DoD STTR Program Phase I Selections for FY98

Army Selections

Navy Selections

Air Force Selections

DARPA Selections

BMDO Selections


---------- AF ----------
A.J. DEVANEY ASSO., INC.
295 Huntington Avenue Ste 208
Boston, MA 02115
(617) 424-9295

PI: Arthur Yaghjian
(617) 424-9295
UNIV. OF ARIZONA
888 North Euclid Ave. Room 510
Tucson, AZ 85722
(520) 626-3050

ID#: 98-126
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-010
Title: Upgrading of PIC Codes for HPM Tube Design
Abstract:   The primary objective of this proposal is to develop an understanding from first principles of the macroscopic particle force equation arising from the microscopic particle and field interaction dynamics and to incorporate those effects in a self-consistent state-space (rate equation) PIC calculation. Effective current and charge density time-domain equation models will be developed from this generalized Lorentz force model. The project will develop the numerical modeling techniques that will allow the self-consistent coupling of the particle motions and the evolution of the electromagnetic fields in the presence of complex electromagnetic scatterers. The resulting simulators will be applied to a variety of HPM source configurations.Specific tasks will include:(1) developing a generalized Lorentz force equation and its equivalent current and charge rate equations directly in the space-time domain;(2) developing the plc tools and techniques for modeling the interaction of intense electromagnetic fields with one and several particles in one and two and three space dimensions and time;(3) applying the resulting simulators to study the generation of microwaves in a HPM source cavity, particularly by predicting any additional microscopically-derived force effects on a large number of charged particles;(4) applying the resulting simulators to study a many-particle plasma system typically found in HPM sources.

ACCURATE AUTOMATION CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
(423) 894-4646

PI: Mr. Robert M. Pap
(423) 894-4646
UNIV. OF MARYLAND
Dept. of Aerospace Engineering
College Park, MD 20742
(301) 314-9001

ID#: 98MN-005
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-018
Title: Weapon Flight Mechanics
Abstract:   Accurate Automation Corporation (AAC), teamed with the University of Maryland, will develop a neural network based hypersonic prediction tool in support of the development of a hypersonic weapons systems. This tool will be trained to predict the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a proposed weapons systems design from its low supersonic characteristics, greatly reducing the cost of the design process; and will be used to evaluate the performance a microelectromechancial systems (MEMS) for actively controlling the boundary layer on such a weapon as a function of air data.

ADTECH SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
1342 N. Fairfield Road
Beavercreek, OH 45432
(937) 426-3329

PI: Som Soni
(937) 426-3329
POLYTECHNIC UNIV.
Six MetroTech Center
Brooklyn, NY 11201


ID#: 98-064
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Development of a Non destructive Evaluation Techniques for Determining the Integrity of Bonded Joints
Abstract:   This research proposal seeks support for an investigation of the fundamental aspects of preparation, characterization and durability of adhesive joints. The proposed research will focus on the use of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (ORS) to study the pre-damage state in adhesive joints. It is expected that ORS will furnish fundamental information about the molecular mechanisms of various chemo-physical phenomena in adhesives during exposure to aggressive environments. This will elucidate the mechanism of pre-damage in the bondline that precedes microcracking, delamination and loss of adhesion. A wide frequency range will permit a fundamental insight into the various polarization events with varying time scales. Of particular interest will be the high frequency (>1MHz) events, where dipole reorientations take place. The change in dipole dynamics will provide a nondestructive measure of the pre-damage stage. Mechanical tests will be performed on bonded joints after exposure to various thermal~mechanical-enviror~twe1 cal conditions for different times to estimate the changes in bond strength. These results will be correlated with the NDI results obtained from dielectric and infrared measurements.

ADTECH SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
1324 N. Fairfield Road
Beavercreek, OH 45432
(937) 426-3329

PI: Som Soni
(937) 426-3329
UNIV. OF DAYTON RESEARCH INST.
300 College Park
Dayton, OH 45469-0104
(937) 229-2919

ID#: 97AFO-039
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-007
Title: NonLinear Optical (NLO) Materials and Device Development
Abstract:   This Phase I effort is to synthesize and develop material processing systems that possess the mechanical properties, and processing characteristic for use in flexible electronic and photonic devices. We will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating in this effort to optimize the modulator/switch and investigate ways to render it manufacturable and multichip module packagable. This would include identifying or synthesizing an optimum conductive polymer. Devices would include mach Zehnder interferometers and directional couplers. Explore schemes to couple the light from the NLO polymer section into the passive polymer section used for the general routing of the signal. Also study the triple stack properties and determine maximum modulation rate. The conductivities of the conductive polymer layers and NLO polymer layer between the metal electrodes may behave like three capacitors in series, limiting the modulation rate. This needs to be quantified for a practical device. The detailed processing procedures, testing results, analysis of data for nonlinear optical (NLO) polymer opto-electronic (OE) modulator/switch and the future prototype development of directional waveguides, splitters, decouplers, and Mach Zehnder modulators under the follow-on STTR Phase II program. This will include a feasibility road map. to reach the NLO Polymer material goals for the USAF.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 MALL ROAD
BURLINGTON, MA 01803
(781) 273-3388

PI: DR. WILLIAM W. IRVING
(781) 273-3388
NYU COURANT INSTITUTE
251 MERCER STREET
NEW YORK, NY 10012
(212) 998-3077

ID#: 98SN-017
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-012
Title: ANALYSIS OF ATR PROBLEM COMPLEXITY AND SCALABILITY
Abstract:   An important problem in the analysis of ATR systems is quantifying the growth of algorithm requirements, such as storage and processing cost, as the input problem "size" expands. But in contrast to the typical situation in classical complexity analysis, where the notion of input size is well-defined, there does not currenlty exist a clear notion of input size for the ATR problem. In this effort, we develop a measure of ATR problem size that is akin to "input complexity". The measure provides a numerical assessment of ATR problem complexity that logically orders ATR problems by intrinsic difficulty and is tractable to compute. We then establish the utility of the measure for estimating an ATR's ability to scale to larger mission probelms for which it has not been trained. Finally, as a byproduct of the effort, we provide approaches to constructing recognition algorithms which are in a certain sense minimal.

ALTAIR CENTER LLC.
P.O. Box 214
Marlborough, MA 01752
(508) 481-6634

PI: Sergei Krivoshlydov
(508) 481-6634
BROWN UNIV.
Box D, Division of Engineering
Providence, RI 02912
(401) 863-1444

ID#: 98-097
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Compound Core Active Multimode Fiber for High-efficiency Fiber Laser Systems
Abstract:   Altair Center proposes to develop a novel and innovative compound-core multimode active flber for high-efficiency fiber laser systems capable to operate in a single-mode regime. The compound multimode core of the fiber is especially designed in such a way to support propagation of a higher order mode exhibiting a sharp peak of its field in the central region of the core. The sharp-peak mode extracts energy form the entire volume of the active flber core and concentrates it in the core central region. The output beam is a well collimated waveguide mode which is almost diffraction limited and can be easily focused and coupled into a standard single-mode fiber. The compound-core fiber has many unique properties including the ability to operate at many different wavelengths simultaneously, wavelength selective and filtering properties, high sensitivity of the central mode peak to the external perturbations of the fiber, etc. This suggests its numerous applications in active and passive fiber based devices and sensors.In Phase I, the proposed concept will be proved analytically and experimentally. A technology for fabricating the compound-core fiber will be developed and the passive compound-core fiber will be characterized in detail. The active compound-core fiber and complete high-power eye safe fiber laser system will be fabricated and tested in the Phase II with the prototype system delivered to the USAF.

APTIMA, INC.
600 West Cumming Park, Suite 3050
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-3966

PI: Daniel Serfaty
(781) 935-3966
UNIV. OF GEORGIA
632 Boyd Grad Studies Research Center
Athens, GA 30602
(706) 543-5969

ID#: 98-133
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-008
Title: Real Tme Intelligent Coaching for Command and Control
Abstract:   Technology is changing the face of warfare, placing ever increasing demands on the speed, scope, and accuracy of command andTechnology is changing the face of warfare, placing ever increasing demands on the speed, scope, and accuracy of command and control decisions. We propose to develop and test intelligent coaching strategies based on context-sensitive models of C2 decision making, and to test them in a dynamic C2 team simulation. Our approach blends formal decision models with intuitive explanations of model results and recommendations, using natural language that is meaningful to both experts and non-experts within a domain as well a graphical representations. We will focus on the decisions made by individuals acting as part of a command and control team. Our proposed test environment for intelligent coaching concepts is a well-developed and tested multi-user simulation package--the Distributed Dynamic Decisionmaking (DDD) C2 team simulation. At the end of Phase I, we will demonstrate an agent-based coach integrated into the DDD environment and provide model-driven quantitative measures of performance. In Phase II, we will build on the results of Phase I to conduct quantitative tests of decision aid effectiveness in the DDD environment, and implement the decision aid concepts that have proved to be most successful in the DDD for demonstration and quantitative testing in higher fidelity simulations or real-world environments.

ASPEN SYSTEMS, INC.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlboro, MA 01752
(508) 481-5058

PI:

U. MASS., AMHERST
BOX 34530
AMHERST, MA 01003
(413) 545-2160

ID#: 98-082
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Liquid Crystalline Adhesives with Zero Shrinkage
Abstract:   The proposed program will develop a liquid crystalline Adhesive with Zero Shrinkage, for bonding of airframe joints. Aspen Systems, Inc. is currently in the process of developing a new class of epoxide resins. These new epoxy materials are based on orderable, low molecular weight liquid crystalline structures with flexible, difunctional end chains. The structural ordering of the liquid crystalline monomers in the liquid form have low free volume which will be used to develop the zero shrinkage structure adhesives. The resulting high temperature epoxy adhesives will have minimum shrinkage, high dynamic modulus and high shear strength. ASPEN's Research and Development Team is comprised of leading experts in polymer & material science, advanced composites, and aerospace engineering. Our Academic partner is Professor Bruce N. Novak of the Polymer Science and Engineering Department at University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

CONTAINERLESS RESEARCH, INC.
906 University Place
Evanston, IL 60201
(847) 467-2678

PI: Richard Weber
(847) 467-2678
STANFORD UNIV.
Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 723-3426

ID#: 98-102
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Novel Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers
Abstract:   CR1 has pioneered a process that allows, for the first time, the synthesis of a new generation of optical fibers made of oxide glasses of compositions other than silica, such as Y203-A1203. Stanford University has expertise and instrumentation to characterize fiber laser materials and evaluate device performance. The proposed research combines these capabilities to demonstrate feasibility of new fiber laser devices, optimize fiber properties for applications, and provide new fiber laser materials for basic research. The fibers are drawn to waveguide dimensions in meter lengths and are mechanically several times stronger than silica fibers. Compared to silica, these new compositions exhibit a lower photon energy and can host much greater rare earth concentrations. Applications include extremely short fiber lasers that support a single frequency and have low noise characteristics, and fiber lasers operating at wavelengths longer than 2 *m for imaging and spectroscopy. The main objectives of this proposal are to show feasibility of new applications by characterizing the optical properties of the doped fibers (loss, absorption, and emission characteristics) demonstrating the first Er-doped fiber laser based on the most promising glass system, and research towards novel fiber lasers and amplifiers.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2792 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
(937) 320-1877

PI:

UNIV. OF DAYTON
300 COLLEGE PARK
DAYTON, OH 45469-0104
(937) 229-2919

ID#: 98-081
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-002
Title: High-Performance Liquid Crystal Adhesives
Abstract:   Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. and the University of Dayton propose to develop and evaluate a high-temperature, low-shrinkage Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. and the University of Dayton propose to develop and evaluate a high-temperature, low-shrinkage easy to process adhesive based on an advanced liquid crystal thermoset. This adhesive, coupled with an evanescent field absorption fiber-optic sensor, will be integrated with an aircraft patch to monitor chemical integrity of a repair. The technical objectives of this program are 1) to develop an easy-to-process, high-performance adhesive that has low moisture sensitivity and reduced cure shrinkage compared with conventional resins, and 2) develop specific fiber optic sensor approaches to detecting both hygrothennal and oxidative aging of adhesives. The materials system is based on a monomer type that is dual curing and can be polymerized at relatively low temperatures to form adhesives thermally stable to 300*c. The monomer has a smectic LC phase above room temperature. Because the LC phase allows tight packing of molecules it has a higher density than the isotropic phase. Cure in the smectic phase should result in lower overall cure shrinkage than typical isotropic monomers exhibit. Lower thermal expansion coefficients can also result from cure of a LC material. These parameters are important in the development of advanced adhesives for aerospace applications.

D-STAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
725 33rd Street
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
(310) 545-0159

PI: Dr Dmitry Stardobudov
(213) 740-0046
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Dept of Contracts
Los Angeles, CA 90089-1147
(213) 740-7762

ID#: 98-103
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Ultra-strong Thermally-Stable Grating Fabrication through the coating of Optical Fibers with UV Light
Abstract:   We propose to radically alter the method used for manufacturing optical fiber gratings. By illuminating a Ge-doped silicate glass fiber with near-UV light at 330 nm, where the polymer jacket of the fiber is transparent, we can fabricate fiber gratings without having to strip and recoat the fiber. We will investigate a new technique that also eliminates the need for high-temperature annealing of such fiber gratings. We will also investigate why fiber gratings made with 330 nm light appear to suffer no degradation in their tensile strength, making them ideal for harsh environments such as aircraft. We will investigate methods to further increase the photosensitivity of hydrogen-loaded fiber to 330 nm light. By eliminating the manufacturing steps of stripping, annealing and recoating the fiber, mechanically robust fiber gratings can be mass produced for a fraction of their present cost, and fiber grating Systems and devices will proliferate at an accelerated rate.

DACCO SCIENCE, INC.
10260 OLD COLUMBIA ROAD
COLUMBIA, MD 21046


PI:

MICHIGAN STATE UNIV.
302 ASMINISTRATION BUILDING
EAST LANSING, MI 48824
(517) 355-4727

ID#: 98-067
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-002
Title: ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORE FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF ADHESIVE BONDS
Abstract:   Non-destructive inspection and evaluation (NDI, NDE) of adhesive joint integrity commonly requires separation of an interface or, in limited cases, a kissing unbond that has intimate contact, but no interfacial strength. DACCO SCI, Inc., and Michigan State University propose to adapt an in-situ corrosion sensor to detect the ingress of moisture into a bondline and the subsequent deterioration of joint properties. This sensor is based on the established laboratory technique of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), but is suitable for field applications. It has been demonstrated to detect corrosion under paint coatings from the very early stages. Preliminary experiments show that it is also capable of detecting the initial stages of bond degradation in an adhesive joint. Use of this bondline sensor no monitor joint integrity will, provide advanced warning of potential degradation before it occurs. This then allows preventative maintenance to be performed prior to a decrease in structural strength or integrity. Resulting improvments in reliability, safety, and readiness will accrue.

DEFORMATION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
7261 Engle Rd, Suite 105
Cleveland, OH 44130
(440) 234-8477

PI: B. L. Ferguson
(440) 234-8477
CONCURRENT TECHNOLGOY CORP.
1450 Scalp Ave
Johnstown, PA 15904
(814) 269-2430

ID#: 98ML-001
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-014
Title: Simulatin-Based Design System for Multi-Stage Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:   The feasibility of reducing design time while improving and automating design capabilities will be demonstrated by this Phase I effort. A simulation-based design software tool will be developed that includes a feature-based representation of the part to be manufactured. Feature attributes include shape (dimensions, tolerances, area & volume paramethers), structure (material chemistry, material properties, microstructure, defect state, performance requirements), and surface (finish, contamination, coatings). the material data will be extracted from a comprehensive database of materials based in part on CTC's Atlas of Formability. Unit processes, including forming casting, machining, welding, and heat treatment, will be simulated using simplified process models that are numerically efficient and that address individual part features. These process models will use the material data associated with part features and will be driven by unit process environment variables that are also collected in a database structure. The process models will determine the changes to structure, surface and shape that occur as a consequence of the unit process step. Lastly, optimization methods will be applied to determine the process type and sequence of operations that maximizes performance and qualify while minimizing delivery time and cost. Once an optimum process routing is designed, detailed simulaiton tools including finite element based software can be used to validate the process design.

