainers are fitted with legacy HUDs which are of limited performance and are or are becoming difficult to maintain due to their aging and obsolescent technology. Many of these airframes are candidates for cockpits upgrades to include panoramic displays which compete for space with a conventionally configured HUD. Further, the aircraft structure under the coaming/glare shield can required costly changes to accommodate a new HUD unless the HUD is physically small and/or custom designed to fit. The development of new technology enables a modular and low profile HUD design which has the potential to mitigate installation problems and be compatible with the introduction of panoramic Head down Display technology. The concept will allow a common design or small family of modular variations to address multiple airframes. Cost of ownership will be reduced via the introduction of more capable, lower power technology to improve both functionality and reliability and the amortization of common design and qualification costs over multiple programs. Further savings will accrue as a result of the reduced cost of aircraft modification during the retrofit process.

SBG Labs Inc.
1288 Hammerwood Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 793-2695
Jonathan Waldern
AF131-027      Awarded: 7/2/2013
Title:Retrofittable Tactical Head Up Display (RTHUD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To date, waveguide displays have not gained wide acceptance. This is largely due to the fact that they can be used to expand the exit pupil but cannot be used to expand the field of view or improve angular resolution. SBG Labs has developed a break-through solution that overcomes these traditional limitations. We are currently leveraging this break-through to create a high-resolution tactical HMD. The key insight underlying this proposal is the realization that if our HMD were scaled in size and if the proposed innovations can be realized, it will be possible to create a HUD that meets the full suite of requirements for the RTHUD. The first innovation entails a technology improvement that significantly increases the angular bandwidth of our gratings. If successful, it will enable us to reduce the power requirements by 3x relative to current designs and by more than 4x relative to existing tactical HUDs. It addition, it will allow us to increase the visual acuity by 3x relative to our high- resolution HMD. The second innovation entails a technology improvement that will enable us to significantly reduce size, weight and cost of the system and, in the process, engineer a more compact, robust, affordable RTHUD. BENEFIT: If the technical objectives are achieved the chief benefit will be an HUD that meets the full suite of RTHUD requirements. Due to our novel optical design, the proposed system can meet the stipulated requirements for TFOV, visual acuity, power, brightness, and latency. Due to our compact monolithic architecture and solid-state electronics, the proposed system can meet the stipulated goals for size, weight, and durability. Due to our revolutionary manufacturing process, projected MTBF, and simplified installation and maintenance requirements, the proposed system can meet the targeted goals for LCC. With regard to manufacturability our monolithic integrated optical approach means that once NRE associated with mastering is completed component replication costs are greatly reduced since the optical complexity is contained in the various holographic optical elements. Assembly time is greatly reduced owing to the lower part count and faster, more alignment- tolerant assembly process. With holographic optical elements, the “gold-standard” masters created during the NRE phase can be used to manufacture replicas with the same high standard of quality, resulting in a much greater yield of high quality devices at a lower price point. The results of the work will be applied to HUDs for military and commercial applications. The technology is also relevant to automotive HUDs. We believe that the core technology and lessons learned from the project will also lead to improvements in other display applications such as HDDs.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Peter Weyhrauch
AF131-028      Awarded: 6/21/2013
Title:Social Language for Synthetic Teammates (SLST)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is increasingly using text-chat based communications in operational environments, such as operations using Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) and in Air Operations Centers (AOC). Training Airmen for these operations using simulations requires synthetic teammates that understand and use text-chat in a realistic, human-like manner, exhibiting both the strengths and weaknesses of real humans. To address this need, we propose to develop Social Language for Synthetic Teammates (SLST) (pronounced “Celeste”), a set of technologies and tools that enable the rapid and affordable creation of synthetic teammates that understand and generate socio-linguistically realistic text-based language. BENEFIT: We expect the full-scope Social Language for Synthetic Teammates (SLST) to have immediate and tangible benefit to military training programs using simulation and synthetic teammates in domains where text-chat is used. The improved ability to generate realistic chat-text based on social context will both make training more realistic, but also enable new members of the community to efficiently learn the jargon and communications conventions of their new domain. With the SLST technology, Airmen will be better prepared to meet real- world operational challenges. We will enhance Persona™, our commercial product for agent authoring, to use more socio-linguistically realistic language, broadening Persona’s commercial appeal and enabling us to serve a wider customer base in the simulation and virtual training markets.

Smart Information Flow Technologies, d/b/a SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 718-1964
David McDonald
AF131-028      Awarded: 6/19/2013
Title:CANTO: The Constructive Agent NLI Toolkit
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SIFT will dramatically improve the Air Force's ability to train using synthetic teammates by leveraging prior synthetic teammate research to develop a generalized and reusable natural language interaction (NLI) development toolkit for constructive agents. We will simplify the creation of constructive agents by making it easy to develop and test the required situation and linguistic knowledge. We will (1) extend the existing model of the situation, (2) improve the cognitive fidelity of its procedures for language generation, and (3) encode knowledge abstractly in conjunction with a compiler for converting it to ACT-R. We will incorporate concepts from situation semantics and utilize a psycholinguistically- motivated model of word meaning based on packets representing bundles of semantic and pragmatic linguistic knowledge. Situation models compiled from this knowledge will interpret chat text in terms of observable situation elements and relevant activities. Synthetic agents built with CANTO will utilize expectations and default assumptions about other agents' goals and behaviors to prepare suitable responses and incrementally generate language from the situation model. BENEFIT: The proposed CANTO toolkit will increase the cognitive fidelity of interactive constructive agents in training simulations in order to provide more realistic communication with the human trainee. Ultimately, this will more effectively prepare trainees for mission-time coordination with their human teammates. CANTO will achieve this by leveraging generalizable elements in the existing Synthetic Teammate Project implementation and closing technological gaps using advances in knowledge representation, psycholinguistics, situation modeling, and natural language generation. In addition, CANTO will reduce the time and difficulty of creating constructive agents in new simulation domains. This is because (1) CANTO's foundational ontology supports domain-general aspects of situated natural language interaction, (2) the CANTO ontology is readily extendable for domain- specific situations and tasks, (3) CANTO will include UIs and APIs for specifying this knowledge, and (4) CANTO will utilize an extended Herbal compiler to support constructive agents in ACT-R and other cognitive architectures.

Tier 1 Performance Solutions, LLC
100 E. Rivercenter Blvd Suite 100
Covington, KY 41011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(859) 663-2114
Stuart M. Rodgers
AF131-028      Awarded: 6/25/2013
Title:Synthetic Language Interface Toolkit for Chat (SynChat)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The high operations tempo, frequent deployments and other fact-of-life events limit the availability for team training. To mitigate this training availability problem, training simulations need to incorporate constructive entities as teammates in a way that enhances training for the human participants. In modern operational environments text messaging communications are increasingly common. To be effective, synthetic teammates will need to be capable of text messaging with their human teammates. To address the limitations of the language understanding technologies, the Air Force has conducted research and development in natural language understanding capabilities in its synthetic teammate program. Our team proposes to design and develop a natural language interface toolkit, SynChat, that will leverage prior Air Force investments and will develop and integrate other needed technologies. We see a significant opportunity to advance the state of the art in the integration and application of text-based communications for command and control training environments. Much of the challenge of integrating language capabilities into new domains in training systems is both the development of domain specific knowledge that is usable by the constructive entities and extending domain general reasoning capabilities for the new domain. Our solution focuses on these key challenges. BENEFIT: With the SynChat natural language toolkit, the U.S. Air Force will have the capability to develop and integrate natural language capabilities into training systems in a way that will be more affordable than today’s development methods. More affordable development will permit the Air Force to apply these capabilities across a broader set of operational domains and allow more of our warfighters to benefit from these new training capabilities. The broader application of language capable constructive models will help address the training availability problem and will improve mission and combat readiness. The SynChat natural language toolkit will provide similar efficiency improvements for Army, Navy, Marine, and other non-Department of Defense government agencies.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Xianlian Zhou
AF131-029      Awarded: 6/17/2013
Title:An Interactive Voxel Model Posing and Anthropometric Morphing Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Electromagnetic (EM) devices are used increasingly in society, with applications in communication, medicine, security, and defense, among others. To study safety and potential health hazards of EM devices, high-fidelity voxelized anatomical body models have been used in conjunction with sophisticated EM and thermal solvers to predict energy absorption rates and tissue temperature elevation. However, available voxel models are limited in postures and anthropometry which are well known to have significant effect on model prediction. The goal of this study is to develop an interactive software tool to manipulate the pose and morph the shape of voxel models according to anthropometry parameters and 3D body scans. In the Phase I, we will demonstrate the capability of using a combined geometrical and elasticity deformation approach for fast deformation of voxel models. This novel approach allows for interactive user operation with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and produces nearly conserved volume during posing. In the Phase II, automated process of matching voxel models to 3D anthropometry body scans will be developed. Model verification and validation, software optimization, and interface development and integration with other AFRL software will also be conducted in Phase II. BENEFIT: This work will result in an interactive software tool for generating anthropometric voxel models with realistic postures. The models and software developed can benefit biomedical scientists, health and medical physicists, and bioenvironmental engineers who study the effect of EM devices on safety and health hazards. The software tool has broad applications on communication, medicine, security, and defense. In civilian application, these models and tools can be used to study risks of accidental and job duty RF overexposures over a broad set of exposure conditions. In medicine application, the techniques developed could be very useful in a surgery planning tool. In military application, the anthropometric voxel models can be used to design non lethal weapons and novel directed energy systems and additionally they can be used for projectile penetration injury analysis and design of protective body armors.

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Stephen Aylward
AF131-029      Awarded: 7/24/2013
Title:Efficient Model Posing and Morphing Software
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Studying the effects of electromagnetic energies on human anatomy requires the consideration how the effects change for different anatomical poses and body types, e.g., for different body-mass indexes. Acquiring such a wide range of data, however, can be problematic given medical scanner costs and acquisition requirements, e.g., the subject must be lying down for CT and MRI acquisitions. We propose to deliver software, documentation, and examples for simulating different anatomical poses and body morphologies (e.g., body-mass indexes) from volumetric, voxelized, anatomical models. In particular, we propose to adapt real-time surgical simulation methods to serve as the underlying methods in changing the pose and the fat/muscle composition of anatomic models used in specific absorption ratio (SAR) studies. This approach has the key benefit of being able to generate morphed voxelized anatomical models for SAR computations in less than 10 minutes. Intuitive software applications that incorporate these algorithms are already being prototyped and will be extended, evaluated, and delivered in Phase 1. This proposal builds upon significant prior work at Kitware and makes use of several open- source, image-processing toolkits. The product will be offered as open-source software and used to attract additional consulting clients to Kitware. BENEFIT: In military applications, directed energy is both a threat to military personnel as well as a possible weapon to be used against opposing forces. The modern battlefield is potentially rife with electromagnetic (EM) radiation, whether directly from EM weapons, or more frequently as the indirect result of explosions or weapon discharges. Hence it is important to understand the effects of EM on personnel effectiveness, and to find ways to shield against deleterious effects. Alternatively, directed energy can be harnessed in a variety of ways including the creation of non-lethal weapons to disorient and/or disable opposing forces. In medicine, directed x-ray energy is a dominant tool for cancer treatment. New treatments that exploit focused ultrasound, radio-frequency, and microwave energies are also being investigated. In commerce, there is an even more diverse range of applications that consider the interaction of energy and anatomy. For example, OSHA standards on electro-magnetic field (EMF) and extremely low frequency emissions (ELF) influence hair dryer design as well as power-line placement. Cell-phones are scrutinized using measures of radiation absorption.

Stellar Science Ltd Co
6565 Americas Parkway NE, Suite 725
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(877) 763-8268
Shane Stafford
AF131-029      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:Efficient Human Posing and Morphing for Electromagnetic Analysis
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As the use of electromagnetic devices has skyrocketed in modern society, so too have concerns about the effects of these devices on the human body. With today’s technology Air Force and other researchers are only able to model the electromagnetic effects on the human body of communications, medicine, security, or military devices in a very limited set of scenarios due to limitations in the data sets and modeling tools. While several detailed 3D voxel models of human internals have been generated, these models are static and cannot be efficiently posed and morphed to model different scenarios. In this paper we propose a physics-based set of software tools based around a fast GPU-accelerated structural solver. The voxels will first be morphed into a new body shape according to specified anthropometric parameters. Then a parametric skeletal model will be extracted from the morphed voxel mesh which can be used to perform the posing in a graphical articulation editor. Displacements of the parametric skeletal model are mapped back to the voxel mesh to provide boundary conditions for the structural solver. By utilizing GPU technology, we expect the run time for these tools to be on the order of minutes. BENEFIT: Efficient and accurate morphing and posing of voxelized anatomical models is valuable to a wide range of users. Human thermal comfort analysts, biomedical scientists, and electromagnetic device manufactures will be able to use these morphable and posable models to predict tissue temperatures for a wide range of the population in any pose. Biomechanical engineers will be able to use these models to predict tissue displacements during motion for any body type. Our software will significantly reduce the computational burden of modifying these voxel models, enabling efficient modeling of RF effects on human bodies undergoing dynamic motion, such as walking, driving a car, or sitting at a desk. It will also enable researchers in many fields to perform these analyses on bodies that have been parametrically scaled to a given height or body mass index (BMI), enabling wider ranges of parametric studies that enable new technologies and advance the state of research in many fields.

Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 932-0270
Gregory Magoon
AF131-030      Awarded: 6/12/2013
Title:Volatile Organic Compound Odor Signature Modeling
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) effort, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) proposes to develop modeling capabilities to be used with portable sensing platforms for predicting the transport and dispersion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by individuals. The intended application of these capabilities is to supplement existing (e.g. visual) data-gathering approaches for individual identification and tracking for purposes of threat monitoring. The proposed effort will involve the refinement of “forward” models (for predicting the spatial and temporal evolution of known VOC emissions) as well as the development of “inverse” modeling capabilities (for inferring a VOC emission source given a finite number of VOC measurements distributed in space and/or time). BENEFIT: The proposed work can ultimately be applied in the field of threat monitoring; the models, algorithms, and software tools developed through this work can be integrated with volatile organic compound (VOC) sensing hardware to form a platform to be used by the United States Department of Defense for identification and tracking, supplementing existing (e.g. visual) approaches. Commercialization opportunities for this work will similarly derive from integration of the proposed inverse modeling capabilities into deployed sensing hardware to form an integrated platform for identification and tracking. Outside of the United States Department of Defense, such a system could find use in a number of non-military applications, with dozens of potential clients including local and state police, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and airports.

Applied Nanotech, Inc.
3006 Longhorn Blvd. Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Richard Fink
AF131-030      Awarded: 6/19/2013
Title:VOC Odor Signature Modeling for Portable Sensing Platforms
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The ability to find and track individuals using volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures would greatly enhance US military capability to defeat asymmetric threats. This program will develop the capability to predict the transport and dispersion of VOCs in both interior spaces and the environment will assist in defining the technical requirements and operational application of VOC-based sensors with the goal of achieving “reverse” modeling capabilities to backtrack individuals and activities of interest (e.g. use odor signatures to look back in time). Using an established environmental chamber and a trace chemical analytical platform based on ion mobility spectrometry, we will obtain empirically derived physical characteristics for a minimum of twelve specified VOCs, evaluate their potential atmospheric chemical breakdown/reactivity, and develop transport and dispersion (T&D) models of VOC patterns in both interior spaces and outdoor environment. BENEFIT: Successful commercialization of this research will require incorporation of the developed models and algorithms into a prototype trace chemical sensing platform capable of measuring complex odor profiles. This platform will have dual use applications: DoD and Homeland Security applications for tag, track and locate, civil law enforcement forensic applications, border control and inspection applications, and health monitoring and diagnosis for both military and civilian populations. A similar platform can also be used for industrial applications (process monitoring and quality control), and health monitoring and disease diagnosis. As an example, the human breath has been shown to contain thousands of different molecules and aerosol particles that contain biological significant information. Researchers have already identified biomarkers in the breath which indicate with a high degree of specificity and selectivity, various health conditions (e.g. carcinomas, asthma, infectious diseases, acute trauma, COPD etc.). The estimated market size for breath analysis for the health care market is ~ $100 - $500M.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Ben C. Juricek
AF131-030      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:Volatile Organic Compound Odor Signature Modeling
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The team of Toyon Research Corporation and North Carolina State University propose to develop a simulation environment, capable of predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of Volatile Organic Chemical (VOC) levels emitted by a person for several scenarios of interest. The approach applies “first principles”, Computation Fluids Dynamics (CFD) models to predict the transport of the VOC chemicals within environments on time and lengths scales associated with individual motion. The Phase I effort will develop physics- based models to calculate VOC emission rates associated with activities such as breathing, perspiration or desquamation (skin cell loss). The integration of CFD and source terms models will be validated on Phase I testing involving tracer simulants, and developing a Concept of Operation for the overall simulation in preparation for Phase II activities, which principally involve the development of back-tracking algorithms for a “track to source” capability. This approach is well-suited to support the AFRL Research Lab activities through realizing the Phase III concept identified in the solicitation: a portable VOC signature detector with an embedded back-tracking algorithm for real-time application. BENEFIT: The simulation environment will provide AFRL with a robust means of establishing sensor requirements for an emerging, VOC-based detector, and the basis for conducting research and analyzing back-tracking algorithms.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Victoria Romero
AF131-031      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Adaptable Toolkit for the Assessment and Augmentation of Performance by Teams in Real Time (ADAPTER)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Full-spectrum cyber operations, including both Cyber Network Attack and Cyber Network Defense, place enormous cognitive demands on operators and teams. When demands are too high or tasks are not properly allocated, performance degrades, and missions may fail. To avoid operator overload, a thorough, real-time evaluation of the state of the individual and the team is required. Assessments of behavioral, neurophysiological, and physiological signals which correlate with individual and team performance can provide the information necessary to evaluate state and optimize team performance. To address these challenges, Charles River Analytics proposes an Adaptable Toolkit for the Assessment and Augmentation of Performance by Teams in Real Time (ADAPTER). ADAPTER will provide a framework that flexibly integrates both current and emerging sensors, and fuses sensor data to provide performance assessment. ADAPTER will enable comprehensive and holistic characterization of team performance across these sensors with advanced modeling techniques that will help experimenters create and use models that support research on performance and the development of augmentation strategies. ADAPTER will include an interface for experimenters to monitor the results of experiments as they unfold and see the real-time effects of their augmentation strategies. BENEFIT: ADAPTER will benefit Air Force and USCYBERCOM Cyber Operations (as well as those organizations that design and develop tools for Cyber Operations) by improving their ability to assess operator and team states and dynamically apply strategies to optimize performance. ADAPTER will enable the efficient development and evaluation of operator and team state models that will facilitate laboratory research on operator and team performance. ADAPTER technologies will also further the development of our commercial AgentWorks™ toolkit, integrating it with a range of sensor devices to increase its appeal for performance assessment and other real-time sensing applications.

DroidCloud, Inc.
9211 Waterford Centre Blvd Suite 275
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 646-1040
Rajesh Gopi
AF131-033      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:Cloud Based Secure Handhelds for Missions requiring Mobility
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Both the DOD and IC have significant appetite to leverage Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) mobile devices on both unclassified and classified networks. For the unclassified use scenario, these mobile devices may be enterprise owned or personally owned (governed by a Bring Your Own Device policy). Given the limited battery and CPU on mobile devices, ensuring mobile end point integrity and attestation is a significant challenge. This project shall research mechanisms to improve client attestation for mobile and points connecting to cloud based secure handheld hosted on DOD/IC networks. This shall include researching; client masquerading, “background” monitoring, rooted device detection, application “cracking” detection, ARM Trustzone security extentions, software TPM and TCG software stack, use of hardware MTM modules, smartcard based client attestation, and client attestation using e-fuses. BENEFIT: The most important anticipated benefits of this research shall be improved cypher security for mobile devices in the DOD and IC. If security and attestation techniques are conceptualized in the performance of a phase I award resulting from this proposal, Droidcloud intends to further develop those techniques as part of a phase II award, and will then look to transition these techniques into its COTS products.

METRONOME SOFTWARE, LLC
23422 MILL CREEK DR., STE 115
LAGUNA HILLS, CA 92653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 273-5190
CHIEU NGUYEN
AF131-033      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Cloud Based Secure Handhelds for Missions requiring Mobility
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Metronome Software and Raytheon propose the development of Metronome’s CLOud- Access LocK (CLOAK) system. CLOAK provides a comprehensive set of proven attestation methodologies, attesting the Remote Assets from the lowest network layer, through the Operating System (OS, Kernel) layer, and through the Application layer. These methodologies include: attesting Remote Assets at the network layer via Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) methods in Data-In-Transit (DIT); attesting Remote Assets’ Health via beyond-PKI Challenge-Response Authentication; attesting the OS layer via profiling; and attesting the Application layer via Software-Based Attestation (SBA). Ultimately, CLOAK provides the ability to ensure that only trustworthy processes are running on a mobile endpoint. CLOAK is also capable of operating with Raytheon’s Cross-Domain Solution (CDS), in which the credentials verified during secure DIT operations are utilized by the CDS system to determine ad control cross-domain operations. BENEFIT: Through Metronome Software’s CLOAK, the Government will have the capability for secure attestation to remote assets regardless of which ‘compartment’ on the mobile device initiates or receives the connection request. These attestations provide assurance that the underlying system maintains its trusted state. Metronome and Raytheon envision the productizaton of CLOAK in Raytheon’s multiple programs of record. The success of CLOAK proven with its operations in these programs will become the springboard for wider deployments.

SPYRUS, Inc.
1860 Hartog Drive
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 551-0046
Reid Carlisle
AF131-033      Awarded: 6/23/2013
Title:SPYRUS Approvable for Classified Secure Operational Environment for Use with COTS Mobile Devices
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The SPYRUS Secure Operational Environment (SOE) will contain the entire operating environment for the desired COTS portable mobile device, whether it be an Android-based smartphone or a Windows-based tablet computer. The SOE is one element in a proposed family of devices incorporating features from the SPYRUS Secure Pocket Drive, the Hydra PC™ Personal Encryption Device approved for classified, and the Rosetta SPYCOS® secure token family. Initial SOE form factor will be a removable microSD device that will contain a hardware security processing subsystem, a secure operating system such as NSA’s SE Android, SE Linux, or Citrix XenClient XT, and an external form factor that will mimic standard modules for storage, communication, and other enhancements. SOE will be designed, based on SPYRUS experience with the NSA’s Commercial Solution for Classified (CSfC) center, to be approvable for SECRET, and potentially TOP SECRET depending on the Operational Security Doctrine. The SPYRUS Secure Operating Environment will give the DoD/IC user the flexibility of COTS mobile devices and their unobtrusive nature combined with security. The Phase I end goal will be to provide a proof-of-concept design and prototype demonstrating the feasibility of the concept and to verify the Technology Readiness Level (TRL). BENEFIT: Over the past decade, the news reports have been filled with details of sensitive and even classified information falling into the wrong hands. In many if not all cases, the cause of the data loss was the use of unprotected personal mobile devices; portable storage devices, including laptops and USB memory devices; and other media, including CDs and DVDs. As indicated earlier, the growth of capabilities in personal mobile devices makes them prime candidates for theft and compromise. Implementing data security using the SPYRUS comprehensive schema for a Secure Operating Environment will mitigate most if not all of these threats, particularly in the following areas: • Confidentiality: Knowledge of data must be restricted to those authorized to receive it, for the duration of the useful information life of the data. In the case of some personal information, the information life may be the life of the individual, or as much as 100 years. This level of protection demands the strongest algorithms and key strengths available. • Integrity: The content of the data cannot be modified without detection, either accidentally or deliberately. In most cases, the provable origin or provenance of the data is as important the content. Again, in the case of personal information, including medical records and individual social entitlements, the integrity of the information must be guaranteed for the life of the individual. Very strong hash functions and digital signatures are required to protect data for this length of time. • Availability: The data must be available whenever it is needed, regardless of the passage of time or various forms of failure or attack mechanisms, including the complete failure or

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Michael Lee
AF131-034      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:CAPSA: Controlling Access using Proximity-focused Semantic Analysis
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Establishing adequate access controls that limit access to information without adversely denying access is critically needed by our warfighters in today’s complex battlefield environment. To address this need, CFDRC is proposing an innovative method called CAPSA (Controlling Access using Proximity-focused Semantic Analysis) for granting access based on a warfighters proximity to information. By leveraging CFDRC’s existing technology for numerically quantifying information relevance using fuzzy logic techniques based on the semantic web, CAPSA will provide a flexible method of determining proximity. CAPSA avoids a ridged definition of proximity, allowing it to identify proximity beyond the spatial, organizational, and operational realms. During Phase I, CFDRC will create an initial version of CAPSA based on its existing semantic-based technology to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. At the end of Phase I, CFDRC will conduct a security analysis on CAPSA to confirm its security and its ability to detect insider threats. In Phase II, CAPSA will be expanded and optimized to utilize more proximity information available in various military systems and demonstrate scalability to the Global Information Grid (GIG). BENEFIT: The Air Force will greatly benefit from a proximity-based access control solution like CAPSA that provides a new dimension to access control. Additionally, CAPSA’s semantic-based approach to numerically quantifying proximity provides a more flexible, data-driven approach that other proximity-based access control solutions do not provide. Any military IT system, especially those using Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), can benefit from the CAPSA technology since it provides an extra dimension (proximity) of access control. Additionally, the CAPSA technology can help identify insider threats by their complete lack of proximity to information. Due to the semantic-based approach to determining proximity, detecting insider threats will have very low false positives since CAPSA can detect hidden connections between the individual and the information they are attempting to access. Commercial institutions will also benefit from the CAPSA technology and its ability to reduce the maintenance cost of access control. By using its data-driven approach, CAPSA can eliminate the manual process of defining and updating user’s roles and attributes. Therefore, CAPSA will result in better and automated access control while providing a cost savings to the organization.

Foresight Wireless, LLC
30 Chestnut Court
Cedar Grove, NJ 07009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 610-8161
Gowri Rajappan
AF131-034      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Proximity/Risk Ontology-based Access Control Technology (PROACT)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Foresight Wireless, LLC, proposes a novel access control system, Proximity/Risk Ontology- based Access Control Technology (PROACT), to meet the Air Force objective, namely “develop a standards-based access control mechanism that will dynamically adjust data access for individuals based on their proximity to others/organizations in terms of attributes (e.g. location, mission, assignment) derived from existing sources.” PROACT is an innovative approach that determines relevance of data to users based on proximity and the risk in providing the data to the user. PROACT utilizes novel semantic models in order to provide this capability. PROACT will be designed such that it can be implemented in a scalable manner that conforms to open architecture such as SOA and therefore easily integrates with IT systems. In Phase I, Foresight Wireless will fully specify and design PROACT and prove its performance and feasibility through system modeling and prototyping efforts. The PROACT product has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. A prototype PROACT product will be designed and developed in Phase I and Phase II, which will then be commercialized in Phase III. BENEFIT: In military market, PROACT can be leveraged to extend existing access control methods and enable dynamic information access capabilities required by User Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). PROACT would rapidly and accurately identify and provide information pertinent to the users based on proximity measures. In civilian markets, PROACT can be used for context-sensitive access provision by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for domestic security operations; by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for tracking and responding to public health crises; and by corporations for dynamic information access.

Real-Time Innovations
232 East Java Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 990-7471
Gerardo Pardo-Castellote
AF131-034      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Proximity-Based Access Control
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The focus of this effort is to develop a standards-based “proximity-based access control” (PBAC) mechanism that goes beyond (yet leverages) traditional Attribute/Role Based Access Control (ABAC/RBAC) approaches. We propose to develop an innovative, generic PBAC architecture, leveraging several reference technologies: (1) ObjectSecurity’s OpenPMF model-driven security policy automation technology, which allows the flexible authoring and management of human-understandable, generic policies in models and the automatic generation of the technical ABAC enforcement, and (2) OpenPMF’s ABAC features for fine-grained, contextual access enforcement across distributed, interconnected software applications, and (3) our TRL 9 standards-based RTI DDS data-centric publish- subscribe middleware as a flexible application platform to showcase our PBAC solution. By using a model-driven security approach integrated with the state-of-the art DDS middleware we can automate much of the PBAC policy management, and can produce novel, highly useful proximity attributes (e.g. business process centric proximity, data-distribution centric proximity etc.). RTI and Object Security are uniquely qualified to deliver and support this framework. RTI is the leading vendor of DDS middleware and has extensive experience with sensor fusion, defense networks, and supporting TRL 9 technology in mission-critical applications. ObjectSecurity has been the leading provider of model-driven security technologies for access control for over 10 years. BENEFIT: The benefits of a mature proximity-based access control capability will be significant -- both because it can expose information to those who might need it, and because it will keep whose without a need to know from accessing it. This measurably improves upon current approaches (attribute-based, and role-based) by adding much finer-grained information access control than exists today. Military, Intelligence Community, and Commercial Markets that focus on the dissemination of, and controlled access to, information will be able to leverage this technology.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Arian Lalezari
AF131-036      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Militarized Airborne Very Low Frequency (VLF) Receive Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: For decades, very low frequency (VLF) links have been an important part of Air Force’s worldwide logistics infrastructure and response-coordination capability. With an increasingly-global proliferation of nuclear capability, Air Force faces an urgent need to update legacy VLF equipment to reliably support scenarios where its applicability is vital, including the nuclear command control and communications (NC3) environment where support of resources like the Emergency Action Message (EAM) network would be most critical. Simultaneously, the proliferation of modern technologies with both intentional and unintentional VLF radiation (including switching power electronics and their VLF-radiating magnetic cores) has created an electromagnetic interference (EMI) environment for VLF reception that has never been worse – especially in modern airborne environments. In response to these demands, there is an urgent need to update legacy VLF systems to support a more comprehensive set of foreseeable battlefield scenarios. In our proposed approach, FIRST RF leverages established concepts for VLF antenna applications, applies proven techniques for militarization, and combines these into a novel yet pragmatic antenna system architecture that provides unprecedented capability in terms of sensitivity, polarimetric diversity, and both spatial and active interference filtering. BENEFIT: As a result of this SBIR, FIRST RF’s technology will enable robust EMI mitigation in a highly-sensitive VLF receive antenna. The beamforming technology will have applicability to a variety of military and civilian applications, including improved emergency-beacon tracking/geolocation (especially in high-EMI environments), emergency low-data-rate/local communications. The antenna miniaturization techniques will afford applicability of this VLF antenna system to smaller payloads, including Class 1 UAVs, opening a whole new realm of applications, especially for emergency-beacon geolocation.

Scientific Applications & Research Assoc., Inc.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Michael Zintl
AF131-036      Awarded: 7/24/2013
Title:A Clutter-Removal Toolkit to Improve VLF Receive Fidelity
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Reliable transmission and reception of messages to bomber, tanker and reconnaissance wing-command posts requires a high degree of robustness and redundancy in the event of a nuclear attack. One key feature of this transmission and reception capability is the VLF radio, capable of broadcasting worldwide by use of ground transmitters and propagating radio waves. Despite the challenges of launching a VLF signal, the VLF radio has a number of advantages including omni-directional long-range propagation, and low diffraction. Given the importance of reliable VLF communication, the Air Force needs a militarized VLF antenna designed for airborne use and capable of reliable operation in a Nuclear Command Control and Communications (NC3) environment. Despite the robustness of VLF transmission and reception there are still issues that impede a sensor’s ability to receive emergency-action messages effectively. These include the Electromagnetic Pulse from a local event, Ducted EMP through the aircraft structure, Aircraft Electromagnetic Interference, Nuclear Scintillation, Jamming and Natural atmospheric events such as lightning. SARA, using their extensive experience in both VLF sensor development and EMI\EMP mitigation proposes a two-pronged approach: advancement of VLF receive antenna magnetometers, and advancement in EMI\EMP reducing treatments, to meet the Air Force’s NC3 needs. BENEFIT: The successful completion of the Phase I program provides a baseline and defines the future development process of the VLF receive antenna system. It does this by defining the system inputs, the sensors current state of the art, possible future system performance, and demonstrates a new high payoff technique for noise and clutter cancellation. The Phase I program produces a base for a focused development effort for obtaining a new more capable VLF communication system for the Air Force’s Nuclear Command Control and Communications (NC3) needs.

Black River Systems Company, Inc.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Dale Klamer
AF131-038      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:Validation of Automatic Ground Moving Target Indicator Exploitation Algorithms
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Today’s analysts have an exceptional amount of GMTI intelligence readily available to them for servicing Requests for Information (RFI) because of the growing plethora of GMTI collection systems and multiple forensic data archives; however, only a small fraction of this GMTI is exploited because analysts lack trust in automated GMTI exploitation algorithms that are capable of grander analysis. Analysts need confidence in the automated tools in order to adopt them into their workflow; thus we must sufficiently validate these GMTI exploitation algorithms. Black River will develop a GMTI Algorithm Validation System (GAVS) that ensures high quality, high confidence data products are produced by the exploitation tools delivered to the analysts. The GAVS will use a Design of Experiments process to provide statistically significant validation within reasonable cost constraints and accommodate the evaluation of a diverse set of exploitation algorithms goals, to include target tracking, milling activity detection and other Activity Based Intelligence analysis. Additionally, Black River will promote algorithm acceptance by utilizing analysts’ own RFI responses as ground truth in the algorithm validation process to overcome simulated data shortcomings and we will identify problem characteristics where the GMTI exploitation algorithm performs well through the use of a Relevance Vector Machine. BENEFIT: Black River’s proposed revolutionary approach to GMTI exploitation algorithm validation that employs real-world data in algorithm testing and evaluation, at a statistically significant level, will considerably increase analysts’ confidence in using automated tools while cutting overall evaluation costs. Additionally, the GMTI Algorithm Validation System will indicate operating conditions under which an algorithm performs well and poorly, which promotes analyst understanding, usage, and trust of automated algorithms and directs developers to areas for algorithmic improvement.

Parietal Systems, Inc.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
John Fox
AF131-038      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:ABISynthe: A Test and Evaluation Suite for Activity Based Intelligence
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The development of exploitation algorithms for detecting and identifying activities from streams of ISR sensor data has outstripped the ability of existing evaluation tools and techniques. The work proposed here will result in two key products: (1) a sophisticated simulator capable of modeling complex behaviors and relationships in a consistent manner and (2) a test and evaluation architecture which will both enable the evaluation of complex exploitation algorithms using a variety of approaches and support the rapid transition of tools to the warfighter. BENEFIT: If successful, the results of this effort will provide a significant and unique capability for evaluating complex exploitation algorithms

Critical Technologies Inc
Suite 400 1001 Broad Street
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 793-0248
Stuart W. Card
AF131-039      Awarded: 7/15/2013
Title:Geographically-Aware and Targeted Secure Information Dissemination (GATSID)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The overall objective is to enable users on-the-move to reliably and securely send and receive information, targeted for recipients? geographic locations, filtered on their credentials, made persistently available if so designated, and tailored for their devices, facilitating their rapid reaction to changing operational conditions. The team proposes to integrate: wireless physical layer broadcast; link layer multicast where supported by hardware and firmware of mobile devices and infrastructure; network layer multicast where supported by routing infrastructure; an efficient, reliable, scalable multicast transport protocol; multicast address mapping per geography, credentials and metadata markups; automated means for tailoring per those markups; and a secure, robust, distributed file system. This will yield a publish-subscribe-query Data Distribution Service (DDS) with archival of persistent messages (a blackboard), where DDS topics map to multicast addresses and correspond to geographic and other filtering criteria. Policy Based Access Control to DDS topics will support restriction based upon security classification/clearance, roles and credentials, and will be enforced with strong encryption and capability based security. GATSID will address a major aspect of the challenge of delivering On-demand Information: What you need, When you need it?, enabling situation awareness systems to exploit tactical sensor data and deliver customized, location-specific intelligence products. BENEFIT: Critical and Capraro will contact the USAF transition professionals of whom we are already aware, specifically those local to the team at the AFRL-Rome Site (Franklin Hoke, Jr. of the Office of Research and Tech Applications, Jan Norelli, Director-SBA) and the Navy (Dawnbreaker-TAP contractor). Ray will also work with the SBIR TPOC and Program team to identify AFRL, then USAF and DoD PMs, PEOs, user groups, programs of record, Government-Wide Acquisition Contracts (GWACs), and stated DoD and DHS operational needs. One key to initial transition will be a successful Phase I demo of relevant location- specified unicast and multicast SA data traffic of differing priorities from and to networked mobile platforms communicating over actual DoD wireless environments (single link/single path to multilinks/multipath). Post-such a Phase I demo, the team plans to approach the Program Managers DoD and DHS PMs identified via Ray’s research with the documented results of this effort, a recording of the demo, and an invitation to provide feedback into the features suite and technology roadmap. Within DoD, we believe this combination CYCLOPS/ARGOS/DDS software solution (mounted in smartphone and smart radios) can find a home within SOCom, and that this solution has a high correlation with the WIN-T (Warfighter Information Network – Tactical) program, especially the unmanned vehicle networking technology components. The portions of the GD C4 planned systems and associated simulations, called Multiple Unified

Image Matters
201 Loudoun Street SW
Leesburg, VA 20175
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 669-5510
Patrick Neal
AF131-039      Awarded: 7/19/2013
Title:Geographically-Aware and Targeted Secure Information Dissemination (GATSID)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The ability of warfighters on-the-move to securely send/receive communications using mobile devices is essential to the safety of the warfighter and successful execution of mission objectives. Personnel on-the-move present challenges to the communications infrastructure of any organization. Providing the right actionable information to the right persons, at the right times, and right locations, in a mobile context, requires context-sensitive services that can respond to changing battlefield conditions. These services must be capable of determining on-the-fly what is needed tactically, strategically, geographically, and temporally, in austere, secure communications environments. Existing systems fail to limit delivery using geospatial and other mission factors, resulting in spurious, superfluous message and alert delivery, and bandwidth congestion. What is needed is a system that not only constrains message delivery by geographic location, but also is also capable of processing other context-sensitive factors affecting the mission. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility and readiness of an operational, commercially-viable Geographically-Aware and Targeted Secure Information Dissemination (GATSID) system. This research will investigate the challenges and enabling technology required to design and build a prototype GATSID system that securely transmits messages to a class of receivers determined by geographical, temporal, tactical, strategic and social constraints. BENEFIT: The completion of this project will result in the creation of a secure alert dispatch system for mobile devices that can be used with confidence in adverse communications and hostile environments, including warfighting, peace-keeping, drug interdiction, border patrol, law enforcement, and intelligence collection. Advanced applications include advanced multi- media content including messages, alerts, reports and multicasts using semantically defined routing and relay that target specific personnel, devices or classes of recipients.

Unova Technologies
9015 N. Cobre Drive
Phoenix, AZ 85028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 363-5109
Jeffrey A. Getzlaff
AF131-039      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Geographically-Aware and Targeted Secure Information Dissemination (GATSID)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal addresses the Air Force’s significant need for a network-centric product that enables on-the-move warfighters to send and receive time-critical alerts and advisories tailored for specific geographic regions. A methodology and process to design a Geographically-Aware and Targeted Secure Information Dissemination (GATSID) service with Human Computer Interfaces (HCIs) is detailed. The Phase 1 Work Plan employs the Rational Unified Process and AGILE software methodologies to ensure a focus on an on- the-move Warfighter’s needs and system goals. Examples of innovative functionality include: cloud construct, semantic agents, geographic input tools, relay software component, heuristic filtering, dynamic map of battlefield, network topology maps and user-centric HCI. A feasibility analysis is performed on system functionality with respect to the ability to send and receive target updates for dynamically changing battlefield conditions. A software testbed is also created for analysis and testing of software service and HCI visualizations. At the end of Phase I, results of the research of are presented coupled with a demonstration of the GATSID system with three mobile wireless devices in a time sensitive targeting mission scenario. Market segments are defined for commercialization including DoD network- centric systems, UAS ground control stations, semantic Web, cloud computing and maritime situational awareness markets. BENEFIT: In phase I, Unova designs an Geographically-Aware and Targeted Secure Information Dissemination (GATSID) service that contains a Human Computer Interface (HCI) for target updates based on specific geographic defined areas. This product: 1) enables real- time dynamic updates of battlefield entities, 2) allows for posting of new target updates for dissemination to subscribers, 3) provides real-time situational awareness and the creation of a Common Operational Picture (COP) 4) provides adaptive displays with automation for portrayal of information, and 5) addresses the needs of real-time entity updates in both civilian and military markets. The creation of a scalable GATSID solution for the Air Force enables economies of scale to be achieved by other DoD agencies and civilian organizations. Intelligent, prioritized and filtered network-centric entity updates and HCI visualizations span across multiple DoD agencies creating a need for a common open standards based service solution. The commercialization of the GATSID system is aligned with the OSD technology roadmap as service application from a DoD cloud application store/metadata repository. The utilization of a GATSID system enables increased situational awareness for on-the-move warfighters. In the civilian sector a competitive advantage is obtained through the use of GATSID for real- time piracy threat updates to shipping fleets for maritime situational awareness. Additionally, first responders and border patrol agents can benefit from real-time updates of entities and the ability to post new information to increase shared situational awareness.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Ian Rumsey
AF131-041      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:Low-power-cost-weight, rapidly-Installable, Medium-Range Interplane Communications Capability (LIMRICC)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The current lack of a simple, low-cost, and high bandwidth communication system on C2ISR (Command and Control, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) aircraft prevents the Air Force from realizing the full capability of its airborne reconnaissance and surveillance assets. The synergy between different sensor platforms will provide enhanced battlefield awareness as well as enhanced net-centric, collaborative targeting. Until now, the upgrade cost and complexity has prevented the Air Force from fielding a long-term, adequate solution. FIRST RF proposes an innovative multi-band antenna system that provides a rapid response to the Air Force’s needs by utilizing existing antenna mounting locations. Commercial applications of this technology have also been identified. Furthermore, FIRST RF’s solution will supplement, not remove the existing antenna functionality. The additional antenna bands provided can then enable a solution that is tailored to the current situation’s demands. The Phase I program will demonstrate FIRST RF’s unique ability to develop a custom tailored solution without sacrificing cost or schedule. BENEFIT: The multi-band antenna system proposed by FIRST RF will enable rapid communication between various C2ISR aircraft. The synergy between different sensor platforms will provide enhanced battlefield awareness as well as enhanced net-centric, collaborative targeting. By designing the system to use existing antenna’s mounting locations, these benefits can be realized with minimal cost to the war fighter. The Ku-band spectrum has dual use applications. Commercial applications of this technology have been identified by FIRST RF.

Silvus Communication Systems, Inc
10990 Wilshire Blvd Suite 1500
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 479-3333
Abhishek Tiwari
AF131-041      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:MIMO Capability for C2ISR aircrafts using existing antennas
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Silvus Technologies Inc. proposes the use of its StreamCaster Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radios as a Low-Power-Cost-Weight, Rapidly-Installable, Medium-Range, Interplane Communications Capability (LIMRICC) between US Air Force Command Control Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C2ISR) wide body air crafts. For higher likelihood of transition our approach uses antennas that already exist on wide body C2ISR platforms. BENEFIT: The benefits of this program would be in developing a viable and cost effective air to air wireless networking capability. This could be utilized for the surveillance demands of the military or law enforcement, or to allow for a communication infrastructure based on airborne relaying in cases where satellite or cell phone infrastructure is destroyed.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-5911
Anthony Jensen
AF131-044      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Dual-band low-profile antennas for intra-flight communication and data links
Abstract:ABSTRACT: High speed communication channels and tactical data links are becoming increasingly important for both military and commercial applications. The need for high speed inter-flight communication and data transfer is validated by the existence of the Intra-Flight Data Link (IFDL) for the F-22 and the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) for the F-35. Unfortunately, the frequencies of operation and antenna systems for these two are unique, and thus not interoperable. This is a problem for not only legacy, but for next generation aircraft, as well. FIRST RF proposes a single low-profile, dual-frequency antenna system capable of operation with both IFDL and MADL systems. The FIRST RF solution is significantly advantageous in that it breaks from traditional, timeworn technology approaches in order to offer a lower cost, modular, simply scalable solution that also enables equivalent operation with fewer apertures around the platform; all while maintaining conformance to the platform OML, LPI and LPD functions. This system is compatible with both legacy aircraft IFDL and MADL communications and will be valid for next generation aircraft – offering inter-flight communication between any mixed aircraft fleet. BENEFIT: The greatest benefit to the Air Force will be the enabling of inter-aircraft communication and data transfer between any mixed aircraft fleet. The FIRST RF technology and developmental plan offers a lower cost, modular approach that enables a much quicker design cycle. This results in hardware that may be validated on-platform sooner and at a fraction of the cost of traditional methods. The technology approach with this design will also allow for simple scalability to various platform requirements (i.e. gain, beamwidth, G/T, EIRP, SWAP). FIRST RF has identified additional commercial and military applications for this technology enabling GB/s data rates for extended range communications.

SI2 Technologies
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5322
Randall Lapierre
AF131-044      Awarded: 7/23/2013
Title:Wideband Wide Scan Low Profile Antennas for Intra-flight Communications and Data Links (1000-251)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) will design and develop a form and fit upgrade for the existing data link antennas on F-35. By leveraging a novel wideband low profile array architecture, significantly lower scan loss is achieved; this provides stronger links and longer ranges over a wider field-of-view. SI2’s array technology is inherently wideband enabling the extension of operational frequencies to other data links. The proposed array development could potentially provide new capabilities to the F-35 in terms of creating data links at other frequencies to enable data transfer to/from other platforms such as: F-22, B-2, smart weapons, UAV, etc. Phase I will culminate in a hardware demonstration of a small-scale array optimized for RF requirements identified by the Air Force and reviewed by a supporting prime contractor. BENEFIT: The specific objective of this research is to provide improved and advanced functionality to the F-35 data link system. Development of a wide scan array capability has applications to many airborne platforms. The high efficiency and low cost of the proposed array architecture makes it a good candidate for high data rate communications, RADAR, ISR, EW/EA functions and more. SI2 is committed to advancing the state-of-the-art of active electronically steered arrays (AESA) for defense applications. The results of this program will influence future research and be applied to solutions for other wide scan wideband array needs.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Leo Diaz
AF131-045      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Ground Based Sensor for measurement of V and W band satellite link propagation channel
Abstract:ABSTRACT: AFRL is poised to benefit from unlicensed 5 Ghz uplink and 5 Ghz downlink spectrum at V- and W-bands for SATCOM links for airborne ISR assets and the data products they generate, such as full motion video and EO/IR imagery and data. Prior to going operational with V/W SATCOM, it is necessary to understand and empirically characterize atmospheric propagation physics such as signal attenuation, phase distortion and depolarization. AFRL’s Wideband SATCOM Communications Experiment (WSCE) program aims to develop the space and ground hardware to execute the atmospheric characterization mission. Unfortunately, WSCE, which is the stepping stone to the operational system – is years away. Instead of waiting for WSCE ground sites to become available, this SBIR topic seeks to characterize the channel through ground-based radiometry at sites around the globe either within the bounds of a WSCE ground station or as a standalone system. FIRST RF has assembled experts in radiometry and RF remote sensing, passive millimeter wave antenna and component design, and active millimeter wave / RF electronics design. The proposed architecture includes multi-band/-spectral radiometers/sensors for thorough link characterization, as well as the systems to process, reduce and disseminate the data. BENEFIT: The immediate benefit of the proposed technology is to support the characterization of atmospheric phenomena on millimeter wave satellite/ground links through multi-band and multi-spectral sensors. The proposed architecture can either be operated as a standalone system on a US DoD installation, or as part of a WSCE ground station, and finally as a complement to an operational downlink hubsite. The proposed system will predict and report pending fade events to allow for network traffic rerouting minutes ahead of a condition or event which would affect an operational loss of data.

ProSensing
107 Sunderland Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-4402
Ivan PopStefanija
AF131-045      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:Ground Based Sensor for measurement of V and W band satellite link propagation channel
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Phase I SBIR proposal describes our plan to develop a compact dual-channel V-band and W-band radiometer for measuring total path attenuation on a satellite to ground communications link. Design goals for this instrument include a compact design with built in calibration loads, including a COLFET that achieves a low temperature reference without the need of cryogenic cooling. To simplify the electronics design, direct detection at RF is anticipated. Phase I research will result in a detailed radiometer design, and an algorithm coded to extracting total path attenuation from measured brightness temperature. BENEFIT: Successful development of the proposed dual band radiometer will result in a compact, all- weather instrument suitable for continuous monitoring of total path attenuation. Attention to a modular design adaptable to other frequency bands, in a compact package suitable for installation in standard aircraft probe canisters will promote sales for ground-based as well as airborne applications.

Trex Enterprises Corporation
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5708
Vladimir Kolinko
AF131-045      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:Ground radiometer to characterize V and W band satellite link propagation loss
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Trex Enterprises proposes a method for monitoring atmospheric loss of Earth-to-satellite signals in the V and W bands using only a passive ground-based sensor. The sensor measures the radiometric sky temperature in sub-bands between 66-86 GHz at a sample of elevation angles. A Monte Carlo photon tracing algorithm calculates anticipated radiometric sky conditions for a variety of atmospheric profiles and then selects the profile(s) matching observed conditions. The algorithm then uses the same profile(s) to calculate signal transmission loss at V and W bands. The sensor will also collect radiometric data from the sun, when available, to confirm the modeling results. The radiometer includes a steerable antenna and is packaged for long-term autonomous data collection to characterize atmospheric loss in different climates. The Phase I program designs the radiometer and Monte Carlo atmosphere modeling algorithm. BENEFIT: The development of the described sensor will allow for low-cost characterization of V/W- band communication signal losses in the atmosphere. By long-term monitoring of loss in various climates, the Air Force will be able to predict availability of communications in various regions. The ground-based sensor requires no airborne or satellite counterpart, allowing for inexpensive long-term monitoring. As utilization of the V and W bands for limitary and commercial communication increases, the developed technologies will find increasing use to predict the reliability of communication networks.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Leo Diaz
AF131-046      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:V/W Band Airborne Receive Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As intelligence and sensor systems become more complex, the amount of data being transferred increases. Naturally, this calls for a higher bandwidth communication backbone in the field. This demand has spawned a requisite for an airborne antenna supporting satellite communication at V/W band. The target platform for this antenna is a large UAV, such as the Predator or Reaper. The major design challenges of this topic stem from the high gain requirement and airborne platform. The antenna must steer and track with a very narrow beam while minimizing Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) to support the platform. It also must survive the environmental conditions described in RTCA/DO-160. FIRST RF proposes a novel two-axis mechanically steered aperture system for the V/W- Band Data Link. This concept offers reliability and performance in a compact package that is compatible with airborne platforms. The proposed system enables precision tracking without requiring beam motion, such as with sequential lobe (or conical scanning) systems. To control risk to the program and the overall design, FIRST RF has budgeted to produce a scaled prototype of the proposed design during the Phase I program. BENEFIT: Benefits of the proposed approach include low manufacturing cost, light weight, a balanced center of mass, improved reliability, a built in signal tracking module. In addition to the airborne SATCOM application described here, this architecture will support emerging requirements for millimeter-wave mobile data backhaul enabling smaller, higher density network cells. V-band and W-band have been considered for this application because of the size of unlicensed spectrum as well as the low atmospheric loss. The proposed architecture meets the requirements of this potentially very lucrative application.

ThinKom Solutions, Inc.
20000 Mariner Ave, Suite 500
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 802-4502
William W. Milroy
AF131-046      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:High Efficiency V/W Band Airborne Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed airborne antenna design employs flight-proven broadband MMW planar aperture, polarization, feed, and gimbal technologies, customized in an affordable, modular, scalable, low-profile high-efficiency antenna subsystem capable of near-term deployment for E-band (71-76 GHz) and W-band (81-86 GHz) high-data rate communication links on a variety of aeronautical platforms. The utilization of low-loss spatial combining (subarray- mounted transceiver electronics) together with proven (dichroic) polarizer, integrated diplexer, and tracking/lobing circuitry substantially reduces the losses (and costs) of “traditional” combining, dual-pol feed, diplexer, pointing, rotary joint, and waveguide losses, thereby enabling 50 dBi+ class equivalent gain performance in an extremely compact (5” x 20” aperture) low-drag form-factor. In addition, the modular scalable nature of the proposed design extends its applicability to the broadest possible range of aeronautical platform sizes and gain requirements. BENEFIT: The proposed planar aperture and related technologies have already been successfully demonstrated at W-band (94 GHz), flight- and link-tested at Q-band (44 GHz), and has been successfully produced and deployed (40,000+ units) at Ka-band (23, 26, and 38 GHz) in Commercial Point-to-Point applications. ThinKom is actively developing new Commercial Terrestrial Point-to-Point (38 dBi and 43 dBi) planar antenna products for E-band (71-86 GHz) as well as (DO-160) Commercial Aeronautical antenna subsystems at Ku- and Ka- bands SATCOM applications. Direct commercial benefits from the proposed development are therefore anticipated to be direct and immediate.

Daniel H. Wagner, Associates, Incorporated
559 West Uwchlan Avenue Suite 140
Exton, PA 19341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
C. Allen Butler
AF131-047      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Cloud-based IR Remote User Services (CIRRUS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this SBIR project, Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc. will develop a cloud-based infrared (IR) data management capability for the Air Force, which we will name CIRRUS, short for Cloud-based IR Remote User Services. CIRRUS will provide high-performance IR data management on the Secure Cloud that is highly available, focused on end-user requirements, and easy to use and manage. CIRRUS will provide end-user tools for analysts to develop IR data/product subscriptions and queries, display results, and share products and tools with other analysts across the community. CIRRUS will be based on existing cloud computing standards, practices, and tools, including critical security practices regarding authentication, encryption, and segmentation. CIRRUS will make use of open source user interface components providing lightweight access to the system from a wide variety of network-connected devices. Finally, CIRRUS will make use of IR data- specific compression techniques to maximize data availability across the community. BENEFIT: Benefits to the Air Force will include improved end-user access to IR data, products, and tools and increased potential for data/product and tool sharing in Air Force, Joint, and Coalition operations, leading to higher overall mission success across the entire surveillance community.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4251
Justin Yackoski
AF131-047      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Secure Cloud-Centric IR Data Management Platform
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop a secure cloud computing environment for infrared (IR) surveillance data gathered by space-based IR sensors. The IR data is typically massive and needs to be made available to warfighters via a very narrow (56k) communication channel. The current point-to-point solution of IR data compression implementation at the data downlink server reduces system’s resiliency. Therefore there is a need for distributed architecture for IR data storage, processing and management. We will design a secure cloud computing platform which will facilitate sharing of IR data and allow personalized user-developed applications by eligible users to meet their unique requirements. Our key innovation would include Google Maps-like user interface for the presentation of Geospatial IR data, and an application programming interface (API) which would provide a feedback loop to warfighters for specific spatiotemporal data requests. In order to support the narrow link, we will evaluate various image processing approaches which would minimize data transfer. Several feature extraction and motion detection techniques can be utilized for data compression which can be further tuned by user specified update threshold. We will leverage available IR datasets and the cloud computing infrastructure to evaluate the feasibility of this distributed system and user interface. BENEFIT: The Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) data captured by the space-based Infrared (IR) sensors is typically massive and needs to be delivered to Warfighters in the field via a very narrow communication channel. The cloud centric IR data platform will offer significant improvements over point to point solutions by minimizing the security attack risks, and will add great resilience and flexibility to the information system infrastructure. The cloud computing approach would allow users to request past, present and future IR datasets via web based interface with great ease and minimal management overheads. The cloud platform is envisioned as a design upgrade to existing information system infrastructure for IR data storage, processing and management. IR data cloud platform can be implemented as a stand-alone system, or alternatively it can be implemented as an extension to existing cloud infrastructures. The IR cloud platform is designed to provide access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) with minimal management effort offering a low-risk, low-cost and minimally- invasive transition path to new information system paradigm. The probable commercial customers are companies that possess Big Data. The candidates are Google, Amazon, Yahoo!, Ebay, Facebook, Linkedin and Twitter. Companies such as Cloudera and MapR are also producing their own Hadoop distributions. We also see a trend in many other mid and small size companies exploiting the elasticity of the cloud. Our system will provide not only efficient cloud computing capabilities but also search, resource management and business intelligence analysis tools to commercial customers.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Jeff Collier
AF131-047      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:CIRRUS: Secure Cloud Computing Environment for Infrared (IR) Data
Abstract:ABSTRACT: CIRRUS is an innovative marriage of cloud computing and state-of-the-art compression methods to satisfy the AF131-047 objective, to “Develop a cloud computing architecture that can transport infrared data securely and in compliance with DoD standards.” The user can designate image areas of interest or let CIRRUS processes automatically select areas of “detectability.” In either case, the cloud optimizes performance (compression ratio and compression/dissemination speed) automatically. Cloud elements intelligently partition the image into compressible “parts” and distribute them among multiple, proven, and established (COTS) lossy and lossless compression applications to accomplish optimal, combined lossy and lossless compression and speed performance. These “parts” are not merely spatial “chips” of the original image, but artfully-constructed image components across several image dimensions, designed to optimize compression performance through the cloud. At the warfighter’s terminal, applications from the cloud decompress the image “parts” and re-assemble them into a usable image. Cloud flexibility allows moving the algorithms among platforms to optimize performance based on different platforms’ capabilities. In Phase I we will design and implement a cloud architecture feasibility test setup on representative servers, test it, quantitatively evaluate feasibility, and prepare a commercialization plan and preliminary design for Phase II. BENEFIT: CIRRUS solves the topic’s IR compression and standards/security compliance problem with cost-effective, proven technologies. It is applicable to similar needs across myriad government agencies. CIRRUS can be commercialized as an interactive information management system and as stand-alone compression applications. There are significant commercial applications in many industries including interactive healthcare, entertainment, and telecommunications, and a general explosion in cloud computing market growth to which CIRRUS applies.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 613-4351
Elya Kapelyan
AF131-048      Awarded: 7/23/2013
Title:Channel and Interference adaptive SATCOM Digital beam-former
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As the size, cost, and power consumption of digital signal processing platforms continue to drop and their performance improves, incorporating digital beam-former (DBF) designs into future SATCOM satellite payloads has become an increasingly attractive option. The advantages offered by digital beam-forming stem from the ability to create composite antenna patterns that vary with both spatial direction and frequency, while also accounting for the distortions in the wireless channel. In response to the Air Force solicitation, MaXentric is proposing a power efficient digital beam-forming system codenamed SABER (Satellite Adaptive Beamforming aRray) that will combine the adaptive weight calculation and channel equalization on a single processing platform. The system is composed of high speed digitizers, FPGAs, and a rad-hardened general-purpose processor that enable the system to efficiently beam-form while also rapidly adapting to changes in operating conditions (such as the number of users, jammers, etc.). BENEFIT: With the SABER platform implementing flexible, power efficient algorithms for beam-forming and channel equalization, MaXentric introduces a scalable, low-cost technology to the satellite communication market. As a result, there are multiple applications for this technology in both commercial and DoD markets. A large potential commercial market involves wireless devices that need to maximize the potential usable bandwidth in a crowded spectrum. On the DoD side, the DBF platform provides an architecture for the next generation of satellite payloads. By using digital beam-forming, payloads will remain flexible while providing better performance.

SEAKR Engineering, Incorporated
6221 South Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 784-7671
Damon VanBuren
AF131-048      Awarded: 7/23/2013
Title:Channel and Interference adaptive SATCOM Digital beam-former
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Digital beamforming is a key to maximum bandwidth utilization and flexibility for communication satellites. Adaptive beamforming further enhances this flexibility by more effectively removing interferers in the spatial domain. However, adaptive beamforming doesn't account for frequency differences in interferers, and may be difficult to implement for varying beam-bandwidths. Adding channelization before the beamformer and implementing the adaptive beamformer on a subchannel level resolves these issues. By making the adaptive beamformer work on a beam-subchannel basis, the beamformer processing resources can be easily assigned to beams ranging from a few kHz of bandwidth to hundreds of MHz. Additionally, the beamformer can adapt more effectively, since interferers are optimally nulled within each subchannel. This SBIR focuses on verifying the effectiveness of adaptive beamforming on a subchannel level, using polyphase filter banks for preprocessing. The research compares this approach with a more traditional approach using Digital Down Conversion (DDC) through performance simulations. It also evaluates the feasibility of implementation on SEAKR's advanced onboard processing hardware systems. Advanced processing systems, rapid signal processing design methodology, channelizer development experience, and knowledge of adaptive beamforming algorithms and implementations make SEAKR an ideal choice for performing this work. BENEFIT: Benefits of this research include improved bandwidth utilization and flexibility for communication satellites, improved response to atmospheric effects, and reduction of interference in the spatial domain. Additionally, the techniques proposed here enable practical implementation of sophisticated, high performance adaptive beamforming on existing onboard processing hardware. Commercialization opportunities are many, and include the WGS mission, the space platforms used by Intelsat and Inmarsat, among others. Commercial satellites have used RF beamforming for many years, and are beginning to move to more flexible beamforming approaches, as the desire for better bandwidth reuse drives system performance and flexibility.

Datron Advanced Technology Group, Inc.
3055 Enterprise Court
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 804-5203
Soumya Nag
AF131-049      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:New wavefroms for anti-jam satellite communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Develop a chaotic spread spectrum waveform suitable for use in future military satellite communications applications providing featureless transmission characteristics as well as the capability to overcome jamming or interference. BENEFIT: Military applications for this technology include warfighter satellite communications and AISR. Commercial applications for this technology include internet routing.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 266-0849
Brian Woods
AF131-049      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:New wavefroms for anti-jam satellite communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MaXentric’s proposed Digital Chaotic Waveform Study (DC-WavS) will determine an optimal chaotic spread spectrum waveform for utilization in secure communications over the target Air Force SATCOM environments. The focus will be on chaotic signal generation schemes that are based on finite-precision digital models, rather than underlying analog chaotic sources, or algorithms that presume infinite precision. This is to ensure a greater probability that the predicted theoretical performance can be successfully achieved in practical implementation. Through literary, analytical, and simulation-based investigations, several such waveforms will be compared on the basis of communication performance, covertness (i.e., ‘featureless’ transmission with low-probability of intercept, detection, or exploitation), resilience (anti-jamming and interference-tolerant), and hardware feasibility. In particular, several chaotic spread spectrum waveforms will be implemented in MATLAB, passed through representative SATCOM channel models, and analyzed statistically and spectrally. The most optimal of these waveforms will then be implemented on an FPGA- based hardware testbench for demonstration by the end of Phase I. This study will guide the design for our Phase II hardware prototype of a Digital Chaotic Spread Spectrum SATCOM System (DC-SSATS). BENEFIT: Within the DoD market, secure chaotic SATCOM systems have potential applications in addressing the need for increased IP SATCOM connectivity. According to Thomson Reuters, Lockheed Martin won a $1.9 billion contract from the U.S. Air Force this past month, commissioning them to build the fifth and sixth AEHF satellites by 2022. These satellites will provide protected SATCOM services to high-priority government and defense facilities. The associated demands of highly covert and resilient communications suggests a great applicability of DC-SSATS for the upcoming AEHF satellites. In mid-2012, USAF also awarded Boeing a $338.7 million contract to produce and launch the tenth WGS satellite. Commercial applications for satellite communications include satellite radio (Sirius Satellite Radio), satellite television (DirecTV), and 2-way satellite internet services. 2-way satellite internet is an emerging market with ViaSat in a leading position after its launch of ViaSat-1 in 2011. ViaSat has negotiations underway for additional satellites and coverage, reaching further residential, international, governmental, maritime, and aeronautical markets, one such contract expected to yield $410M in 2013 [Seeking Alpha]. The maritime SATCOM market alone was valued at $1.4B in 2011, with steady growth predicted by Euroconsult for the next decade.

CreoNex Systems Inc.
2625 Townsgate Road, Suite 330
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 558-9687
Charles Chien
AF131-050      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:SATCOM Wideband Digital Channelizer
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Recent demand for broadband satellite communications (SATCOM) has risen sharply for both the defense and commercial sectors. Tactical SATCOM, such as WGS, require increasingly broadband information contents such as high resolution surveillance images and videos, while on the other hand, civilian applications require high definition multimedia broadcasting, and high-speed internet access. Such applications impose on the underlying communication system support for variable data rates ranging from a few Mbps to 100's Mbps for different channels which can vary in bandwidth. The proposed SATCOM wideband digital channelizer enables a SATCOM terminal to simultaneously receive multiple channels of configurable bandwidth, up to an aggregate bandwidth of 500MHz. BENEFIT: The proposed L-band digital channelizer enables low-cost and low power implementation of TV set-top boxes for both SATCOM as well as terrestrial based systems, whereby simultaneous reception of multiple TV channels is highly desirable for the commercial market.

Space Micro Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
Michael Jacox
AF131-050      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:SATCOM Wideband digital channel analyzer
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space Micro will develop an IF L-band (950-2150 MHz) digital channelizer that provides cost and SWaP advantages over the above implementations by leveraging low-cost silicon CMOS technology. Our key technology in this SBIR is the IF L-band digital channelizer to down-convert the entire IF L-band signal, digitize the signal in a 500 MHz bandwidth, and produce multiple signal streams in different channels for DoD SATCOM. BENEFIT: The digital channelizer can be integrated into Ka-band WGS terminal to process L-band signal into multiple channels. This should reduce the SWaP of the SATCOM terminal. Research can be used within commercial satellite communication systems to enable simultaneous tuning of multiple channels.

Welkin Sciences, LLC
102 S. Tejon Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 520-5115
J.Todd Reinking
AF131-050      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:SATCOM Wideband digital channel analyzer
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Welkin Sciences proposes to design and build a Wideband Digital Channelizer for SATCOM (WDCS) to address the Air Force’s needs to reduce size, weight and power (SWaP) of future SATCOM terminal equipment. Our proposed solution for the WDCS will facilitate the introduction of additional Digital IF technology, such as all digital modems and all digital spectrum monitoring equipment, into the Air Force’s future SATCOM terminals, yielding additional SWaP savings for those devices. For transportable SATCOM terminals, a reduction in SWaP and interface complexity throughout the post-IF terminal equipment string will also yield a reduction in the time required for the warfighter to the get the terminal “on the air”. Welkin Sciences ongoing involvement in the evolving standardization of Digital IF technology, such as the Army’s Future Advanced SATCOM (FAST) working group, will help assure SATCOM community acceptance of the WDCS Digital IF interfaces to downstream Digital IF equipment. BENEFIT: Converting SATCOM terminal functions from analog to digital offers several size, weight, power and cost advantages. If the conversion is done early in the signal plane then devices downstream such as modems and spectrum analyzers do not need to have expensive conversion equipment. Likewise analog fiber can be replaced with digital fiber offering better signal fidelity. Analog amplifiers, power dividers and switches are replaced with smaller and less costly Digital IF dividers and high speed network equipment. SATCOM terminals can be deployed in smaller packages allowing for more transportable systems.

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2467
Georgiy Levchuk
AF131-051      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:DREAM: Detecting Relations, Entities, and Attributes Misinformation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Information fusion and knowledge conflict detection are required for many mission-critical intelligence analysis tasks. Using knowledge extracted from various sources, including entities, relations, and events, intelligence analysts identify relevant documents, integrate facts into summaries about current situation, and augment existing knowledge with inferred information. To deal with large amount of data, analysts require automated solutions to link events, entities and related knowledge across multiple sources. Aptima proposes to develop a system for Detecting Relation, Entity, and Attribute Misinformation (DREAM) to support processing of data with redundant, erroneous, and deceptive information. Our solution combines strong theoretical foundation in cross- document entity resolution with validated solutions for conflict and activity pattern learning and detection. When fully developed, DREAM will provide intelligence analysts with a powerful analysis tool that (1) finds feasible probabilistic association between entity and event mentions across different sources; (2) detect and remove conflicts in relational knowledge across different records; and (3) learn and detect normal, conflicting, and deceptive activity patterns among multiple entities reported in different data sources. BENEFIT: DREAM will allow intelligence analysts and commercial users to reduce the uncertainty in their knowledge bases and detect suspicious and anomalous patterns across multiple documents. For DoD applications, DREAM will support new PCPAD workflow by focusing the analysts on most critical data to reduce the analysis time and increase detection of hostile activities. For commercial applications, DREAM will enable faster and more accurate detection of deception in social media, online fraud, and social engineering activities.

Boston Fusion Corp.
1 Van de Graaff Drive Suite 107
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 583-5730
Connie Fournelle
AF131-051      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:REDI: Resolving Difference via Inference
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Intelligence analysts have access to expanding collections of rapidly evolving information stores, but not all information is equally credible or trustworthy. What is needed is the ability to examine inconsistencies in context—using an understanding of temporal evolution, to consider how different conflicts may be related, and how the underlying sources factor into the credibility of the information. In response, we will develop inference algorithms for detecting and resolving conflicting information in multi-source text data, and will design algorithms that place the potentially conflicting information in context to suggest resolutions and to understand the social connections behind the differing information. We will design an extensible framework that integrates data preprocessing, merging, conflict detection and assessment techniques, and methods for performing the necessary inferences to resolve conflicting data, when appropriate. Our work will ensure that the system is able to rapidly adapt to new and evolving data sets, and integrates with analysts’ information systems. Further, by leveraging our ongoing work with Joint Inter Agency Task Force South (JIATFS) in Key West, FL, we will design our system to be readily integrated into a real multi-source intelligence analysis system, and can design experiments on real, operational data. BENEFIT: Phase I will build the foundation to automatically detect and resolve conflicts for intelligence applications. This capability enables analysts to quickly and reliably integrate growing and diverse data stores with the much-needed support for identifying and managing the potentially erroneous, misleading, or deceptive content that may appear within these collections. By reviewing the sources’ social connections, shared information, and potential biases, we will place conflicting information in its proper context to make informed inferences about its resolution. Our extensible framework will allow our system to be integrated as a component in multiple government intelligence systems, and has commercial applications for news reporting, marketing, and public relations firms that must rapidly aggregate and resolve conflicting data to determine its correctness and potential biases that may be present.