ELECTRON POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
42 Washington Drive
Acton, MA 02139
(978) 263-3871

PI: Clint Seward
(978) 263-3871
MIT PLASMA FUSION CENTER
167 Albany Street NW
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-8506

ID#: 98-095
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Microsatellite Propulsion Using EST Technology
Abstract:   A breakthrough propulsion technology is proposed for micro and nanosatellites using the EST (Electron Spiral Toroid). The proposed 100 waft propulsion system would have mass of 10 kg for the complete propulsion system, including fuel and containment, and carry enough energy for the lifetime of the mission. The EST stores energy as magnetic field energy with virtually no mass, other than a small pressure chamber for containment and for developing thrust. The EST can be thought of as an energetic entity, storing electrons in an ordered manner in its surface at 10,000 electron volts, and in doing so, creating a large internal magnetic field. Propulsion would not use combustion, but would energize propellant through collisions with the EST surface and eject them for thrust. Thrust can be turned ON/OFF, and varied to any value in between. The EST can be recharged. This concept will potentially lead to high-payoff commercial applications by reducing the cost of satellites,EST Propulsion

EQUINOX CORP.
1 East University Pkwy
Baltimore, MD 21218
(410) 889-2541

PI: Lawrence Wolff
(410) 889-2541
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.
3400 North Charles Street
Baltimiore, MD 21218
(410) 516-8668

ID#: 98-147
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-006
Title: Differential Geometric Tools for Visualizing and Understanding Multispectral Imagery
Abstract:   Proposed are the development of novel differential geometric tools for the visualization of multi-spectral imagery. These tools will enable a user to optimally visualize local image contrast inher-ent to a multispectral image in a psychophysically correct way. These tools will also enable a user to dynamically interact with a Riemann metric on photometric space for optimal contrast visual-ization.

EVANS CAPACITOR COMPANY
33 Eastern Avenue
East Providence, RI 02914
(401) 464-5600

PI: David A. Evans
(404) 464-5600
FLORIDA A&M UNIV.
2525 Pottsdamer Street
Tallhassee, FL 32310
(850) 487-6464

ID#: 98MN-018
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-020
Title: Improved Capacitor Using Amorphous RuO2
Abstract:   Amorphous hydrous ruthenium oxide(Ru02.xH20A) has a specific capacitance at least two times larger than any other known capacitor materials. An object of this proposal is to demostrate the feasibility of producing shock-hardened RuO2. H2O based electrochemical capacitors suitable for use in power sources for advanced weapon system applications. A 25 V, 150 mF shock-hardened electrochemical capacitor having an ESR less than 0.2 will be constructed and delivered. Another object is to determine if an amorphous Ru02 film cathode could be used in an improved version of a hybrid electrochemical-electrolytic capacitor. Amorphous Ru02 films will be used in order to increased the capacitance of the cathode electrode. A 25 V, 30 mF tantalum anode hermetic hybrid capacitor having an ESR of less than 0.050 and a 6V, 10 mf aluminum anode hybrid capacitor will be fabricated and delivered for further evaluation and testing. The project will measure capacitor performance imcluding capacitance, ESR, and maximum current density under different temperatures, and cycle life.

F&S, INC.
2801 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 953-4274

PI: Michael Miller
(540) 953-4267
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
301 Burruss Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061
(540) 231-5281

ID#: 98-158
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-007
Title: "Polymer-fullerence Ironically Self-Assebled Monolayer Photovoltaic Devices
Abstract:   Revolutionary ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) methods of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer have recently been proven to yield self-assembled, electronically and phonically--active polymeric thin fi!ms. F&S and Virginia Tech have demonstrated that the ISAM technique can be used to fabricate both polymer light emitting diodes and inherently noncentrosymmetric electro-optic polymer films. Photovoltaic devices are another important area of opportunity for conducting polymers. When the fullerene C60 is incorporated into conducting, conjugated polymer films, photoexcitation results in a rapid charge-transfer from. the polymer to C60. The resultant dissociation of the photoexcited electron-hole pair enhances the polymer photovoltaic response by orders of magnitude. The precise spatial positioning of the C60 and polymer layers using ISAM fabrication provides enhanced charge separation and photovoltaic response. ISAM fullerene--polymer photo voltaic chin-films offer additional major advantages of excellent homogeneity, high thermal and chemical stability, simplicity and lowcost. The films can be conformally fabricated over large areas on flexible substrates. The development of ISAM photovoltaic devices can result in low-cost, high, efficiency polymer photodiodes and solar cells. F&S has licensed the enabling Virginia Tech patent for ISAM materials processing, and would work with Virginia Tech optoelectronic and fullerene researchers to rapidly transition laboratory results to prototype device products.

F&S, INC.
2801 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 953-4290

PI: Garnett Linkous
(540) 953-4274
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
301 Burruss Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061
(540) 231-5281

ID#: 98MN-008
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-018
Title: An Experimentally and Numerically Trained Neural Network Control System for Hypersonic Missiles Utilizing Micromachined Sensors and Actuators
Abstract:   The autonomous control of a hypersonic missile from launch to target is a very challenging problem. F&S proposed to use a combination of experiments using MEMS and numeric simulations using CFD, to train a neural net for the control of micro-jets. The trained neural net control system would be able to control a hypersonic missile throughout its flight. Such a system could possibly be used to replaced probes in any aircraft, reducing drag, preserving stealth, and lower maintenance.An excellent development team has been assembled including Professor Joseph Schetz of Virginia Tech, a world leader in experimental high-speed aerodynamic measurements, Professor Ken Shaw of Virginia Tech, an expert in the development and training of neural networks, AeroSoft, a world leader in CFD software development, and F&S, a leader in fiber optic sensor development and commercialization. The F&S team is both qualified and motivated to build upon their combined demonstrated capabilities to accomplish this development and commercialization project.

GRADIENT TECHNOLOGY
2500 Shadywood Road
Navarre, MN 55331
(612) 471-8804

PI: Duane A. Goetsch
(612) 471-8804
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
207 Pleasant Street, NE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
(612) 624-5599

ID#: 98MN-019
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-020
Title: Advanced Technology for Demilitarization of Plastic Bonded Explosives
Abstract:   Gradient Technology in conjunction with Professor M. Hillmyer of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Minnesota proposed to develop advanced technology to recover and convert the explosive and urethane binder found in plastic bonded explosives. This technology provides a unique reclamation, recovery, and reuse opportunity for dramatically reducing the disposal cost of technology munitions in an environmentally friendly manner. The technology utilizes a waterjet to remove the plastic bonded explosive from the munition and a proprietary conversion method to decompose of polyurethane coated plastic bonded explosives. Our decomposition method allows the full recovery of explosive and non-explosive components of plastic bonded explosives without generating solid waste streams that must be landfilled or gaseous effluents that must be processed in order to meet environmental pollution emission restraints. This technology only generates products that can be sold in the chemical market to reduce the disposal cost per unit of ordnance recovered.

HEXAGON INTERACTIVE
1012 North Croft Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90069
(213) 656-6817

PI: Joseph Miranda
(818) 709-3812
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
University Park 837 W. 36th Place
Los Angeles, CA 90089
(213) 740-6061

ID#: 98-120
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-005
Title: Testing Warfighting Systems for the next Millennium Simulation of Advanced Weapons Concepts
Abstract:   Design of a wargame simulation that accurately models the effects of new weapon systems technologies. The proposal program capitalizes on the extensive design experience of Mr. Josech Miranda in the commercial and military wargaming market, and the expertise at USC in the area of sophisticated autonomous agents to model human decision making in the employment of novel munitions, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of this decision making. Sample quantitative outputs for specific examples will be provided, especially USAF systems and new concepts of electronics-based high-tech warfare technology. A holistic approach will account for cascading effects across all systems as well as direct physical effects on the battlefield. The ultimate objective is to develop a prototype to plan warfare tactics of the future featuring a user-friendly interface and programmability, allowing flexible insertion of new weapons systems. Mr. Miranda/Hexagon Interactive will research historical and hypothetical weapons systems performance and their impact on all systems involved in modern warfare, then develop the simulations algorithm. USC/ISI will develop a simple computer demo to illustrate the potential for a full computer simulation. The work is expected to lead to a phase II proposal to develop prototype simulation software.

HOPE TECHNOLOGIES
22 Benevolent Street
Providence, RI 02906
(401) 521-9845

PI: George Wylangowski
(401) 863-1444
BROWN UNIV.
164 Angell Street
Brovidence, RI 02912
(401) 863-2777

ID#: 98-113
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Advances in High Power Optical Fiber Lasers
Abstract:   We propose to upgrade the physics algorithms of the existing object oriented C++ particle-in-cell (PIC) code XOOPIC to properly include the electron self-force and comprehensive boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields and secondary electron emission from a variety of surfaces, providing rigorous theoretical and numerical error analysis of these upgraded algorithms. We further propose to upgrade the existing X-windows graphical user interface (GUI) for XOOPIC to a multithreaded platform-independent GUI running equally well on PC's with Microsoft Windows 95/NT and a variety of powerful Unix workstations, combining an intuitive windowing system with interactive mesh generation and fast 3-D rendering of both data and physical structures. The Phase I effort will develop a sound strategy for including the corrected electron self-force and improved boundary condition treatment in the physics algorithms of XOOPIC. This strategy will be supported by theoretical error analysis. A prototype of the platform-independent jUl with 3-D rendering will also be developed, with a strategy . for incorporating interactive mesh generation. The upgraded physics algorithms will be fully implemented and tested early during phase II, with the remainder of the effort concentrated on further developing the jul.

HPS SIMULATIONS
2524 Crystal Drive
Santa Clara, CA 95051
(408) 554-8381

PI: Scott Hamilton
(408) 554-8381
EAST CAROLINA UNIV.
Brewster A-224
Geenville, NC 27858
(919) 328-6086

ID#: 98-121
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-005
Title: Combat Simulation Analysis of Advanced Technology Weapons
Abstract:   PC-based combat simulation software is now capable of accurately recreating the conditions and end results of modern battles. One of the specific uses of such a software package is to evaluate the performance of a proposed modification or entirely new weapons system in battle situations. This will insure the system meets with expectations and requirements, before additional expensive development time is spent, or a prototype is produced. The net results are that inadequate designs can be eliminated quickly from consideration, while maximizing the performance of accepted systems by allowing designers to quickly evaluate a variety of potential options.The software can be further used to develop employment doctrines and tactics for the new weapons, as well as evaluating those for existing weapons. Additionally, it will show the inter-relationships between different types of weapons systems on the battlefield, and how they can best work together.

INFRAMETRICS, INC.
16 Esquire Road
N. Billerica, MA 01862
(978) 670-5555

PI: Nicholas Lagadinos
(978) 670-5555
MIT LINCOLN LABORATORY
244 Wood Street
Lexington, MA 02173
(819) 815-500

ID#: 98-152
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-006
Title: Sensor Fusion for Image Display
Abstract:   This program will produce a design for an airborne gimbaled sensor fused system for evaluation of night~time navigation and interpretation. The system will use the Inframetrics Mark III Gimbal1 modified to accept an image intensified (l2)CCD camera, whose This program will produce a design for an airborne gimbaled sensor fused system for evaluation of night~time navigation and interpretation. The system will use the Inframetrics Mark III Gimbal1 modified to accept an image intensified (l2)CCD camera, whose dual spectral displayed output (low level visible light and infrared (IR)) is combined using Lincoln Laboratory's patented image fusion processor, to produce a single color fused real-time image. This image will be independently output to a display, and recorded for evaluation as a night-time airborne navigational aid. In Phase I, Inframetrics will evaluate a minor modification to the gimbal to substitute the 'C CD camera Lincoln Laboratory uses for the image fusion system, for the standard color camera. Inframetrics will determine the spatial registration limitations of the system. Lincoln Laboratory will determine the registration correction available within the fusion processor. Inframetrics 'will follow up on the letters of intent to obtain firm commitments from customers to participate in the system flight testing. At the end of Phase It spatial registration accuracy 'will be defined, a system level design for the sensor fused airborne prototype completed1 flight tests determined, and candidate customers obtained to perform the desired tests. In Phase II, Infrarmetrics and Lincoln Laboratory will build on the system level design from Phase I to construct a prototype airborne IRICCO image fusion system, install the system on the candidate aircraft, perform the laboratory and fight tests, and together 'with the customer and program manager, evaluate the results. The imagery gathered from these trial flights will help determine the advantages of the image fusion system for human tasks of interpretation and navigation in nightime airborne applications.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2786 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
(937) 252-2706

PI: Dr. Larry P. Goss
(937) 252-2706
UNIV. OF ALABAMA
Department of Aerospace Engineering and
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
(205) 348-7300

ID#: 98MN-004
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-018
Title: Evaluation and Development of MEMS Technology for Hypersonic Aerodynamic Flow Control Using Partical Image Velocimetry and Pressure Sensative Paint
Abstract:   The proposed STTR research targets the development of innovative aerodynamic concepts/techniques that contribute significantly to advancements of next-generation super-maneuverable air vehicles. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) will be implemented in a hypersonic short -duration wind tunnel to control the boundary layer, and advanced laser diagnostic techniques such as Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) and Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) will be used to provide a fundamental understanding of the flow field. The database from these experiments will be used to develop a neural-network-based hypersonic prediction method and to validate CFC codes. The proposed research will launch a feasibility study, followed by actual development of innovative sensors, actuators, and advanced non-intrusive laser-based diagnostic instruments for hypersonic flow fields.

KOPIN CORP.
695 MYLES STANDISH BLVD
TAUNTON, MA 02780
(508) 824-6696

PI: ROGER E. WELSER
(508) 824-6696
YALE UNIV.
KPO BOX 208337
NEW HAVEN, CT 06520
(203) 432-2460

ID#: 98SN-040
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-013
Title: LOW-VOLTAGE GaAs-BASED HBTs
Abstract:   The primary objective of this work is to determne the feasibility ofusing nitrogen doping to lower the trun-on voltage and improve the overall performance of GaAs-bsed heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) for high frequency microwave applications. Recent reports on the properties of GaAs in which small amounts of N have been added indicate that GaAsN alloys possess a number of striking properties, including a huge band-gap bowing parameter. We believe these properties make GaAsN an exciting new material system for high performance GaAs-based HBTs. The potential benefits of an HBT structure incorporting GaAsN in the base include lower turn-on voltage, stable current gain, and improved high frequency performance. In additon there are several reasons to believe that N-doping may even improve the long term reliability of GaAs-based HBTs, and that it may reduce the necessity of a passivating ledge for preserving small area device performance. Kopin intends to work closely with both a university and an industrial partner to explore the potential benefits of GaAsN HBTs. This integrated Phase I effort will range from basic material stdies to device fabrication and reliability testing and will aly the ground work for the commercialization of future generations of high frequency microwave circuits.

M. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
440 Horsham Road
Horsham, PA 19044
(215) 773-0250

PI: William D. Meiklejohn
(215) 773-0250
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
275 Ferst Drive
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-9126

ID#: 98MN-009
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-018
Title: Achieving Aerodynamic Stability Through Active Boundary Layer Control Utilizing MEMS
Abstract:   The development and study of micro-electromechanical systems, or MEMS, has advanced significantly over the years to the point where MEMS are demonstrating a vast potential for utilization within DoD programs. Planned military missile systems are being driven to be highly maneuverable and agile, a low radar cross section, and for carriage in weapons bays with very limited internal volume. Control surfaces of conventional missiles provide stability in flight, however, they also provided a large portion of the missile's radar signature and occupy a significant portion of the space within a weapons bay. If the control surfaces were to be removed and the weapon's stability could be synthetically controlled, significant enhancements would be realized in the weapons agility and maneuverability as well as radar cross section and overall physical footprint. It is hypothesized that a flexible grid of alternating MEMS sensors and actuators can be developed and incorporated on a missile that will provide characterization and manipulation of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer of same. This active grid will provide a closed-loop feedback control to synthetically stabilize an inherently unstable "finless missile". This represents a high-payoff technology for the Air Force applicable to current development missile programs such as the Air Superiority Missile Technology Program.

MASSACHUSETTS TECHNOLOGICAL LABORATORY
330 Pleasant Street
Belmont, MA 02178
(617) 484-7314

PI: Richard Tolimieri
(617) 373-4587
NORTHEASTERN UNIV.
161 Cullinane Hall
Boston, MA 02115
(617) 373-4587

ID#: 98-166
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-009
Title: Novel Mathematical/Computational Approaches to Image Exploitation
Abstract:   We propose to develop a unifying framework and formalism for the rapid and novel design and implementation of new families of image transforms based on the theory of groups and diffraction geometry. Our approach calls on such high-level imaging tools as graphs and aperiodic tilings to relate image data geometry with group structures on image data indexing sets and complex group algebra theory to define transforms on image data from group structures. This effort will lead to a unifying conceptual basis and algebra for structuring and developing fast algorithms for 1) traditionally used unitary transforms and their nonseparable multidimensional extensions, 2) new families of image transforms. 3) new classes of nonstandard filtering systems.Two classes of image transforms will be developed and tested. One class is based on direct sum decompositions of group algebras into left ideals and is implemented by nonabelian group filtering determined by complete systems of idempotents. The second is based on classical spectral decompositions of recoordinatized image data using aperiodic tilings and diffraction geometry. These transforms and filtering systems have clear path for digital implementation and offer greater variety, flexibility and resolution for advancing imaging technology as compared to standard methods.

MATERIALS RESEARCH INSTITUTE
1961 N. Spring Crest Court
Beaver Creek, OH 45432
(937) 427-0434

PI: Chunt-Tse Chu
(937) 427-0434
U. OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE
300 College Park Avenue
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 229-2919

ID#: 98-145
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-007
Title: Inkjet Printing of Flexible Circuits on Polymer Substrate
Abstract:   This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I program will test a processing scheme for fabricating high-performance, low-cost flexible printed circuits on polymer substrates. The circuits are designed with computer-aid design tools or other graphic routines. They are patterned on flexible polymer substrates by inkjet printing technique using a solution containing the choice conductor metal precursor. Subsequent reduction of the metal precursor affords the conductive circuit. In this Phase I research program, two commercially available polyimide films are selected for the flexible polymer substrate based on their thermal. stability, chemical resistance and mechanical strength. . Solutions of selected metal precursors will be prepared and studied for their wettability to the two polyimides. Research emphasis will be focused on improving adhesion between the reduced conductor metal and the polymer substrate. The proposed processing scheme is simple yet versatile. It can be readily extended to build multiple-layer circuits when a second cartridge is used to print an insulator layer over the conductor metal. With the aid of a 3D computer graphic tool, it will allow complex circuits to be printed on a contour surface.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4900 Peal East Circle, Ste 201E
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 442-6947

PI: Debra Evans
(724) 283-3440
UNIV. OF PITTSBURG
350 Thackaray Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15260
(412) 624-7405

ID#: 98-131
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-008
Title: Real Time Intelligent Coaching for Command and Control
Abstract:   The effort by Micro Analysis & Design, Inc. and the University of Pittsburgh presented within this proposal consists of the development of a proof-of-concept intelligent coach, based on Bayesian network technology. The coach will be integrated with a command and control training workstation, the C3 Systems Training Assessment Research Simulator (C3STARS) at Brooks APS and will present operators with intelligent feedback during activity lulls in scenario-based exercises. The proof-of-concept coach will be designed to give feedback on two types of tasks, an individual operator tasks and team tasks. Integration will be via a "strap-on" method in which operator data will be collected from the simulator and entered into the coach residing on a separate computer. The output of the coach will be shown to the operators prior to the continuation of their training activities. The coach will consist of four modules: 1) an expert model module, 2) a operator-expert comparison module, 3) an assessment module, and 4) a feedback module.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
POST OFFICE DRAWER 719 735 STATE STREET
SANTA BARBARA, CA 93102-0719
(805) 963-8761

PI: DR. BYRON M. WELSH
(937) 429-9261
MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIV.
317 ADIMINSTRATION BUILDING
HOUGHTON, MI 49931
(906) 487-2225

ID#: 98SN-008
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-011
Title: INNOVATIVE WAVE FRONT CONTROL FOR AIRBORNE OPTICAL SENSORS
Abstract:   Electro-optical (EO) sensors on future aircraft will be used for targeting and situational awareness and will be required to have a number of demanding technical characteristics. These characteristics include multifunctionality, wide angle operation, open architecture design, and low cost. A key technical challenge to achieving these goals is the development of inexpensive, high degree of freedom optical wave front control devices, and the development of effective algorithms for controlling these devices. We propose to develop wave front control algorithms that will allow for the following specific applications: 1) dynamic control of a sensor's field of view and spatial beam multiplexing, 2) dynamic far-field beam shaping for laser designation and laser imaging applications, 3) dynamic aberrations compensation for passive and active sensors, and 4) simultaneous operations of these functions for a common aperture. In Phase I we will concentrate on algorithm development and experimental designs. Our approach is based on both conventional and non-conventional wave front control. Conventional wave front control is applicable for requirements such as beam steering and aberration compensation. Non-conventional wave front control is applicable for far-field beam focusing and shaping, as well as field-of-view control. Our approach for solving the non-conventional wave front control problem is to set up and solve a multi-dimensional minimization problem. The justification and anticipated success of this approach is based largely on the success f similar minimization problems demonstrated by phase retrieval research and wave front amplitude compensation research.

MODERN COMPUTATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8723 TIBURN DRIVE
CINCINNATI, OH 45249


PI:

OHIO UNIV.
105 RESEARCH & TECH CENTER
ATHENS, OH 45701
(740) 593-2856

ID#: 98ML-004
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-014
Title: SIMULATION-BASED DESIGN SYSTEM FOR MULTI-STAGE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Abstract:   The proposed research is aimed at supporting the U.S. Air Force's ongoing efforts in developing a simulation-and-optimization-based design system for multiple-stage processing of "difficult-to-form materials." The scope of the overall effort includes a feature-based simulation methodology, global optimization of the entire processing sequence and visualization of results during the entire product realization process using integrated multi-media technologies.The primary objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining and utilizing materials and process models in a comupteraided design system that can evaluate alternative processing sequences. The proposal addresses the following sprcific tasks related to this effort: (1) development of simplified models which capture the essential physics of the processes for thermal and mechanical transport in basic features, (2) development of material and cost models for basic features, (3) development of concepts & strategies for appropriate integration of the basic features in order to achieve the desired shape of the worpiece and to project its behavior and properties, (4) verification of the feature-based process models, and (5) interfacing with the optimization and visualization efforts concurrently funded by the Air Force. A plan for commercialization of the proposed research is also presented.

NANOTECHNOLOGY OF TEXAS, INC.
5933 Bellaire Blvd., #113
Houston, TX 77081
(713) 661-0550

PI: Boris I. Yakobson
(919) 515-2426
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV.
Pullen Road, Box 7514
Raleigh, NC 27695
(919) 515-2444

ID#: 98ML-018
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-015
Title: Design and Improved Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Materials
Abstract:   Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a promise as building blocks for future materials and devices. This STTR Phase I project will focus on the (University-based) theoretical modeling and assessment of mechanical properties, transfer of this knowledge to NanoTechnologies of Texas, Inc. (NTT) which in turn will concentrate its effort on nanotube synthesis, characterization and improvements of the growth conditions. NTT will base the effort on modified catalytic carbon-arc technique as its further improvement currently presents the most promising method for large-volume production. This collaboration will establish correlation between mechanical properties of CNT and their structure. Interaction between the theory and synthesis will also allow to identify further issues to be addressed in Phase II of this STTR effort. The result of Phase I will be design of best-performing CNT. The feasibility proof should lead to general recommendations: (i) types of CNT expected to have better mechanical performance in composites, and (ii) what conditions of the growth are likely to preferentially produce these particular types. Further, composites will be prepared and undergo mechanical testing in order to obtain direct information on CNT-matrix and the individual CNT strength.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
3374 Willow Street
Santa Ynez, CA 93460
(805) 693-9600

PI: Sue Spahr Hodges
(805) 693-9600
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
2225 N. Campus Drive, MLSM Rm 4051
Evanston, IL 60208-3118
(847) 491-7251

ID#: 98MN-003
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-019
Title: Autonomous Detection of Missile Targets Using Neromorphic Multi-Chip Module Techniques
Abstract:   Work to be performed in this program is based upon years of innovative technology development invested by personnel at Nova Research. Techniques proposed here are patterned after biological principles which, when applied to finding targets which are moving against highly cluttered infrared backgrounds, will be shown to exhibit remarkable performance. Such techniques produce highly superior results as compared to more conventional digital techniques, and may be performed by miniature integrated circuits that are closely coupled to infrared focal plane arrays. Modern infrared detection technology coupled with these massively parallel analog coprocessor devices will usher in the next generation of miniature seekers to be used to satisfy requirements of the national defense. This proposal outlines a program which combines advanced multiple quantum well detector technology developed at Northwestern University with the biologically-inspired massively parallel analog coprocessor technology developed by Nova Research to find targets which have signal-to-clutter ratios less than unity. The operational flexibility and cost effectiveness expected using this approach will lead to the development of numerous commercially viable products.

PACIFIC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
P.O. Box 359, 1000 Edison Street
Santa Ynez, CA 93460
(805) 688-2088

PI: Michele Hinnrichs
(805) 688-2088
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
6220 Culebra Road
San Antonia, TX 78238
(210) 522-2261

ID#: 98MN-016
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-019
Title: Seeker Sensor Fusion Optimization and Visualization System
Abstract:   The Air Force has a large number of sensors that can be used for pattern recognition to aid target detection and identification including: SAR (synthetic-aperture radar), MMW (millimeter-wave), IIR (imaging infrared; SWIR, MWIR, LWIR) and LADAR (laser radar). When hyperspectral imaging in the infrared is added, then the number of potential sensor (color) combinations and associated data increases dramatically. The targets of interest can vary from an approaching missile, an enemy aircraft, camouflaged enemy tanks, trucks, missile launchers, chemical warfare cloud, military installations, military air fields, etc. The match of sensor/sensors technology to use for the different detection and identification applications is not straight forward. Using visualization of sensor fusion will allow the Air Force to determine which and how many sensors can give the information necessary to detect and identify the different targets. This reduces the amount of data that must be received and processed and eliminates redundant information. This STTR program will develop a seeker fusion visualization system that will allow the operator to input the target type and scenario in order to select combinations of sensors from a sensor suite that are effective for a particular application.

PACIFIC WAVE INDUSTRIES, INC.
10911 Weyburn Avenue Ste 222
Los Angeles, CA 90024
(310) 652-5566

PI: Boris Tsap
(310) 209-0777
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Dept of Contracts/Grants; University Par
Los Angeles, CA 90089-1147
(213) 740-7762

ID#: 98-135
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-007
Title: Flexible Polymer Modulators for Large Conformal Antenna Arrays
Abstract:   Recent developments in radar and communication technology have created the need for large area, lightweight, conformal antenna systems. In this proposal flexible, high speed, new polymer optical modulators are used to meet these requirements. Polymer optical modulators now represent the key enabling technology that will permit a new generation of optically interconnected large antennas and antenna arrays to be development. The basic receiver demonstration element proposed uses broadband planar antennas, linked to amplifiers, and then to the optical modulator. Using extremely lightweight optical fiber ribbons, laser light is fed to the modulators and then back to the central processing unit. The transmit element will be similar but will incorporate arrays of modulators in the central unit. In the processing unit additional phase control may be important and our newly developed, polymer optical phase shifters will be evaluated for this and other processing functions. The system will be very robust, and because the signals are optically transmitted, relatively immune to electrical interference. The polymer modulator technology has now been intensively studied, is extremely broadband (100 GHZ), and has been demonstrated in a Mylar implementation. We will build upon this technology base to develop optimized, low cost, building blocks for these important new applications.

PHOTONIC ASSOC.
1621 Calle Torreon
Santa Fe, NM 87501
(505) 983-7556

PI: Dr. Claude Phipps
(505) 983-7556
UNIV. OF NEW MEXICO
Scholes Hall 102
Albuquerque, NM 87131
(505) 277-9512

ID#: 98-091
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Micro Laser Plasma Thrusters for Small Satellites
Abstract:   The growing market for repositioning small satellites requires the development of flexible, energy-efficient, robust but microweight thrusters. Microthruster concepts are scaledowns of conventional thruster designs to very small physical scale, e.g., chemical rockets, pulsed gas thrusters and plasmajets. However, behavior of at small scales is not predicted by behavior at larger scales. We propose a new departure in microthrusters, in which thrust is generated by the plasmajet induced by an onboard high-brightness diode laser focused to a tiny spot on a plane target. No nozzle is required because of electrostatic forces involved in the plasma expansion. No new physics is required at small scales. The energy efficiency of the device is similar to that of pulsed plasma thrusters, and the electronics simpler. Specific impulse Isp is adjustable, and Isp=7000 sec has been measured. The plume produced by this interaction will be a high-velocity, electrically neutral, directed plasma jet, not a cloud of chemical compounds that can condense on the spacecraft. The most difficult part of this project is not making the thruster, but measuring impulses as small as 100 udyn-s [lE-9 n-s] . A mosquito in flight has 10 times this momentum.

PHRASOR SCIENTIFIC, INC.
15536 Highland Avenue
Duarte, CA 91010
(626) 357-3201

PI: Julius Perel
(626) 357-3201
STANFORD UNIV.
04-655T Panama St.
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 723-4740

ID#: 98-088
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Micro Cluster Propulsion for Nanosatellite Control
Abstract:   This proposal describes a miniaturized propulsion technology aimed at fulfilling nanothruster requirements for station keeping and attitude control or nanosatellites. This technology, based on the generation and acceleration of. micro-clusters to provide thrust, is a candidate to fulfilll micro-electric propulsion requirements potentially capable of lessening constraint in the design of nanosatellites for constellation operation. Candidate thrusters already operating with emitter geometries in the 10's of micron range are most amenable to submicron design, thus subject to batch Fabrication, and capable of producing impulse bits in the nano-newton-second range. The proposed research will use test systems, developed on earlier microthruster work, to generate micropropulsion performance data For later verification involving a coordinated prograin with Stanford University. The research includes the design, construction and testing of charged microcluster emitters to evaluate and verify thrust and specific impulse operation. Propellant flow control will be examined with the aim of eliminating the use of valves. Finally, the materials and structural requirements for batch fabrication using MEM's type geometries will be identified.

POLYCOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13963 Recuerdo Drive
Del Mar, CA 92014
(619) 535-9474

PI: Chuk L. Leung
(619) 535-9474
WESTERN KENTUCKY UNIV.
Department of Chemistry
Bowling Green, KY 42101
(860) 486-4623

ID#: 98-073
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Development of High Temperature Low Cure Shrinkage Adhesives
Abstract:   The objective of this program is to develop high temperature adhesives with reduced cure shrinkage. The formation of polymers from smaller monomers is usually accompanied by a reduction in volume of the final polymer network. This shrinkage creates internal strain in the resin, creates internal defects, and adversely affects the mechanical and durability of the polymer and adhesive bond. We propose to formulate experimental adhesives with novel monomers, which expand upon cure, thereby reducing or eliminating polymerization shrinkage inherent in conventional polymer systems. A series of computational, chemo-physical and mechanical characterization tests will be used to confirm the feasibility of this concept.