Enhance Enterprises LLC
32 Regents Park
East Amherst, NY 14051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 967-2712
Geoff Gross
AF131-051      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Automated Identification and Semi-automated Resolution of Conflicting, Suspicious, Inconsistent and Deceptive Information
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal details a software suite which will be developed for the automated identification and semi-automated resolution of conflicting, suspicious, inconsistent and deceptive information (CSI-Info). The methods employed will adapt previous research work performed by the PI’s while advancing the work to better meet the needs of the challenging CSI-Info identification and resolution domain. The multi-stage software suite will include processing elements to: (1) Recognizing and resolve formatting inconsistencies (specifically data field formats); (2) Perform common referencing and uncertainty alignment (unit conversion and qualitative/quantitative observation transformation and comparison); (3) Perform anomaly detection for statistical and rule-based anomalies; (4) Identify data association transitivity requirement violations (to make sure that if X is similar to Y and Z, then Y and Z should also be similar for consistency sake); (5) Extend stochastic graph matching technique to identify exclusive OR (XOR) violations; (6) Develop human touch points for the resolution of CSI-Info (for the cases where resolution was not automatically attained). These research and implementation tasks will be performed over a period of 9 months with intermediate system testing and evaluation summarized in a deliverable format. BENEFIT: The research study and software prototype will provide an analyst with a range of CSI-Info identification and resolution mechanisms. The application of these methods can improve entity resolution, data association, common referencing, and ultimately fusion and situation understanding activities. These in turn can lead to thwarting insurgencies, uncovering terror cells, preventing IED attacks and result in stable and peaceful nation states. In commercial applications these technologies can help avert financial crime, credit card fraud, and result in fewer loan defaults, for example. The improved decision-making resulting from CSI-Info detection and resolution can save many lives and save millions in financial wealth.

Milcord LLC
303 Wyman Street Suite 300
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 839-7138
Alper Caglayan
AF131-051      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:semSCI - Semantic Application to Detect and Resolve Suspicious and Conflicting Information
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In the current security environment, violent extremist organizations are comprised of global networks of loosely connected cells marked by centralized decision making but decentralized execution of operations, where individuals are increasingly adept at leveraging various forms of communication, transaction mechanisms, and travel patterns in support of malicious agendas. Within these multiple layers of information, intelligence analysts require a capability to detect and resolve conflicting, inconsistent, suspicious, and deceptive data, reducing the uncertainty in analysis associated with misinformation. In response, we are proposing to develop semSCI, a Semantic Application to Detect and Resolve Suspicious and Conflicting Information that enables analysts to combine diverse sources of structured and semi-structured information within a common schema to automatically tag entities and relationships, including metadata about provenance such as timeliness and reliability. semSCI will represent the asserted facts in the structured and semi-structured information using a semantic annotation formalism to create a knowledge graph data model. Leveraging this knowledge graph, semSCI can infer not only spatial, temporal, and naming conflicts but any inconsistency indicating suspicious and deceptive information involving the logical expressions of subject and property values in the multi-dimensional semantic space with the use of stream entropy algorithms. BENEFIT: This project will result in the development of software products for the data management for intelligence market, supporting the integration of semi-structured and structured data from a variety of sources to include highly technical data formats for the purposes of identifying suspicious, conflicting, deceptive, and inconsistent information. Given the difficult budget climate, DoD is leaning toward multi-purpose technologies that fuse various collection disciplines and standardize reporting. semSCI is directly in line with this focus, as our DL based solution can fuse various data formats by incorporating the underlying semantics of the data into the ontology. In alignment with DoD strategy, semSCI will focus on special operations, as well as intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance equipment, unmanned systems, space systems and cyberspace tools. There is considerable commercial opportunity in applying this technology to the homeland security context as well, whereby users would be filtering incoming sensor feeds such as social media artifacts, data from national and local government organizations, and weather information for building a common operating picture to respond to natural disasters and unconventional threats. Detecting conflicting, suspicious, deceptive and inconsistent data within these multiple layers, especially within social media, could be critical for first responders and policymakers in responding to a crisis.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Robert Joyce
AF131-052      Awarded: 6/16/2013
Title:DocMark: A Rule-based and Probabilistic Document Marking System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The secure, automated dissemination of information across security domains requires accurate, complete, and standardized releasability markings. Existing sensors, information sources, and data processing tools do not all produce the required markings, nor can they always follow the latest version of standards such as the DoD Discovery Metadata Specification (DDMS). Further, contextual information and the current mission profile often determine the level of protection required for given data -- context that a sensor cannot possible have. The ATC-NY team will develop DocMark, a hybrid rule-based and probabilistic document marking system informed by the current mission profile. DocMark will fill in incomplete and non-standard releasability metadata for data objects in a repository, or for data provided via a web service API. In doing so, it will also provide additional provenance data, indicating the rules or algorithms used, confidence values, etc., that downstream processors can use in making release decisions. BENEFIT: DocMark’s application of releasability metadata rules and its ability to learn from existing marked data will dramatically speed the secure exchange of data -- especially when that data includes legacy information, sensor data, or other incompletely-marked data items -- enabling real-time or near real-time collaboration across security domains. By adding provenance information to any releasability metadata it supplies, DocMark will increase confidence in future automated or semi-automated release processes. The need for accurate, rule-based releasability markings extends beyond the DoD and Intelligence Communities into first responder groups (e.g., in releasing information to partners or to the public), health care (for medical records) and commercial enterprises that need to protect trade secrets yet share data with partners.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Avi Pfeffer
AF131-052      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Automatic Secure Classification of Unmarked Sensor Data (ASCUS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance sensors deployed by the US Air Force generate enormous amounts of data, much of which may be used in a cross-domain security context. All of this data must be assigned an appropriate classification before it may be disseminated. Normally, classification information is stored as metadata attached to the data in question; unfortunately, there are a number of places where current classification processes fail to assign necessary security markings to sensor metadata, forcing human analysts to review the data manually to ensure its correct classification. We propose to address this shortcoming by designing and demonstrating a system supporting Automatic Secure Classification of Unmarked Sensor Data (ASCUS). ASCUS will process incoming sensor data, checking for empty fields and parsing out security-relevant concepts embedded in the metadata. This information will be passed into a reasoning engine, which will use probabilistic models derived from operationally relevant classification guides to determine a default classification level for the data. This default classification will be inserted into the data’s security metadata, along with an associated confidence level in the evaluated classification level. We will learn the parameters of our probabilistic models using machine learning techniques on an appropriate set of training data. BENEFIT: ASCUS’s ability to identify missing security metadata and automatically suggest default classification markings will ease the workload of intelligence analysts seeking to classify mistakenly unmarked sensor data, and help ensure mission-critical data is distributed in a secure and timely manner.

Securboration Inc
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 155
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Lee Krause
AF131-052      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Cross Domain Dissemination
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Securboration will develop Cross Domain Dissemination of Assured and Appropriate Intelligence Data (CDD-AAID) to seamlessly support the flow of correctly classified, releasable security metadata to enable rapid dissemination of intelligence products across security domains. Securboration is teaming with Matrix International, a leading provider of high quality analysis for the Intelligence Community, to provide the team with domain expertise and guide the effort. In addition, APG Technologies, a company with experience in deploying Information Assurance capabilities and will support the proto-type effort. CDD- AAID will access sensor data and tag it with metadata that includes the required DoD standard associated with a documents security classification. The technology will be developed to support current manual reclassification by automating the review process in two critical ways. First, by providing updated security classification metadata along with the rationale for the marking based on the security guides inferred rules. The analyst will approve updates before being committed to the system. Secondly, the user will be provided an interface to adjust the classification by selecting rules that apply to the classification or the option to override the system. This approach provides immediate benefit to the user community while the CDD-AAID goes through the certification process. BENEFIT: CDD_AAID will provide a self contained service that will ensure accurate and correct security/releasability metadata that will work with any cross domain solution.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Erik Thomsen
AF131-054      Awarded: 7/19/2013
Title:Blue Force Readiness, Activity, and Capability Modeling Engine (BlueFRAME)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In the modern battlespace, US forces must operate in a coordinated fashion across organizational and functional lines. Despite the increasing sophistication of the information systems supporting them, Warfighters are confronted with “stovepipes,” making it difficult to gain a full appreciation of blue force activities involving others outside of their immediate organization. Without such knowledge, the decision-making that drives military operations spanning air, space, and cyber domains will be sub-optimal and potentially detrimental. To support situation awareness of blue force activities, we propose to design and demonstrate a Blue Force Readiness, Activity, and Capability Modeling Engine (BlueFRAME) that represents, informs, maintains, and evolves computational situation models. Our approach includes four primary components: (1) a semantically rich, logically grounded computational representation that can capture complex situation models including concepts and associations; (2) a demand-driven translation service that rectifies raw blue force sensor feeds based on active situation models; (3) a deductive inference layer that analyzes and projects blue force states; and (4) an empirically informed inductive inference layer that learns associations based on historical blue force data. During Phase I, we will create a demonstration prototype that leverages in-house and external commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products to validate the feasibility of our approach for supporting situation awareness of blue force activities. BENEFIT: The research performed under this effort will have immediate benefit to Air Operations Center Weapon System (AOC WS) and its configuration across multiple regional and functional AOCs. Additionally, advances in this area of situation modeling and analysis could help in other military domains across air, maritime, ground, and space operations. This research will also have direct application to enhance our commercial DRIVE™ product, a software development kit for geospatial visualization.

Securboration Inc
1050 W NASA Blvd Suite 155
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-7271
Bruce McQueary
AF131-054      Awarded: 7/19/2013
Title:Presentation and Management of Blue Force Capabilities
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a gap in the battle planning community with respect to blue force situational awareness. Specifically, military commanders and operators do not have timely and accurate information about what resources are available to them, where they are, and how best to use them in a mission. Blue force awareness currently stems from readiness applications such as Status of Resources and Training System (SORTS), which provide broad subjective measurements of generic readiness (e.g. personnel, equipment and it’s condition, training), rather than comprehensive mission-specific readiness to execute in complex areas of operation. This gap is widening with the emergence of Integrated Battle Planning Capability (IBPC) that seeks to coordinate and synchronize joint planning across the air, space, and cyber domains at an increased operational tempo. To narrow this gap, Securboration is developing the Blue-force Awareness Capability and Understanding System or BACUS. Our approach for BACUS leverages Securboration’s expertise in enterprise-wide service oriented architectures applied to joint readiness evaluation, tactical and operational planning and assessment, and intelligence analysis to access a variety of diverse readiness data, reason about it, and gain a clear understanding of blue force readiness within a mission relevant context. BENEFIT: BACUS benefits DoD’s emphasis on developing a joint Battle Planning Capability (IBPC) across air, space, and cyber. BACUS will integrate with, and provide data to, ongoing AFRL IBPC efforts. As a result, joint air, space, and cyber missions will be better synchronized, managed, and optimized. BACUS also has significant potential to benefit the commercial sector in areas such as business intelligence and just-in-time / vendor managed inventory. For example, Securboration has applied the techniques proposed in BACUS to develop our subscription-based Business Intelligence Alerting System (BILERTS); while the increased SA that BACUS provides on internal operations status can be applied for optimizing inventory processes.

Systems & Technology Research
400 West Cummings Park, Suite 5850
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 503-3291
Nicholas Pioch
AF131-054      Awarded: 7/23/2013
Title:Cross-Domain Modeling and Management of Blue Force Capabilities
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop expressive models and associated machine reasoning capabilities to enable blue force capability management across air, cyber, and space domains. To achieve this goal, we will use semantic web tools and standards to develop a friendly force knowledge representation that captures cross-domain dependencies among physical and logical assets, and relationships among effects, capabilities, assets, and organizations. We will then develop a semantic reasoner to infer current/future blue capability readiness and availability based on multiple, potentially conflicting domain data sources. We will integrate the software within a web service and evaluate the prototype within a testbed that simulates the context of a living plan. BENEFIT: Today's military is increasingly globally distributed, and must rely on diverse elements of power spanning air, cyber, space and other domains to achieve timely desired effects against increasingly sophisticated adversaries. Although new C2 organizations and systems have arisen to address domain-specific threats in cyber and space, the ability to manage and coordinate blue forces and capabilities to deliver effects across all domains remains limited. The proposed system addresses this longstanding operational need, offering a semantically expressive model emphasizing dependencies among domain assets, and key relationships among blue capabilities, organizations, effects, assets, and available domain data sources. The proposed reasoning capability offers an up-to-date picture of current and expected blue capability readiness across these domains. Prospects for transition to DoD customers include joint-level and specialized commands such as USSTRATCOM or US CyberCommand. Domain-specific nodes such as Air Operations Centers would also benefit from increased awareness of available forces across collaborating domains and commands. Prospects are also strong for adapting the core semantic model and reasoning to commercial applications including multi-modal logistics, supply chain visibility and management, and internal knowledge management.

Assured Information Security, Inc.
153 Brooks Road
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 336-3306
Rian Quinn
AF131-055      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Endpoint-Operated Link-assured Security
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As networked computing becomes more and more critical to the US government and US corporations, it is crucial to protect them against new and unknown threats. The field of trusted computing has grown to provide assurances that the software on a computing system has not been tampered. While the basics of trusted computing have been developed for the last few years, there is currently no method to bootstrap a network of fully trusted heterogeneous devices to provide end-to-end trust (EtET). Without EtET, only a single client needs to be compromised before a leak of critical information. AIS, Inc. proposes EOLuS, an effort to develop a capability for realizing end-to-end trust in a dynamic network – a network in which every client would verify and monitor the trustworthiness of its peers before communicating sensitive information. With this technology, servers could be protected from rogue clients, preventing possible attack, additionally, user and machine authentication could be securely transported across a network to provide different information to different users in an automatic fashion. When EOLuS is demonstrated as a successful capability providing end-to-end trust, it can be built upon to realize a whole host of new levels of IT simplification and increased data security. BENEFIT: When EOLuS is demonstrated as a successful capability providing end-to-end trust, it can be built upon to realize a whole host of new levels of IT simplification and increased data security. EOLuS will provide a strong foundation for future research in this field, providing the first steps on the road to fulfilling the dream that currently is end-to-end trust. Widely deployed trusted endpoints would be able to prevent malicious hosts from probing them for weaknesses, and provide the ability to extend data protection controls beyond the server to the client. At the completion of Phase I of EOLuS, a number of the outstanding questions will be solved, prototype algorithms developed, and a glimpse of the future of end-to-end trust brought to bear, a network which can detect and fight-through attack, and actively work to defend against data leakage.

AVIRTEK, INC
1236 E. Grant Rd
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 213-3064
John Howie
AF131-055      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Robust End-to-End Trust (RE2ET)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to identify and quantify trust metrics for all of the resources in a complex network infrastructure, determine a method for securing communications, and demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to quantify and adopt the end-to-end trust of components in large network infrastructures. The proposed approach will verify the trust in critical components, adopt their trust values due to changes in network configurations, polices or being compromised, and protect their operations in spite of compromises. The main components to implement the proposed RE2ET approach are: Secure Regenerated Keying (SRK) technology to deliver secure communications among critical components, Mutual Authentication module to verify the authenticity of different components, Autonomic Trust Management agent that monitors and collect component behavior metrics and to guarantee that all interacting components meet the end-to-end trust requirements, and Trust Authority module that continuously evaluates and adopts the trust level value assigned to each component. Our approach to develop trust metrics will leverage EnrGie SKR technology and AVIRTEK’s Autonomia environment, which is an autonomic computing environment, to build the Autonomic Trust Management (ATM) agents. In addition, we will leverage AVIRTEK’s feature selection algorithm to determine the best metrics for measuring and quantifying trust. BENEFIT: Avirtek has solid record of performance in addressing the often-competing demands of innovation, technology readiness, and commercialization. We have successfully applied AUTONOMIA - an autonomic control and management environment - to a wide range of network-centric applications such the Autonomic Network Defense (AND) system for small and enterprise networks. The AND prototype, which has been demonstrated to the Air Force Battle Lab and other Department of Defense (DoD) units, achieves higher than 99% detection rate and extremely low false alarm rate (less than 0.5%). A commercial Automated and Integrated Management (AIM) appliance based on AND system has been tested and evaluated by Ball Aerospace Corporation and shown to detect and protect against a wide range of cyber attacks. In this Phase I of this project, we will leverage the Autonomia and AIM technologies to demonstrate critical capabilities for building the proposed resilient cloud services. Through both technologies, we aim to accurately build an adaptive high-level knowledge about the state of the cloud system, and proactively learn from and defend against cloud attacks. We envision significant opportunity to commercialize the RT2ET technology to government agencies and enterprise companies. Avirtek has developed innovative solutions that address the foremost aspects of cybersecurity enriching its staff with exceptional expertise along with proven track record for technology transfer. The outcome of this Phase will be feasibility study and design of the RT2ET framework and a report containing the blue prints and recommendations to implement robust end to end trust among a large number of

Process Query Systems LLC
16 Cavendish Court
Lebanon, NH 03766
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 727-4477
Vicnent H. Berk
AF131-055      Awarded: 7/18/2013
Title:End-to-End Network Trust
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Network traffic is a critical part of evaluating real-time end-to-end network trust. This project will leverage our mature commercial network traffic analysis system, FlowTraq, to design and implement a powerful new system, which we call FlowTrust, to evaluate real-time trust scores of networked computer systems based on observed network traffic. By the time a network component is identified as having suffered a breach or fault, that component will have interacted with many others in its network. Components not directly compromised by an intrusion may be secondarily compromised by sending sensitive information to a compromised host, being logged into from that host, or by acting on tainted information. Loss of trust can thereby cascade from host to host. Re-establishing end-to-end network trust therefore requires determining the timing, nature, and participants of all suspect communications, to identify and halt compromise cascades as they occur. FlowTrust builds on principles of flow analysis and epidemiology to determine the extent to which a trust breach permeates a network. It accomplishes this by categorizing network sessions according to potential to propagate negative trust, flagging risky communications as they occur, and facilitating fast identification of compromised hosts. BENEFIT: The resulting system will greatly aid in real-time evaluation of end-to-end network trust in a live system, including not only DoD networks, but those of trust-sensitive commercial organizations such as cloud storage, banks, and hospitals. It will be capable of tracking intrusions and potential breaches of data confidentiality and data integrity through multiple network hops, allowing instantaneous assessment of the scope of loss of trust. The principles developed will be applicable to analysis of a wide variety of network systems, including complex hardware, multiple-host software installs, and systems-of-systems. Although FlowTrust will be at its greatest utility as part of a comprehensive end-to-end network trust analysis system, on its own it will be commercially useful in a wide variety of network security applications. A software embodiment of this system will be offered for sale as a tool for live monitoring of intrusions and malware infections, and for sophisticated network forensics, allowing in-depth after-the-fact tracing of security breaches.

Milanowski & Associates, Inc
1021 Scott Street Suite 348
San Diego, CA 92106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 865-2174
Randall J. Milanowski
AF131-057      Awarded: 10/30/2013
Title:EDA for Strategic Radiation Hardened Precision Analog IC Obsolescence Mitigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposed program leverages mature semiconductor TCAD and EDA tools. These tools are widespread in modern analog IC design and already possess capabilities applicable to obsolete part replacement. Our plan for detailed R&D activity emphasizes tool adaptations/improvements for simplifying, automating, and accelerating the overall design retargeting task, the application of radhard-by-design, and detailed physics-based simulation of environments particular to Air Force strategic systems. We have developed concepts for prompt dose simulation that are ideal for this program, but need refinement and robust implementation into a commercial toolset. Other adaptations are required at the flow or procedural level, e.g., in addressing obsolescence, one has the benefit of (at least partial) starting design and experimental performance data. This provides opportunities for streamlining the traditional IC design flow. However, the “process retargeting problem” is a complicating factor of obsolescence, but one that can be addressed through R&D applied to TCAD flows and effective use of the pureplay foundry model and process design kits. Our Phase 1 program will produce detailed specifications for tool flow improvements and also demonstrate proof of concepts for new models. In Phase 2 we will implement the framework in a commercial TCAD/EDA flow and demonstrate its use in silicon. BENEFIT: Benefits: Reduced time and cost for replacement of obsolete strategic rad hard parts Commercial Application: There is commercial interest in emerging concepts for reconfigurable analog, analog IP, and design reuse, that attempt to parallel the digital world. The capabilities for efficient retargeting of existing designs into multiple different foundries are also applicable in these areas.

Ridgetop Group, Inc.
3580 West Ina Road
Tucson, AZ 85741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Esko Mikkola
AF131-057      Awarded: 10/30/2013
Title:Automated Analog Electronics Design Tools for Obsolete Parts
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Ridgetop Group will develop design tools to facilitate fabrication of obsolete, radiation- hardened, precision analog components. The methodology that is developed and validated during the nine-month Phase I SBIR program will be transitioned into an easy-to-use prototype software tool during Phase II. The Ridgetop EDA tool integrates well-known commercial EDA solutions to support radiation-hardened analog IC development. The first version will use Silvaco Atlas TCAD tool for radiation effect characterization, Cadence Spectre for SPICE circuit simulations, and Cadence APS for Verilog and Verilog-A simulations. Ridgetop’s own ProChek fabrication process characterization system will be integrated as a part of the tool flow to rapidly provide very valuable test data for optimum fabrication process selection, simulation model accuracy checks and RHBD structure validation. Cadence Virtuoso will be used for layout design, design rule checks and parasitic extraction. Overall flow control and automated generation of RHBD SPICE and layout files will be managed using Perl, a feature-rich scripting language. The tool can be used for generating hardened circuits for prompt dose rate effects, neutron effects, total ionizing dose and different types of single-event effects. This approach is a low-risk solution to the problem the Air Force has described in the solicitation topic. BENEFIT: Ridgetop has received valuable support from large satellite manufacturing companies and from NASA/JPL for the technology commercialization path. These companies and institutions are very interested in Ridgetop’s design flow innovation, since it can be used for rapid design of replacements for obsolete radiation-hardened components. By the same token, the tool can be used for converting existing “terrestrial” (not hardened) design schematics over to applications that have radiation tolerance requirements, which will result in significant cost savings since existing designs can now be reused. Potential commercial applications include: • Military, scientific and commercial space systems • Missile applications • Cargo scanners • Industrial radiation-hard instrumentation • Medical devices • Nuclear and high-energy physics applications

Silicon Technologies, Inc.
2180 East 4500 South Suite 210
Salt Lake City, UT 84124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 913-4332
Thomas L. Wolf
AF131-057      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Automated Analog Electronics Design Tools for Obsolete Parts
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Silicon Technologies, Inc. (STI) proposes to extend the results of a DARPA sponsored contract # W31P4Q-11-C-0046, “Design Tools For Highly Regular Circuit Geometries” to develop a set of design tools and analog cells specifically for use in automating the design of Rad Hard analog circuits. STI was able to prove feasibility of a revolutionary new set of design tools for analog design. The new design tool was developed to permit the analog designer to design and simulate layout extracted circuits without the need to pass the design to the physical layout team. The tool has shown the potential to facilitate reuse and reducing the cost of porting analog circuits by 2-4x over conventional methods. And in fact has been used to manually design a proof of concept RFID chip. BENEFIT: This project will develop an automated analog design tool to be used in the porting of analog ic's. It will reduce the cost of design and porting by 2-4x.

Escape Communications, Inc.
2790 Skypark Dr Ste 203
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 997-1303
Jim Nadeau
AF131-060      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:W and V Band Satellite Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Escape proposes a candidate waveform and signal processing architecture to efficiently support adaptive coding and symbol rates to maximize throughput and minimize power consumption for a space-based W- and V- band transceiver. BENEFIT: Escape's approach to adaptive coding and adaptive symbol rate provides maximum throughput and system gain advantages to wideband space terminals and commercial V- band terminals which operate in channels with ample bandwidth but are power-limited.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Cheng Keng Pao
AF131-060      Awarded: 9/24/2013
Title:Highly Integrated W and V Band Satellite Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: QuinStar Technology proposes an integrated solution for W/V-band GEO satellite transceivers to minimize transceiver SWaP and cost while maximizing performance. This will be accomplished by using advanced GaN technologies for the transmitter SSPA and InP technologies for the receiver LNA. As a result of recent SBIR sponsored research, QuinStar is has developed state-of-the-art GaN and InP MMICs operating at these frequencies, and proposes to apply these technologies to this program. Furthermore, we propose to integrate most of the receiver functions (LNA, mixer, etc.) on a single InP chip. This will reduce the cost as well as enhance the performance of the receiver. BENEFIT: The key W/V band transceiver technologies developed for this program can benefit future DoD, NASA, and upcoming commercial satellite communication systems. For DoD, the results of this SBIR research topic can be directly applied to future MILSATCOM programs. For example, Air Force has an ongoing W/V band Satellite Communications Experiments (WSCE) program using the same frequency allocation plan. This is a strong indication that the proposed work is completely in sync with the trend of future space terminal and communication link development. NASA and other space agencies are involved in a program called "Integrated Interplanetary Network. W-band is one of the main frequency bands this program plan to use to relay data from landers, rovers, satellites, back to Earth. Commercially, the data crowding at the current Ku/Ka band satellites is well documented. ESA has been experimenting Q/V satellite link systems (AlphaSat for example.) Several W- band projects, such as DAVID Mission and WAVE Project, are designed to perform preliminary tests for the commercial use of the W-band. The fact that FCC allows non- exclusive use of these bands by private sectors will speed up the arrival of W/V band satellite era. This research will benefit these and other upcoming opportunities.

Space Micro Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
Michael Jacox
AF131-060      Awarded: 9/12/2013
Title:W and V Band Satellite Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space Micro proposes to mitigate key technology risks to enable development of future satellite communication architectures using W-band (for uplink) and V-band (for downlink). An innovative approach to enable a very wideband modem for W/V band MILSATCOM applications is described and a work plan defined to demonstrate feasibility. Space Micro has defined an approach that will enable very large instantaneous bandwidth communications which will enhance security, propagation and data throughput at W/V band frequencies. In Phase II we will complete design and development of a satellite W/V-band transceiver. BENEFIT: In Phase III we anticipate dual use applications. Military for MILSATCOM systems which would benefit from high capacity satellite uplink / downlink capability at W-band and V-band. In addition, there is growing commercial interest in W-band and V-band for terrestrial wireless communication.

Escape Communications, Inc.
2790 Skypark Dr Ste 203
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 997-1303
Jim Nadeau
AF131-061      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:W and V band Airborne SATCOM Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Escape proposes a candidate waveform and signal processing architecture to efficiently support adaptive coding and adaptive symbol rates. These adaptive features help maximize link throughput and minimize power consumption for SATCOM Airborne W- and V- band transceivers operating in a dynamic channel environment. BENEFIT: Escape's approach to adaptive coding and adaptive symbol rate provides maximum throughput and system gain advantages to wideband airborne terminals and commercial V- band terminals which operate in channels with ample bandwidth but are power-limited.

QuinStar Technology, inc.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Tracy Lee
AF131-061      Awarded: 11/8/2013
Title:W and V band Airborne SATCOM Transceiver
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed work is to develop a high integration, single transmit, multiple receive, digital beamforming, airborne SATCOM transceiver. This can be accomplished by using advanced GaN technologies for the transmitter SSPA and InP technologies for the receiver LNA. Furthermore, we propose to integrate most of the receiver functions (e.g. the LNA, mixer, etc.) on a single InP chip. This will reduce the cost and enhance the performance of the receiver. The receiver array will be part of the digital beamforming circuit countering antenna pointing error. BENEFIT: The key W/V band transceiver technologies developed for this program can benefit future DoD, NASA, and upcoming commercial satellite communication systems. For DoD, the results of this SBIR research topic can be directly applied to future MILSATCOM programs. For example, Air Force has an ongoing W/V band Satellite Communications Experiments (WSCE) program using the same frequency allocation plan. This is a strong indication that the proposed work is completely in sync with the trend of future space terminal and communication link development. NASA and other space agencies are involved in a program called "Integrated Interplanetary Network. W-band is one of the main frequency bands this program plan to use to relay data from landers, rovers, satellites, back to Earth. Commercially, the data crowding at the current Ku/Ka band satellites is well documented. ESA has been experimenting Q/V satellite link systems (AlphaSat for example.) Several W- band projects, such as DAVID Mission and WAVE Project, are designed to perform preliminary tests for the commercial use of the W-band. The fact that FCC allows non- exclusive use of these bands by private sectors will speed up the arrival of W/V band satellite era. This research will benefit these and other upcoming opportunities.

Trex Enterprises Corporation
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5708
Vladimir Kolinko
AF131-061      Awarded: 9/19/2013
Title:V/W-band transceiver design for UAV to satellite communication
Abstract:ABSTRACT: TBD BENEFIT: TBD

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Huan Wan Tseng
AF131-062      Awarded: 9/5/2013
Title:Fast Acquisition of GPS Signals Using Time Synchronization (FAST) of Cooperative Networked Radio Nodes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this topic, the U.S. Air Force seeks to develop methods for time synchronization among radio nodes in a wireless network such that the time search space in the GPS acquisition can be divided among the nodes to cooperatively achieve fast acquisition with the goal of Time-To-First Fix (TTFF) of less than one minute. The related objective is to enable fast direct P(Y) code acquisition using cooperative networked radio nodes while saving battery life of the handheld radios equipped with military GPS receiver. Mayflower proposes an innovative system concept termed FAST that allows for precise time synchronization of the nodes in a collaborative network of wireless nodes. Mayflower proposes to demonstrate the FAST system concept and the fast acquisition of P(Y) code signal using Mayflower NavAssure® SAASM receiver as the prototype platform in the Phase II program. The technology developed in this SBIR program will be applicable to MGUE receiver as well. The primary application of this technology is for a dismounted and disadvantaged Soldier/Marine. The fast signal acquisition technology developed will apply for P(Y) code receiver as well as Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE). BENEFIT: The capability of network time synchronization is important in a variety of civilian and commercial applications such as timestamp in distributed sensor networks for data fusion for threat detection or environmental sensing, fault diagnosis and prevention in distributed database, and scheduled actuation of events in distributed systems.

NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown
AF131-062      Awarded: 9/5/2013
Title:Cooperative Networked GPS signal acquisition
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The biggest demand on a military receiver has been from the time required to search and acquire for the military signals when an accurate internal time reference is not available. Prior research by NAVSYS into network assisted GPS approaches used the JTRS network itself to transfer time from another GPS receiver to reduce the initial time uncertainty and speed the acquisition time. This required at least one receiver on the network to have already acquired and tracked the GPS signals. Under this SBIR, we proposed to develop methods to reduce the direct P(Y) acquisition time under situations where no unit on the network has yet acquired a GPS solution. The cooperative signal acquisition algorithms shall use shared data between network participants to speed direct P(Y) and direct M-code acquisition to reduce the search space for disadvantaged units, and allow longer correlation times for weak signal and high interference environments. We shall develop a Phase II plan for a prototype system to be used to demonstrate the performance under live tracking conditions of the cooperative acquisition approach and document the Phase I simulation results, and proposed Phase II, system architecture and demonstration plan in the Phase I report. BENEFIT: The NAVSYS VMAG (Vector Mapped Assisted GPS) and NAMPA (Networked Assisted M- Code Puncture Acquisition) technologies will provide rapid TTFF (Time to First Fix) initialization among a networked user groups. Military applications will be pursued in all major DoD branches by tailoring the implementation of this technology to their specific needs. Civilian applications include public sector infrastructure and logistics, which will compliment private sector applications such as commercial logistics and mobile device applications.

Network Sensing Technologies LLC
1184 Eglin Parkway
Shalimar, FL 32579
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 613-6624
Ben-z Lawrence
AF131-062      Awarded: 9/10/2013
Title:Cooperative GPS Networked Acquisition System (COGNAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used by the DoD to provide the position for accessing location and movement of ground, air and sea assets and threats and for precise navigation. For increased accuracy and anti-spoofing, the encrypted Precise Positioning Service (PPS) is utilized by the U.S. military and allied forces. The P(Y) code length and complexity requires precise time and ephemeris to provide successful acquisition and tracking. The required acquisition time and time to first fix is directly dependent upon the time accuracy and environment as current system do not perform well in degraded environments. A Cooperative GPS Networked Acquisition System (COGNAS) provides a network of participants and optimization strategies to enable successful acquisition and reduce acquisition and tracking time with initial coarse time and position estimates. The code search is partitioned across the network of GPS receivers effectively increasing the number of GPS parallel correlators. The optimization also increases performance in GPS signal degraded environments such as SV obscuration, multipath and interference. BENEFIT: This research will produce a cooperative network of GPS receivers that allows consistent acquisition and reduction of time of acquisition and tracking by optimizing the code search across the network of participants. This can be extended to commercial GPS receivers for use in civil organizations to reduce the effects of GPS signal degraded environments such as multipath and urban canyon.

NAVSYS Corporation
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Alison K. Brown
AF131-063      Awarded: 8/20/2013
Title:GPS-denied Positioning using Networked communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A robust back-up navigation alternative is needed to continue to provide accurate PVT data when GPS is denied. Navigation solutions can be enhanced by utilizing existing networked communications for dismounted forces operating in small platoons. When some of the forces lose their GPS signals, traditional GPS-denied network positioning techniques such as Time of Arrival (TOA) or Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) have been employed previously. Unfortunately these techniques require extremely tight time synchronization among the sensor nodes; and such a synchronization requirement has previously been too stringent to be reasonably met by man-portable hardware due to SWaP constraints. This effort will evaluate methods to allow use of RF ranging through TOA and signals of opportunity (SoOP) through TDOA, by leveraging high precision time transfer between software defined radios to maintain the tight time synchronization needed to perform back-up navigation in a GPS denied environment. The expected performance will be demonstrated through simulation and prototyping efforts. A plan shall be developed to perform a sub-scale demonstration of a positioning network in Phase II to demonstrating the ability of a group of nodes to successfully navigate under GPS-denied conditions and evaluate transition options for operational SDR products. BENEFIT: The NAVSYS DiNO-Pos (Distributed Network Opportunistic Positioning) technology will achieve high positional accuracy in GPS-denied environments that will increase military operational effectiveness and save lives. The civilian public protectors will also be able to execute their tasks more efficiently and with less delays that can also save lives. Private sector applications include automobile navigation and fleet/asset management where operational integrity can be preserved during these adverse conditions.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Donald Harbin
AF131-063      Awarded: 9/4/2013
Title:GPS-Denied Positioning Using Networked Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal is for the development of a novel algorithm to utilize commercially available signals of opportunity (SoOP) received by several participating cooperative nodes to derive the location of those nodes. The use of multiple transceiver devices within a network possessing the capability to receive and transmit radio/TV signals can enable a new method of positioning and navigation. Synchronization of the receiver nodes or of the commercial broadcast towers is not necessary for this method to be effective, thereby opening up an existing planet-wide resource with an established and ubiquitous infrastructure to be used for localization. BENEFIT: First responders operating in a disaster area will benefit from the proposed system.

Q-Track Corporation
2223 Drake Avenue SW 1st Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-0075
Hans Schantz
AF131-063      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:Absolute Reference Correlation SOLD (ARCSOLD)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Q-Track proposes to develop and demonstrate feasibility of a system for absolute localization in GPS-denied environments. A Signals-of-Opportunity Location Device (“SOLD”), previously demonstrated to yield 1m repeatable location indoors, provides the desired “absolute location reference. Q-Track’s proposed SOLD sensor – a compact, lightweight tag ultimately costing about $50 in volume – also creates “Virtual Landmarks” that allow the system to combine location estimates from multiple users at various times so as to yield improved location estimates. With uncorrelated errors, the location estimate improves approximately as square root n where n is the number of user passes through the Virtual Landmark, converging to the 30cm accuracy with which SOLD defines Virtual Landmarks. We estimate the system is feasible for a 200MHz processor with memory of about 774kB/user/hour. With algorithm optimization and improvements in database management, the algorithm may be made substantially more efficient. Q-Track will field-test how the system improves the accuracy of GPS and other location data. In addition, Q-Track’s approach has the ability to serve as a GPS back-up, providing GPS-quality location estimates (or better) in urban areas where Signals-of-Opportunity are present but GPS signals are unavailable or marginal due to jamming, interference, or line-of-sight blockage. BENEFIT: The proposed effort enables existing location estimate errors to be improved approximately as the square root of n where n is the number of users passing through a Virtual Landmark location – up to the approximately 30cm accuracy with which the Virtual Landmark is defined using the Signals-of-Opportunity. Once a sufficient density of Virtual Landmarks have been determined using an expensive, high precision indoor navigation system, further navigation through the area may be accomplished using a compact, lightweight tag device costing about $50 in volume. We believe the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed system will allow Q-Track to unlock the indoor navigation market - ultimately an opportunity likely larger than the $30B outdoor location market served by GPS.

Venture Ad Astra, LLC
410 W 27th Ave Suite 200
Anchorage, AK 99503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 330-7568
Hugh Brunk
AF131-063      Selected for Award
Title:PhaseNet(tm): Efficient Absolute Positioning For GPS-Denied Environments Over RF Networks
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Venture Ad Astra PhaseNet precision location technology can provide sub-10 meter absolute location for military applications using networked Radio Frequency (RF) signals of opportunity in GPS denied environments such as indoors, or during GPS jamming. To provide an even more robust capability in severe multi-path environments, we have teamed with Silvus Technologies to leverage their advanced hardware multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capabilities to mitigate multipath and reduce fading. This approach is attractive because it requires no changes to network architecture and can be implemented in software. PhaseNet combines the advantages of current Time of Arrival (TOA) and Round Trip Time (RTT) in a clever way that avoids the need for clock synchronization in the classic TOA approach. Instead, it deals with unsynchronized clocks by calculating the relationships between the network clocks. Because clock relationships are discovered in PhaseNetTM, round trip message patterns characteristic of RTT which significantly reduces message traffic. PhaseNet also provides user gain with increasing numbers of nodes since clock relationships between pairs of nodes is learned. Multipath mitigation is enhanced by the Silvus multiple antenna and MIMO design. There are several practical techniques for registering location to the WGS 84 reference frame to achieve absolute position. BENEFIT: The BENEFITs of PhaseNet are applicable to commercial, space and military sectors. PhaseNet approach is attractive because it requires minimal changes to existing network architectures and can be implemented in software. The ability to locate in relative and absolute coordinates with efficiency and accuracy is of value to retailers that are interested in micro targeting consumers with better localized information and services. In the ADS-B and air navigation sector, redundancy to GPS in providing tracking of airborne assets is of immense value to safety and cost savings that can be realized in operational efficiencies. PhaseNet can be applied to ADS-B with minimal changes. The core capability of PhaseNet to synchronize clocks to improve the accuracy of locating nodes in a network has far reaching impact in many areas of position and navigation across existing RF communication networks.

Digital Optics Technologies, Inc.
1645 Hicks Road, Suite R
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 358-2592
Shih Tseng
AF131-065      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Integrated Micro-Inertial Sensors For GPS Denied Navigation Using Fast-Light Enhanced Ring Laser Gyroscopes and Accelerometers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: For navigation of space platforms under GPS denied conditions, there is a need for micro- inertial sensors, with better accuracy and smaller volume and weight than the state of the art. We at Digital Optics Technologies (DOT) have been developing a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (SRLG) that can improve the accuracy of rotation sensing by nearly six orders of magnitude. Alternatively, for a given accuracy need, the SRLG can be very small. DOT has also developed the architecture for a superluminal ring laser accelerometer (SRLA), which can achieve a sensitivity of 10 pico-g/root-Hz. Under Phase I, we will demonstrate technical feasibility of realizing a compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) that would comprise three SRLGs and three SRLAs for all-axes sensing, utilizing miniature vapor cells, integrated optical components, detectors and lasers. In addition to miniaturization, a key focus of this effort would be to develop requisite components that would be suitable for space platforms. To this end, we will carry out analysis and test for radiation hardening, extreme temperature variations, and tolerance for high-G situations. Development of a prototype that would meet the size, weight, power and performance goals would be carried out in Phase II. Honeywell, Triad Technology, and International Photonics Consultants would be subcontractors. Dr. Selim Shahriar, inventor of the SRLG and the SRLA and the chief scientific adviser at DOT, will coordinate the overall effort. BENEFIT: Three SRLAs, combined with three SRLGs, can be used to realize a high accuracy IMU that is very compact and light weight. Such an IMU could also be relatively inexpensive. An IMU of this type could have a significant impact on guidance, navigation and control systems for spacecraft, launch vehicles, missiles, kill vehicles, smart munitions, and other applications requiring precision inertial knowledge. Non-DoD applications include spacecraft guidance, navigation and control, as well as commercial aircraft inertial navigation systems

MagiQ Technologies, Inc.
11 Ward Street
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-8300
Caleb Christensen
AF131-065      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Integrated Fast-light Micro-inertial Sensors for GPS Denied Navigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop an all-optical Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which achieves high sensitivity to accelerations and rotations in a small package using fast-light enhancement. In an optical IMU, the rotation sensitivity depends on the area enclosed by a circular optical path, so it is impossible to significantly reduce the size of a standard fiber optic gyroscope or ring laser gyroscope without sacrificing sensitivity. However, using the phenomenon of fast light, which we will produce through Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in a fiber, the sensitivity of an optical sensor of a given size and shape can be enhanced by orders of magnitude. Optical accelerometers can likewise be enhanced to high sensitivity using fast-light phenomena. Our approach will allow the construction of gyroscopes and accelerometers from fiber-based components and reliable, efficient telecom-grade lasers. Unlike fast-light methods which use atomic phenomena, our design will not require locking of lasers to specific wavelengths, and will allow freedom in component selection based on cost, efficiency, radiation resistance or other factors. Combined with photonic integrated circuit technologies, this will allow the construction of a rugged, compact, high sensitivity IMU ideal for unmanned aerial vehicles, orbital launch vehicles and spacecraft. BENEFIT: • The system will be ideal for unmanned aircraft, with a sensitivity and SWaP that addresses the unique requirements of smaller airframes and autonomous operation. This includes self-guided ordinance and unmanned aerial vehicles, where traditional optical IMU systems are too large to use. • The system can be used in the tracking and control of launch vehicles for placing payloads into orbital or sub-orbital trajectories. The reduced SWaP will be very valuable for reducing costs or improving performance. • A small, low power inertial measurement device could prove useful on manned or unmanned spacecraft by providing precision inertial feedback during orbital maneuvers or stationkeeping operations. • The device could be used to actively stabilize platforms such as for mounted weapons and communications platforms or during sensitive astronomical observations or scientific measurements. • Commercial aircraft and marine vessels could benefit from a compact, rugged device, which may prove cost-effective for some applications.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Jim Coward
AF131-065      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Integrated Fast-light Micro-inertial Sensors for GPS Denied Navigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The ability to maintain precision navigation without periodic position updates from external sensors such as GPS is challenging. One particularly challenging scenario is navigation for transonic through hypersonic weapon systems and UAVs. The flight dynamics and operational environment of medium / high altitude platforms limit the availability and precision of traditional non-GPS positioning systems. Existing inertial-based navigation systems suffer too much drift when they operate continuously for days. To address this navigation, SA Photonics is pleased to propose development of the UVG, an Ultra sensitive IMU based on the fast light ring laser technology. The UVG’s highly stable dead-reckoning sensors will enable precision inertial navigation for far-greater periods of time between external position updates. The calculated performance for UVG is > 100X better than existing pointing grade IMUs, and the technology is far more compatible with the construction of highly integrated compact and cost-effective Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). BENEFIT: SA Photonics will use our fast light technologies to develop a highly stable, ultra sensitive and compact IMU that will have performance > 100X better than existing pointing grade IMUs. There are multiple benefits to the Air Force: - Very low development cost - Ultra sensitive and stable - Rugged, reliable, compact - Low unit cost

Kord Technologies, Inc.
1101 McMurtrie Drive NW Building A
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 617-0957
Craig Farlow
AF131-066      Awarded: 8/23/2013
Title:Multiband Metasurface for Reduced Antenna Footprint and Jamming Mitigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force has identified the need to improve satellite communications by increasing bandwidth, yet seeks to accomplish this without increasing the antenna payload footprint and without introducing vulnerability to transmission interference or jamming. One mature and popular technology explored over the past several decades is a class of engineered materials known as frequency selective surfaces (FSSs). The characteristics of FSSs allow the same surface to be completely opaque in a certain frequency band(s) while simultaneously being completely transparent in another band(s). This property can be exploited to create antenna designs which allow multiple antennas to share the same aperture. Prior antenna based FSS solutions involve the use of gimbaled fixed beam antennas. Such systems suffer from slow switching between users and limited electrical scan, multi-beam and anti-jamming capabilities. Kord Technologies proposes to team with Digital Fusion/Kratos to address the drawbacks of prior approaches by investigating the feasibility of integrating FSSs into phased array antennas. Such antennas possess one key attribute which makes them uniquely appealing – their ability to perform electrical beam steering. Utilizing electrical beam steering (rather than mechanical beam steering) is significantly more robust mechanically and also permits very fast redirection of the beam(s). BENEFIT: Kord anticipates two key results from this contract. First, we will demonstrate the ability of the antenna system to operate multiple antennas located in the same aperture, thereby reducing overall antenna footprint. We will produce a design for a breadboard prototype antenna module that can be fabricated and tested in Phase II using materials suitable for space applications. The second key result will be the ability to mitigate the adverse effects from unwanted RF signals. Based on Kord’s antenna concepts, protection from broadband jamming and radiated co-site interference effects will be an important aspect that is inherent to the design. This type of protection will be extremely valuable in preventing communication disruptions and avoiding equipment damage from a potential hostile enemy intent on interfering with a vital communication link. The phenomenology understanding obtained during Phase I will enable Kord to optimize the design during Phase II to exploit the nature of FSSs and/or photonic crystals to achieve the ability to operate multiple RF bands in a significantly reduced footprint and with inherent protection to interference sources.

Solid State Scientific Corporation
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
Darlene Franco
AF131-066      Awarded: 8/21/2013
Title:Active, frequency-selective meta-surfaces for reduced antenna footprint and jamming mitigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Significant cost reductions and system improvements would ensue if multiple transmit and receive antennas could share one RF aperture without performance degradation due to self- interference phenomenon. Effects of radar jamming signals would be also be reduced through the use of a properly designed free space RF electromagnetic filter placed within that common aperture. To enable such improvements, a narrow band meta-surface, capable of dynamically switching between at least two, but possibly more, RF transmissive states is proposed. Utilizing a suitably designed electrical or optical element placed across the gap of a split ring resonator, external means can be used to short the gap, effectively switching between a split ring resonator structure and a donut shaped resonant cavity, each centered at a different, non-overlapping, resonant frequency. Already demonstrated at long-wave IR optical frequencies using numerical techniques, this effort extends this previous work to RF frequencies and explores, initially through simulation and in later phases through direct fabrication and characterization of the meta-surface, the design space need to selectively switch between 20, 44 and 60GHz. Resonant cavity geometry will be investigated as well as array effects associated with transmission bandwidth, center frequency, switching speed and overall fabrication complexity. BENEFIT: An active frequency selective surface will allow multiple transmit and receive antennas to share a common aperture, dramatically reducing system footprint and mitigating effects of jamming signals. Such a surface will find use in space-based platforms where communication and sensor payload size, weight and component count are of extreme importance.

Syntonics LLC
9160 Red Branch Road
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-0500
Eugene Y. Lee
AF131-066      Awarded: 9/5/2013
Title:Multiband Metasurface for Reduced Antenna Footprint and Jamming Mitigation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Team will design and develop an antenna design operating at 20, 44, and 60 GHz (K/V) band. We will be basing our new design on a previously successful Phase II SBIR using independently moving metasurface antennas. This new design will take advantage of electronic steering and use multiple apertures sandwiched together. This multiband metasurface antenna can be scaled and adapted to work in tandem with existing antenna structures on the satellite. This antenna will be capable of simultaneous operation at all bands, beam steering, and adjusting coverage area. Most importantly, the entire antenna structure will appear “invisible” at frequencies outside the operating band. Therefore, the antenna can be placed on the satellite with minimal considerations to RFI and RFC. The result will be an antenna that provides an add on upgrade capability to the satellite. We conclude by developing a proof of concept and demonstrating, analytically and with breadboard hardware, the feasibility of meeting the Air Force’s requirements. The team intends to use heavy modeling and simulation for initial investigation of design approaches will initially be used. Small-scale models will eventually be used to demonstrate the proof of concept by implementing single aperture operation at multiple RF bands. BENEFIT: This research effort will yield multiband metasurface antenna that provides an add on upgrade capability to the satellite. This antenna can be used to upgrade the desired platform with minimal considerations to RFI/RFc.

Allied Associates International, Inc.
6801 Kennedy Road Suite 302
Warrenton, VA 20187
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 341-8262
James Metzger
AF131-067      Awarded: 8/21/2013
Title:Spawn for software-only telemetry front end processing
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Replacement of specialized telemetry front-end processor (FEP) hardware with flexible and future-resilient software, specifically that with the following characteristics: - Leverages multi-core processors to support increasing data rates and concurrency - Reusable and extensible solution to anticipate platform evolution and technology trends in commodity hardware - Demonstrate a positive impact on development and operational costs - Support for a variety of telemetry sources and formats The main objective of this effort is the development of telemetry data processing software leveraging Spawn, a framework developed by Allied Associates International (A2I), Inc. for streaming data applications on multi-core processors. A telemetry module library built on Spawn shall be developed for telemetry data streams and sufficiently diverse to demonstrate flexibility of the solution in addressing any source or format BENEFIT: Solution is applicable to civil and commercial sectors that use specialized front end processing hardware for de-commutating of telemetry streams in mission control centers. This applies to military, scientific and commercial domains specifically to space vehicle telemetry, missile defense and multiple agencies (Air Force, NASA, academic and intelligence) domestic and international

AMERGINT Technologies, LLC
2315 Briargate Parkway, Suite 100
Colorado Springs, CO 80920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 522-2813
Rob Andzik
AF131-067      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Software-Only Front-End Processors for Satellite Command and Control
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Legacy satellite command and control Front-End Processors (FEPs) are constructed using largely monolithic architectures, making deployed baseline changes difficult. This rigidity creates restrictions and limits current TT&C mission capability and prevents increases in data throughput required by both large-scale satellite programs, CubeSat, and ORS missions. Many FEPs are comprised of dedicated hardware and firmware units built on proprietary platforms, requireing dedicated processors. System modifications are complicated by firmware timing constraints, hardware change complexity, and custom Graphical User Interfaces making them difficult to adapt to changing requirements. Today’s ground telemetry processing centers require increasing data throughput with the ability to meet real-time demands of processing multiple telemetry. Users need the ability to modify processing streams with OR without involving vendor personnel. These systems must be capable of being completely software-defined and deployed on Commercial Off-The- Shelf servers. Our Phase 1 proposal builds on our softFEP™ architecture and product foundation. We propose to gather and evaluate requirements in the areas of customer reconfigurability of FEP functions, code-generation of software devices into T&C functions and building virtual-machine based training and simulation for control centers. The effort concludes with a demonstration of the additional capability integrated with softFEP. BENEFIT: The benefits of exercising Phase 1 proposed initiative results in software-defined FEPs that are modifiable by end-user technical personnel without the need of detailed software knowledge. This initiative also provides the construct and tools for site implementation of smaller T&C systems for CubeSat type missions. Execution of this proposal also results in the enhancement of satellite and ground system emulation for environment simulation and training. These benefits have direct applicability into the commercial control center and satellite test markets.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
5777 Central Avenue, Suite 221
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 834-3475
Geoffrey Crowley
AF131-068      Selected for Award
Title:Retrieving Cloud Ice Water, Cloud Liquid Water, and other Cloud Parameters from GPS Radio Occultation and Satellite Microwave Imager/Sounder in Heavy
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Cloud ice water content and cloud liquid water content strongly affect radiative transfer of solar energy to the atmosphere, and hence need to be taken into account in any modeling of the weather and climate. This proposal advances the poorly-known area of sensitivity of GPS RO to precipitation and clouds, and takes advantage of advances in signal measurement technology. The overall goal of the proposal is to determine the feasibility of using GPS Radio occultation to assist in retrievals of cloud properties in the presence of heavy precipitation. To achieve this goal we will: • determine whether the expected magnitude of the differential GPS refractive delay due to heavy precipitation is significantly greater than reasonable detection limits in radio occultation measurements • assess whether the thermodynamic and hydrometeor profiles from GPS RO can provide inputs to radiative transfer models in cloudy and heavy precipitation conditions that are improved relative to other alternatives for calibrating microwave retrieval techniques. • assess the feasibility of adapting an airborne GPS RO system to test the detection limits in a realistic case study, because existing COSMIC data do not contain measurements at different polarizations to retrieve liquid water in the form of precipitation. BENEFIT: Retrieval of refractive delay due to precipitation and liquid water from GPS signals is a challenging new frontier. This proposal advances the poorly-known area of sensitivity of GPS RO to precipitation and clouds, and takes advantage of advances in signal measurement technology. The proposed effort will advance the GPS RO technique to enable retrievals of cloud ice water, cloud liquid water, and rain. The resulting cloud ice water content and cloud liquid water content could then be taken into account in modeling of the weather and climate. We anticipate that the GPS RO cloud ice and liquid water retrieval algorithms developed under this program will be implemented on ASTRA’s commercially available CASES dual frequency GPS receivers for spaceborne and airborne measurements.

STAR LLC
3125 Sterling Circle Suite 105
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 640-5590
Francois Vandenberge
AF131-068      Awarded: 8/20/2013
Title:Retrieving Cloud Ice Water, Cloud Liquid Water, and other Cloud Parameters from GPS Radio Occultation and Satellite Microwave Imager/Sounder in Heavy
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Science and Technology in Atmospheric Research (STAR) LLC in Boulder, with scientific support from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is proposing to conduct research and development in the field of IWC and CLW estimation from GPSRO and satellite microwave radiances. Key to the success of GPS RO inversions is the prior knowledge of cloud properties (rain, cloud liquid content, ice, etc.). STAR will apply its knowledge and expertise in cloud data assimilation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide better estimates of cloud fields, so that GPSRO retrievals can be performed in better conditions. NCAR’s WRF Data Assimilation is an advanced modeling system that can ingest and extract information from a variety of observing systems and, in particular, from microwave satellite radiances, such as SSMI/S. Variational assimilation of observations is a unique and convenient mean to produce physically consistent retrievals on three-dimensional regular grids. Accuracy of IWC and CLW retrievals will be estimated and their potential impact for improving radiative transfer calculations will be assessed. BENEFIT: Improved cloud products retrievals from the coming COSMIC-2 mission, which in turn will improve polarized radiative transfer calculations needed for various sensors used by the Air Force.

Braxton Technologies, LLC
6 North Tejon St Suite 220
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 219-7475
Triet Tran
AF131-069      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Enabling Automated Real-Time AFSCN Scheduling - Ace Premier™ Intelligent Distributed Scheduler (AceIDS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Braxton Ace Premier™ Intelligent Distributed Scheduler (AceIDS) prototype will demonstrate the feasibility of a distributed scheduling system capable of automatically optimizing ground communication resource allocation to space assets fusing electronically- generated routine and real-time priority access requests with real-time space and ground resource status changes. During this research, we select and test candidate optimization algorithms from both the classical non-evolutionary and evolutionary algorithm to build an intelligent scheduling engine and leverage our experience hosting a deterministic de- confliction engine within our Ace Visual Scheduler (AceVSC) product. Braxton applies multi-objective optimization using evolutionary algorithms which is one of the fastest growing areas of research among computational intelligent topics. AceVSC will be integrated with the distributed architecture of Braxton’s Ace Mission Premier™ Planning Software (AceMPS). This architecture will be enhanced to accommodate the data processing needs of remote schedulers. The prototype is tested using our existing Ace Simulator (AceSIM). This product simulates the AFSCN and the space segment, acting as a stimulator for real- time scheduling. We construct various scenarios to test the ability of the scheduling system in response to ground resource and satellite anomalies, while collecting performance data for analysis. BENEFIT: Braxton anticipates several benefits of a scheduling system capable of automatically optimizing satellite and ground resources fusing electronically-generated routine and real- time priority access requests. First, a reduction in the number of personnel required to schedule AFSCN resources to include the time to train the scheduling team. Second, an improved real-time scheduling interface allows Satellite Operations Centers (SOCs) to intelligently plan and adjust their missions in significantly less time. Third, improved utilization of AFSCN resources could reduce the required number of antennas driving a potential reduction in AFSCN sustainment costs. Finally, from a commercial standpoint, the proposed automated intelligent scheduling system could be applied to optimize resource allocation for military, civilian and commercial SATCOM, or ISR programs. A marginal 1% increase in utilization would generate savings or increased sales in the tens of millions.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Daniel Stouch
AF131-069      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Scheduling Tasks for AFSCN Resources using MBO Autonomous Planning (STARMAP)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Scheduling Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) resources is a challenge because windows of visibility are limited between satellites and remote tracking stations on the ground, and there are more requests for access than available resources. Human scheduling at a centralized location is a difficult, time-consuming, and inefficient endeavor because pre-planned routine tasks need to be combined with emergent priority access requests in real-time. AFSCN schedulers need an intelligent, distributed, real-time planning and scheduling tool that uses spacecraft telemetry data and automatically allocates antennas based on complex optimization criteria for operation in a “lights out” environment that will reduce the burden on human schedulers and enable them to focus on higher level objectives. Charles River Analytics proposes to design and demonstrate the feasibility of a framework for Scheduling Tasks for AFSCN Resources using MBO Autonomous Planning (STARMAP). STARMAP is an intelligent real-time planning and scheduling framework for distributed market-based optimization (MBO) of antenna resources to improve scheduling effectiveness of satellite networks. Our approach involves first defining and analyzing requirements, then designing a cooperative monitoring framework, developing a market- based task assignment algorithm, developing a limited-scope prototype, and formally evaluating the framework to demonstrate its effectiveness.TBA BENEFIT: We anticipate STARMAP will have immediate benefit to the AFSCN enterprise by enabling intelligent distributed contact request scheduling to improve scheduling effectiveness of satellite networks, and enable decreased staffing by AFSCN schedulers. STARMAP technology will also be incorporated into our AgentWorks™ commercial product by expanding it to include distributed market optimization agents, providing adaptive display capabilities, and expanding its computational reasoning abilities.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1670 South Amphlett Blvd. Suite 310
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Richard Stottler
AF131-069      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Intelligent, Distributed, Cooperative AFSCN Mission Planning and Scheduling
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal of this proposed effort is to develop a distributed, intelligent, cooperative AFSCN mission planning and scheduling system (DICAMPSS) to implement an improved scheduling process and provide greater sharing and availability of information and knowledge. To realize this goal will require development of SOC-based intelligent software that allows graphical editing and management of decision processes associated with their constellations and individual satellites. This software must be able to negotiate resolution of conflicts with the DICAMPSS community in an automated or semi-automated manner. Such a distributed intelligent communications resource scheduling capability will provide better quality schedules; faster scheduling; handling larger, more complex sets of requests; and handling additional communication system capabilities. The goals of the Phase I research are to understand the current and future satellite communications resource scheduling domain including SOC, 22 SOPS, and JSpOC user requirements, investigate integration requirements, elaborate the heuristics, algorithms and techniques for distributed scheduling, analyze them as to their feasibility in several dimensions, further prove the feasibility of the techniques through prototype development, and develop the Phase II system design. TRACLabs will provide their DCI agent architecture. ISS will provide JSpOC, JMS, and ALPS expertise. DF&NN will provide E-SAS and EMI detection experience. BENEFIT: The most direct target for the results of this effort is the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). By both demonstrating significantly improved performance during Phase II and ensuring that the ultimate results can be integrated into Air Force operations, the Air Force will have a strong incentive to operationalize the Phase II development of the proposed DICAMPSS. We are already marketing Aurora, our general intelligent planning and scheduling framework, and customizing it for a variety of domains. The additional capabilities developed for distributed, cooperative communication scheduling can be synergistically marketed to the same clients. We anticipate that this effort will result in additional scheduling algorithms that we will be able to incorporate into our existing scheduling products, thus increasing the benefits they provide and their value.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 413-0290
Benjamin P Cook
AF131-070      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Adaptive Bimodal Compression of OPIR Data
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We present an innovative data compression technique adapted to the particular characteristics of OPIR sensors and missions. This allows optimal treatment of specific features including noise, non-uniformity, and geometry. We propose a bimodal technique designed to optimally estimate data statistics by separating static terrain from transient and dynamic content. BENEFIT: We will pursue operationalization of this technique through successful transition paths Arete has developed for NTM processing algorithms in prior work. We will pursue transition to NASA and NOAA infrared sensors through our business relationship with Carr Astronautics. We will explore opportunities to implement on UAV platforms and manned surveillance aircraft. Finally, we will seek to integrate these techniques on current and future OPIR sensors.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Randy Paffenroth
AF131-070      Awarded: 10/23/2013
Title:High Compression of Infrared Data
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Data compression schemes generally fall into two main categories: lossless and lossy. Lossless schemes promise to provide an uncompressed file which is identical before and after compression. As lossless schemes must be able to reconstruct every feature of the original file they often provide modest compression ratios. In fact, it is easy to show that no lossless compression scheme can compress all possible input files. On the other hand, lossy schemes have license to discard some measure of the original data and, as a result, they often result in much better compression ratios. However, due to the lossy nature of the compression algorithms, some information of the original data is omitted or distorted during the compression; therefore, the quality of the resulting file is often only controllable at the most rudimentary of levels. Is it possible to have good compression ratios typical of lossy schemes, while at the same time maintaining accuracy and rigorous control over data loss on a per pixel basis? As we will demonstrate in this proposal such algorithms are indeed possible and practical for real world problems. BENEFIT: Algorithms for performing advanced processing of EO/IR imagery have wide applicability in several domains including many viable transition paths within the Department of Defense ranging from missile defense to intelligence data gathering. Beyond military applications, there is a vast range of commercial applications such as spacecraft monitoring and video surveillance for security. The key idea of our work is the development of efficient compression schemes whose error is controlled on a per pixel basis. In standard lossy compression algorithms, some information of the original data is omitted or distorted during the compression; therefore, the quality of the resulting file is often only controllable at the most rudimentary of levels. Our methods, on the other hand, allow error control on a per pixel basis. Such methods allow the user of the data to have confidence that the compression scheme has not removed features of the data, nor introduced artifacts, that reduce the quality of imagery. Some of the ideas proposed here have already found footing in geospatial data compression, and these themes are positioned to have a similar impact in the IR intelligence domain at large.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Hai Wei
AF131-070      Awarded: 10/24/2013
Title:High Efficiency Space Infrared Data Compression
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space based Infrared (IR) system generates massive amount of IR surveillance data, which strains the limited communication bandwidth, storage and computational resources onboard space or airborne platforms. This poses a great challenge, especially as the spectral and spatial resolutions of sensors keep increasing and more of the sensors are deployed. In this project, UtopiaCompression (UC), in collaboration with Lockheed Martin – Mission System and Training, proposes to develop a novel High Efficiency Image Compression (HEIC) technology, capable of intelligently reducing the space IR data size to meet the bandwidth constraints while preserving critical information required for follow-up image exploitation within an operationally significant timeline. With a unique formulation of the lossless compression problem, HEIC utilizes advanced machine learning techniques to form accurate prediction for maximum de-correlation performance and seamlessly integrates lossless approach and multiple near-lossless approaches in a single and scalable framework. The anticipated project deliverable - HEIC compression system will offer superior compression performance and support coding modes including lossless, perception-lossless, and region-of-interest lossless, etc. Phase I effort will focus on algorithmic development, performance benchmarking, systems engineering and analysis to identity the best designs and implement the corresponding compression software prototype suitable for the Space based IR system. BENEFIT: The proposed High Efficiency Image Compression (HEIC) technology will materially benefit Air Force objectives by enabling the compression and transmission of massive space IR surveillance data in real-time over existing communications links to tactical and theater users and imagery analysts without reduction in image accuracy/quality. By enabling the efficient use of IR data captured from the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS), UC’s technology will support critical mission areas including missile warning, missile defense, technical intelligence and battle-space awareness. DEFENSE APPLICATIONS: The Air Force Space Command’s Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) serves as the primary acquisition program for our HEIC technology. Following the Phase I effort, and while proceeding with Phases II and III development, UC will work closely with both the Air Force and prime contractor partners to gather all the technical requirements and develop business use cases for applying the HEIC technology to the Space Based Infrared System. In addition, UC has identified numerous product opportunities within the US Military’s modernization effort centering on implementing C4ISR (Command, Control, Computers, Communication, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) technologies. The military/government segment of the surveillance equipment market is projected to reach $16.1 billion by 2015, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10%. Multiple DoD programs would benefit from UC’s technologies with

Hart Scientific Consulting International LLC
5434 E. Burns St.
Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 214-3517
Douglas Hope
AF131-071      Awarded: 8/1/2013
Title:Light-weight, compact SWIR and MWIR imaging interferometer for space
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose a novel SWIR/MWIR imaging system targeted for deployment at geosynchronous orbits. The new system is based on interferometric principles, is scalable, light-weight, and uses easily replicable inexpensive optics. The optics, detectors, and interferometric signal processing principles draw heavily on decades of experience in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution in the IR with cost-effective optical solutions. The system is designed to fit within a 2 foot cube. Light weight is assured by building the infrastructure from carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) which has been qualified in space. The same material is employed for the primary mirrors of the interferometric elements in a replication process. Thus, not only are they light weight, but they are cheap, easy to fabricate, and readily produced in quantity. They also demonstrate excellent optical quality. The design allows for up to six interferometer elements to be combined in an arrangement that comes close to providing the sensitivity of a filled aperture while remaining much more compact. Dual imaging cameras behind the interferometer allow broad wavelength coverage in the atmospheric windows across the SWIR and MWIR bands. Beam combination is by conventional glass optics held rigidly in place. Processing of the interferometer signals to remove the instrumental point-spread function uses a light-weight on-board processor that runs in real time. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits are a light-weight space based sensor for SWIR/MWIR imaging that is inexpensive, easy and rapid to manufacture, and can readily be deployed on commercial buses. The principles developed under this program are easily transferred to airborne platforms to provide larger apertures with greater resolution and sensitivity than current technology without increasing the system size, weight, and power demands. Ground-based platforms for surveillance and security will also benefit from the same advantages.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Division Systems 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Tin M. Aye
AF131-071      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:Multi-Aperture Coherent Interferometric Telescopic Array Infrared Sensor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a space-based, low-weight, low-volume MWIR and SWIR, interferometric IR sensor, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Multi-Aperture Coherent Interferometric Telescopic Array Infrared (MACInTIR) sensor. The proposed MACInTIR sensor system is based on a unique combination of a coherent telescopic array, orthogonal 2x2 array Fizeau interferometer beam combiner optics, low- power, compact, liquid, crystal-based, multispectral tunable filters, wave-front sensors and correctors, high-resolution SWIR and MWIR sensor-arrays, a real-time image processor, and control electronics. The phased-array telescopes and Fizeau interferometer optics allow the MACInTIR sensor to be utilized as a long-range, passive space-based, IR-imaging payload, with a large, effective aperture of minimum size, weight, and power. By electronically correcting and combining the optical fields of the telescope array, high-resolution imagery can be achieved. In Phase I, POC will develop a preliminary design for the MACInTIR sensor, evaluate its effectiveness by modeling, and demonstrate the feasibility of fabrication using a laboratory prototype. In Phase II, POC will develop and test a prototype MACInTIR sensor system, demonstrate its capability to perform multi-aperture interferometry and provide high-resolution long-range IR images, and identify a path toward space-flight-ready IR sensor hostable payloads as well as performance improvement. BENEFIT: The MACInTIR sensor system, with its small SWaP and high performance will be extremely useful for a wide range of DoD space and aircraft sensor platforms. As a result, high- resolution long-range IR imaging could be easily achieved with a smaller, low-cost system. Commercial applications include commercial IR surveillance satellites, space telescopes (NASA), homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveillance, agriculture, and geospatial imaging.

Cognitive Radio Technologies, LLC
147 Mill Ridge Rd, Suite 212
Lynchburg, VA 24502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 420-8055
James Neel
AF131-072      Awarded: 8/21/2013
Title:Game-Theory Enabled Radio Spectrum Management and Waveform Adaptation for Advanced Wideband Satellite Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This project will identify feasible game-theoretical approaches for joint waveform adaptation, cognitive spectrum sensing & management in hierarchical spectrum sharing games with primary users, secondary users, persistent jammers and asymmetric information structures. Develop anti-jamming strategies by game-based means of frequency diversity, hybrid satellite-terrestrial networking & physical medium access layers BENEFIT: If successfully developed, the technology can potentially reduce technology risks in support of the Advanced Extremely High Frequency satellite systems to provide worldwide, secure, survivable, and jam-resistant communications for high-priority military ground, sea, and air assets.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5267
Yalin Sagduyu
AF131-072      Awarded: 8/21/2013
Title:Robust Game Theory Enabled Spectrum Sharing and Anti-Jamming System for Satellite Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a game-theoretic framework for the design and analysis of a robust decision making tool for wideband satellite communications that integrates hierarchical spectrum sharing, spectrum sensing, waveform adaptation and active anti- jamming. We capture transmission and sensing delay aspects and asymmetric information structures in a reliable spectrum tracking mechanism. We apply advanced game theory tools to develop efficient transmission decisions in random satellite network environment with dynamic traffic and channel patterns, where PUs and SUs can share the spectrum hierarchically and protect themselves against cognitive jamming. We will develop a delay- centric and reliable spectrum sensing solution under dynamics traffic and channel conditions and possible sensing errors. We will integrate this with a robust game theoretic decision making mechanism to optimize the system performance in random satellite network environment. Going beyond expected utility optimization, we consider random utilities and propose a robust game theoretic solution that can achieve better computational efficiency, convergence, and overall system performance. We will study the performance with respect to heterogeneous spectrum allocation and jamming objectives. We will investigate the feasibility of using of software-defined radios (USRPs) to develop and prototype the proposed system and testing it on IAI’s wireless network emulation platform, RFnest. BENEFIT: The proposed effort has tremendous application potential in military and commercial satellite and space systems to provide spectrum sensing and management with active countermeasures for adaptive RF interference and adversarial jamming. Such tools are directly beneficial to military satellite communications systems with respect to resource allocation, dynamic spectrum management, active anti-jamming, and threat survivability. Our proposed technology can be also used in a wide range of space network environments, including Air Force Space Networks, Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), and Airborne Networks. This effort also applies to commercial organizations and homeland security. An important group of commercial applications will be tracking, threat detection and anti-jamming for commercial satellites. In addition, proposed system provides new design guidelines for software-defined-radio (SDR) and anti-jamming system development and opens new market opportunities regarding spectrum awareness and cyber security. Another application is airplane management, where our technologies can be used for tracking any abnormal airplanes and preventing terrorist attacks. These techniques already have enormous military, civilian, and commercial applications.