SYSCOM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2880 Wynneleaf Street
Hilliard, OH 43026
(614) 520-0374

PI: Jar-Wha Lee
(614) 529-0374
UNIV. OF DAYTON RESEARCH INST.
300 College Park Avenue
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 229-2919

ID#: 98ML-027
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-017
Title: Preparation of Conductive Metal-Containing High-Performance Polymer Fibers
Abstract:   This Small Business Technology Transfer Research Phase I program will test a processing scheme for introducing exceptional electrical conductivity to a class of high-temperature, high-strength polymer fibers. This class of polymer fibers include poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA), poly (p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT) and poly (p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO). The polymer fibers are prepared from their nematic liquid crystalline solutions under a very high extensional flow. Therefore, they exhibit extremely high molecular orientation and tensile mechanical properties. In this Phase I research program, metal precursors will be incorporated into the high-performance polymer fibers and subsequently reduced to form a continuous network of the highly conductive metal in the fiber matrix giving rise to the conductivity. The proposed processing scheme is fully in line with the commercial production of these polymer fibers. The resulting conductive metal-containing polymer fibers are expected to have advantages over conductive metal wires in flexibility, weight savings, mechanical strength and durability, tailored electrical conductivity and more uniform electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding as well as advantages over metal-coated conductive polymer fibers in thermal and mechanical durability and EMI shielding at low frequencies. They have great potential for applications in automobiles and space aerospace vehicles, where flexibility, weight savings and mechanical durability are important.

TECH-X CORP.
1280 28th Street Suite 2
Boulder, CO 80303
(303) 448-0728

PI: David Bruhwiler
(303) 448-0732
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
336 Sproul Hall
Berkeley, CA 94705
(510) 642-8120

ID#: 98-127
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-010
Title: Object Oriented PIC codes with Upgraded Physics and Platform Indepedent GUI
Abstract:   A novel technique for the processing of c-dopcd Yb-Er optical fiber cladding pumped lasers will be explored. If high power at 1550 nm is desired, it is advantageous to pump a c-dopcd Yb-Er fiber laser at 915 nm where there is a broad energy absorption band for Yb.. This energy is then resonantly transferred to the erbium co-dopant that provides the gain medium. in order to prevent back transfer from the excited Er to the ground state Yb. a rapid dc-excitation of the Er from this resonant level to the upper lasing level of the Er is required. This occurs most efficiently in a glass with a high phonon energy, i.e., a glass containing at least 10 mol % of ?205. Such a multicomponent silicate glass can be obtained through solution doping. or through the heating of a rare earth halide to provide a source the rare earth cations. However, these processing techniques can be problematic with regard to maintaining both high phosphorous levels and high rare earth content. A novel design of a high numerical aperture fiber has been proposed and realized. This is an all glass structure that avoids the possibility of any of the high power diode pump radiation interaction with polymeric coating material. In addition, multi-core fibers will be investigated by appropriate machining of preforms

TECHNIREP, INC.
76 LAKENGREN DRIVE
EATON, OH 45320


PI:

MIAMI UNIV.
107 ROUDEBUSH HALL-OAST
OXFORD, OH 45056
(513) 529-3734

ID#: 98ML-005
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-014
Title: SIMULATION-BASED DESIGN SYSTEM FOR MULTI-STAGE MFG PROCESSES
Abstract:   To meet DoD future weapons systems, such as JSF, requirements for major cost reductions without sacrificing quality or reliability will require the development and implementation of new design tools. While simulation and computerization has been aggressively applied in many areas of the manufacturing enterprise, one critical area which has been largely ignored is metalworking process simulation. The few simulation tools available today are based upon Finite Element Analysis models which are slow and are more useful for verification and validation of design parameters than as process development tools. Systems approaches must be developed which will embed analytical models of basic transport phenomena into appropriately simplified design models to allow product engineers the ability to rapidly simulate multiple design and process routes and parameters for multi-stage manufacturing processes. Feature based interoperable design systems which will facilitate the implementation of collaborative process development with the supplier base are needed. The objective of Phase I is to investigate the feasibility of providing the needed tools for rapid interactive integrated product/process development through currently available simulation software modules, frameworks, and development efforts, especially within government agencies and programs. A method for making this system commercially available and viable is also proposed.

THOUGHTINVENTIONS UNLIMITED
40 Nutmeg Lane
Glastonbury, CT 06033
(860) 657-9014

PI: Dr. Stephen Bates
(606) 579-014
UNIV. OF SOUTH FLORIDA
4202 East Fowler Avenue
Tampa, FL 33620
(818) 974-2121

ID#: 98-098
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-004
Title: High Temperature Saphire Fiber Cladding
Abstract:   Sapphire fibers are well suited to the task of sensing harsh environments, tolerating temperatures well above 1500 C and strong chemicals. It is proposed to develop, a stable high temperature coating on sapphire fiber cladding. Previous research has shown the proposed cladding material forms a stable high temperature coating on sapphire in oxidizing atmospheres. Furthermore the coating is strongly bound to the sapphire, and the binding. layer is extremely thin and thus it is appropriate for use as a fiber cladding material. An appropriate methods for applying the cladding will be developed, together with the processing conditions for curing the cladding onto the fiber Testing include the measurement of basic mechanical properties and optics fiber properties a room temperature up to very high temperatures. The equipment and techniques required for continuous production of clad sapphire fiber will be defined. The feasibility of the clading and the cladding method will be assessed, and a Phase 2 plan for a prototype cladding facility will be developed.S

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
(703) 691-7760

PI: Charles Hsu
(703) 267-2313
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
225 North Avenue NW Carnegie Bldg
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-5051

ID#: 98-153
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-009
Title: Novel Mathematical/Computational Approaches to surveillance Image Transmission and Exploitation
Abstract:   Current algorithms for data compression are founded on three basic principles:transformation, quantization, and entropy coding. The transformation attempts to remove statistical redundancies from the input, thereby reducing the data to a smaller more manageable set. The quantizers convert samples into a finite set of levels, typically in a way that minimizes some predefined error measure (e.g. mean-squared, mean absolute difference, etc). The entropy coder converts the quantizer output, which is in the form of a sequence of level values, into a bit string. Assignments are made with variable length codes in an attempt to minimize the overall average bit rate of the system.An important first step of this work is to formally benchmark the performance of current state-of-the-art algorithms in the context of SAR image compression. Specifically, this benchmarking is performed in terms of visual quality and ATR performance quality. This is in direct contrast to mean-square error (MSE) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) measures that are commonly used to assess image coding quality in the compression community. This important first step is done in recognition that the true measure of merit for defense applications is the preservation of target classification information after transmission.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: Mary Chan-Park
(978) 250-4200
SOUTHWEST TEXAS STATE UNIV.
601 UNIVERSITY DRIVE
SAN MARCOS, TX 78666-2615
(512) 245-3632

ID#: 98-065
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-002
Title: High Temperature Low Viscosity Polymide Adhesive
Abstract:   Triton Systems, Inc., with Prof. Ronald Baney of the University of Florida (formerly with Dow Corning), propose to meet the Air Force needs for new high performance adhesives for stealth aircraft with near zero shrinkage, by developing a new series of silicone adhesives. Near zero shrinkage will he obtained by the development of a new demonstrated benzoxazine ring opening cure; low moisture uptake and high thermal performance to > 250c is intrinsic for the silicone adhesive system; an added required adhesive strength will be obtained by the addition of new MQ tackifiers. These new silicone adhesives, performing at very low to very high temperatures (-50 to > 250c) and under extreme humidity conditions, will offer a major advancement for the design, performance and repair of military aircraft. This new generation if adhesives with near zero shrinkage, will not impart a stress and potential failure upon the adhesive bond after cure, and will maintain needed strength and thermal performance. We propose to develop silicone adhesives in contrast to polyimide adhesives because of their well known tendency to absorb low amounts of water, their low change of properties with temperature, their known remarkable thermal stability, and because of our unique path to near zero shrinkage. Successful completion of the proposed Phase I program and a subsequent Phase II program will result in a high temperature adhesive with zero shrinkage.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: Mary Chan-Park
(978) 250-4200
WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
100 INSTITUTE ROAD
WORCESTER, MA 01609
(508) 831-5665

ID#: 98ML-028
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-017
Title: CONDUCTIVE POLYMER-SILVER NANOCOMPOSITE WIRES FOR NSAF SATELLITES & AIRCRAFT
Abstract:   Triton Systems, in partnership with Prof. William Moser of Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) proposes to develop a new lightwright, high strength, electrical signal distribution wire for satellites and aircraft based on a new unique conductive polymer, silver nanoparticle (CP-Ag) composit material. The CP-Ag Kevlar composite wire will have a density of less than l.9 g/cc (compared to 10.5 g/cc for silver) and will have the strong mechanical performance of Kevlar polymer fibers. Triton and WPI will use an established Ag nanoparticle preparation method, and incorporate conductive polymer through a proprietary blending method, to create the final composite CP-Ag material, that will then be coated onto a Kevlar yarn. We will demonstrate the goal conductivity of at least 10 3 S/cm through tailoring the CP-Ag domain/particle sizes that will create a strong conductive boost for the typical percolation curve for the limiting CP component. Phase I will identify the composite fabrication paramethers to demonstrate the required conductivity and mechanical strenght of the CP-Ag Kevlar coated lightwieght wire. Phase II will make use of Triton's demonstrated accomplishment in conductive polymers, wire coating, and in nanocomposite materials to scale-up prototype electrical signal distribution wires for he Air Force and for commercial applications.

UNIAX CORP.
6780 Cortona Road
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
(805) 562-9293

PI:

REGENTS OF THE UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA
POLYMER INSTITUTE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORN
SANTA BARBRA, CA 93117
(805) 893-4043

ID#: 98-123
Agency: AF
Topic#: 98-007
Title: Flexible Photonics: Polymer LEDs Fabricated from Monochromatic Red Emiting Polymers/Rare Earth Blends
Abstract:   The Phase I objective of this project is to demonstrate flexible light- emitting-diodes (LEDs) comprised of novel conjugated polymer/rare earth blends. Our preliminary studies, supported by the literature data on organic electroluminecsence (EL) devices indicate that the spectrally broad luminescence from a conjugated polymer can be converted into a nearly monochromatic light by small addition of a rare earth ion. This discovery creates an opportunity for fabrication of spectrally pure red-emitting LEDs, hence eliminating one of the remaining obstacles in the commercialization of full-color plastic displays.In the first part of Phase I we focus on the chemistry of europium organic complexes whose optical properties need to be optimized in order to assure an efficient energy transfer. Feedback to the synthetic efforts will be provided by on-line photoluminescence (PL) studies aimed toward selection of the most promising polymer/rare earth blends. These will be used for fabrication of the red-emitting LEDs on both rigid and flexible substrates. The performance of the LEDs, including I-v response, spectral purity, quantum efficiency, stability, and reproducibility, will be rigorously tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the Phase IT pro9ram.

---------- ARMY ----------
NATURAL SELECTION, INC.
3333 N. Torrey Pines Ct., #200
La Jolla, CA 92037
(619) 455-6449

PI: Dr. Lawrence J. Fogel
(619) 455-6449
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO
9500 Gilman Dr.
La Jolla, CA 92093
(619) 534-7895

ID#: 39040
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Modeling Distributed Interactive Agents
Abstract:   Conflict hinges on human behavior, but today's combat simulations only represent behavior in terms of heuristics. Yet these rule-based representations. fail to include human variability earning, and being intelligently interactive. They do not take advantage of an adversary's mistakes. An empirical modeling of behavior is difficult because behavior is intent and situation dependent. In contrast, a normative approach can be used with success, based on having the mission expressed in quantitative terms coupled with an evolutionary computation that discovers increasingly appropriate ways of allocating the available resources at each moment. Personality factors alter the way the mission is understood, as well as the performance to achieve that mission. The concerns here can be modeled across the levels of command and degrees of allegiance. This project will demonstrate the feasibility of non-rule-based intelligently interactive combat simulation that includes meaningful representation of human behavior. It will indicate how this can be incorporated into distributed interactive simulations using the High Level Architecture most suitable for training and analysis. BENEFITS: Including human behavior in combat simulation will improve both training and analysis. When incorporated into a non-rule-based intelligently interactive simulation, it provides a calibrated OFFOP, thereby reducing the need for and the cost of using qualified personnel while also increasing realism. This can be used for training at all levels. It can provide a basis for combat decision support during exercises/simulations and in actual combat. It can also improve the evaluation of new technology.

PSYCHOMETRIX ASSOC., INC.
8 Silver Hill Rd.
Lincoln, MA 01773
(781) 259-4088

PI: Eva Hudlicka
(781) 259-4088
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
633 Clark St., Room 2-502
Evanston, IL 60208
(847) 491-3003

ID#: 39038
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 98-004
Title: MAMID: Methodology for Analysis and Modeling of Individual Differences
Abstract:   Exiting simulation, training, and agent-based systems either do not address the modeling of individual behavior, or assume normative performance, thereby failing to exhibit expected performance variations due to individual differences factors (i.e., cognitive, affective, and personality variables). This shortcoming seriously limits realism of the resulting simulations, thereby reducing their utility, in both individual and distributed team applications. We propose to develop and demonstrate a Methodology for Analysis and Modeling of Individual Differences (MAMID), which provides a generic method for representing a variety of individual differences factors in human performance models. The proposed methodology consists of four steps: identification of cognitive processes and structures mediating performance; design of a corresponding parameterized model; identification of cognitive, affective, and personality factors affecting model processes; and encoding of identified factors in terms of model parameters and knowledge bases. The methodology will be implemented within an integrated simulation environment, providing a testbed for analysis of distinct profile effects on task performance. MAMID is applicable to both individual and team settings, and can be incorporated within a variety of agent architectures. We propose to demonstrate MAMID in the context of a selected Army task that is particularly susceptible performance variations due to individual differences. BENEFITS:Commercial applications of the generic MAMID methodology exist in a variety of settings, both individual and team. Characterized by a sensitivity to individual variations in performance and likelihood of strong affective states (e.g., high-risk, fast-paced, crisis-prone environments). The MAMID methodology is also applicable to virtual reality training environments designed to Compensate for a variety of cognitive or affective biases or disabilities (e.g., specific cognitive deficits due to aging, attention and anxiety disorders, etc.). Finally, MAMID is applicable to the entertainment industry, to produce individualized and more realistic interactive agents in a variety of edutainment, infotainment, and entertainment applications.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
P.O. Box 131309
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-1309
(734) 913-8160

PI: Paul E. Nielsen
(734) 913-8160
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
University Park 837 W. 36th Place
Los Angeles, CA 90089
(213) 740-6061

ID#: 39025
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Emotional Congnitive Synthetic Forces
Abstract:   Simulation environments offer a safe, inexpensive alternative to live exercises, but the entities which populate them lack many important human behavioral characteristics such as fear, frustration, anger, and fatigue. Such emotions influence how situations are interpereted, how attention is focused, which actions are considered and selected for execution, and how these actions are executed. The proposed research effort extends human behavioral characteristics to incorporate emotional characteristics into intelligent synthetic forces. Our objective is to transition current research on emotional cognitive architecture into realistic and cognitively plausible simulation applications. The work here is based on existing high fidelity entity level simulations, the Soar cognitive architecture, and recent advances in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence. We begin with intelligent, autonormous entity level simulations that have been developed over the past five years in support of DARPA's Synthetic Theater of War program. We will extend the capabilities of these entities by modifying the underlying cognitive architecture with an emotional cognitive architecture being developed at the Information Sciences Institute. BENEFITS: Our primary commercialization objective is to develop high fidelity intelligent entities for use by the U.S. military in training and mission rehersal. Other military applications include: tactice development. strategic planning, and human computer interfaces. Outside of the military domain we anticipate applications fo industrial (training, financial management, human resource management) and entertainment (combat and strategy games).

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
(303) 940-2301

PI: Dr. William L. Bell
(303) 940-2355
EMORY UNIV.
1784 N. Decatur Rd., Suite 510
Atlanta, GA 30322
(404) 727-2503

ID#: 39039
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Polyoxometalate Fabri Catalysts for Air Purification
Abstract:   Polyoxometalates (POMS) are a broad class of inexpensive inorganic materials that offer a wide range of structures and a corresponding variety of properties. Recent discoveries in the laboratory of Professor Craig Hill at Emory University offer the potential to prepare POM-coated fibers and fabrics with catalytic properties. The objective of this project is to develop this technology and apply it to protect soldiers from chemical warfare agents (CW agents) Current chemical protective clothing, either permeable or carbon cloth,imposes a significant heat stress on the user. An ideal protective clothing ensemble, both from the standpoint of user comfort and cost, would be a conventional battle dress uniform (BDU) made with cloth that had the ability to catalytically deactivate CW agents. While this ideal is far in the future, much can be done now to prepare BDUs that offer some level of chemical protection. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA), in collaboration with Professor Hill and his research group, will prepare and test POM-coated fabrics to demonstrate the feasibility of catalytic deactivation of CW agents. We will be assisted by collaborations with the Army's Natick RD&E Center, and with a fabric manufacturer with a long-standing interest in catalytically active fabrics BENEFITS: A successful project will lead to the development of an inexpensive fabric to project soldiers from chemical warfare agents. The same clothing would be useful for industrial and agricultural workers who are exposed to hazardous fumes. POM-fabrics that are effective in deactivating CW agents should also be able to improve indoor air quality by destroying many of the common molecules that are responsible for objectionable odors. Preliminary results in this regard are extremely encouraging and a patent has just been submitted. A catalytic deodorizing cloth (e.g. for draperies or upholstered furniture) that was even moderately effective would find an immediate, world-wide market.

XIDEX CORP.
8906 Wall St, Suite 105
Austin, TX 78754
(512) 339-0608

PI: Vladimir Mancevski
(512) 339-0608
UNIV. OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
P.O. Box 7726
Austin, TX 78713
(512) 471-6424

ID#: 39036
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 98-001
Title: Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Using High-Q Multiple-Torsional Mechanical Oscillators
Abstract:   Xidex Corporation and The University of Texas at Austin propose to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a magnetic resonance force microscope for single proton imaging. The proposed device will achieve high-precision, high-sensitivity measurement of the magnetic force using the. high-Q mode of multiple torsional oscillators fabricated from silicon as the sensing element. The UT Austin research group has already attained the spatial resolution required for single proton imaging by abandoning inductive detection schemes (NMR pickup coils, etc.) in favor of the multiple torsional oscillator system. This is the only group known to be actively pursuing magnetic resonance force microscopy with this approach. A factor of 100,000 improvement in signal-to-noise has been demonstrated in the laboratory. We now propose to extend the technique to its ultimate goal: single proton imaging. The target magnetic moment sensitivity of 2 x 10-28 J/T will easily permit single proton imaging (Mproton = 1.4 x 10-26 JIT) . The achievement will be demonstrated by non- intrusive detection of individual hydrogen atoms on surfaces. The demonstration of oscillators with a force sensitivity of Fmin =5x 10-16 N at room temperature and 2 x 10-19 N at 4 K, will be considered a complete Phase I success. BENEFITS:Xidex will develop, manufacture and sell MRFM tools for use within the semiconductor industry for production quality control in 300mm wafer fabrication facilities. These MRFM tools will also be sold for use in semiconductor characterization, and for imaging of single biological molecules. In addition, we plan to explore commercialization of quantum computation devices based on MRFM technology.

ZOMEGA TECHNOLOGY CO.
31 Omega Terrace
Latham, NY 12110
(518) 786-1684

PI: Zhiping Jiang
(518) 276-2260
RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
14 Street
Troy, NY 12180
(518) 276-6281

ID#: 39042
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Real-Time, Two-Dimensional Terahertz Beam Imaging
Abstract:   We will develop a real-time, two-dimensional THz wave imaging system. The proposed THz imaging system uses Electro-optic crystals and is capable of time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy across a frequency range extending from near DC to severalTHz. Fundamentally, the imaging sensor is based on the linear Electro-optic effect (Pockeles effect) in Electro-optic crystals where a pulsed microwave signal acts as .. transient bias to induce a transient polarization in the sensor crystal. Importantly this polarization is then probed by a synchronously pulsed laser beam, and both the spatial and temporal electric-field distribution is projected onto a COD camera by the laser Previous studies of these imaging sensors have demonstrated: a diffraction-limited spatial resolution, femtosecond temporal resolution, near DC-THz bandwidth, sub-mV/cm field sensitivity, up to 100 Hz scan rate, single-shot capability, and a signal-to-noise ratio better than 100,000:1. The Electro-optic detection has a flat (nonresonant) spectral responsivity (from near DC to several THZ) , a large detector area (> 6 cm2) , and an extended dynamic range (>10,000,000). The simplicity of the detection geometry, capability for optical parallel processing, and excellent signal-to-noise ratio make this system suitable for real-time, 2-dimensional coherent far infrared imaging applications. For the first time, a video of real-time THz imaging has been demonstrated at Rensselaer. We will build a portable THz beam system for commercial applications. In particular, we will investigate the feasibility of using a chirped optical probe pulse to read THz imaging in an Electro-optic crystal which provides the measurement of a THz wave with an unprecedented data acquisition rate. BENEFITS: A scientific breakthrough that could eventually become as important as ultrasonic, x-ray and radar technologies, may soon make it possible for us to see images of electric fields, diseased tissue, the chemical composition of plants, identification of suspicious materials, and much more that is undetected by other imaging systems.

---------- BMDO ----------
AMERICAN XTAL TECHNOLOGY
4311 Solar Way
Fremont, CA 94538-
(510) 683-5900

PI: Heikki Helava
(510) 683-5900
KANSAS STATE UNIV.
2 Fairchild Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-1103
(785) 532-6804

ID#: 98-028T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Optimization of Seeding for AlN Growth
Abstract:   Aluminum Nitride (A1N) substrates are attractive for III-nitride epitaxial growth due to their high thermal conductivity, close lattice and thermal expansion match to IlI-nitride compositions used for opto-electronic and electronic devices and their relative ease of growth when compared to Gallium Nitride (GaN). Vapor sublimation is an attractive method for growing A1N bulk crystals. Seeded growth is the best way to maximize the crystal growth yield. In standard crystal growth from the melt, a small seed crystal is dipped into the melt and the crystal diameter is slowly increased to reduce the probability of growth failures such as twins or polycrystal. The cone region uses a significant freaction of the melt and results in unusable crystal. A similar process can be used for sublimation growth but for large crystals this method is too inefficient and wasteful. Optimally, sublimation growth of A1N requires a low-defect A1N seed of the same diameter as the crystal to be grown. Unfortunately, A1N crystals of appropriate size are not yet available and other crystals which are not optimally matched to A1N need to be used as seed crystals. In Phase I we propose to determine at least one appropriate, large-area seed for A1N sublimation growth. The best seed will be optimized in Phase II. We recognize that when we have succeeded in growing large-area A1N crystals the hetero-seeding problem will have been solved. Nevertheless, seeding even with A1N seeds will continue to be a significant problem, as it still is with very well established crystal growth methods. After the successful growth of the first large-area A1N crystal, we will optimize A1N as the seed.

CAROLINA SPUTTER SOLUTIONS
6474 Hurdle Mills
Hurdle Mills, NC 27541-
(919) 854-9575

PI: N. Mark Williams
(919) 854-9575
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV.
229 Riddick Hall, Box 7907
Raleigh, NC 27695-
(919) 515-2444

ID#: 98-064T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Sputter Synthesis of Bulk Aluminum Nitride
Abstract:   The proposed research will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for bulk growth of aluminum nitride(AlN). We have developed a sputter source which demonstrates the high growth rates needed for growing bulk aluminum nitride. In comparison with other bulk growth processes this novel PVD process has the advantages of a controlled processing environment with high purity materials. This novel process uses an enhanced sputtering process to rapidly deposit bulk nitrides. This enhancement allows the process to overcome current limitations in PVD techniques. This source is capable of depositing pure, polycrystalline aluminum nitride at an optimized rate of lmmtmin. At these growth rates, the production of very thick, pure aluminum nitride is feasible. We plan to determine what processing parameters can be optimized to produce aluminum nitride with high thermal conductivity, high transmittance, and high strength. Our technical objectives are to grow bulk A1N of high crystalline quality and purity. Once growth of aluminum nitride is demonstrated, a commercial scale system will be designed that will increase the process efficiency (Phase II). The advantages of direct synthesis of A1N by ultra high rate deposition over conventional powder sintering methods will be presented.

CONDUCTUS, INC.
969 West Maude Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086-
(408) 523-9950

PI: Vlad Matijasevic
(408) 523-9487
STANFORD UNIV.
Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 723-3426

ID#: 98-091T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Ion-Beamed Assisted Deposition for Film Growth of High Temperature Superconductors on Polycrystalline Substrates for Microwave Applications
Abstract:   Conductus proposes to develop high-quality hiqh-temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films on polycrystalline substrates for high-frequency applications. The approach will utilize a novel technology based on ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) for biaxial texturing of oxide films currently under investigation at Stanford University. IBAD will be used to deposit oriented buffer layers on poly-crystalline substrates. Yea Cu O. (YBCO) HTS thin films will then be deposited on top of the buffer layers. 2 3 7 The main goal of the proposed Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the ability to grow YBCO films of sufficient quality for microwave applications, on polycrystal-line substrates using IBAD of buffer layers. Initially, polycrystalline dielectri materials will be used as substrates. Subsequently, flexible polycrystalline substrates will be used. During the project, deposition of buffer layers on appropriate substrate materials will be developed, HTS thin films will be characterized, and microwave performance tested. The primary application of interest is microwave filter systems where high-quality HTS films on polycrystal-line substrates would significantly reduce the cost of such systems as well as enhance their capabilities. Additionally , IBAD technology will be evaluated for applications to HTS coils for magnetic resonance imaging where coils on curved surfaces would greatly enhance the performance and for application in high frequency interconnects.

D-STAR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
725 33rd Street
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266-
(213) 740-1134

PI: Dr. Dmitry S. Starodubov
(213) 740-7762
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Department of Contracts and Grants, Univ
Los Angeles, CA 99089-1147
(213) 740-7762

ID#: 98-073T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-001
Title: Novel Optical Fiber Grating Based Radiation Sensors
Abstract:   We propose to develop technology for a new generation of ultra-compact, low-cost fiber sensors for detecting gamma- and x-rays. Long-period gratings embedded in a fiber will couple light between the fiber core and a special sensitized fiber cladding. We will investigate the most advantageous grating geometries for such sensors. The fundamental design of a fiber grating based sensor array will be demonstrated using photoemulsion as the radiation sensitizer. The ruggedness of optical fibers will allow the sensors to be embedded in vehicles and structures. The wavelength selectivity of fiber gratings will be used to fabricate arrays of sensors deployed along a single fiber. A single fiber will be able to measure the three dimensional distribution of a radiation field. We will also develop imaging software to take advantage of the multi-dimensional capabilities of sensor arrays. The ability to mass produce such sensors will enable a multitude of applications, both defense related and commercial, ranging from radiation detection in harsh environments to distributed remote networks of sensors to medical applications.

DISPLAYTECH, INC.
2602 Clover Basin Drive
Longmont, CO 80503-
(303) 772-2191

PI: Timothy J. Drabik
(404) 894-4793
GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH CORP.
400 10th Street, Room 246
Atlanta, GA 30332-0420
(404) 894-4817

ID#: 98-062T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Novel Fabrication of High-Resolution Microdisplay Panels
Abstract:   Correlations and convolutions are fundamental tools of signal and image processing. Applications include object recognition, automatic tracking and guidance, machine vision for automated manufacturing processes, autonomous vehicles, and general purpose image processing such as searching and analyzing graphical data bases. Optical systems can perform these operations enormously faster than electronic systems. Optical correlators are becoming feasible due to advances in spatial light modulator technology and in high-speed imagers. In order to become more commer-cially viable, correlators must be small, inexpensive, and easy to use. However, conventional ways of building correlators produce systems that are too large, too expensive, and too difficult to use to have broad applicability. We have recently developed a highly compact, highly integrated approach to building correlators that could greatly reduce their cost and size and enhance their ruggedness. Based on the new architecture, we propose to develop a complete system design and manufacturing process for building OEM correlator modules.

FERMIONICS CORP.
4555 Runway Street
Simi Valley, CA 93063
(805) 582-0155

PI: Yet-Zen Liu
(805) 582-0155
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA - SAN DIEGO
9500 Gilman Dr.
San Diego, CA 92093-0407
(619) 534-6180

ID#: 98-067T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: A Novel Low Cost Fiber Bragg Grating Stabilized Multiwavelength Laser for Dense WDM Application
Abstract:   A novel fiber Bragg grating stabilized laser array is proposed here. The multi-wavelength source is aimed at low cost dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) applications where the superior properties, i.e., low chirp, low temperature dependence, of the fiber Grating is utilized. The resultant product is a coolerless multi-wavelength laser source that can be modulated with direct current. The efforts include laser chip wave guide design, fiber grating development, hybrid package design and assembling process development.

IMPLANT SCIENCES CORP.
107 Audubon Road #5
Wakefield, MA 01801
(781) 246-0700

PI: H. Paul Maruska
(781) 246-0700
HOWARD UNIV.
1124 Down Hall 2300 6th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20059
(202) 806-5567

ID#: 98-008T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: High Power Gallium Nitride HEMT Prepared by Ion Implantation
Abstract:   Implant Sciences Corporation proposes to develop a superior power transistor design based on ion implanted nitride semiconductor materials which will be produced at Howard University. Our lateral device design features an inverted GaN channel with the AlGaN charge supply layer doped by ion implantation. Ion implantation allows selective area doping, which will let us create for the first time an undoped drift region at the drain which will allow high voltage switching. Because the undoped GaN channel supporting the two dimensional electron gas should feature a significantly higher mobility than can be round in SiC, and due to GaN's high breakdown field, we expect our high electron mobility transistor (KEMT) to easily out-perform present SiC high power/high temperature devices. We predict significant reductions in on-resistance, minimizing power dissipation. Implanting donor ions in the source and drain will also reduce series resistance. Processing requirements and packaging for our planar device design will be simplified compared to present vertical SiC devices such as UMOSFETs. Devices will be fabricated, tested, and compared with results in the literature. In Phase II we shall optimize the layer design and the implantation conditions to produce devices which can deliver high currents at 350 C.

INPOD, INC.
8906 Wall Street, Suite 704
Austin, TX 78754-
(512) 835-4848

PI: Abdelhak Bensaoula
(713) 743-3621
UNIV OF HOUSTON
3900 Calhoun
Houston, TX 77204
(713) 743-9240

ID#: 98-096T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor Chips (MLC3s) for High-Energy Density Storage and High Frequency Power Switching Device Applications
Abstract:   Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) are the most reliable source of high-energy density storage banks. They also find use in high frequency switch mode power supplies because they are optimized to minimize both effective series resistance (ESR) and effective series inductance (ESL). The demand for multilayer ceramic capacitors having high capacitance and high volumetric efficiencies is leading the challenges in the Manufacturing of MDCCs. Proposed here i-, a development by physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique of low cost and high efficiency aultilayer ceramic capacitor chips (KLC3s) based on insulating boron nitride thin layers and conductive copper or aluminum compatible inner electrodes. PVD of these hybrid materials offer many potential advantages because their structures can be controlled at the near-atomic level. The fabrication of this new designer materials using multilayer micro-structured technology extends the use of ceramic capacitors to a wider range of temperatures and increases their energy density several order of magnitude over present technology, with significant advantages. Large matrices of multilayer ceramic capacitors will be fabricated using different patterns for electrodes and dielectric thin films templates. We will also demonstrate the merits of BN-based MlC3s for use in space specific for device applications.

LASERGENICS CORP.
6830 Via Del Oro, Suite 103
San Jose, CA 95119-
(408) 363-9791

PI: Dr. Sandor Erdei
(408) 363-9791
THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV.
110 Technology Center
University Park, PA 16802-
(814) 865-3396

ID#: 98-103T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: GaN Single Crystal Growth in Gel
Abstract:   Recently a great deal of work has been directed at the growth of epitaxial layers of the group III nitrides because of their potential application in the manufacture of blue LEDs and laser diodes. These layers have been deposited on such materials as sapphire and silicon carbide. Because of the large lattice mismatch of these materials with the nitrides, a large number of defects are generated. If large single crystals of the group III nitrides could be grown, they could be used as bulk devices or substrates for thin film based devices, resulting in a significant improvement in efficiency. The objective of our proposal is to use our new growth technique, the growth of single crystals of GaN in a gel, to grow large crystals of GaN. This technique can also be used for the other group III nitrides, such as AIN and InN as well as for other materials that are difficult to grow.