Intelligent Fusion Technology, Inc
20271 Goldenrod Lane Suite 2066
Germantown, MD 20876
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 515-7261
Dan Shen
AF131-072      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Network Survivability Oriented Markov Games (NSOMG) in Wideband Satellite Communications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In future military satellite communications infrastructure, it is envisioned that satellite communications systems and hybrid space-terrestrial systems are essential components for improved warfighting capabilities and enhanced defensive control over complex collaborative missions. These wideband space communication networks entail unprecedented complexity and unpredictability of the operating environments as well as extremely high stake of electronic attacks and countermeasures. Therefore, it is essential to develop cognitive spectrum management and agile waveform adaptation solutions that are not only context- aware and capable of learning and probing for subscriber distributions, quality of services, mission priorities and traffic patterns, but also agile in waveform adaptation to provide active countermeasures for persistent and adaptive RF interferences and adversarial jamming. IFT team proposes a network survivability oriented Markov game (NSOMG) framework for dynamic spectrum management and waveform adaptation of the advanced wideband satellite communications. There are four major intertwined components: i) observed or reported system states including status of satellites, earth stations, warfighters, and communication links; ii) on-line learning and subsystem performance evaluation; iii) NSOMG based prediction and scheduling; and iv) joint spectrum allocation and waveform adaptation. Our approach follows a general feedback control system structure: State Observation (SO) - System Identification (SI) - Controller – Actuator. BENEFIT: The proposed NSOMG framework for dynamic radio spectrum management and waveform adaptation has tremendous applications potential in many military applications. It can be used to maintain tactical space communications with dynamic spectrum sharing, routing adaptation and interference mitigations. In addition, some relevant Defense Acquisition Programs within DoD are such as WIN-T – Warfighter Information Network-Tactical, JSTARS – Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Aircraft, JTRS GMR – Joint Tactical Radio System Ground Mobile Radio, DCGS-N--Distributed Common Ground Station-Navy, DCGS-X (Air Force), DCGS Army (DCGS-A) system. For some of these programs we already have close connections and know considerable program details. The market for military applications is quite large and IFT has successfully transitioned research prototypes for inclusion in DoD contractor research simulations. Other potential commercial applications include wireless sensor networks in various monitoring applications, such as structural health monitoring for critical national infrastructure, habitat monitoring, homeland security, and remote sensing. It can also benefit police and first responders for US Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, multi-layered sensing, disaster assessment, air traffic control system, the national weather service, physical security systems, law

Applied Technology Associates
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1251
David McIntire
AF131-073      Awarded: 10/24/2013
Title:High Resolution ADC on an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (HRADC-ASIC)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Performance of space-based digital control systems is limited by the low resolution of available radiation-hardened Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Digital to Analog Converters (DACs). Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop a High Resolution ADC on an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (HRADC-ASIC) that provides: • Up to 16-22 bits of resolution with corresponding Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) expected to range from 90 dB to 120 dB, a significant improvement over the 14 bits and 86 dB SNR currently available in a rad-hard ADC • Variable resolution and bandwidth • A radiation-hardened by design part suitable for the space environment • Low power, initially estimated at <100 mW • Small size and weight, part fits in standard ceramic quad flat packages (CQFP) BENEFIT: A high-resolution radiation-hardened ADC will be a key component in any digital control application in a radiation environment (space or nuclear) requiring high dynamic range. There will be applications in payload and spacecraft sensing and control, launch vehicle engine and fuel control, and nuclear power plant operations, automation and remediation.

MIAO IC DESIGN LLC
1830 E BROADWAY BLVD 124-138
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(623) 341-6011
Dung C Nguyen
AF131-073      Awarded: 10/24/2013
Title:Radiation Hardened Low Power Variable Bandwidth/Resolution Sigma Delta Converters
Abstract:ABSTRACT: By reducing radiation through rad-hard design, device modeling and manufacture process, we at MIAO LLC technology will provide a state of art solution for 130 nm CMOS/SOI space borne, 10 MHz bandwidth with over 114 dB signal-to noise ratio (SNR) delta-sigma analog- to-digital converters at Total Ionizing Dose greater than 1 MRads. The device power consuming is estimating less than 80 mW. The significance of the innovations in radiation hardening design consists of the new dynamic biasing voltage regulator design uses a few transistors to achieve sensing and regulating. The similar functionalities required much more complicated designs in existing research. This new design also helps us to achieve the required 200oC temperature or higher. Dr. Barnaby not only developed accurate device models, but also has facilities to test the prototype delta-sigma ADC. The design innovation consists of the high performance low power MOS Current Mode Modulator and Quantizer, a modified Data Weighted Averaging realization is proposed for linearization the feedback DAC, and a double sampling scheme for reducing the Over Sampling Rate in half while keeping the SNR unchanged. Last but not least, the delta-sigma ADC output is realization with the standard mobile imaging architecture (SMIA) interface bus. BENEFIT: There are a number of potential applications for a rad-hard Low power, wideband delta- sigma ADC: • Commercial and Defense space-based systems • Flight critical control systems • Space-based imaging and surveillance • Particle detectors in radiation environment • Wave analyzers • Data acquisition and processing • Seismic exploration • Deep holes drilling

Nu-Trek
16955 Via Del Campo Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 579-5062
Kyle Lyson
AF131-073      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Radiation Hardened Low Power Variable Bandwidth/Resolution Sigma Delta Converters
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of the proposed effort is the development of a radiation hardened, programmable Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) ASIC. The ASIC will be designed to provide flexibility for variable bandwidth and variable resolution requirements of current satellite control systems. Nu-Trek’s concept provides a universal, radiation hardened Sigma-Delta ADC solution which is real-time programmable for specific satellite subsystem requirements. Radiation hardening, to the most extreme, is addressed by our partner’s top-notch, validated simulation suite which enables design/layout iteration until the level of hardness is achieved. BENEFIT: The proposed technology surpasses current state of the art for the level of hardness and ADC performance (ENOB/Speed/etc.).

LoadPath, LLC
933 San Mateo Blvd NE Ste 500-326
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 690-1612
Derek Hengeveld
AF131-074      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Flexible and Enhanced Active Thermal Strap (FEATS) for Satellite Thermal Management
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Electronic devices have permeated almost every aspect of modern society. Because of our ever-increasing dependence on the services they provide, we expect future electronic products to have improved reliability and increased performance. Microelectronic devices, an essential component of modern electronic systems, are subject to heat generation as a direct result of electric to thermal conversion. This inevitable by-product of their use results in elevated temperatures which are amplified by non-uniform distribution of power. Power non-uniformity leads to regions with heat fluxes several times higher than the overall average. Hot spots result in localized high-temperature regions which significantly impact microprocessor performance, maximum allowable power of a chip/package, and reliability of the chip and ultimately the assembly and device. For spacecraft thermal engineers and integrators who contend with concentrated high heat fluxes on electronics, the LoadPath Flexible and Enhanced Active Thermal Strap (FEATS) is an advanced thermally conductive path that provides a reliable means of mitigating hot spots while reducing integration overhead. Unlike traditional thermal straps that utilize a purely passive conductive path or two-phase systems that have inherent reliability concerns, our approach utilizes solid-state active thermoelectric devices (TEDs) which will provide required performance and high reliability. BENEFIT: As satellite functionality increases, site-specific cooling will play a crucial role in future payload thermal management. While terrestrial systems can sometimes use fluid based cooling systems, reliability concerns drive future cooling designs towards solid state approaches such as the proposed active thermal strap. The immediate targeted application of the proposed innovation is site-specific cooling of geosynchronous earth orbit military satellites. In addition to electronics hot spot cooling, other spacecraft applications include coupling radiator panels in a deployable radiator. Beyond satellite uses the proposed active strap is germane to any cooling application where device size, weight, and reliability are important concerns.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Steve Savoy
AF131-074      Awarded: 9/24/2013
Title:Ultra-efficient Thermoelectric Cooling Module for Satellite Thermal Management
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Military space assets can have special constraints in form factor and function. For example, fluid cooling systems normally used for electronics and sensor cooling suffer numerous drawbacks in space applications. Conversely, compact, solid-state thermoelectric devices provide many advantages in refrigeration and power generation. These highly reliable devices have no moving parts, operate over a large range of temperatures, do not emit toxic or environmentally-unfriendly gases and are easily integrated into thermal systems, and offer a number of advantages in spot cooling of microsensors and microelectronics. While successful in a number of commercial applications (e.g. beverage cooling, mattresses, industrial and biomedical tools), engineering applications of thermoelectric devices overall have been relatively limited. The adoption of solid-state thermoelectric devices into these and other markets has been hampered by two primary challenges- 1) materials composition with relatively low ZT compared to other cooling methods, and the ability to cost-effectively manufacture low-profile, earth-abundant thermoelectric devices in high-throughput. Thin film devices fabricated using vapor epitaxy are showing promise at companies such as Nextreme, but adoption has been limited by the production cost and overall limited volume that can be generated from thin films. What is needed is a process that can result in conformable, large-area, thin film thermoelectric devices produced using methods that are not hampered by vapor epitaxy deposition. To solve this challenge, Nanohmics Inc., working in collaboration, proposes to develop thermoelectric devices based on high-ZT thermoelectric nanopowders. BENEFIT: In addition to niche applications such as payload cooling (~$100 – 500M/year), needs in a number of large commercial applications would be met by the proposed technology. Unrecovered waste heat from energy-consuming industrial processes is estimated by the DOE at 5-13 quads/yr (1 quad = 1015 BTU). If we conservatively assume 9 quads, 6% efficiency for TE devices constructed with our approach, 50% losses due to parasitic heat transfer losses and integration, and penetrating 10% of the waste heat market, the team estimates an economically viable TE device could enable recovery of ~20 trillion BTU of waste heat/year. Additionally, the incorporation of TE devices in automobiles can improve the efficiency of their power system by up to 5%. This level of waste heat energy recovery would lower the average consumer gas consumption ~15-20 gallons per year on a 750 gallon consumption/year basis with a cost savings on the order of $70-$100/year. A low cost manufacturing solution at the ~$100 price point would payback in the first year, passing the savings onto the lifetime of the device, which based on non moving parts, should be relatively long.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 971-2027
Mark Carlson
AF131-074      Awarded: 10/30/2013
Title:Ultra-efficient Thermoelectric Cooling Module for Satellite Thermal Management
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Due to the high cost and long lead time of space based thermal management systems, there is an increased need for a space qualified thermal network system which can maintain critical components within an acceptable range during operation. SA Photonics has developed an updated design of their Thermoelectric Matrix (TECM), which is a compact, modular system which can efficiently control thermal energy within an electronic subassembly. Our new hybrid Thermoelectric Matrix configuration allows for low power networking of the thermal energy as well as zone maintained temperature control. In addition, our updated matrix includes optimized energy generation through thermal offsets. The SA Photonics iTEM system combines complimentary thermal control and energy generation in a compact package for efficient package level thermal energy management. BENEFIT: The main benefit of the SA Photonics iTEM system is the ability to monitor and control critical components within acceptable temperature ranges by the control of heat flow (thermal networking). The compact iTEM design will thermally network components and heat sinks together within electronic subassemblies maintaining temperature control through at a coefficient of performance of 10 or greater. In addition to temperature control, the iTEM system will also include thermal offset energy generation. The temperature control and energy generation are optimized to minimize performance loss in either operating characteristic.

Sheetak Inc.
4020 S. Industrial Drive Suite 100
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 413-8955
Uttam Ghoshal
AF131-074      Awarded: 10/30/2013
Title:Ultra-efficient Thermoelectric Cooling Module for Satellite Thermal Management
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current waste heat management technologies from satellite payload including the sensor, control and actuators, are bulky and energy inefficient because they cannot provide on- demand site-specific cooling. Fluidic systems are not desirable for satellite applications due to leakage issues. High ZT thin film thermoelectric (TFTE) devices have the potential to overcome all these issues. However, earlier attempts to integrate these TFTE devices have shown poor system performance due to suboptimal heat flux management and integration issues such as high contact resistances. Sheetak proposes to develop a TFTE module based on its nanostructured high ZT TE material and hemispherical distributed devices. Implementing a large thin film device in terms of an array of small hemispherical devices with constricted contacts can lead to a 30-fold reduction in temperature drop in the underlying substrate compared to the large thin film device. Sheetak will demonstrate high efficiency on- demand and site specific cooling with system level ZT > 1 which has never been demonstrated before for waste heat management from electronics/optoelectronics devices. The goal of this SBIR is to develop an actual satellite payload waste heat management system with hotspot heat flux > 200 W/cm2, hotspot temperature < 76 C and component power > 50 W. BENEFIT: Higher performance computers, Improvement in sensors, actuators, communication hardware. Also, the technology can be used to generate power for the onboard electronics on a satellite. In general, the proposed technology can be used for refrigeration, heat pumping and waste heat to electricity generation

Innoflight, Inc.
5850 Oberlin Dr. Suite 340
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 638-1580
Jeffrey Janicik
AF131-075      Awarded: 9/26/2013
Title:Hosted Payload Secure Interface (HPSI)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Innoflight’s Phase 1 SBIR proposes to define the architecture, CONOPs and preliminary design and interface specification of a Hosted Payload Secure Interface (HPSI) leveraging Innoflight’s existing High Assurance Internet Protocol Encryptor (HAIPE) embedded solution. HAIPE provides NSA compliant endpoint encryption over packet-switched communication infrastructures. The purpose of the HPSI is to provide a highly secure, continuously available link between a sensitive national security payload and an ordinary transponder channel on a commercial spacecraft. As designed, the HPSI will enable a full duplex data channel of networked communications for all commands and data handling (C&DH) between the national security payload and the government’s payload users through commercial IP routing infrastructure already present in commercial host ground architectures. HPSI includes several key elements in addition to security including a modular red-side digital interface to handle a wide range of payload inputs, a HAIPE engine to establish multiple security associations from any payload “addresses” to any number of end users over a single communications link, and a programmable modem interface to support a variety of commercial transponders that provide the RF pathway for the hosted payload data streams. Space Systems Loral has committed their support to the proposed HPSI SBIR efforts. BENEFIT: Innoflight’s proposed Hosted Payload Secure Interface (HPSI) technology is a key enabler for the commercially hosted payload enterprise by accomplishing two vital objectives: a) Provide assurance to the US Government customer that the confidentiality and integrity of payload data message traffic can be secured over commercial space-to-ground RF links; and b)Enable secure data distribution though affordable, abundant commercial packet switched ground networks once the data from the hosted payload enters the terrestrial communication sphere through the satellite operator’s commercial ground gateway.

PnP Innovations, Inc
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE 3rd Floor
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 503-1563
Ken Center
AF131-075      Awarded: 9/18/2013
Title:Enhancing the Utility of Hosted Payloads Using MOSA Approaches
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Incorporating hosted payloads onto satellites deployed for other primary missions is an approach that has the potential to provide benefits to both the hosted payload user community and the host satellite providers. But getting rides to space and accommodation on a dedicated satellite bus in the current climate of shrinking budgets is becoming increasingly difficult. Opening up opportunities to occupy slots on commercial satellite busses is a practical possibility for these cases. On the other side, the owners of potential commercial hosting platforms may benefit financially from the revenue that can be collected from selling satellite bus “real-estate” available due to excess SWaP margin not allocated to the primary payload. PnP Innovations is proposing to leverage the SPA standards to create a Hosted Payload architecture that offers MOSA features to the potential user community. We will develop a Hosted Payload Interface Unit (HPIU) that standardizes the interface to payloads and offers a configurable daughter card option to handle the less malleable host side interface. SPA does not currently provide the features necessary to protect system users from unauthorized access to sensitive operational data. This research will address that concern by extending the SPA standards to include multi-layer security. BENEFIT: If space flight becomes more accessible because of the proposed hosted payload architecture technologies, there is broad appeal to a significant user community. The diversity of that community extends to government and military agencies, universities, and commercial companies. If an integration standard for payloads is agreed-to, it will be much easier to promote widespread use of the concept. Developers and integrators alike will enjoy the determinism associated with developing a flight experiment to a known interface. If the architecture is similarly well-defined, it will be easy for any of these users to interact with their deployed payloads from their own sites on the internet. Universities and commercial companies seeking space research options or qualification of hardware would have many more opportunities to access rides. A low-cost developer’s kit (which we would develop and commercialize in this SBIR track) would enable those users. Major government use cases include potential NASA experiments accommodated on commercial platforms, and military use of the secure architecture to host SSA sensors on commercial host platforms to provide more comprehensive and robust worldwide coverage to detect and respond to non- deterministic events. The standards extensions proposed in this SBIR to implement multi-layer security benefit SPA in any domain that it is applied to. As an optional feature of a plug and play system, it

Space Micro Inc.
10237 Flanders Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
Bert Vermeire
AF131-075      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Hosted Payload Support Technologies
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space Micro proposes to leverage existing radiation hardened electronics architecture coupled with state-of-the-art cryptographic solutions to provide a hosted payload interface package. This hardware has flight heritage, and its modularity has proven the ideal platform for a wide variety of missions. This modularity is especially important for hosted payloads, where each mission will be unique, yet will rely on the proposed architecture to ensure both security and reliable high performance. Due to flight heritage on these electronics, the proposed hosted payload interface package will rapidly achieve high TRL to serve current hosted payload needs. BENEFIT: The proposed work will result in an enabling technology for hosted payloads, with a massive cost savings to the government. The hosted payload interface package will allow the government to share resources, including the launch vehicle and frequency allocation, with other satellite integrators, both governmental and non-governmental. This will result in faster development times and lower cost with minimal impact to payload reliability or performance.

Applied Technology Associates
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1219
Dan Eckelkamp-Baker
AF131-076      Awarded: 9/24/2013
Title:Space Object Integrated Detection And Tracking (SOIDAT) Algorithm
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Team ATA proposes to develop a FISST-based holistic integrated framework (FHIF) for multi-target detection, tracking, identification, and characterization (DTIC) of space objects. Space objects proliferate in the near-Earth space environment. These objects range from operational satellites used for commercial communications or scientific studies to pieces of debris generated by launch vehicles, delamination of the on-board spacecraft materials, and accidental/intentional collisions. The ever-increasing number of space objects creates a need for the development of new algorithms capable of fusing and exploiting space surveillance data sources to improve the ability to detect, track, identify, and characterize man-made space objects. Current algorithmic approaches to the space object cataloguing problem treat the sub-problems of detection, tracking, identification, and characterization separately, which can lead to a loss of information. Ideally, the sub-problems should be treated as interdependent through the use of a holistic integrated framework, such as the finite-set statistics (FISST) framework. Additionally, current methods employ unnecessarily restrictive assumptions, such as linearity and Gaussian distribution of uncertainty within the filtering problem, which do not enable appropriate application to the problem of estimation for space objects. BENEFIT: Team ATA has been developing technology for the U.S. Government and Aerospace contractors since 1975. During this time, we have developed outstanding relationships that we will leverage to bring integrated detection, tracking, identification, and characterization algorithms to market. ATA’s success in generating additional revenue tied to our Phase I and Phase II SBIR projects has allowed ATA to grow and expand its business through Phase III commercialization and other spin-off contracts. As reported in the ATA Company Commercialization Report, we have received 43 Phase I SBIR awards and 21 Phase II awards. ATA’s track record for commercialization of SBIR sponsored technology development is excellent, resulting in Commercialization Achievement Index of 90 and related cumulative revenues from sales and additional investments of over $42 million. Team ATA’s effort will culminate in a new suite of software implementations that combines state-of-the-art technologies in detection and tracking to comprise an integrated approach suitable for autonomous operation of a space surveillance network producing higher accuracy orbit and uncertainty estimates. One of the recommendations from the Committee for the Assessment of the U.S. Air Force's Astrodynamic Standards is that research efforts be put into improving the representation of uncertainty to ensure realism in estimations of uncertainty. Our developed software products will help to mitigate the current deficiencies encountered when attempting to reacquire previously tracked objects after long periods of no data, as well as more efficiently utilize existing sensors (and hence reduce the cost of

Emergent Space Technologies, Inc
6411 Ivy Lane Suite 303
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 482-5402
Dunning Idle
AF131-076      Awarded: 9/25/2013
Title:Holistic RSO Space Situational Awareness Algorithms
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A holistic RSO space situational awareness algorithm will be developed that integrates Finite Set Statistics (FISST) with Hiearchical Mixtures of Experts (HME) and Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation (MMAE). Advanced orbit determination filters such as Splitting Gaussian Mixture Unscented Kalman Filters will perform as banks of experts to test which RSO and environment models best fit space surveillance observation data that includes electro-optical and radar angles, range, OCS, and RCS. The FISST/HME/MMAE integrated algorithm will detect changes in RSO and environmental characteristics such as spacecraft size, reflectivity, and configuration or drag and solar radiation pressure. Avanced numerical integration techniques and GPU parallelization will ensure algorithm speed and robustness with the goal of maintaining a future space catalog approaching 100,000 objects. RSO Detection, Tracking, Identification, and Characterization will be improved by the integrated set of algorithms, while scarce Air Force space surveillance sensors will be optimally scheduled for maximum Space Situation Awareness for commercial entities, military commanders, and JSpOC operators. The integrated algorithms will have a rigorous math and physics base, will be posed in a uniform framework, and will accurately model uncertainty. BENEFIT: Improved detection, tracking, identification, and characterization of space objects using data fusion from multiple sensors. Optimal scheduling of Air Force space surveillance sensors including ground and space based electro-optical systems. More accurate ephemerides development leading to earlier prediction of potential conjunctions, requiring less propellant for avoidance maneuvers, and thus increasing commercial spacecraft operational lifetimes. Increased automation of JSpOC operations, combined with increased situation awareness for all space operators. Improved speed, accuracy, and robustness of all computational processes.

Intelligent Fusion Technology, Inc
20271 Goldenrod Lane Suite 2066
Germantown, MD 20876
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 515-7261
Xin Tian
AF131-076      Selected for Award
Title:Consistency Based Gaussian Mixture Tracking Framework for Space Situation Awareness (CbGM-SSA)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this proposal, a unified consistency based Gaussian mixture CbGM) tracking framework is proposed for the detection, tracking and identification of space objects using measurements from disparate sensor networks. Major components of the proposed tracking framework are as follows. First a Consistency based Gaussian Mixture approach which is more efficient than other existing Adaptive Gaussian Mixture approaches is proposed for the accurate propagation and update of space tracks. Second, a novel Sparse-grid Quadrature Filter (SGQF) which offers improved accuracy over the UKF with moderate increase of complexity will be used in the CbGM framework for the tracking of space objects. Third a novel Rollout Policy based Multi-step Look-ahead Data Association (RO-MSLHDA) approach is proposed for accurate multi-target tracking (MTT) in complex space environment. By taking advantage of the highly deterministic nature of orbital motion and exploring information from future observation frames, the RO-MSLHDA is developed to achieve tracking accuracy that is close to that of the Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) with much lower complexity. The impact of dynamic model accuracy on data association performance and effective track initialization using existing Initial Orbit Determination (IOD) algorithms with the RO- MSLHDA framework will also be investigated. BENEFIT: The proposed unified Consistency based Gaussian mixture (CbGM) tracking framework for the detection, tracking and identification of space objects using measurements from disparate sensor networks has tremendous applications potential in many military applications. It can be directly used for developing of advanced mission planning and emergency preparedness decision support systems such as Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) with the end user being the JSpOC, Space Situational Awareness Fusion Intelligent Research Environment [SAFIRE] program, Distributed Common Ground Station-Navy (DCGS-N), DCGS-X (Air Force), and DCGS Army (DCGS- A) system, and BMDS system, etc. During the Phase I, we will work closely with BAE systems. We have developed a strong and realistic plan to transition our technology to their programs. We will leverage this relationship to identify the end customer, and work with these teams to transition our Phase 2 technology into their program. The DOD contact who knows the details of our work and who knows the above programs is Dr. Erik Blasch from AFRL. The market for military applications is quite large. Other potential commercial applications include establishing attribution for radio frequency interference, medical diagnosis, quality inspection, disaster assessment, air traffic control system, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing and global awareness. We expect the aggregated market size will be similar to that of military applications.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Jeffrey Aristoff
AF131-076      Awarded: 11/13/2013
Title:Improved Estimation Approaches for High-Accuracy Satellite Detection, Tracking, Identification, and Characterization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Numerica is proposing to extend its mature multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) technology by providing additional estimation and data fusion algorithms to support improved space object detection, tracking, identification, and characterization. An extended program would aim to develop a feature-aided MHT (FA-MHT) capability that (i) exploits both kinematic and feature data including light curve (intensity) data with supporting camera models (e.g., CCD, CMOS, and RULLI) and (ii) provides a new supporting algorithm suite for 12- dimensional states (i.e., position, velocity, attitude, rotation rates) and six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) dynamics. The envisioned output of the FA-MHT would be a high fidelity space catalog which would augment the traditional space catalog (i.e., position-velocity or orbital element track data) with additional information about an object's attitude, spin rates, shape, and other physical properties. As a post-processor to the FA-MHT system, Numerica would develop a space object characterization prototype using physics-based or machine learning- based classification techniques. Thus, the proposed FA-MHT, object classifier, and supporting algorithms will build upon Numerica's existing MHT system for space surveillance by providing an advanced capability for joint data association, attitude estimation, and feature extraction with the potential to improve the robustness of space object characterization. BENEFIT: The first anticipated benefit from the proposed program would be an automated and robust feature-aided multiple hypothesis tracking (FA-MHT) system that would perform joint data association, state and attitude estimation, and feature extraction with the potential to provide improved estimation approaches for high accuracy space object detection, tracking, identification, and characterization. A second anticipated benefit would be the significant advance in astrodynamics algorithms for 12-dimensional states and six degree-of-freedom dynamics that would support the FA-MHT system and other space situational awareness functions such as conjunction analysis and satellite attitude change detection. The resulting FA-MHT system and its supporting algorithms, which would make use of both kinematic and feature data, would provide analysts with a more accurate and reliable decision-making tool. The key commercialization of the proposed program would be a transition of the algorithms and software, either alone or embedded in a modern multiple target tracking system, to Air Force Space Command, Space Missile Command, the Joint Space Operation Center, the National Reconnaissance Operations Center, or to a prime working on the Space Fence radar such as Lockheed Martin. This program also provides the opportunity to work with other contractors and the nation's Air Force labs in support of the nation's space protection and situational assessment programs utilizing Numerica's strengths in all phases of

Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6093
Jens Weyant
AF131-077      Awarded: 4/16/2013
Title:Thermal Enhancements for Separable Thermal Mechanical Interfaces
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The purpose of the proposed SBIR program is to develop a thermally enhanced, separable thermal mechanical interface (STMI) that aims to significantly enhance heat transfer by providing a direct thermal path from the high power density components to the heat sink. In the current commercial off-the-shelf STMI multiple interfaces significantly increase the thermal resistance resulting in marginal heat transfer. The need for improved thermal performance is required as power densities of electronics increase. The primary objective of Phase I will be to model and develop a functional prototype STMI demonstrating the feasibility and potential thermal performance improvements compared to current state-of-the-art solutions. The thermal performance of the STMI will be enhanced by: (i) increasing the bulk thermal conductance of current state-of-the-art STMI, (ii) reducing the contact resistance by optimizing the clamp design, and (iii) integrating an innovative card lock mechanism to increase the contact area. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) will collaborate with Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), to build upon the internal research and development work separately performed on the STMI by ACT and LM, in order to achieve the Air Force objectives for STMI. BENEFIT: If the Phase II program is successful, ACT will have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a STMI that is thermally superior to the current state of the art. The thermally enhanced STMI developed in this program will increase the conduction cooling capacity of current, as well as future, electronics systems used in the aerospace, defense, and commercial sectors. ACT has a strong grasp of the customer base due to the synergy between this technology and current product offerings. LM has acquired US Patent No. 0087089 for its cardlock clamp. ACT has also submitted for a patent for an embedded heat pipe cardlock clamp in 2012. Any further developments or combinations will be protected by patents. Depending on the final product outcome, licensing agreements between LM and ACT will be put in place to manufacture and sell this product.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Jay C. Rozzi, PhD
AF131-077      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:A Novel High-Conductance Thermal Interface for Aerospace Electronics
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current separable thermal mechanical interfaces (STMIs) found in advanced digital processing electronics are unable to efficiently remove dissipated heat from the active electronics, limiting electrical performance far below their capability. The standard approach produces high thermal resistance (~1.0°C-in./W) with local variations in excess of +/-25%, severely limiting allowable electronic power levels. We propose to develop an innovative STMI that produces high contact forces and increases useful contact area, by minimizing the surface-to-surface separation that results in non-uniform interface pressure found in current approaches. By redesigning the mechanical interface and locking mechanism, our approach will achieve a factor of ten (10) decrease in thermal resistance, reduce local variations to below the state of the art, and result in a highly reliable interface that is maintenance free for lifetimes exceeding 10 years. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our concept by analyzing and building an STMI that achieves a thermal resistance that meets or exceeds the Air Force’s goals. This will establish the foundation for further development and technology transfer to our commercialization partner at the completion of Phase II. BENEFIT: Our innovation reduces thermal resistance in slice-based plug-and-play electronic card cage applications and enables use of higher power electronic architectures. Commercial applications include advanced digital signal processing electronics for small space satellite applications.

Physical Optics Corporation
Products and Engineering Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kang Lee
AF131-077      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Separable Near-Isothermal Refreshable Interface for Electronics Modules
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the AFRL’s need for a low-thermal resistance thermal/mechanical interface for electronics modules inserted into a card carrier, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Separable near-Isothermal Refreshable Interface (SIRI) for electronics modules. The innovation in enhanced surface morphology, and integration of ultrahigh-conductivity materials will enable the system to provide a near-isothermal mechanical interface, even with repeated insertions. As a result, this process offers a separable thermal mechanical interface (STMI) with customizable specific thermal resistance ranging down to <0.1 deg C-in./W (in thermal vacuum), and ease of implementation with virtually no change to hardware. Local variations in specific thermal resistance are much less than +/-25%. The STMI is robust, shows consistent performance over typical qualification-level vibration and thermal cycle exposures, is compatible with the space environment, and conforms to space qualification requirements including high vacuum, microgravity, radiation, atomic oxygen, and low outgassing. These attributes directly address the AFRL requirements for a new STMI for spaceborne applications. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SIRI by validating the improved thermal performance of the refreshable interface. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a prototype to show improvements attainable using SIRI technology. BENEFIT: Upon successful completion of this project, a new capability for near-isothermal bondlines that can be applied in many assemblies will be available. In addition, a new modular flexible application paradigm will be demonstrated for customizing STMIs with increased mating surface area contact characteristics and controlled thermal conductivity. The overall result will be three-fold: a low thermal resistance bondline, a new flexible manufacturing paradigm to produce low thermal resistivity bonds in a variety of applications, and novel bond preparation processes to produce customized bond-specific thermal resistivity from <0.1 deg C-in./W arbitrarily higher. These results will be applicable in Air Force, other DoD, and commercial areas. Commercial applications of high-power and high-speed electronics are in need of the thermal management that SIRI provides. In commercial applications, SIRI can be applied to manufacturing lines, as well as in depot-level repairs of electronics such as supercomputers and dedicated accelerator boards used in fields such as sound recording and animation. These commercial applications will be investigated during the course of the project. Potential customers include high-end audio and video equipment suppliers as well as general-purpose computing suppliers.

Imaging Systems Technology
4750 W. Bancroft
Toledo, OH 43615
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 536-5741
Lee Cross
AF131-078      Awarded: 8/27/2013
Title:Assured Space Sensor Operation in Harsh Electromagnetic/RF Environment
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Under this SBIR, Imaging Systems Technology (IST) proposes to investigate the feasibility of using its Plasma-shell technology to form novel engineered materials (metamaterials) for electromagnetic protection (EP) of space systems. The specific research to be performed under this proposal is to develop and numerically simulate a metamaterial-like structure that consists of a two layer frequency selective surface (FSS). The FSS consists of two metal layers perforated with tuned apertures bonded to a dielectric substrate. The gap between the two metal layers will be an array of tiny, hollow, gas encapsulating structures called Plasma- shells. Plasma-shells are a rugged building block that have many properties desirable for operation in harsh space environments. When exposed to electric fields, the gas in these shells creates an enclosed plasma discharge. The encapsulated plasma will absorb, reflect, or transmit incident RF radiation. By controlling the plasma electron density encapsulated in these shells, the apertures of the FSS can be effectively closed, shielding sensitive sensors from incident electromagnetic (EM) threats. The proposed structure will be numerically simulated and optimized to estimate device performance across frequency and temperature, and to predict sensor performance. Simulations will be validated with basic experiments. BENEFIT: Reliable space systems, including satellites, provide a significant opportunity to advance man's ability to communicate information and to observe conditions on the ground using advanced sensor systems. Satellites are an important part of modern communication and information procurement for both Government and commercial entities. Governmental uses of space based sensor systems include Defense, Communications, and Homeland Security. Commercial industries that rely heavily on satellites include Oil and Gas exploration, Mining, Telecommunications, Disaster relief, Construction, and Media and Broadcasting. Space systems are vulnerable to damaging levels of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from unintentional sources such as high-power tracking radars during launch and co-site interference from nearby transmitters, and intentional sources such as high-power microwave (HPM) and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapons and high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) bursts from nuclear explosions. Current methods of EM protection include plasma limiters, solid state devices, various coatings, and micro electro mechanical (MEMs) devices. Each of these technologies has limitations. The use of Plasma-shells as described in this proposal represents a significant opportunity to improve the state of the art of space-based EM protection by leveraging the advantages of Plasma- shells over current technologies.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
Jennifer Lalli
AF131-078      Awarded: 8/27/2013
Title:EM Tailored Thoraeus Rubber™ for SATCOM Sensors with Enhanced Survivability
Abstract:ABSTRACT: NanoSonic has developed ultra-lightweight (0.008 g/cm2), Thoraeus Rubber™ (TR) that demonstrate EMI shielding up to -100 dB from S-band (2 GHz) through Ka-band (40 GHz) and protection against nuclear ionizing radiation. Sub-GHz measurements are underway to demonstrate TR™ as a shielding replacement for copper. Current TR™ materials are based on thin films produced via self-assembly manufacturing techniques utilizing graded atomic number (Z) nanoparticles on space resistant fiber carriers. For this program, NanoSonic proposes to transfer this unique EM hardening technique to carbon nanotube and metasurfaces to further develop materials with both tunable and multiple controlled constitutive properties (permeability, permittivity, and conductivity). NanoSonic offers uniquely EM tailored TR™ nanocomposites herein as a simple and cost effective material solution to assure electronics survivability in Satellite Communications (SATCOM) and space-based Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) against harsh natural or manmade EM environments. EM performance as a function of mass density shall be demonstrated (80 dB at 1GHz) for a family of TR™ materials relative to COTS products according to MIL-STD-188-2 to achieve TRL 5. Modeling and simulation shall be carried out to predict and demonstrate EM tunability via wave permeation through controlled reflectivity, transmissivity, and absorptivity. BENEFIT: NanoSonic would primarily develop Thoraeus Rubber™ hybrid nanocomposites as cost effective, super lightweight, EM tailored materials for assured sensor operation on SATCOM and ISR systems that are susceptible to long term and prompt radiation events. The innovative super lightweight nanocomposites would be primarily transitioned to space systems deployed in LEO and hostile EM environments that must survive ionizing radiation or a HEMP. TR™ readily-integratable electronics protection (EP) nanocomposites shall serve a broad range of military and civilian applications including avionic and communication systems on board commercial aircraft from personal electronic devices and stray radar energy. Dual-use military applications for various forms of Metal Rubber™ nanocomposites include highly mechanically robust EMI and radiation shielding appliques. Additional applications include biomimetric systems, thermal control system materials, actuators, lightning strike protection, RF shielding for large area structures and sensors.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Luke Sankey
AF131-079      Awarded: 8/30/2013
Title:Ka-band Satellite Phased Array Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Future SATCOM payload antennas need to provide much greater spot beam control flexibility. Currently deployed systems utilize phased array fed dishes limiting the number of spot beams and gain since earth coverage is accomplished by limiting the number of beamwidths scanned. The solution proposed is a direct illumination phased array that is scaleable for very high gain. Greater than 30 simultaneous beams are supported without substantially increasing the integration complexity of the beamforming network over a single beam phased array. The proposed approach leverages commercially available components but proposes to integrate more devices into a single package for greater function density and board area reduction. The proposed Phase I program will validate through simulation and test the fundamental building block for this advanced multi-beam phased array for future Ka- band SATCOM payload antennas. BENEFIT: FIRST RF is proposing a scalable, modular approach to multibeam phased arrays that does not require the cost, size, and complexity of multiple RF manifolds. This leap ahead in phased array technology will be advantageous in all applications for directive array antennas. Applications that will benefit from multiple beams include high data-rate line of sight communications for mobile military forces (ground, air, and sea) where multiple beams can increase frequency re-use and network capacity and multi-beam radars. Multi-function wideband arrays are also being developed to simultaneously support communications, electronic support, and electronic attack functions. A lightweight, cost-effective means for providing multiple beams will significantly increase the capability of those systems and increase the flexibility of platform integration. Commercial MIMO and “smart antenna” communications networks will benefit from a low cost multi-beam array by increasing communications capacity and range in complex environments.

Innovative Technology, Inc.
6806 West 3rd Street #28-16
Greeley, CO 80634
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 488-0304
James Whelehan
AF131-079      Awarded: 9/26/2013
Title:Ka-band Satellite Phased Array Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal addresses an important need of DoD and MILSATCOM for satellite based receivers operating at Ka-Band having multiple beams (as many as 30) capability. Many of these beams need to be independently steered. This has traditionally been a major challenge because, as will be shown, the architectures that are required are very component intensive, which has made such antenna systems very costly and power consuming. Based on new and recent technological advances that have been made in Silicon Germanium, we have evolved a new and innovative concept that truly advances the state of the art for phased arrays, not only for this program but for other programs also. BENEFIT: Prior to this effort, phased arrays were large, high cost, high power, and had limited success on space platforms. With this innnovative development, not only will the DoD have the ability to successfully place these arrays on space platforms at a reasonable cost. Commercial satellites will also greatly benefit from this development.

Nuvotronics LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 341-2333
Hooman Kazemi
AF131-079      Awarded: 9/19/2013
Title:PolyStrata based Fragmented Array Antenna for Next Generation Ka-band Phased Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Our approach is to enable the proven fragmented antenna design from GTRI at Ka-band frequency range through the highly dimension controlled and low loss PolyStrata process at Nuvotronics. This will provide frequency scalability, connectivity to phased array electronics through the microcoax PolyStrata transmission lines and ultra-compactness and conformity to a predesigned shape. This is in addition to already proven fragmented antenna design advantages proven by GTRI at a lower frequency range. BENEFIT: An advanced PolyStrata based fragmented array antenna will be enabled for the next generation Ka-band phased arrays providing higher bandwidth, dual polarization, larger scan volumes at substantially lower CSWAP. Our approach focuses on the architecture design and development of the module array in which is can be arrayed to build conformal larger scale antennas with the integrated RF electronics.

Discovery Machine Incorporated
454 Pine Street Suite 1C
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 916-2056
Todd W. Griffith
AF131-080      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Architecture Model for Decision Makers to Better Understand Complex Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: While developing any complex system, there are invariably tradeoffs among requirements; system performance, system architecture, cost, schedule, risk, standard compliance, and other factors that decision-makers need to address. A team of experienced system engineers can be leveraged to understand and explain many of these tradeoffs using standard system engineering tools available today. However, understanding second, third or tertiary affects is much more complex and addressed today primarily by system engineering experts performing custom analysis on the system under design. These experts leverage their detailed knowledge of the system, similarity to past systems and past tradeoffs and their broad understanding of engineering/physics principles. Unfortunately these experts are not available on all projects and may not be accessible to answer tradeoff questions at the decision makers discretion. We propose a solution called the Complex System Trade Study Tool (CS-TST), that will allow decision makers in the Space and Missile System Center (SMC), Intelligence Reconnaissance Surveillance (ISR) the capability to understand complex system tradeoffs in a timely manner, without requiring direct access to the domain experts. The CS-TST will leverage domain knowledge captured from engineering experts specializing in SMC/ISR's infrared systems and new software tools developed using Discovery Machine's Modeler technology. BENEFIT: Understanding complex systems earlier in the design process is valuable in nearly all domains. Markets from medical devices to satellite systems can benefit from better ways to assess effects of changes. Particularly those effects that happen at the secondary or tertiary level.

Phoenix Integration
1715 Pratt Drive Suite 2000
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-7215
Andy Ko
AF131-080      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:A Framework for Model Based Decision Making
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal seeks to provide a software framework by which a decision maker can participate in complex systems design. It involves building on an already developed engineering integration and trade study tool (ModelCenter) paired with a SysML environment (e.g. MagicDraw or Rhapsody). The new features will include the auto- generation of user interfaces for decision support as well as the ability to compose new architectures automatically. In particular, easy to use “dashboard” visualization techniques will allow decision makers of various interests to better understand the significance of parameter changes within complex systems and thus aid in communication and design evaluation. The system capabilities will be based on a Core Architecture Model (CAM) for Air Force ISR satellite constellation systems. Tasks will include creating a representative satellite system model, formulating the infrastructure for decision support including auto-generator user interface tools, developing satellite architecture generation techniques, and applying the technology to representative Air Force and industry problems. Although the tool-suite will be tailored specifically to satellite systems in this work, it will be based on a generic infrastructure that can be applied to any complex system development program. BENEFIT: Benefits include improved communication between stakeholders, better decision making, and a more explicit understanding of the effects of engineering constraints on overall cost, schedule, and risk for new systems. These are based on a rigorous, model-based connection between system decisions and actual engineering computations, traceability and documentation of changes that are made, and communication of engineering results back up the chain of command to the decision maker. These capabilities couple decision makers with engineers, enabling more precise and informed architecture decisions within and between complex systems. Although the capability will be developed for Air Force satellite constellation systems, the advantages are readily applicable to any complex system design project, military or commercial. The same need to improve the link between engineers and various communities of decision makers exists whether the project involves military acquisition or commercial global competitiveness. This is a timely topic given the expansion of model based systems technology and the need to incorporate additional economic and life-cycle considerations into all design processes.

The Design Knowledge Company
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
William McQuay
AF131-080      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:AWCAMS: Agile Workstation for a Core Architecture Model for Space
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of the Agile Workstation for a Core Architecture Model for Space (AWCAMS) is to provide better understanding of complex space systems, improve communications among key players in the research and development process, and aid in making better acquisition decisions for space. AWCAMS will be an open-source, standards-based framework that integrates with existing DoD and Air Force resources and environments. AWCAMS will include an agile extensible, tailorable technical framework; a core architecture model for space with initial test data defining an illustrative space system; customizable role-based dashboards for architecting, engineering, and analysis; and a prototype interface for interfacing with external engineering and simulation tools. BENEFIT: AWCAMS will provide a quantitative assessment of the technology trade space and alternative architectures to determine the utility and benefit of proposed and existing technologies, and support parametric sensitivity analysis for systems and systems of systems. AWCAMS will enable the Air Force to improve cross-functional development, increase interoperability, and promote integrated activities supported by space systems. AWCAMS has significant commercial applications to many industries, including banking, utilities, and communications, where architecture-based systems engineering would have high payoff due to the complexity of their systems.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
5777 Central Avenue, Suite 221
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 834-3475
Geoff Crowley
AF131-081      Awarded: 8/30/2013
Title:GPS Awareness Enabling Algorithms for Theater and Space Environment
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force requires accurate knowledge of the ionospheric environment in order to mitigate ionospheric impacts on vital radio-based systems, including communications, navigation, and surveillance systems. Current DoD capability for the specification and forecasting of the ionosphere relies heavily on GPS measurements of ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Currently TEC data is sparse in regions of interest. However there are many GPS receivers that normally only provide position, navigation or timing (PNT) information in these regions. The objective of the proposed work is to develop algorithms that will allow these receivers to compute TEC and other relevant space environment data. To address this objective, we propose to: i) survey typical DoD GPS User Equipment (UE) and identify onboard parameters that are readily available to develop required algorithms for TEC estimation; ii) design, develop and demonstrate algorithms that could potentially be deployed on operational UE to produce TEC, etc, accounting for operational realities for PNT systems iii) feasibility study for algorithm application to operational UE, and assessment of existing hardware At the end of Phase-I, we will deliver results of a feasibility study for algorithm application to GPS receivers in general, and GPS UE in particular. BENEFIT: At the end of the proposed Phase-I work we will have assessed the viability of producing TEC (and other ionospheric parameters) from existing dual-frequency GPS receivers that compute TEC for their internal position corrections, but which do not normally report the TEC directly or make it available as an output from the device. We will have utilized our understanding of GPS and algorithm development to design, develop and demonstrate algorithms that could potentially be deployed on operational equipment. We will have investigated some of these realities using ASTRA’s new CASES dual-frequency receiver, purposefully degrading the CASES data to emulate the inferior performance of other receivers. The main benefit of this work is that TEC and other ionospheric data are currently sparse in regions of interest, and if existing deployed GPS equipment can be used to obtain TEC and other space weather parameters, then data will suddenly be available in large quantities in the regions of greatest interest. The work complements ASTRA’s existing commercial production of science-grade GPS receivers and space weather data, in that these algorithms and ideas can be applied to commercial operations in addition to DoD UE.

Propagation Research Associates
1275 Kennestone Circle Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 384-3418
Bonnie Valant-Spaight
AF131-081      Awarded: 8/30/2013
Title:Measurements from Mobile GPS for Ionospheric Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA), teamed with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), proposes to design and evaluate an algorithm to produce useful measurements of the state of the ionosphere from Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment used on mobile platforms. We will address how methods of TEC estimation that have been designed for multiple ground-based, stationary receivers recording data over long time periods work for single GPS receivers on moving platforms. These methods will be modified as necessary to allow for a receiver-based estimation of TEC and a solid understanding of the uncertainties. To this end, in Phase I, PRA will first do a survey of the computational and memory capabilities of DoD equipment to determine the required operating parameters of the algorithm. PRA will also gather field data in scenarios that reproduce the motion and signal dropout that might be encountered by equipment mounted on vehicles. Finally, PRA and JPL will design a robust, standalone algorithm that works internal to DoD equipment to produce both a measurement of TEC and its uncertainty estimate. PRA will study the results of applying this algorithm to the GPS field data collected under this effort. BENEFIT: The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) was a boon to ionospheric science. The two initial GPS signals, known as L1 (1575.42 MHz) and L2 (1227.60 MHz), are separated enough in frequency to allow direct measurement of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere, a layer of ionized gas located in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. In the years following the launch of the GPS satellites, physics-based models have been developed that assimilate TEC from GPS measurements and calculate both the current state of the ionosphere and predictions of its future state. These ionospheric models are only as complete as the data fed into them. One source of standardized GPS data is the International GNSS Service, which collects and distributes data from GPS receiver locations around the globe. These stationary and ground-based receivers probe the ionosphere within a roughly 1200 km radius in ground range depending on the elevation angle cutoff. Ionospheric locations such as the middle of the African continent and out in the Pacific Ocean are not well sampled by this network. Space-based orbiting GPS receivers, such as the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC constellation, cover these areas but are expensive to operate and subject to satellite availability. It would be a great advantage to increase the sampling of the ionosphere using GPS equipment that may already be in these areas but not currently tasked to produce ionospheric measurements. Dual-frequency GPS receivers are used on a wide variety of mobile platforms, both civilian and military. Aircraft and ships routinely travel through areas undersampled by ground-based receivers, and military personnel in ground vehicles are often located in areas where

Quantum Dimension
15061 Springdale Street, Suite 202
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 893-6004
Michael Enright
AF131-081      Awarded: 8/12/2013
Title:Advanced Total Electron Count Algorithms for GPS Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To increase space environment awareness, Quantum Dimension proposes to develop algorithms for Total Electron Count (TEC) estimates with uncertainty estimates that can be implemented in existing DoD GPS User Equipment (UE). Both the TEC estimates and the associated uncertainty estimates are vital to enable modern space environment models to use the GPS TEC data for supporting the specification and forecasting of ionospheric effects and impacts on DoD radio-based systems, including communication, navigation, surveillance and geolocation. DoD Space Environment missions most lack TEC where it is most needed: in operational warfighting theaters, and over oceans. In these areas, DoD vehicles, equipped with two-frequency GPS have the ability to estimate TEC. The algorithms will be tested using data from commercial GPS receivers as well as military DoD GPS receivers. Our innovations provide significant advantage for DoD for use in GPS UE to resolve these ionospheric effects and its impact on DoD communication, navigation, and geolocation solutions. BENEFIT: Our innovations and commercialization partnerships as outlined within this proposal provide significant advantage for DoD for use in GPS User Equipment to resolve ionospheric effects and its impact on DoD communication, navigation, and geolocation solutions.Outside of direct implementation for traditional GPS equipment, other avenues may make sense including applications like UAVs, Emergency/First Responder, Homeland/Border Security, etc. For example the Coast Guard or DHS could utilize over bodies of water or in locations where ionospheric effects have a greater impact. There are numerous potential applications for our innovation and are confident that this will increase the likelihood of adoption of our technology after Phase II/III.

HARPER LABORATORIES, LLC
2603 Fanelle Circle
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 508-8833
Kevin Brenner
AF131-082      Awarded: 10/25/2013
Title:Ultra-Scalable Nonvolatile Graphene Memory
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The physical scalability of Si based nonvolatile memory is problematic for the terascale integration of space memory. In particular and with regards to Flash, this problem is two- fold as device designs breakdown and photolithographic patterning approaches its limits to minimum feature size. Whereas phase-change and ferroelectric polymer devices have shown promise to scale beyond Flash, these technologies face challenges in regards to cost and read-write speed. Molecular electronics, such as the atomically thin carbon found in both carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene sheets, exhibit entirely unique electrical properties that can facilitate novel device designs that overcome these challenges. Specifically, the linear energy-momentum (E-k) dispersion in such monolayer carbon gives rise to a number of electrical phenomena not possible in Si, including ultrafine sensitivity and ballistic transport. As such, radiation hardened graphene sheets can overcome the scaling challenges of Si (or III-Nitride) materials through novel device designs. Harper Laboratories, LLC in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology’s Nanotechnology Research Center will continue development on an ultra-scalable nonvolatile graphene memory device. BENEFIT: Nonvolatile memory is a critical technology in support of a variety of space applications. In particular, radiation hardened memory for geosynchronous satellites is of particular significance for the COTM, SBIRS, and AEHF programs as well as weather and environmental tracking satellites. Higher density space-based memory that is more robust will directly enable a more efficient use of satellite infrastructure in support of next generation Air Force programs. As our technology has potential to replace commercial non-volatile memory devices, such as Flash, our device will enable a paradigm shift in commercial memory markets primed by Intel Corporation and SanDisk.

NanoScale Storage Systems, Inc.
554 Greenmeadow Way
San Jose, CA 95129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 253-6459
William S. Oakley
AF131-082      Awarded: 10/24/2013
Title:Radiation Hardened Carbon Nanotube-based Nonvolatile Memory
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Data storage onto Phase Change media with 22nm bit cells is proposed, providing 1Tb (threshold) and potentially 1TB (objective) data capacity in a one square inch memory chip. The chip will be designed for spaced based operation, radiation hardened, low power, and able to operate over the required temperature range with sub 10ns access times. The chip consists of an array of 200x200 NanoHeads, each with a modulated electron beam emitted from a Carbon Nano Tube (CNT)that is focused and deflected by a micro-electrode column onto a 137micron wide hexagonal data block of at least 25Mb threshold capacity. Data readout by secondary electron emission gives an SNR of 8 or more. The basic NanoHead design and media response have been validated under a recently completed NAVAIR Phase II SBIR for a 5TB 2.5in disk drive.The design is aimed toward large scale commercial production. This Phase I effort will update and re-optimize the NanoHead design and fabrication approach for memory chip configuration and result in a preliminary design to be fabricated and tested during a Phase II program. BENEFIT: The proposed memory chip addresses large commercial IT markets now served by Flash Memory and SSD devices, and will offer significant performance advantages. Major US companies are presently being sought for product licensing or partnering. The technology is scalable and should find application in Enterprise, consumer, and military markets.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
Yuhong Kang
AF131-082      Awarded: 10/25/2013
Title:Radiation Hardened Graphene based Nonvolatile Memory for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Air Force Phase I SBIR program would develop and demonstrate radiation hardened graphene based nonvolatile memory(NVM) for space applications. Specifically, we would combine advances in resistive memory materials, including graphene and graphene oxides, with the careful manipulation of metal ion, oxygen vacancy or other charge transport in graphene based materials, to realize the radiation hardened NVM devices and arrays with high reliability and high density. NanoSonic has demonstrated a Ta2O5 based resistive memory with on-off ratios of 10^5, device power consumption of 10^-5 Watts and switching speeds of 100ns. We have also demonstrated a successful total ionizing dose (TID) test for the nonvolatile memory under the gamma ray dose level up to 1 Mrad. The devices maintain memory functionalities with high reliability during and after the radiation exposure. During the program, we will investigate the responsible mechanisms for graghene based NVMs, including the NEM effect and ionic effect, and their resistance to radiation. We will fabricate arrayed devices with ultradense crossbar latches structure, using radiation hardened graphene to evaluate the materials and device performance. Memory device parameters namely on–off ratio, on-state current, switching time, retention time, cycling endurance, power consumption and rectification will be evaluated during Phase I using extensive facilities available in NanoSonic and Virginia Tech. Radiation testing include total ionization dose and single event effects, which will be performed at Aeroflex-RAD’s Co60 irradiator facility and Texas A&M’s Cyclotron facility. BENEFIT: The proposed radiation hardened graphene based resistive memory is critical for electronics in space. They can be fashioned into non-volatile memory, which would allow greater data density than hard drives with access times potentially similar to DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory). A broad band of applications of the proposed devices also include analog circuits, neuromorphic computing, programmable logic and signal processing. NanoSonic's research in the nanobridge based resistive device field has shown promise in producing NVM devices of low power consumption, high density and high performance.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Weibo Chen
AF131-083      Awarded: 9/9/2013
Title:An Efficient Cryocooler Driven By Electrochemical Compressors With No Moving Parts
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Next-generation space-based focal plane array infrared detectors require efficient cooling at low temperatures. We propose to develop an innovative cryocooler with no mechanical moving parts that can provide cooling at temperatures below 123 K while rejecting heat at temperatures higher than 300 K. The cooler uses compact, efficient electrochemical compressors with no moving parts to enhance the system reliability and eliminate payload jitter. The cooler also uses a novel dilution cycle to enable the system to provide efficient cooling. The proposed system will efficiently provide 0.5 W of refrigeration at 123 K in a compact package. The unique characteristics of the cryocooler permit distributed cooling over a large area with high thermodynamic efficiency, resulting in low input power and reduced mass. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the operation of a proof-of-concept electrochemical compressor and the dilution cycle; design the Phase II system; and predict detailed cryocooler performance by analysis. In Phase II, we will design, build, and demonstrate a prototype cryocooler system and deliver it to an Air Force research lab for further evaluation. BENEFIT: The proposed solid-state cryocoolers will eliminate mechanical vibrations and substantially improve the reliability of cryocooling systems for infrared focal plane arrays. Their military applications include space-based surveillance, missile detection, and missile tracking systems. Scientific applications include cooling for space-based infrared observatories. Commercial applications include cooling systems for communication satellites, superconducting instruments, and SQUIDs.

EPIR Technologies Inc
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Silviu Velicu
AF131-083      Awarded: 9/11/2013
Title:Low Temperature Thermoelectric Refrigeration with HgCdTe-based Superlattices
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A major limitation to the wide deployment of high sensitivity infrared detector arrays in space environment is the cooling system. Major developments of active cooling capabilities in terms of performance, capacity, reliability and cost remains a primary need. Current conventional cooling systems are bulky and introduce additional vibration, heat, and power consumption. The goal of this project is to develop the technology required for the fabrication of thermoelectric devices capable of cooling infrared arrays from 300 to 123 K. We propose the development of tall barriers nanoscale superlattices as the active elements of multi-stage thermoelectric coolers. The top stage element in contact with the infrared array will be able to remove at least 0.5 W of heat at 123 K. Recent models predict that metallic and HgCdTe- based superlattices have thermoelectric figures of merit ZT compatible with these operational needs. We will perform calculations to optimize material parameters to maximize ZT for each cooling stage. We will use our extensive experience in molecular beam epitaxy to grow the designed structures. Finally, we will develop device structures and metallization methods appropriate to perform ZT measurements, measure the ZTs of fabricated devices and compare results with theory. BENEFIT: High efficiency thermoelectric coolers possess a myriad of applications including portable cooling and precise temperature control for electronics, optics and medical systems. The temperature differences required in air conditioning are usually within the capacity of thermoelectric heat pumps, but their relatively poor coefficient of performance prohibits wide deployment. An increase of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT above 3 is needed before thermoelectric technology can replace current refrigeration and air conditioning technologies. Thermoelectric coolers have long contributed to space missions. For example, thermoelectric devices cool HgCdTe-based infrared imaging cameras such as those on the Hubble Space Telescope. They are employed as refrigerators in various space science experiments. The same materials also hold great potential in thermionic energy conversion. The proposed project will also enable the commercialization of molecular beam epitaxy- grown HgCdTe-based materials and devices for various DOD, DOE and NASA applications. Advanced heterostructures, will significantly improve the performance of HgCdTe-based infrared detectors and therefore improve infrared imaging capabilities.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
John W. Steinbeck
AF131-083      Awarded: 9/12/2013
Title:Magnetic FPA Cooler
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a no moving parts magnetic refrigerator system capable of cooling focal plane arrays (FPA) to temperatures below 123 K. The system will utilize a multiple stage magnetocaloric effect chain to reject heat to a 300 K environment while enabling FPA cooling below 123 K with an efficiency better than 100W/W. The system relies on static magnets and magnetocaloric materials and an innovative fluid handling system is used to circulate refrigerant in the system. During Phase I we will design a three stage magnetic refrigerator capable of providing 1 W of cooling power. The design will comprise selection of magnetocaloric materials, fluid refrigerant and the design of the fluid circulation system. During Phase II we will build two deliverable refrigerators based on the Phase I design. BENEFIT: Successful construction of a magnetic refrigerator with no moving parts will enable high reliability, stable FPA platforms to be constructed for space applications. Commercial applications of the technology include high performance refrigerators for scientific instruments as well as low maintenance cooling and refrigeration systems for commercial and residential use.

ThermoDynamic Films
1313 Madrid
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 310-1224
Richard Epstein
AF131-083      Awarded: 12/11/2013
Title:Cryogenic Optical Refrigeration for Space Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Optical refrigeration is currently the only demonstrated all-solid-state cryocooling technology. Optical cryocoolers use laser light to cool small crystal or glass cooling elements. The cooling element absorbs the laser light and reradiates it at higher energy, an example of anti-Stokes fluorescence. The extra energy of the outgoing light comes from the thermal energy of the cooling element, which in turn becomes colder. This Phase I proposal, entitled “Cryogenic Optical Refrigeration for Space Applications,” directly addresses the deploying optical refrigerator for cooling infrared sensors aboard DoD space missions. ThermoDynamic Films LLC (TDF), in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), proposes to design fully functional prototype cryogenic optical refrigerators and improve the key components needed to make these refrigerators operate at lower temperatures and higher efficiencies. In particular, the proposers will develop new, higher- efficiency cooling materials and they will design and characterize the thermal links that connect the refrigerators to the sensors. The TDF/UNM collaboration is internationally recognized as the pioneer in the field of optical refrigeration. This collaboration is the only group of investigators to have demonstrated optical cryocooling, and it is vigorously advancing both the science and applied aspects of this revolutionary technology. BENEFIT: In many areas of national defense, scientific and laboratory analytic instruments, medicine and high performance electronics, it is necessary to cool instruments and devices to cryogenic temperatures (below -150°Celsius). Cryocoolers are essential components in the infrared (IR) systems that are used for defense applications such as surveillance and ballistic missile guidance. Cryocoolers are an important part of the U.S. government’s priority of heightened homeland and international military security. Cryocoolers are also needed to cool superconductors in a host of medical and geological applications. With no moving parts, TDF’s cryogenic optical refrigerators would not be subject to wear. Additionally, they do not utilize any fluids, which can leak and generally need replenishing. Additional advantages include the compactness of these refrigerators, total lack of vibrations, agility, high temperature stability, the absence of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and rapid cool down. These advantages are particularly compelling for aerospace applications, such as those for space-borne infrared sensors.

Applied Technology Associates
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1200
Bill Manning
AF131-092      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Realistic Autonomous Mission Manager Modeler (RAMMM)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is seeking methods to enhance satellite responsiveness by developing autonomous flight software that supports on-board event detection, planning, and task execution. Key to autonomous flight software is a realistic simulation environment with realistic satellite models. ATA proposes a systems-driven methodology for producing high fidelity, realistic satellite models, a Realistic Autonomous Mission Manager Modeler (RAMMM). Currently, the Autonomous Mission Manager (AMM) satellite models are being developed using the Satellite Design Tool (SDT), which allows virtual satellites to be modeled without any real world constraints. ATA proposes to develop a satellite bus model using RAMMM to ensure mapping between payload and bus requirements and mapping of bus interdependencies and interactions. The results are significant because: • They form a foundation upon which to develop and incorporate higher fidelity components at all levels of the virtual spacecraft design and implementation. • They create a foundation upon which new advance control systems for both satellite bus and payload components can be implemented. • The combination of high fidelity components and advance control systems will enable more realistic scenarios and operating constraints to be incorporated into AMM research and demonstrations. • Similar processes could be applied to satellite payload autonomy requirements. BENEFIT: ATA has been developing technology for the U.S. Government and Aerospace contractors since 1975. During this time, we have developed outstanding relationships that we will leverage to bring the RAMMM technology to market. ATA’s success in generating additional revenue tied to our Phase I and Phase II SBIR projects has allowed ATA to grow and expand its business through Phase III commercialization and other spin-off contracts. As reported in the ATA Company Commercialization Report, we have received 43 Phase I SBIR awards and 21 Phase II awards. ATA’s track record for commercialization of SBIR sponsored technology development is excellent, resulting in a Commercialization Achievement Index of 90 and related cumulative revenues from sales and additional investments of over $42 million. ATA’s preliminary assessment of the market space for our RAMMM technology has produced some interesting initial targeted customers. For example, the European Space Agency (ESA) has a lot of focus on autonomous satellite operations. Other potential customers within the market include but are not limited to the Operational Responsive Space (ORS) Office, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, the Army’s Space and Missile Defense

Okean Solutions, Inc
1463 E Republican St # 32 A
Seattle, WA 98112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 704-6174
Ksenia Kolcio
AF131-092      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Model-Based Architecture for Responsive Spacecraft Autonomy
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal addresses the need for solutions that enable higher levels of spacecraft autonomy to reliably maintain operational capabilities. Random hardware faults and hostile threats necessitate autonomous systems capable of responding quickly and effectively to these threats and unexpected events. The proposed research will develop an autonomy software architecture that enables evolutionary onboard capabilities with initial focus on Fault Management. DoD missions will benefit from robust, reliable autonomous capability in support of the warfighter. Onboard autonomy will be crucial to mission success particularly during critical times where the situation changes rapidly and unpredictably with no opportunity for operator support. BENEFIT: The need for the proposed capabilities is emerging, and will increase dramatically as autonomous systems begin to diffuse into operational systems over the next several years. DoD’s drive to a Blue Force situational awareness has already pushed it into exploration of autonomy-enabling architectures which will only increase as spacecraft autonomy moves into the broader spacecraft industry. The DoD’s need for robust, reliable spacecraft autonomy will be especially great due to the variety and complexity of DoD missions. The evolutionary approach to autonomy will be applicable to near-term missions as well as more complex future missions requiring higher levels of onboard autonomy. The capability, with tailoring, will be applicable to a broad set of modularity implementations, and could find applications today with AFRL’s smart technologies development. It could be used for virtually any system requiring onboard autonomy and would thus potentially cover the entire range of mission types from small to large, near-Earth to interplanetary, experimental, science, military, and commercial.

PnP Innovations, Inc
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE 3rd Floor
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 503-1563
Ken Center
AF131-092      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Easy-to-Employ Satellite and Space System Robustness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Investing in innovation that moves toward the widespread use of satellite autonomy has the potential to yield significant benefits to the space situational awareness (SSA) community. Most notably, if satellite platforms have the ability to detect and respond to events without exchanging information over the space-to-ground link (which is subject to latency and availability limits), their response times can be significantly shortened, leading to higher overall system utility. PnP Innovations has been supporting the development of an Autonomous Mission Manager (AMM) framework for application to space systems. AMM embraces a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) paradigm for autonomy within platforms as well as between federated, collaborating assets. Rules-based behavioral specifications of responses to non- deterministic events are one ongoing research area of the effort. PnP Innovations is leveraging JPL’s STAARS process to facilitate the generation of rules from graphical UML StateCharts. Diagrams are a system engineer’s or system operator’s preferred means of capturing system behaviors. Keeping rule files automatically synched with those representations speeds the deployment cycle and eliminates inconsistencies between design and implementation because no software programming is required. STAARS also verifies the completeness and coverage of specified behaviors at any point in the process, providing operational assurance prior to deployment. BENEFIT: As we progress with our AMM development effort, it has become increasingly clear that there are many applications that benefit from the features that it offers. The original target domain of modular satellite component selection was a starting point that has revealed a raft of other markets – some that we are already pursuing and others that are yet to be explored. In the satellite realm, there is broad appeal to a range of missions from cubestats, to small tactical satellites, to hosted payloads on large commercial platforms. The major benefits afforded by STAARS coupled with the ASPIRE approach to interconnecting commodity modules include streamlining of the design and integration process, direct transition from system behavior capture to flight-ready software artifacts, simplification of testing by standardizing mechanisms for data injection, high to complete re-use of software modules, and virtual elimination of the time devoted to setting up test environments and ground stations (due to the ability to auto-generate from ICDs delivered by the elements of the system. The Operationally Responsive Space office at Kirtland, various universities, NASA, and certain large commercial aerospace primes have all shown serious interest in this type of technology – all realizing the long term benefits toward efficient and sustainable processes. The medical field is another area that can benefit from ASPIRE-like technologies and the STAARS front-end capability that supports system design and configuration. In the same way

Smart Information Flow Technologies, d/b/a SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 325-9314
David J. Musliner
AF131-092      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:LL-HAMMER: Long Lived Highly Autonomous Mission Manager for Event Response
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Military missions increasingly rely on satellites for surveillance, communication, and navigation. While performing these mission-critical tasks, satellites must respond quickly to new enemy threats and changing mission objectives. Under prior AFRL SBIR awards, SIFT and TRACLabs have developed the Highly Autonomous Mission Manager for Event Response (HAMMER) to provide on-board autonomy for satellite operations. In the research proposed here, we will extend our existing architecture with additional capabilities to handle persistent operation during long duration missions that may impose many changes in mission objectives, threat models, and satellite capabilities. BENEFIT: LL-HAMMER will dramatically improve the effectiveness and survivability of military satellites during long-duration missions by providing rapid adaptation to new threats and new objectives, as well as self-monitoring and management of limited spacecraft resources. LL-HAMMER will be stress-tested in long-duration simulations of realistic threat environments and validated for deployment in dynamic mission environments on-board a satellite.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Bruce R. Pilvelait
AF131-093      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Spacecraft MicroCooler Drive Electronics
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Cubesats and microsats utilizing electro-optical payloads will require cryogenic refrigeration for cooling the infrared Focal Plane Arrays. The cryocooler technical requirements for performance, size, mass, and power density—coupled with the programmatic requirements for minimal cost and development time—are extremely challenging. Flight-ready cryogenic refrigerators that have been developed for large satellites do not meet technical requirements for future cubesats. In addition, there are point designs that need to be optimized for each mission. Creare proposes to develop a cryogenic refrigerator that leverages technologies and capabilities previously demonstrated on prior programs. Our cryogenic refrigerator will meet mission requirements for size, weight, performance, and reliability. It will also be affordable, modular, and applicable to multiple missions with minimal development. During Phase I, we will develop a set of requirements, design a refrigerator to meet these requirements, assess production cost, and fabricate and evaluate the performance of a representative breadboard. During Phase II, we will fabricate and qualify one or more protoflight refrigerators. Successful completion of this program will enable advanced sensor systems for space-borne surveillance and reconnaissance. BENEFIT: The result of this program will be a lightweight, efficient, reliable, and affordable cryocooler that enables usage of next-generation focal plane technology in space-borne surveillance and reconnaissance systems. Commercial applications include cooling for sensors used in infrared astronomical and hyperspectral sensors and infrared vision systems.