LODESTONE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.
6515 N. Springfield Avenue
Lincolnwood, IL 60645-
(847) 679-3829

PI: Dr. James D. Hodge
(847) 679-3829
UNIV. OF CINCINATTI
Mail Location 0627
Cincinatti, OH 45221-
(513) 556-2870

ID#: 98-053T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-003
Title: High Performance RF Components Utilizing Single-Domain Superconductor Materials
Abstract:   Lodestone Technologies will team with the University of Cincinnati to exploit a unique, ultra-low loss high temperature superconducting material to develop high performance RF components operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. Unlike thin or thick film HTS materials that are currently being developed for RF applications, this new material is insensitive to surface magnetic fields and, consequently, be used to advantage in high-power RF applications. It also has the advantage over film-based HIS materials in that it can be produced using conventional bulk ceramic processing techniques and, as ~ result, has the potential for being very economical to manufacture.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Ave., #1
Waltham, MA 02154-
(781) 893-4449

PI: James A. Cornie
(781) 893-4449
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECH.
77 Massachusetts Ave. - Rm 26-368
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-6877

ID#: 98-104T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Tooling-Free MMC Casting by Combining 3-D Printing of Ceramic Preforms, Low Porosity Castable Refractory Investment Compound and Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting (APIC)
Abstract:   Three-dimensional printed preforms will be used as mold patterns for MMCC's high-density, pressure resistant, castable refractory. Hard tooling will be eliminated from the Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting process (APIC ). Cost for Al/Sic electronic housings will be slashed 75% over conventional pressure casting. Complex parts will be easily manufactured. Design modifications can be quickly incorporated. Design to commercial manufacturing time can I be reduced to weeks. Manufacturing rates will match powder injection molding I and die-casting. Specifically, we will develop high-density, pressure-resistant investment compounds that utilize 3DP preforms as mold patterns. Pattern coatings that result in high quality cast surfaces will be investigated. Pressure infiltration casting will be refined and used to manufacture thermo physical mechanical test coupons and prototype parts. The principle goals of the program l are: 1) develop mechanical and thermo p ysical properties equivalent to or better than legacy properties, and 2) verify the cost advantage of this approach. MMCC will collaborate with the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory at MIT to develop and manufacture SiC preforms for structural as well as electronic thermal management applications. For proof-of-concept, advanced microwave receiving amplifier modules for Lockheed-Martin/Sanders, and 2-pack second-stage compressor vane segements for the P&F- 119/JSF, will be prototyped.

MINMAX TECHNOLOGIES
4041 Forest Park Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63108-
(314) 534-8000

PI: Robert Krchnavek
(314) 534-8000
WASHINGTON UNIV.
One Brookings Dr.
St. Louis, MO 63130-
(314) 935-5825

ID#: 98-047T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Mems-Based, Reconfigurable, Fault-Tolerant Optical Backplanes
Abstract:   Backplanes are key building blocks around which larger electronic systems are often implemented. They are designed so that the insertion of application derived function boards can use backplane paths for board-to-board communication. As systems grow, requiring more, higher-bandwidth paths, electronic backplanes are becoming inadequate and, for example, pin limitations have become a severe design constraint. MinMAX Technologies and Washington University propose to develop an optical backplane with capabilities for dynamic switching of optical paths. Such a backplane will relieve bandwidth and pin constraints. Additionally, by providing for switching of the optical paths, system reliability and availability can be enhanced and dynamic load balancing techniques can be utilized. Phase I will focus primarily on the design, fabrication and testing of a critical backplane component, a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) optical switch. Under electrical control, this component will permit the switching of an input optical fiber to one of two output fibers. A complete optical path including the MEMS switch will also be tested and evaluated. Additionally, we will develop an applications-driven optical backplane design methodology. As time permits, specification of a set of CAD tools to aid in the design process will be undertaken.

MOLECULAR OPTOELECTRONICS CORP.
877 25th Street
Watervliet, NY 12189-1903
(518) 270-8203

PI: Kwok-Pong Chan
(518) 270-8203
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
Center for Research and Education in Opt
Orlando, FL 32816-2700
(407) 823-6807

ID#: 98-038T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Parametric Frequency Conversion Devices with Poled Polymers
Abstract:   In a fiber optic telecommunications field that is rapidly moving towards wavelength multiplexed systems, a means of converting signals from one wavelength to another is needed. In this application organic materials can be combined with the second-order nonlinear optical process of parametric frequency conversion to produce novel state-of-the-art devices. Our goal is to develop wavelength conversion devices based on parametric frequency mixing with poled polymers. Previous work has shown that the critical parameter in polymeric waveguides is propagation loss at the second harmonic wavelength. Consequently, the first phase will consist of finding a polymeric system which has both small propagation losses (<3 dBtcm) in the wavelength range 750-800 nm and potentially large nonlinearities of 50-100 pm/V. Then, to take full advantage of this nonlinear material, it will be teamed with two other transparent linear polymers, to realize highly nonlinear waveguide structures that can be phase matched for efficient SHG around 1550 nm. If successful, this will open the door to the full development and implementation of polymeric wavelength conversion devices based on parametric processes. In particular, we will then realize frequency shifters for the 1.5 Am band that can operate at low optical powers.

NANOLUME, INC.
181 Jordan Ridge
Pittsboro, NC 27132-
(919) 542-5161

PI: Dr. James Joansen
(919) 542-5161
DUKE UNIV.
02 ALLEN BUILDING, BOX 90077
Durham, NC 27708
(919) 660-1541

ID#: 98-057T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-001
Title: Quantum Dot/Silicon MixedIC Sensor Technology
Abstract:   Chemically synthesized quantum dots with an emphasis on Gallium Nitride are used in conjunction with polymeric dielectrics to make thin film materials for coated layers on bulk semiconductor substrates such as Silicon wafers. The layers supply high performance radiation sensing crystalline semiconductor materials to the surface of standard Silicon ICs. Multiple bands may be sensed by mixing and matching quantum dot materials. Novel Opto-Capacitive devices are made by utilizing the change in refractive index of the quantum dots with absorption of radiation.

NANOSONIC, INC.
509 Rose Avenue
Blacksburg, VA 24060-
(540) 953-1785

PI: Dr. Yanjing Liu
(540) 953-1785
VIRGINIA TECH
301 Burruss Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0249
(540) 231-5281

ID#: 98-039T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Electrostatic Self-Assembly Processes for the Manafacturing of Optoelectronic Devices
Abstract:   The proposed program would demonstrate the feasibility of electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) methods developed at Virginia Tech for manufacturing multilayer thin-film optoelectronic devices and circuits. ESA processing involves the alternate coating of polymer, metal, ceramic or semiconductor substrates by the alternate adsorption of anionic and cationic complexes of polymers, metallic nanoclusters and other molecules from aqueous solutions at room temperature and pressure. Design of the molecules in each layer, molecular orientation, and the order of the layers allow spatial control of physical properties, including refractive index, electrical conductivity, carrier transport, luminescence, band gap, nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, surface hardness and degradation resistance. Incorporation of high performance polymers allows mechanical and thermal stability. Nanosonic has licensed five basic, wide-coverage patents from Virginia Tech to commercialize this technology. Through the STTR program, Nanosonic would work with Virginia Tech to demonstrate ESA-manufactured optoelectronic device and circuit products. Specific emphasis will be placed on use of ESA-formed NLO materials with second order susceptibilities exceeding that of lithium niobate, recently demonstrated by Virginia Tech. B. F. Goodrich process engineers would assist with chemical process scale-up during Phase II. Lockheed-Martin and Honeywell would provide Phase I materials and NLO device evaluation and potential Phase II development partnering.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9370 SW 72nd Street, A-142
Miami, FL 33173-
(305) 321-5288

PI: Dr. Alberto J. Varela
(305) 321-5288
UNIV. OF MIAMI
1507 Levant Avenue
Coral Gables, FL 33146-
(305) 284-4541

ID#: 98-061T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: High-Density Optical Interconnection Based on Free Space Non-Diffracting Beams
Abstract:   Optical interconnects are required for high speed opto-electronic packaged computing systems for fast image processing for missile interception and fast target identification. However, existing free space optimal interconnection suffers from diffraction limitation of interconnect line density and requires many large and sophisticated beam collimation, focusing, interconnect reconfiguration elements. It is preferred to have small interconnection beams and with Large interconnection Hesitance. Such requirement is not possible to achieve by conventional Gaussian optical beams propagating in free space. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein high-density optical interconnection based on free-space non-diffracting beams. The diffraction contribution of the non-diffracting bean permits the bean to propagate in free space for a substance wily Large distance without significant beam size broadening. The non-diffracting beam is like a confined been in free space. It is like using an invisible fiber in free space. It offers s~n~taneously the advantages of free space interconnects and guided-wave interconnects incll~;ng cross-over interconnection, low propagation and coupling loss, and high interconnect line density. Using the Nun non-diffracting beam makes the laser tr~n~nitter packaging compact. It further eliminates the need for focusing lenses at photodetectors. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed non-diffracting beam concept.

NZ APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
8A Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-0300

PI: Co-PI at CWRU, Dr. Long D
(781) 935-0300
CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV.
10900 Euclid Ave. (Materials Sci./Engr.)
Cleveland, OH 44106
(216) 368-2009

ID#: 98-087T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Growth of New Wide Band Gap Nitride Semiconductors for Yellow-Green Band Optoelectronics and High Temperature Electronics
Abstract:   The goal of the SBIR Phase I proposal is an attempt to grow the world's first single crystalline new wide band gap nitride semiconductors by MOCVD for developing optoelectronic and optical devices in yellow to green visible band as well as lattice matched heterostructure wide band gap electronic devices. The expected direct transition, wide band gap electronic structure and the significant nonlinear optical properties of the material hold promise of the aforementioned applications. The possibility of constructing lattice matched heterostructures for carrier and optical confinement in this material system, which seems impossible in AlGaInN system, promises developing high performance photonic and electronic devices. Fundamental physical properties of the semiconductor materials, including lattice structure and constants, optical transition, electronic structure and carrier transport characteristics, will be investigated theoretically and experimentally utilizing the first-principles local density approximation calculation, X-ray diffraction. reflection high energy electron diffraction, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, absorption measurement and Hall effect measurement. Yellow-green light emitters, second harmonic generators or lattice matched heterojunction transistors will be developed in the Phase II based on the Dromise of the new materials.

PHOTONIC PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9795 SW Gemini Drive
Beaverton, OR 97008-
(503) 641-4219

PI: Scott Enochs
(503) 641-4219
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109
(818) 354-0239

ID#: 98-035T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: A Manufacturable Packaging Technology for Monolithic WDM Laser Arrays for All-Optical Fiber Communications
Abstract:   PPT, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, proposes to develop a manufacturable packaging technology for monolithic Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) laser arrays for all-optical fiber communications. The packaging technology will include coupling from a monolithic laser array to individual fibers and a microwave feed for each of the individual elements, all in a hermetically sealable package design. In Phase 1, PPT will develop design concepts for a packaging architecture incorporating high speed electrical interconnect, single mode fiber coupling to optoelectronic arrays, and fiber exit tube geometries; and JPL wiJI design and test the microwave feed for a 4 element laser array. Phase 11 will result in the demonstration of a complete packaging technology on a 4 element laser array, including back facet monitors, thermoelectric cooler, RF feed and single-mode fiber coupling in a hermetically sealed package. Currently, discrete DFB lasers, as well as most other optoelectronic components, are packaged individually, with each laser having its own thermoelectric cooler and package. This adds significantly to the cost of packaging such devices. The development of a robust, manufacturable array packaging technology will allow for low-cost, compact laser array transmitters in WDM networks.

RST SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INC.
2331 W. Lincoln Ave. Suite 300
Anaheim, CA 92801-
(714) 772-4744

PI: R.S. Tahim
(714) 772-8274
TEXAS A&M UNIV.
Department of Chemistry
College Station, TX 77843
(409) 845-5285

ID#: 98-054T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Surprises and Opportunities (Aerospace Propulsion and Power)
Abstract:   This proposal describes an innovative scheme to develop lightweight, high efficiency prime power transfer system capable of delivering a large amount of electric power for aerospace propulsion. The key innovations essential to the system include: 1) high efficiency quasi-optical solid-state transmitter array; 2) electronic beam steering; 3) high efficiency dual polarized rectenna; 4) the bus-bar design for DC output power. The design utilizes the quasi-optical techniques employing microwave integrated circuits and solid-state devices. Using a large number of internally matched FET or HBT power devices (with high power added efficiency) integrated with the planar antennas, the active antenna arrays are formed, which are capable of meeting the high output power requirements (DC to RF) and beam steering. The new techniques eliminate the use of conventional phase shifters in the phased arrays and thus result in low cost, efficient power transfer system. A high efficiency rectenna capable of RF-to-DC conversion is l designed using planar antennas integrated with the Schottky devices. The development of wireless power transmission (WPT) system will be carried out at 5.8 GHz. Failure analysis and thermal analysis will be undertaken and suitable schemes to accomplish reliable operation will be developed.

SHAYDA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5116 S. Woodlawn Ave., Suite 2R
Chicago, IL 60615-
(773) 643-5082

PI: Dr. Alireza Gharavi
(773) 643-5082
UNIV OF CHICAGO
Department of Chemistry, 5735 South Elli
Chicago, IL 60637-
(773) 702-8698

ID#: 98-093T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: A Multi-Fuctional Optical Switch: A WDM, Add/Drop Multiplexer and Cross-Connect Device
Abstract:   The rising demand for the Internet ls driving the telecommunication! industry to an all-optical network architecture. To meet the requirements of this strategy further development and improvement of the| components are necessary. Currently the commercially available photonic devices, including Wavelength Division Multiplexers (WDM's) - widely regarded as a crucial building block of the anticipated all optical telecommunications network - are based on inorganic materials. Polymeric materials for optical applications have recently reached a performance maturity to compete with these inorganic optical materials. The stability and nonlinearity of these polymers are high enough to be considered for commercial applications in optoelectronics. The physical and chemical flexibility of modern polymeric materials make them strongly advantageous over other materials for these types of applications. They provide a large inventory of photonic materials that have low dielectric constant and can be chemically modified to suite specific applications. Hence, we propose to construct a novel device that can perform several critical tasks for telecommunication industry and can be manufactured with a fraction of the cost of the silicon based devices. The proposed tests and approaches of this Phase I project are chosen to sample a range of functionalities required of such optical devices and to touch on areas of future commercial interest. This way we hope to ensure development of one or more prototypes as proof of principle and as a point of entry into phase II.

SILVER SKY TECHNOLOGIES
644 Pond View Terrce
St. Paul, MN 55120-1929
(612) 720-7147

PI: A. M. Dabiran
(612) 626-0095
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
200 Union Street SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
(612) 625-5517

ID#: 98-128T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Ultrahigh Quality GaN Films
Abstract:   The feasibility of chemical beam epitaxy to grow ultrahigh quality GaN thin films will be developed. This process will allow the growth of GaN on high thermal conductivity substrates and enable the fabrication of precision superlattice structures. GaN will be grown using Ga effusion cells and ammonia-in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. This growth rate will be in the 1 micron per hour range at temperatures between 700 and 950 C. During growth, the process will be controlled using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, Resorption mass spectroscopy, and cathodoluminescence. With these monitors, the growth conditions will be set precisely, allowing excellent reproducibility. The films will be examined after growth by atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning cathodoluminescence, and characterized by Hall and capacitance- voltage measurements. This process will enable us to supply ultra- high quality GaN films to an emerging, national technology.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR
22660 Executive Drive, Ste. 101
Sterling, VA 20166-
(703) 834-7535

PI: Dr. Larry Rowland
(703) 834-7535
UNIV. OF COLORADO/BOULDER
CB 425
Boulder, CO 80309
(303) 492-2809

ID#: 98-071T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Wide Bandgap Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for X-Band Operation
Abstract:   In this Phase I STTR, Sterling Semiconductor--in cooperation with the University of Colorado at Boulder--will develop novel heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) semiconductor devices for microwave applications. Specifically, the team will develop I gallium nitride (GaN)/silicon carbide (SIC) N-p-n HBTs, consisting of a gallium nitride emitter on a p-type silicon carbide base and an e-type silicon carbide collector. Successful demonstration of the Phase I tasks will serve as a foundation for a Phase II development of a GaN/SiC-based HBT for X-band operation.