Iris Technology Corporation
PO Box 5838
Irvine, CA 92616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 975-8410
Carl S. Kirkconnell
AF131-093      Awarded: 5/29/2013
Title:Microsat Cryocooler System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The vision of the Microsat Cryocooler System (MCS) Program is to provide the key mechanical and electrical technology building blocks that will enable a suite of solutions for single FPA dewars on microsat and cubesat platforms. As indicated in SBIR Topic AF131- 093, the range of missions of interest is broad. Therefore, it is essential that the proposed approach yield solutions that are modular and configurable. Iris Technology will employ advanced component technologies and new electronic architectures to develop a miniature (nominally 50W) version of our highly successful Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE). As with LCCE, the developed mini-LCCE will support a wide range of mechanical cryocooler solutions, making it the ideal solution to meet the Air Force’s wide range of intended cubesat and microsat missions and orbits. BENEFIT: The mini-LCCE developed on this Program will address the key technology component that must be developed to enable the objective small cryocooler systems for microsats and cubesats, namely the cryocooler electronics. The radiation hard, miniature low cost cryocooler electronics will be compatible with a wide range of tactical and space cryocoolers. It will be pairable with tactical coolers to provide a low cost Microsat Cryocooler System (MCS) solution for severely cost-constrained payloads. For more demanding, long life (7+ year) missions, the mini-LCCE will be paired with miniature pulse tube coolers, or possibly other small space coolers, from a proven space cryocooler prime contractor provider. Iris's long term objectives are to develop and prove a set of cryocooler electronics that supports the entire microsat mission space of interest and to ultimately provide complete cryocooler systems based upon those electronics.

Xunergy
131 Fox Hill Drive
Newtown, PA 18940
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(267) 394-2830
Jianguo Xu
AF131-093      Awarded: 5/15/2013
Title:Small Cryogenic Refrigerator for Single FPA Dewars
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Air Force SBIR Phase I project will devllopa cryocooler that will reduce mass, volume by over 30%, and increase efficiency (by over 20% relative) from the state-of-the art pulse tube cryocoolers and maintain its long life and low vibration characteristics. Our specific technical objectives also include: a total cryocooler mass of less than 500 g, compressor dimension of 110 mm in length and approximately 40 mm in diameter. The power consumption is less than 20 W, and the life time is expected to be 10 years. BENEFIT: Applications of such a cryocooler include cooling of telecommunication base station components, sensors in space and in-flight applications and (other) military applications (e.g., in tanks and missiles), high temperature superconductor components such as those used in electronics and fault circuit limiters. The experience obtained from such a project will also help us in developing cryocoolers, using some of the principles of the cryocoolers in the current proposal, for superconductor magnets in magnetic resonance imagingiMRIjsystems, transformers, motors and generators, such as those on wind turbines, and for cryogenic vacuum pumping in semiconductor and flat panel display manufacturing processes.

Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates
5777 Central Avenue, Suite 221
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 834-3475
Goeffrey Crowley
AF131-094      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:Characterizing the Impact of Ionospheric Wave Structures on Coordinate Registration.
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The DoD requires accurate real-time knowledge of ionospheric variability in order to reduce one of the biggest error sources inherent in the use of critical systems such as Over the Horizon Radar (OTHR). OTHR is particularly susceptible to traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID’s) which are underspecified by current methods. Consequently, OTHR target location errors can reach 10s-100 km. The objective of this work is to test the feasibility of a real-time system which will assimilate novel ionospheric measurements capable of fully capturing TID properties in the OTHR signal reflection region, specify fully the perturbed ionosphere and how it modifies OTHR signal propagation, and use that information to improve OTHR coordinate registration. To address this objective we propose to: i) Survey state of the art TID observations and generation mechanisms ii) Establish what OTHR outputs are desired from simulations iii) Demonstrate ingestion of various ionospheric specification models into Raytracing software iv) Use TIDDBIT to specify TID’s as realistic perturbations to ionospheric models v) Demonstrate ability to raytrace HF radio signals through TID perturbed ionospheric model vi) Explore OTHR inversion to obtain TID parameters BENEFIT: At the end of Phase-I, we will deliver a full prototype software system to simulate the effects of TIDs on OTHR signals that could be used to improve coordinate registration (CR). We will have demonstrated the viability of assimilating TIDDBIT and other ionospheric measurements, and shown how the resulting ionospheric specification can be used with raytracing codes to predict how OTHR signals are modified by TID’s. Finally, we will have studied how OTHR itself might be used in such assimilations and the improvements to OTHR CR. The main benefit of this work is the improvement of OTH CR through realistic specification of HF propagation in a perturbed ionosphere. This capability will lead to reductions in OTHR target position and velocity errors. The work complements ASTRA’s existing commercial development of TIDDBIT receivers and expertise in the analysis of TID’s as well as ionospheric modeling, data-analysis, and assimilation methods. The availability of already deployed TIDDBIT systems and their TID databases leads to the added benefit that no hardware development or deployment is required for the success of this Phase-I project. The resulting TID assimilation software can be applied to both commercial and DoD operations.

Lowell Digisonde International, LLC
175 Cabot Street, Suite 200
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 735-4752
Bodo W. Reinisch
AF131-094      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:Rapid EDP and TID specifications for OTHR applications.
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Over the horizon radar (OTHR) systems survey large areas searching for targets several thousand kilometers away by using ionospherically reflected high frequency (HF) radio waves. Accurate coordinate-registration (CR) of the targets requires detailed knowledge of the electron density profile (EDP) of the ionosphere between the radar and the targets. Our proposal outlines a realistic path toward providing in near real-time the specification of the ionospheric electron density distribution including wave modulations caused by traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model is used as a background model. Digisondes are proposed for the measurement of the ionospheric characteristics for real-time assimilation into the IRI model: foF2, foF1, foE, hmF2, hmF1, hmE, B0, B1, and D1. This real-time procedure will create the IRI Real-Time Assimilative Model (IRTAM). The Digisondes also measure the Doppler frequencies and arrival angles of ionospherically reflected HF signals from which the TID wave parameters are derived in real-time. The detected TID electron density waves can then be superimposed on the IRTAM electron distribution. The Huang-Reinisch2006 raytracing algorithm will be used to calculate the ray path through IRTAM. A computer simulation of this process will be conducted under Phase-I. BENEFIT: The rapid EDP and TID specifications technique proposed can be directly integrated into the existing Digisonde GIRO network in support of OTHR operations. The GIRO network can also easily be expanded by deploying additional commercially available Digisondes.

NorthWest Research Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 3027
Bellevue, WA 98009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 582-4905
L.J. Nickisch
AF131-094      Awarded: 8/14/2013
Title:Characterizing the Impact of Ionospheric Wave Structures on Coordinate Registration.
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Coordinate Registration (CR) of OTHR targets requires accurate real-time ionospheric modeling coupled with HF propagation calculations to convert radar-measured target signal delays and beam steers to geographical position. Our team is the developer of one of the most sophisticated ionospheric data assimilation capabilities currently in existence, GPSII (GPS Ionospheric Inversion; pronounced “gypsy”). Our team is also very experienced in developing algorithms for OTHR CR; we have developed an extensive computational HF propagation tool set. One of the major limitations in CR accuracy is the inability of current CR algorithms to properly account for traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Our previous investigations into TID mitigation produced a number of tools and ideas that we here propose to architect into a significant advance in TID mitigation. In Phase I we will develop an HF propagation simulation capability that combines models of TIDs with 3D ray tracing to allow generation of simulated TID-affected OTH radar data (vertical and oblique ionograms, backscatter ionograms, Doppler-shifted surface clutter, delay and angle effects on targets, etc.). These simulated data will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of ionospheric data assimilation in reconstructing the ionospheric TID structure affecting OTHR measurements, leading to Phase II development of an operational capability. BENEFIT: An ionospheric data assimilation method with the fidelity to model TIDs in real time will allow improved OTHR Coordinate Registration accuracy. Improved CR accuracy will enhance the applicability of OTHR as a wide area surveillance asset for Air Force and Homeland Security applications with dramatic cost savings over alternative microwave radar solutions. In the US counter drug mission of the current ROTHR system, it is necessary for intercepting aircraft to perform ‘cold-nose intercepts” where onboard radars are deactivated (so traffickers won’t detect the interceptors and dump their contraband to evade arrest). To visually spot the target aircraft, it is necessary for the OTH radar to guide the intercepting airplane to within a couple of kilometers of the target. However, TID-caused coordinate registration errors can easily be several tens of kilometers, so mitigation of these errors would have immediate benefit to the existing ROTHR system. Planned use of next- generation OTHRs for cruise missile and ballistic missile detection and trajectory estimation will benefit by mitigation of TID-induced CR errors to achieve sufficient accuracy for handoff to millimeter wave radars and IR sensors. While achieving good TID mitigation for OTHR is primarily our Phase II goal, the propagation simulation tools developed under Phase I will benefit the Air Force by providing the ability to perform studies in simulation to demonstrate the utility of OTHR as a surveillance asset in stressing TID environments.

W R Systems, LTD
2500 Almeda Avenue, Suite 214
Norfolk, VA 23513
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 293-7312
Roderick Barnes
AF131-094      Awarded: 9/18/2013
Title:Characterizing the Impact of Ionospheric Wave Structures on Coordinate Registration.
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose the assembly of a coordinate registration assessment suite applicable to over- the-horizon radar (OTHR). The suite includes a 3-D ionospheric model coupled with a 3-D magneto-ionic ray tracing code. The propagation model will have sufficient fidelity to accurately capture the effects of atmospheric gravity waves down to the high frequency limit. The propagation model will be designed to populate OTHR coordinate transform data for examination of the impacts of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). The suite builds on a parametric climatological model, and be capable of ingesting data from a range of sensors (sounders, GPS) and for a range of TID scale variations that will be formulated as part of this proposal. The impact of TIDs will be assessed over a range of different TID conditions (directional spectrum) and OTHR operating scenarios to assess the nature of TID activity most relevant to OTHR accuracy. We propose developing high level design for a measurement system capable of providing real time estimates of TIDs in a format relevant for the propagation model. The design is expected to utilize modern direct digital multi-channel HF hardware that can provide high fidelity characterization of TIDs at relatively low cost. BENEFIT: The system is aimed at improving the accuracy of HF geolocation systems. A cost effective TID measurement network providing executable input to an advanced coordinate registration system would take the accuracy of systems such as Next Generation OTHR and HF Emitter Geolocators to new levels of accuracy. Recent interest in Next Generation OTHR within the Department of Defense, specifically applied to a NORAD/NORTHCOM homeland defense mission, provides incentive to invest in developing this technology.

Barron Associates, Inc.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Richard J. Adams
AF131-095      Awarded: 4/22/2013
Title:Affordable Multi-Physics Local Environment (AMPLE) Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Barron Associates Inc. proposes development of an Affordable Multi-Physics Local Environment (AMPLE) Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. The solution integrates multiple sensor phenomenologies, unconventional data sources, cross-platform information sharing, and sensor fusion to realize a low size, weight, and power (SWAP) platform that provides operational SSA for high value assets (HVAs) in geostationary orbit (GEO). The AMPLE platform fuses diverse sources into high-quality threat detection and track information, providing the host HVA with actionable knowledge. A key innovation is the employment of advanced data fusion techniques to optimize a sensor architecture for co- orbital SSA. Recent analysis by Barron Associates indicates that a minimalistic on-board sensor suite that takes advantage of diverse phenomenologies may prove adequate when networked data from other SSA assets are integrated within a fusion system. Phase I will include specific recommendations for optical, RF, and effluent sensing hardware; and an employment architecture that leverages this sensor data fusion capability to realize an affordable system. BENEFIT: AMPLE technology transition follows a successful model employed by Barron Associates in past projects that has resulted both in fielding of derived products and technical consulting and R&D services contracts. These vehicles account for a significant portion of Barron Associates revenue, and have largely driven a healthy annual growth rate. The proposed effort will open up new opportunities for providing satellite manufacturers with enhanced spacecraft protection measures. With the recent urgency attached to the defensive counterspace mission, these opportunities should increase significantly in the coming years.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Avi Pfeffer
AF131-095      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Sum Product Network to Indicate Proximate Objects in Space (SNIPS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Space system operators require the ability to detect and track potential threats to their platforms. One way to detect and track objects in the proximity of a satellite or other space vehicle without dedicated sensors and subsystems is to perform additional processing on existing system sensor data streams to identify perturbations caused by a nearby object. Of the sensors commonly deployed on space vehicles, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most suitable for this purpose. The GPS signal stream will be perturbed by any nearby radio-reflective object in the form of multipath noise. We demonstrate the use of this multipath noise to perform a trilateration which exploits both time and frequency perturbations in the data to detect and track radio-reflective objects up to several thousand meters from the vehicle. To implement this algorithm we describe a radiation-hardened Sum Product Network to Indicate Proximate Objects in Space (SNIPS) which infers the existence of potential threats to space platforms using GPS multipath noise and validates the detection via anomaly detection on concomitant effects such as perturbation of communication signals. A verifiable sum product network localizes nearby objects and uses belief propagation to determine the track and threat indications of the objects. BENEFIT: SNIPS benefits a range of spacecraft and platforms by enabling immediate and autonomous reaction to threats from the local area. Government transition opportunities include satellite programs such as the Wideband Global Satellite Communications (SATCOM) program, Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), and TACSAT. Potential commercial licensing includes placement with major satellite operators. SNIPS will enhance the existing AgentWorks™ product suite with algorithms and aspects resulting from this research.

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Red Hill Avenue, B3-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8730
David E. Ludwig
AF131-095      Awarded: 5/10/2013
Title:Real Time Data Processor for Local Area Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Threat Assessment Sensor Suite (TASS) under development by Irvine Sensor Corporation under SBIR sponsorship of AFRL provides a robust sensing capability which includes passive and active sensors with search, detection, tracking, and imaging modes. Work under this task will be focused on signal and data processing of TASS sensor suite target data using neural inspired, cognitive processing techniques for accurate target and target activity characterization. This cognitive processing will be fused using cross-modal correlation techniques with other situational data available from the host and from other monitoring systems to create an integrated, accurate, and timely local situation awareness picture. BENEFIT: The commercial use of space is continuing to expand as many more countries, in addition to the US, deploy space assets. Local Area Space Situation Awareness (LASSA), however achieved, will be an important capability for these systems to insure their owners of their operability and status. The multimodal sensor suites and associated interpretive processing to be developed under this SBIR Topic will provide an array of sensors and associated processing that commercial users can exploit to meet their particular LASSA requirements. This concept’s ability to detect and track small debris as well as observe and interpret activities near high value host satellites will provide significant capabilities helping to insure long term operability of these critical assets.

Chip Design Systems
12 Longacre Court
Hockessin, DE 19707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 542-6548
Rodney McGee
AF131-098      Awarded: 7/29/2013
Title:"Night Glow" Short Wave Infrared LED (NSLED) Image Projector Development
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This project aims to develop a Short Wave Infrared band image projector to provide real time detector stimulation with high dynamic range. Our emitter technology is based on GaInAsSb quaternary semiconductor LED arrays hybridized to CMOS read-in integrated circuits. This project leverages read-in circuit design and control electronics that were developed under SLEDS - a longer wavelength projector program. By leveraging existing system components, we aim to increase the likelihood of project success, reduce program cost, and ensure compatibility with existing systems. Phase 1 effort will focus on fabrication and characterization of emitter devices and design study of read-in circuits and control electronics. BENEFIT: The commercial application of this program is the development of an SWIR image projector with unprecedented resolution capable of testing a wide variety of high-resolution SWIR detector arrays. These detectors are currently too large to be tested using existing SWIR image projectors. In addition to their military application, SWIR detectors are useful for inspection of continuous processes such as high temperature manufacturing processes, plastics recycling of automotive and consumer products, agricultural raw material cleaning and sorting, and a growing biological imaging technique, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

Fontus Applied Technologies
10 Cottonwood Ct.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 865-1103
Wei Hu
AF131-098      Awarded: 6/20/2013
Title:Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Test Capabilities for Imaging Sensors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There has been a strong worldwide interest in the development of technologies that would enable hardware in the loop (HWIL) stimulation of imaging sensors. Presently, a majority of the image projection systems are based on micro-resistor arrays, deformable mirror devices, spatial light modulators, and liquid crystal light valves. In this SBIR program, researchers of Fontus Applied Technologies propose an innovative scene projector system using our advanced electro-optic technology. The proposed scene generator is fast, wide spectrum range, fairly easy to fabricate, and low cost, compared with the currently available technologies. BENEFIT: Scene generation technique, a powerful tool for characterization and test of imaging sensor, will become essential lab tools for more and more research institutions, and the market will grow significantly as the growing investment flows into these areas. Success of this program will lead to a new generation of commercial scene generation systems for many imaging sensor development applications.

Indiana Integrated Circuits, LLC
1400 E. Angela Blvd Unit 107
South Bend, IN 46617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(574) 217-4612
Jason M. Kulick
AF131-098      Awarded: 7/31/2013
Title:Advanced Chip Integration for Enhanced Arrays
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Improvements such as increased array size and better non-uniformity correction have been made to resistive emitter arrays fabricated on silicon (Si). There exist additonal wavelengths of interest whose emitter devices require fabrication in other materials, such as gallium arsenide (GaAs). For both Si and GaAs substrate materials, attempts to “tile” small arrays into larger ones for reasons of cost and design flexibility have met with limited success. Issues such as chip-to-chip I/O pitch, relatively large “seams” created by gaps between adjacent chips, and precision chip alignment all have posed significant problems to tiling smaller chips into larger arrays. Integrating drive and control electronics further complicates this problem. The new electronic packaging technology developed by Indiana Integrated Circuits, LLC and known as “Quilt Packaging” (QP) can alleviate many of the problems associated with tiling arrays, while delivering desired electronic performance, thermal management and design flexibility. QP enables sub-micron chip-to-chip alignment, customizable chip I/O potentially as dense as 10 micron pitch, and can reduce “seams” between array elements to less than 10 microns. The IIC team proposes to integrate QP technology for application to scalable, flexible, lower-cost GaAs-based emitter arrays for a new generation of high-performance infrared scene projector systems. BENEFIT: There is considerable interest from the scene simulation community in the production of large scale IRSP systems for testing large format imagers. Near term commercialization would be the production of IRSP systems based on the gallium arsenide (GaAs) Quilt Packaging processes proposed for this SBIR effort, or their modification to address similar IRSP technologies. If arrays can be tiled on all 4 sides, then emitter arrays will no longer be limited by RIIC size/yield, drastically reducing array cost. Effectively any size array could be fabricated by joining the requisite number of tiles, though power, thermal and carrier size limitations will limit the practical size of a tiled array. Another potential application would apply to large arrays for infrared imaging, and the proposed technology could also be applied to other types of focal plane arrays. In addition to the military/defense market for IR detection arrays, there are significant commercial applications if the cost curve can be bent down enough. Bio-medical, security scanning, standoff detection and manufacturing quality control are all potential markets for low-cost, large-format imaging arrays. It is anticipated that in addition to these known markets, new markets will emerge for IR imagers as the system costs decrease.

Kent Optronics, Inc
40 Corporate Park Drive
Hopewell Junction, NY 12533
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 897-0138
Jack Litter
AF131-098      Awarded: 6/21/2013
Title:High Speed SWIR Scene Projector
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR Phase I proposal proposes to develop a High Speed SWIR Scene Projector that can operate at 800 Hz with growth potential to 2 kHz, and a 1024x1024 spatial format scalable to 2kx2k in the future fabrication. The threshold operational region could exceed the specified 1200 to 1800 nm at power level of many microwatts per pixel in the near term and increased performance as future SWIR lasers increase their associated power outputs. Two designs have entered into the consideration: (1) a new low viscosity nemetic-base LC material with sub-millisecond speed, and (2) a novel switched path configuration using Ferro-electric Liquid Crystal which is capable of >1 kHz switching to overcome the FLC 50% duty cycle, resulting in a consistent stable image being projector to the sensor. Whichever approach is down selected after Phase 1 material/component evaluation, the design will incorporate a new larger format LCoS array to be fabricated in the Phase 2. Phase II is to finish the detailed system design and develop the prototype per the Phase I selection. BENEFIT: The near term benefit will directly increase the US military (Air Force, the Army, Navy, and NASA;s) and DoD contractors¡¯ ability to test faster sensors and in additional spectral bands. While this project is for a military application, the SWIR spectral region is receiving more interest in general due to the unique capabilities and parameters associated with that waveband. The Camera industry is expanding their product offering throughout the IR spectrum for both military and commercial applications, which would benefit from enhanced capabilities of a testing projector device along the lines of the proposed. Furthermore, the fundamental material and component developments in this proposal is applicable across many application areas to 1) enhance the performance of other projectors throughout the visible and IR region; 2) enable higher frame rate visual devices like visible projectors, TV, and cell phones; 3) apply the larger format LCoS array for other pixel display devices including other high temperature larger format projectors across the Spectral band, wide FOV device applications like aerial surveillance, and advanced sensors. The general trend in imaging devices is to exhibit faster and faster rates, needing a faster test system to keep pace with their development. Other commercial customers are looking for a wide FOV and high resolution imaging capability with a high sensitivity and fast speed that can utilize a derivative of the developed components.

OPTRA, Inc
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Julia Rentz Dupuis
AF131-099      Awarded: 7/16/2013
Title:Multi-Aperture Hypersonic Imager
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is requires an innovative multi-aperture sensor for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) capable of extended operation at a speed between Mach 4 and Mach 7 and an altitude between 50,000 and 70,000ft, for navigation and terminal homing applications. The leading edge of a vehicle traveling at Mach 7 may experience temperatures over 1700C, while typical optical materials such as Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) oxidize at around 200C. OPTRA proposes a system based on a multi-aperture telescope. This approach uses multiple small optical windows, minimizing atmospheric distortion across each window and enabling conductive cooling of the windows through their mounting surfaces. For sufficiently small light sources, this approach can match the resolution achievable with a single large aperture and enables the use of an algorithm to remove atmospheric distortion. The sensor will have an outer layer made from a heat-resistant alloy, and an inner layer made from a material with high thermal conductivity which will be actively cooled. The heat load on the optical windows will be dissipated by thermal conduction through the inner layer. A prototype will be designed based on results from fluid, thermal and optical simulations using FEA, as well as from breadboard tests. BENEFIT: Resolution of 1.5 arc-minutes at 10ìm for sufficiently small light sources Small individual windows enable conductive cooling of infrared windows in hypersonic airstream Small individual windows minimize atmospheric distortions across each window Algorithm using closure phases eliminates phase errors between windows for sufficiently small sources Physically conformal: sensor surface contours can exactly match the desired vehicle surface contours

Spectral Imaging Laboratory
1785 Locust St. #10
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 578-0626
Francis Reininger
AF131-099      Awarded: 6/17/2013
Title:Multi-aperture Sensor for Hypersonic Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. Air Force has a need to develop a new forward looking infrared imaging system that can actively mitigate thermal loading associated with munitions flight speeds greater than Mach 5. Excessive thermal loading causes the viewing domes to emit a high background radiance, which reduces the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensor below the level required for reliable guidance, navigation, and situational awareness. The Spectral Imaging Laboratory (SPILAB) will investigate the feasibility of developing a multiple aperture, artificial compound eye (ACE) sensor with active cooling throughout the dome structure to eliminate the problems associated with high temperature thermal loading. BENEFIT: The actively cooled ACE sensor will enable hypersonic missiles and munitions to navigate using wide angle imaging, and to target using forward looking infrared sensing. It will be useful for both Air-to-Surface and Air-to-Air missiles. The forward looking imaging capability will also be useful for commercial aircraft traveling at hypersonic speeds.

Physical Optics Corporation
Integrated Systems Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Alexander Naumov
AF131-101      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Seeker For Small Agile Munitions
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a wide-field-of-view seeker combining multiwaveband infrared imaging and semiactive laser (SAL) guidance in a gimbal-free concept, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new ultrawide-field-of-view Seeker for Small Agile Munitions (S4SAM). The proposed S4SAM includes image, SAL, and navigation modules, an avionics processor, and a power source. The S4SAM mimics a vertebrate eye, which both provides ultrawide field of regard for target detection and narrow field of interest for high-resolution target identification. This approach allows us to minimize the trade-off between ultrawide field of view against effective resolution. The S4SAM operates in the short-wave and midwave infrared wavebands, which exploits disparate physical phenomena between reflective and thermally emitted target signatures, maximizing the probability of correct target identification in highly cluttered urban terrain. The precision autonomous and SAL guidance is supported by new computationally efficient algorithms embedded in the avionics processor. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the S4SAM by laboratory prototyping and mission analysis to predict system performance. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a full-scale compact and power-efficient seeker capable of being controlled by both autonomous closed-loop guidance and a human-operated laser designator. BENEFIT: The proposed S4SAM will not only address the major Air Force requirements for precise target tracking and enhanced target recognition, but also can be adopted by other military air, land, and sea autonomous vehicles where payload size, weight, and power are at a premium. The improved sensor stabilization enables such platforms to produce 3D imagery, which is becoming vital to various DoD and commercial applications involving surveillance, situational awareness, tracking, navigation, and aiming for missiles, cruise missiles, and artillery shells, drastically reducing setup and maintenance costs, and computational complexity too. Successful completion of the S4SAM development will also bring benefits to imaging LADAR and free-space communication. Significant commercial applications of the S4SAM technology are expected as a result of advantages in terms of coverage and cost. Laser alignment systems have been used in many ways, such as in the construction of pipelines, nuclear particle accelerators, and many assembly jobs where precise positioning is mandatory.

Polaris Sensor Technologies, Inc.
200 Westside Square Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-0087
Jonathan Hanks
AF131-101      Awarded: 7/23/2013
Title:Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) Multiwaveband Multimode Seeker Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is seeking advanced seekers that integrate multiple modes of detection. In particular, this SBIR will pursue development of a Semi-active Laser (SAL) sensor and a passive infrared (IR) sensor into an integrated seeker for precision and agile munitions. The enhanced capability is required to address military operations in difficult environments such as urban terrain, to maneuver in cluttered environments, to offer precision targeting, and to minimize collateral damage. Multimode seeker operation also improves munition performance in GPS-denied environments and enables selectable man-in-the-loop operation. Operational mode selection permits in-flight target updates using a human-operated laser designator or autonomous guidance to the target using the passive mode seeker sensor information. A key challenge is to develop such a sensor with sufficiently small size, weight, and power so that it is compatible with munitions currently under development. Polaris Sensor Technologies, Inc. is addressing this need through development of a SAL seeker that will be integrated with Spectral Imaging Laboratory’s WFOV IR imager. The SAL seeker is based on technology demonstrated to have the desired detection range and angular sensitivity with existing laser designators and has a small volume enabling the integration of the two sensor modes into a monolithic unit. BENEFIT: Successful development of the Multimode WFOV Seeker will enhance warfighting capability and force projection by providing better precision, lower collateral damage, and flexible targeting. Commercialization of the technology will initially be focused on precision munitions, both at the Air Force and within the Army. Polaris has identified two Army programs which have the same requirements. Development of a common sensor for both agencies will lower cost to both. Further application could extend beyond air- or gun- launched munitions to sensors for targeting and ISR on unmanned aerial and ground vehicles (UAVs and UGVs). In particular, the TALON robot (the primary UGV used in Afghanistan today) has a requirement for a wide field of view camera. As UGVs add roles beyond simple reconnaissance (such as targeting), the sensor developed could serve in that role for these platforms. Commercial applications will be investigated including machine vision for manufacturing.

Spectral Imaging Laboratory
1785 Locust St. #10
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 578-0626
Francis Reininger
AF131-101      Awarded: 7/24/2013
Title:Wide-Field-of-View (WFOV) Multimode Seeker
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. Air Force has a need to develop a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) multimode seeker with one mode being multi-waveband passive infrared imaging, and the second mode being a semi-active laser (SAL). The multimode system is required because of the continued need for military operations to be conducted in difficult urban environments were damage effects must be controlled through precision guidance of munitions. Given the highly cluttered nature of urban environments and associated problems with line-of-sight designation, additional precision can be obtained via passive infrared imaging provided from the flight vehicle. The additional image information would allow soldiers on the ground to adjust the laser designator spot accordingly and thereby increase the probability of correctly identifying and tracking targets from non-targets. The Spectral Imaging Laboratory (SPILAB) will investigate the feasibility of developing an infrared artificial compound eye (ACE) imaging sub-system that can be integrated with a SAL sub-system. The combined system will have a size, weight, and power (SWaP) well below the required 6in diameter, 5lb, and 50W. BENEFIT: The combined SAL/ACE system will enable soldiers in the field to designate targets with greater precision in cluttered urban environments. Commercial applications include surveillance activities in law enforcement, border control, homeland security. The ACE system alone will find applications in search and rescue, machine vision, robotics, and vehicle situational awareness/safety systems.

Colorado Engineering Inc.
1915 Jamboree Dr. Suite 165
Colorado Springs, CO 80920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Lawrence Scally
AF131-102      Awarded: 7/30/2013
Title:Multi-Function Radar Seeker (MFS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Colorado Engineering Inc. (CEI), with its teammates, proposes to leverage its collective expertise in communication systems design; radar systems design; electromagnetics (EM) analysis and modeling; antenna design; RF design; advanced processing architectures; and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms design to develop a concept/architecture and Receiver Exciter (REX) for a multi-function radar seeker with embedded communications. The Phase I work will include architecting and modeling of the entire system concept and a detailed block design of the REX subsystem. CEI will combine its extensive expertise with embedded hardware and software, anti-tamper (AT), Information Assurance (IA) and Built-in Test (BIT) to develop a heterogeneous, scalable, morphable, reconfigurable/programmable, multiprocessor REX system for a diverse set of missile types in a Modular Open Systems Architecture (MOSA) format. BENEFIT: CEI has a history of success commercializing technologies developed under government programs. The most recent evidence of this success can be seen in the presentation of the Tibbetts Award to CEI by the Small Business Administration. This prestigious award is given to small businesses that represent excellence in achieving the mission and goals of the SBIR program, stimulating technological innovation, and increasing the commercialization of Federal research. CEI was presented with this award at a White House ceremony. CEI has developed software and hardware technologies for a variety of government programs, and the team has transitioned over 37 products to production for use in DoD and Government systems. CEI also has experience commercializing technology developed under Government-funded programs. Products are packaged as COTS items, listed on a catalog price sheet, supported with technical application notes and marketing materials, and made available for sale to both the commercial and government markets. CEI will promote technologies developed under this effort as part of its standard commercial product marketing and sales activities. The MFS architecture, algorithms and technologies will be applicable across all Air Force and DOD missile systems. The technologies and algorithms will be extendable to many DoD and commercial applications that utilize electronic processing and REX systems. CEI has close relationship with primes to get MFS inserted into future missile systems. The architectures developed will be extremely flexible. The commercialization strategy will include generating target data sheets for the derivative technologies and algorithms from MFS. These data sheets will be posted on CEI’s website and circulated throughout applicable DOD agencies, NASA, three letter agencies, and interested qualified commercial parties. The MFS system can be scaled for other radar and communication applications. The technology enhancements anticipated under this program will reduce

Mustang Technology Group, L.P.
6900 K Ave
Plano, TX 75074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 747-0707
Jeff Lyon
AF131-102      Awarded: 7/31/2013
Title:Communication-Embedded RF Seeker
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Mustang Technology Group, LP is proposing a Phase I SBIR study that will expand the capability of air delivered weapons by providing a low cost, small form factor, multi-function radar seeker which has a flexible architecture which supports multiple radar modes and high speed data link communications. The seeker will be capable of prosecuting stationary and moving targets by executing radar modes such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS) and Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI). The key innovation for this study is the addition of a high speed data link communications capability to the seeker which will allow the weapon solution to receive In-Flight Target Updates (IFTUs) and provide Battle Damage Assessments (BDAs). BENEFIT: Mustang views this SBIR as an opportunity to expand the capabilities of our existing line of affordable, high-performance, RF seekers. The impressive size, weight and power characteristics of the sensor concept make it viable for air-delivered weapon and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications. The dual use, radar communication architecture of the multi functional RF system supports new applications such as Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaisance (ISR) and cooperative networks. Commercial applications of the flexible radar seeker include: imagery aided navigation and aircraft collision avoidance systems.

Cornerstone Research Group, Inc.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Michael Rauscher
AF131-103      Awarded: 6/28/2013
Title:Large Volume Production of Core-Shell Nanothermite
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Advances in nanotechnology have promised non-linear improvements in a variety of energetic materials applications; however, the practical application of the technology has not matched its promise. One area of particular interest is in producing core-shell energetic materials based on metal (fuel)/metal oxide (oxidizer) chemistry that demonstrate thermite-like reactions. Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to adapt an existing in-situ manufacturing technique to produce core-shell particles in an affordable, scalable process. The in-situ technology that CRG employs is simple to implement, easily scaled to relevant scales, and offers a higher quality of particles than what is reported in literature. The process allows for a safer method of particle incorporation as no particles are handled by workers and there is no mixing. It is not a colloidal process, so there is no route for agglomeration or phase separation. The proposed work will demonstrate the feasibility of using the in-situ process to fabricate core-shell structures to meet the Air Force's future supply demands for high energy density explosive compounds. Advantages resulting from CRG's proposed concept will allow for high volume production of a material whose theoretical value has been promised but could not be practically realized prior to now due to production limitations. BENEFIT: Operational Benefits: (1) Enhanced thermite tailorability, (2) improved energy density with no cost to reactivity, (3) increased stability and safety, and (4) No handling of nanoparticles. Commercial Applications: (1) Underwater welding and (2) plateless/jointless railroad track installation or repair.

Ionwerks, Inc.
3401 Louisiana, Ste 355
Houston, TX 77002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 522-9880
Ernest Lewis
AF131-103      Awarded: 6/28/2013
Title:Gas Phase Synthesis and Implantation of Metastable Intermolecular Compounds (MICs)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Core-shell Metastable Intermolecular Compounds (CS-MICs) will be examined utilizing gas-phase nanocluster production, formed into an atomic beam, accelerated and implanted into polymers of interest for air stability studies as well as preliminary exothermic properties. This will include depth profiling via ESCA, XPS, determination of chemistry state at depth, coupled with long term studies at controlled humidity environments followed by ESCA, XPS. SEM-EDS of individual particles will also be undertaken to compare to the average XPS profiles. Surface passivation chemistries will be examined with regard to the coating chemistry, implantation depth, and polymer composition, and from this, air stability factors for a given condition can be provided which is of great use at a chemical level considering the exothermic properties of nanothermite. The goal of this Phase I is to provide well controlled production routes for Core-Shell MICs along with implanted substrates for further energetic studies and plans for scale-up productions can be designed. BENEFIT: Providing a route to air-stable core-shell metastable intermolecular compounds as well as the corresponding energetic studies has the potential to open up several new avenues for commercial success including but not limited to sales of core-shell cluster beamlines, R&D services for customers with specific chemistry desires, and delivery of processes which generate scaled up amounts of core-shell thermites at a level applicable to use within the propulsion and energy delivery needs of the military. Furthermore, the use within microdevices at small scales is also an avenue for a successful core-shell chemistry immediately as the current coating levels may provide a means for initial microdevice tests. Our current work has focused upon the control of the chemistry of the nanoparticle, and implanting this into the sample of interest. The analysis and demonstration of nanothermites implanted below the surface of a polymer, resulting in passivation of the bare-metal or layered surface, and creation of a long-duration air stable thermite would be directly applicable to the field of directed energy and would be an immediately desired product.

NEI Corporation
400 E Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-3141
Mohit Jain
AF131-103      Awarded: 6/28/2013
Title:A novel process to produce air-stable core-shell nanoparticles for energetic applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: It has been a challenge to realize the benefits of energetic metal nanoparticles due to the severe oxidation that occurs on the particle surface, which leads to significantly diminished performance during combustion. We propose to improve the energetic properties and air- stability of aluminum nanoparticles by encapsulating them with a relatively noble metal that can undergo an exothermic inter-metallic reaction during combustion. Building upon NEI’s experience in functionalizing nanoparticles, and that of our university collaborator’s capabilities in testing energetic materials, we will demonstrate the feasibility of a scalable approach for producing aluminum-based core-shell nanoparticles that will have significantly better energetic properties than the base aluminum nanoparticles. The emphasis will be on obtaining nanoparticles with minimal agglomeration and high air-stability. In Phase I, the core-shell nanoparticles will be tested for energetic enhancement using bomb calorimetry. Further, air stability of the nanoparticles will be tested by exposing them to standard and accelerated aging conditions. In Phase II, a prototype system to produce core-shell nanoparticles will be designed and delivered to the Air Force. Additionally, a DoD prime contractor will be included in the Phase II team to help define functional performance criteria and test under simulated use conditions, thereby achieving TRL 5. BENEFIT: In addition to satisfying the Air Force’s need for core-shell nanoparticle based energetic materials, the core-shell nanoparticles also have several applications in biomedical, optics, and electronics. Core-shell nanoparticles can be used for in-vitro and deep tissue imaging, as semiconductor core-shell nanoparticles can have high quantum yield and narrow fluorescence emission. Core-shell nanoparticles with a dielectric core and a metallic shell are also being investigated for cancer treatment. The core-shell nanoparticles can be used in catalysis, where all the catalytic particles form a shell on the surface of a non-catalytic core, hence maximizing the use of all the catalytic particles. The performance of LEDs, lasers and phosphors can be enhanced by the use of core-shell nanoparticles.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Ashavani Kumar
AF131-103      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:Synthesis of Active Passivation for Aluminum Nanoenergetics via Micro-emulsion based chemical route
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit proposes to develop a wet chemical synthesis approach for core-shell energetic nanoparticles which will have high air and moisture stability, energy density and burn rate compared to current state-of-art technology. The proposed approach will use facile, cost effective and scalable wet chemical process. Oceanit’s prior experience in designing and fabricating novel nanomaterials will be critical in the success of the proposed effort. BENEFIT: Successful outcome of the proposed research could have wide ranging impact on many DoD application including precision munitions and counter-munitions capability e. g. propellants, explosives, thermobarics, multi-purpose warhead. This technology will advance the coatings for all metallic nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, environmental remediation, chemical and biological sensors, nanoelectronics.

Energetic Materials & Products, Inc.
1413 Brandi Lane
Round Rock, TX 78681
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 380-1992
Dennis Wilson
AF131-104      Awarded: 7/8/2013
Title:Fuel-Air Explosive Technologies from Dual-Use Materials
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Our concept is designed to create and disperse a vapor cloud from a low-vapor-pressure fuel at near stoichimetric conditions and then detonate or at least deflagrate the cloud with a single event system. Our concept relies upon rapid shock compression of the fuel followed by flash vaporization. Just prior to impact, an annular ring of HE surrounding the part of the tank is initiated. The implosion super-compresses the fuel into the supercritical regime in ~ 100s. Concurrently, a liquid or solid phase oxidizer liberates atomic or monatomic oxygen under the shock loading. The high-pressure, partially oxidizer mixture exits through specially designed holes (nozzles) in a “piccolo” tube that surrounds the tank. The superheated mixture undergoes a thermodynamic process known as flash vaporization, which reduces or eliminates the time required to vaporize the liquid fuel. The residual fireball from the HE and turbulent mixing of vapor and any liquid droplets quickly ignites/detonates the fuel/oxidizer mixture. The work plan consists of tasks to: define metrics and diagnostics for evaluating the performance; fabrication and testing of baseline test articles for evaluating the effectiveness of our concept; and modeling and simulations to define candidate concepts, develop designs, and assist in analysis of experimental results. BENEFIT: The feasibility study will provide engineering data and fundamental knowledge that has implications for numerous DoD applications where advanced, multi-purpose energetic materials can provide enhanced blast and lethality. The approach represents a novel concept that could provide alternative solutions for pulse detonation engines.

Energetic Materials Research and Engineering
410 Sheridan Road
Atchison, KS 66002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 777-9904
Blaine W Asay
AF131-104      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Fuel-Air Explosive Technologies from Dual-Use Materials
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Energetic Materials Research and Engineering (EMRE), LLC proposes to develop a technique for using residual missile fuel to generate a detonative event that will significantly enhance the blast of the warhead upon impact. This entails the design of an integrated active case and related explosive systems technology that will use air and other elements to generate the enhanced blast in a single-stage event. We will use a combined approach consisting of both small-scale experimentation on selected design configurations in addition to modeling and simulation. BENEFIT: Currently fuel that remains upon missile impact does not contribute to the blast created by the warhead. This proposal develops a method wherein that fuel which is currently dead weight will be used to generate a significant blast contribution, thus increasing the yield of the warhead with small additional complexity.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Allan Dokhan
AF131-104      Awarded: 7/22/2013
Title:Single Event Fuel-Oxidizer Explosive System (SEFOES)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc., Sandia National Laboratories and BAE Systems-Ordnance Systems proposed to design, develop, and demonstrate an innovative “Single Event Fuel-Oxidizer Explosive” (SEFOES) to augment the fuel-air explosion of JP-10. This technology will enable smaller weapon systems to deliver lethal impulses with comparable lethal performance of the larger systems they will replace. SEFOES design is based on augmenting the fuel-air mixture while simultaneously achieving uniform ignition of the vaporized/aerosol cloud of JP- 10 in a single event. In Phase I, we will design using state-of-the-art modeling and simulation our SEFOES device using strict mass and volume design constraints to assess its lethality prior to its demonstration. The SEFOES design developed in Phase I will be assembled and tested to assess its blast overpressure performance as a function of distance including its lethality. At the end of Phase I, we will have demonstrated the feasibility of SEFOES as a function of its configuration to ensure compatibility with the munition delivery system. In Phase II prototypes will be produced and evaluated with the objective of transitioning to Next Gen Cruise Missile or similar for further system development and demonstration in Phase III. BENEFIT: Demonstration of SEFOES device for application in liquid based munition systems will have multiple applications throughout the DoD weapon development programs and commercial industry. Integration of our device onto several ongoing weapon system procurement for UAVs and the Next Gen Cruise Missile will augment their capabilities for maximum mission flexibility.

Dynamic Systems and Research
8219 Pickard Ave NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 975-2782
Benjamin Welch
AF131-105      Awarded: 7/23/2013
Title:Remote Interrogator for Munition Recorder Instrument Packages (RIMRIP)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The overall objective of this program is to develop a robust, state-of-the-art, remote data recovery (RDR) system for on-board data acquisition (OBDA) and fuzing systems used during weapon development research programs. The Phase I effort will include supporting a technical start-up meeting at Eglin AFB FL, developing secure data transmit/ receive software, and designing and building a prototype bench top system to demonstrate the feasibility of such a system for weapon research and development activities. The Phase II effort would miniaturize the design, develop miniaturized antenna architectures for RDR system, build shock-hardened RDR tactical systems that can be used in weapon systems, static bench testing of operational hardware through non-optimal media, and support field testing the hardware in penetration tests to-be-conducted at Eglin AFB, FL. BENEFIT: The successful development of the remote data recovery (RDR) system would have an immediate impact on the weapons development community that is in need of a remote data recovery system for a wide range of testing platforms. Remote data recovery from live explosive payload systems will provide a major safety advantage over traditional methods of recovering data from a warhead, post-test. The secure data transmit capability and data telemetry of tactical system performance could also be used in combat through battle damage assessment (BDA) initiatives. The commercial transportation and energy exploration industries could also utilize remote, miniature, shock-hardened data recorder systems that could replace on-board flight recorders or down-hole oil and gas instrumentation systems, respectively.

McQ Inc.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Ron Knobler
AF131-105      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Remote Interrogator for Munition Recorder Instrument Packages (RIMRIP)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: RIMRIP will be developed to remotely gain access to data stored in a data recorder after a shock test. Based on McQ’s extensive RF communication, embedded electronics, data recorder, and shock hardening experience, it will develop an extremely small form factor and inexpensive solution to meet all of the requirements of this system. During Phase I, McQ will select the appropriate COTS/custom electronic components to perform a series of soil and salt water communication testing to determine the expected communications range, reliability and data rate of the proposed NFC based solution. After finalizing an approach based on the results of this testing, McQ will perform trade studies and a downselection of components that would both conform to the specified RIMRIP form factor, shock, and environmental specifications. The complete tests results and design will be presented at both a formal preliminary design review (PDR) at the end of Phase I, as well as documented in a final report. BENEFIT: A remote interrogator for munitions recorder instrument packages will allow for more reliable retrieval of data collected for instrumentation during a shock test compared with current methods -- the data can be recovered immediately after the test, without the slow and delicate process of disassembling the device under test to gain access to the recorder, to then download the data. McQ has expertise with small custom embedded system design, g- hardened applications, data recorders, developing custom reliable communications solutions, and developing polished products that are used by various government and military agencies. Therefore, this RIMRIP system will integrate with a variety of military instrument packages to provide a general remote interrogator product to be used in various environments.

Syntronics
3500 Shannon Park Drive
Fredericksburg, VA 22408
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 374-1000
Brian Tacke
AF131-105      Awarded: 7/24/2013
Title:Remote Interrogator for Munition Recorder Instrument Packages (RIMRIP)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Syntronics proposes the development of a shock hardened miniaturized Remote Interrogator which provides two way wireless communication through earth, water, and salt water. The range through these media is anticipated to be significantly greater than 5 meters at a data rate of 50kbits/sec or greater. Two technologies are used simultaneously. Ultra-sound is used for long range communication through water, and RF is used for long range communications through earth. The RF link is autonomously frequency agile in order to provide the maximum coupling with different soil types and moisture contents. BENEFIT: The development of the technology for a Remote Interrogator could be useful for through the earth communications for search and rescue in mines or underwater. The ruggedness, small size, and power consumption of the Remote Interrogator make this technology applicable as a location/communications device to be carried by an individual in danger of being trapped underground, water, ice, or snow, for example, a skier covered by an avalanche, a spelunker trapped in a cave, or a scuba diver trapped under water.

Conductive Composites Company
357 West 910 South
Heber City, UT 84032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 654-3683
George Hansen
AF131-108      Awarded: 7/9/2013
Title:Advances in Conductive Composites for Electrical Conduit and Cable Shielding
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A method of fabricating highly conductive and shielding electrical conduit and associated fittings is proposed. The technology will be based upon creating conductive composite tubes and fittings. Such composites have proven their ability to shield as well as their aluminum counterparts at about 1/3 the weight. Both rigid and flexible versions will be developed. Cables will be secured and tested in the new conduits. BENEFIT: Will result in very lightweight composite conduit for HPM shielding. Weight savings of 50% to 75% over current technologies.

Materials Research Institute, LLC
1321 Research Park Drive
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-4640
Chyi-Shan Wang
AF131-108      Awarded: 7/2/2013
Title:Lightweight Electromagnetically Immune Wire and Composite Conduit
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR Phase I program is to develop and transition a lightweight shielding material technology for wideband electromagnetic shielding and high power microwave hardening of aircraft signal and power cables. Materials Research Institute proposes to use metalized nanometric and micrometric materials as conductive fillers to formulate the lightweight shielding material. Model simulation will be employed to identify and verify the most promising conductive filler and optimize the structure and composition of the shielding material. Prototype shielding materials will be fabricated for shielding effectiveness characterization. Experimental data and simulation results will be reviewed to refine the shielding material with a goal leading to a successful demonstration of the material concept feasibility on 6-ft long shielded cables. BENEFIT: The proposed lightweight shielding material is expected to have advantages over cable shields made of metal wires or metal particulates in weight savings, flexibility, mechanical durability, higher shielding capability, and lower manufacturing cost. It is also expected to have advantages over shielding materials made of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibers in lower cost, greater mechanical durability, and higher shielding performance.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
Jennifer Lalli
AF131-108      Awarded: 6/18/2013
Title:Non-Parasitic, High Strength-to-Weight Ratio, EM Immune, Flexible Aramid Composite Conduit
Abstract:ABSTRACT: NanoSonic has recently developed high-strength-to-weight ratio, flexible, para-aramid modified fiber composites that mitigate corrosion and provide EMI shielding under severe mechanical strain over a temperature range of -145 ºC to 450ºC. Our Kevlar based composites can be formed and seamed to maintain EM immunity in product lengths currently up to 100’. These tough materials are offered herein as non-parasitic, cable shielding to improve the RF performance and save several pounds of weight per yard relative to current over-braiding wires, foil wraps, and metal conduit. The EMI SE of Metal Rubber modified Kevlar is equal to that for a 2 mm thick copper plate and nearly double that for an EMI shielding commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) product over 4 – 18 GHz. The proposed materials have an areal density of 0.008 g/cm2, resist acids, are nickel and silver-free to mitigate galvanic corrosion, and survive anticipated vibration and mechanical loads associated with standard transport aircraft flight profiles. NanoSonic shall form composite conduit utilizing our HybridSil® Anti-Corrosion polymer matrix resins and Metal Rubber™ modified Kevlar as filled and pre-preg based composites for use as cable shields compatible with both composite and aluminum enclosures for demonstration against narrow and wideband HPM sources. BENEFIT: NanoSonic would primarily develop Metal Rubber™ modified Kevlar based composites as a super lightweight cable shielding alternative to heavy metal over-braiding, metal foils and other parasitically attached shielding structures. The innovative super lightweight nanocomposites would be primarily transitioned to protect cables within aircraft against harsh EM environments including High Power Microwave (HPM) and Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). The HPM hardened composite conduit shall be later transitioned to dual use domestic applications in commercial aircraft and specific DoD systems. Metal Rubber™ Kevlar composites shall serve a broad range of military and civilian applications including avionic and communication systems on board commercial aircraft from personal electronic devices and stray radar energy. Dual-use military applications for various forms of Metal Rubber™ nanocomposites include highly mechanically robust EMI and radiation shielding appliques. Additional applications include biomimetric systems, thermal control system materials, actuators, lightning strike protection, RF shielding for large area structures and sensors.

IPITEK, Inc.
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
De Yu Zang
AF131-109      Awarded: 9/3/2013
Title:Selective Radio Frequency Shielding
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In modern battlefields, Electronic Warfare (EW) plays dominating role. To win the battlefield, it is a must to win EW first. In fighting the EW, it is vital to possess the most advanced radio frequency-selective shielding technologies to effectively protect electronic equipment, electronic communications and data storage systems on which the C4I system is established, while the microwave bands of data communications, which are the life-support lines in battlefields, must be kept opened only for friends with absolutely no interrupt anytime. IPITEK proposes to develop a DNA-based, all-dielectric, pattern-less, multilayer-periodic structures (MPS) for frequency selective shielding. The MPS consist of only a pair of two films, with slightly different permittivity and permeability, which is periodically overlapped each other forming a multilayer structure. The proposed MPS feature multiple, very narrow pass-bands, allowing users quickly switch transmission frequency from one to another, while blocking any unwanted frequencies. Phase I work will prove the feasibility of the proposed MPS for selective frequency shielding by refining modeling, selecting materials, testing dielectric properties of selected materials, fabricating demo samples and preliminarily measuring the RF shielding efficiencies of the samples. Phase II will ultimately produce prototypes of proposed MPS. BENEFIT: The novel DNA-based MPS could significantly impact capability for anti-Electronic Warfare defense, as well as numerous commercial needs for EMI-suppression in broadband and high-speed electronics industries. The military and civilian applications include high power antennas, radomes, filters, polarizers, stealth techniques, diplexers, dichroic sub-reflectors and reflection array lenses, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), radar cross section (RCS) argumentations and EM interference (EMI) protections, and etc. It could have a huge potential market impact.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
Richard Claus
AF131-109      Awarded: 6/19/2013
Title:Geometrically Conformal Multi-Layer Selective Frequency Shielding Materials
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this program is to develop structurally conformal materials with frequency- selective radio frequency (RF) transmission and shielding properties for military aircraft. Materials that allow RF transmission at sensing/communication frequencies while enabling broadband electromagnetic shielding outside of these frequencies are useful for both RF operations and survivability. NanoSonic will design, fabricate and experimentally measure the selective RF transmission properties of multi-layer materials with spatially-structured electromagnetic properties. Early NanoSonic research has demonstrated frequency- selective notch RF filter and resonant frequency filtering behaviors in such multi-layer materials. We will build on those initial experimental demonstrations to design, fabricate and test materials with arbitrary frequency-selective passband and stopband properties. This will allow us to establish the design relationship between the physical structure and the material properties of such materials, and their frequency-dependent RF shielding behaviors. We will also consider methods whereby the passband of the material may be actively ‘opened’ to allow communication and sensing, and then ‘closed’ to reduce RCS to as low a value as possible. During Phase I NanoSonic would work with the current supplier of custom RF shielding materials, and the RF system group at a major U.S. aircraft manufacturer to evaluate and test developed materials. BENEFIT: EMI shielding materials are used to block unwanted electromagnetic fields from interfering with the operation of electrical and electromagnetic systems. Most EMI shielding materials exhibit uniform shielding as a function of frequency. Materials developed through this program would provide selective EMI shielding versus frequency, and would thus be useful to block specific sources of RF noise or permit low-loss transmission at specific frequencies to permit communication. Such materials would be of use in military and non- military communication systems, consumer and industrial RF and electronic systems, and personal portable communication electronic devices such as cell phones, pads and platforms. Examples include shielding paints and coatings, gaskets, tape, cable and connector shielding, windows, enclosures and radomes.

TIPD, L.L.C.
1430 N. 6th Ave.
Tucson, AZ 85705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 622-0804
Valery Temyanko
AF131-109      Awarded: 6/20/2013
Title:Multilayer Nanocomposites for Selective Radiofrequency and Microwave Frequency Shielding and Efficient Band Pass Filters
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The development of robust, ultra-light weight, low-cost electrically tunable nanocomposites with the ability to efficiently absorb the electromagnetic radiation in strategic bands in the RF and microwave region is anticipated to provide valuable armor for electronic devices that suffer from electromagnetic interference. In this proposal, we demonstrate a combined nanotechnology, chemistry, and biotechnology approach to provide a materials solution to overcome the existing barriers with electromagnetic shielding. Nanocomposites with compositional and thickness control involving nanomaterials and amorphous matrices with highly tunable properties will allow for utilization in selective RF shielding applications. The materials and characterization advances made in the Phase I of this SBIR proposal will be seminal towards developing new electromagnetic radiation shielding materials know-how for a range of strategic DoD missions and expansion of strategic RF component testing in Phase II. The advances made under this proposal will be crucial for widespread utilization and commercialization activities in both electromagnetic shielding and functional bio- nanocomposite materials. The high quality materials developed as a major part of this proposal are anticipated to provide effective blocking and selective response (filters) to RF and microwaves up to 110 GHz. BENEFIT: The ability to control the response in the RF regime and concomitant shielding of defense critical devices (circuits and components), as well as enhanced communication by blocking unwanted radio frequencies while allowing necessary signals is anticipated to play a vital role in the advancement of Air Force applications. The development of multifunctional, composite thin film materials with large dielectric (nonconducting) response, high thermal conductivity, low-cost and high throughput, that are also robust and capable of being conformally coated onto various device platforms with are expected to have immense commercial potential impacting numerous industrial applications such as low-loss dielectric materials for energy storage devices (e.g., capacitors), materials for thermal management in numerous electronic and opto-electronic devices, and magnetic materials for data storage. Mainly, our goals will be enhance new materials knowhow to enable large scale production capabilities and create an initial niche market for developing radio frequency filters, EM shields, etc. for the enhancing the existing and future capabilities for the Department of Defense, specifically for various Air Force activities with stringent and strategic communication demands. The major impact of the proposed activities will lead to improved capabilities for Air Force C4ISR systems.

BT Engineering LLC
7718 Brass Creek Ct
Dexter, MI 48130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 417-3794
Jessica Boria
AF131-110      Awarded: 6/3/2013
Title:Electromagnetic Hardened Composite Enclosures for Aircraft Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: BTE proposes a multi-component architecture composed of structural composites and thin layers of optimal shielding materials. The structure will provide a 65 to 75% weight reduction over an aluminum or steel enclosure while providing the same structural rigidity and comparable EMI/EMP isolation. The enclosure uses proven technologies, and uses inexpensive stock materials. The enclosure provides for heat rejection, rugged gasketing for recurring maintenance, and can actually increase the interior enclosure volume for a given form factor when compared with aluminum. BENEFIT: The benefit of this technology is that the weight of enclosures can be decreased 65 to 75% without sacrificing strength, shielding, durability, versatility, or price.

Conductive Composites Company
357 West 910 South
Heber City, UT 84032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 654-3683
George Hansen
AF131-110      Awarded: 6/3/2013
Title:Electromagnetic Hardened Composite Electronics Enclosures
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Traditional shielding enclosures are fabricated from heavy metallic materials. Polymer and composite systems have been used extensively in enclosures for due to their significant weight and manufacturing advantages, but have not been able to provide adequate levels of electromagnetic shielding. Conductive composite materials will be used to fabricate and test composite enclosures that provide the weight and manufacturing advantages of polymer based systems while also providing required levels of electromagnetic shielding. The proposed conductive composite material systems have been proven in fabricating composites by standard manufacturing processes that match the shielding effectiveness of metallic structures, at less than half the weight. The proposed solution is affordable, corrosion immune, and transitionable to the field and also to similar platforms/applications. All proposed components are available from commercial domestic sources. An enclosure that is approximately 12x24x6 inches in size will be fabricated, tested for electromagnetic shielding effectiveness, and delivered. BENEFIT: Lightweight conductive composite cases can provide 50-75% weight savings over metallic cases while still meeting shielding requirements.

SURVICE Engineering Company
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 955-2743
Martha Klein
AF131-110      Awarded: 7/15/2013
Title:Electromagnetic Hardened Composite Enclosures for Aircraft Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The use of electronic systems within a military aircraft requires shielded enclosures to mitigate radio frequency (RF) interference from external electric equipment. The proposed approach is to reduce the weight of the shielded enclosure while maintaining the shielding effectiveness of this enclosure by using a composite material. This engineering specialty has been successfully demonstrated in the external enclosures of military systems where extreme radio frequency environments are present. The proposed approach leverages decades of experience in this field, providing a proven design methodology to solve applications of lightweight composite materials with effective RF shielding. BENEFIT: The proposed approach has applicability for a wide range of military and industrial applications where electronic systems must function in a RF environment. The proposed approaches can either be retrofitted into existing systems, or implemented into new systems reducing the weight of the overall system.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-2517
Robert Klein
AF131-111      Awarded: 5/24/2013
Title:Ultra-Low Temperature Elastomeric Seals for Aerospace Hydraulic Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) have recently been operating on extended missions and at higher altitudes. Such operation can cause sections of the aircraft to experience temperatures as low as -100 °F, much below the traditional aircraft minimum of -65 °F. Currently, in order for the hydraulic systems to function without leakage of the hydraulic oil, heater blankets are used. As heater blankets significantly increase the weight of the aircraft, add complexity to the design, and require electrical power, alternative approaches are needed. Critical weak points within these hydraulic systems are the elastomeric seals (typically o- rings). However, no existing seal materials can satisfy all requirements of this system, as determined from discussions with seal manufacturers and distributors. To satisfy this need, Luna is teaming with several manufacturing and testing experts to develop new o-ring seals with the requisite performance for low-temperature hydraulic systems. Tasks will include fabrication of ultra-low-temperature seals, internal and external testing of the o-ring form factor, and preparation for scale-up and technology transition in tandem with team members. BENEFIT: The proposed Phase I program intends to demonstrate the low-temperature seal for use in aerospace hydraulic systems. This is targeted for drop-in replacement into hydraulic systems of existing and future UAVs. Cost effectiveness will be critical and production methods and teaming arrangements will be developed with cost as a major consideration. Once validated, this new seal would have immediate use in high altitude UAV platforms. There is also a significant potential market for ultra-low-temperature seals to be incorporated into hydraulic systems of other military and commercial aircraft.

METSS Corporation
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Kenneth J. Heater
AF131-111      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:Cold Temperature Hydraulic Seals for Aerospace Hydraulic Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aircraft hydraulic systems have traditionally been required to operate down to -65F. However, with the advancement of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), operating envelopes at high altitudes are evolving. UAVs are loitering at high altitudes for upwards of 24 hours. As a result, sections of the hydraulic system are becoming cold soaked and prone to leakage. As a consequence, the DoD is seeking new hydraulic sealing capability to reduce or eliminate leakage experienced while operating in cold soaked environments. The new seals should support UAV hydraulic system operations for components capable of operating up to 5000 psi, in MIL-PRF-83282, MIL-PRF-87257, MIL-PRF-5606 hydraulic oil and Nitrogen gas. The seals should be capable of sealing in storage down to -100F and operation from -70F to 160F (threshold) and 275F (objective). METSS proposes to meet the SBIR program requirements using o-ring configurations based on a core-shell design. The core-shell design provides greater flexibility to design a composite product that will meet the stated physical, chemical, and thermal response requirements. Polymer-polymer core-shell designs will considered, as well as designs incorporating an inner core made of a mechanical actuator (spring or otherwise) encapsulated with a outer shell to support system interfacing and surface mating requirements. BENEFIT: The technology developed under this SBIR program should be highly adaptable to other high performance DoD and industrial hydraulic fluid applications. Other candidate military platforms include NASA high altitude research vehicles and surveillance platforms for homeland security. Commercial applications include sealing on platforms used for high altitude weather surveillance, and monitoring of hurricanes and forest fires.

Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
John Bulluck
AF131-111      Awarded: 7/3/2013
Title:Cold Temperature Hydraulic Seals for Aerospace Hydraulic Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Elastomeric O-rings provide a critical sealing function for the hydraulic system of extended service high altitude unmanned aircraft. These new mission requirements translate into service temperatures as low as -100oF and as high as 275oF, in the presence of red hydraulic fluid. The property of compression set is used as a major consideration for the selection of gaskets and seals. None of the commercial O-ring elastomeric materials can function effectively as a seal over under these conditions. Currently the hydraulic system is heat traced to mitigate the problem. TRI/Austin proposes the development and testing of an innovative polymeric compound which will meet these demanding requirements. Experimental design techniques will be utilized for systematically developing the optimized formulation resulting in a unique, low cost, high strength, chemically resistant O-ring compound that retains its mechanical properties over a wide range of temperatures. The performance properties of the O-ring compositions will be verified by an extensive test program throughout the Phase I effort. This systematic experimental design development approach is a very effective method for the development of new materials. At the end of the Phase I effort we will mold some prototype O-rings for additional proof testing. BENEFIT: These new o-rings could be utilized by the oil industry, NASA high altitude research vehicles, cold regions military operations, automotive, and unmanned aerial vehicles for homeland security applications. Additionally these seals could be used for platforms for high altitude weather surveillance, monitoring of hurricanes, and forest fires.

SA Photonics
130A Knowles Dr.
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Michael Browne
AF131-112      Awarded: 7/1/2013
Title:Alternate Faceplate Materials for Improving Image Intensifier Tube Performance
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The military is constantly looking to improve night vision goggle performance. There are many components to optimize but one that is often overlooked is faceplate. The faceplate serves both as a substrate for the photocathode as well as a method for sealing the tube for high vacuum. It is usually made from Corning 7056 glass, of a thickness great enough to reduce halo due to reflected photons from the photocathode. We have verified that by increasing the index of refraction on the faceplate and by allowing it to be curved, significant performance gain is possible. In addition to a desire to improve performance of these tubes also comes a desire to help protect them from laser damage on the battlefield. An optical limiter that could be incorporated into the faceplate of the tube (to take advantage of the high flux densities near the image plane) would be very beneficial. A variety of new glass types have become available that may prove to have advantages when used in image intensifier tube (IIT) faceplates. High index glasses and chalcogenide glasses have promise to improve performance and we have also evaluated using glass with a curved front surface. BENEFIT: There are multiple benefits to the military in improving image intensifier tube performance via alternate faceplate materials. These benefits include: • Protection against battlefield laser damage. By using alternative glass types and leveraging AFRL research, we can provide an optical limiter capability to night vision goggles to prevent them from being damaged by battlefield lasers. • Improved resolution and MTF via higher index optical glasses and a redesign of the objective lens assembly. This will allow users to see smaller targets with higher contrast. • Improved (reduced) f/#, which increases the amount of signal and the SNR. This will reduce the noise in the image and allow users to see targets under lower levels of illumination. • Better filtering of off-axis light to reduce veiling glare in NVGs due to cockpit displays.

Advanced Fiber Sensors, Inc.
2865 Windside Ct
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 277-7313
John F. Whitaker
AF131-113      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:RF TRAVELING-WAVE SCANNING SYSTEM WITH A NONINVASIVE, BROADBAND PHOTONIC PROBE
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The feasibility of developing a prototype traveling-wave scanning system based on non- metallic, broadband, optical-fiber-coupled microwave-field sensors that can be used for the test and evaluation of coatings applied to the surface of aircraft without damaging the coating layers is investigated. The concepts to be employed in performing the measurement of microwave surface waves will be explored and implemented through the design, development, and performance evaluation of four key system components: photonic, nonintrusive, microwave-field-sensitive probes; microwave traveling-wave signal launchers; a flexibly positionable sensor head; and a subsystem containing an optical source and optical-beam- conditioning elements. Construction of the photonic sensors will be all-dielectric, they will have dimensions much smaller than the wavelengths of the surface waves, and they will be held by the sensor-head mechanism so that they remain in close proximity to the surface of an aircraft, even during the scanning process. In this way, the characteristics of traveling waves may be extracted without disrupting their propagation and without contacting or damaging the coatings during in situ measurements. The four subsystem components will be combined to form a breadboard demonstration system based on a completely fiber- enclosed optical network. BENEFIT: The proposed aircraft-coating test system will provide accurate profiles of the material properties of coating layers, including attenuation constant, permittivity, and permeability, along a given scan path and over a broad measurement bandwidth. The outstanding resolution provided by the traveling-wave test system would make it possible to identify a wide range of both electrical and physical defects in coatings, and in particular ones that are too small to be detected by other test methods. Accurate test results provided by the coating-test system can initiate rapid and effective action to mitigate or repair the detected defects in the aircraft coating, eventually leading to reduction of the air vehicle’s service down time and extension of its life span. The comprehensive test solution to be provided by the traveling- wave measurement system should directly contribute to a significant reduction in the time and cost required to test aircraft coatings, and in particular ones that are applied on in-service aircraft, where only a few less-effective test methods are otherwise available. Commercially, Advanced Fiber Sensors would like its products to find use in the civilian aerospace sector, both for maintenance and the trouble-shooting of coating issues, and we also believe there should be additional application of the technology for companies that develop the coatings to be employed on aircraft. Beyond aerospace, there are also other industries that utilize coatings that could be characterized using the analysis of traveling microwave signals, including automotive, marine, and construction.

Compass Technology Group
4790 Converse Ct
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 461-9654
Kathleen Cummings Maloney
AF131-113      Awarded: 5/22/2013
Title:Radio Frequency Traveling Wave Spot Probe Inspection Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Surface traveling waves consist of electromagnetic energy where the propagation of that energy is exactly parallel or grazing to the plane of the surface. This is in contrast to the phenomena of specular reflection, where incident energy is at some other angle besides grazing and the surface than reflects the incident energy into a complimentary angle determined by Snell’s law. While sensors exist to determine specular performance on aircraft, currently a useful field inspection capability to assess coating performance for traveling wave does not. Compass Technology Group (CTG) proposes to develop a new concept in microwave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of specialized coatings in support of the Air Force’s requirement for in-situ microwave traveling wave testing. The offered design specifically addresses the need for high-fidelity measurements of aircraft surface coatings in a field environment and is based on a wide-band probe technology that can operate over the whole 2 to 18 GHz range. Additionally, the proposed concept is conducive to being compact and lightweight. BENEFIT: By the end of Phase I, a detailed methodology and design for the inspection tool will affirm the feasibility of the approach for determining traveling wave performance of specialty coatings. If successful, this program will fulfill a critical Air Force need in manufacturing and maintenance of the next generation of specialty coatings for advanced aircraft. Such a development could also strongly impact other DoD services as well, since similar technologies are used across the DoD. Furthermore, other materials in use on DoD platforms require QA methodologies during manufacture and after deployment, so the technology developed in this effort could very well be adapted to other similar material.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Nathan Kornbau
AF131-113      Awarded: 6/1/2013
Title:Radio Frequency (RF) Traveling Wave Inspection Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern Air Force vehicles employ specialized coatings to enhance signature performance by attenuating surface traveling waves. Maintenance of these coatings has been historically difficult. Specialized aircraft coatings can degrade over time and compromise desired performance. Unfortunately all LO defects are not evident as part of a visual inspection or point inspection reflectance measurement. Full-up vehicle testing to evaluate coating performance in a maintenance setting is time consuming and expensive. The traveling wave attenuation is the true measure of the coating effectiveness and cannot be properly characterized or evaluated at a single point using a reflectometer. This proposed Matrix Research effort will result in a traveling wave inspection tool that can be used on the flight line to directly measure surface wave attenuation over areas of the aircraft, not just reflectance at a point. The effort includes CEM modeling to design small traveling wave exciters and then integrate them into a versatile traveling wave measurement tool. This single tool excites traveling waves on a coating in situ then measures them some distance away. This tool can be moved to various locations on the surface of the aircraft to evaluate the coating. BENEFIT: Although this topic is somewhat unique to the platform under consideration, this tool could be used for a variety of EMI measurements.

Aerobotix, Inc
125 Jet Plex Circle
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-1155
John Bohan
AF131-114      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Automated aircraft inlet coating
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aerobotix personnel have engineered and delivered eight turn-key robotic painting systems to apply performance coatings to the inlet ducts of several major programs. These successful systems are comprised of off-the-shelf FANUC robots outfitted with long composite tools to reach inside the inlets and accurately deposit coatings. Aerobotix proposes to expand the capability of existing, mature designs to include the additional complex articulation required for inspection/painting at the depot level. Aerobotix' approach can use the paint paths the AF has paid for and validated to execute complete or partial repairs. If we use similar robotic technology we will know where to position the paint nozzle throughout the duct to create a successful part. This approach allows the re-use of the process settings and manufacturing knowledge required to create parts that meet stringent performance requirements. In Phase I Aerobotix will determine how much additional articulation is required and will demonstrate an advanced end-of-arm tool. BENEFIT: This effort will validate that enhanced articulation capability can be added to off-the-shelf robotics to support depot/field level repair of coatings. This technology will reduce the cost of repairs as depot contractors will have confidence in purchasing a turn-key robotic system capable of executing the work.