THESEUS LOGIC, INC.
1080 Montreal Ave, Suite 200
St. Paul, MN 55116-
(612) 699-6368

PI: Ross Smith
(612) 699-1296
PHYSICS DEPARTMENT SUNY - STONY BROOK

Stony Brook, NY 11794
(516) 632-9024

ID#: 98-048T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Broadband Front Ends for Radar & Digital Receivers
Abstract:   The Theseus Logic/SUNY-Stony Brook team is proposing to develop, demonstrate and commercialize Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) circuit designed using NULL Convention Logic (NCL). Phase I of this program will demonstrate, by simulation and modeling, the feasibility of implementing logic gate structures in RSFQ technology which can exploi the effective delay insensitivity of NCL. In Phase II the team will build and demonstrate NCL-based RSFQ circuits for high-frequency broad band front ends for radar and communication digital receivers. Theseus Logic has developed and demonstrated the viability of a proprietary new logic family, NCL, which produces inherently clockless data driven, and effectively delay insensitive curcuits and systems. This technology produces circuit designs without concern for the detailed timing issues which make the prospects of global synchron-ization with clocks so difficult with frequencies in the 1-100 GHz range. Theseus is focused on the commercialization of its proprietary technology. The State University of New York at Stony Brook is a world leader in developing superconducting RSFQ device technology. RSFQ circuits have demonstrated the capability of LSI circuits running at clock speeds well above 100 GHz and power dissipation approaching four orders of magnitude less than CMOS

---------- DARPA ----------
APPLIED PULSED POWER TECHNOLOGIES
614 1/2 Narcissus Ave.
Corona Del Mar, CA 92625
(714) 644-6687

PI: Eusebio Garate
(714) 644-6687
UNIV. OF TENNESSEE
404 Andy Holt Tower,
Knoxville, TN 37996
(423) 974-3466

ID#: 98ST10034
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated with Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
Abstract:   Decontamination of military personnel, equipment and facilities that have been exposed to deadly biological and / or chemical warfare agents is of critical concern to U.S. Armed Forces. Conventional technologies used for decontamination and sterilization suffer from drawbacks that include toxic effluents, radiation hazards to personnel, and very long time scales for the decontamination process pressure plasma system, which has already proven effective in sterilizing simple bacteria like E. coli and decomposing chemical warfare agent simulants, to effect sterilization of difficult to neutralize spores like bacillus subtilus. The plasma system will also be used to decontaminate metal and cloth surfaces that have been exposed to chemical warfare agent simulants. Standard characterization techniques, like gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, will be used to determine the residual chemical agent, and by-products, after exposure to the plasma. Standard plating and counting techniques will be used to determine the efficacy of the plasma treatment on the model biological warfare pathogens.

ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES
9950 Wakeman Drive,
Manassas, VA 20110
(703) 331-1051

PI: Ben Motazed
(703) 331-1051
CARNEGIE MELLON UNIV.
5000 Forbes Ave.,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
(412) 268-8746

ID#: 98ST10033
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-005
Title: Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Guidance and Navigation
Abstract:   Aurora Flight Sciences and Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute propose a joint program to develop a generalized MAV navigation and guidance framework applicable to both hovering and fixed wing configurations. The proposed cooperative program seeks to apply image processing methods and devices developed at CMU for a wide range of MAV navigation with special emphasis to the indoor and urban canyon like environments. We will investigate the use of panospheric imaging and novel methods of ranging. Panospheric imaging is the projection of a very wide field of view (360 degs in azimuth and up to 120 degs in elevation) onto a single camera via a curved mirror. Such imaging allows tele-operated navigation without the requirement for any moving parts to view different parts of the surrounding environment. In addition to telepresence, this mode will also provide the ability to track moving objects, guide the MAV toward a target, and attitude control through optical flow processing. Complementary to the panospheric imaging, we also propose to investigate a novel laser ranging device based on Self-Mixing Laser Interferometry (SMiLI) that can be used for odometry, attitude control, obstacle detection and mapping. Apart from fulfilling several needs, both technologies are amenable to the miniaturization required for MAVs.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING GROUP, INC.
11020 Solway School Rd, Suite 109
Knoxville, TN 37931
(423) 927-3717

PI: Irene Datskou
(423) 927-3717
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
P.O. Box 2009, MS 8063
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
(423) 574-0355

ID#: 98ST10020
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-006
Title: Novel Magnetic and Chemical Microsensors for In-Situ, Real-Time, Unattended Use
Abstract:   The Environmental Engineering Group (EEG), Inc. in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposes to develop a novel magnetic and chemical microsensor for in-situ, real-time detection, and unattended use. We envision a micro-system built around a single type of micro-structure element integrating a monolithic optical system and electronics package. We will integrate into the same micro-structure sensing element, the ability to sense magnetic fields, and chemical composition. The proposed microsensor will incorporate high performance optics, telemetry, and power source and will be capable of operating under field conditions, with sufficient sensitivity to permit high detection rates, and with sufficient selectivity to prevent high false alarm rates. The telemetry system will consist of a relatively small FOV vertically directed laser diode used for burst mode transmission. The transmission of the sensor information could either be transmitted at regular intervals or determined by thesensed parameters. For particularly stealthy operation the telemetry information from the sensed parameters. For particularly stealthy operation the telemetry information from the sensed parameters could also be triggered remotely by either an RF or line-of-sight electro-optical signal. Thus, the 1 to 2 second burst mode signal would be difficult to intercept, jam, and be very power conscience.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
(301) 590-3155

PI: Don Myers
(301) 590-3155
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV.
110 Technology Center Bldg.,
University Park, PA 16802
(814) 865-3396

ID#: 98ST10055
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Microrover Technologies for Tactical Land Warfare
Abstract:   Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to build and test a scaled amphibious microrover fitted with a unique navigational system and demonstrates its ability in conducting tactical warfighting capabilities. Penn State ARL will, as a subcontractor, prototype the micro acoustical sensors and assist in algorithms used in the scheme. The proposed Amphibious vehicle will have a navigational system with two integrated levels of functionality, micro (obstacle avoidance) and macro (point to point) navigation, and will have both on board and groundstation processing capabilities. The vehicle will operate on smooth surfaces at high speed and have rugged terrain and amphibious capabilities due to its unique propulsion system.

LASERGENICS CORP.
6830 Via del Oro, Suite 103
San Jose, CA 95119
(408) 363-9791

PI: Hanna Hoffman
(408) 363-9791
SAN JOSE STATE UNIV.
1 Washington Street
San Jose, CA 95192-0099
(408) 924-4800

ID#: 98ST10060
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Efficient Upconversion Blue Laser Source
Abstract:   An efficient blue laser concept is proposed based on two-photon upconversion of diode laser near-IR radiation into the blue in a doped-crystal fiber. The upconversion process offers certain performance advantages not readily realized from a system containing nonlinear elements, such as resistance to damage and more relaxed requirements on the laser medium. With thulmium as the doping ion, wavelenghts in the 450-560 nm range are readily realized as was already demonstrated, mostly in fluoride crystals and glasses. We propose alternative host crystals which, based on calculations by Dr. Gruber, our collaborator on this project, have more optimal conditions for upconversion when doped with Tm, due to favorable branching ratios and cross sections. Another key element in our approach is the use of crystal fibers which are known to possess low thresholds and are therefore highly advantageous for the transitions considered, some of which are quasi-three-level by nature. While the proposed project targets the 450-460 nm spectral range, extention to other wavelengths in the blue, blue-green and red region are possible using alternative active ions (such as erbium and praesidymium) based on the same general concept of upconversion in crystal fiber lasers.

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3200 George Washington Way
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-1111

PI: Joseph Birmingham
(509) 375-1111
BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Battelle Blvd.,
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 376-6342

ID#: 98ST10045
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Air Decontamination with Corona Plasma
Abstract:   As the availability of materials and know-how to field weapons of mass destruction using chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are increasingly available to rogue groups and nations, novel approaches to air filtration for HVAC systems are critical for national security. Using a gas phase corona reactor (GPCR) system, which is capable of destroying chemical and biological agents and delivering volumetric flow rate of hundreds or thousands of cubic feet of air per minute (cfm), air can be decontaminated before entering the occupied space. Conventional thermal or chemical decontamination, or ultraviolet radiation technologies are not adequate in addressing this issue. Conventional HEPA filtration generates significant operations and maintenance costs and is ineffective against chemical threats.

NANTEK, INC.
1500 Hayes Drive
Manhattan, KS 66502
(785) 537-0179

PI: Kenneth Klabunde
(785) 537-0179
KANSAS STATE UNIV.
2 Fairchild,
Manhattan, KS 66506
(785) 532-6804

ID#: 98ST10015
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Reactive Nanoparticles as Destructive Adsorbents for Biological and Chemical Decontamination
Abstract:   The objective of this Phase I is to demonstrate the use of Reactive Nanoparticles (RNP) for the decontamination/sterilization of biological agents and their mimics. Recent studies have shown that RNPs are very effective for chemical agent decontamination at ambient or higher temperature. Examples include paraoxon, VX, half mustard and HD. RNPs themselves are generally made of non-toxic magnesium, calcium, or iron oxide powders. In nanoparticle form they have very high surface areas, with highly reactive and desiccating properties, which make them promising for biological decontamination of biological agents. Furthermore, a new, proprietary RNP-chlorine adduct has been prepared that has added ptotential. Preliminary studies on Bacillus globigii spores (a heat resistant simulant for biological warfare agents) have been promising. RNPs are light, non-toxic powders that can be stored almost indefinitely, and should be easy to deploy in battlefield conditions.

QUADRANT ENGINEERING, INC.
107 Sunderland Road
Amherst, MA 01002
(413) 549-4402

PI: Ivan PopStefanija
(413) 549-4402
UMASS AMHERST
Office of Grants and Contracts,
Amherst, MA 01003
(413) 545-0698

ID#: 98ST10028
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-007
Title: Multi Algorithm System Control Graphical User Interface
Abstract:   VXI-based hardware and software products have now advanced to the point where real-time data acquisition and intensive signal processing on multiple signals can be routinely handled by commercially available products. However, for specialized tasks, such as optimal process control, current software tools require a dedicated software engineer to implement downloadable code for efficient, real-time processing. In this Phase I STTR, Quadrant Engineering proposes the development of a high level software environment to implement a variety of process control algorithms that can be used by engineers or technicians without specialized software or control theory training. Working with specialist in controls from the University of Massachusetts, we plan to evaluate methods for implementing sophisticated control systems using commercially available VXI hardware and software tools. The user interface, running under Windows 95, will allow non-expert users to define control tasks using a variety of approaches, including conventional open and closed loop control, Kalman filter, fuzzy logic and neural network algorithms. During Phase I we will implement a demonstration system, including multi-channel data acquisition with multiple output channels, and loop control running in real-time on one or more dedicated processors.

SANTA BARBARA PHOTONICS
5276 Hollister Ave, Suite 305
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
(805) 681-9850

PI: Ruibo Wang
(805) 681-9850
NONLINEAR OPTICS LABORATORY
Dept of Electrical & Computer Eng U,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
(805) 893-3981

ID#: 98ST10030
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-001
Title: Pulse Generator for All-Optical Neurons
Abstract:   An optical pulse generator based on photorefractive effect and optical bistability is proposed for applications in all-0ptical pulse coupled neural networks. The novel device employs the dynamic memory function of photorefractive crystal and the regenerative pulsation property of optical bistable devices (OBDs). It consists of a photorefractive crystal, and OBD and an optical feedback loop. It takes the advantage of the high sensitivity of photorefractive devices, and the high response speed of optical bistable devices. In the Phase I stage, the main effort will be concentrated on visible-band neurons using ferroelectric oxide crystals and nonlinear interference filters (NLIFs). In a possible Phase II program, device integration and interconnection will be investigated and prototyped.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
500 Discovery Drive,
Huntsville, AL 35806
(256) 971-7000

PI: Charles DePlachett
(256) 971-7000
UNIV. OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE
411 B. H. Goethert Parkway,
Tullahoma, TN 37388
(931) 393-7212

ID#: 98ST10013
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-007
Title: Universal, Windows Based, High Speed Data Acquisition & Control Graphical User Interface System
Abstract:   Current off-the-shelf Windows-based software/hardware data acquisition and control (DAC) systems are relatively slow, inflexible, and incapable of driving high speed, multi-channel systems. The proposed product will advance this technology through the development of an innovative, Windows-based Graphic User Interface (GUI) and required PC-resident module interfaced with a VXI chassis containing signal conversion/conditioning and interface electronics to provide a universal, Windows-based, flexible plug-and-play integrated hardware/software solution. Development of this product will be accomplished through the performance of the following tasks: identify critical hardware and software requirements, survey existing hardware technologies to meet the identified requirements, acquire and integrate necessary hardware, design and develop a flexible, high-speed GUI software architecture and associated code; integrate the developed software with identified hardware to achieve finite, measurable data acquisition sampling and control rates; perform software/hardware integration and system-level testing; and, deliver the tested Phase I Work Plan for implementing the complete data acquisition and control system and the Phase I data acquisition and control GUI system.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.
4301 Westbank Dr., Bldg. A, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78746
(512) 306-1100

PI: Mike Durrett
(512) 306-1100
UNIV. OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
P.O. Box 7716
Austin, TX 78713
(512) 471-6424

ID#: 98ST10040
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-006
Title: Innovative Thin Film Fluorescence Sensor Providing Greatly Enhanced Signal-to-Noise and Integrated Solid State Detection
Abstract:   Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) and Dr. Michael F. Becker of the University of Texas at Austin propose to develop, design and integrate a number of diverse technologies to create an innovative optical fluorescence sensor on a chip. The proposed chip sensor employs a unique thin film structure which provides both a greatly enhanced fluorescence for molecules situated near the top surface of the sensor and wavelength filtering for transmitted light. This combination provides greatly enhanced signal-to-noise. the thin film structure is suitable for incorporation with standard solid state detectors and may be integrated into microchip sensor applications.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
6700 Odyssey Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35806
(205) 922-9229

PI: Michael Scalora
(205) 922-9229
RENSSELEAR POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
110 Eighth St.,
Troy, NY 12180
(518) 276-6283

ID#: 98ST10038
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Optical Frequency Conversion for Efficient Blue Light Source
Abstract:   Time Domain Corporation proposes novel devices for achieving second harmonic generation in Laser Systems. The result will be a micro-size, layered, periodic, Semiconductor structure or a fiber Bragg grating that will perform several orders of magnitude better than devices in use today. Most second harmonic crystals that are currently used are of millimeter=size or greater. The simple design of current crystals makes it very hard to decrease their size in a cost effective manner without losing efficiency. They are made of materials that are expensive and cannot be combined easily with other materials. They are also non-linear which requires them to be used with very powerful laser sources only. The device proposed is just several microns thick and is made of common semiconductor materials. This allows it to be used easily with other semiconductors or made into a standard integrated circuit chip. The device also works on a linear principle which allows it to be used with very low power laser sources at amuch higher efficiency. this photonic bandgap based structure is revolutionary not only because it is orders of magnitude more efficient, but orders of magnitude smaller while made of very inexpensive material. Using the same physical principles. We also propose calibration of a fiber Bragg grating for non-linear conversions for fiber optic applications.