RE2, Inc.
4925 Harrison Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-6382
Michael Cozza
AF131-114      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Automated Aircraft Inlet Coating (A2IC) System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: RE2, Inc. proposes a novel design, based on several mature technologies, for an Automated Air Inlet Coating (A2IC) system to recoat damaged or worn air inlets of performance aircraft. This innovative design will significantly reduce downtime between aircraft overhauls, reduce worker injuries, and provide uniform coating to the repaired inlets. Utilizing a fast, accurate, manipulator to perform multiple functions offers a low-cost, reliable tool for automatically coating air inlets. The manipulator will be able to rapidly map the complex geometry of an air inlet, map the thickness of the inlet’s coating to determine which areas need to be addressed, and precisely recoat those areas, if not the entire area of the duct. By allowing the manipulator to be easily repositioned via a mobile base, it is anticipated that the proposed A2IC system can be used both in a depot environment as well as a forward-deployed environment, providing a single cost-effective solution. BENEFIT: With the draw down in Iraq and Afghanistan, coupled with a waning defense budget, the USAF will have to do more with less. One viable and likely path forward is maintaining aircraft in the inventory, versus procuring new aircraft, driving the need for the ability to maintain aircraft even at the depot level, and ideally, in the field. The A2IC system presented in this proposal is an enabling technology to meet this increased maintenance need.

ChromoLogic LLC
180 N Vinedo Ave
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 381-9974
Robert Purnell
AF131-115      Awarded: 6/3/2013
Title:Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Outer Mold Line Paints and Coatings
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is experiencing a number of premature failures of urethanes and epoxies used on the Outer Mold Line (OML) of high performance aircraft which cannot be detected by standard lifetime predictions based on visual, electrical, or mechanical inspection. Consequently, changes in chemical composition and physical properties can occur without warning, compromising functionality of the coating. Well established methods for Non- Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of thin films such as hardness tests, and measurements of capacitance and dissipation have been used extensively for NDE of coatings, but incapable of depth profiling, identification, and tracking of chemically based degradation that occurs in- use. Ultrasound, Forward-Looking Infrared Systems (FLIR), and Raman spectroscopy detect oxidation and fracture zones in polymeric structures and coatings, but lack the resolution for detailed chemical depth profiling. To detect early signs of degradation and estimate coating lifetime, ChromoLogic, LLC (CL) proposes to develop a Coating Integrity Monitoring by Spectroscopic Analysis (CIMOSA) system, which utilizes Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to detect and grade subsurface defects and estimate remaining lifetime of OML coatings. This enhancement to current NDE analysis techniques will reduce the frequency of paint/depaint operations, resulting in cost savings, reduced environmental pollution and more efficient maintenance planning. BENEFIT: CIMOSA will provide an easy to use tool for the Air Force to rapidly evaluate OML coatings, thereby optimizing maintenance procedures of military aircraft. CIMOSA could be extended to other DOD agencies as well, such as the Army and Navy, for assessment of protective coatings on aircraft carriers, naval ships, and submarines. In the civilian market, CIMOSA could used to detect oxidative corrosion in coatings on commercial airplanes and automobiles, detection of false coatings on counterfeit electrical components, counterfeit drug detection, and forensics.

Traycer Diagnostic Systems, Inc.
1275 Kinnear Road Suite 211
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 779-8697
H. Lee Mosbacker
AF131-115      Awarded: 6/14/2013
Title:Continuous Wave THz Imaging and Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Outer Mold Line Paints and Coatings
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) analysis techniques have tried to address premature failures in outer mold lines on aircraft (OMLs). Imaging through these layers with various electromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques are proven to be deficient. Typically differentiation of layers, structural defects, and chemical composition changes cannot be adequately determined with these techniques. THz Time-domain ranging has shown to be useful in determining layer differentiation but not chemical composition. This is due to the nature of THz time-domain techniques, which are hindered by low spectral resolution and low (nanowatt) power output. Additionally, the prospect of developing a hand-held device that is low-cost and easy to use is improbable for such systems. Traycer has developed a hand- held, 100nW/cm^2 beam sensitivity (<100pW pixel NEP) broadband, kHz frame rate, THz camera (THEIA). THEIA can use reflected phase variation to investigate layer thickness and high spectral fidelity to determine chemical composition of urethane and epoxies, which compose OMLs. Moreover, the high dynamic contrast associated with THEIA allows for imaging curved surfaces. Traycer has assembled a team at The Ohio State University’s Hyperspectral Engine Lab for Integrated Optical Systems (HELIOS) and The Edison Welding Institute (EWI) to work with AFRL program managers to develop a laboratory evaluation tool using the Traycer THz camera THEIA. This strong team represents a large experience base and knowledge of these types of materials and the techniques historically employed for NDE. The ability of the camera to determine integrity of each layer will be evaluated and compared to other types of NDE techniques. BENEFIT: Traycer’s business model is to sell THz imaging components into system-level integrators with established channels to market and application and industry expertise. This allows Traycer to target multiple vertical markets and remain focused on its core value proposition. Current market need for non-contact opaque thin-film measurement systems is estimated at $100M. This includes retrofitting a subset of nucleonic gauging systems in existing markets and new markets in semiconductor QC and fiberglass product QC. These markets see the benefits of THz imaging being the use of non-harmful radiation, non-contact measurement, and nondestructively imaging through opaque materials for both structural and chemical composition. Traycer has proposals and customers in these markets that echo these needs and the associated vertical distribution and sales partners to drive to market. For Traycer, there are immediately large markets that require one or two simple components that are derived and manufactured from Traycer’s core technology and product portfolio. Traycer will access this “low hanging fruit” with a single product in order to demonstrate viability and begin revenue generation before Traycer’s next stage of development. Thin-film measurement systems, like the one outlined in this proposal, is the first step in the market. Larger markets in security, NDE, telecom, and biomedical will eventually be vetted as the

Frontier Technology, Inc.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Joel Luna
AF131-116      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Decision-Support Technologies for Weapon System Sustainment Processes and Life Cycle Investment
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The overall objective of this effort is to develop technologies that extend sustainment modeling and simulation capabilities to support improved investment decisions throughout the weapon system lifecycle. Specifically, the main objective of this proposed Phase I research effort is to develop the concept for a new simulation capability that enhances, combines and integrates simulation tools to provide an effective capability to model multiple processes and factors. Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) will identify the new simulation capabilities and requirements, and show how they can be integrated with existing capabilities to provide a holistic, integrated concept for sustainment simulation. FTI proposes to develop innovative enhancements to existing models and simulations as much as possible to leverage existing capabilities and ensure development that is more efficient. In addition, FTI proposes to develop an innovative integration infrastructure that combines the capabilities of these models to provide the holistic sustainment simulation capability sought. FTI proposes to accomplish this in a two-pronged approach: 1) develop innovative enhancements to existing simulation capability; and 2) develop an innovative sustainment modeling infrastructure that can serve as the basis for an integrated capability with other sustainment models and tools. BENEFIT: This research is applicable to DoD and commercial industries employing complex maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) and supply chain management (SCM) systems. These organizations must all adapt to the integration and use of simulation technologies to make their processes more efficient than they currently are. The solution that these organizations will seek must address the analysis problems of sustainment that can be adaptable, flexible, and easily integrated into existing models, and management and data systems. This capability must be able to be implemented within the confines of the available budget and to preclude operational impacts that could jeopardize mission readiness, as well as the financial bottom line. A sustainment simulation tool suite that will accurately assess sustainment issues and conditions and enable rapid determination of optimal repair processes across the organization will enable users to operate their repair processes more efficiently compared to current capabilities, as they try to keep their fleets serviceable and safe, while minimizing operational costs.

Advatech Pacific, Inc.
560 E. Hospitality Lane Suite 400
San Bernardino, CA 92408
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 598-4005
Scott Leemans
AF131-118      Awarded: 7/1/2013
Title:Innovative Methodology for Analytical Model Validation & Generation of Composite Structure Allowables
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The overarching objectives for this project are to develop a novel approach to Calibration, Verification, and Validation (CVV) of advanced, high-fidelity analytical models; and an validated analysis tool to predict material properties for new materials with a minimized set of tests. The primary objective for the proposed Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Advatech Pacific’s approach consists of two main components: (1) High Fidelity, Multi-Scale Analysis Tool, aligned, calibrated, verified, and validated with (2) a novel approach to Testing, which entails the use of existing test databases and new testing performed with augmented ASTM tests and bi-axial testing. The second function will be to generate new material characterization predictions using augmented ASTM test data with the analysis tool that is validated over the entire realm of the design space for which the tool is expected to be deployed using far fewer tests. Advatech will utilize a Design of Experiments (DOE) based methodology with existing test data augmented with new test data and additional parametric data from specifications and procedures. This approach will utilize, predictive analytics, uncertainty quantification, probabilistic methods, data mining, and variance-based sensitivity analysis. BENEFIT: Following the success of the Phase II prototype development effort, the design environment can be made available for initial deployment for evaluation and improvement. Involvement of initial users can be leveraged to accelerate the development and expansion of the capabilities of the tool in parallel with the Phase III effort. When brought to fruition in Phase II, the end result will be a calibrated and validated analytical design environment prototype that can be widely deployed among the dispersed engineering teams on any given program. It will be capable of generating material properties for new materials using a minimized test matrix. This initial set of configurations will allow engineering teams to investigate a wide range of new materials for their designs. The design environment developed in Phase II will be structured as a modular, multi-scale, and expandable tool. That will allow customers to integrate this tool within their existing analytical framework in a complementary manner. It will incorporate a fully parametric formulation for every aspect of the inputs and outputs of the 3D solid element, ply-by-ply FEA models that will allowing for encapsulation and automation of the entire set of analytical steps required to fully evaluate any given range of test configurations. This will also allow the user to capture every relevant detail that may have an effect on the evaluation. The Phase II test effort will provide a good foundation for determining a standardized methodology for calibrating and validating analytical models such that they can be trusted to yield accurate results over the entire segment of the design space that they are configured to evaluate. This approach will open up the entire feasible design space for use by the engineer. It will also allow for a significant reduction in the testing required to introduce a

ALPHA STAR
5150 E. PACIFIC COAST HWY SUITE # 650
LONG BEACH, CA 90804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 961-7827
FRANK ABDI
AF131-118      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Methodology for Composite Structure Allowables and Analytical Validation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: AlphaSTAR using its analytical/numerical tools proposes to predict A-/B-base allowables for various composite coupons/structural components using mostly ply level un-notched coupon ASTM test data. ASC has recently demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach using Northrop Grumman Corporation and NIAR material database for carbon and glass fiber composite material systems. If awarded, ASC will achieve the following. 1) A material database of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) material systems and any variation in reported values using test data from DoD/suppliers/NCAMP, and literature; 2) Model manufacturing defects and material uncertainties encountered in CFRP material systems; 3) Generate carpet plots of thermo-mechanical properties (currently exists in ASC Software packages); 4) correlation of un-noched/notched mechanical property factors; 5) statistical/sensitivity analysis using scatter correlation of fiber/matrix properties/fabrication parameters for composite laminate/architecture; 6) Predict in-situ constituent properties; 7) Process for reproducing scatter from ply or laminate level testing and determination of ASTM required laminate mechanical properties, A- & B-basis strength allowable; 8) interactive material design capability enabling analyst and designers to predict material properties for select constituents and architecture subject to various in-service environments. The software will evaluate trends of different forms of the same material and will remove the test method bias effects. BENEFIT: This effort offers the US Air Force and contractor engineers analysis tools for accurate analysis/design of composite structural components delivering a damage tolerant design with minimum weight and cost. The proposed approach will allow the Air Force and its suppliers to apply newly developed CFRP materials in their applications with minimum cost and implementation time. This would allow users to quickly evaluate different laminates in their designs prior to committing to a material system early in the design cycle. The validated software will enable the engineers to perform risk mitigation and certification for composite structures conforming to commercial software standard. The proposed software would greatly assist in design/analysis of low-cost/light-weight aerospace structures, both military and commercial structural applications as well as civilian infrastructure design with advanced composite materials. AlphaSTAR will rapidly integrate database software capability with commercial FE software as it is a leading provider of composite analysis to MSC Nastran, Abaqus, and Ansys.

Materials Sciences Corporation
135 Rock Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Rachael Andrulonis
AF131-118      Awarded: 7/3/2013
Title:Innovative Methodology for Composite Structure Allowables and Analytical Validation (MSC P4120)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Development and use of new composite materials is imperative for continued advancement of airframe and engine systems. In order to facilitate the accelerated insertion of new composite materials, there is a need for an improved analysis methodology that allows designers to reduce the time and cost associated with material and structural development and test programs. The goal of the proposed research is to develop, demonstrate, and validate a linked knowledge-base-type set of analysis tools that facilitate development of material design data for composite structures. The composite analysis methodology will include important mechanical behaviors of the material in a form that can be used as a stand- alone engineering tool, or linked to a comprehensive set of analysis tools, that reside at major airframe and engine design organizations, for filling out and extending the property trends. BENEFIT: The product of this SBIR program will be a set of computational tools for quickly and reliably predicting the fundamental mechanical properties and strengths of fiber reinforced composite materials. It is expected that accelerated insertion of materials will be facilitated through development of linked engineered material databases, which are capable of conducting quick virtual testing of laminates, i.e., supplemented by limited physical testing, rather than proceeding directly to complete experimental characterization. This toolset is expected to include property correlation, trends, and factors. Key tests required to characterize a new material system will be documented. Development, validation, and commercialization of this tool-set for both military and commercial aircraft and engine systems are the ultimate goals of this program.

Hill Engineering, LLC
3035 Prospect Park Drive, Suite 180
Rancho Cordova, CA 95670
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 635-5706
Adrian T DeWald
AF131-119      Awarded: 6/7/2013
Title:Robust Methods for the Measurement of Bulk Residual Stress
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aircraft engine and structural components are being produced from forgings with increasingly complex geometries in a wide range of aerospace alloys. The forging process involves a number of steps required to attain favorable material properties (e.g., heat treatment, rapid quench, cold work stress relieving, and artificial aging). These processing steps, however, also result in the introduction of residual stress. Excessive bulk residual stresses can have negative consequences including: part distortion during machining and/or during service, reduced crack initiation life, increased crack growth rates, and an overall reduction in part life. While bulk residual stresses are often accounted for with simple approximations that ensure safety, improved understanding of bulk residual stress fields would enable higher quality design and analysis methods. This could lead to overall higher performing structure. The proposed work plan will develop improved technology for the measurement of bulk residual stress and will demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach under representative conditions. BENEFIT: The proposed residual stress measurement technology is a significant improvement that would fill a critical gap in capability for bulk residual stress measurement, enabling high- quality measurements in aerospace materials. This technology is important to the aerospace community, but is applicable to many other industries as well. For example, pressure vessels, turbines, industrial facilities, and heavy equipment all contain critical structure with significant amounts of residual stress. As design and analysis techniques evolve to incorporate residual stress effects, it is important to have residual stress measurement techniques capable of providing the necessary supporting data. The proposed technology expands residual stress measurement capability to support these important challenges.

Phoenix Nuclear Labs LLC
2555 Industrial Drive
Monona, WI 53713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 210-3060
Tye Gribb
AF131-119      Awarded: 6/11/2013
Title:A High Flux Neutron Generator for Measuring Bulk Residual Stress via Diffraction
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Residual stresses can be created in engineered components by most common fabrication processes (e.g., welding, joining, machining, casting, heat treating, press fitting, etc.). They are of particular concern to the aerospace industry because they are difficult to measure and can lead to premature failure of flight-critical components. There are several established methodologies for characterizing the residual stresses within a component, but those that are widely available either require the destruction of part or can only measure near-surface stresses. The only technique that allows deep, non-destructive interrogation of residual stresses is neutron diffraction. However, this technique is not widely utilized by industry because suitable neutron sources and instrumentation are only available at a handful of national labs and university sites, which require a major time and monetary commitment to access. In this project, a compact, high-flux neutron generator platform will be developed, permitting neutron diffraction-based residual stress measurements to be made in a factory or laboratory setting. BENEFIT: The fabrication costs of critical aerospace components for which residual stresses are an important concern (e.g. bulkheads) can be in excess of $100,000. Currently, the only techniques available in commercial production facilities to measure bulk residual stress (not just near-surface residual stress) require the destruction of the part. The widely accepted “gold standard” for nondestructive measurement of bulk residual stresses is neutron diffraction; however, access to this technique is quite limited, available at only a handful of national lab and university facilities nationwide. Commercial entities can purchase instrument time at these facilities, but it is costly (approximately $20,000 per day), requires travel, and is subject to the scheduling issues that are inherent in a shared-use facility. As such, the technique is used sparingly in the aerospace industry, despite the need for accurate bulk residual stress measurements. In this proposal, a laboratory-scale neutron diffraction measurement platform will be designed. Such a device will dramatically and directly impact the engineering and manufacturing processes of aerospace components. Residual stresses in components could be measured during the development process, permitting real-time optimization of manufacturing processes. The increased amount of data correlating manufacturing processes and residual stresses will also allow researchers to develop accurate models to predict the residual stresses that a given process will generate. The net result will be aerospace components that are stronger, lighter, and have lifetimes that can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. The commercial potential for such a device has already been proven by similar technologies, such as X-ray diffraction platforms for the measurement of near-surface residual stresses.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
David B. Kynor
AF131-120      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Fastener Measurement Tool
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Accurate measurement of fastener profile relative to the aircraft skin is critical to ensure that aircraft meet operation specifications and to identify areas that require rework to meet tight manufacturing tolerances. Current measurement methods rely on mechanical dial indicators that struggle to provide the required accuracy, are difficult to use in tight areas, and demand a high degree of operator skill. The goal of this project is development of an automated, hand-held tool for measurement of fastener profile that is fast, easy to use, and highly accurate. Our approach relies on proven noncontact inspection technology that has been shown to provide extremely high accuracy. BENEFIT: The technology developed on this project will provide a new methodology for high speed, easy to use measurement of fastener profile in aircraft assemblies.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 558-1668
Evan Lally
AF131-120      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Handheld, Snapshot-Based 3D Fastener Inspector
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Luna proposes to develop a unique, handheld 3D surface inspection tool for accurate measurement of fastener depth and fill flushness on 5th generation fighter jets. This lightweight 3D “camera” will generate automated, snapshot-based 3D maps of filled and unfilled fasteners on the aircraft’s unfinished surfaces. High-resolution 3D surface data is converted to a reading of flushness and depth for multiple fasteners in a single image, with very little user interaction required. This data provides the technician with a repeatable, near-instant reading on whether or not to re-work the fastener. By enabling rapid, accurate, and repeatible inspection of multiple fasteners in a single snapshot, Luna’s 3D fastener inspector will provide a key capability for technicians on the F-35 flight line during the ramp up to high-rate production. The proposed Phase I effort will focus on demonstrating the feasibility of the technology to meet program goals, with an emphasis on demonstrating accuracy and repeatability, simultaneous inspection of multiple fasteners, and operation in the expected production line lighting environment. Luna intends to leverage its strong existing relationships with prime airframe contractors to help guide the technical effort on a path toward realistic transition and commercialization. BENEFIT: The F-35 has over 40,000 filled fasteners on its outer mold line, each of which must be manually filled and inspected for flushness during production. Reduction in the time required to fill and inspect fasteners is critically required to reduce aircraft build time for future full-rate production. Luna’s handheld 3D fastener inspector is a transformative new tool, capable of making accurate non-contact measurements of flushness and depth on multiple fasteners at once. It will directly reduce the time required to inspect fastenrs; and its imroved accuracy and repeatibility will prevent the need for time-consuming re-checking of flushness measurements. The savings in inspection time is directly scaled by the large number of fasteners on the F-35, providing the Air Force and its commercial parteners with a tremendous return-on-investment for the technology. Furthermore, Luna’s handheld 3D imaging system has the cross-cutting potential to streamline other inspection tasks during F-35 production, such as panel gap/step measurement.

X-wave Innovations, Inc.
407 Upshire Circle
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 948-8351
Dan Xiang
AF131-120      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Hand-Held Fastener Surface Measurement
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a significant need for a handheld device that can do fastener flushness measurement and countersink measurement. In this proposal, X-wave Innovations, Inc. (XII) propose a handheld, non-contact, three-dimensional (3D) measurement system (called SnapSCAN). The SnapSCAN utilizes a unique design based on our 3D scanner that has a MEMS laser projector and a split lens 3D sensor, allowing much faster and accurate measurements than any other handheld devices on the market. The key innovation of the proposed SnapSCAN is the integration of 3 state-of-the-art technologies (including 3D scanning and measurement technology, MEMS laser color image projection technology, and ultra compact computer technology) into one compact, handheld device. It is a true standalone system that requires neither additional assistant component for 3D data stitching, dedicated computer for calculation, nor wired power supply. It can replace two different gauges on the market: Protrusion/Flushness Gauge (Analog or Digital) and Countersink Gauge (Analog or Digital). It can provide high accuracy comprehensive analysis results. The system startup time is only a few seconds. There is no need for any pre-setups such as system calibrations. The measurement time for a fastener can be less than one second. BENEFIT: The key advantage of the proposed handheld SnapSCAN is the non-contact nature, which eliminates the possibilities of damaging the fastener and surrounding surfaces during scanning and measurement, improves accuracy, and eliminates sources of human error. The image guided quick measurement can interactively guide the operator to find the optimal location for the scanner, make measurement and show the results in real-time. By whole surface measurement, it can provide accurate and comprehensive results that are impossible by other tools. The measurement results can be interactively displayed and be instantly saved to local hard drive or to wireless network storages.

Consolidated Resource Imaging
2943 South Wilson Ct. NW
Grand Rapids, MI 49534
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 735-2080
Todd Pepper
AF131-121      Awarded: 5/22/2013
Title:Mitigating Sensor Saturation through Image Processing Techniques
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Sensor saturation and the resultant loss of information is a problem that plagues both infrared and electro-optical sensors. Saturation often leads to blooming or dilation of the saturated region, destroying data in surrounding regions. A means for enhancing imagery through post processing to minimize the effects of blooming and maximize the value of remaining image content is proposed. Also proposed is a control method to actively control both IR and EO cameras to maximize the dynamic range of the sensors and capture more information from the scene. BENEFIT: The proposed mitigation techniques will result in algorithms which will maximize image content under conditions including but not limited to saturation. These methods will first be targeted toward post processing software but will later be targeted at real-time applications. These methods will be packaged such that they may be embedded directly into the sensors or as a separate control and processing unit.

Cyan Systems
5385 Hollister Ave
Santa Barbara, CA, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 453-0582
John Caulfield
AF131-121      Awarded: 5/21/2013
Title:Saturation Suppression Sensor Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Saturation Suppression Sensor Technology (S3-TECH) FPA is the centerpiece for a potentially revolutionary technical break-through required in the successful development of improved detection and mitigation of hot target saturation and image degradation effects in imaging sensors. The S3-TECH’s innovative technology will demonstrate breakthroughs in sensor dynamic range management and image processing techniques to mitigate dynamic saturation effects. Cyan Systems will develop the S3 Tech to support enhanced dynamic range in real time and recorded imagery for dynamic range and saturation reconstruction / compensation. Our concepts for automated saturation control will be based on scene statistics and mission requirements. BENEFIT: o Developed Concept for wide dynamic range sensors with full preservation of the hot and dim objects o Develop and characterized novel algorithms which limit saturation while maximize system NEI. o Develop circuitry in the commercial electronics / ROIC to adapt integration time for minimal saturation effects o Develop algorithmic optimization approaches for saturation and high flux scatter compensation to be able view dimmer object directly adjacent to the hot objects in the field off regard. o Demonstrate both radiometric and not radiometric compensation techniques. o Have a Radiation Mitigation Technology robust enough to help with sensors that are actively jammed by lasers or spoofed by high radiance clutter or solar reflections. o S3-TECH will address the main challenges with high flux and dynamic saturation events in imaging sensors, and will be robust enough to be used on a broad variety of MWIR and other imagers in use by the DOD.

ThermoAnalytics, Inc.
23440 Airpark Blvd P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9560
Alan Koivunen
AF131-121      Awarded: 4/26/2013
Title:Mitigating Sensor Saturation through Image Processing Techniques
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose a novel multi-frame image processing approach which employs High-Dynamic- Range (HDR) imaging in combination with model-based lens-flare estimation as a means of mitigating focal plane saturation and lens flare when extremely bright sources are present in MWIR imagery. Collecting multiple image frames with varying optical flux densities provides information over a diverse set of dynamic ranges. Additionally, the temporal variation of lens-flare artifacts over multiple frames differs statistically from that of the underlying scene content. Our technique provides a robust methodology for exploiting this information to restore and even enhance MWIR imagery adversly effected by extremely bright scene content. BENEFIT: There will be immediate benefits in military applications of this technology to surveillance, reconnaissance, and target acquisition and tracking. For example, this technology may be used to mitigate the saturation effects of directed energy "laser dazzlers" on guided missile electro-optics. Since the methods developed in this project will not be specific to the MWIR band, they may be more generally applied over the visible to LWIR range of imaging devices. Programmable consumer digital cameras in the visible band could eventually be controlled with these algorithms, presenting a large market for this technology. Multiple frames with exposure times covering the full dynamic range of intensities in the scene would be automatically taken, with a composite HDR image then constructed from these frames. Lens flare due to reflections internal to the camera would also be reduced using the methods devised here.

Advanced Computational Technology, LLC
3301 Pinegrove Place
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 721-6786
Komal A. Masud
AF131-122      Awarded: 6/13/2013
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Processes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We present a mixture theory based approach for process modeling in ceramic matrix composites. The model is derived from a consistent thermodynamic framework for diffusive- reactive flow of an anisotropic, non-linear viscoelastic fluid through a poroelastic body. A salient feature of the method is that the constraints due to stoichiometry are taken into account in a physically and mathematically consistent manner. Maximization of the rate of entropy production due to dissipation, heat conduction, and chemical reactions results in a set of equations for the evolution of the natural configuration, the heat flux vector, and evolution of the concentration of the chemical constituents. Both diffusion-dominated and reaction-dominated processes are considered. A multiscale finite element method is proposed for the mixture model that yields numerical schemes with enhanced stability properties. The multiscale method comes equipped with a built-in error estimation module that helps distinguish modeling errors from numerical errors. Efficient solution of coupled mechanical and thermal fields is facilitated via a staggered solution procedure that retains program modularity and therefore can be coupled with commercial codes using user defined interfaces. An interactive processing and modeling program is developed in conjunction with Rolls-Royce as our industrial partners for validation of the modeling approach. BENEFIT: This effort will result in a cost effective ICMSE based modeling and analysis tools for optimizing the processing technologies in CMC manufacturing. The new methods developed under this project will be implemented in modular form so that they can be easily integrated into the research and commercial finite element analysis packages via User Defined Modular Interconnects typically provided by such programs. High end graphics tools will be integrated into the overall computational framework for easy comprehension of the intricate stress and interface fields that develop during the processing of CMCs. It will thus help material designers speed up the process design cycle for efficient manufacturing of CMCs with very well calibrated properties.

Structural Analytics, Inc.
2888 Loker Ave. East, Suite 222
Carlsbad, CA 92010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 918-0608
Unni Santhosh
AF131-122      Awarded: 6/20/2013
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Processes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Innovative research and development leading to a dual-use advanced technology product is proposed. The product is a physics-based methodology and associated software for a analytical model to simulate the manufacturing process for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). Once developed and validated, the methodology would be used in the cost effective development of CMC components by the Air Force and its major CMC suppliers. The proposed methodology would be applicable to a broad class of CMCs and components for military and commercial applications. The approach includes direct consideration of relevant mechanisms involved in the Polymer Impregnation and Pyrolysis (PIP) process for CMCs, whose modeling is of immediate interest to COI Ceramics, Inc. (COIC), who along with United Technologies Research Center are our industry endorsers. Phase I will include modeling of specific stages used in the PIP process using existing data obtained from COIC under subcontract, and quantification of material properties with the goal of satisfying a set of target properties for the composite. The models will be validated against benchmark test data and predictions will be compared with experimental measurements in order to assess the modeling approach and feasibility for a more comprehensive methodology development in Phase II. BENEFIT: Due to the proliferation in potential applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites in military and commercial aerospace engines and in industrial gas turbine industries, the proposed dual-use high technology product has an immediate and expanding market. SAI will market the methodology, the software and technical expertise (services) to CMC manufacturers and other the end-users of CMC materials.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
John Porter
AF131-122      Awarded: 7/1/2013
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Processing by Polymer Infiltration and Pyrolysis
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The challenge for manufacturing ceramic matrix composites using the preceramic polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method is to ensure a fully dense matrix. Material loss during a pyrolysis cycle requires multiple reinfiltration and pyrolysis cycles to maximize matrix density. While the first cycle typically uses a ceramic powder filled polymer, subsequent cycles do not. We propose to team with Teledyne Scientific, both to access measured data on fiber placement in tested CMC’s and to have a team member ready to benefit from knowledge learned here to improve the reliability of CMC’s for hypersonic application. The two-fold approach we propose uses a physical analog of CMC PIP processing to understand the PIP process. We propose to use photopolymer additive manufacturing to build multiple identical models of a preform that has stochastically varied fiber placement, and then studying their infiltration using poly vinyl alcohol in aqueous solution. Subsequent evaporation of the solvent will mimic the volume reduction associated with pyrolysis. Guided by such a physical observation of the PIP process, we will work with Teledyne to mathematically model preform geometry and the subsequent polymer infiltration and pyrolysis, such that matrix filling of an actual ceramic fiber preform can be optimized. BENEFIT: A model that can optimize matrix filling for a polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) processed CMC will be applicable to all CMC systems manufactured by PIP, as well as the CMCs of interest to our partner, Teledyne Scientific.

Akita Innovations LLC
1770 Salem Street
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(339) 203-1504
Larry Takiff
AF131-123      Awarded: 5/20/2013
Title:Encapsulation Approaches for Flexible Solar Panels, Displays, and Antennas
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern optoelectronic devices require encapsulation for environmental protection, but current encapsulants are too heavy for weight-sensitive applications, provide too little protection from water or oxygen, or are too difficult to apply in the field. Akita Innovations proposes to develop and test a new paradigm for optoelectronic device encapsulation using spray-on, UV-cured crosslinked fluorinated acrylates containing glass or silica flake material. The nanosized (thickness) flakes will provide both a high barrier to oxygen and water and enhanced scratch resistance to the coating while preserving its flexibility, while the fluorinated crosslinked acrylate will contribute toughness, flexibility, and some barrier properties. The complete material will be transparent to light from the UV to the NIR and will contribute less than 175 g/square meter to the device due to the highly effective barrier and strength properties of the engineered material. The spray-on UV cure will allow the encapsulant to be easily applied to a variety of devices, in the field as well as in a factory. Applications will include flexible solar panels, displays, antennas, and OLED and LED lighting. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits from this development project are much lighter weight flexible solar panels for use on Air Force unmanned aircraft systems as well as tents, buildings, and clothing. The weight reduction will expand the performance of UAS and reduce the logistical demands for forward bases. The enhanced oxygen and water barrier properties of the material will improve the lifetime and performance of flexible solar panels, displays, and lighting, and will have application in commercial sectors as well as defense.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive
Pembroke, VA 24136
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 626-6266
Michelle Berg
AF131-123      Awarded: 6/13/2013
Title:Encapsulation Approaches for Flexible Solar Panels, Displays, and Antennas
Abstract:ABSTRACT: NanoSonic, Inc. researchers have developed an innovative material technology called HybridSil® which can be tailored to minimize the vulnerability of flexible electronic devices to environmental threats commonly encountered during military use. NanoSonic will apply our HYBRIDSIL Solar™ materials to flexible solar cells to demonstrate environmental protection, ease of application and minimal impact on the packaged weight of the target system BENEFIT: HybridSil flexible, environmentally protective coating technology will allow optimized performance of flexible photovoltaic solar cells used for any solar energy technology application. Flexible solar cells and conformal antennas could potentially be integrated into personal electrics, clothing, windows and curved structures.

Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc.
9431 Dowdy Drive
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Matthew Wrosch
AF131-123      Awarded: 5/20/2013
Title:ALD-Enhanced Durability of Lightweight Co-Cured Solar Array Panels (P-DoD13-002)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The promise of ubiquitous solar power for novel devices and applications depends greatly on the form-factors available, their specific power and their cost. Traditional silicon solar panels are prohibitively large for widespread utilization, and even smaller scale inorganic cells are too rigid and too heavy to be integrated into all next generation aero-structures, particularly medium-endurance and long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The promise of organic photovoltaics and organic electronics are the low mass and inherent flexibility enabled by such devices, and the potential for sizable cost reductions due to scalability. However, organic electronics suffer from rapid degradation when exposed to the elements, particularly oxygen and water vapor. In this program Vanguard will demonstrate the applicability of atomic layer deposition ultra-barrier coatings for encapsulating organic photovoltaic arrays. The approach will render suitable device lifetimes and will enable integration into UAV wing-skins using low-temperature co-curing techniques. BENEFIT: The benefits of the proposed flexible encapsulation scheme are the enabling of co-cured organic solar arrays around curved shapes, particularly those found on UAV wing-skins and bodies. However, the encapsulation system will also be of relevance to a wide variety of flexible organic electronics, including flat-panel displays. UAV systems including Vulture and Raven, as well as those currently under development, will be the intended transition targets for the proposed technology.

Harvest Technologies
815 Kirkley Blvd
Belton, TX 76513
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(254) 933-1000
David K. Leigh
AF131-124      Awarded: 7/15/2013
Title:Methods to rapidly optimize materials for Additive Manufacturing processes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to build a foundation for the modeling of polymer powders for use in laser sintering (LS). These models will attempt to provide a basis for characterizing new LS material candidates, establishing a fundamental understanding of material behavior so that existing molding grade polymers can be adapted for use in LS, and qualifying LS feedstock for use in production. BENEFIT: Increased adaptation of LS grade polymers which should lead to decreased raw material costs, increased supply chain security, and broader mechanical properties. In addition, will potentially create a tool to help manage powder feedstock through recycling and mapping process parameters to measured powder quality.

Mound Laser & Photonics Center, Inc.
P.O. Box 223
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-3458
Adam Hicks
AF131-124      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Methods to rapidly optimize materials for Additive Manufacturing processes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Powder-bed based additive manufacturing (AM) technologies typically involve rapid solidification after a laser or electron beam melts a region of powder. These powders can have an associated cost as much as an order of magnitude greater than the bulk material. Although less costly powders exist, they have large size and shape distributions which leaves the final part with a less than optimal finish and microstructure. Input from powder angle of repose, Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagrams, thermo-mechanical boundary conditions, 3-Dimensional Finite Volume (3DFV) methodology, and part geometry in the form of an STL file, will be utilized in University of Louisville’s (U of L) Dislocation Density based Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Model (DDCP-FEM) to predict local and global strengths, grain morphologies, and other layer-by-layer interfacial characteristics. By employing a model guided Design of Experiment approach using Mound Laser & Photonics Center’s (MLPC) direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) development cell, the parameters given by the model can be experimentally tested, validated, and used for input for the iterative model. In addition, an Adaptive Metallic Powder Layering System will be developed to address the key issue of uniformly layering inexpensive powders in a method compatible with DMLS. BENEFIT: Due to the costs and the relatively small number of usable powder feedstock materials, the proposed work would not only provide savings in both cost and time for optimization and fabrication of components, but would allow for less traditional powder feedstock materials to be used. The cost of powder feedstock materials currently considered appropriate for DMLS can be as much as an order of magnitude greater than their bulk counterparts. The time savings for engineering development in the form of rapid prototyping of designs as well as complex geometries that do not lend themselves to conventional machining techniques would greatly benefit both commercial and military applications.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
John Porter
AF131-124      Awarded: 5/31/2013
Title:Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing of Alloys by Electron Beam
Abstract:ABSTRACT: UES proposes to obtain data to anchor models for additive manufacture by electron beam melting (EBM). In this process, parts are made by scanning an electron beam in a raster defined by a CAD file over a powder bed such that powder is melted and resolidified to build a part layer-by-layer. While vendor-provided parameters will result in a part, first part yield is low. Predictive modeling of optimum machine parameters for a given powder and part dimensions will increase first part yield. In Phase I, we envisage a DOE (Design of Experiments) approach of varying key build parameters for a selected set of part elements that would enable a better understanding of the process, and provide data to anchor models of the build process. This effort will be restricted to Ti:6A:4V, the most mature alloy for the EBM process. Our partner, CalRAM Inc, is a veteran-owned small business and the premier commercial manufacturer of aerospace parts made by EBM in the USA. Modeling success will enable improved part yield for EBM manufacturers, with potentially successful first part yields for lots sizes of one to a few. Improved yield is critical for commercially viable additive manufacturing and part qualification for aerospace. BENEFIT: Improved acceptance of additive manufacturing of metal parts for aerospace predicated on reduced cost, resulting from fewer scrapped parts, and the metadata necessary for part qualification. Commercial application could be a product to sell to additive manufacturing foundries or a product licensed to the machine manufacturer for incorporation into machine control software. The approach we advocate could be applied to other additive manufacturing methods.

Autonomic Materials Inc.
495 County Road 1300 North
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 863-2023
Gerald Wilson
AF131-126      Awarded: 5/22/2013
Title:Development of Self-Healing Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Repaired Aluminum Components Following Dimensional Restoration
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Chrome-based coating systems are being phased out of most applications due to the toxicity of chromium compounds. Emerging coating technologies designed to replace chrome systems exhibit a glaring technical shortcoming, which is that hey fail to replicate the self- healing functionality that stems from the reduction of Cr [VI] present in chrome-based systems to a Cr [III] oxide layer, which passivates the surface of the substrate when damage occurs. Building on recent breakthrough technologies in self-healing polymers, a functional additive is proposed as a means for incorporating self-healing functionality into primers for aluminum. When a coating containing such an additive incorporated is damaged, reactant material from the self-healing additive will be released into the site of damage where it will polymerize and restore the coating’s protective function. By combining this self-healing functionality with chrome-free pretreatment and aerospace primers and top coats that combine to meet appropriate military coating system specifications, a systems that approaches the performance levels of chrome-based systems can be attained. BENEFIT: The coating systems that result from the additives developed in this proposal will exhibit extended lifetimes and maintenance cycles that will in turn result in extended lifetimes of the assets they protect. This will result in significant cost savings from the maintenance of the coatings and the assets over their lifetime as well as limit lost productivity due to unavailability of assets during maintenance.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4506
Ben Beck
AF131-126      Awarded: 5/28/2013
Title:Self-Healing Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Repaired Aluminum Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is a need to identify, qualify, and certify post-repair corrosion-inhibiting self-healing coatings in order to inhibit further corrosion on aluminum substrates. Many technologies have been developed in academia and industry to reliably identify visible and hidden corrosion on aluminum surfaces and components, restore lost coating material, or create a barrier to future corrosion. The research team at Luna Innovations Incorporated has developed a comprehensive system for the corrosion protection of aerospace components. Luna’s self- healing and anti-corrosion additives can be applied using chrome-free, low-VOC water based primers and we have a strong relationship with established paint manufacturers to meet MIL-SPEC requirements. Luna’s coating system will be suitable for aerospace aluminum alloys, titanium, and composites. By working closely with an aircraft maintenance consulting group, Luna will be able to address potential issues as identified by Depot and Air Force customers, as well as validate that the coating materials and application methods for sustained corrosion protection on war-fighting systems will be quick, mobile, financially viable, and reliable. BENEFIT: The total annual US cost estimates for corrosion related expenses are in excess of $300 billion, or 3.1% of the GDP. Much of the costs are associated with the maintenance of metal materials; 20% of the estimated corrosion-related costs involve scraping and repainting steel structures. A self healing coating will be beneficial to any industry sector that suffers from corrosion, such as infrastructure, transportation, utilities, and production and manufacturing. A durable, thermally stable, autonomous self healing corrosion protection coating will increase serviceable lifetime, reduce costs and improve operational efficiencies. Chrome-free and low-VOC coating systems will also provide an environmentally conscious solution to corrosion.

NEI Corporation
400 E Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-3141
Fred Allen
AF131-126      Awarded: 5/24/2013
Title:Chromate-free self-healing coating (SHC) system for repaired and restored aluminum alloy surfaces
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to demonstrate the benefits of a self-healing coating (SHC) system (comprised of MIL-PRF-85285 compliant self-healing top coat; MIL-PRF-23377 Class N primer; chromate-free pretreatment) on repaired and restored aluminum. Innovations are proposed for a self-healing polyurethane-based top coat that satisfies the functional performance requirements for the present application. The proposed SHC system is expected to be capable of self-healing scratches and cuts (without any external heat or stimulus) when used on repaired aircraft parts, and provide enhanced corrosion protection. The proposed SHC system will be demonstrated on repaired test coupons in Phase I for proof of concept, and on repaired Air Force aircraft parts in the field in Phase II. As part of the Phase I work, damaged aluminum alloy panels will be repaired and restored. Subsequently, the panels will be coated with an in-house developed or a qualified chrome-free pretreatment, a compatible MIL-PRF- 23377 Class N primer and the proposed SH top coat. The corrosion resistance and overall coating performance will be compared with state-of-the-art complete chrome and non- chrome coating systems. A successful outcome will be the demonstration that the proposed SHC exhibits better performance than the currently used non-chrome system and approaches that of the chrome based system. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this program will offer a complete package to repair, restore and subsequently protect the damaged aircraft parts with a SHC system. The need for a cost- effective, environmentally-favorable, self-healing coating that heals completely and multiple times has been expressed by both the private sector as well as other branches of the armed services. This proposed program will spur the development of a new coating technology to address the unmet needs of a number of different applications. Once a coating is developed successfully for the Air Force’s needs, it can be transitioned rapidly and effectively into other applications. Commercialization of this novel coating to the Air Force, other branches of the military and commercial sectors will be facilitated due to the broad-based interest in non- chrome, effective, and self-healing corrosion resistant coatings.

Adsys Controls, Inc.
16 Technology Dr. Suite 148
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 900-2480
Ryan Franz
AF131-128      Awarded: 8/12/2013
Title:Onboard Video Processing Platform for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern cell phone technology has been driven to create processors with capabilities appropriate to video processors for small unmanned aircraft systems. High definition streaming, video processing and compression, low SWaP and fast development are fundamental industry requirements that mesh perfectly with the SUAS ISR mission. Having built end-to-end SUAS ISR Payloads, including in particular the video processing component, Adsys Controls is well positioned to conduct the work with insight and experience. Adsys Controls will assess and benchmark a number of new generation System On Chip processors including the latest in cell phone and broadcast video processors. An evaluation of software development platforms will be performed to assess ease of code implementation. A software development toolchain and codebase will be developed that will lay the foundation for development of a next generation hardware platform to meet the challenging ISR needs of SUAS platforms. BENEFIT: This activity will have two major benefits. The first is the creation of a flexible, powerful test platform. Using this platform, researchers can easily implement, test and fly different alternative image processing algorithms. That will speed the development cycle, enabling improvements in our national UAS capability. Secondly, the creation of a new, cutting edge hardware platform will bring a generational improvement in the performance and cost of today’s very light vision systems. By reducing SWaP while expanding processing capability, more complex missions will be brought within reach of very lightweight, perhaps even hand- launched unmanned aircraft systems. Performance of Small UAS platforms will approach that of much larger and higher cost platforms with a commensurate reduction in logistics requirements. In addition to DoD applications, the platforms will also enhance the capabilities for other first responder (police, firefighter, emergency relief), border patrol, and homeland security operations. Additional uses exist in the commercial marketplace for video surveillance for security, traffic monitoring, weather observation, as well as entertainment applications.

Blue Ridge Envisioneering Inc
14450 Broadwinged Dr.
Gainesville, VA 20155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 927-9952
Andrew Krause
AF131-128      Awarded: 8/23/2013
Title:Development of an Onboard Video Processing Platform for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In order to accommodate the transition from standard to high-definition imagery in unmanned airborne platforms, it is necessary to find a way to reduce the increased transmission bandwidth of the system. One viable solution is to provide an onboard image processing computer that tracks objects of interest and transmits only that portion of the image in high- definition. However, UAV onboard processing must fall within strict SWAP constraints. In order to meet this challenge, multiple mobile processors will be evaluated to determine which has the best balance of processing power, flexibility, ease of programmability and relevant built-in image processing capabilities. The industry standard Qseven carrier board will provide a common platform for testing multiple mobile ARM-based processors. Each processor will be first tested against multiple image processing algorithms, benchmarked for speed and throughput. Ease of programmability will be evaluated as time spent adapting a functioning x86 implementation of each algorithm over two steps, basic functionality of the algorithm and optimized algorithm using features built into the hardware such as a GPU. The results of these tests will then be evaluated to determine if there is a platform that provides the necessary processing power to perform on-board image processing for a UAV. BENEFIT: The key benefit is to preserve the ability to stream video offboard UAVs while reducing the size, weight, and power required by the harware. BRE has identified several opportunities to commercialize the technology developed under the proposed effort: 1. Near-term disaster assessment from UAV or Balloon 2. Robotic Video Applications 3. Weather-balloon borne imaging of crop yields

Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Steve Jiang
AF131-128      Awarded: 7/30/2013
Title:Enhanced Smartphone Video Processing Platform
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A SUAS video processing platform is developed based on clustering multiple COTS smartphones in which each is deployed with software modules of the clustering support, third-party video processing libraries, and an interface wrapper between video applications and the clustering environment. The smartphones are clustered in a local network built from the available interfaces of the phones. The message passing interface framework is employed to implement the clustering environment. The functions in a user program written in traditional languages calling third party video processing libraries such as OpenCV are hooked to the functions in the wrapper, and then the wrapper automatically decide the parallelization approach based on the function characteristics and current load situations in the cluster. This ensures the traditional video processing algorithms to be easily ported to the platform. BENEFIT: Anticipated Benefits: These products will have the following competitive advantages, when compared with current state-of-the-art products such as traditional radar surveillance systems: • Ability to do intensive video processing using COTS smartphones with good SWAP capabilities • Ability to scale up the performance by increasing the computing power to achieve 70 mega pixels per second • Video processing algorithm development is facilitated in this platform by automatic parallelization and hiding low-level details from high-level programming Commercial Applications: The technologies in this proposal technology can be implemented as a video processing algorithm engine and sold as products or licenses for the mobile imaging and video service markets. The potential applications for the ESVPP technology exhibit excellent potential in a wide variety of markets in both government and commercial sectors, especially in traffic control market, the commerce data processing/data-mining market, and the surveillance market.

ObjectVideo
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 210
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Donald G. Madden
AF131-128      Awarded: 8/8/2013
Title:Development of an Onboard Video Processing Platform for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Modern aerial Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) benefits greatly from Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) equipped with Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors. Given the increasing image capabilities and the small Size, Weight and Power (SWAP) budget of the typical SUAS, there is a growing need for a video exploitation system which can handle large volumes of imagery in a low SWAP hardware package. ObjectVideo (OV) proposes to leverage its technologies and experience in low-power aerial video exploitation, developed under DARPA and ONR funding to support the ARGUS-IS and WFPAC projects, to address this need. The proposed system would provide the ability to process the full field-of-view of WAMI sensors, detect and track targets, and transmit only interesting imagery, events, and metadata back to the ground, conserving both bandwidth and operator attention. For Phase I, the OV team will survey low-power COTS processing hardware, particularly that designed for the competitive mobile consumer electronics market. The most promising candidates will be evaluated in the lab against a benchmark consisting of representative video processing and exploitation algorithms. Evaluation metrics emphasize algorithmic performance, power consumption, and ease of development and integration, with a goal of producing a usable prototype for Phase II. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits of the proposed solution are: • Low-SWAP, low-cost COTS hardware platform • Robust video exploitation system built to scale to very large resolutions with minimal hardware footprint • Focus on ease of development and integration aids future development • Leverages recent DoD research efforts The proposed solution has potential applications in both DoD and commercial markets. The technology to be developed under this project is adaptable and applicable to a wide range of aerial surveillance systems. The small target form factor and power consumption will enable advanced analytics and exploitation capabilities on aerial platforms previously limited by SWaP and bandwidth constraints. The solution also has applications in ground-based sensors. ObjectVideo has experience developing low-power rapidly-deployable sentry cameras and applications for mobile devices carried by warfighters, which share similar hardware platforms. Advancing the exploitation capabilities of these applications has tremendous benefits. ObjectVideo commercialized an embedded video exploitation software library, which is

Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
STEVE SERATI
AF131-129      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:High Speed Random Access Non-Mechanical Beam Steering for 3D Imaging LADAR
Abstract:ABSTRACT: High resolution 3D LADAR imaging over a wide field of view usually requires mechanical scanning the sensor’s field of view using gimbals, or a high peak power laser pulse and a very large focal plane array at the imaging plane. Both techniques add considerable size, weight, power requirements, and cost to the sensor system. Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) proposes to use high speed (>100 kHz) non-mechanical random access beam steering to produce a tiled image at the focal plane array. With this approach, we expect to enhance the imaging capability as well as reduce the size, weight and cost of the sensor system. In Phase I, BNS will demonstrate non-mechanical beam steering at sub-millisecond speeds and verify a path to speeds under 10 micro-seconds. In Phase II, we will build and demonstrate a non-mechanical beam steering breadboard system. BENEFIT: Methods for providing 3D LADAR imaging are needed for several small platform sensor applications. However, these applications place severe restrictions on size, weight, power and cost. Therefore, techniques for minimizing these parameters without sacrificing other performance requirements will have a significant benefit in these areas.

Fibertek, Inc.
13605 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Shantanu Gupta
AF131-129      Awarded: 8/16/2013
Title:Non-Mechanically Steered 3D Imaging LADAR
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose high-speed liquid crystal based beams-steering for 3D ladar systems using photon-counting arrays. Our proposed design takes into account tactical targeting requirements, and is compatible with integration into current generation of targeting pods. BENEFIT: (1) 3D ladar imaging (2) Improved combat ID (3) Multi target laser designation (4) Ladar beam-steering

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Shilpa Pradhan
AF131-129      Awarded: 8/19/2013
Title:Electronically Scanned LADAR
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force’s need for non-mechanically steered 3D imaging LADAR, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Electronically Scanned LADAR (ESLADAR), based on a novel integrated nonmechanical high-speed ferroelectric liquid-crystal (FLC) spatial light modulator (SLM) as a phased-array based scanner with 3D flash mosaic imaging. POC’s ESLADAR offers high precision for improved 3D imaging area rates and fast scan laser beams over a large FOV to 5°, directly addressing the acquisitions platform requirements of the Air Force. Innovation in design allows placement of the ESLADAR in front or behind midwave infrared forward-looking infrared optics. In Phase I, POC plans to design, develop, and evaluate the ESLADAR concept, using a computer model. We will build a proof-of-concept prototype, showing the non-mechanical beam steering concept, using the FLC SLM to achieve the required steering rate and resolution. Based on this prototype, in Phase II, POC will develop and implement a breadboard sensor demonstrating mosaic imaging over a 5 deg x 5 deg FOV, with steering rates and resolutions defined in Phase I. In Phase II, the ESLADAR will fit the SWaP constraints of a tactical pod. BENEFIT: Commercial applications will include airborne, ground-based, and subsurface 3D LADAR imaging systems; detection of littoral zone targets; natural disaster assessments; coastal zone surveys; environmental assessments; and search-and-rescue systems. POC’s ESLADAR can also provide remote surveillance at U.S. borders, 3D mapping, mission planning, 3D simulation, obstacle identification, and autonomous navigation under rugged conditions. The technology is perfect for aerial drones, terrestrial drones, and robots because it is designed for UAVs with small size, light weight, and low power consumption. It also has medical, manufacturing, and scientific applications.

Electromagnetic Systems, Inc.
108 Standard St.
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 524-9103
Brian M. Lamb
AF131-130      Awarded: 8/21/2013
Title:New Radar Exploitation Methods for Combat Identification
Abstract:ABSTRACT: TRL 9 compact feature set technology that EMSI developed in the 1990s for aircraft targets shall be adapted to the characterization of both moving and stationary ground vehicle targets. Technology for generation of compact ground vehicle ATR feature sets shall be developed and demonstrated. These compact ATR feature sets will be used for stationary vehicle SAR ATR and moving vehicle HRR ATR. Performance of compact feature set ATR will be thoroughly quantified. The technology is expected to provide enhanced ATR performance. Performance metrics shall be applied to all stages of the processing. Compact ATR feature sets will facilitate fast, efficient ATR algorithms suitable for use on RPVs. BENEFIT: This technology supports anti-access / area denial (A2AD) due to its facilitation of on-board processing and data-to-decisions (D2D) because these compact feature sets can be readily transferred between systems through low bandwidth channels. It is applicable to both ISR and strike platforms.

Etegent Technologies, LTD
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Adam Nolan
AF131-130      Awarded: 9/5/2013
Title:New Radar Exploitation Methods for Combat Identification
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Database sustainability is a fundamental challenge for supporting assisted and automatic target recognition algorithms. We propose a new approach to SAR/HRR exploitation algorithms that emphasizes simple, well-understood target morphology and the corresponding scattering physics generated by this morphology. This approach trades the potentially superior, but vastly more costly approach of large high fidelity training sets for simplistic models which capture key salient scattering phenomenology. BENEFIT: Key benefits include, 1) reduced cost to implement HRR and SAR exploitation algorithms and 2) databases that can be readily updated in the field to include additional target knowledge. Commercialization opportunities for this work exist in the areas of data mining, face recognition, sensor fusion and semantic representations of sensor data.

Signal Innovations Group, Inc.
4721 Emperor Blvd. Suite 330
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 323-3453
James Baxter
AF131-130      Awarded: 8/20/2013
Title:New Radar Exploitation Methods for Combat Identification
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current automatic target recognition (ATR) training processes require expensive data collections or extensive, high fidelity target modeling and validation whose costs and lead times will limit the ongoing sustainability of ATR target databases. Radar based systems for combat identification (CID) suffer from sustainability issues due to the extreme complexity of the target databases and the high costs and latency of incorporating new targets to meet evolving mission needs. In order to enable sustainable, reliable radar CID through salient physical features, SIG proposes to leverage existing HRR-based saliency technology to develop a knowledge base of target class and aspect dependent geometric features (such as the distance between critical scattering structures such as a bumper and windshield) from existing data for compact, robust CID. This simple and robust physical feature domain will be used to train a novel probabilistic classifier architecture that characterizes the uncertainty of target decisions. SIG will emphasize the selection of physics-based features that are relevant across a wide range of sensing modalities (HRR, SAR, EO), expanding the availability of target training data and facilitating future development and capabilities. These salient features enable sustainable development, operation, and maintenance of a compact, robust, and discriminative CID database. BENEFIT: A successful Phase I will result in a CID ATR framework that addresses the efficiency and sustainability issues associated with the development, operation and maintenance of current non-cooperative ATR technology. The proposed method provides a low-cost, quick turn- around solution for target insertion into ATR databases, at a significant savings compared to conventional signature database enablers. The selection of salient, physics-based features will reduce the template/database dimensionality for multi-phenomenology ATR by replacing image/signature template databases with compact feature sets. The proposed Phase I results in a proof of concept that addresses the system requirements of and offers risk reduction to future AFRL efforts.

Defense Research Associates, Inc.
3915 Germany Lane Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Michael Deschenes
AF131-131      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Group 4-5 UAS integration of terminal area sensors & operations in the terminal area for Airborne Sense and Avoid
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Without the capability to sense and avoid other air traffic, UAS flights are limited to flight operations within restricted and warning areas unless the proponent obtains a Certificate of Authorization (COA) from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). As part of the requirement to fly in the NAS, UAS need to perform Terminal Area Operations. Terminal Area Operations are intended to facilitate UAS operations in a confined volume of airspace near a regional terminal area or near a restricted airspace. To better support safe UAS operations in the terminal area, integrating data from the ABSAA and GBSAA sensors increases the probability of maintaining safe separation in this more-dense environment. Three obvious advantages of combine data from the ABSAA and GBSAA sensors are 1) the difference in technologies; 2) the differences in locations; 3) possibility of cross sensor cueing. Challenges associated with fusing the data from the GBSAA and the ABSAA are coordinate systems, reference points, latencies and data rates, and disparate data formats and data content. BENEFIT: The results provided by this Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate the feasibility of using a combined airborne and ground-based SAA data to provide a complete airspace picture in the terminal area. A system design and architecture will be provided to the Air Force at the conclusion of the Phase I effort.

Systems & Technology Research
400 West Cummings Park, Suite 5850
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 503-3281
Mark Luettgen
AF131-131      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:Group 4-5 UAS integration of terminal area sensors & operations in the terminal area for Airborne Sense and Avoid
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Integration of track data from Ground Based Sense and Avoid (GBSAA) and Airborne Sense and Avoid (ABSAA) systems offer the possibility of significantly improved terminal airspace tracks because they often have complementary sensing geometries and measurement error statistics. Systems & Technology Research (STR) proposes a Phase I effort to develop a multi-hypothesis tracking and fusion capability that combines track data from ABSAA EO and radar sensors as well as GBSAA radar trackers. We will evaluate the performance of these algorithms on available sensor data and demonstrate the improved tracking accuracy resulting from the combination of ABSAA and GBSAA measurements. BENEFIT: A robust multi-sensor integration capability for detecting airspace intruders will increase the operational capability of unmanned systems. Our track integration approach that combines airborne EO, airborne radar and ground radar tracks will yield improved tracking performance over each modality on each own. These benefits arise from the following integration processing improvements: (1) The ground and air radars will have different look angles to the intruders and thus integration can mitigate their respective cross-range errors. (2) The ground radar will have a larger field of regard than either the air EO or air radar sensors and thus integration can mitigate the airborne sensor detection limitations. (3) The air and ground sensors will have different probabilities of detection due to different operating bands, geometries, and phenomenology; thus integration will provide a more complete picture of potential intruders. (4) The air and ground sensors will have different false alarm statistics, also due to different operating bands, geometries, and phenomenology; thus integration will reduce false tracks. (5) The air radar tends to generate false tracks due to main beam ground clutter; but with anticipated upgrades to ground radar systems, improved elevation estimates will enable better clutter mitigation via correlation between air and ground tracks. Our track integration algorithms may be used in next generation sense-and-avoid systems by replacing the data fusion portion of more limited systems or by post-processing outputs of existing limited trackers to produce the integrated track results.

Dragonfly Pictures, Inc.
PO Box 202 West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 521-6115
Richard Billingslea
AF131-132      Awarded: 11/1/2013
Title:Real-Time Sensor Data Processing and Compression Performed On-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The K-128 co-processor leverages insights from neuroscience to achieve superior performance. Unlike previous efforts along those lines, our approach is to create a software programmable co-processor that runs existing applications. One of the most salient characteristics of such a co-processor is its power efficiency: not just a few percent more efficient than a traditional processor, but many times more efficient. Dragonfly Pictures, Inc. (prime) and Cognitive Electronics (CE) propose to test the K-128 as an onboard visual sensor processing capability to support automated real-time identification, tracking, and selection of regions of interest (ROIs) based on environment, target sets, and mission priorities. BENEFIT: High Performance Computing hardware is a $10 billion dollar market that is growing at 8% per year according to market research firm IDC. In addition, the market for High Performance Cloud Computing hours is currently $177 million, and growing at 71% per year, again according to IDC. Among the end markets for HPC, the Federal Government is the largest, buying over $2 billion of High Performance Computing hardware per year. The K-128 processor will be tested using video processing software and ISR data to serve automate real-time identification, tracking, and selection of regions of interest. The K-128 brings a 100x performance per watt advantage.

Isocline Engineering
1301 Beal Ave
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 915-4091
David Fick
AF131-132      Awarded: 8/8/2013
Title:Programmable Neuromorphic Microchip for Accelerating Dismount Identification in WFOV Video
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Wide field of view (WFOV) video capability on unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has outpaced data transmission capability. Identifying regions of interest (often performed though object recognition) enables selective video compression and maximizes the useful content in data transmission. Neuromorphic classifiers currently hold the records for greatest accuracy of object recognition and speech recognition, but are too computationally intensive for deployment in autonomous systems. This proposal describes a programmable microchip for energy-efficient acceleration of neuromorphic classifiers. Neuromorphic classifiers interpret sensor data much like the human brain does, allowing them to efficiently recognize dismounts, equipment, buildings, terrains, and other interesting features in video. The proposed platform will increase the capabilities of UAS while greatly reducing the form factor and power requirements of the control systems. Achieving these goals is possible through the creation of specialized hardware accelerators which can potentially yield >100x improvement in energy efficiency and performance over general purpose computing solutions. Additional benefits of the platform include greater radiation and fault tolerance due to the distributed nature of the neuromorphic architecture, and the ability to efficiently provide hints to the classifier. BENEFIT: The proposed system can function as a general purpose data classifier with little modification. Many commercial electronics are looking for new ways of interacting with the outside world that can benefit through this technology. In each of these applications the proposed system will be able to perform the task with much greater accuracy and performance with a lower power budget than other solutions. Military applications include object recognition for autonomous systems, navigation for autonomous systems through optical flow, and voice and gesture recognition for human interfaces. Potential consumer applications include medical devices that include data classifiers for detecting heart attacks or seizures, voice and object recognition for handheld devices like cell phones, and human interfaces for automobiles.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Timothy E. Fair
AF131-132      Awarded: 8/14/2013
Title:Onboard Real-time Saliency Architecture Leveraging Track Based Classification
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In recent years, advances in EO/IR sensor technology have produced systems capable of collecting massive amounts of data that have outpaced embedded processing capabilities. The mismatch between collection and processing capability results in processing only subsets of data collected and/or large processing latency by only obtaining the data after missions are flown. Most of the data collected lies outside the scope of the mission; however the sheer volume of pedestrian data is prohibitive to timely processing of mission critical information present within the data. Advancements in embedded processing technology are needed for future generations of such systems to maximize their ability to disseminate mission critical information during missions. Toyon Research Corporation proposes an embedded architecture that incorporates image processing algorithms with a heterogeneous processing architecture to process raw sensor data into sub regions of mission critical importance with massive throughput. Image processing algorithms, such as registration, background modeling, tracking, and classification; written to leverage the size weight and power (SWaP) benefits of a GPU/DSP/FPGA hardware architecture will allow key functionality to produce saliency in the data. This provides onboard capability for discernment between mission critical and mission indifferent regions on the entire data sets onboard. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research will result in the development of hardware and software providing a potentially revolutionary improvement in information available to the warfighter from Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) data. This capability will be of great interest for future military systems that rely on the automated processing of aerial surveillance video. For example, the developed technology is expected to benefit the Night Stare, Gorgon Stare, Angel Fire, Constant Hawk, TAILWIND, and ARGUS-IS programs as well as numerous smaller platforms as FPA technology continues to advance. Other potential government applications include any situations where surveillance is required by an imaging sensor on an aerial platform, such as border patrol, crime fighting, traffic analysis, and counter-terrorism.

Neya Systems, LLC
12330 Perry Hwy Suite 220
Wexford, PA 15090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 799-8078
Mark Ollis
AF131-133      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Long-distance 3-D Reconstruction from EO/IR Imagery
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The production of 3D models from aerial imagery has been an active research area for many years. Given sufficient image texture and a variety of divergent camera viewpoints, camera pose and scene structure are fully recoverable. Further, software for fully reconstructing a scene from an image set is now freely available. As the range of viewpoints decreases, however, traditional methods of 3D structure-from-motion (SFM) become mathematically ill- conditioned, resulting in noisy and/or erroneous results. Since real-world mission flight patterns often do not permit imagery of target terrain from the ideal range of viewpoints, current SFM methods are often unable to supply accurate 3D terrain models even during flights where extensive video imagery is acquired. Neya systems will exploit two types of learned heuristic scene reconstruction from individual images can help address this shortcoming. The first approach learns global, persistent 3D shape cues from image features culled from a library of images labeled with ground-truth structure .The second approach learns a temporally-evolving model of transient cues specific to target weather, lighting, and scene conditions. Our proposed reconstruction approach exploits both types of monocular processing along with traditional multiview algorithms to create a 3D terrain estimation system which operates without angular view constraints. BENEFIT: The economic and military of accurate aerial modeling from video is already established, and there are a number of existing companies which profitably market such services today (see, for example, http://www.geoinfra-engineering.com/en/services/aerial-photography-and-3d- terrain-modelling). In many current defense-related missions, gathering a wide range of target views is either impossible (i.e. cross-border surveillance into denied airspaces) or undesirable (to reduce flight time and/or fuel cost).The proposed work, providing an enhanced modeling-from-video capability without requiring specific flight patterns, will be of interest to many users inside and outside the military: aerial terrain modeling has applications in agricultural, construction, mining, and forestry applications, for example. Optimizing the product for real-time use will open up additional markets in defense and border security.

Vision Systems, Inc.
72 Water Way
Barrington, RI 02806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 427-0860
Daniel Crispell
AF131-133      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:Long-distance 3-D Reconstruction from EO/IR Imagery
Abstract:ABSTRACT: While the state of the art in both single-image reconstruction algorithms and multi-view structure from motion algorithms have advanced considerably in recent years, little work has been performed which leverages the constraints relied upon by both approaches. When an area of interest is imaged from a long distance with little angular diversity in viewpoint, multi- view constraints alone are often insufficient to produce an accurate 3-d reconstruction. It is proposed that the additional constraints provided by surface properties learned from image data will improve reconstruction performance significantly. The proposed Phase I effort is focused on the development of an aerial image-based 3-d reconstruction algorithm that combines the relative strengths of both single-image reconstruction and context algorithms and state of the art multi-view stereo. The result is an automatically generated 3-d model that is optimally constrained by all information contained in a set of collected aerial images. The proposed system is general enough to exploit high angular diversity datasets, but exhibits graceful degradation as the viewpoint diversity decreases. The decrease in information due to low view angle diversity is compensated by single-image constraints on surface orientation derived by machine learning algorithms. BENEFIT: Benefits of the proposed approach include improved sensor model estimation and high accuracy 3-D modeling capabilities. Applications include support of downstream processing (tracking, geo-positioning, geo-registration), augmented reality / situational awareness, and simulation/training.

Black River Systems Company, Inc.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Michael Krumme
AF131-135      Awarded: 8/26/2013
Title:Fully Adaptive Radar
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The challenge set by Fully Adaptive radar tech techniques is how to best optimize all of the possible radar settings – all of the possible transmit and receive degrees of freedom – to maximize radar performance. The available degrees of freedom, including transmitter parameters such as beamshape and waveform, receiver parameters such as beamformer and coherent processing, and radar timeline parameters such as antenna scan pattern, as well as rapidly changing and competing mode requirements such as surveillance, tracking, SAR, and emerging techniques such as multi-static operation and MIMO waveforms, combine to provide an almost limitless set of parameters that can be varied. ‘Optimal’ parameter selection can become unclear, and can change rapidly with environmental operating conditions. Black River proposes to address these issues by developing a theoretical optimal performance prediction, to develop an initial set of metrics that can be used to evaluate the environment, and then to formulate an adaptive method to drive parameter selection. We will develop a radar performance model that can be used to evaluate overall system performance in a realistic simulated environment, and which can be used as the basis for further development and evaluation. BENEFIT: An accurate and efficient simulation capability of airborne fully adaptive radar systems will help researchers and developers to streamline and enhance the processes of adaptive radar requirements definition, data collection / validation planning, and development of the environmental assessment and intelligent radar parameter control algorithms. Commercial entities could exploit this tool to identify applications where adaptive radar could cost effectively satisfy system requirements, either with reduced payload (size weight, and power), or enhanced performance. The use of a simulated environment as an algorithm testbed also allow testing real radar parameter control algorithms against optimal ‘ideal’ performance, which can often be simulated but may not be realizable in an actual system

Guerci Consulting
2509 N Utah St
Arlington, VA 22207
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 472-7990
Joseph R Guerci
AF131-135      Awarded: 8/12/2013
Title:Cognitive Fully Adaptive Radar (CoFAR)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A new cognitive fully adaptive radar (CoFAR) architecture is developed that optimizes every major real-time radar function including the scheduler/controller, waveform generator, transmitter, and receiver in a closed loop fashion. The need for such an adaptive and flexible architecture is driven by the ever increasingly challenging military radar environment that includes operation against elusive and fleeting targets embedded in extremely complex clutter (e.g., urban terrain), dense multitarget scenarios, and significant intentional (e.g., electronic attack (EA)) and unintentional electromagnetic interference. The CoFAR architecture incorporates fully adaptive multidimensional channel dependent waveforms, multi-objective and adaptive resource allocation, control, and scheduling, as well as knowledge-aided (KA) and model based adaptation and expert reasoning. The CoFAR architecture is also applicable to both monostatic and distributed sensing applications with heterogeneous multiplatform resources. An integral part of this project is the development of a high fidelity CoFAR modeling and simulation capability that is based on a highly successful environment developed over the past 20 years and utilized by such programs as the DARPA/AFRL KASSPER project. The CoFAR simulation environment will provide accurate assessments of realistic performance gains relative to conventional (non-FAR) radar without the need for extensive and costly flight tests and experiments. BENEFIT: The CoFAR architecture developed in this project will result in a new radar architecture ideally suited to meet the challenges of an ever increasingly complex RF environment. The architecture will amenable to real-time operation in both monostatic and distributed sensing applications with heterogeneous resources. In addition to meeting the challenges of emerging military radar environments, the CoFAR approach is ideal for addressing the commercial radar challenges associated with operating in a crowded RF spectrum.

Metron, Inc.
1818 Library Street Suite 600
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 326-2913
Kristine Bell
AF131-135      Awarded: 8/13/2013
Title:Fully Adaptive Radar - MP 115-12
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goals of this project are to (i) develop a theoretical framework for a fully adaptive radar (FAR) system that includes specification of the feedback mechanism from the receiver to the transmitter and specification of performance metrics to assess FAR system performance, and (ii) to develop analytical as well as computer simulation methods for determining the performance improvement achieved by the FAR system over standard fee-forward radar (FFR) systems. We propose to develop a general FAR framework that can be applied to a variety of missions. Using a first principles approach, we develop a framework that consists of seven components: environment, transmitter, receiver sensor, adaptive detector, covariance matrix estimator, mission processor, and controller. In our formulation, the mission performance objective induces component performance objectives on the adaptive detector, covariance matrix estimator, and mission processor (tracker). We will also develop a computer simulation and experimental test to demonstrate the performance of the model, and will analyze the performance of the FAR system in terms of global performance metrics, component performance metrics, training data support, and computational complexity. BENEFIT: Radar systems are crucial for robust surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance in all weather conditions and over wide ranges of interest. Most radar systems employ a feed- forward processing chain in which they first perform some low-level processing of received echo data and then pass the processed data on to some higher-level processor, which extracts information to achieve a mission objective. The application of artificial cognition to radar systems offers much promise for improved sensing as well as the creation of new sensing modalities. Specifically, FAR offers the potential for two to ten times performance over state-of-the-art in terms of output signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and error variance in parameter estimation. This translates to a 3-10 dB improvement in target detection performance over the state-of-the-art. The framework developed in Phase I will be quite general. As such it can be applied to a variety of radar systems for a variety of missions, and can be translated into other domains such as computing, autonomous vehicles, and perhaps even neuroscience and evolutionary biology. The project will develop the fundamental tools necessary to design and analyze a cognitive processing system, and will enable further research in the abovementioned diverse fields.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
James McDonald
AF131-136      Awarded: 8/14/2013
Title:Manpack antenna for Advanced MIL SATCOM
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The requirement for a MANPACK-compatible SATCOM terminal for Special Operations (SOF) and Tactical Air Control Parties (TACP) obviates a small, lightweight antenna system that can withstand the rigors of dismounted operation. The proposed antenna system combines a deployable reflector and an off-the-shelf beam alignment tool leveraging third party non-networked smart-phone software to close a link with an AEHF satellite. Beam tracking and control is native to the antenna system and consumes minimal power. Deployment of the antenna is simple, repeatable, and rapid. Weight and volume are minimized through the use of a feed offset mechanism which is lightweight yet robust enough to withstand the expected harsh conditions. BENEFIT: This lightweight, robust design with price-points targeted towards dismount usage may render it attractive to commercial markets as well. The beam tracking and alignment software leverages tools which are available publicly, conforming to an open architecture definition. It is expected that sales of the SBIR technology could reach 1000 units in the intended market, with sales easily 10 times that in commercial markets.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Thomas L. Larry
AF131-136      Awarded: 7/31/2013
Title:Manpack antenna for Advanced MIL SATCOM
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A portable high gain (39 dBi) and lightweight (10 lbs.) manpack AEHF antenna that automatically tracks a geosynchronous AEHF communication satellite is sought. Toyon proposes an electronically reconfigurable antenna (ERA) placed in the focal region of a foldable parabolic dish with an offset focus. Toyon has repeatedly demonstrated and patented the idea that antenna properties (gain pattern, polarization pattern, and phase) can be adaptively varied using active impedance devices that are suitably placed within the ERA aperture. This will enable adaptive tracking which would be accomplished by adjusting impedance values in a systematic way. Feedback and control would be used for fine impedance adjustments to account for surface distortion effects, interference/jamming, and/or known threat directions. The reflector will be a foldable conducting mesh. This will allow for compact and safe storage of a reflector with greater than 12 inch aperture. Adaptation provides compensation for any perturbations from the ideal parabolic shape. No phase shifters or mechanical servomechanism would be used. The control of active impedance devices requires very little power (microprocessor and digital controller). Toyon has all the necessary computational EM and RF systems design software needed for Phase I. We have successfully exercised these tools on many antenna projects. BENEFIT: The result of this effort will be a light-weight AEHF high gain and self-steering antenna system. The key to this will be the ERA feed antenna system. The goal is that whole antenna structure will be foldable or collapsible for easy transport on a back pack. A considerable market is seen for such a capability that includes special operations forces as well as other ground forces. The electronic beam steering of this system may also find applications on moving platforms such as humvees, aircraft, and ships.

Diversified Technologies, Inc.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Neal Butler
AF131-137      Awarded: 8/23/2013
Title:Very Low Frequency Receiver front end with high sensitivity and frequency selectivity
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Diversified Technologies, Inc. (DTI) will design a high performance, low noise analog portion of the VLF receiver front end, optimized for 15 to 60 kHz operation. DTI will integrate the analog front end with a commercial 24 bit oversampled analog-to-digital converter with an output data rate over 200 kHz. Converters of this type combined with a properly designed analog preamplifier will reject unwanted signals by at least 30 dB more than the Stanford AWESOME receiver’s 16 bit converter could tolerate. Finally, DTI recognizes that VLF receivers must be capable of reliable performance in harsh airborne conditions, tolerating far more interference and receive far weaker signals than legacy receivers were designed for. DTI will locate the front end of the receiver within the antenna housing such that the digital signal output is carried via optical fiber to the remote demodulator. The entire antenna and front end may then be electrostatically shielded. BENEFIT: Combining the state-of-the-art in VLF receivers with COTS components will allow for a highly effective, inexpensive solution for the incorporation of AF and Navy VLF transmission systems. Development and fielding of VLF receivers through this SBIR effort builds on DTI’s capabilities in manufacturing MIL-QUAL electronics, and will expand our technical capabilities in two related directions – RF systems for the US Military, and VLF subsystems. Both of these areas will broaden current military capabilities in radar and power conversion systems.

SensorCom, Inc.
900 Bestgate Rd Suite 300
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 571-9425
Ash Law
AF131-137      Awarded: 8/27/2013
Title:Very Low Frequency Receiver front end with high sensitivity and frequency selectivity
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal presents a high performance digital receiver operating in the VLF/LF range (from 14 - 60 kHz). The system offers fine selectivity of one or more signals of interest (1 Hz or less tuning frequency). It also addresses issue with regards to interference mitigation. The proposed system also allows for monitoring the whole VLF band while extracting narrow band signals of interest. Adequate attention is paid to airborne operation in harsh environments. BENEFIT: The proposed system allows for the rapid development of a scalable, agile receiver, that can be readily adapted to handle current or future signals of interest through software modifications. The system also allows complete bandwidth control. The system is designed to use COTS parts, certified for military applications including EMP/HEMP and Nuclear radiation effects. The system will allow the USAF many years of use and upgradability.

Softronics LImited
1080 East Post Road, Suite 1
Marion, IA 52302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(319) 447-1446
Robert H. Sternowski
AF131-137      Awarded: 8/23/2013
Title:Very Low Frequency Receiver front end with high sensitivity and frequency selectivity
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Softronics Ltd. proposes to implement an advanced VLF receiver front end utilizing a trio of advanced technologies. The first is a digital cancellation DSP technique that reduces both atmospheric noise and jamming signals within the desired passband, significantly improving the SNR of the VLF signal. The second is a unique component technology and topology that offers extraordinary VLF preselection selectivity, on the order of 1.6 KHz bandwidth at - 100 db response with a 1.2 KHz bandwidth at -3 db. The third technology is an unusual application of a unique consumer component to provide digitization of VLF signals with orders of magnitude more dynamic range than conventional analog-to-digital converters available today. All of these techniques are combined into a candidate modular front end architecture optimized for the airborne VLF environment, and designed by technical staff with a long history in VLF design and operation. BENEFIT: This system is designed solely for VLF narrowband use. It has direct applicability to other DoD users as well as international VLF users, given export approval. This effort will result in a significant manufacturing opportunity for Softronics Ltd.

Spectranetix, Inc.
2066 Walsh Avenue, Suite #B1
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 982-9057
Lars Karlsson
AF131-137      Awarded: 8/23/2013
Title:High Sensitivity, High Dynamic Range, VLF Receiver Front End
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Current and future VLF receiver technology for Emergency Action Message (EAM) reception must meet stringent reception capabilities in harsh environments. Existing receivers were designed in the 1970s and 1980s to accomplish this task in specific environment and against specific threats. Since that time, both the nature for the threat and existing VLF transmitter environment has changed and become more dynamic, requiring a higher performance, more adaptable receiver. Decreased numbers of USAF VLF transmitters covering the same geographic area means an overall weaker VLF signal which is driving the need for receivers with higher sensitivity. Other signals that from other DoD components or transmitters that will be deployed in the future can create “clutter” in the band. These, along with interference from the power grid, atmospheric effects (“spherics”) and jammers make it difficult for present-day VLF receivers to maintain sensitivity on their intended target signals due to the adjacent strong interferers saturating the A/D converter and forcing the automatic gain control to attenuate the input signal on order to avoid overload. This attenuation effectively reduces the sensitivity for weak target echoes. What is therefore needed is a more advanced approach to increase the usable dynamic range of VLF receivers. BENEFIT: • High dynamic range VLF signal detection • Next generation EAM system

Escape Communications, Inc.
2790 Skypark Dr Ste 203
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 997-1303
Jim Nadeau
AF131-138      Awarded: 9/5/2013
Title:Lightweight AEHF Modem for Manpack
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The modem is the conductor that must orchestrate the complex signal processing functions of the entire protected terminal. As such, it is the key driver to implementation complexity, size and power of the overall terminal. Escape will study modem-enabled power-saving techniques at the terminal, modem board, and modem chip levels, propose a conceptual design, evaluate SWAP savings, and define key requirements for Phase II implementation. BENEFIT: The power-saving techniques of this SBIR topic can be used in future PTW and AEHF manpack terminals to bring protected communications to the forward-operating warfighter.

ORB Analytics, LLC
490 Virginia Road
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 501-3161
Samuel MacMullan
AF131-138      Awarded: 8/22/2013
Title:Lightweight AEHF Modem for Manpack Terminals
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The ongoing launch of next generation AEHF satellites promises significant new protected MILSATCOM capabilities. To allow dismounted forces to leverage this benefit requires very low size, weight, and power (SWaP) AEHF modems capable of operating at up to 256 kbps. ORB Analytics proposes a 0.1 pound, 1.1 Watt, modem design with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) accelerators for fixed physical layer functionality including AEHF modulation, demodulation and forward error correction. Careful modem design will also allow the use of low resolution, low power, data converters and calibration and tracking on the modem will provide significant further terminal SWaP reduction. BENEFIT: Many current and proposed DoD systems use continuous phase modulation (CPM) methods such as Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) and powerful forward error correction such as turbo codes. Besides AEHF, UHF SATCOM terminals use multi-h CPM and shaped offset QPSK which can be demodulated using the same architecture proposed for GMSK. NASA has recommended the use of GMSK for most NASA links through the year 2030. The proposed modem design can also be used for commercial Ku-/Ka-Band SATCOM. Each of these systems would benefit greatly from a reduced SWaP modem.

ARTEMIS, Inc.
36 Central Avenue
Hauppauge, NY 11788
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 979-6895
Evan C. Zaugg
AF131-139      Awarded: 9/24/2013
Title:GMTI Data Exploitation For SWAP Limited Radar Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: GMTI signal processing algorithms are developed, which improve the capabilities of SWaP limited airborne radar systems, resulting in better detection, geo-location, and characterization of all types of moving targets and ground clutter conditions, providing two- channel radar systems with capabilities for detection and geo-location of slowly moving weak targets comparable to estimates currently available only from systems with three or more channels. Classical GMTI systems do not use modern SAR image formation processing to resolve the ground clutter into target size (or smaller) resolution cells and thus attempt to detect small moving targets using test cells which have very poor target to clutter-plus-noise ratios. We exploit the fine spatial resolution of SAR, and construct tests statistics which integrate target signals using resolution cells uncontaminated by returns from clutter regions larger than the targets, resulting in improved detection. The longer coherent integration times of SAR make more target energy available to the processor, which we exploit with new algorithms to improve the detection of weak and extremely slow moving targets. Even fast targets are difficult to detect using classical GMTI when the radial component of the velocity is small, but with SAR, even modest target accelerations can be exploited to detect targets. BENEFIT: Improved GMTI data exploitation increases the utility of SWaP limited radar systems, making it possible to detect small, slow, and weakly reflecting targets, thus providing capabilities that are in high-demand from a variety of platforms. There continues to be a need for advanced ISR capabilities for remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) for both military and commercial applications. In the civil sector, infrastructure monitoring, border protection, and maritime situational awareness represent components of a growing civil market for commercialization of GMTI algorithms and SAR technology.

Solid State Scientific Corporation
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
Darlene Franco
AF131-139      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:GMTI Data Exploitation For SWAP Limited Radar Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) has developed an innovative and computationally efficient GMTI signal processing algorithm which a hybrid of two existing methods; along- track interferometry (ATI) and the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technique. Hybrid ATI/DPCA exploits the complementary information from each method and combines the relative advantages for significantly improved performance, especially in mountainous and urban clutter environments, where traditional GMTI algorithms (e.g., STAP) are prone to false alarms. In phase I of the proposed effort SSSC plans to demonstrate the performance of ATI/DPCA on a two-channel Ku-band SWaP limited (<85 lbs.) radar system. The system will operate in Video SAR mode, which performs high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and GMTI simultaneously, on the same pulses of data, and at a high frame rate. By performing SAR and GMTI simultaneously there will be no need to switch between modes of operation, thus there will be fewer gaps in coverage that may result in broken tracks. Video SAR is ideal for detection and tracking of non-cooperative, maneuvering, and move-stop-move targets such as enemy dismounts or vehicles in traffic. As a bonus, GMTI detections can be placed directly on SAR images for enhanced situational awareness. BENEFIT: The new ATI/DPCA mode will significantly reduce the false alarm rate for size, weight, and power (SWAP) limited systems performing moving target detection in mountainous and urban environments. This advance will improve the ability of UAV platforms to perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR missions, thus enhancing the situational awareness for soldiers, intelligence officers, and commanders in order to identify threats and make critical decisions. The proliferation of UAV “drone” platforms is expected to continue since they offer a cost effective means for the U.S. DoD to conduct military operations despite reductions in troops on the ground.

Trident Systems Inc.
10201 Fairfax Boulevard Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 409-5627
Joseph Hucks
AF131-139      Awarded: 8/21/2013
Title:GMTI Data Exploitation For SWAP Limited Radar Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Trident Systems Inc. (TSI) and the SAZE Technologies propose to develop algorithms to detect and characterize moving targets on the ground, to be used on SWAP-limited radar systems under development or currently in use on DoD UAV Tier II and lower airborne platforms. Trident proposes to use the Model-Aided Adaptive Processing GMTI algorithm developed by the late Dr. Howard Mendelson, which is a fully adaptive and computationally efficient algorithm that works on a single CPI and does not require training data or covariance matrix estimation. Trident will identify SWAP-limited radar systems currently in use or under development on DoD Tier II and lower UAV platforms, and perform trade studies to develop baseline algorithms that will fit within the SWAP limits. BENEFIT: Ground moving target detection and characterization algorithms have benefits and applications to military, homeland security, counter-drug, border control and law enforcement needs.

Matrix Research Inc
1300 Research Park Dr
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-8433
Errol English
AF131-141      Awarded: 8/22/2013
Title:Antenna Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Martix Research proposes to develop a new SATCOM antenna for the Wideband Gapfiller link for use aboard the Predator class UAV. The proposed antenna is a dual-band, full- duplex, mechanically scanned, array antenna that has very low loss and is much more compact than the reflector antenna that is typically used for airborne SATCOM. The typical SATCOM reflector antenna must be oversized in order to compensate for poor efficiency due to spill-over losses and feed blockage in order acheive the required gain and data rate. BENEFIT: The proposed SATCOM array antenna will acheive the same gain and data rate as a much larger reflector antenna. The new smaller array antenna will allow for replacement of the oversized SATCOM radome currently used on Perditor class UAVs with a smaller, more streamlined radome with much less aerodynamic drag. Lower drag translates directly into better fuel economy and longer flight endurance.

Nuvotronics LLC
7586 Old Peppers Ferry Loop
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 341-2333
Anatoliy Boryssenko
AF131-141      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Antenna Design in PolyStrata for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Nuvotronics approach is to create a modular array architecture made of batch fabricated micromachined electronically-scanned subarray planar aperture modules. A number of such subarray modules are then combined to form a flat or conformal array antenna aperture providing necessary antenna system to operate in the WGS uplink (20.2-21.2 GHz) and uplink (30-31 GHz) bands with corresponding circular polarization (CP) states. It is assumed to operate both uplink and downlink through the same shared aperture running in dual-band mode, while splitting both channels in the array backplane. The design modularity will make possible to install the array on a UAV while fitting different installation conditions along with other possible options for the Predator class and other types of AF and other DoD UAV platforms. The batch fabricated micromachined electronically-scanned subarray planar aperture modules, which will be used to form necessary high-gain flat or conformal apertures, will be fabricated using the PolyStrata fabrication process developed by Nuvotronics. The array backplane will provide all signal, control and power connections to the subarray modules. BENEFIT: WGS uplink (20.2-21.2 GHz) and uplink (30-31 GHz) for UAVs will be provided through a single dual-band aperture. Minimized size and weight will be achieved with benefits to payload to maximize UAV mission capabilities. Initially will be designed for the Predator class UAV and other types of AF and other DoD UAV platforms will be considered also.

ThinKom Solutions, Inc.
20000 Mariner Ave, Suite 500
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 802-4502
William Milroy
AF131-141      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:Antenna Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:ABSTRACT: US Warfighters seek high data (> 1 Mbps) satellite communications (SATCOM) with as much operational mobility as their weapon systems. This SBIR topic seeks innovative antenna designs for unmanned aerial vehicles that are robust enough to adapt to the multiple missions a Predator class (or larger) UAV may encounter in theater, are compatible with the outline and mounting (i.e.light weight and low-profile) of such aircraft, and are capable of supporting high data rate SATCOM at Ku and/or Ka-bands at both military and commercial frequencies. Under Phase I of this SBIR topic, ThinKom proposes to conduct a trade of our in-development commercial CTS and VICTS-based Ka and Ku SATCOM COTM antenna products, including the pointing and stabilization system, against the unique packaging, environmental, and system requirements of military aero UAV’s, including the link requirements associated with the Ku & Ka military & commercial bands, to define the modifications/upgrades necessary to support such aero UAV applications. Preliminary RF, mechanical, and tracking designs, and installation concepts for each system approach shall be provided so that an informed down-select can be made for a subsequent detailed design and fabrication effort to be conducted in Phase II. BENEFIT: ThinKom’s CTS and VICTS technologies have considerable SWAP advantages over ESA architectures and are much more conformal than dish-based systems. ThinKom has already realized VICTS antennas at C, X, Ku, Ka, and W bands, and has recently developed EHF VICTS antennas. ThinKom has also realized CTS flat plate antennas at X, Ku, Ka and EHF bands. Further, ThinKom, alone and in cooperation with various partners, is developing various SATCOM COTM antenna systems, including pointing and stabilization subsystems, for ground and airborne applications. Current and potential uses of both VICTS and CTS antenna technology plus the associated pointing and stabilization implementations, include affordable/high-performance satellite communication on-the-move (SOTM) as well as radar and sensor applications in both the military and commercial marketplaces.

Discovery Semiconductors, Inc.
119 Silvia Street
Ewing, NJ 08628
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 434-1311
Shubo Datta
AF131-142      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Packaging High Power Photodetectors for 100 MHz to 100 GHz RF Photonic Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Discovery Semiconductors will assemble high power InGaAs/InP photodiodes with 50 ohm internal termination in a fiber-pigtailed, W1-connectorized microwave package having the following specifications: (a) Responsivity > 0.7 A/W at 1550 nm wavelength; (b) -3 dB Bandwidth > 60 GHz; (c) -9 dB Bandwidth > 80 GHz; (d) 1 dB Compression Photocurrent > 50 mA @ 60 GHz modulation frequency and >50% modulation depth; and (e) 1 dB Compression Photocurrent Density > 0.64 mA/um^2. One packaged device will be delivered each to Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company and Air Force for system level testing. Additionally, packaging techniques for balanced and arrayed photodiodes will be investigated. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits/applications of this work are :(1) 60 GHz cellular; (2) Hybrid fiber/wireless systems from X-Band to W-Band; (3)Optical phased array radar; and (4)Space systems fiber optic transponders.

Freedom Photonics LLC
90 Arnold Place Suite D
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 277-3031
Jonathon Barton
AF131-142      Awarded: 9/16/2013
Title:Packaging of 100GHz High Power Photodiodes
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this proposed effort, Freedom Photonics is teaming up with University of Virginia to package high-speed, high power photodiodes. The Phase I effort will establish the technical and commercial foundation for the development of packaged high power 100GHz photodiodes. The Phase I effort will define the requirements, evaluation of key technical challenges, design of submounts and packages to support the program and critical hardware demonstrations and characterization aimed at establishing feasibility of the approach. BENEFIT: High speed, high power capacity linear photodiodes are expected to find application in a number of analog RF applications such as Fiber Optic Antenna Link (FOAL) Systems with antenna Remoting, RF over fiber systems, instrumentation, generation of low phase noise microwave waveforms, and radar. There is a market need for photodiodes that are simultaneously high speed 70-100GHz and can handle high photocurrent levels on the order of amps. Additionally, these applications include next generation satellite communications, airplane avionic systems, Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and other robotic platforms, missile internal communications and shipboard communications.

Phase Sensitive Innovations
51 East Main Street Suite 201
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Thomas Dillon
AF131-142      Awarded: 8/30/2013
Title:Packaging High Power Photodetectors for 100 MHz to 100 GHz RF Photonic Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this SBIR effort we will develop a packaging process and demonstrate (Phase I) a prototype of high power Photodiode (PD) that has a normal incident, pigtailed fiber input and a coaxial RF output that operates from DC to >60GHz. We will apply and extend (Phase II) the aforementioned packaging process to single PD, balanced PD and array of PDs that work from DC through entire W-band. Demand of such packaging methods and processes arose from recent progress in PDs and array of PDs based on modified uni-traveling-carrier (MUTC) thin-layered structures. The speed, bandwidth, and high power of these devices generate great interests of direct RF generation in microwave photonic system for simplification, higher gain, wider dynamic range and lower Noise Figure (NF). However, performance, especially saturation photocurrent of these PDs is critically affected by the packaging material, structure and process. Therefore, developing a reliable, efficient, cost- effective and adaptable packaging approach lies on the critical path toward optical down- conversion and direct RF generation in modern microwave photonic system. Leveraging the experiences of fabricating and packaging ultra-broadband optical and millimeter-wave components, PSI has the knowledge base and unique capabilities of accomplishing this goal. BENEFIT: The potential applications for high-frequency, high-power photodiode technology and its capabilities are vast and could have a profound impact on our society. Traditionally, photodiode is made for detection of photonic input signal based on EO effects. Today, as high frequency microwave, millimeter wave and terahertz range are rapidly explored, photodiodes, especially ones with high output power, have become critical devices and indispensable ways of photonic link demodulation or high frequency signal generation. For example, Terahertz or sub-Terahertz frequencies have proven to be a powerful tool for spectroscopic measurement of far-infrared material properties for dielectrics, semiconductors, liquids and gases, etc., since most chemical compounds show very strong frequency-dependent absorption and dispersion in this frequency range. However, generation of such high frequency signal with enough power is very challenging for practical applications. Among all the solutions, optical based methods that rely on high- frequency and high-power PDs are greatly favored due to its wide bandwidth and configurability. The similar reasons, along with potential high available output power, PDs are vastly investigated and applied for Radio-on-fiber broadband wireless communications, which is propelled by the huge increase of data volume in recent years. According to Edholm’s law, the demand for point-to-point bandwidth in wireless short-range communications has doubled every 18 months over the last 25 years. It can be predicted that

Ultra Communications Inc
990 Park Center Drive, Suite H
Vista, CA 92081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 652-0008
Joe Ahadian
AF131-142      Awarded: 8/22/2013
Title:Packaging High Power Photodetectors for 100 MHz to 100 GHz RF Photonic Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This program creates an innovative approach to packaging high-power, high-frequency photo-detectors for use in RF photonics applications. We target 5-10 Watts of power at 100 GHz operation in a traveling wave configuration. The approach matches the electrical mode profile at the detector interface to the coax mode profile. BENEFIT: This program will create components that significantly outperforming electronic counterparts and at rendering photonic technologies overwhelmingly practical for application in antenna systems.

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
William LeComte
AF131-144      Awarded: 8/23/2013
Title:Miniature Anti-Jam GPS Nulling Utility Mode (MAGNUM)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: GPS is known to be extremely vulnerable to signal interference, both unintentional and deliberate. Military navigation systems for air, sea, and ground vehicles require reliable GPS performance to provide navigation capability. Some type of GPS jamming signal mitigation technique is needed beyond conventional filter methods since these interference signals are in the GPS bands and therefore cannot be removed with traditional in-band filtering. Consequently, a cancellation method that preserves the GPS signals while eliminating the undesired interference is needed. Antenna nulling methods are a common solution for mitigating jammer signals from GPS, however many existing military platforms have limited space and power requirements that do not allow for traditional antenna nulling/beam-steering anti-jam solutions requiring considerable power and size. A SWaP optimized GPS AJ solution is required that can protect GPS on handheld radios, manpack radios, highly space-constrained UAVs, and munitions. The proposed Miniature Anti-Jam GPS Nulling Utility Module (MAGNUM) ASIC solution will leverage existing mature Mayflower ASIC technology and proven Small Antenna System (SAS) architecture into a single AJ ASIC that can be integrated into next generation military GPS receivers, or directly into a small CRPA array to support extremely space/cost constrained platforms. BENEFIT: The proposed Mayflower Miniature Anti-Jam GPS Nulling Utility Module (MAGNUM) ASIC will be a practical interference mitigation solution that offers significant benefits to improving GPS performance in hostile environments where anti-jam systems were never before possible on extremely space-constrained vehicles with limited budgets. The MAGNUM ASIC can be used in all commercial GPS receivers that need some kind of radio frequency interference (RFI) protection. The commercial market size is very large.

Nu-Trek
16955 Via Del Campo Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 477-1756
Jerry Knight
AF131-144      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Low Power Multi-Channel RF and Digital GPS Anti-Jam ASIC
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The end objective is a low power, compact unit suitable for miniaturized UAVs, small missiles and handhelds where Anti-Jam (AJ) technology is either currently unavailable or inadequate for mission success in severely jammed environments. Under the proposed effort, Nu-Trek, Inc. will team with key GPS primes and leverage our collective capabilities to develop the mixed mode RF and digital adaptive processing AJ ASIC. Nu-Trek's resulting four-channel, M-code compatible ASIC solution will deliver > 55 dB AJ removal while addressing the most aggressive integration effort ever pursued in military GPS. BENEFIT: The compact unit will target SWaP/C constrained military assets such as miniaturized UAVs, small missiles and handhelds where Anti-Jam (AJ) technology is either currently unavailable or inadequate for mission success in severely jammed environments.

RBS Technologies, LLC
2703 Sycamore Ridge Ct
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-8189
Raymond Siferd
AF131-144      Awarded: 8/20/2013
Title:Low Power Multi-Channel RF and Digital GPS Anti-Jam ASIC
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There are numerous military applications where incorporation of Anti-Jam (AJ) GPS technology has been constrained by Size Weight and Power (SWaP), including handheld systems, unmanned aerial or ground vehicles, and munitions/weapons. The essential elements for incorporating AJ capability into GPS receivers are multi-channel RF front end down conversion, analog to digital conversion (ADC), and digital AJ processing. The goal of this program is to integrate multi-channel RF front-end and Digital AJ processing circuitry onto a single ASIC and interface this device with next generation military GPS receivers. RBS Technologies has formulated a Phase I effort that will define and assess architectures for the RF front end ASIC subsystem and the AJ digital processing ASIC subsystem that when combined into a single GPS AJ ASIC will be compatible with state of the art L1/L2 GPS modernized SWaP constrained receiver technology; be capable of accepting RF inputs from a 2-element (option of 4-element) CRPA simultaneously at L1 and L2 GPS frequencies, provide at least 30dB of anti-jam protection for up to 2 (option of 3) 24MHz wide Gaussian noise interference sources; successfully pass GPS M-code signals that can be used by modernized GPS receivers for navigation; and consume less than 1 watt. BENEFIT: The development of a microelectronic chip implementation for anti-jam GPS processing that will reduce size, weight, and power by a factor of ten has a very large market for resource constrained military applications, which include handheld systems, unmanned aerial or ground vehicles, and munitions/weapons. In addition, there is significant potential market for civilian law enforcement and homeland security. The microelectronic chip implementation will also be a candidate for replacing current technology for applications where size and power is not a constraint because the microelectronic implementation will have significantly lower cost and increased reliability.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Brian Boone
AF131-145      Awarded: 7/17/2013
Title:Light Weight High Gain High Data Rate Launch Vehicle Antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The United States Air Force (USAF) has a need to upgrade communications systems on board Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV’s). Video monitoring of Launch Vehicles (LV’s) during all stages of orbit insertion provides invaluable information about the health and status of a launch platform. A modernization effort to enable improved monitoring of a LV through all stages of orbit insertion requires more capable antenna systems supporting 10- 20 Mbps data rates. Potential SATCOM data links supporting the required data rates have been identified during previous studies conducted by the United States Government. FIRST RF is partnering with an industry leader in system integration onto launch vehicles to first, perform a thorough requirements/link/systems analysis and second, complete a design of an active antenna solution which offers the required EIRP and beam agility to close the link. The proposed architecture leverages array antenna modules which have been designed for closing SATCOM links in high dynamic environments. The Phase I program will be focused on the system requirements analysis, followed by hardware prototyping of custom array modules for this application in Phase II. Hardware exists now to support higher fidelity system models which include embedded antenna performance. BENEFIT: The proposed effort to investigate potential SATCOM data link options and develop an antenna system to support enhanced telemetry and live video downlink connection from launch to end-of-mission for the nation’s EELV fleet will provide the following direct benefits: 1) Selection of data link options providing the highest value in terms of availability and performance. 2) A new antenna architecture utilizing the selected data link and meeting physical, environmental and electrical requirements. 3) An order of magnitude increase in communications bandwidth for significantly improved telemetry and video monitoring of EELV health and status. The proposed effort will also provide the following indirect benefits: 1) Reduced launch cost due to simplified CONcept of OPerations (CONOPS) 2) Increase lift mass (The enhanced communications capabilities will enable simplified flight trajectories. [no need to fly over current ground stations to maintain communications link] These simplified flight trajectories means the EELV can carry less fuel and more payload. 3) Reduced down range ground asset dependency. 4) Elimination of $100’s of millions of dollars O&M costs to support ground tracking stations which are currently necessary. 5) Renewed public interest through real time HD video of launch mission operations. This technology may also apply to commercial launch vehicles in the future.

SI2 Technologies
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5305
Thomas Goodwin
AF131-145      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Lightweight High Gain Launch Vehicle Antenna for Beyond Line-of-Sight Communications (1000-255)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) will continue its groundbreaking research in efficient wideband, low profile array design to develop high gain wide scan arrays to enable beyond line-of-sight (BLOS) SATCOM links for Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs). We will evaluate available SATCOM links and downselect the most favorable to target the array development; note, however, that SI2’s proposed array architectures are scalable to alternate frequency ranges and geometries. SI2’s low profile, conformal, highly efficient array architecture provides an ideal solution for enabling high data rate BLOS communications on an EELV. In Phase I, SI2 will survey potential SATCOM links, analyze their impact on antenna performance requirements, and downselect a specific targeted link to guide the array development. We will optimize our advanced array architectures for the targeted system requirements and EELV integration restrictions and demonstrate achievable performance via high fidelity electromagnetic simulations. We will validate our simulations and manufacturing approach via fabrication and test of a breadboard array demonstrator. In the follow-on Phase II program, SI2 will build on the Phase I effort by refining the array design and developing and fabricating a representative full scale prototype array. BENEFIT: Current EELVs have omnidirectional antennas that provide adequate gain to support required data rates when within line-of-sight (LOS) of the ground terminal, but they are not adequate for beyond line-of-sight (BLOS) phases of the launch trajectory. In order to enable the desired video monitoring of the flight, higher data rate links are necessary. There are a number of SATCOM links that could potentially provide higher data rates. High gain, wideband, wide scan coverage array antennas are needed to accommodate the large bandwidth and high data rate required to successfully use one of these SATCOM links for flight monitoring. Any proposed antenna must meet the physical limitations surrounding launch vehicle external telemetry antennas, including using the existing footprint for integration. SI2’s low profile, conformal, highly efficient array architectures provide an ideal solution for enabling BLOS communications on an EELV. In addition to the EELV platform targeted here, SI2’s low profile, wideband conformal array technology can benefit a wide variety of Air Force and DOD platforms and applications including communications, radar, and EW applications for aircraft, missile, UAS, space, and ground vehicles.

Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (OKSI)
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Nahum Gat
AF131-146      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:Space Based HyperVideo: Agile Broadband, Multi- Hyper-Spectral Imager
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We are proposing to demonstrate a spectrally agile HyperVideo sensor that can be reconfigured on the fly to produce imagery comprised of broadband, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, or any combination thereof, in the SWIR/MWIR range. Imagery will be produced at full FPA spatial resolution (e.g., MPixels) at camera frame rates. Under Phase-I, we will use models to produce high fidelity signatures of known threat targets (e.g., three stage ICBM), with various backgrounds of Earth, clouds, clear sky, etc., including hardbody and plume signatures for boost phase and ascent, and reentry vehicle signatures for midcourse. The simulations will place the sensors in typical space surveillance and tracking orbits (similar to DSP and STSS / PTSS). The M&S will be used to predict radiance signal at the sensor aperture, and establish sensor operating and performance requirements. The sensor design will serve as a basis for a sensor model to check the sensor's capabilities in detection, identification, and characterization of the targets of interest, and to establish optimal sensor operations for the targets of interest. In P-I, we will demonstrate key aspects of the sensor in the lab. In P-II, we will build and deliver a full prototype. BENEFIT: While the proposed sensor will be designed for spaceborne service, OKSI will be able to use this sensor (once completed in Phase-II) in our BMDS work supporting the Navy Aegis and GMD live missile defense tests. We already operate a series of HyperVideo-class sensors (also called snapshot hyperspectral, or 4-Dimensional Imaging Spectrometer – 4DIS) in support of live missile defense testing. The proposed sensor has major advantages compared with the present 4DIS sensors. With the permission of the Air Force, the new sensor (or a second prototype) could become a fixture in BMDS system testing on board HALO-I and ground based tracker-mounts. The sensor can also be used from ground to space (e.g., at AMOS) to improve space objects characterization. Similarly, the sensor is most appropriate for ground vehicle operations, for threat detection such as IEDs, and for the characterization of muzzle flash and gunfire detection. Examples of non-DoD applications include remote sensing for precision farming.

OPTRA, Inc
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Elizabeth Schundler
AF131-146      Awarded: 8/5/2013
Title:Compressive Hyperspectral Imager for Battlefield Event Detection from a Satellite Platform
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is seeking a hyperspectral imager capable of detecting missiles, aircraft and artillery fire from a satellite platform. OPTRA proposes to address this need through the development of a grating-based hyperspectral compressive imager. In this design, a grating would be used to diffract the incoming light from the energetic events. The diffracted orders would then be imaged onto a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD will be used to perform two distinct functions: order sorting and spatial filtering. The order sorting is accomplished by placing bandpass filters in front of two detectors: one collecting illumination from mirrors in the ¡§on¡¨ state and one collecting illumination from mirrors in the ¡§off¡¨ state. These filters will have no overlap and will span the spectral range of the instrument, thus separating spectrally distinct overlaying orders. The DMDs will also be used for spatial filtering of the incoming light. A series of detector measurements will be made as a series of pseudo-random masks are applied to the DMD. Using these measurements, the image on the DMD can be reconstructed using the tenets of compressive imaging. Advantages of this approach include no moving parts and no infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA). BENEFIT: High sensitivity (low per-pixel NEƒ´T]) owing to superior D* of single element photodetectors relative to focal plane arrays Higher dynamic range with significantly reduced problems with localized saturation Excellent uniformity with 100% ¡§pixel¡¨ operability Significantly lower cost of the single element detectors relative to an infrared focal plane arrays Commercial Applications: Unmanned aerial vehicle intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; Monitoring high crime areas for muzzle flash

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Pajo Vujkovic-Cvijin
AF131-146      Awarded: 12/20/2013
Title:Space Based Hyper-Spectral Imaging Sensor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Spectral Sciences Inc. (SSI) proposes to address the need for improved battlespace intelligence by developing the Battlespace Large Area Spectral-imaging Transient-event (BLAST) sensor, optimized for space-based target detection. BLAST is a highly efficient, fast framing, Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with high spatial and temporal resolution. The system will detect, locate and identify energetic events using their spectral fingerprints. BLAST will couple SSI’s innovative adaptive hardware sensor design with SSI’s proven algorithms for (1) HyperTemporal Imaging (HTI) target detection and (2) HSI target typing in order to locate and characterize threats on the battlefield in real time. BENEFIT: The adaptive imaging spectrometer developed in this project will address both military and commercial market needs for high-speed spectral imaging. The primary product is conceived as a long-range standoff sensor to provide advance warning based on spectral characteristics of the target. However, the prototype will also serve as the basis for a wide variety of adaptive spectral instruments operating in the visible, NIR, MWIR, and LWIR that would be used for surveillance, process control, and biomedical applications. A common imaging spectrometer core of the instrument can be used for a variety of sensor applications, subject to customization and the choice of foreoptics.

Spectrum Photonics, Inc.
2800 Woodlawn Dr., Suite 150
Honolulu, HI 96822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 748-1709
Edward Knobbe
AF131-146      Awarded: 10/18/2013
Title:Space based Hyper-Spectral Imaging Sensor
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Phase I effort will focus on a design tradeoff study to address the mission requirements and how alternate HSI sensor system designs address the requirements. These trades will include field of view and sampling rate versus target velocity within the scene, focal plane array size, number of spectral bands, spatial resolution, scanning method (e.g. Fourier Transform/scanning Fabry-Perot, Cross Dispersive Prisms, dispersive linescan) and time to capture a spectrum. The following parameters will be used as initial goals to guide the design study: spectral range of 1 - 5 microns, image size, spectral resolution (10 - 50 nm), and spectrum capture time (10 - 100 ms). The trade study will include predicted system performance. Our design trade recommendations will be developed with an objective of defining a system design capable of performing the Battlespace Awareness and Strategic Missile Warning missions at representative altitudes. The technologies for the system design will be demonstrated first as a prototype HSI system for a ground or airborne proof of concept, and ultimately as a space qualified HSI sensor for space flight test. BENEFIT: The proposed system comprises a space hosted HSI sensor for Battlespace Awareness (BA), capable of targeting dynamic events and/or energetic battlefield objects (missiles, bomb blasts, aircraft, artillery fire) via a space-based HSI surveillance system. The product hardware will be compatible with ground and/or air based proof of concept, with system attributes to be cognizant of space qualified flight issues. The sensor hardware will address only the sensor system, but be capable of integration into the larger system foreoptics.

Alpha Omega Electromagnetics, LLC
24 Cascade Road
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 626-7682
Robert Schmier
AF131-147      Awarded: 8/14/2013
Title:Affordable Sub-array for TT&C Phased Array Antennas
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Phase I SBIR research addresses an important and timely technological need, specifically the practical development and demonstration of a very low-cost, multi-frequency, multi-beam phased array subarray technology. This low-cost subarray technology is the fundamental building block required for the practical realization of a large hemispherical phased array useful for horizon-to-horizon simultaneous coverage of multi-satellite Tracking, Telemetry and Command (TT&C) systems such as that employed by the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). As demonstrated by the Geodesic Dome Phased Array Antenna (GDPAA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) effort, the success of this endeavor rests heavily upon the development of a low cost subarray architecture. Under this proposed effort, Alpha Omega Electromagnetics (AOE) will conduct both mechanical and electrical evaluations and analysis of several planar subarray architectures with the objective of developing a very low cost subarray that will provide equivalent performance to the current state-of-the-art L- and S-band subarray developed by AOE under the GDPAA ATD program and the Advanced Electronic Components for Sensor Arrays (AECSA) program. Results from this investigation will then be used to select a final candidate subarray architecture for design, fabrication and demonstration in a follow-on Phase II effort. BENEFIT: The results of this research will provide one of the critical technologies needed to support the realization of a large, hemispherical phased array antenna capable of horizon-to-horizon coverage. This array will be capable of providing multiple links to simultaneously support several control operations ranging from low altitude to geostationary satellites in different directions. The resulting subarray technology should have far reaching applications including serving as a basic building block of an ESA for the air and space traffic control as well as satellite communication. An additional application of the aperture technology developed under this SBIR will be for mobile applications where the subarray (or groups of subarrays) alone will serve as the complete functional antenna.

Auriga Measurement Systems LLC
Two Executive Drive Suite 305
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 452-7700
Cheryl Liss
AF131-148      Awarded: 8/2/2013
Title:Low cost Diplexer for High performance phased array antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Phase I tasks will produce a diplexer design for integration into full-duplex, multi-channel, S- band transmit-receive (T/R) modules for large communication phased array antennas. Design of the diplexer will include interconnection and distribution circuits for integration with active MMIC devices into the RF circuits within the T/R modules. The anticipated advantages of this approach are size, weight, and cost reductions and maximized manufacturability and reproducibility. Diplexer modeling and equivalent circuit development will be completed in Phase I. The diplexer capability will be demonstrated and evaluated in Phase II with prototype fabrication, assembly, and testing. BENEFIT: This filter and diplexer technology is applicable to military and commercial communication and radar systems for high-performance, low-cost, satellite and mobile communications.

PRINCETON MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INC
5 NAMI LANE
MERCERVILLE, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 586-8140
Sarjit S Bharj
AF131-148      Awarded: 8/16/2013
Title:Low cost Diplexer for High performance phased array antenna
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Princeton Microwave Technology [PmT] is proposing the development of compact microstrip based dual mode resonators for the the design of the low cost diplexers for the GDPAA program.Miniature dual mode resonator based diplexers, in which the main feature and advantage lies in the fact that each of the dual mode resonators can be used as a doubly resonant circuit and therefore requires half the number of resonators for an nth degree filter, resulting in a compact configuration. High selectivity is offered by this approach resulting in isolation that will exceed specification at low insertion loss. Other resonator structures, such as balanced to unbalanced , and aperture coupled resonators will also be investigated to justify the choice. The filter structures will be studied for integration with LTCC or LTCC-M technologies . It is expected that the diplexer structures will cost around one dollar in large quantity and the technology will be US based. BENEFIT: The design of the compact diplexer will be very useful for S Band commercial application. These include telephone and tower structure and band selection switches. The technology and filter synthesis can be used up to higher frequencies.

FIRST RF CORPORATION
5340 Airport Blvd.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Jacob Morton
AF131-149      Awarded: 8/8/2013
Title:GNSS Antenna Arrays for Situational Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: FIRST RF proposes a 4- and 7-element Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna (CRPA) covering the full L-band GNSS radio navigation spectrum, offering simultaneous anti-jam (A/J) and situational awareness (SA) functionality. Both the 4- and 7-element configurations are backwards compatible with ADAP/GAS-1N and GAS-1 standard military CRPA configurations, offering full GNSS coverage and the ability to geolocate signals of interest. The key to the proposed design is an antenna element which maintains vector RF pattern performance over the full frequency band and over the full field of view. Element-to-element uniformity is also maintained in terms of vector performance over frequency and angle, which is a key performance discriminator for both anti-jam nullforming as well as amplitude and phase based direction finding systems. The CRPA is compatible with NAVWAR Trinity requirements, and is suitable for aircraft, ground mobile and maritime environments. BENEFIT: The proposed technology is a one-for-one drop-in replacement of existing military CRPAs, but with full GNSS coverage. This increased capability without an increase in size or footprint, and maintaining compatibility with existing designs, avoids modifications to existing airframes and other vehicles. The cost savings is substantial. Furthermore, the ability to navigate using the radio navigation signals of all satellite services offers increased resistance to jamming in the GPS degraded or denied environment. The near term application of this technology includes the NAVWAR Trinity program for airborne platforms, as well as a number of Army initiatives aimed at improving the performance of ground-based platforms. Commercial sales are motivated by increased usage of UAVs in domestic airspace with a need for more robust, jam resistant and lower cost navigation systems. The elements demonstrated in this program can also be utilized in commercial GNSS receiver systems.

ThinKom Solutions, Inc.
20000 Mariner Ave, Suite 500
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 802-4502
William W. Milroy
AF131-149      Awarded: 8/26/2013
Title:A Wideband Selectable Omni & Directional Antenna for GNSS Situational Awareness and Anti-Jam Capability
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Situational Awareness (SA) / Direction Finding (DF), and secondarily Anti-Jam (A/J) capability for GPS/GNSS antennas on small airframes where wavelengths are comparable to size of the airframe itself present a significant challenge. Conventional Blade, Bicone, and Cavity-Back Spirals are ill-suited to these applications based on their size, weight, polarization, and/or pattern, and are generally difficult to array for DF purposes. In meeting this challenge, ThinKom proposes an innovative (yet proven) conformal ultra-wideband antenna element, named WaveTrap®. Under this new SBIR topic, ThinKom proposes to develop a Quad-input Wavetrap® that allows SA/DF to be accomplished in a single antenna, while also allowing ultra-wide bandwidths from 200MHz to 2GHz to enhance future A/J capability, and allow for a variety of others signals to be received. The Quad Wavetrap® would incorporate directive azimuth beam capability offering enhanced gain through selectable azimuth (angle-of-arrival) discrimination. BENEFIT: ThinKom’s conformal WaveTrap® antenna technology can revolutionize commercial wireless communications by consolidating and “hiding” (integrating) many antenna systems, making WaveTrap® particularly well suited for small ground vehicles, aircraft, and stationary wireless systems. WaveTrap® can act as a bridging device, access point, inter- connecting various wireless networks, such as WANs, MANs and LANs, dramatically improving connectivity assurance for various types of handheld devices, and enhancing network flexibility for many types of user devices.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Tariq A. Mujahed
AF131-149      Awarded: 8/8/2013
Title:GNSS Antenna Arrays for Situational Awareness
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) antenna arrays can be used to determine the geolocation of GNSS emitters. Knowledge of the location of these emitters will enhance the situational awareness (SA) of weapon systems and improve their effectiveness. In the proposed effort, Toyon Research Corporation proposes to design and fabricate a five-inch, five-element GNSS CRPA. Also, we will produce a five-element distributed aperture arrangement. The proposed effort will build on existing development at Toyon, in which a fourteen-inch, seven-element GNSS CRPA will be released as an off-the-shelf product by October 2013. Toyon will use direction-finding algorithms developed in-house to estimate the angle of arrival (AOA) of GNSS emitters using both simulated and measured manifold data of each array. The AOA information will be used to geolocate the GNSS emitter. BENEFIT: Toyon’s proposed Phase I SBIR effort includes a study of the geolocating performance of small CRPAs, of large CRPAs, and of a distributed aperture array. Toyon is proficient at both fabricating CRPA prototypes and implementing angle of arrival algorithms. The result of this SBIR effort will be an effective geolocating system ready for integration onto new or existing platforms. The new system will enhance the situational awareness and effectiveness of weapon systems.

AdValue Photonics Inc
3708 E. Columbia Street, Suite 100
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-5468
Shibin Jiang
AF131-150      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:Coherent Imaging Laser Source
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Coherent imaging systems have the capability to provide high-resolution 3D imagery for target identification at stand-off ranges. These systems require relatively short pulse width, transform-limited linewidth pulsed lasers with high pulse energy to illuminate the target of interest. Here we proposed to demonstrate and build near 1550nm single frequency fiber laser with pulse energy of greater than 10mJ and pulse width of 30ns to 300ns by using our innovative Er-doped glass fibers. The laser beam should have near diffraction limited beam quality to reach the desired targets and detectors. The goal of the Phase I program is to prove the proposed technical approach is realistic and achievable. BENEFIT: This proposed single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber laser can be used as innovative lidar component for wind lidar, measurements of the atmosphere and gas contents of the Earth, and ranging. It also can be used as light source for optical sensing.

Arete Associates
P.O. Box 2607
Winnetka, CA 91396
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 651-6756
Micah Boyd
AF131-150      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Coherent Imaging Laser Source
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Areté proposes a seeded Er:YAG MOPA system with narrow linewidth at 1617 nm and energy scalability surpassing program requirements. A novel seed system provides instantaneous multiple octave wavelength difference spanning for phase resolution control while eliminating strict tuning requirements. Commercially available spectrum stabilized diode lasers provide <100 kHz linewidth for injection locking a Pound-Drever-Hall servo controlled laser cavity. A 1532 nm fiber coupled pump powers the EO Q-switched ring cavity laser providing excellent beam quality and efficient thermal management. A solid state amplifier delivers pulse energies in the 10 mJ range. Identical, synchronized laser transmitters provide dual-color pulse doublets for coherent imaging of long range targets with arbitrary temporal pulse spacing. Scaling to multi-color imaging is straightforward and linear in cost and complexity. This Phase I effort is a high confidence, hardware-based demonstration of system performance with commercially available components. Areté’s approach provides a low SWaP, field worthy alternative to other architectures. BENEFIT: The concepts and hardware developed in this program have a wide range of relatively near- term military (tactical, theater and strategic) and other (surveillance/homeland security) applications. Tactical and surveillance adaptations would be the largest potential near-term markets. Our approach could be readily and cost effectively adapted to fielding of compact eyesafe laser radars and serve as high-accuracy optical trackers and target identifiers. Our approach can be used to generate high resolution 3-dimensional images of targets or fields at long stand-off distances.

nLight Photonics
5408 NE 88th Street, Bldg E
Vancouver, WA 98665
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 566-4460
Kirk Price
AF131-150      Awarded: 8/20/2013
Title:Coherent Detection Eye-Safe LIDAR Systems Based on Large Mode Area Fiber Amplifiers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: nLIGHT proposes the development of of an all-fiber, master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration that will meet the Air Force requirements for a 10 mJ, 300 ns pulsed laser source. With the exception of the output power amplifier fiber, this device will be based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. This proposal is based on an Er-doped fiber amplifier that is resonantly-pumped by highly efficient 153x nm fiber-coupled pump lasers. By utilizing novel fiber laser amplifier technologies already demonstrated and reported, nLIGHT anticipates that we will achieve > 70% optical to optical efficiency for Er-doped amplifier. The use of high efficiency 153x nm diode lasers in conjunction with highly efficient fiber coupling techniques indicates that we will be able to achieve > 40% electrical to optical power conversion of the pump laser modules. Resonant pumping of the fiber amplifier leads to a quantum defect of ~ 4.5%, simplifying thermal management of the fiber amplifier, and leading to overall electrical to optical efficiency in the range of 25%. BENEFIT: Commercial applications of this type of laser system may be used in materials processing where the eye-safe wavelength and high peak power capability of the fibers developed may provide an advantage in terms of application speed or quality. If such systems are found to be useful for industrial applications, nLIGHT will pursue commercialization of such products as an addition to their existing line of 1 µm commercial PFL products. For instance, there is substantial interest in 15xx to 19xx nm lasers for a variety of plastics welding and biomedical applications. It is expected that these high average power, high pulse energy eye-safe fiber lasers will be useful in materials processing, biomedical, and other light industrial applications.

Q Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Kevin F. Wall
AF131-150      Awarded: 8/13/2013
Title:Coherent Imaging Laser Source
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Coherent ladar sources offer advantages over their incoherent counterparts by their ability to measure the amplitude, phase, and frequency modulation of a returned signal. This enables the uses of holographic laser radar to obtain fine resolution 3D images or synthetic aperture synthesis to image through a number of small sub-apertures rather than one large monolithic aperture potentially leading to low volume conformal imaging systems. While heterodyne techniques are more sensitive than incoherent techniques, pulsed laser systems, which have high frequency fidelity and can provide a cw local oscillator, are needed. In this Phase I SBIR program, we propose to construct a novel eye-safe, coherent, laser source that can be used in innovative laser radar applications. BENEFIT: Eyesafe laser sources, emitting in the 1.45–1.70-ìm region, are used extensively within the commercial, scientific, and military communities. Applications such as communications, spectroscopy, nonlinear optics, and imaging can all benefit from the development of a new eyesafe laser source, especially in situations where the laser is propagating long distances in free space, and the potential for human exposure is high.

Etegent Technologies, LTD
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Adam Nolan
AF131-151      Awarded: 8/23/2013
Title:Speedy Sparse Bundle Adjustment for Video/Image Sequences
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Bundle adjustment is a commonly employed technique for backing out camera parameters and 3D image models from a set of images. The generic case of bundle adjustment (overlapping shots from arbitrary cameras at arbitrary locations and times) has been highly optimized, and is used to good effect in such fields as 3D reconstruction and photo tourism. However, most existing implementations stick to this generic case, forgoing potential optimizations specific to video data streams. Given a video stream, the spatiotemporal locality of frames and the relative consistency of several camera parameters can be exploited to greatly improve on the execution speed of the generic case. This effort seeks to explore several techniques to improve on the generic state of the art for video data feeds, including feature tracking rather than simple correspondence, better initial estimates of camera pose, and restructuring the algorithm into a multi-pass, guided version. Such approaches will enable better reconstruction of camera parameters for UAVs in GPS-denied airspace. BENEFIT: Support navigation in denied environments, Enable mapping of aircraft coating damage back to 3D CAD models from video data

Kitware
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Matthew Leotta
AF131-151      Awarded: 9/5/2013
Title:MAP-Tk: Motion Imagery Aerial Photogrammetry Toolkit
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Kitware proposes MAP-Tk, the open-source Motion imagery Aerial Photogrammetry Toolkit, designed for optimized sparse bundle adjustment (SBA) of FMV and WAMI. Our proposed toolkit has a highly configurable and modular design supporting interchange of existing solutions for feature detection, description, correspondence, and SBA. Each module will build on existing open source software, including VXL and OpenCV. Kitware will also provide a custom solution for each module that is optimized for aerial video. In particular, Kitware will provide a GPU accelerated feature detector and descriptor using OpenCL. Kitware will also provide a feature correspondence module that replaces pairwise frame matching with sequential tracking assisted by a dynamic search radius around each feature point. Robust homography estimation will provide geometric constraints on the matching and these same homographies will guide the search for loop closure. Our sparse bundle adjustment module will select key frames in a temporal hierarchy to significantly reduce the problem size and rapidly obtain a coarse-scale solution before interpolating and optimizing the cameras of the remaining frames. It will also reduce the problem size by limiting the number of points in the reconstruction. MAP-Tk will support both archive-mode, for maximum accuracy, and streaming-mode, for real-time operation. BENEFIT: The primary benefit of the proposed work is a solution to problem of camera calibration from motion imagery that is far faster than the existing state-of-the-art. This solution will reduce reliance of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems on inertial navigation and global positioning, which are often unreliable or unavailable. Likewise, it will have the same benefit for commercial mapping applications that rely on aerial video for mapping and 3D urban modeling. A secondary benefit of the proposed work is the open source toolkit that will be released containing all of the developed technology. The existence of this toolkit will benefit the research community, and the research community will, in turn, enhance the software at no cost to the program. The open source toolkit will also directly benefit Kitware by creating more consulting contracts surrounding the technology.

Vision Systems, Inc.
72 Water Way
Barrington, RI 02806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 965-9304
Vishal Jain
AF131-151      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:Speedy Sparse Bundle Adjustment for Video/Image Sequences
Abstract:ABSTRACT: VSI proposes a flexible sensor estimation framework for airborne calibration processing of image streams over long time periods. The components of the framework will consist of existing software and libraries. The plugin-based framework provides flexibility to switch the components easily. The core of the framework is a belief propagation engine to globally optimize the sensor parameters. The input to the approach is an image stream and its associated navigational data when available. The proposed framework is an online system wherein the sensor estimation is continuously refined as more spatial overlap is discovered. The proposed system can be dynamically tuned for either speed/efficiency or accuracy, depending on the requirements of the operator. The central tenets of the proposed approach are (i) use temporal ordering of the images to increase the computation efficiency, (ii) use spatial overlap of the images which are temporally disjoint to correct for any accumulated drift and (iii) to locally optimize the sensor parameters and use the belief propagation to globally optimize the sensor parameters for hundred thousands of images. BENEFIT: Sensor estimation capabilities for airborne image acquisition systems for Remote Sensing Applications. On-board processing capabilities for updating traffic reports.

Morton Photonics Incorporated
3301 Velvet Valley Drive
West Friendship, MD 21794
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 745-4779
Paul A. Morton
AF131-152      Awarded: 9/6/2013
Title:Ultra-Low-Noise Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) Band Hybrid-Integrated Laser
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In this program Morton Photonics will develop an Ultra-Low-Noise (ULN) Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Hybrid Integrated Laser with low cost, size, weight and power (CSWAP) for operation between 1900nm and 2200nm. The ULN-SWIR laser is based on the hybrid- integration of a high-power SWIR semiconductor gain chip and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a novel cavity arrangement. The program will focus on developing the required SWIR sub-components to produce a laser with very narrow linewidth and low Relative Intensity Noise (RIN), similar to previous devices developed by Morton Photonics at telecom wavelengths (1300nm and 1550nm). A second major focus will be in producing the hybrid- integrated laser with high output power, >100mW, in a polarization maintaining singlemode output fiber, through optimization of the SWIR gain chip, FBG and laser cavity design, and laser packaging. BENEFIT: Commercial ULN-SWIR lasers developed in this SBIR program will find major markets in DoD and commercial applications, including Laser Radar (LADAR / LIDAR) systems, spectral sensing (e.g. pollution sensing), and free space communications. The low cost, size, weight and power (CSWAP) of these devices, coupled with their high performance, are major advantages over existing SWIR lasers, including both fiber and solid state versions of Thulium and Holmium based lasers. The low CSWAP will also enable an expansion of these applications and markets by supporting lower overall system size and cost. Beyond the initial goal application, the device will find usage in both DoD and commercial markets in a range of different sensing systems, plus a potentially large market in free-space optical communication systems, taking advantage of the low linewidth and RIN of the laser source to support advanced modulation formats.

Orbits lightwave, Inc.
41 S, Chester Ave
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 513-7400
Yaakov Shevy
AF131-152      Awarded: 9/19/2013
Title:Low Noise Photonic Oscillator in Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) Band
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This is a proposal to investigate the feasibility of a high power, ultra stable, low noise and ultra narrow <30Hz linewidth and low RIN fiber laser based on a ”virtual ring” laser cavity at the 1.8-2.2 μm Short Wave IR (SWIR) range. This novel laser architecture enables traveling-wave oscillation in a compact, linear and all-fiber cavity. The traveling wave laser field eliminates “spatial hole burning”, a feat usually achieved only in a ring laser. This significantly improves the laser power, the signal-to-noise ratio, linewidth, and the side-mode suppression. In addition, the proprietary virtual ring scheme enables the addition of a narrow intra-cavity long delay “slow light” filter that increases the laser’s quality factor Q by slowing the laser light, resulting in a narrower linewidth and dramatically lower RIN. We have already commercialized “virtual ring” lasers at the 1.5 and 1.06 μm range with SBIR support, which reddened the state of the art. This proposal is to extend and improve the performance at the atmospheric window 2 micron range. BENEFIT: THis research will extend the benefits of The novel virtual ring slow light laser technology to the important atmospheric window spectrum, This has not only important application for the DoD but also for a number of gas monitoring Lidar applications. IN addition this research will improve our laser packaging technology leading to larger dissemination of our laser technology at other spectral regions.

RAM Photonics
4901 Morena Blvd. Suite 128
San Diego, CA 92117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 771-7311
John R. Marciante
AF131-152      Awarded: 9/4/2013
Title:Low-Noise, Parametric, Photonic Oscillator in Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) Band
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In contrast to the NIR band, which is supported by an infrastructure of devices developed to serve telecommunication applications, the SWIR band remains out of reach for critical defense and commercial applications. While it is relatively simple to construct a low-noise oscillator within the conventional NIR window, its equivalent requires qualitatively new physics when operated at wavelengths beyond 1700nm. As an illustration, the conventional oscillator architecture relies on a low-noise emitter, low-loss waveguides, and a sensitive receiver. Such a component complement exists in the NIR band and is well developed due to the introduction of the fiber lightwave infrastructure nearly two decades ago. Unfortunately, this technology cannot be easily mapped onto the SWIR band since gain in conventional semiconductors does not scale beyond 1800nm, receiver sensitivity falls off rapidly after 1700nm, and conventional fiber loss is greatly increased beyond 1750nm. Consequently, if a SWIR equivalent of a low-noise NIR photonic oscillator is to be successfully constructed, either new emission/reception physics must be identified or a new approach must be taken. Recognizing that new semiconductor physics is unlikely, this proposal describes a new technical path to SWIR photonic oscillators. BENEFIT: Coherent LIDAR/LADAR Transceiver Doppler-Derived IFF and Target Classification Chemical and Biological Sensing and Spectroscopic Discrimination

Qunav LLC
58 Linwood road
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(740) 541-1529
Andrey Soloviev
AF131-153      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Assured Vision Geo-location with Precise Characterization of Errors
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Qunav proposes the development of an assured vision geo-location (AVG) framework that supports accurate geo-registration and navigation while precisely characterizing their uncertainties. The framework adopts a multi-pose constrained estimation (MPCE) approach that ensures correct observability by decoupling landmark error states from motion states. Our AVG approach will support a Bayesian formulation with three methods, namely, outlier and clutter-suppression, outlier-estimation, and outlier-aware filtering. Each applies explicit modeling of non-Gaussian errors at a different level of processing. The Bayesian formulation generally involves nonlinear and non-Gaussian models that does not admit a closed form solution and as such will be implemented using a marginalized particle filter as an alternative to the extended Kalman filter. The main goal of Phase I is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the proposed AVG solution. The Phase I development of observability-consistent and outlier-aware vision-based estimation methods will be focused on four main areas: 1) Modification of the MPCE method to address the observability issue and optimize performance; 2) Development and characterization of outlier/clutter detection and removal procedures for reliable estimation; 3) Development of methods for explicit modeling and estimation of measurement outliers; and, 4) Definition of performance metrics that faithfully characterize estimation errors and uncertainty reduction. BENEFIT: Phase I development will create a foundation for prototyping and transitioning of the technological approach for assured vision geo-location (AVG) with precise estimation of geo-location uncertainty. Successful accomplishment of Phase I tasks will enable to a) develop and verify all main algorithmic system components of the AVG framework; and, b) demonstrate the technical feasibility through extensive simulations and initial experimental validations. These anticipated results will ensure that a strong foundation is created for real- time technology demonstration during Phase II. The proposed AVG framework has a significant potential for both military and commercial applications. Example DOD applications include GPS-denied surveillance and reconnaissance missions where geo-location of objects of interests must be supplemented with estimated error bounds and estimation confidence levels. From the prospective of private sector, the largest commercialization potential will be achieved by transitioning the

Systems & Technology Research
400 West Cummings Park, Suite 5850
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 503-3302
Mark Keck
AF131-153      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Precise Estimation of Geo-location Uncertainty
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Algorithms that perform accurate geo-registration of imagery captured from an aerial platform are becoming prevalent in the surveillance community. A universal shortcoming of these algorithms is their inability to provide an accurate estimate of the uncertainty of the solution. In this proposal we describe a solution for geo-registration based around the popular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) approach. This solution includes a graphical model that captures the complex relationships between the input observations (2D keypoints extracted from the imagery and tracked frame-to-frame) and the hidden variables that are being estimated (the poses of the platform at each frame). The model also provides an explicit representation for the uncertainty in the poses of the aircraft and directly characterizes the noisy input observations as inliers or outliers. This model is combined with an efficient inference procedure that is able to overcome some inherent challenges to the problem, namely that the poses of the aircraft are not Euclidean (and therefore nontrivial to model) and the combinatorial nature of labeling each input as an inlier/outlier. We provide an outline for experiments on real and synthetic data and metrics to validate the accuracy of the uncertainty estimates from the algorithm. BENEFIT: The military currently employs geo-registration algorithms in a number of application areas (e.g. image-based navigation, targeting, situational awareness). Accurate uncertainty characterization in solutions from geo-registration algorithms will provide a measure of confidence in the result, and enables principled fusion of the resulting solution with measurements from other sensors/algorithms. This has direct impact on image-based navigation, as mentioned above, where the geo-registration solution could be used to aid the system in GPS-denied environments. Because the approach is an extension to the SLAM algorithm, it has direct commercial application to virtually any autonomous robotic deployment scenario, like emergency search and rescue and remote exploration.

UtopiaCompression, Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Huili Yu
AF131-153      Awarded: 8/20/2013
Title:Accurate Uncertainty Estimation for Computer Vision Based Geo-location
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As vision systems are continuously increasing their quantity and capabilities for capturing aerial imagery, they have widely integrated in autonomous systems to determine the geo- location of objects. The vision-based geo-location systems have found their applications in many aspects, such as environment real time monitoring, search and rescue, reconnaissance missions, and situational awareness. One of the key challenges in the vision-based geo-location systems is to accurately estimate the geo-locations of objects. Since no geo-registration algorithm provides a perfect solution, it is essential that the geo- location systems return accurate estimates of geo-location uncertainties. Accordingly, a precise uncertainty estimation when computer vision algorithms are used in the geo-location process. should be thoroughly studied. UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC), leveraging its unique capabilities and expertise in computer vision, control and estimation, and path planning and mapping, proposes an innovative algorithmic prototype for accurately estimating uncertainty of the vision-based geo-location process. The proposed approach sequentially analyzes the uncertainties for each step of an image-to-map geo-location algorithm and fuses the uncertainties into a final accurate uncertainty estimate of geo- location. A successful feasibility study during Phase I will demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can provide accurate estimates of geo-location uncertainties, thereby corroborating its potential efficacy. BENEFIT: In support of autonomous systems in accurately geo-locating objects using computer vision algorithms, the proposed technology will compute a precise uncertainty estimation for the vision-based geo-location systems. Accurate characterization of geo-location uncertainty will enable deployment of computer vision technique within the military and civilian applications. Within the commercial domain, the key technology areas and related applications that can potentially benefit from the proposed technology include monitoring in shipboard environments using UAVs, civilian search and rescue, reconnaissance missions in contaminated area, and situational awareness of battlefield. All of these applications will benefit from accurate characterization of geo-location uncertainty. UC has identified numerous product opportunities within the US Military modernization effort centering on implementing C4ISR (Command, Control, Computers, Communication, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) technologies. ISR spending in the next decade is estimated at $15 billion, and depends largely on the stable and accurate navigation of reconnaissance, monitoring, recording and communication devices – increasingly unmanned robotic or other UAV devices- which would immediately benefit from UC’s

3 Degrees of Separation
444 E. Second St.
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 285-4815
Joshua Whiting
AF131-158      Awarded: 7/31/2013
Title:Cetane Sensor for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Propulsion Systems that Operate on Heavy Fuel
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Cetane numbers for individual fuel components have been extensively tabulated To determine the Cetane number of the resulting fuel blend, algorithmic models have been developed that provide accuracy on a par with standard lab-based cetane tests. Utilizing comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to provide an rapid extensive analysis of the fuel will allow the use of these tables and algorithms to calculate cetane numbers for the fuel in remotely piloted aircraft. Typical commercial GCxGC instrumentation is too large to be appropriate for this application, however the use of microfabricated components allows us to reduce the size and power requirements of these instruments by several orders of magnitude. During Phase 1 we propose to develop a method to analyze the cetane number using a microfabricated GCXGC system with nanofabricated NEMS resonators for detection, optimize an algorithm for cetane number calculation, and demonstrate the system in a benchtop scale system. BENEFIT: The development of a method for rapid cetane number determination in a small portable package offers a technology valuable not only to military customers but also civilian petrochemical refiners, and distributers.

Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Subir Roychoudhury
AF131-158      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Ultra Compact, Lightweight, Fast Response Cetane Sensor for Heavy Fuels
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a novel, ultra-compact cetane sensor to analyze fuels in real time. The sensor will be capable of determining the cetane number of logistic fuels used for small remote piloted aircraft engines. In Phase I, PCI will perform testing with different fuels in a breadboard environment to demonstrate the concept. The concept is based on a novel modification and miniaturization of well-established cetane measurement techniques. In addition, validation of the sensor and developing a path for packaging and integrating with the engine will be performed at TRL 4. In Phase II, PCI will further develop and demonstrate a prototype cetane sensor package including all electronics and balance of plant to TRL 6. The Phase II prototype will be a standalone component capable of determining Cetane number and displaying it on a readout or communicated directly to the Remotely Piloted Aircraft Engine Control Unit. BENEFIT: The cetane sensor technology will be for Air Force RPA engine applications to enable use of various fuels in RPA engines. Follow-on military markets to be explored include Army, Navy and Marine Corps unmanned system engine applications, tactical genset engines and truck engines. Success in military markets will lead to cost reductions as volume increases, thus enabling penetration of commercial markets such as auto and truck engines.

Yellowstone Scientific Instruments
3065 Crow King Road PO Box 160183
Big Sky, MT 59716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 995-2535
Richard Clarke
AF131-158      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Cetane Sensor for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Propulsion Systems that Operate on Heavy Fuel
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop a lightweight, compact Cetane sensor interfaced to a fiberoptic probe immersed in the RPA fuel tank to continuously measure, update and report Cetane number to the engine electronics for control of engine settings for RPA internal combustion engines (ICE) operating on heavy fuels. The sensor will be based on laser light scattering and will be made small and light enough to be part of the RPA system, able to make real time calculations of the Cetane number of the fuel being utilized. BENEFIT: Success of both Phases of the SBIR program would move the Company rapidly toward the development of a device for jet fuel analysis in the field designed both for commercial markets and for meeting the Air Force specifications for use in the RPA environment.

Area I, Inc
1590 N Roberts Rd Suite 203
Kennesaw, GA 30144
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 594-5227
Daniel Kuehme
AF131-159      Awarded: 6/12/2013
Title:Development of an Integrated Multi-mode Propulsion system for UAS Leveraging Speed and Endurance (IMPULSE)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Area-I proposes to develop an Integrated Multi-mode Propulsion system for UAS Leveraging Speed and Endurance (IMPULSE) to provide a paradigm shift in the performance of small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS). The development of IMPULSE will lead to a state-of- the-art, high-energy-density power system that is cruise efficient for extended endurance, yet provides high power-density required for rapid response dash capabilities. The Phase I IMPULSE program will entail an extensive trade study of existing, emerging, and hybrid advanced power systems, which will assess their ability to perform the mission set forth in the solicitation. The program will begin with an exhaustive evaluation and down-selection of potential power systems, and will end with extensive high-fidelity simulation of combined power system, propulsion system, and airframe models. The Phase I program will result in a ranked evaluation of potential system feasibility and provide a description of the path forward for further development. The team will recommend a system to be further evaluated through bench-testing and wind-tunnel testing during a Phase II program. BENEFIT: Identification and development of feasible power system technology to meet the performance specifications for long endurance and fast dash has great potential to change the way Group 2 SUAS are used in theater and in civilian use. The added capabilities could significantly reduce life-cycle costs of the system, and bringing rapid response ability to smaller, Group 2 SUAS, as opposed to larger, more expensive platforms, could greatly reduce the overall logistical footprint of the fleet. In light of the potential performance increases the identified power systems may bring, Area-I has already garnered support from industry leaders for future integration of the IMPULSE with currently fielded SUAS leading to the possibility of Phase III funding. Additionally, through a strategic partnership with a leading power system developer, Area-I has the ability build and bench-test prototypes and access to wind-tunnel testing facilities. Finally, Area-I’s extensive flight testing support capabilities enable the entire development cycle from concept through to flight proven technology.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
David M. Sykes
AF131-159      Awarded: 6/12/2013
Title:Development of a Series Hybrid Propulsion System Using Heavy Fuels
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this SBIR topic is to develop a hybrid electric propulsion system to support a Rapid Response Small SUAS (< 30lb) capability. This requires fast dash (>150mph) while maintaining extended endurance (>15 hrs) on station and low acoustic noise operation. Full details of the requirements are provided in the solicitation. These UAVs use combustion engines for propulsion and often carry a payload specific to their mission. Currently however, these propulsion systems must be sized for take-off power and are therefore oversized and less efficient for part-load cruise conditions. The proposed engine has much greater efficiency, when compared to a turbine engine, so to reduce overall take-off weight (of engine and fuel) for a 15-25 hour endurance. Furthermore, Mainstream’s patent-pending design that integrates the electrical and mechanical systems also reduces the size of the generator and provides far greater motor starting torque, whenever low-temperature starting is required. MEC is uniquely qualified for this type of work with years of experience in energy conversion and the development of lightweight engines, permanent magnet motor/alternators, and power electronics. In phase I, MEC will also construct and test a bench-top, proof-of-concept hybrid system to confirm simulated component efficiency and fuel savings. BENEFIT: The Phase I effort will provide the proof-of-concept needed by the Air Force and Mainstream to decide whether or not the product is technically and commercially viable. The system-level modeling in Phase I will provide a clear picture of the benefits in terms of flight endurance and operational capability (i.e., silent mode endurance) of the proposed hybrid drivetrain. The engine, alternator, and charge management system will be designed in Phase I. The value proposition for the electric propulsion product is a significant increase in operational capabilities for small UAVs, namely increased flight endurance and the capability for silent mode operation. MEC’s approach is composed of several components that have a high likelihood of being commercialized: 1) a heavy-fuel, high power-density engine, 2) a power dense alternator, 3) a power converter, and 4) a power management system.

Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Hooshang Heshmat
AF131-159      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Innovative Hybrid Power System for Increased Endurance Rapid Response Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MiTi and its subcontractor are proposing an innovative integrated and low logistics footprint fueled hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and mesoscopic gas turbine engine generator (GTG) system with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies to 65%. The ultra-high speeds of the oil- free mesoscopic GTG with novel foil bearings and the high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of SOFCs will result in a small, lightweight oil-free hybrid power system with increased system efficiency and power for longer duration missions, higher speeds and larger electrical loads. Taking advantage of existing aerospace and industrial fuel cell technology, and MiTi's mesoscopic turbomachinery experience, the proposed 9-month program will conduct design studies to balance the power demand between fuel cell and GTG to establish a hybrid configuration able to meet the specified mass, loiter and dash requirements. Overall subsystem performance predictions will be made and compared to existing fuel cell and turbogenerator subsystem data. The overall hybrid system configuration concept will be established and a detailed preliminary design for GTG subsystem including compressor and turbine impeller mean line analysis will be completed. Phase II hardware and testing plans will be prepared. BENEFIT: The hybrid SOFC/GTG power system is specifically intended for military application and in particular is intended for the family of SUASs used for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), target tracking and acquisition. Development of a wide variety of small, lightweight power systems will initially support military missions. Subsequent commercial applications include border patrol and search and rescue for emergency responders. The technology will also support portable remote power system needs that may have variable load demands.

UltraCell LLC
399 Lindbergh Avenue
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 455-9400
Ian Kaye
AF131-159      Awarded: 8/26/2013
Title:RIPPED UAV - Renewable Integrated Propulsion Power Electric Delivery for UAV's
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose a fuel cell / battery hybrid powered UAV, designed from the get go with electric power propulsion and controls. A unique fuel cell composed of a high temperature PEM with a JP8 reformer will provide cruise power and trickle charging to the batteries. Batteries will provide surge power to arrive on station in 2-3 minutes after initiation. The fuel cell will startup during the flight and take over power supply. The fuel cell will supply trickle power to the battery so that dash capability is retained. BENEFIT: Since this UAV will be fueled by JP8, logistics concerns will be alleviated and rapid refueling will be possible. An additional benefit is that as the aircraft consumes fuel, its gross weight will reduce thereby further increasing range. The RIPPED UAV will eventually find a foothold in the industrial surveillance market as well as in law enforcement and border protection. Compared to traditional battery powered UAV, RIPPED will have ~4X the mission duration. Ultimately, the hybrid power module could be adapted for other markets and applications such as APU in the industrial and leisure markets.

Acumentrics
20 Southwest Park
Westwood, MA 02090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 461-8251
Daniel Danila
AF131-160      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Advanced Propulsion and Power Concepts for Large Size Class Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: A hybrid tubular SOFC/gas turbine power system is proposed to increase the endurance of UAS and RPA. The work to be performed in the five tasks within the 9 month Phase I effort is described in detail in the full proposal. The applicable aircraft and system requirements will be identified. A preliminary SOFC combustor will be designed and a bench-top parameters will be tested. The test results will be used to develop an overall propulsion system efficiency model and estimate endurance. Plans for Phases II and III will be developed based on the Phase I accomplishments. BENEFIT: The work to be performed can be applied commercially in the fields of aerospace propulsion of UAS, and aerospace APU. Other applications include land based mobile propulsion systems, APU’s for portable power, and automotive electric power units. In general the proposed hybrid could benefit a large number of applications where a high system energy density is required. The SOFC/GT combustor hybrid could also be of interest in low emission applications.

Engine Research Associates, Inc.
12108 Burning Tree Rd.
Fort Wayne, IN 46845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(260) 338-1010
Jeffery L. Erickson
AF131-160      Awarded: 7/29/2013
Title:Advanced Propulsion and Power Concepts for Large Size Class Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Desired tactical requirements for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) exceed current capabilities for performance, reliability, maintainability, cost and supportability. Mission requirements such as extended endurance, increased power for auxiliary/sensor systems, and low altitude, low speed maneuverability are becoming paramount, specifically, in the 10,000 lb class of vehicles. These desired capabilities are not currently optimized with present engine-based propulsion systems. Engine Research Associates, Inc. (ERA) developed and manufactures the Migrating Combustion Chamber (MCC) internal combustion engine, which has the potential to be the next generation quiet, reliable, low weight heavy fuel engines that will meet the desired next generation UAV mission requirements. It operates on a new cycle of operation that offers a very quiet and cool exhaust (without the need for a muffler), high efficiency, low vibration, reduced weight, low manufacturing costs and is simple to service. The MCC engine is scalable from 0.4 HP to well over 1,100 HP. The overall objective of ERA's proposed Phase I development program is to establish a baseline approach for a 1,100 HP MCC heavy fuel engine system integrated with an advanced high power density 70 kW generator to meet the desired mission requirements. This will be established by modeling and empirical analysis. BENEFIT: The overall DoD and commercial market need for such an advanced MCC engine (and high power density generator system); although hard to estimate, is considered to be substantial in supporting the next generation UAS missions and filling various enhanced commercial market needs. The direct benefit of this development would be the next generation of high power-to-weight, quiet, compact, heavy fuel engine - generator systems for various military markets. Such a system does not presently exist in the military or commercial market place. Typical key markets include UASs, various marine applications, large back-up power systems and various vehicles that desire a smooth, quiet and light weight 1,100+ HP heavy fuel engine. Variants of this MCC engine configuration would also provide the capability to operate on other fuels such as gasoline, biofuels, propane and natural gas which will create additional commercial opportunities. There is also a large demand for this type of engine system in other Federal and State Agency applications such as law enforcement, Homeland Security, emergency service, RPA performing intelligence, surveillance, search and rescue, and disaster relief missions. In the international market diesel fuel may be the only fuel available and could cost substantially less than gasoline. There is a great demand for diesel engines in many countries and this will be a growing market in the future.

GSE, Inc.
1069 Industrial Ave
South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 541-0763
Greg Stevenson
AF131-160      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:Advanced Propulsion and Power Concepts for Large Size Class Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal outlines an innovative parallel hybrid compound differential drive system with infinite variable speed inputs from either the internal combustion/heavy fuel engine (IC/HFE) or the high speed permanent magnet motor (PMM). This variable speed input optimizes propulsion system performance and efficiency. This approach delivers nearly double the peak takeoff/climb power of electrically compounded superchargers and/or PMM direct power (contributing up to 30% of the input power). An innovative direct injected/heterogenous charged IC/HFE with a brake thermal efficiency approaching 50% and the variable compression valves that increase the CI/HFE expansion ratio and efficiency while reducing exhaust energy below propeller noise. The compound differential transmission allows remote, low torque soft/start cabability. Reliability and maintainability are vastly improved using a robust high-speed, multi-fuel combustion system capable of stable operation on JP- 8/DF-2 fuels (with the added safety and redundancy inherent with twin pack parallel hybrid propulsion). A hybrid fuel cell assisted battery pack, thermal electric waste heat exhaust recovery, and integrated photo voltaic solar panels are potential sources of supplemental power to extend the electrical energy supply essential to meeting the 24 hour duration program goal. BENEFIT: Maximum hybrid core engine power densities below 1lb/hp. - Double the peak takeoff power by electrically assisted supercharging and/or direct 50% power contribution from the brushless PM motor. - Extended S-UAS range and endurance from an efficient direct injected heterogenous charge combustion system capable lean burn/part load operation on logistically available JP-8/DF-2 fuels. - A reliable means of remote starting through a variable speed differential gear system. - Low noise propulsor for covert missions. Commercial Benefits: - Lightweight, multi-fuel hybrid propulsion system suitable for all aspects of ground, marine, and aviation segments in need of improved proulsion system efficiency.

Peregrine Turbine Technologies, LLC
96 Chewonki Neck Rd
Wiscasset, ME 04578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 592-7771
David S. Stapp
AF131-160      Awarded: 8/8/2013
Title:A Novel Advanced Propulsion System for Large Class Unmanned Aerial Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The steadily rising cost of fossil fuels together with a heightened sensitivity to emissions has created a new backdrop against which the performance of traditional aircraft powerplant technology is no longer acceptable. Thermal efficiencies of current offerings hovering around 30% and below indicate that even modern turbine/turboprop engines are ready for game changing improvements. The Peregrine Turbine engine is just such an engine. With thermal efficiencies in excess of 50% possible, it is now within reach to reduce fuel burn for a given mission by over 50%. Historical improvements in aircraft powerplant efficiency have centered on improvements in aerodynamics of turbine components together with material capability enhancements that have enabled steadily increasing turbine inlet temperatures. The Peregrine Turbine makes use of an entirely new innovative thermodynamic cycle that effectively converts what would otherwise be rejected heat into more useful work to drive a fan, prop, or generator. The Peregrine Turbine not only incorporates both reduced turbine inlet temperatures for significant reductions in CO and NOx emissions, it also has a greatly reduced exhaust gas temperature and the attendant reduced heat signatures which is of tactical significance to modern weapons systems. BENEFIT: The reduced fuel burn made possible by the Peregrine Turbine will not only reduce direct operating costs but also reduce support logistics requirements for fielded weapons systems. The Peregrine Turbine is not limited to aircraft applications but may be employed wherever fuel efficiency and low emissions are desired. Peregine Turbine Technologies intends to develop application-specific prototypes for markets that include not only commercial aircraft applications but also power generation, naval propulsion, non-aero military applications such as tank drives, oil and gas industry, railway propulsion, construction equipment, eighteen wheeler drives and automotive powerplants

Spytek Aerospace Corporation
450 Frontier Way, Unit D
Bensenville, IL 60106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 595-9133
Christopher J. Spytek
AF131-160      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Multi-ITB-Turbo Fan for Advanced Propulsion and Power Concepts for Large Size Class Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), Equipped with Variable Turbine
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is an urgent Air Force need for an advanced cycle turbo-fan for UAV applications. Spytek Aerospace proposes a 2-ITB, 500 LBT turbo-fan engine equipped with ITB driven fan capable of running a generator, thru a second ITB in variable modes for additional power on demand and at high altitude. Northrop Grumman has indicated significant interest for a flexible high performance, turbo-fan for possible use on to be specified programs capable of generating power at high altitude. The Spytek configuration would provide a power demand capability of 30% over engine baseline. Spytek’s FI-304/ITB engine, equipped with variable burner flow control and variable turbine, addresses issues of power on demand generation at high altitude using the ITB coupled with selective flow control . High power density ITB equipped gas turbine engines are capable of providing power on demand using an additional combustor between HP and LP turbine stages. The key advantages of an ITB equipped gas turbine engine include ITB operations with capability to vary T4.5 allow for constant speed to be maintained over a wide range of power. The complete hybrid capable, multi-ITB turbo-fan has specific design features for optimizing use at high altitude, which are currently not available through other manufacturers. BENEFIT: The ITB-Turbo Fan concept will provide a higher density gas turbine engine capable of hybrid operations by being able to generate significant electric power and operate with increased power at high and low altitudes.

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Ponnuthurai Gokulakrishnan
AF131-161      Awarded: 8/22/2013
Title:Improved Reaction Models for Petroleum and Alternative JP-5/8 Fuels
Abstract:ABSTRACT: In recent years, diversification of energy dependence on foreign oil has attracted the use of alternative fuels such as the Fischer-Tropsch jet fuels and hydro-treated renewable jet fuels. However, there are combustion stability issues with alternative fuels in the aircraft engines including augmentors. In addition, the U.S. military has been using JP-8 as the single battle field fuel to power both diesel engines and generators for electricity. However, operating compression ignition engines with JP-8 have encountered various technical and performance related issues. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of chemical and physical properties of JP-8 and alternative fuels on combustion at conditions relevant to augmentors and diesel engines. Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc. (CSE) has developed a detailed surrogate kinetic mechanism to model the combustion characteristics of jet fuels including alternative fuels. In the current work, CSE will acquire new experimental data at low pressure augmentor conditions as well as high pressure diesel engines conditions with jet fuel and it surrogate components. These experimental data will be used to improve and validate the CSE surrogate kinetic mechanism for wide range of conditions including augmentors and diesel engines with vitiation. BENEFIT: The ultimate result of this research will be a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that can be used for predicting combustion properties of petroleum-based jet fuels as well alternative fuels. CSE has developed a four-component surrogate kinetic model for augmentor conditions with vitiation in an earlier SBIR. This model will be improved and validated against the experimental data obtained in the current work at low pressure augmentor conditions as well as high pressure diesel engines conditions. This detailed surrogate mechanism will benefits U.S. Military to evaluate the combustion properties of various jet fuels where experimental data are not available. In addition the detail kinetic model that will be developed in this work will be incorporated into the rkmGen software, which has been under development through an Air Force funded SBIR with CSE. rkmGen is a GUI- driven chemical kinetic software that can be used for various chemical kinetic computations including the development of reduced kinetic models. Therefore, outcome of this work will benefits the OEMs as well as CFD users and vendors.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Paul Yelvington
AF131-161      Awarded: 8/16/2013
Title:Improved Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Jet Fuels in Vitiated Air
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The demand for increased thrust from gas turbine engines, while simultaneously reducing engine size and weight, has lead to real challenges for the design of robust augmentors and interturbine burners (ITBs). Reactive flow simulations of augmentors and ITBs can be used to speed the design cycle of next-generation turbine engines. However, in order for these simulations to be truly predictive, accurate chemical-kinetic models of JP-5/8 surrogate combustion are needed. Existing models have limited predictive capability, especially at vitiated conditions, due to the scarcity of experimental data and the laborious nature of building models by hand. Even less is known about the combustion of alternative, synthetic jet fuels under these conditions. The proposed effort will use computer-aided mechanism generation to construct detailed chemical-kinetic models for JP-8 surrogate compounds at conditions relevant to augmentors and ITBs. Building kinetic models via computer uses only well-defined algorithms, rate rules, and data sets; the process is less error-prone and more systematic than building models by hand. Phase I will result in a detailed reaction model including rigorous statistical validation testing and uncertainty analysis. Phase II will result in a comprehensive, validated full model and reduced models appropriate for multidimensional CFD. BENEFIT: Accurate chemical-kinetic models for petroleum-derived and alternative jet fuel combustion in vitiated air would speed the development of next-generation augmentors and ITBs. This effort would complement the AFOSR Multi University Research Initiative (MURI) to develop JP-8 surrogate kinetic models at combustor conditions. We would work closely with MURI participants to produce a combined model that is valid for a wide range of conditions. This model could also be used in simulations of military diesel engines, particularly engines using exhaust gas recycle (EGR) for NOx emissions reduction.

AeroDynamic Solutions Inc
339 Mullin Court
Pleasanton, CA 94566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 202-2013
Ron-Ho Ni
AF131-162      Awarded: 8/19/2013
Title:Improved Fidelity Predictions for Resonant Stress in Turbine Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this SBIR is to deliver an improved physics-based design system for turbine component durability by providing a means to predict aerodynamic forcing and aerodynamic damping in relevant geometries via a single high fidelity calculation. A nine-month, four- phase work plan is proposed to develop the capability for the solver Code Leo and demonstrate its use in turbine component design. Specifically, a non-linear harmonic balance analysis method coupled with an advanced transpiration boundary condition is proposed for aerodynamic damping prediction, which we believe will enable designers to gain both accuracy and speed. This capability will be validated against an existing turbine geometry and then used to modify that geometry for resonant stress reduction. During Phase I, attention will also be given to the formulation of a structural solver for Code Leo to enable fully coupled fluid/structure computations as part of Phase II. Discussions with gas turbine manufacturers indicate strong support for this type of capability for high cycle fatigue and flutter prediction. Williams International is especially interested and has provided AeroDynamic Solutions a Letter of Support for this proposal. BENEFIT: The proposed system will improve the ability for commercial and military engine manufacturers to anticipate and mitigate resonant stress-related issues during design, resulting in lower incidence of fatigue failure and improved aircraft life cycle costs. For aircraft and hovercraft engines (Air Force, NASA), the system could be used to address durability challenges common in fan and low pressure turbine designs. The system is may also be applied equally as effectivly to other sectors of the turbomachinery market, such as industrial gas turbines (HCF), automotive turbochargers (HCF) and wind turbines (flutter).

D&P LLC
3409 N. 42nd Pl.
Phoenix, AZ 85018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 518-0981
Lei Tang
AF131-162      Awarded: 8/15/2013
Title:A Tool to Improve the Prediction of Resonant Stress in Turbine Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This SBIR project proposes to develop a computational aeroelasticity tool for improving the prediction of both aerodynamic forcing and aerodynamic damping and thereby resonant stresses in turbine components. This will be achieved by developing an interface between our CFD software, FlowSimulatorTM, and a commercially available FEM software, ANSYS. The validity of this computational aeroelastic approach for accurate prediction of resonant stresses in turbine components will be demonstrated with the measured unsteady pressures on the blade surface and vibratory strains for the TFE731 turbine case. BENEFIT: Design engineers in engine manufacturers like Honeywell Engines, GE Engines, Pratt Whitney, and Rolls-Royce can use the developed tool for turbine design and analysis. Design engineers in GE Energy, Vestas, etc. can use the developed tool for wind turbine design.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF131-162      Awarded: 8/19/2013
Title:Prediction and Avoidance of Turbine Blade Fatigue Using a Fluid/Thermal/Structure Interaction Methodology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The drive to increase turbine inlet temperature and overall pressure ratio as well as to reduce turbine weight has led to increases in aerodynamic/thermal loads that can induce flutter and resonance in blades responsible for structural fatigue. In the past, analyses of the unsteady flows that could excite structural failure modes were performed over an array of aerodynamic conditions that encompassed likely disturbance frequencies and inter-blade phase of blade vibrations to obtain a measure of the structural damping response. However, the prescription of vibration modes, non-deforming blades, and lack of circumferential non- uniformities in geometry and thermal effects limited their accuracy. With advances in computer speed, automation, parallelization, and numerical techniques, a direct coupled approach to resonant stress/fatigue analysis is now possible. Our approach is to compute the coupled unsteady fluid, thermal, and structural fields simultaneously at points along the engine operation line and at design and off-design conditions. Airfoils are allowed to deflect under the aerodynamic and thermal loads and can include the effects of thermal coatings as well as film-cooling. The simulations will produce stress and deflection fields as well as a measure of aerodynamic damping that can be used during design to reduce or avoid structural fatigue. BENEFIT: The commercial products foreseen from this SBIR program are physics based analytical tools which would be valuable in providing a means to predict both aerodynamic forcing and aerodynamic damping in relevant geometries via a single high-fidelity calculation. These will help improving the physics-based design systems for turbine-component durability. The proposed analytical and numerical tools are applicable to commercial and military engine manufacturers in order to design airfoils for advanced demonstrator engines. If they are adopted as a standard procedure they could result in reducing the life-cycle costs. The deliverable system at the end of phase II will include software package, experimental database, and comprehensive operating procedures.

DynaTech Engineering, Inc.
1830 Sierra Gardens Drive Suite 30
Roseville, CA 95661
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 783-2400
Lyn M. Greenhill
AF131-163      Awarded: 8/22/2013
Title:Improved Rolling Element Bearing Thermal and Life Prediction with Validation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To provide improved life prediction estimates for rolling element bearings used in gas turbines and general rotating machinery, an update to the lubricant traction, heat generation, and life calculation methodology currently incorporated in a commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) analysis program is proposed. Existing analysis tools are based on correlations and algorithms that have not been updated in more than two decades and are not capable of accurately predicting the life of bearings using new materials such as Pyrowear 675, M50 NiL, and ceramic rolling elements. In this Phase I project, updates to traction, heat generation, and fatigue life calculations in the COTS program SHABERTH are proposed. Starting from a comprehensive review of recent technical literature, new algorithms and characterizations will be incorporated into a single bearing version of SHABERTH. The updated code will be tested against both published bearing life data and proprietary information provided from a gas turbine company. Results from the comparisons will determine the best methods to improve life prediction accuracy. The Phase I project will also create a prototype graphical user interface for a modern, fully integrated, platform independent rolling element bearing analysis tool based on the fundamental SHABERTH methodology enhanced by the new life prediction techniques. BENEFIT: Essentially all detailed rolling element bearing analysis programs are based on work that is several decades old and targeted for use on mainframe computers. A modern, updated, and user friendly microcomputer based analysis tool that can accurately predict fatigue life would have widespread application in both military and commercial rotating machinery.

Pradeep K Gupta Inc
117 Southbury Road
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 383-1167
Pradeep K. Gupta
AF131-163      Awarded: 8/12/2013
Title:Bearing Analytical Software Development and Validation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed research focuses on a generalized formulation and an integrated implementation of bearing life and heat generation models. Since the internal bearing geometry changes with temperature, mechanical stresses, contributing to fatigue, are intricately coupled with thermal effects. Therefore, a realistic simulation of bearing performance requires innovative numerical techniques to integrate the very small mechanical time scales with the large characteristic times corresponding to thermal transients. In the proposed Phase I effort, the updated life models will be validated against experimental data. Additionally, the elastohydrodynamic traction models, which along with heat generation, are key contributors to the stability of bearing element motion, will be updated for both Newtonian and visco-elastic effects. Finally, preliminary bearing performance simulations in a typical turbine engine operating environment will demonstrate technical feasibility of the modeling approach and showcase expected improvements over the current state-of-the-art models. Phase II will feature a significantly more rigorous development and validation of thermal models for both steady-state and transient effects, the formulation and implementation of experimentally validated churning and drag models, an expansion of the traction and material properties databases, and the development of an interactive user interface to effectively apply the models to practical applications. BENEFIT: 1. Generalized formulation with all model coefficients under user control provides an effective vehicle to continually update the models as the materials and manufacturing technologies advance. In addition, bearings with multiple materials, such as hybrid ceramic bearings can be readily modeled. 2. Integration of mechanical and thermal interactions provides a greatly improved simulation of bearing life and overall dynamic performance. 3. Update to lubrication traction models, along with integrated facility to further update the model coefficients, provides greatly improved simulation of dynamic performance and life under arbitrary operating environment. 4. Parametric evaluation of bearing life, heat generation and overall performance provides significant guidance for practical design and development of new materials and lubricants for future applications. 5. Parametric modeling capabilities also facilitate precise failure diagnosis and subsequent design enhancements for rectification of the observed problems.

Wedeven Associates, Inc.
5072 West Chester Pike
Edgmont, PA 19028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 356-7161
Nelson Forster
AF131-163      Awarded: 8/19/2013
Title:Bearing Analytical Software Development and Validation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This proposal describes an analytical software approach to model rolling element bearings for gas turbines and similar drive systems. Detailed approaches for modeling bearing material fatigue life, oil churning, and tribology are presented. The resulting analytical bearing code will enable gas turbine engineers and designers to better assess engine lubrication system thermal loads and size bearings for adequate life early in the engine design process. The proposal contains a plan to commercialize the bearing analytical code for gas turbine engines. BENEFIT: Improved analytical software will reduce design issues in development and provide more reliable engines in production. The software will also be beneficial to other high end bearing applications such as rocket turbopumps and satellites.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Michael B. Frish
AF131-164      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:System for Measuring and Reporting Aircraft Ullage Oxygen
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop, test, and demonstrate a sensor system for measuring and reporting in real-time the oxygen concentration in the fuel tank ullage of advanced tactical aircraft such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The O2 sensor system is intended to support the Onboard Inert Gas Generation System (OBIGGS) aircraft fuel tank inerting systems. OBIGGS protects fuel tanks of military and civilian aircraft from explosion by supplying to the ullage Nitrogen-Enriched-Air (NEA) that reduces the fractional O2 content. If the fuel system is not effectively inerted then the overall mission effectiveness is degraded. When fully-developed in Phases II and III, the sensor system will also report fuel tank pressure and fuel temperature. In Phase I, PSI will adapt its laser-based oxygen sensor developed previously for measuring ullage O2 in transport aircraft to meet the challenging F-35 requirements. Phase I will culminate with performance testing in simulated flight environments and conditions. BENEFIT: The real-time O2 sensor resulting from the proposed R&D will: a) improve aircraft safety by providing continual pilot awareness of fuel tank inerting status; b) enable closed-loop feedback control of NEA thereby enhancing efficient use of engine bleed air for cooling aircraft systems, c) increase the mission readiness rate and reduce flight preparation costs by informing ground crews when inerting service is needed or not; and d) provide early indications of maintenance requirements or OBIGGS system malfunction. An oxygen sensor system meeting Air Force specifications will be the first product resulting from this project. A similar product will also serve: a) the civilian aviation market, where inerting systems are now required to be installed in several new construction civilian aircraft, ranging from jumbo to regional jets, and retrofitted to much of the existing airliner fleet; and b) non-aviation markets where oxygen is monitored to preclude explosion of fuel and other hydrocarbon storage tanks. Within military aviation, it is estimated that at least 2000 sensor units will be needed. Markets of similar size are likely for non-aviation applications.

Redondo Optics, Inc.
811 N. Catalina Avenue, Suite 1100
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 292-7673
Edgar A. Mendoza
AF131-164      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Self-Reference Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensor System for Real-time Monitoring of Ullage Inerting Operations in Tactical Aircraft
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Redondo Optics Inc. (ROI proposes to develop, ground and fly test, and deliver to the Air Force a low-cost next generation, aircraft ready, self-reference (T & P compensated) multi- point fiber optic oxygen sensor (FOxSense™) network system for the real-time in-situ monitoring of the oxygen ullage environment for the closed-loop fuel tank inerting lightning protection warning system of tactical aircraft. The proposed next generation FOxSense™ system is based on the integration of ROI’s proven and previously demonstrated state-of-the- art technologies: 1) the use of self-reference, temperature and pressure compensated, fuel inert fiber optic oxygen sensors 2) the use of fluorescence lifetime signal processing electronics; and 3) the use of advanced sensor calibration algorithms. In Phase I, ROI will assemble, and demonstrate the performance of a next generation FOxSense system for the safety in-situ monitoring of the oxygen environment of a fuel tank that will comply with all target performance specification. In Phase II, the MIL-SPEC aircraft ready FOxSense™ oxygen network system will be qualified on a relevant tactical aircraft platform. In Phase III the FOxSense™ system will be transitioned to the Air Force for integration to the closed-loop OBIGS system of a tactical aircraft, and to the commercial avionics sector. BENEFIT: The self-reference multi-point FOxSense™ oxygen network system represents a new, innovative, and reliable solution for the in-situ measurement of the oxygen ullage fuel-tank environment of tactical jet fighter aircraft. Its aircraft ready compact package, lightweight, and power efficient multi-point FOxSense™ network system with build-in intrinsic T&P self- referencing, on-board embedded calibration, state-of-the-art data transmission, compatibility with existing fiber optic aircraft networks and cost affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of fuel-tank, cryogenic fuel-tanks, and cargo compartment fire prevention oxygen monitoring applications in aircraft, rotorcraft, space craft, submarines, and ships, as well as in the commercial medical, bio-tech, bio-remediation, nuclear, oil and gas, chemical and environment control industry.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Weibo Chen
AF131-165      Awarded: 8/8/2013
Title:An Adaptive-Configuration Control System for Aircraft Thermal and Energy Management System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Hybrid technologies and adaptive resource management can significantly enhance the capability and range of next-generation aircraft. To implement this strategy, we propose to develop a control system to configure the Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System (APTMS) based on the subsequent flight profile to enable the APTMS to use the most appropriate cooling system(s), heat sink(s), and energy source(s) to maximize the aircraft capability while minimizing fuel consumption. Based on the planned flight profile, the control system employs reduced-order physical models to forecast the cooling power, heat rejection rate, energy consumption, and dynamic response of the APTMS with a given configuration. Based on these predicted resource requirements, the system will then optimize the configurations for the remaining flight periods to maximize performance objectives. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of our approach by developing a control system for a simplified APTMS, demonstrate its ability to dynamically optimize the operation configuration of this subsystem, and show the benefits of technology hybridization and adaptive resource utilization. In Phase II we will design, build, and demonstrate the software for the complete control system and deliver it to the Air Force for further evaluation and integration with an actual hardware system. BENEFIT: The proposed control system will enable future aircraft to fully realize the performance benefits of adaptive energy and thermal management, and enhance the capability and range of aircraft. In the near term, the control system will support the demonstration of the Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program at the Air Force. In the long term, the control system will significantly enhance the static and dynamic performance of aircraft thermal management systems while reducing the overall vehicle fuel consumption. Commercial applications include more-electric aircraft, air-conditioning systems, and thermal management systems for electronics and computer systems.

CU Aerospace
301 North Neil St. Suite 400
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 239-1703
David L Carroll
AF131-165      Awarded: 8/6/2013
Title:Dynamic Aircraft Energy Management Optimization Tools
Abstract:ABSTRACT: CU Aerospace (CUA) and team partner the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) propose to perform research, development and demonstration of energy management optimization tools based upon existing UIUC and CUA expertise to expand the operational envelope of military and commercial vehicles (aircraft and automobiles). Such a subsystem control methodology will optimize aircraft power generation, distribution, utilization, and associated thermal management based upon potential tactical vehicle operational power requirements and environmental conditions. Current approaches are not capable of dynamically allocating resources in a model-based approach. Additionally, there is a gap in the ability to rapidly reconfigure an energy/power allocation strategy based on a specified objective function whilst satisfying hard constraints on the system state. To fill this technology gap, this proposal introduces innovations that will produce the industry standard for aircraft energy management software. This SBIR effort will lead to design improvements that will provide an enhanced aircraft subsystem and control suite that demonstrates the viability of the control approach in Phase II of this program. These enhancements will have major implications for the expansion of aircraft mission envelopes, and our goal is to jointly develop with UIUC the aircraft energy management software tools of choice for the industry. BENEFIT: The Phase I results will lay the foundation to develop a prototype control suite for comprehensive development and testing in the Phase II program. Incorporating the Phase I algorithms and software tools along with Air Force guidance for most desired features, the optimization control suite will be enhanced and tested extensively in Phase II as a product demonstration unit. Applications of the developed control approach include next generation tactical fighter, advanced mobility, or related platforms. Commercial applications include more electric aircraft and hybrid-electric automobiles. The Phase II goal will initially be to expand the approach of Phase I, optimize the software, and design features for Air Force specifications, followed by optimization for more commercial programs.

Techno-Sciences, Inc.
11750 Beltsville Drive 3rd Floor
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 790-0673
Murat Yasar
AF131-165      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Aircraft Energy Management
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Traditional military aircraft design has been based on peak power and peak thermal loads. With the introduction of more-electric aircraft, increasing requirements for on-demand high- quality power for flight controls and electro-mechanical actuation devices will pose further challenges for energy efficiency and mission capability. Therefore, there is a new and pressing need for dynamic optimization for energy management of more-electric aircraft. Techno-Sciences, Inc. proposes a control system development based of hybrid systems theory. The effort will result in the construction of an expressive framework to pose the pertinent issues for energy management in aircraft systems, creation of optimization metrics, implementation of necessary computational tools and initial verification through simulation. We emphasize the wide applicability of the hybrid control architecture and the design software to a range of defense and commercial users. The effort is particularly of interest to the next generation of more-electric military aircrafts. BENEFIT: The primary application is to utilize hybrid controllers for energy management and optimization in more-electric fighter airframes across multiple mission segments. This technology will enable better energy efficiency across multiple subsystems and improved range while aircraft still meets performance requirements without compromising the existing capabilities. In the commercial sector, similar advances are required for more-electric aircrafts to be efficient and dependable. Aircraft manufacturers, avionic system integrators and engine manufacturers are interested in technologies that will provide better fuel economy and improved range for next generation of aircrafts.

InnoSys
2900 South Main Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 975-7399
Larry Sadwick
AF131-166      Awarded: 6/11/2013
Title:Scalable, Wide Bandgap Integrated Circuit Technology for Wide Temperature, Harsh Environment Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Advanced wide bandgap (WBG) solid state technology is necessary for future military, defense and related Department of Defense (DoD) applications and needs with increased power demand and higher temperature operation ranges. To make further advancements, an enabling high temperature and extreme harsh environment integrated circuit (IC) technology is needed. Military electrical power requirements are growing and without technological advances including higher temperature operation and associated high temperature electronics and ICs, trade-offs will have to be made on, for example, payload vs. capability which is not a desirable situation. The very nature of fifth-generation stealth aircraft poses increased challenges when it comes to thermal management. Many of the complications due to thermal management issues affect electronics performance. To address this need we propose to design and implement WBG ICs based on basic IC building blocks (transistors, diodes, resistors, analog circuits such as operational amplifiers, logic gates such as inverters, NAND, NORs, etc.) that will lead to and enable faster, more efficient analog and digital/logic architecture at high temperatures (350 to 500 C) including wide/high temperature, harsh environment ICs and associated electronics using WBG AlGaN/GaN and SiC devices that can drive SiC transistor gates and provide analog and/or digital control. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits and potential commercial applications include power management, distribution, control, and supply and other dual use needs which are both vast and diverse for both the military and commercial sectors and markets and include, for example, aeronautics, off-grid and solar, industrial and semiconductor sputtering, food processing, large electric motor control, electric vehicles, applications in which large currents must be switched, X- Ray machines and transmission of electrical power over long distances, power converters, etc. Other possible commercial applications include geothermal and oil exploration, fusion and plasma research, materials processing and civilian radars.

Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Mikhail Gaevski
AF131-166      Awarded: 6/5/2013
Title:Scalable, Wide Bandgap Integrated Circuit Technology for Wide Temperature, Harsh Environment Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop novel high-temperature robust control ICs compatible with power SiC device using on insulated gate III-Nitride transistors – MISHFETs - over SiC native nitride substrate. SET Inc patented GaN MISHFET technology offers radical device performance improvement over SiC MOSFETs and other device types in terms of transconductance and speed of response, due to an extremely high electron sheet density and high electron channel mobility at AlInGaN/GaN heterointerface, the feature not available in SiC technology. Electron concentration and mobility in two two-dimensional channels are remarkably stable within broad temperature range, spanning from cryogenic up to 500 °C or even higher. Gate dielectric incorporated into MISHFET design enables low gate leakage currents and is a key feauturesfeature for achieving high reliability in a broad range of operating temperatures. Highly controllable SET Inc. patented MEMOCVDTM MEMOCVD® growth and fabrication processes will ensure high MISHFET yield exceeding at 60%. The use of technologies and manufacturing capabilities readily available at the proposer’s facilities guaranties rapid commercialization and system insertion of these novel devices leading to transformative changes in the SiC and other power devices control ICs employed in Air Force and other DoD branches as well as in a broad range of commercial applications. BENEFIT: The successful completion of the proposed Phase I work will yield robust high-temperature GaN MISHFET usable in high-temperature control ICs. The realization of the proposed novel technology will lead to transformative changes in the aircraft electronics significantly increasing the operating temperature of the complex blocks including control circuits and power switches. This will also greatly simplify the system thermal management, reduce the system weight and increase the reliability. The developed control ICs can also be used to operate with other types of power electronic blocks used in different DoD branches as well as in a broad range of commercial applications.

United Silicon Carbide, Inc
7 Deer Park Drive, Suite E
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 355-0550
Peter Alexandrov
AF131-166      Awarded: 6/3/2013
Title:Scalable, Wide Bandgap Integrated Circuit Technology for Wide Temperature, Harsh Environment Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: During this program, United Silicon Carbide, Inc. (USCi) will develop basic analog and digital circuit blocks capable of operation up to 500oC, based on 4H-SiC complementary lateral JFET technology. The following integrated circuits will be designed (i) operational amplifier; (ii) voltage reference circuit; and (iii) logic gates with the following functions – NOT, NAND, NOR, AND, OR. In order to reduce the complexity of the fabrication process and to ensure better compatibility with the standard processes available in modern silicon fabs, we propose to develop a completely planar lateral JFET technology to realize a complementary JFET structure that would enable more efficient and faster logic architectures for digital and mixed signal high temperature capable integrated circuits. This Phase I study will provide concrete information to confirm the feasibility of the idea and critical information for the major R&D work in Phase II aimed at developing and commercializing basic analog and logic circuits capable of operation up to 500oC. BENEFIT: Various harsh environment applications, such as the propulsion systems of hybrid and all- electric vehicles, electrical actuation on military and commercial aircraft, space exploration, and energy exploration applications, require compact and efficient electrical power systems with reduced cooling requirements. Power modules based on Silicon Carbide (SiC) are able to provide the required performance in these application areas due to the unique material properties of SiC. The control electronics, used to control high power modules, need to be placed in close proximity to the power switches (to reduce noise and interference), where operation at elevated ambient temperatures above 200oC is required and higher switching frequency is desired to benefit from the capabilities of SiC power modules. In various sensing systems, placing the sensing circuit close to the actual sensor substantially reduces noise and interference problems and improves system reliability. Electronic circuits based on silicon devices are generally not able to operate at temperatures above 200oC because of excessive junction leakage currents, and even the most advanced silicon-on- insulator (SOI) devices are limited to about 300oC. While SOI circuits have been demonstrated to operate at 300oC, a common rating among the commercial products is 225oC. Wide band-gap materials can be used to build devices, capable of operation at higher temperatures. Silicon carbide (SiC) is the most mature material for high temperature applications. Even when operating at the same temperatures as SOI circuits (200oC- 250oC), a better stability and reliability can be expected from circuits based on SiC, as they will not be operating at a condition that is close to their absolute maximum capabilities.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Sayangdev Naha
AF131-167      Awarded: 6/11/2013
Title:Low Filler-concentration Advanced Thermal Management Materials for Power Systems Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The stable and reliable operation of megawatt-class, high-temperature power electronics is critical for military aircraft operations. In particular, military aircraft emphasize mission capability as one of the primary objectives, thereby making reliability of power systems components one of the most essential design parameters. Specifically, fifth-general military aircraft such as F-22 and F-35 employ state-of-the-art avionics, environmental control systems and electrical actuation systems requiring up to five times the heat load over fourth- generation platforms such as F-15 and F-16. As such, new thermal greases are required that offer thermal resistances that are factors lower, exhibit increased mechanical compliance due to thermal expansion coefficients, and possess robust thermal performance over severe temperature cycles. It is also highly desirable that these materials offer facile reworking/reapplication, can be manufactured according to existing methods and are highly scalable. To address this need, ADA Technologies, Inc. proposes the development of uniquely treated nanomaterials dispersed in a polymer matrix that offer substantially decreased thermal resistance through improved energy transfer in relevant configurations. ADA’s proposed approach will lead to ultrahigh performance TIMs that will lead to cooling by >30°C for a heat flux of 100 W/cm2 over a temperature range of -55°C to 200°C. BENEFIT: ADA’s proposed TIM technology holds immense potential in providing an excellent interface for heat transfer between high energy output components such as power electronics modules and corresponding heat spreaders. Our approach is applicable to any polymer system and maintains the highly desirable properties of polymers including low density, ease of manufacturing into various shapes and form factors, and low cost. These benefits permit introduction of this technology into a wide range of AF interests such as military aircraft, directed energy systems, satellites, and avionics. Further, this technology will have direct benefits in many commercial electronics including personal electronics, civilian aircraft and other microelectronics. Other intended commercial and military applications that will benefit from this technology include telecommunication relay stations, data farms, computing centers and transmit/receive modules that are prevalent on Navy ships, aircraft and communications systems.

General Nano LLC
1776 Mentor Ave. Ste 170
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 309-5947
Joe Sprengard
AF131-167      Awarded: 8/19/2013
Title:Thermal Interface Materials for Power System Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Improving heat transfer and enhancing mechanical compliance at interfaces has significant impact on military and commercial applications. For example, silicon carbide power electronics operate at much higher temperatures (~250 oC) than their silicon counterparts (< ~120 oC) and occupy smaller volumes. Unfortunately, with current thermal management techniques, decreased heat sink volume and air flow available for cooling associated with miniaturization of devices result in thermal management challenges. Mismatch of mechanical properties is also exacerbated by the broader range of component operating temperatures. New, thermal interface materials (TIMs) are needed to prolong the lifetime of high power electronic components, and can be accomplished in two ways: (1) Reducing the device junction temperature given an equivalent thermal management system and (2) accommodation of thermal strains at heterogeneous interfaces to inhibit mechanical failure. Our work plan is designed to develop new materials to address both challenges. We will investigate two different, macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) architecutres—double sided vertically aligned arrays on foil substrates, and planar CNT-based paper materials. The materials will be decorated with nanoparticles designed to reduce acoustic mismatch and promote interfacial heat transfer, as well as enhance elastic recovery of the TIM after expansion and contraction associated with thermal cycling. BENEFIT: The primary benefits are performance improvements derived from enhanced thermal conductance and extreme mechanical compliance that will be stable over multiple thermal cycles. For example, we have developed CNT-based TIMS with <10 mm2 K W-1 at contact pressures of 0.2 MPa, resulting in potentially significant component lifetime (>3x) lifetime improvements. We have also characterized the mechanical response of CNT-based TIMs to cyclic compression, and observed remarkable elastic recovery in the native CNT materials. We believe the nanoparticles will further enhance mechanical compliance.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Venkat Kamavaram
AF131-167      Awarded: 6/24/2013
Title:Nanostructured Thermal Interface Materials for Power System Components
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit proposes a novel nanostructured film as thermal interface materials (TIMs) for efficient thermal managements of high power electronic components. The proposed TIMs is composed of highly conductive fibers to improve the bulk thermal conductivity and highly conductive bonding layer to reduce the total thermal contact resistance of TIMs. BENEFIT: Nanocomposite TIMs find applications in military environment that includes power system electronics and avionics systems comprising of high heat flux components. Several commercial sectors such as telecommunication, data farms and computing centers would greatly benefit from the high performance nanocomposite TIMs.

Continental Controls and Design, Inc.
20252 Bancroft Circle
Huntington Beach, CA 92646
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(877) 575-0053
James P. Hynes
AF131-168      Awarded: 6/26/2013
Title:Rotary Electromechanical Actuator for Next-Generation Thin-Wing Aircraft Flight Control
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop a 5 inch direct hinge line aileron actuator based on our 2 inch highly integrated EM boat ride control actuator. By exploiting the natural physical scaling laws we can create an even more efficient larger motor which operates on 270VDC. The optimization of EM actuator parameters starts with straightforward math and requirements definition but becomes complicated by soft constraints like speed vs life and application specific details of the cost function. The BLDC motor we propose to build and test has significantly better metrics than any comparable motor currently available. Working with prime contractor feedback we will develop concepts for redundancy and failsafe disconnects. Though a primary focus is the innovative motor, we will study the feasibility of a wide range of coupling alternatives including a variable reduction ratio hybrid valveless hydraulic transmission. BENEFIT: A lightweight EM aileron actuator will will have both military and commercial aircraft applications as more electric aircraft are developed and wing profiles become smaller.

Magnetic Power-Motion, LLC
4008 Doe Creek Drive
Floyds Knobs, IN 47119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-6802
Patrick Kelecy
AF131-168      Awarded: 7/15/2013
Title:Compact, High Torque, Hinge Actuator for Next-Generation Thin-Wing Aircraft Flight Control
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force is seeking a compact, high torque, rotary EMA technology capable of controlling flight control surfaces directly at the hinge line in the next generation of thin-wing aircraft. Proposed for this application is an advanced EMA technology based on an axial flux, permanent-magnet machine structure. The unique shape of this device enables efficient integration into the wing structure and represents a promising solution for this application. BENEFIT: If successful, this project will result in a small, high-torque, hinge-actuator technology suitable for use in thin-wing military aircraft. Other aircraft could use this system as well. Compared to current hydraulic technology, this system should simplify installation, improve efficiency, reduce maintenance, and lower operational cost. It should also find service in many other non-aviation applications, such as industrial automation and robotics.

Sprung-brett RDI Inc.
Baird Research Park, Suite 102C 1576 Sweet Home Road
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 960-4321
Michael Brewster
AF131-168      Awarded: 7/3/2013
Title:Rotary Electromechanical Actuator for Next-Generation Thin-Wing Aircraft Flight Control
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to develop a high torque, compact and reliable rotary electromechanical (EMA) actuator for next-generation thin-wing military aircraft flight control. This topic seeks to develop advanced rotary EMA technologies for primary flight control actuation systems; enable thin-wing architectures on next generation aircraft and subsystems. The main goal of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and demonstrate technical and installation feasibility and practicality of the proposed rotary EMA technology. BENEFIT: Enable thin wing next generation aircraft designs with distributed electric actuation

Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6470
John Appleby
AF131-169      Awarded: 5/21/2013
Title:Innovative Burn Resistant Material System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Liquid rocket propulsion systems require the use of high pressure LOX, and therefore have the need for LOX compatible materials. This is especially true in LOX turbopumps, which have inducers, impellers, discharge volutes, and housings exposed to or submerged in LOX. The high pressures present in these turbopumps dictate that the LOX compatible materials also be high strength. LOX compatible materials are also needed for injectors, valves, and oxygen rich turbines. LOX compatible materials, also known as combustion resistant materials, will not burn when in contact with LOX. Some materials may be LOX compatible only up to a certain pressure level or flow velocity; however, materials that are compatible with LOX at all pressure and flow velocity levels are needed for use in advanced liquid rocket propulsion systems. Throughout the evolution of the gas turbine, materials with specific benefits have been applied as surface treatments when the material alone does not have sufficient structural strength. The use of coatings eliminates a significant amount of characterization and mechanical property testing that is required before new substrate materials can be introduced in structural applications. This effort proposes the application of a robust burn resistant vitrious enamel coating to components exposed to LOX. BENEFIT: Potential application for all future and existing liquid propellant engine turbopumps including booster and upper stage engines. The coating can be applied to any metallic turbopump component in the current fleet of engines with minimal design or hardware modifications. Other potential applications include all pumps used in industrial commercial sector applications to move oxygen. The coating system can be applide to existing designs and incorporated into new designs.

McGaw Technology, Inc.
17439 Lake Avenue
Lakewood, OH 44107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 521-3490
Michael A. McGaw
AF131-169      Awarded: 8/7/2013
Title:Robust Cryogenic Compatible Turbo-machinery and Liquid Rocket Engine coatings
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of this Phase I is to demonstrate the feasibility of a ICME-based approach to the design of thermal barrier coating architectures and processes to guide the design and selection of a newly defined material/coating system, and to demonstrate this systems' ability to survive in an environment representative of a reusable oxygen-rich staged combustion engine turbine via limited, exploratory testing in test environments that mimic key characteristics of the intended operational environment. BENEFIT: The TBC modeling system and LOX-Hydrocarbon compatible TBC systems envisioned in this proposal have obvious commercial potential, especially for designers and manufacturers of reusable LOX-Hydrocarbon rocket engines. The techniques and test protocol/apparatus envisioned for the Phase II activity have clear potential for dual use in the rocket engine, aircraft engine and stationary power generation sectors.

Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Said Jahanmir
AF131-169      Awarded: 7/25/2013
Title:Robust Cryogenic Compatible Turbo-machinery and Liquid Rocket Engine coatings
Abstract:ABSTRACT: It is proposed to develop new thermal barrier coatings based on current MiTi® Korolon™ coatings for the turbomachinery of the rocket engines. The proposed coating system will provide thermal and environmental protection and at the same time provides sufficient damping characteristics to prevent fatigue failure. Furthermore, when applied to the entire rotating group, including the shaft, the coating provides low friction and wear resistance to ensure reliable operation of the bearings. Korolon™ is a high temperature, scratch resistant flexible ceramic coating that has demonstrated excellent adhesion to nickel superalloys and thermal and environmental barrier characteristics that make it attractive to a wide array of applications to turbopump components. Collaborations will be established in Phase II with turbine engine OEMs to expand the application of the proposed coating system. BENEFIT: The coating technology developed in this program will have several civilian and military applications, aside from rocket engines. The proposed TBC can be used in UAVs, gas turbine engines, ramjet engines, cruise missiles, decoys, and small aircraft engines. The proposed technology also has a great potential for use in systems that require corrosion and wear resistant TBC coatings. Examples include: turbopumps, cryogenic liquid pumps/compressors, refrigerant compressors, and many others. The use of more efficient and durable TBC/EBC will lead to increased engine efficiency by maximizing turbine inlet temperature and/or reducing the amount of cooling air required for airfoils.

Astronix Research Corporation
P.O. Box 7336 44 Rudi Lane
Golden, CO 80403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 642-1405
Robert LeChevalier
AF131-170      Awarded: 5/30/2013
Title:Compact High Current Molecular Atomic Particle Beam Generator
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Astronix proposes a particle beam generator for satellite thruster applications based on a novel MEMS technology for fabricating dense arrays of micron-scale particle guns in bonded silicon wafer substrates. Individual micro-guns as small as one micron crossectional diameter are possible, on a pitch of under 2 microns. A fully scalable array of the guns can deliver a laminar low-energy beam (<5keV) to a high voltage arrayed accelerator to achieve final energy of 100keV or more. Fabrication uses a new method of etching high-aspect ratio holes through laminated conductors. Greater than 107 guns per cm2 are possible. A current per ion gun in excess of a milliampere is possible, but 1 microamp/gun is suitable for thrusters of many newtons from a single 200mm wafer assembly. Ion guns interdigitated with electron guns create a charge neutral beam prior to high-voltage acceleration, making possible greater thrust than conventional thruster technology. The approach extends service life because of very low sputter erosion in the high-voltage electrodes, and requires no magnetic elements. The microgun approach was investigated under previous NRO and SBIR grants. Experiments to prove the manufacturing started recently with internal funding. A Phase 2 grant has been awarded to continue the work. BENEFIT: In satellite applications, the approach offers higher thrust per unit area and small thruster size based on low-cost semiconductor manufacturing. The thruster architecture is fully scalable and thrust can be electronically regulated. With deflection circuitry, thrust can also be electronically vectored to eliminate mechanical gimbals and all other mechanical parts. The arrayed guns are redundant and highly fault tolerant, with low sputter erosion. No magnetics are required. Other applications include high performance electronics and semiconductor manufacturing equipment.

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Yu-Hui Chiu
AF131-170      Awarded: 7/11/2013
Title:Novel High Velocity Ion Beam Generation for Space Propulsion
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Busek Co. Inc. proposes to explore the feasibility of a highly scalable miniature ion beam generator system capable of producing atomic and/or molecular beams with velocities corresponding to energies of 50-100 keV and suitable for Space applications. The proposed system combines the technologies of ion beam generation from an electrospray ion source utilizing ionic liquids and efficient high electric field generation by compact pyro-electric crystals. For the Phase I effort, Busek will demonstrate the feasibility by designing and testing key components of a novel single emitter electrospray ion source powered by pyroelectric crystals. We shall model the ion source with emphases upon effects of crystal temperatures on the electric field created and field enhancement experienced by the ionic liquids. We will test the hypothesis by conducting experiments to seek the generation of ion currents of either positive or negative polarities. The Phase II effort shall fabricate a prototype ion source based on the Phase I findings and demonstrate its operation. BENEFIT: The proposed novel ion source combines the benefits of the efficiency and compactness of electrospray ionic-liquid ion emission source, with a low power and compact electric field generation source provided by pyroelectric materials. Such a device is applicable to a variety of applications ranging from energetic ion beams for materials processing, to small high specific impulse electric propulsion devices and potentially application in remote sensing.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dorin V. Preda
AF131-171      Awarded: 7/31/2013
Title:Enhancement of Endothermic Capacity and Combustion Efficiency of Fuels for Hypersonic Propulsion
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force identified a need to enhance the capabilities of scramjet-powered hypersonic systems through the development of technologies such as advanced endothermic fuels, fuel additives, catalysts or fuel cooling concepts for high-speed propulsion systems. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), proposes to develop fuel modification technologies that will enhance the endothermic capacity and combustion efficiency of hydrocarbon fuels for mid-scale scramjets. These fuels are required to maintain thermal balance for the flight vehicle using only the onboard fuel as heat sink without sacrificing integrated system performance. Our proposed high density, miscible liquids as fuel additives will enhance the performance of hypersonic propulsion systems by: 1) increasing endothermic heat sink of the fuel, 2) suppressing coking in coolant passages during endothermic cracking of the fuel, and 3) forming a cracking product distribution that, entering the scramjet combustor results in fast ignition and complete combustion. On a potential Phase II, we will demonstrate the feasibility of this advanced fuel concept to increase the capabilities of scramjet systems. We will perform detailed numerical modeling and subscale testing of our proposed approach and assess the impact of this enhancing technology to identify pathways for various applications. BENEFIT: Full development of our technology will result in the production of advanced fuel products that will have applications in high-speed military systems, as well as in future high-speed commercial applications.

Reaction Systems, LLC
17301 W. Colfax Avenue #405
Golden, CO 80401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 352-7161
David Wickham
AF131-171      Awarded: 7/29/2013
Title:An Advanced Endothermic Fuel System for Hypersonic Propulsion
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The development of weapons that can travel at hypersonic speeds is becoming a high priority to the US Air Force. Continued development of these vehicles relies on the ability to cool the combustor using the fuel. The cooling capacity of kerosene-based fuels is low even with endothermic cracking reactions. Increasing the fuel cooling capacity by raising the fuel flow or allowing it to reach higher temperatures is not practical because the additional fuel would have to be dumped overboard or lead to coke formation. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop new endothermic fuels and reactors that can deliver substantially higher heat sink capacities. In this Phase I project, Reaction Systems will identify a new fuel consisting of a single hydrocarbon or a blend that can undergo other endothermic reactions and produce heat sink capacities that are higher than are available with JP-7. The new hydrocarbons will be readily available and likely less expensive than JP-7 and the higher heat sink capacities will be obtained at lower temperatures, where coking will not occur. Reaction Systems will also design a heat exchanger/reactor that will maximize heat transfer and be constructed in Phase II. BENEFIT: The technology developed in this project will be particularly well-suited for the new Air Force High Speed Strike Weapon (HSSW) program. This program represents a unique opportunity to develop a new, inexpensive endothermic fuel with higher heat sink capacity to sustain higher flight Mach numbers while also providing improved ignition and flameholding properties compared to JP-7. Because scramjet power represents new technology, it is difficult to estimate the size of the market that these vehicles ultimately might represent. However, based on the Air Launched Cruise Missile (AGM-86) program and the later AGM- 129 Advanced Cruise Missile program, which built over 1700 missiles at a cost of about $1M each, we can probably anticipate an ultimate production on the order of 1000 to 2000 units. The current cost of JP-10 (a synthetic high density missile fuel) is about $16 per gallon, while the costs of typical high-purity hydrocarbon-based commercial chemicals are on the order of $6 per gallon in bulk. Even at a cost of $32 per gallon for an advanced endothermic fuel blend, a missile fuel capacity of approximately 100 gallons each suggests a total fuel cost of only about $3.2M to $6.4M out of a $1B to $2B overall production program. The cost of the heat exchanger/reactors and other required thermal management system hardware components could easily exceed the fuel cost by a factor of ten, suggesting that the total potential market for our products could be on the order of $32M to $64M to supply a single HSS missile production run, or ~$5M/yr revenue stream over a ten year period. This could

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Bruce R. Pilvelait
AF131-172      Awarded: 7/24/2013
Title:EAU Control Algorithms for Stabilizing and Suppressing Transients and Harmonics in Aircraft Power Systems
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aircraft power system disturbances cause significant power quality issues such as increased losses, component degradation, and undesirable interaction between the source and loads. Transient disturbances have historically been related to nonlinearities such as uncontrolled diode rectifiers, zero crossing distortion, and fluctuating loads. However, high frequency transients and harmonics are increasingly being associated with the growing number of nonlinear and regenerative loads. While Electrical Accumulator Units (EAU) have been developed for aircraft power systems to provide peak power transient support and power absorption for regenerative loads, challenges posed by More Electric Aircraft (MEA) require further advances in EAU high frequency performance. Creare’s objective is to develop an EAU which incorporates frequency domain control methods to remediate high frequency system power transients. Our EAU provides increased bandwidth, real-time characterization of system transfer functions, and improved high frequency performance for transients and harmonics. During Phase I we will develop a multifunctional analytical model of the aircraft power system, EAU, and controller, and refine our design of the controller. During Phase II we will complete the design, fabricate a prototype EAU which integrates the controller, and demonstrate performance with high- fidelity laboratory testing. BENEFIT: Our EAU will improve aircraft power quality by increasing the ability to damp high frequency transients, oscillations, and harmonics. This technology will have broad application to More Electric Aircraft in military, commercial, and UAV venues.

PC Krause and Associates, Inc.
3000 Kent Avenue, Suite C1-100
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Jason Wells
AF131-172      Awarded: 7/8/2013
Title:Frequency Domain-based Electrical Accumulator Unit (EAU)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The move towards more-electric aircraft continues to increase the complexity of electrical power systems (EPS) on modern airborne platforms. In addition to ever expanding peak and regenerative power demands, several of the loads can introduce very high rates of current change (dI/dt) within the EPS, all of which implies significant spectral power across a wide range of frequencies. Recent work on electrical accumulator unit (EAU) technology suggests that an appropriately designed LRU may be capable of addressing many of these challenges; however, there may exist an opportunity to improve the previous generation designs' performance through the design of an EAU from a frequency-domain perspective. The primary objective of this Phase I effort is to conceptually design and demonstrate the feasibility of a frequency-domain-based EAU (FDEAU). Such design will include understanding how the frequency content of the power flow in the EPS translates into an optimal FDEAU design and optimal integration strategy of the FDEAU into the EPS. Modeling, simulation, and analysis will be utilized to demonstrate that the proposed design is capable of meeting the relevant requirements from MIL-STD-704, MIL-STD-461, and the performance objectives identified at the beginning of the project. BENEFIT: Frequency-domain based electrical accumulator unit (FDEAU) technology offers several benefits in military airborne applications, the first commercialization opportunity that this SBIR will target, including: (1) Expanded peak-power and regenerative power capabilities in the electrical power system, (2) Improved power capability utilization of high-performance batteries on the aircraft, (3) Improved power quality across a wide frequency range and during mode transitions in the electrical power system, (4) Improved over-current protection mechanisms used to prevent battery failures, (5) Improved PHM at both a system and battery level, (6) Improved turbo-machinery starting performance, and (7) Dynamically adjustable frequency domain integration with the electrical system to enable interoperability with a variety of source and load configurations. In addition to the direct benefits to military applications, there is potential for application in commercial aircraft, terrestrial vehicles, and marine vehicles. Finally, the FDEAU technology under investigation in this SBIR may be applicable to renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind or solar power) that do not provide a predictable output power capability. In these applications, the power capabilities of the primary source would be monitored by the FDEAU and the FDEAU would supplement or detract power from the source output to ensure that a predictable power flow was maintained to/from the electrical

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Hiroyuki Kosai
AF131-172      Awarded: 7/31/2013
Title:Frequency Domain-based Electrical Accumulator Unit (EAU)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Military aircraft are steadily moving towards the "More Electric Aircraft (MEA)" concept where large flight loads like hydraulic actuators are replaced with electrical analogs powered by high voltage (270) direct current (DC) systems. The initial instantiation of these electrical analogs resulted in higher-than-anticipated demand and regeneration power spikes which has caused undue demands on the electrical generators. Industry and the US Air Force are investigating concepts to ameliorate the effects of these transient power issues on the generator by developing electrical accumulators (analogs to hydraulic accumulators) with the goal of supplying/sinking 100% of the transients above/below the average generator load. This SBIR challenges the notion of supplying 100% of the transient electrical load through the Electrical Accumulator Unit (EAU), by exploring concepts where lower frequency components of the transient load are supplied/sunk by the generator while the Electrical Accumulator Unit (EAU) supplies/sinks the higher frequency components. A frequency domain EAU concept will be defined, mathematically modeled and operated in a simulated electrical system with other aircraft key electrical system components (e.g., generator, actuators, energy storage). A scaled prototype frequency domain EAU prototype will be tested in a laboratory environment to prove the feasibility of the control system and EAU converter. BENEFIT: he first commercial application of the SBIR results will likely be on military aircraft with potential first application of the resulting knowledge on F-35 derivatives. The knowledge garnered from this project will have wide spread use on other military vehicles including US Army ground vehicles, Navy aircraft and certainly advanced Air Force vehicles. However as "electrification" continues in automotive and construction industries (e.g., "more electric" bulldozers) the potential exists for wide spread use of SBIR-generated knowledge. General Electric, UES' SBIR partner, will spearhead efforts to commercialize on aerospace and defense vehicles in existing and emerging power products.

Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6817
Tapan Desai
AF131-173      Awarded: 5/22/2013
Title:Selective Stabilization of Aluminum Nanoparticles for Combustion Enhancement of Liquid Fuels
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project proposes to enhance the combustion energy of liquid propellants via addition of stabilized aluminum nanoparticles. Aluminum oxidizes readily to create aluminum oxide and releases 30% more heat per unit volume than kerosene. Thus, small additions of aluminum nanoparticles to kerosene can significantly increase the fuel’s combustion enthalpy, reducing fuel consumption and its associated cost. However, the two major drawbacks of using aluminum nanoparticles in liquid fuel are: (i) oxidation (with dissolved oxygen/additives) during storage will result in a thick shell of oxide that would inhibit nanoparticle participation in combustion. (ii) agglomeration of settled nanoparticles to form large particles will not only result in reduced benefits towards combustion properties, but also create problems during fuel transportation. Hence, passivation (from oxidation) and stabilization (to prevent agglomeration) of the aluminum nanoparticles is essential to maximize the benefits of aluminum nanoparticle additions. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes a novel method to passivate and stabilize aluminum nanoparticles using a coating. The proposed effort will leverage upon ACT’s work performed on passivation of Aluminum nanoparticles, to meet the targets set by Air Force. BENEFIT: ACT has developed several nanofluids for the thermal energy market. The proposed effort will expand upon the network already established by ACT. ACT will closely collaborate with fuel suppliers and engine manufacturers to commercialize the technology developed under this program.

Combustion Propulsion & Ballistic Technology Corp.
1217 Smithfield Street
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 880-2111
Kenneth K. Kuo
AF131-173      Awarded: 5/17/2013
Title:Combustion Enhancement of Liquid Fuels via Nanoparticle Additions
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Addition of nano-sized energetic particles to liquid fuel (e.g., JP-8 or RP-1) offers the possibility of increasing energy density, while maintaining or improving ignition characteristics of the bulk fuel. When used in stable dispersions of small percentages of additives, only limited physical changes to existing combustion systems may be required. The culmination of a) increases in widespread availability and affordability of a large variety of nano-sized particles, b) understanding of nano-sized particle ignition and combustion, and c) advances in colloidal science of nano-sized particle/liquid suspensions, now allows for development of enhanced nanofluid fuels. Overall objectives of the proposed Phase I effort are development and evaluation of several candidate nanofluid fuels using RP-1 as a representative liquid propulsion fuel. Our approach includes: 1) Develop stable colloidal systems using techniques such as metal-ligand stabilization, polymer coating for controlling zeta potential, surfactant addition, etc. Commercially available energetic particles will be selected based upon volumetric heating rates, density, average agglomeration number, etc. 2) Characterize ignition behavior of nanofluids using single droplet experiments for examining the effect of additive type, particle size, oxide layer thickness, dispersant material, etc. 3) Examine spray combustion characteristics of select nanofluid fuels through a co-axial injector with a gaseous oxidizer. BENEFIT: This SBIR effort will successfully demonstrate the use of nanofluid fuels in liquid rocket engines and open up a market for these nanofluid fuels in liquid propulsion systems. The nanofluid fuels are particularly attractive for volume-limited systems. By introducing energetic nano-particles to the fuel, density-Isp of liquid propulsion systems can be significantly increased to levels approaching those of solid-propellant rockets. Development of an efficient distribution method, such as a highly concentrated colloidal suspension that can be added to bulk fuel, will ease the integration of the new enhanced-performance nanofuel into the existing fuel distribution infrastructure. Alternatively, an injection system could be installed in line with existing fuel tank filling equipment so that the concentrated suspension would be added to the fuel at a metered rate. This nanofuel technology could be extended to direct-injection internal combustion engines for all kinds of applications.

Precision Combustion, Inc.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Codruta Zoican-Loebick
AF131-173      Awarded: 5/22/2013
Title:Combustion Enhancement of Propulsion-Fuel Using Novel Carbon-based Additives
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Precision Combustion, Inc. proposes a novel approach for nanoenergetic particle addition to aerospace fuels using carbon based nano-particles, hence avoiding challenges currently being faced by metal-based particles including particle stability, agglomeration, oxidation, solid combustion by-products containing metals and the environmental issues posed by metal-based nano-fuels. We are seeking to develop an alternate, affordable method to synthesize these carbon-based additives which could easily form a long term stable dispersion in commercial fuels without use of surfactants and will enhance their energetic properties. The energetic would convert completely to CO2/H2O with no unusual plume signature, no deposition, and no need for a surface passivation layer. In Phase I, we propose to synthesize several carbon-based additives for commercial aerospace fuels and compare the fuel/nano-additives blends to the base fuels and metal nanoparticle-laden fuels in terms of burning rate, fuel energy density and ignition temperature through laboratory-scale studies of the atomization, vaporization, ignition, and flame stabilization behaviors. In Phase II, optimization of the fuel blend and further quantification of performance improvement and initial transients will be performed. BENEFIT: The creation of inexpensive fuel additives to enhance the combustion properties of conventional and future derived fuels will increase the availability of propulsion grade fuels by upgrading lower quality fuels and/or reducing the volume of higher grade fuels consumed. The additive also improves fuel stability and ignition properties which will enable increase in the thrust from a given engine and/or increase the aircrafts’ mission duration with lower pollutant emissions. The initial application of this technology will be conventional and future derived military propulsion fuels. Easier access to ultra-high grade fuels that can be used with minimal, if any, equipment modifications can save the DoD billions of dollars annually in fuel purchase and logistics expenses. When the technology has matured and/or with clearance by the DoD, the additives implementation can be a game changer in commercial aviation fuel purchase and logistics expenses.

Systems and Materials Research Corporation
1300 West Koenig Lane Suite 230
Austin, TX 78756
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 757-5441
David Irvin
AF131-173      Awarded: 7/10/2013
Title:Nanoparticle Fuel Additives for Enhanced Propulsion
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Systems and Materials Research Corporation (SMRC) proposes to produce energetic nanomaterials to be used as additives in hydrocarbon based jet and liquid rocket fuels. Using our extensive experience in nanomaterials synthesis, processing, and incorporation, SMRC will synthesize or modify nanoparticles with surface treatments to maximize their dispersability in liquid fuels. The resistance of the materials to form large colloids is paramount and will be determined using accelerating aging techniques. The energy density of fuels with these new nanoadditives will be studied by bomb calorimeter and fiber supported droplet combustion studies. After down selection, successful candidates will be tested using a small rocket motor test stand. The results of these tests will yield a preliminary validation to the concept that nanoenergetic additives can positively affect the energy density of hydrocarbon-based jet and rocket fuels. BENEFIT: If nanoenergetic additives are proven to increase the output of jet engines and rocket motors, SMRC will be prepared to transition this technology to both military and civilian aircraft. If these same improvements can be applied to jet engines and rocket motors, the Department of Defense (DoD) and civilian air carriers will be significantly impacted, not only by decreased fuel consumption but also by decreased emissions. In addition, the same materials may also work in terrestrial diesel engines since a limited number of references have demonstrated improvements in diesel engine performance including an increase in power and a decrease in solid particle emissions by incorporating nanomaterials.

Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6311
Russell Jones
AF131-174      Awarded: 8/1/2013
Title:Advanced Recirculating Total Impingement Cooling of Turbine Airfoils
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The future of gas turbine engines needed for propulsion and power in small unmanned military aircraft will hinge on the ability to enhance the efficiency for low fuel burn while maintaining world-class performance. Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) is currently developing spar-shell technologies to enable a revolutionary leap in gas turbine efficiency. The subject of this proposed program is to further develop the ARTICTM cooling technology for use in small military gas turbine engines. The challenges posed by adapting this technology to the very small scale required of unmanned and remotely piloted vehicles will be addressed during this program. Specific challenges include: i) adapting the cooling and manufacturing technologies to a very small scale and ii) development means of controlling leakage flows. FTT has already taken the first steps to transition the sequential impingement cooling technology into a light weight structure for application in such small engines. With this program, FTT proposes to produce a concept design and to demonstrate manufacturing feasibility with the production of prototype models. The results from the Phase I program will support a detailed design and fabrication of hardware to be tested within FTT’s core engine demonstrator during a follow-on Phase II SBIR program. BENEFIT: Development of this technology is expected to contribute to the achievement of VAATE program goals by significantly reducing turbine cooling requirements in future small turbomachinery systems. In addition to new power generation product offerings, commercial applications of this technology include retrofit into the host of small engines used for distributed power generation today.

Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Ave. Suite 122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 847-9945
David Underwood
AF131-174      Awarded: 7/30/2013
Title:Enhanced High Pressure Turbine Blade Cooling Architecture
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Next generation military unmanned aircraft have a need for lower thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) and higher power-to-weight ratio, exceeding the capability of current engines in this thrust class. Attainment of these goals can be aided through an increase in turbine inlet temperature. In a modern gas turbine engine, turbine inlet temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 °F or more. Micro Cooling Concepts has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness. The concept uses an impingement scheme with a micro-structured face on the interior wall in the turbine blade stagnation region. Air flow exits the nozzle, impinges in the grooved region, and then exits via the microchannel passages. The flow through the microchannel passages cools the sidewalls as it travels back along the blade contour, exiting out the trailing edge. A laminated foil construction approach will used to form the blade in which thin metal foils are etched with micro passages, then stacked and diffusion bonded. This design approach has several advantages including improved internal heat transfer, low pressure losses through internal heat transfer sections, consistent with thin trailing edge designs, and high strength, lightweight blade designs. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits of the enhanced internal cooling design include reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption, increased power-to-weight, reduced cost for turbine blades due to the ability to use lower cost superalloys, and reduced specific pollutant formation. The commercial applications are varied including most axial flow aero, marine, and power generation gas turbines.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF131-174      Awarded: 7/30/2013
Title:Optimal Turbine Blade Topology for Small Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed SBIR Phase I research program will investigate the optimization of turbine blades for small engines. The objective is to use a slot-type hole geometry for film cooling. This has long been recognized as the optimal configuration for cooling effectiveness. The research tasks will involve a multidisciplinary approach to optimizing the turbine blade to include the slot cooling holes while maintaining the required maximum material stresses. The research team includes a close collaboration with the University of Notre Dame and Honeywell. This team has the required design experience and working knowledge of engine conditions to ensure a high probability of success. BENEFIT: Improved component and system efficiencies as well as hot section durability continues to be of interest for all advanced gas turbine engines. The proposed Phase I effort will focus on creating a viable design that meets all of the constraints imposed by manufacturing, assembly, and reliability in a modern, small-scale, gas-turbine engine. The successful outcome of Phase I will lead to a Phase II plan in which prototype turbine blades are created and tested in both cascade tunnels and rotating rigs. The intent of the Phase II effort will be to bring a final, optimized design to TRL 6. The commercial products foreseen from this research are multidisciplinary design optimization tools and advanced manufacturing technologies.

Airborne Innovations LLC
12833 W Jewell Dr
Lakewood, CO 80228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 515-3720
Jon Becker
AF131-175      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Airborne Relay Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose to develop a compact and very capable micro airborne relay system which will will extend broadband communications range and provide the ability to transfer multiple HD video and data streams beyond the horizon. We can leverage technology we have previously developed which will allow us to easily demonstrate feasibility and specify a new system designed for the relay task, as well as provide a complete solution. Modularity in our system design allows for the integration of new technologies as they become available. With sponsor support we have additional innovative solutions which can expand the concept of operations in the areas of satcomm relay, cellular relay, and transmit diversity. The resulting system will have SWaP capable of supporting small UAS with demanding communications relay tasks. BENEFIT: This system could provide a high bandwidth relay capability to allow extended range regional UAS surveillance operations including HD video, data transfer, and voice relay. The work in this proposal will also allow us to offer extended range capability for our existing subminiature high definition video product. Other innovations could be the basis for a new generation of beyond line of sight surveillance UAS, as well as long range aircraft to aircraft broadband data communications.

Anyar, Inc.
2113 Lewis Turner Blvd, Suite 104
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 226-8511
John P. Thomas
AF131-175      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Micro Airborne Relay Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Test validation of munition performance, particularly in the endgame environment, requires that enormous quantities of video and other sensor data be collected in proximity to the munition impact or detonation location, and transmitted in some manner back to the ground receiving station, for subsequent post processing and analysis. A key challenge associated with this scenario is to find a means to relay this large quantity of data from the collection site located over water back to the beyond-the-horizon ground receiving stations. The power and antenna limitations of currently available transmitters make a direct transmission at the envisioned ranges impractical. Alternatively, one or more airborne relay platforms, combined into a system to meet the bandwidth requirements and other specifications, have the potential to provide the capability of relaying the test data under a beyond-the-horizon, water test range scenario. BENEFIT: Anyar anticipates three easily identifiable market needs in Disaster Relief Operations and DoD Operational support. A few of the candidate technologies identified are available in the civilian market. For instance, typically, these systems can be configured for compatibility with 4G LTE and/or WiMax technology. The relays can be utilized during natural disasters to temporarily increase or to temporarily replace damaged communication systems. In military applications, the miniature relay system will prove to be a valuable asset in the combat theater, as it would allow soldiers in the field to remain in communications with command at all levels, and allow them to relay back real time audio and video of operations in progress.

Lexycom Technologies, Inc.
425 South Bowen Street Unit 7
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 774-7822
Aleksey Pozhidaev
AF131-175      Awarded: 9/30/2013
Title:Micro Airborne Relay Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Lexycom is proposing to design a miniature software-defined radio (SDR) transceiver for Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) installations to support over-the-horizon TSPI/video relaying capability. Depending on the data traffic requirements, the proposed SDR can be equipped with several RF sections for simultaneous processing/relaying of independent data streams.Being an SDR, the proposed transceiver would minimize ownership costs and development risks because of: (i) its permissiveness of future waveform updates, (ii) it can be used not only as a relay, but also as an end-node transceiver. In compliance with the DoD’s data ciphering requirements, the proposed SDR is envisioned to be able to sustain real-time FIPS/NSA algorithm(s). Optionally, the transceiver can control a lightweight Self-Structuring Antenna (SSA). The SDR-SSA combination would improve link quality by optimizing the antenna’s aperture in response to node movements and to compensate for RPV motions. Lexycom plans to utilize its field-proven platform of designing and manufacturing miniaturized SDRs. Towards the end of the PhaseI, Lexycom will use one of its production SDRs as a test-bed: hardware-in-the-loop to derive/confirm attainable system parameters. Preliminary analysis shows that, within the specified limitations, the proposed data/video 5Watt SDR may incorporate as many as four RF sections and would weigh ~8 ounces. BENEFIT: A miniature Software Defined Radio (SDR) relay system for small Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV) could be put to use in a variety of applications such as range/field exercises, missile testing, border patrol, search and rescue, intelligence/information gathering, remote monitoring, and public safety. The ability to fly over a specific geographic region and provide real time, multi-service data and situational information to ground patrols, fixed base stations, and field operations would be extremely beneficial to both military and civilian applications. The use of small Remotely Piloted Vehicles for border patrol would be an effective tool to curb unofficial entry of people and/or goods in to the United States. Search/Rescue teams would benefit greatly from the use of Remotely Piloted Vehicle Systems by greatly reducing the search time with the ability to locate missing and/or injured parties via a fly over. Additionally, critical information could be relayed back to first responders and care providers thus saving valuable prep time for those that have been injured. Remote monitoring in desolate hard to reach areas would serve as an early warning system in the event of natural disasters.

Bodkin Design & Engineering, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 795-1968
Brian Imhausen
AF131-176      Awarded: 12/10/2013
Title:Reusable Extended Artificial Light Source
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To capture images of high speed test events, the government uses high speed photography with high brightness illumination. The government would like to replace existing PF300 flashbulbs with a solution that meets or exceeds current specifications for reusable extended artificial light sources. BD&E proposes a collection of solid-state Lighting Modules based on high powered white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources that can be networked together to provide sufficient illumination for any task. The devices can be powered by batteries or wall power, and are constructed from the most robust illumination components available, enhanced by a bullet- proof protective panel and die-cast housing. BENEFIT: The research and development program addresses the need for improved lighting for high speed photography. This design will be readily adapted to applications where a ruggedized system is a requirement. BD&E anticipates that the result of this research can be applied to other applications where high-intensity light is needed, such as ultra-fast photography of various industrial accident scenarios, automobile and airplane crash events, and fast chemical reactions in chemical plants and laboratories.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dan Mitchell
AF131-176      Awarded: 10/4/2013
Title:FlashLED: A Reusable Extended Light Source
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Nanohmics proposes to develop the FlashLED, a reusable extended artificial light source. Using commercial off the shelf (COTS) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and custom optics, it is possible to create a lighting system that matches the luminous output of the flash bulb with triggerability and intensity rise-time on the nanosecond timescale. The complete system will be expandable and offer synchronization between the flash units via both wired and wireless pathways. COTS white LEDs are tightly binned for spectral output in a wide variety of color temperatures, including 3800K, and monochromatic versions are available for special imaging applications. The reusable nature of the system combined with the fast rise times of LEDs also allow for the flash to fire multiple times per test in synchronicity with the image acquisition. The solid state nature of the LEDs and their drive electronics allow them to withstand high mechanical shock values induced by passing rocket sleds or explosions. Additionally, each unit will have an easily replaceable sheet, constructed from impact resistant polymer, to protect the custom optic from damage by shrapnel generated from a test event. BENEFIT: Flash illumination is a complex and varied market with hundreds of use cases and almost as many ways to create flashes, whether the lamp is dedicated to a single task or multiple tasks in a single device. Frost & Sullivan put the strobe illumination market at $2.25 billion in 2009. This includes all major uses from— personal and commercial to scientific and filming. The scientific and technical markets are likely between $100M-200M per year. Markets for flash illumination include Military, Automotive, Industrial/Environmental, Food Industry, Manufacturing, Filming and Medical.

Trout Green Technologies, Incorporated
13581 Pond Springs Rd #305
Austin, TX 78729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 331-9600
George Monnat, Jr.
AF131-176      Awarded: 12/9/2013
Title:Reusable Extended Artificial Light Source
Abstract:ABSTRACT: We propose a lamp for ultra-high speed photography according to the specifications of the solicitation. BENEFIT: The lamp design can be used for any ultra-high speed photography, particularly where the item under test is explosive or passes at sufficient speed to cause an over-pressure event.

Photon-X, Inc
360-C Quality Circle Suite 350
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3416
Blair Barbour
AF131-177      Awarded: 12/12/2013
Title:Angle of Incidence (AOI) Measurement Capability
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The U.S. Air Force seeks to advance the state-of-the-art in angle-of-incidence (AOI) sensing. A key motivation is that the lethality of certain weapon systems used against certain targets is often strongly influenced by AOI at a favorable aim point. Weapon systems that can most benefit from AOI sensing include directed energy weapons and precision guided munitions. The proposed work is divided into three phases. Phase I, the subject of the present proposal, focuses on assessing the feasibility of candidate AOI approaches and delivering a sensor concept likely to satisfy key USAF requirements. Phase II focuses on further validating the sensor concept by designing, assembling and testing the most promising AOI sensor prototype. Phase III will incorporate industry requirements into the design and proceed to full-scale commercial implementation. The proposer, Photon X, Inc. of Huntsville, AL, asserts that a key component of an AOI sensing solution is likely to be a spatial phase imaging (SPI) sensor. SPI imagers have the ability to stream high-accuracy 3D shape data from which optimal AOI/aim points can be determined. Importantly, SPI imagers (like conventional digital cameras) can be manufactured in low-SWaP, low-cost, multi-use sensor packages. BENEFIT: SPI sensors will deliver remarkable benefit to the USAF in wide ranging applications including: • Sense and avoid • Situational awareness • Target/human detection (ATR) • Multi-modal, long-standoff, on-the-move biometrics • UAS control, analytics and natural visualization • Terrain analysis and geospatial imaging • Battle damage assessment & recovery • Modeling and simulation • Training • Mission planning and rehearsal

Physical Optics Corporation
Applied Technologies Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Kenneth Levin
AF131-177      Awarded: 11/25/2013
Title:Angle of Incidence Measurement System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for improved sensors to measure the angle of incidence (AOI), trajectory, and angle of attack (AOA) of missiles and projectiles at impact, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Angle of Incidence Measurement Sensor (AIMS) system. The innovation in the system architecture and design based on mature “streak” cameras and laser radar components and processing algorithms offers AOI, trajectory, and AOA measurements of incoming weapons at an unprecedented accuracy (<1 deg error, <5 cm position error) at high speed (up to Mach 2). By design, this system offers long-distance sensing even at small sun angles and sun glint and consumes less than 25 W in operation. The design leverages commercial miniature components and our packaging designs to offer a small and lightweight system with ruggedized sensors for the ground test range. In Phase I, POC will survey existing sensor systems and design a complete prototype AIMS system. We will also validate the use of our line scan hardware in missile imaging applications and fabricate a proof-of-concept prototype to demonstrate our results. In Phase II, we will refine our design per Air Force input and fabricate a complete production-ready AIMS sensor system. BENEFIT: The proposed AIMS sensor system will make possible high-accuracy measurement of fast- moving targets using low-cost imaging sensors. Commercial applications include aerospace targeting and flight guidance, high-speed manufacturing process control, and vehicle safety and collision avoidance sensors.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Timothy E. Fair
AF131-177      Awarded: 11/18/2013
Title:Accurate Angle of Incidence (AOI) Measurement Capability
Abstract:ABSTRACT: For certain weapons systems, lethality is directly correlated to the orientation of the weapon with respect to the target at impact, also known as the angle of incidence (AOI). Accurately measuring AOI is of the utmost importance in developing and advancing state-of-the-art precision weapon systems. Currently, there is no commercially available sensor system for measuring AOI to the precision necessary to fully support analysis and development of these weapons systems. A successful AOI measurement sensor system must produce extremely accurate position and orientation estimates for the weapon and target in 3D. Strike warfare presents the added complexity of targeting precise geographic locations requiring a 3D topographic modeling process to enable AOI measurement capability. Recently advances in imaging sensor technology and image processing algorithms have made robust and highly accurate 3D scene reconstruction possible by utilizing small UAV platforms. Toyon Research Corporation proposes leveraging UAV imaging technology, combined with stationary ground tracking sensors, to produce a highly accurate and robust AOI measurement sensor system capable of providing AOI for a multitude weapon/target pairings. Toyon will investigate existing UAV and ground based sensor technologies to develop a sensor system capable of achieving necessary accuracy requirements. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this research will result in the development of a sensor concept that provides accurate 3D tracking and modeling capabilities for accurately measuring AOI. This sensor concept will prove invaluable for developing, testing, and analyzing current and future military weapons systems. Successful development of a sensor system would also provide higher fidelity tracking for non-weapons related testing where highly accurate 3D tracking is necessary.

MetroLaser, Inc.
22941 Mill Creek Drive
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Cecil Hess
AF131-180      Awarded: 4/23/2013
Title:Vibration Measurement Methodology to Correct Aero-Optics Measurements
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MetroLaser proposes a test and evaluation methodology to optimize the information return of aero-optic wind tunnel tests, which are corrupted by mechanical vibration. The aero-optic and vibration effects are added and to separate them it would be necessary to accurately measure the effect of vibration on the overall signal. The proposed technology includes measuring the vibration of individual components that affect the optical wavefront and arriving at a methodology to mitigate the effect of tunnel vibration and accurately retrieve the aero- optic measurements. The Phase I work would consist of analytical work to define the methodology requirements, developing a measurement breadboard, conducting experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique, and developing software to collect and analyze the data. BENEFIT: The proposed system and measurement methodology would find application in two general markets: 1) as indicated in the solicitation in military and commercial wind tunnels that have the need for accurate optical measurements in the presence of tunnel vibration, and 2) optical measurements without a vibration isolation table. The first market, which is the technical drive of the current solicitation, has a market potential of several systems considering both domestic and international wind tunnels. The second market can be substantially larger since it could, in principle, include industrial measurements where a vibration isolation table is not practical.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard Blvd. SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 684-4100
Matthew R. Whiteley
AF131-180      Awarded: 4/30/2013
Title:Directed Energy Wind Tunnel Test Methodology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: MZA partnered with the University of Notre Dame proposes to implement a series of mechanical and optical sensor measurements in a wind tunnel test section to isolate aero- optical disturbances from contaminating tunnel disturbances. We will develop a design for the necessary sensors and the number/location of these sensors on the tunnel observation windows. Particular attention will be given in our design to the sensor requirements for instrumenting tunnel test sections at AEDC which is extensible to other tunnel facilities. Mechanical modeling of tunnel window deformations will be conducted and validated through testing in Phase I at Notre Dame’s White Field test facility. Wavefront sensor measurements will be made of window deformations and additional tunnel-induced disturbances such as boundary layers, unintended shear layers, and temperature fluctuations in the tunnel free- stream flow will be quantified. Data processing for isolating aero-optical disturbances from tunnel contamination will be developed for the prototype measurement system. We will interface the measured tunnel disturbances to beam-train optical simulations in WaveTrain for assessing the suitability of the tunnel environment for proposed directed energy tests. Dr. Matthew Whiteley will be Principal Investigator for MZA and Professor Eric Jumper will be the Principal Scientist for Notre Dame. BENEFIT: The tunnel measurement system proposed here will allow AEDC and other wind tunnel facilities to isolate contaminating optical disturbances induced by the test section from aero- optical effects which are characteristic of laser directed energy systems and their associated beam director turrets/apertures. This system will improve the quality of aero-optical test data measured in subscale and full-scale wind tunnel tests for assessing performance limitations and operational envelopes of laser systems prior to costly aircraft integration and flight testing. Such a system will also help to identify sources of disturbances in the tunnel and suggest strategies for minimizing or eliminating these contaminants. Once tunnel disturbances are abated, additional testing such as real-time laser beam control tests can also be conducted in tunnels at AEDC. After proven successful for AEDC, the proposed measurement system, data processing, and optical modeling can be extended to other wind tunnels at government, industry, and academic facilities. The system may also be incorporated into a transportable Optical Diagnostic Range Simulator hardware used for testing laser systems in laboratory or hangar. The same product can be used in operational laser tests using a wind tunnel test section, becoming an integral part of the directed energy system developmental cycle.

Physics, Materials & Applied Math Research, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 862-1795
Nathan Tichenor
AF131-180      Awarded: 4/30/2013
Title:Practical Wind Tunnel Test Methodology for Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:ABSTRACT: There is an urgent DoD desire to better enable effective ground testing T&E methodologies in order to maximize the information return for DE systems. During the planning phase for wind tunnel tests, the finite number of options for positioning the source, target, and sensors are evaluated. If the dynamic environment of each location is known, a motion damping system can be used to mitigate the jitter present in the wind tunnel. PM&AM Research, in collaboration with Texas A&M University, proposes to address this important capability gap by developing a practical wind tunnel test methodology for directed energy applications, using both optical and mechanical diagnostics to logically develop/mature the technology. A unique aspect of the proposed Phase I effort is the culminating wind tunnel testing demonstrations in the 8’x10’ Oran W Nicks Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) facility at Texas A&M University. The proposed methodology will be matured through the multiple-phase SBIR effort, into a useful system which can be easily implemented in any wind tunnel facility, to provide useful results for DE systems. BENEFIT: The technology described here has very clear application in a wide range of future DoD and non-DoD facilities/systems. Our proposed methodology would not only greatly benefit DoD wind tunnel facilities, but commercial and academic facilities as well. Additionally, the concepts developed during the Phase I/II efforts can easily be modified to produce a useful and cost-effective dynamic measurement system for a wide range of applications outside of wind tunnel testing. For example, in testing communications equipment, vehicles, or structures, where vibrations due to the test facility typically degrade or contaminate the data signal, our concept can be employed to isolate these vibrations from the data.

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Esteban Gonzalez-Juez
AF131-181      Awarded: 5/14/2013
Title:Computational Modeling of Coupled Acoustic and Combustion Phenomena Inherent to Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Combustion instabilities can be a serious problem in combustion devices including augmentors/afterburners. Their prediction is very challenging due to nonlinear interactions between various complex phenomena, including acoustics, combustion, and turbulence. The goal of this project is to provide a framework that will allow the development of new models of combustion instabilities benefiting from an open, large, and multi-disciplinary community of researchers, a framework needed to tackle difficult multi-physics problems such as combustion instabilities. To accomplish this goal, OpenFOAM will be used to develop two models for combustion instabilities: a CFD model and a nonlinear acoustics model. A CFD model is needed as it has the potential to be truly predictive; however, they are computationally complex and expensive. A nonlinear acoustic model is more computationally tractable in the short term and provides a viable validation tool for the CFD model. Linear models are not considered because they have been amply studied and cannot provide information about limit cycles. For Phase I, this work will use simple combustion-instabilities problems to evaluate current CFD models in OpenFOAM, plan potential modifications to these models, and develop a nonlinear acoustic model in OpenFOAM. A plan to conduct new experiments for Phase II will be devised. BENEFIT: Combustion instabilities are thermo-acoustic phenomena characterized by pressure oscillations with well-defined frequencies and with amplitudes that can be large enough to cause damage to a combustor. Tools that can predict potential combustion instabilities in early design stages will considerably reduce costs associated with the design and testing of gas turbine engines. Hence, the tools developed here will be of considerable interest to the gas turbine industry. From a broader perspective, again due to the multi-physics nature of combustion instabilities, the expertise developed by CSE in this project about these instabilities and OpenFOAM can be easily extended to other projects of interest such as prediction of blow-off in augmentors, study of basic aspects of flame extinction and reignition, prediction of pollutant formation from flames, and design of industrial burners with CFD. This expertise can be sold to a wide variety of industries, something which CSE has been doing for more than ten years. The market size for the technology developed in this project is over $10M due to the many potential applications and the pervasiveness of these issues.

Flow Modeling and Simulation
500 Ryland Street Suite 110
Reno, NV 89502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 581-6119
Houshang Ebrahimi
AF131-181      Awarded: 5/14/2013
Title:Computational Modeling of Coupled Acoustic and Combustion Phenomena Inherent to Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Flow Modeling and Simulation, LLC (FMS), proposes to develop a computational software tool, herein designated AUG3D, that is intended to provide physics-based, multi-level, validated computational simulations of turbine engine component flow fields, particularly those associated with thrust augmentors, i.e., afterburners. This tool will be ideally suited for closely integrating physical testing and design of gas turbine engines, especially for applications involving designs that employ augmentors. The software tool will be will be designed to support testing through test matrix optimization and direct test support, e.g., selection and placement of instrumentation, thereby improving test efficiency and reducing test cost. AUG3D will be comprised of com¬prehensive modules capable of accurately capturing spatial and temporal changes in physical parameters critical to augmentor design. A particular focus of the proposed tool is on flow fields resulting from engine augmentors that produce combustion instabilities. BENEFIT: Most aerospace technology development programs utilize computational simulation tools, and in particular CFD codes, in conjunction with major experimental/testing efforts. There is a very strong need for high fidelity computational analyses to (1) assist in pre-test planning, (2) design and improve ground test facilities and test techniques, (3) interpret experimental data, (4) provide insight to flow regions where experimental diagnostics are not located, (5) extrapolate results from ground tests to flight conditions, (6) help identify the source of problems, including failures of experiments, and (7) optimize testing to reduce cost and shorten test time. The results of using AUG3D in making such evaluations in the AEDC test work-flow will be carefully documented to help quantify where improvements occur and efficiencies are gained, and to provide guidelines for future users to make the best choices in code settings relative to how the new tool is being used in the test environment.

Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories LLC
2212 Harton Blvd
Tullahoma, TN 37388
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 455-7333
Gary Flandro
AF131-181      Awarded: 5/10/2013
Title:Augmentor Stability
Abstract:ABSTRACT: As with all other combustion devices, the augmentors in high-performance gas turbine engines are at risk of combustion instability. While it is tempting to apply brute force CFD to address this problem, at best high fidelity CFD may reveal what happens but not why it happens. While thousands of high fidelity CFD runs could be used to generate empirical type trends, that path is impractical. Instead, it is imperative to understand the sources and root causes of instability if this serious technical issue is to be overcome. Doing so will dramatically reduce development risk and cost, while also allowing maximum performance. To achieve this insight into combustion instability, GTL has developed the Universal Combustion Device Stability (UCDS) process. UCDS is a physics-based model that employs a hybrid analytical-computational analysis wherein energy transport in and out of unsteady fields can be tracked. Doing so quantifies the sources of unsteady energy and their effect on the overall stability. A sophisticated set of computational tools are in place to facilitate this approach. Altogether, UCDS can predict instability, quantify sources of driving or damping, and provide a critical understanding of combustion instability in augmentors at a significantly reduced computational cost. BENEFIT: Combustion instability, whether it is in the form of low frequency rumble or high frequency screech is a serious risk (likelihood and severity) to propulsion system development programs. This instability is characterized by organized pressure oscillations that can severely damage engine hardware or structural damage limiting augmentor operability. To overcome this issue, developers have largely used a cut-and-try approach, which has proven to be costly and not always reliable. In contrast, the UCDS process provides clear insight into why the propulsion system behaves the way it does. This allows developers to design the issue out of their system early or quickly mitigate the issue if it arises during testing. This approach will greatly reduce development cost, schedule and risk, while also allowing performance to be improved. Since UCDS is built from a general formulation it can be applied to practically any combustion device, including augmentors, combustors, liquid rockets, solid rockets, ramjets and scramjets.

IllinoisRocstar LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive P. O. Box 3001
Champaign, IL 61826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 542-8123
Bono Wasistho
AF131-181      Awarded: 5/14/2013
Title:Large Eddy Simulations of Acoustic Combustion Phenomena Inherent to Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Development, implementation and validation of a computational model to simulate combustion processes coupled with acoustic phenomena is critical to quantitatively predict acoustic waves inherent to gas turbine engines, i.e. screech and rumble. For a rigorous high-fidelity numerical model for acoustic combustion in engine augmentors, we identified several critical technology components. These include compressible LES, low Mach number schemes, efficient time advancement, non-reflecting boundary conditions, turbulent combustion modeling for LES, Lagrangian multiphase modeling for liquid breakup and evaporation, and a CFD method that accurately, yet efficiently captures high frequency acoustic waves in a complex geometry setting. Most of these required technology components are already available in the IllinoisRocstar Rocstar Simulation Suite physics modules. We propose a series of enhancements for the purpose of adding new physics, bringing the existing models closer to first principles, and increasing the numerical efficiency and accuracy. We include a validation roadmap that will systematically validate the high-fidelity methodology, starting from academic canonical problems to realistic augmentor geometries and physics of engineering interest. These include premixed combustion, liquid fuel injection, breakup and evaporation, some non-premixed spray combustion, all coupled with resolved acoustic waves and turbulent fluctuations, and their corresponding subgrid scale effects. BENEFIT: The IllinoisRocstar Chimera-overset mesh code, RocfloCM, and multiphase particle software tool, Rocpart, will be fully embedded within a commercially-oriented design tool for predictive modeling. The Phase II anticipated result is that we will have fully demonstrated—on realistic hardware geometries and flow conditions—a new methodology that permits high-fidelity predictive simulations of the effects of acoustic combustion instabilities on engine augmentor performance and integrity. This demonstration will substantially extend the state of the art in terms of computational efficiency and predictive accuracy, when compared against current commercial and in-house tools. We expect that this new methodology will be an enabling technology for the high-fidelity prediction of turbulent combustion flows in complex gas turbine augmentor applications. This program will provide pathways to two salable products: software and engineering services. Software: A validated tool to predict acoustic combustion instabilities in engine combustors will be available from this work. It will be of commercial quality, and have great modeling flexibility due to its modular, multiphysics module structure, and incorporate state- of-the-art methods for modeling augmentor rumble and screech instabilities. All DoD

Amethyst Research Incorporated
123 Case Circle
Ardmore, OK 73401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(580) 657-2575
Weerasinghe Priyantha
AF131-182      Awarded: 5/6/2013
Title:ULTRA-HIGH PERFOMANCE SOLID-STATE REFRIGERATION USING II-VI LOW DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This program targets development of a high-performance thermoelectric (TE) cooler with a figure-of-merit, ZT > 3, which greatly exceeds currently available technology. The cooler is fabricated using Group II-VI compound semiconductors, i.e. HgCdSe or HgCdTe, using a low dimensional structure know as a “superlattice” (SL). The proposed TE coolers will operate at temperatures ranging from 50K to 300K, thereby providing a fundamentally new and disruptive method for achieving cryogenic cooling. In fact, currently no solid-state refrigerator can provide sufficient cooling for high-performance infrared (IR) detectors or that can cool from room temperature down to the transition temperature of superconductors or similar systems. In addition, applications involving the thermal management of high performance II-VI based infrared (IR) sensors and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) are well suited to this technology since the cooler is fabricated using similar materials. This enables monolithic integration of the FPA and cooler leading to extended component lifetime and a very fast cooling response. Furthermore, standard integrated-circuit batch fabrication techniques can be used to economically manufacture the integrated coolers. Amethyst works closely with Teledyne, Raytheon, and FLIR to ensure that this technology can be rapidly integrated into DoD platforms. BENEFIT: The application of infrared sensors and FPAs in civilian, military, and scientific endeavors is growing rapidly. Large staring HgCdTe MWIR/LWIR cameras have excellent image quality and high sensitivity, and are a natural choice for surveillance and targeting at medium and long ranges. With the proliferation of large numbers of unmanned mobile assets to the battlefield, there are strategic intelligence functions (such as IR reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting, and red/blue-force tracking) that cannot be integrated because the platforms cannot support the size, weight, limited-lifetime and cost of the present Stirling cooler technology. Also, similar issues relating to size, weight and cost limit market expansion in commercial applications such as medical diagnosis, environmental and chemical process monitoring, and astronomical imaging. Thus, availability of a light-weight, economical thermoelectric cooler with ZT > 3 at T down to 50 K will provide an immediate benefit to a wide range of high-performance IR imaging systems. One such system is the Army’s Micro-Autonomous Systems and Technologies, which is developing agile unmanned platforms to perform high-risk Army imaging functions. Another system is the Army’s Passive IR Cueing Sensor program - a threat-warning system based on classifying the IR launch signature of hostile inbound threats to ground and air platforms. The lower cost of SL coolers would lead to widespread deployment of these systems.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mark V. Zagarola
AF131-182      Awarded: 5/9/2013
Title:Cryocooler for Sensor Cooling in Cryo-Vacuum Test Chambers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The Air Force uses specially designed facilities to perform ground testing of infrared detector focal plane arrays at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). The current approach for cooling the detectors down to 8 K utilizes liquid helium. The systems to transport and store the liquid helium are expensive to operate and wasteful due to the loss of liquid helium to boiloff. Helium is becoming a scarce resource, so a cooling approach that does not require a significant consumption of cryogen is desired. Creare proposes to develop a cryocooler that will provide focal plane cooling down to 8 K without requiring a liquid helium supply, and will be capable of maintaining stable device temperature over temperatures from 8 K to 60 K. On the Phase I project, we will develop a set of cryocooler requirements, design a cryocooler to meet these requirements, and measure the performance of a brassboard version of the cryocooler. On the Phase II project, we plan to build, assemble, and test a prototype cryocooler. Creare is well qualified to develop and demonstrate this cryocooler technology. Successful completion of this program will enable less expensive ground testing and a significantly reduced consumption of helium at AEDC. BENEFIT: The result of this program will be an efficient, reliable, and affordable cryocooler that enables testing of focal plane arrays at AEDC down to operating temperatures of 8K without using liquid helium. Commercial applications include cooling for airborne infrared sensors, electron microscopes, and superconductors.

FG Systems
3336 S. Lituanica 1st Floor
Chicago, IL 60608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 460-8353
Eric Furman
AF131-182      Awarded: 5/6/2013
Title:Non-Fluid Refrigeration Technology for Cooling Infrared Focal Planes and Other System Components below 50 K in Cryo-Vacuum Test Chambers
Abstract:ABSTRACT: FG Systems proposes to develop a Solid State Magnetocaloric Refrigerator (SSMR) which will provide a means of cooling infrared focal planes and other system components to their operating temperatures without significant consumption of cryogens. The SSMR will be a low vibration level system suitable for space-borne and air-borne applications, as well as have a very high efficiency compatible with battery/solar panel operation. The output of this Phase I project will show the feasibility of the SSMR approach by demonstrating the performance potential of the TRL 4 Phase I breadboard prototype. In Phase II, FG Systems will deliver the ultra compact cryogenic refrigerator system ready for commercial production that will be tested at a user facility, and Phase III will utilize user feedback and produce efficient and compact unit ready for mass production. BENEFIT: Magnetocaloric refrigeration is the next generation of refrigeration technology and a new development in materials science, which could render current refrigeration systems obsolete and lead to far more efficient designs. The resulting product will be a highly marketable cryogenic refrigeration technology that can be used in a wide range of applications, from security applications and other DOD payloads to environmental monitoring. This refrigeration, once proven viable, could also be used in any possible application where cooling, heating, or power generation is used today, such as MRI machine magnet cooling and other medical applications, cooling of IR cameras, gas liquefaction and use in telecommunications cooling.

Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
HUGH MASTERSON
AF131-185      Awarded: 10/28/2013
Title:Liquid Crystal on Silicon Based Compact Multi-Spectral Scene Projector Technology
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The proposed effort will perform a feasibility study on developing a multispectral scene projector from 0.4µm to 5 µm, using liquid crystal on Silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulators (SLMs). BNS has successfully developed scene projector technology using this approach previously. A modular approach will be considered in which additional spectral band scene projector arms (SPAs) can be integrated into the complete system as required, and in which the assembled system provides simultaneous imaging through a common aperture. The proposed technical evaluation will consider the use of two SLMs in each spectral arm of the system. The first SLM will provide spectral engine functionality in which a spectrally dispersed and focused beam can be amplitude modulated to provide a beam with a detailed target specific spectral signature to a second spatial SLM which generates the scene. The main thrust of the study will be to determine a way to optically integrate spectral information in widely separated spectral bands. Optical modeling and optical material studies will form part of the investigation in addition to the fabrication of polarization optics with dielectric stacks which can provide the necessary functionality from 0.4µm to 5 µm. Reflective designs will also be considered. BENEFIT: The Phase I feasibility study will provide a roadmap for the development of a prototype multi- spectral scene generator. The successful development of this technology will have applications in missile and commercial rocket guidance systems, in airborne and satellite based remote sensing ground based calibration, in sensor calibration and in military and civilian personnel training in associated technologies. Additional benefits stemming from the development of spectral engine technology include chemical sensing spectroscopy and display applications.

OPTRA, Inc
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Julia Rentz Dupuis
AF131-185      Awarded: 10/28/2013
Title:Multispectral High Dynamic Range DMD-Based Scene Projector
Abstract:ABSTRACT: OPTRA proposes the development of a three-band visible (VIS), shortwave infrared (SWIR), and midwave infrared (MWIR) high dynamic range digital micromirror device (DMD)-based scene projector incorporating OPTRA’s patented structured illumination technique for achieving low background scene projection and high contrast at high frame rates with the associated short integration times. This approach will use two source-conditioning DMDs operating in binary mode to illuminate three projector DMDs operating in either binary or PWM grayscale mode. One projector DMD is used for each spectral channel, and one source conditioning DMD is used for the VIS and SWIR channels and the other for the MWIR channel. Dichroics are used to produce a spatially registered total projected image which is high in contrast owing to the structured illumination and is also effectively analog owing to the binary illumination patterns which appear spatially grayscaled due to low pass spatial filtering by relay optics; these qualities are independent of frame rate and the associated integration time of the unit under test. The proposed solution also has a flicker- free mode where all DMDs are operated in binary mode. BENEFIT: The proposed solution offers high contrast, infinite bit-depth scene projection at high frame rates and over three spectral bands as well as excellent uniformity and 100% pixel operability. Applications include training and test of visible through midwave infrared imagers and threat detectors.

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Fang Zhang
AF131-185      Awarded: 11/7/2013
Title:Multi-Spectral Flickerless Dynamic Scene Projector
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force need for a compact multi-spectral scene projector technology, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Multi-Spectral Flickerless Dynamic Scene Projector (MSFDSP) system based on a novel integration of broadband light sources with spatial light modulators (SLMs) combined with dynamic range enhancement and stray ray reduction. The unique system design, which combines analog amplitude modulation with dynamic range enhancement controlled electro-optically and pixel- wisely, will enable the MSFDSP to provide low background flickerless generation of dynamic imagery over the wavelength band of 0.4 to 5.0 microns (scalable to UV or LWIR). Therefore, this system offers flicker-free grayscale operation, multi-spectral (visible, SWIR, and MWIR) coverage, stray light reduction, and compact footprint, which directly address the Air Force requirements for a multi-spectral scene projector. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MSFDSP by researching a variety of technical approaches, choosing an optimum design approach, and developing an estimate of expected performance. A proof-of- concept prototype will be constructed and tested to demonstrate MSFDSP’s feasibility. In Phase II, POC plans to develop and demonstrate a fully functional engineering prototype that meets Air Force requirements for a compact multi-spectral scene projector. BENEFIT: The proposed MSFDSP will address the need for a compact multi-spectral scene projector technology to provide low background flickerless generation of dynamic imagery over the wavelength band of ~0.4-5.0 microns. Therefore, it will meet Air Force test requirements (unlike current technologies) without significant modifications to the existing hardware. The innovative design makes possible low background flickerless generation of dynamic imagery over the visible, SWIR, and MWIR wavelength band (0.4-5.0 microns). As a result, we believe MSFDSP technology has advantages in performance over the competitors. These advantages include flicker-free grayscale operation, multi-spectral operation, stray light reduction, and a compact footprint. Commercial applications of MSFDSP will include testing optics and imaging systems for scientific and entertainment markets, as presentation and movie projectors, for on-board systems, and in commercial simulation test facilities.

Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 932-0279
Timothy Onasch
AF131-188      Awarded: 5/21/2013
Title:Development of a rapid, quantitative, and cost-effective method for measurement of nonvolatile PM emissions from military aircraft compliant with cert
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The goal of this SBIR project is to demonstrate that the Cambustion DMS500 (or similar technology) can meet EPA and SAE E31 requirements for measurements of aircraft soot emissions. Combined with the software developed in this project, the DMS500 will represent a robust, cost-effective instrument package that can be rapidly adopted and deployed by the military. The proposed project directly addresses the critical need identified by the Department of Defense for new techniques for rapid, accurate measurements of particle number, size, and mass-based emission factors in order to meet existing regulations for military aircraft. We propose to use laboratory-generated flame soot, representative of aircraft exhaust, and a suite of state-of-the-art particulate instruments to quantify the uncertainties in the DMS500 measurements. The major uncertainties are the effects of particle shape and density as a function of mobility diameter and the effects of instrument counting statistics (including particle charging and transmission issues). These results will be incorporated into software that will quantify the uncertainties of the DMS500 instrument for measuring aircraft soot emissions. Existing DMS500 measurements will be analyzed with this procedure to demonstrate potential compliance with government requirements. A proposed Phase II project will demonstrate regulatory requirement compliance during field measurements. BENEFIT: The proposed project will demonstrate the application of new technology to provide a rapid, real-time method for measuring the number, size, and mass of refractory aircraft exhaust emissions in engine test facilities and under real-world operating conditions that meet current EPA and SAE requirements. The fundamental research involved will lead to a better understanding of the physical properties of aircraft soot in general and the applied, instrument-specific, research will enable the Department of Defence to meet a critical need for quantifying aircraft fleet exhaust emissions with a single, robust instrument package. Through this project, we anticipate opening a new commercial market by bundling the DMS500 instrument, including our post-processing software, with a SAE E-31 compliant sampling line we are developing under a related project for direct sale to potential customers and for obtaining service contracts for conducting the regulatory measurements at customer’s specified locations.

Artium Technologies, Inc.
470 Lakeside Drive Unit C
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 999-2679
William Bachalo
AF131-188      Awarded: 5/16/2013
Title:Gas Turbine Engine Particle Emission Characterization
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Under this feasibility study, we will investigate innovative methods for characterizing particulate emissions with a high degree of specificity to nonvolatile soot. Currently, no single instrument is available that can provide complete characterization of soot emissions. Instrumentation for reliable detection and characterization of nonvolatile particulate matter to obtain mass concentration, particle number concentrations, size distributions and specific surface area are proposed. Integration of the methods will be used to provide the missing information needed for complete PM characterization. Calibration means for the set up and validation of these measurements will also be investigated. Laser induced incandescence (LII) techniques calibrated with NIST traceable means will be used to measure soot volume fraction, primary particle size, and specific PM surface area. Condensation particle counters (CPC) will be used to obtain particle concentrations. These measurements will be combined with the LII measurements to obtain soot equivalent mean volume diameter. Particle mobility detection methods will be used to obtain particle size distributions with corrections for soot aggregate morphology using the fractal dimensions and corrected drag for these aggregate particles. The LII measurements of primary particle size and equivalent mean volume diameter of soot will be used to qualify the mobility size distribution measurements. BENEFIT: The present SBIR Phase I program will lead to a measurement system for characterizing soot volume fraction, mass concentration, primary particle size, aggregate size distribution and mean size, and number concentration. This development may be scaled down to provide subsets of the information as needed. We expect to also provide calibration means to ensure the reliability of these measurements. Results made available with these integrated diagnostics will provide a complete characterization of nonvolatile PM emissions from gas turbine engines and other combustion sources such as diesel engines, direct injection gasoline engines, and power plants. PM characterization instruments that can reliably measure black carbon (soot) PM are needed by jet engine manufactures to support their development efforts required in meeting the more stringent emissions standards that are in place and expected in the future. These instruments will also be necessary to enforce compliance with these regulations. It is anticipated that subsets of the proposed integrated instruments will be required for PM measurements in urban areas including the areas in the vicinity of busy airports. Other commercial applications will include atmospheric studies of PM concentrations and how these nonvolatile particulate affect climate.

Spectral Energies, LLC
5100 Springfield Street Suite 301
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-6546
Sukesh Roy
AF131-188      Awarded: 5/16/2013
Title:Fast Measurements of Particle Emission Using Combined DMA and LII Technologies
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This topic calls for a fast and accurate sensor for measurements of particle number density, size distribution, and mass-based emission factors (indices) as an alternate to EPA Method 5 currently used by DoD for reporting turbine particulate matter (PM) emission rates. There is a need for thorough research to experimentally determine the accuracy of DMA and CNC, and also to seek alternative intrusive/non-intrusive measurement techniques for characterizing combustion particles generated from aircraft engines. As the topic states, the ultimate goal of these research efforts is to develop a fast technique with ~1 Hz per 10-1000 nm diameter scan that is capable of measuring accurate number densities, size distributions, and mass based emission factors. The technique should be applicable to various engine types and operating conditions under a variety of test environments to provide a sound, accurate basis for DoD to report PM emission rates to the regulatory authorities. We propose an innovative system combining the established DMA technique and a non- intrusive laser-based technique, LII (Laser Induced Incandescence), to address the above requirements listed in this topic. The combined system is expected to enable quantitative and simultaneous measurements of particle number density, size distribution, shape parameters, and mass-emission indices at temporal resolution better than 5 Hz. The goals of this Phase I project are: 1) to identify off-the-shelf components that can be used to build the combined system, 2) to develop robust and unambiguous procedures to calibrate the combined system, and 3) to deliver data processing models, software, and proof-of-concept data for the combined system. These efforts are expected to prepare the groundwork for the delivery of a prototype measurement system ready for gas turbine applications should this project be encouraged for Phase II. BENEFIT: If the Phase-I research effort on the combined DMS+LII technique is successful, it will have a major impact on the characterization of gas turbine particulates. This combined system will enable the simultaneous measurements of particle size, number, and mass at better than 5 Hz temporal resolution, and the measurements will be backed by tractable calibration procedures. The LII technique (and also scattering and photoacoustic techniques) is also well suited for in situ measurement. Instrumentation for measuring particulates is critical in the deployment of propulsion systems for the warfighter. However, current instruments are not capable of real-time (~5 Hz) measurements of particle number density, size distribution, shape parameters, and mass-emission indices. By combining commercially available instruments and developing proper test protocols, it may be feasible to alleviate this deficiency. Such protocols could potentially address a wide range of engine types with different operating conditions under a variety of test environments. The unique market opportunity, therefore, is to develop a new versatile instrument platform that will provide a fast and accurate basis for the DoD to report PM emission rates to the regulatory authorities.

C9 Corporation
107 Hermes Rd Suite 225
Malta, NY 12020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 289-5831
Stan Hemstad
AF131-189      Awarded: 4/23/2013
Title:Wind Tunnel High Temperature Heater Element
Abstract:ABSTRACT: C9 Proposes to Develop a high Temperature Heating Element to Augment the Wind Tunnel at AEDC. The element will be fabricated by molding a creamic composite molding compound using methods developed for other defense and commercial applications. The element will be capable of surface temperatures in excess of 3200DegF to heat the wind tunnel air to at least 2800DegF. The material will be made by molding high temperature refractory powders with a small % of ceramic forming polymers. A porosity free element will be achievde by multiple reimpregnations of preceramic polymer and the resistivity of the ends will be lowered by adding low resistivity fillers and dopants to the molding compound. Oxidation resistance will be achieved by adding refractory fillers to the molding compound but multilayer CVD coatings will also be tried for comparison. BENEFIT: Produce a heating elemnt that meets AEDC's immediate needs for testing hypervelocity engines. Develop a market for high temperature heating elemenst to replace Moly-Disilicide heating elements in laboratory applications and SiC elements in high temperature oxidizing applications.

Plasma Processes, LLC
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville, AL 35811
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 851-7653
John Scott O'Dell
AF131-189      Awarded: 4/19/2013
Title:Oxidation Resistant Heating Elements for High Temperature Wind Tunnels
Abstract:ABSTRACT: High temperature wind tunnels are needed to replicate the environment vehicles will experience during high Mach number flight. Of particular interest are sustained airflow temperatures of 2800 F. Although this level of performance has been obtained by two of NASA's wind tunnel facilities (i.e. High Temperature Tunnel (HTT) at Langley Research Center and Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at Glenn Research Center), the period of performance at such a high level is short, and the quality of the air flow suffers significantly from undesirable combustion media and/or foreign object debris (FOD). In addition, the current heating configurations require excessive downtime for repair and maintenance. Therefore, an improved heating element/configuration is needed that possess excellent high temperature oxidation resistance and will resist spallation that results in FOD generation. For thermal shock resistance, a high thermal conductivity, which is typically associated with metallic materials, is required. Of the high temperature metallic materials, only iridium has both the high melting temperature (~4500 F) and the oxidation resistance to be considered. Recent work has shown the advantages of iridium based materials for use in high temperature, oxidizing environments such as iridium lined radiatively cooled rocket engines using highly oxidizing fuels and iridium electrodes for the processing of molten oxides. During this effort, an oxidation resistant, high temperature wind tunnel heating element will be demonstrated based on iridium. However for extended service life in high temperature wind tunnels, improvements in the oxidation resistance of an iridium will be needed. Therefore, the use of rhodium alloy additions and the formation of a stable hafnium oxide layer for additional oxidation protection will be evaluated. BENEFIT: This proposed technology is applicable to leading edges of hypersonic vehicles, rockets nozzles, combustion liners, jet vanes, furnaces, igniters, spark plugs, and other applications that may experience extremely high thermal gradients.

(ES3) Engineering & Software System Solution, Inc.
550 West C Street, Suite 1630
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 928-2719
Rob Huot
AF131-196      Awarded: 9/25/2013
Title:Landing Gear Strut Operational Readiness Monitoring
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Landing gear systems are one of the more problematic subsystems on USAF aircraft. The most common landing gear failures are caused by mis-servicing of the gear, resulting in much higher loads (even for a "normal" landing events or cause excessive fatigue damage than originally assumed). This phenomena is present and problematic for multiple aircraft platforms. The ability to measure, record, and alert maintainers and crew of mis-serviced struts would give System Program Offices the ability to make more intelligent management decisions about operational limits, inspection intervals, and removal & depot overhaul cycle values. ES3 proposes to address mis-servicing issues through the use of a stand alone, on-aircraft, miniaturized data acquisition. The strut monitoring system (SMS) will have the ability to process and store captured data, and use programmed logic to detect mis-servicing and alert operators to a problematic landing gear. In this Phase I SBIR effort, ES3 will evaluate several of these systems, energy harvesting devices and applicable sensors for their suitability in a strut monitoring system. During optional activities, prototype hardware will be laboratory tested for various SMS functionality. This Phase I effort will prepare for Phase II activities that will focus on design, qualification and implementation planning efforts. BENEFIT: ES3 anticipates the results of Phase I work will validate the feasibility and need for immediate pursuit of Phase II efforts. ES3 anticipates that current SMS technology is available to design and prototype a system that will meet the objectives of the program. The immediate benefit will be the ability to warn operators of low fluid level. This, in turn, will allow for more intelligent maintenance requirements, or inspection and repair intervals. This will maximize the utilization of the landing gear components, without compromising their safe operation; which will ensure life cycle cost reductions.

Dayton T. Brown, Inc.
1175 Church Street
Bohemia, NY 11716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 244-6280
William Bradshaw
AF131-196      Awarded: 10/28/2013
Title:Landing Gear Strut Operational Readiness Monitoring
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Dayton T Brown, Inc. (DTB), a leader in aircraft system engineering and testing services, is proposing to develop a comprehensive, robust, and accurate system for monitoring and assessing the operational readiness of landing gear systems via verification of proper serving (i.e. fluid level, gas pressure and temperature). DTB will team with General Atomics – Systems Integration Division (GA-SI), experts in landing gear systems, to provide a solution that encompasses real world landing gear operational considerations, meets or exceeds reliability requirements and also benefits aircraft maintainers in that this system will become a deployed reality, once fully developed. BENEFIT: There are significant opportunities for widespread adoption of a robust, multifunction monitoring system that will accurately verify landing gear servicing requirements. Upon proof of concept at Phase I, the design could easily be adapted to different aircraft and helicopter platforms. For both military and commercial aircraft, this information would improve efficiency and safety as the aircraft maintainer would have an easy, non-intrusive way of determining the operational readiness of the landing gear. This is true of international markets as well.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 220-2501
Nathan Brown
AF131-196      Awarded: 9/9/2013
Title:Direct Measurement of Fluid Level, Gas Pressure, and Temperature for Autonomous Landing Gear Shock Strut Operational Readiness Evaluation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aircraft oleo-pneumatic landing gear shock struts require a precise gas to fluid ratio. Measuring oil fluid level explicitly requires time consuming service and temporary aircraft inoperability. Current approaches to verify the operational readiness of landing gear shock struts forgo measuring oil fluid level directly, and instead compare x-dimension (shock strut extension) to gas pressure and/or aircraft gross weight, often leading to improperly serviced shock struts. Gas pressure is typically adjusted during inspections, which can adversely alter the gas to fluid ratio degrading a shock struts ability to absorb and dissipate impact forces that can result in airframe damage or personnel injuries. An automated method for directly measuring oil fluid level, gas pressure(s), and temperature would yield greater confidence of shock strut operational readiness, and vastly increase inspection efficiency and accuracy. To meet this critical need, Luna proposes to develop a non-obtrusive, ultra low- power, wireless system comprised of conformal solid-sate capacitive fluid level, pressure, and temperature sensors. The system will have the ability to wirelessly transmit in real-time, autonomously record data to embedded memory, and will require minimal retrofit implementation modifications. Finally, the system will be ruggedized to withstand the operating environment with considerations including temperature, vibration, de-icing, and environmental effects. BENEFIT: Successful implementation of the proposed technology will provide aerospace maintainers with an extremely helpful tool to verify the operational readiness of aircraft landing gear shock struts. In addition to the clear benefits of such a sensing system for maintaining, inspecting, and reducing safety risks to DoD aircraft and personnel, potential commercial application for this technology is broad. The proposed shock strut sensing system will benefit the commercial aircraft industry by greatly increasing inspection efficiency and accuracy and decreasing safety risks to aircraft, crew members, and passengers. Oleo-pneumatic shocks are used in numerous industries; they are used to support large industrial equipment, to decelerate railcars, and often incorporated in suspension systems, including automobiles and motorcycles, and therefore are other candidates for this technology. The shock strut sensing system can be used as a tool for evaluating maintenance intervals and performance of maintenance personnel. Additionally, the shock strut sensing system could provide a useful tool for shock design and testing.

Figure Engineering, LLC
9208 Venture Ct Unit C-9
Manassas Park, VA 20111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 852-5520
Leonard J. McCreary, Jr
AF131-197      Awarded: 10/15/2013
Title:Advanced OSHA Compliant Blast Cleaning Rooms (No Blast/HM Residue Migration Outside Blast Cleaning Room)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to develop blast cleaning enclosures (BCE) that eliminate exposure to hazardous materials (HM) due to substantial migration in and around the enclosure to increase the occupational health and safety of Air Force personnel. To achieve this cleaner safer BCE, typical operations and enclosures will be examined to identify mechanisms of HM generation and migration pathways that create or result in a hazardous or potentially hazardous exposure. This examination will make evident commonalities between various types of blast cleaning operations and allow the application of corrective measures that will in turn control HM generation and migration to below OSHA permissible exposure limits (PEL), for both operators and personnel in close proximity to the enclosures. The corrective methods will increase worker safety, increase production where OSHA time- weighted-average exposures rules limit operator exposure time, satisfy tightening OSHA requirements, decrease the need for personal protective equipment (PPE), reduce the likelihood of injury in the case of PPE failure, and ensure that personnel in adjacent “safe zones” are guaranteed to be safe from exposure. BENEFIT: The criticality of these research findings will prove particularly valuable to the DoD as the intended life of DoD systems is commonly several times longer than protective coatings’ lives, rendering necessary the stripping and reapplication of protective coatings numerous times over the system’s lifespan. Projected reduced defense spending budgets will disallow for purchasing noncritical new equipment, forcing the Services to extend system lifespans adding significantly to the current production demands for refinishing. Further intensifying the refinishing workload is the environmental change equipment will endure, moving from hot and dry climates to wet and corrosive environments in the Pacific theater, which will certainly shorten coating lifespans. With increased refinishing demand comes increased blast cleaning, which creates more exposure risks, which increases likelihood of costly injuries and illness proportionately. By eliminating exposure now, the USAF and DoD is eliminating production interruptions and expensive medical bills in the future.

Immediate Response Technologies, Inc.
7100 Holladay Tyler Rd.
Glenn Dale, MD 20769
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 352-8800
Sean Springer
AF131-197      Awarded: 10/21/2013
Title:Advanced OSHA Compliant Blast Cleaning Rooms (No Blast/HM Residue Migration Outside Blast Cleaning Room)
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Hexavalent Chromium and other Hazardous Materials (HM) that are prevalent in the Bead Blasting Profession pose a hazard to those directly working in the environment as well as those working around the environment. There is a two stage problem at hand with the USAF and in several other industries working with similar applications: the containment of the HM during operations and the containment of HM after operations. Currently the USAF is looking towards R&D for a new Blast Cleaning Room (BCR) and for ways to keep contamination from spreading outside the BCRs. Immediate Response Technologies (IRT) wants to develop a Rapid Deployable, Soft Wall Anteroom/Decontamination System that would be under negative pressure utilizing a HEPA filtration system to aid the operators in safe exit and equipment doffing after completing their task at hand in the BCR. This system would solve the problem at hand of keeping HM material from migrating from the BCR to other facilities and areas. IRT would leverage off of its field proven and widely accepted shelter design history to come up with an ideal solution for mission completion and operator removal/decontamination while limiting HM migration. BENEFIT: Post paint blasting or decontamination and isolation to prevent the spread of hazardous material throughout various industries that perform paint removal opertations.

METSS Corporation
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Kenneth J. Heater
AF131-198      Selected for Award
Title:Find substitute for Methylene Chloride in depaint operations at Hill AFB
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Hill AFB paint stripping operations for aircraft landing gear components is currently achieved by soaking landing gear components in a methylene chloride-based (MeCl) solution for 30 minutes, followed by plastic media blasting to remove residual paint. Their current operations use over 16,000 gallons of MeCl-based stripper each year. OSHA classifies MeCl as a potential carcinogen and regulates occupational exposures accordingly. As a consequence, the Hill AFB is seeking environmentally-friendly approaches to paint removal for aircraft landing gear components. The replacement chemistry must not contain HAPs and be at least as effective as MeCl in order to fit the current timeline for processing. Any material used for paint removal must not cause any deleterious effects to the aircraft landing gear components. In addition, since Hill AFB operates its own industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP), it is also imperative that the replacement technology not interfere with the waste water treatment process. This proposal addresses the MeCl-replacement requirements through a structured work plan that will leverage previously developed environmentally friendly depainting technology, significant expertise in testing and evaluation of aircraft landing gear materials, and familiarity with Hill AFB IWTP operations. The proposed program will clearly meet all of the objectives of the program and establish a solid foundation for technology transfer and implementation. BENEFIT: The results of this SBIR program will immediately address MeCl replacement requirements in Hill AFB landing gear depainting operations. Once demonstrated, the replacement technology should be adaptable to other DoD depainting operations, as well as parallel processes used in the commercial aircraft industry. Other applications include automotive and other industrial painting ‘re-work’ operations where parts require repainting due to initial quality issues, as well as possible adaptation to cleaning equipment and facilities used in painting operations.

NanoScale Materials, Inc.
1310 Research Park Drive
Manhattan, KS 66502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 537-0179
Shyamala Rajagopalan
AF131-198      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Methylene Chloride Free, Benzyl Alcohol Based Paint Strippers: Formulation and Evaluation
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this Phase I proposal is to develop and demonstrate a novel paint stripping formulation that will be suitable for use in the depainting of aircraft landing gear, brake and wheels. The new stripping formulation will not contain any hazardous air pollutants (HAP), will be harmless to the various metals that make up the aircraft parts, and will not interfere with the metal removal process at the industrial waste treatment plant. In order to achieve the objective of this program, a number of solvent formulations will be evaluated for their ability to meet Hill AFB’s stripping standards and environmental goals. The primary focus of the program will be on establishing the percent stripping ability within the time frame that will not impact production at Hill AFB services. The bench scale test program will be designed to simulate operation conditions at Hills AFB and to provide performance data on the alternative stripping formulations for comparison with appropriate controls. The most promising stripping formulation(s) will be also evaluated for their effect on panel properties such as corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and fatigue. Phase I efforts will produce an optimized formulation for continued evaluation in Phase II. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the Phase I program will provide a new HAP-free paint stripper for use at Hill AFB landing gear maintenance facility. The formulation will be extremely safe for use by the Air Force personnel and will keep the environment they work in pollution and hazards free. Other potential applications for these new paint strippers are: railcar maintenance; automobile repair and maintenance; military vehicles maintenance; marine industry projects; restoration of historical objects; removal of graffiti from buildings; furniture fixing; home improvement/repair etc.

Select Engineering Services
1544 N. Woodland Park Drive STE #310
Layton, UT 84041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 690-0486
Caroline LeClair
AF131-198      Awarded: 9/18/2013
Title:Find substitute for Methylene Chloride in depaint operations at Hill AFB
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This effort seeks to identify an effective paint remover that does not contain Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) and does not interfere with the metal removal process at the Hill Air Force Base Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plan (IWTP) while also meeting mil-spec requirements for aircraft landing gear maintenance. Aircraft maintenance activities generally involve disassembling major components of an aircraft, cleaning, degreasing, and coating removal (paint stripping). Methylene Chloride (MeCl) has been a long standing, effective paint stripping chemical used by the aerospace industries. However, MeCl is one of the toxic chemicals regulated by OSHA and a HAP regulated by EPA under the aerospace National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). Utilizing a systems engineering approach, SES will conduct a rigorous requirements analysis, followed by a comprehensive investigation of viable alternatives to MeCl containing paint removers. SES will conduct a screening analysis to ensure compatibility with the IWTP followed by bench- scale testing using government furnished condemned/cut landing gear components/segments. SES will then complete a comprehensive feasibility analysis to identify the best and most promising alternative for paint removal that does not contain HAPs, interfere with IWTP operations, and has the ability to conform to Military Specifications for coating removal. BENEFIT: A new paint removal alternative that can be successfully implemented at Hill AFB, especially one that will also eliminate the need for a media blast process following chemical immersion, will likely be suitable to most other paint removal operations. The outcome of this project is anticipated to enable Hill AFB to stay ahead of and successfully meet future regulatory restrictions, improve worker safety, and reduce environmental impacts while meeting production and performance requirements. In addition, an alternative chemical that does not contain chelators may allow the maintenance facilities to discharge spent process solutions to the IWTP instead of disposing them as a hazardous waste. The same solution may also be adopted by other landing gear maintenance facilities in private aerospace industries worldwide.

F3 Solutions
150 Osigian Blvd, Suite 400
Warner Robins, GA 31088
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(478) 971-1343
Joe Jahnke, P.G.
AF131-199      Selected for Award
Title:Blast Booth Noise Reduction - An OSHA Compliance Issue
Abstract:ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT F3 Solutions (F3) is a woman owned small business with key personnel, with over a combined 50 years of experience specific to Air Force Environmental Engineering, and has experience providing research and development support to satisfy the overall objectives for blast booth noise reduction - OSHA compliance issue. F3 proposes an innovative approach to reduce employee exposure to hazardous noise during Blast Cleaning Room (BCR) and Blast Cabinets (BC) abrasive media blasting operations to or below OSHA 8-Hour Time Weighted Average without increasing ergonomic stress. Summarized objectives include: 1. Quantify noise sources and paths for workers in BCRs and using BCs. a. BCRs - resolve and quantify noise sources to nozzle, flow-impingement, radiation, and air-supply (inside helmet) sources. b. BCs - resolve and quantify noise sources related to transmission through cabinet walls, viewing windows, seals, and support equipment external to the BC. 2. Identify existing technologies available for BCRs, BCs, and personal protective equipment specialized to blast cleaning processes 3. Evaluate feasibility of nozzle design changes to reduce flow noise a. Air-shrouded nozzle b. Multiple smaller diameter nozzles 4. Evaluate feasibility of design changes to BCs for improved noise isolation 5. Evaluate technical feasibility of unmanned abrasive blast cleaning operations BENEFIT: This innovative approach dedicated to blast booth noise reduction will provide non-routine research and development to positively impact occupational health and safety of personnel throughout the Air Force and DoD. Noise protection is also an OSHA compliance issue and will benefit compliance with Federal laws and regulatory requirements. The solution will become property of the Government and will leverage the investment for research and development.

Figure Engineering, LLC
9208 Venture Ct Unit C-9
Manassas Park, VA 20111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 852-5520
Leonard McCreary, Jr.
AF131-199      Selected for Award
Title:Blast Booth Noise Reduction - An OSHA Compliance Issue
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is improve the safety of employees working in or around compressed air delivery blast cleaning rooms (BCR) and blast cabinets (BC) by decreasing the levels of noise exposure to below the OSHA 8-hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA) while maintaining or decreasing ergonomic stress burdened by the operators and maintaining or increasing productivity. This research will focus upon decreasing operational noise levels in and near the blast cleaning enclosures (BCE), which includes abrasive media blasting, cleaning of the substrate post-blasting, and maintenance procedures such as media cleanup. The Figure Engineering research team will explore methods to reduce the noise for manned, semi-automated, and fully-automated blasting operations. The innovative methods for reducing noise exposure will not increase operator ergonomic stress that is currently endured by handling heavy and stiff media/air delivery hoses. BENEFIT: A 2010 study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report found that severe hearing impairment (SHI) among Department of Defense (DoD) personnel is the most common type of service-related disability and is growing. In fiscal year 2009, 1.2 million veterans were compensated $1.1 billion for hearing-related disabilities. The findings of this research will benefit the Air Force (USAF), the DoD and, ultimately, the non-defense industrial base (NDIB) by developing methods and practices to significantly mitigate hazardous noise generated by abrasive media blasting operations. Blast cleaning operations are widespread throughout all Services, and therefore all Services share the monumental financial burden of compensating veterans for hearing-related disabilities sustained on the job.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Chris Sullivan
AF131-199      Awarded: 11/26/2013
Title:Blast Booth Noise Reduction - An OSHA Compliance Issue
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Oceanit proposes to reduce employee exposure to hazardous noise during Blast Cleaning Room (BCR) and Blast Cabinet (BC) abrasive media blasting operations below OSHA 8- hour Time Weighted Average without increasing ergonomic stress on the operator. This will be done using an engineering noise control approach. BENEFIT: Benefits of the proposed effort would be compliance for government and commercial entities with OSHA standards for noise exposure in blast operations.

Physical Optics Corporation
Integrated Systems Division 1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Martin Lopez
AF131-199      Awarded: 12/9/2013
Title:Stand-off Interference Mitigation System
Abstract:ABSTRACT: To address the Air Force’s need for a blast booth noise-reduction system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Stand-off Interference Mitigation (SIM) system, a noninvasive noise reduction system that can be mounted along the media blasting production line. The SIM system is based on a new design that utilizes mature POC- developed components. The innovation in quiet zones will enable the system to protect operators from excessive noise to meet OSHA’s 8 hr time-weighted-average (TWA) daily dose. This system offers no additional ergonomic stress to the operator, as it reduces noise without physically touching the operator within a surrounding quiet zone, which directly addresses the Air Force requirements for blast cleaning room (BCR) and blast cabinets (BC) working areas. In Phase I, POC plans to develop initial concept designs and model key elements for a system that reduces the blast booth noise level from 99 dB (SPL) to <80 dBA. In Phase II, POC will demonstrate the operation of a TRL-6 prototype blast booth noise reduction system that will reduce the noise at the ears to <80 dBA in the presence of continuous noise at 99 dB SPL. BENEFIT: The SIM system has significant commercial applications, including noise reduction for airlines, where the system can be mounted above each passenger to provide quiet zones during transport. It will also find use in noise minimization and cancellation of marine motors and in quieting motors, auditoriums, theatres, and opera houses, or ambient noise cancellation in commercial or residential buildings. Aeroacoustic noise is a major impediment to current and future civil aircraft designs. In addition to interior noise reduction, exterior noise reduction is a particular problem during landing and takeoff, as the resulting noise can be unacceptable in urban environments.

IBC Materials & Technologies
902 Hendricks Drive
Lebanon, IN 46052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 482-9802
Tom Kanaby
AF131-202      Selected for Award
Title:Surface Treatments for Stainless Steel Actuators
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Stainless steel ballscrew components, such as those found in landing gear and flap actuators on the C-130 aircraft, experience wear and subsequent failure due to corrosion, contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). High “dither” conditions, where the actuator undergoes a constant short-travel, high-frequency movement to maintain level flight, can also induce wear on actuator ballscrew and bearing components. The Air Force, as well as the commercial airline industry, incurs a high maintenance burden associated with frequent inspections and applications of lubricants in the field in an effort to keep actuators functioning at a high availability rate. In order to provide improved wear and damage tolerance of stainless steel and steel ball screws/jack screws for aircraft subsystems, IBC Materials and Technologies Inc. will develop a novel dual-layer surface treatment that combines surface hardening with a Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) coating. This dual-layer surface treatment will significantly increase the surface hardness as well as the lubricity of the steel actuator substrate, while maintaining high fatigue performance. Increasing the component hardness to levels higher than that of contaminants, and improving lubricity at/below levels of film lubricants, will help reduce maintenance and extend the lives of the actuators. BENEFIT: IBC’s advanced dual-layer Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) surface treatments will solve the current maintenance and wear issues caused by environmental contamination and corrosion of aircraft actuators. The increase in both surface hardness and lubricity of the steel actuator substrate will enable dry-running, maintenance free operation of the ballscrew actuators, significantly reducing inspection/maintenance and extending the wear lives of the actuators. IBC will apply the dual-layer DLC system using a single industrial processing furnace, which will minimize process time and overall processing cost.

TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Ronald L. Cook
AF131-202      Selected for Award
Title:Electroplated Alloys for Replacement of Hard Chrome on Stainless Steel Actuators
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Electrolytic Hard Chrome (ECH) is the standard coating method for 4XXX steels used in actuators and depot-based repair of damaged items. The properties of EHC coatings are excellent, and as a result EHC coatings have been used for more than 50 years. Unfortunately, EHC plating uses hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) that is regulated by both OSHA and the EPA. Health and environmental concerns with hexavalent chromium has led the DOD to direct the military to develop chromate substitutes in plating operations. There are several hidden benefits of EHC coatings, including the presence of numerous existing plating facilities (both OEM and repair depots) and a large cadre of skilled plating personnel. Thus an attractive replacement for EHC coatings on 4XXX steel actuators would be an alternative plating approach that provides a hard coating that is ductile, lubricious and corrosion resistant and that gives the same or better performance than EHC, and can be applied with existing facilities and by personnel, but which does not involve the use of toxic plating solutions. The Phase I effort will evaluate electroplated ternary alloy compositions that have the desired properties and can be plated from aqueous baths using low-toxicity electroactive metal salts. BENEFIT: The proposed work will identify a high performance electrodeposited alloy that can replace EHC coatings. The new material will have better performance than EHC coatings thereby leading to longer lifecycles and lower costs, and the mew electrodeposited alloys will be plated from non-toxic plating baths that will support the move from hexavalent chromates to greener materials.

Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6082
Michael Ellis
AF131-203      Selected for Award
Title:Vortical-Flow Direct Contact Air Washer for Corrosion Prevention
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a Liquid Desiccant (LD) based Air Washer (AW)