VIA, INC.
11 Bridge Square
Northfield, MN 55057
(507) 663-1399

PI: Robert Palmquist
(507) 663-1399
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
Center for Sensors and Battery Syst, 51
Minneapolis, MN 55455
(612) 625-0717

ID#: 98ST10058
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Microrover for Tactical Land Warfare
Abstract:   The objective of this research effort is to design a mobile robotic platform, and the related operator interfaces required for remote operation, which enhance a soldier's abilities to accomplish mission goals. This system will be modular in design, scaleable, low cost and rugged. The size and weight of these platforms will range form a meter long and 200 pounds, to a few centimeters long and about 3 pounds. Each of these platforms will be capable of inverted operations. The particular platform to be fabricated in this proposal will be approximately 30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm in volume and weighs 10 pounds. There are five main technical challenges that will be addressed in this project: computer platforms; communication modules; power supplies; operator interfaces and modular design. ViA, a leader in the design of high performance wearable computing platforms, will be developing the computer platform, operator interface and modular design. The University of Minnesota's Center for Sensors and Battery Systems will identify potential power supply solutions such as their DDARPA funded Vanadium cathode rechargeable Lithium batter. Finally, the University of California at Berkeley's Wireless Research Center, leveraging their DDARPA funded mobile computing effort, will be investigating potential communication modules.

---------- NAVY ----------
BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1160 Pepsi Place, Suite 300
Charlottesville, VA 22901
(804) 973-1215

PI: David G. Ward
(804) 973-1215
PRINCETON UNIV.
Department of Electrical Engineering
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-1816

ID#: 107100988
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-006
Title: Intelligent Supervisory Control Architecture for Health Monitoring, Fault Detection, Sensor Management, and Reinforcement Learning System for Adaptive Air Vehicles
Abstract:   Autonomous control of uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) presents a number of challenges, including detecting failures across the entire flight regime/mission envelope, differentiating between behavioral changes due to failures and those due to uncertainties, real-time control law redesign, and real-time modification of UAV trajectories and sensor-allocation strategies. Barron Associates, Inc. proposes to address these challenges by developing supervisory control architectures that provide (1) robust failure detection across multiple regimes with relatively little a priori training and (2) on-line control redesign and mission replanning in the event of a failure. The proposed system uses a small number of performance models having parameters that vary as functions of flight regime. Multivariate model validation and statistical change detection algorithms are used to determine the validity of the model(s) given changing noise levels. On-line parameter identification is used to modify the parameters of some models and provide on-line reconfiguration capabilities. The best system model is used by (1) an inner-loop model-predictive that computes optimal control gains and (2) an outer-loop reinforcement learning supervisor that computes optimal sensor configurations and trajectory strategies for fulfilling mission objectives to the extent possible given the nature of unforeseen failure(s).

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02154-1196
(781) 684-4239

PI: Ronald Roy
(781) 684-4183
RUTGERS UNIV.
607 Taylor Road
Piscataway, NJ 08854
(732) 445-4729

ID#: 107100979
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Thermal Shock Resistant Hypersonic Sapphire Composite Infrared Windows
Abstract:   Foster-Miller will demonstrate a truly innovative previously unexplored route to fabricate high temperature 3 to 5 micron infrared (IR) optical composite materials for IR window and dome applications. Our approach will provide an IR sapphire composite material that will have thermal shock; transmission, absorption and emission, strength, and durability characteristic that will be enhanced over the current IR monolithic sapphire material while decreasing birefringent effects and will enable operation at missile speeds of Mach 7. Additionally, our window fabrication process is very cost-effective, because of a fast fabrication turnaround time, it is not labor intensive and can produce multiple components in one run. Our approach will be an enabling technology for producing 3 to 5m IR transmitting widows at low cost, with high strength and thermal shock resistance, and with high temperature stability required for operation at Mach 7 speeds. The process is versatile and has the potential to produce high quality IR windows of different material combinations. The Phase I program will involve the fabrication of high temperature IR optical composite material and characterization including X-ray diffraction, light scattering (birefringence), visible and IR transmittance, tensile strength, thermal conductivity and relative thermal shock testing. The Phase I STTR team includes Rutgers University as a subcontractor who will participate in the fabrication and evaluation of this material. The Phase II program will additionally involve a missile systems contractor.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4141 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 140
Beavercreek, OH 45431
(937) 429-3302

PI: Gary Key
(937) 429-3302
UNIV. OF FLORIDA
219 Grinter Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-1582

ID#: 107100984
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Frontier Technology, Inc.
Abstract:   Digital surveillance of surface and underwater battlefields is complicated by the complexity of the environment, stealth of various threats, and lack of a comprehensive single imaging sensor technology. Therefore, the fusion of multiple sensors inputs of differing type and response characteristics is necessary to achieve coverage in space, time, spectral wavelength and sensing modality. Additionally, the proliferation of high-resolution imaging sensors has resulted in a large data burden that currently grows faster than the increase in processor bandwidth [Sch96a]. In this proposal, we suggest methods for using reconfigurable computing hardware, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) or fast, compact SIMD mesh processors to alleviate the computational burden associated with repetitive arithmetic operations. Additionally, we propose to utilize previous and ongoing DoD-funded research at Frontier Technology, Inc., the University of Florida (UF) and the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution (HBOI) to render the mapping of target recognition and image processing algorithms more feasible for reconfigurable processors. The expected result is a marriage of UF's expertise and software for architecture-independent algorithm-to-hardware mapping systems with FTI's developments in fast VQ and ATR search paradigms, combined with HBOI's experience with sensor operation, design, development, and performance characterization, to advance reconfigurable computing within near-optimal space, time, and accuracy constraints.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
7047 Carroll Road
San Diego, CA 92121
(619) 535-9680

PI: Amir Sarajedini
(619) 535-9680
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO
9600 Gilman Dr.
La Jolla, CA 92093
(619) 534-5644

ID#: 107100985
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Sensor Processing and Image Fusion for Passive Target Recognition on a Reconfigurable Processor
Abstract:   The demand for carrying out a complete signal processing task, from multiple sensor output processing to feature extraction to automatic target identification and recognition on a physically restricted platform such as a UAV demands that the signal processor hardware perform all the tasks with minimal hardware. Thus, the hardware must be reconfigurable. The recent advances in the processing power of FPGA's makes such a signal processor attainable. ISL proposes to use its extensive experience in Reconfigurable hardware development and Pattern Recognition to develop an multi passive-imaging system for ATR on a UAV platform. This system will fuse output from multiple imaging devices (CCD arrays, infrared imagers, and millimeter wave imagers) using a novel image combining algorithm with a rule base to fuse the images, use universal classification to prescreen the data, and use a Gram-Schmidt method or a neural network to classify the data. The rapid pace of development in FPGA technology will allow all these functions to be performed on a reconfigurable processor architecture.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
(301) 590-3155

PI: Dr. Chiman Kwan
(301) 590-3155
UNIV. OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON
7300 Jack Newell Blvd. S
Fort Worth, TX 76118
(817) 272-5972

ID#: 107100987
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-005
Title: Neural Network Control of Nonlinear Systems Using Multiple Models
Abstract:   Here we propose a new and general control architecture using multiple neural network models. There are three key components in our approach. First, multiple neural network models were used for feedforward control. The models store the inverse dynamics of the nonlinear plant under various operating conditions. Feedforward control basically cancels the nonlinear dynamics of the plant without affecting the closed-loop stability of the system. Second, a feedback neural network controller is used to further enhance the performance of the feedforward control. Since the cancellation of nonlinear dynamics by feedforward control may not be perfect, the residuals will be eliminated by the feedback controller. The feedback controller design is based on our on-line unsupervised learning scheme that can assure closed-loop stability. Third, a switching logic based on the principle of fuzzy logic will be used to determine when to switch from one model to another. The rule based fuzzy logic switching controller is easy to design and uses only Mach number and angle-of-attack as input variables. The logic will also decide on when to update the multiple neural net models for feedforward control. This re-learning process is necessary if there is partial or complete failure of certain actuators or sensors.

MATHSOFT, INC.
1700 Westlake Avenue N., Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98109
(206) 283-8802

PI: Vikram Chalana, Ph.D.
(206) 283-8802
STANFORD UNIV.
c/o Sponsored Projects Office,651 Serra
Stanford, CA 94305-4125
(650) 723-4637

ID#: 107100977
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-001
Title: Extensible PDE and Wavelet Tools for Tactical
Abstract:   The military is increasingly making use of various types of imaging sensors, such as SAR, ISAR,IR, and optical, for tasks such as surveillance, precision strike, automatic target recognition, and rapid retargetting. Traditional techniques for image enhancement and segmentation have a limited utility for military applications using the kinds of sensors. In this research, we will develop an open and extensible software library of multiresolution and multiscale image enhancement and image segmentation techniques that overcome many of the problems with traditional methods. Multiresolution methods based on adaptive wavelet analysis have been shown to be very useful for a variety of image analysis problems such as compression, edge detection, and denoising. Similarly, multiscale methods based on variational methods and partial differential equations (PDE) have also shown much promise for image enhancement and segmentation. The specific goals of the Phase~I research will be to evaluate the state of the art in multiscale and multiresolution algorithm in terms of the key features required for target-based image classification. We will develop key multiscale and multiresolution algorithms for image enhancement and segmentation incorporating several novel ideas and evaluate their efficacy for classification of tactical images.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
Post Office Box 1869, 3374 Willow Street
Ynez, CA 93460-1869
(805) 693-9600

PI: Mark A. Massie
(805) 693-9600
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
2225 N. Campus Drive, MLSM Rm 4051
Evanston, IL 60208-3118
(847) 491-7251

ID#: 107100983
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-003
Title: Adaptable Sensor Processing for Passive Targets Using Neuromorphic Multi-Chip Module Techniques
Abstract:   Work to be performed in this program is based upon years of innovative technology development invested by personnel at Nova Research. Techniques proposed here are patterned after biological principles which, when applied to finding targets which are moving against highly cluttered infrared backgrounds, will be shown to exhibit remarkable performance. Sensor and data fusion techniques may be exploited with this architecture to achieve autonomous recognition and targeting performance. Such techniques produce highly superior results as compared to more conventional digital techniques, and may be performed by miniature integrated circuits that are closely coupled to infrared focal plane arrays. Modern infrared detection technology coupled with these massively parallel analog coprocessor devices will usher in the next generation of miniature seekers to be used to satisfy requirements of the national defense. This proposal outlines a program which combines advanced multiple quantum well detector technology developed at Northwestern University with the biologically-inspired massively parallel analog coprocessor technology developed by Nova Research to find targets which have signal-to-clutter ratios less than unity. The operational flexibility and cost effectiveness expected using this approach will lead to the development of numerous commercially viable products.

SCHWARTZ ELECTRO-OPTICS, INC.
3404 N. Orange Blossom Trail
Orlando, FL 32804
(407) 298-1802

PI: Dr. Madhu Acharekar
(407) 298-1802
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
4000 Central Florida Blvd.
Orlando, FL 32816
(407) 823-2836

ID#: 107100986
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-004
Title: Laser Initiation of Explosives
Abstract:   Schwartz Electro-Optics, Inc. (SEO) is pleased to propose a Phase I study program for Laser Initiated Explosives (LIE) with Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL) associated with the University of Central Florida. It is recognized by the Navy that the unexploded ordnance has become a growing issue. For example, in Laos, U.S. armed forces dropped several hundred tons of ordnance, the unexploded ordnance is being removed now at a substantial cost. Also, millions of anti-personnel mines were deployed due to low cost ($5/mine) during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, however, the cost of removing a mine is several times the cost of the mine. The laser induced thermal decomposition and simultaneous shock initiation of commonly used plastic explosives with HMX, RDX, and TNT bases with and without covering metal plates provides an innovative approach for removing unexploded ordnance. Dr. Aravinda Kar has established Laser-Aided Manufacturing and Materials Processing (LAMMP) laboratory at CREOL and has been working on interactions of high energy laser beams and matter for the past several years. In the LAMMP laboratory, several lasers are available for the investigation. Approaches for remote initiation of explosives using high energy laser beam transmiited through atmosphere and optical fibers will be evaluated by the SEO and CREOL team.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Ste. 300
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 933-5355

PI: Joao b. D. Cabrera
(781) 833-5355
YALE UNIV.
Contracts & Grants, 155 Whitney Ave., PO Box 208337
New Haven, CT 06520
(203) 432-2460

ID#: 107100976
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-001
Title: Advanced Multiscale & Multiresolution Image Enhancement and Classification Tools for Precision Strike
Abstract:   The proposed STTR project (Phases I and II) will develop multiscale and multiresolution algorithms and software, as well as produce a simulation testbed for evaluating advanced techniques for image enhancement and classification using sensor data from multiple UAVs and UCAVs. For development and testing we will utilize multi-sensor data such as SAR, ISAR, IR, MMW, and Ladar, obtained from both simulation packages (eg. IRMA, XPATCH) and from real data (eg. the MSTAR dataset, ARL dataset, ONR Passive MWM dataset). During the course of the project, synergies between enhancement and classification methods will be identified, and the most promising techniques will be selected for in-depth testing and commercial development. Prof. Coifman from Yale Computational Mathematics group will provide an Algorithm Development Toolkit, including an extensive collection of state-of-the-art wavelet-based tools for enhancement and classification. Phase 1 effort will consist of the following specific tasks: 1. Selection of imaging data for algorithm development and testing; 2. Development of a toolkit consisting of multiresolution and multiscale algorithms for image enhancement and classification; 3. ATR performance evaluation and selection of ``winners'' (optimal pairs of image enhancers/classifiers); 4. Testing of the selected algorithm(s) using real and simulated datasets; 5. Development of an ATR component for the UCAV Simulation Testbed; 6. Final Report. 7. (Option) Functional integration of the ATR component into the UCAV Simulation Testbed.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Ste. 300
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 933-5355

PI: Dr. Jovan D. Boskovic
(781) 933-5355
YALE UNIV.
Contracts & Grants, PO Box 208337
New Haven, CT 06520
(203) 432-2460

ID#: 107100969
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-005
Title: Learning and Adaptation for Intelligent Control of Rapidly Varying Systems using Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning
Abstract:   SSCI and Yale University (Prof. Narendra) propose to develop new practically viable intelligent control algorithms based on the Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) methodology for rapidly-varying nonlinear systems, and apply these to the reconfigurable flight control design for Uninhibited Combat Air Vehicles (UCAV) in the presence of control effector failures and battle damage. In Phase I the work to be carried out by Yale University will be related to a theoretical study of the MMST methodology for nonlinear systems operating in rapidly-varying environments. In particular, the following tasks will be performed: (i) Develop a general methodology for creation of multiple models for a class of rapidly-varying complex uncertain nonlinear plants, (ii) Determine the criteria that can be used to choose the control law needed to compensate for rapidly varying dynamics of such plants, and (iii) Extend this methodology to general optimal control problems and stochastic control problems. In Phase I SSCI will concentrate on the application aspects of this methodology to UCAV flight control. In particular, the following tasks will be performed: (i) Develop new parametrizations for different types of control effector failures and battle damage, (ii) Develop efficient switching and/or interpolation strategies for achieving favorable performance of the overall system, (iii) Derive stability, robustness, and performance criteria for simple MMST-based reconfigurable flight controllers, (iv) Evaluate the performance obtained using the MMST-based reconfigurable control design for UCAV models, and (v) Design a nonlinear 6 DOF UCAV simulation testbed for evaluation of different intelligent control strategies. Successful completion of the above tasks is the main prerequisite for the development of a prototype of an autonomous intelligent "Neurocontroller" whose applicability to UCAVs in nonlinear and rapidly-varying flight regimes will be investigated through cooperation between Yale and SSCI in Phase II.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Ste. 300
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 933-5355

PI: Dr. Vikram Manikonda
(781) 933-5355
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA
c/o Sponsored Projects Office, 336 Sprou
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 643-1944

ID#: 107100974
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-006
Title: Intelligent Control Architectures and Testbed Development for Fault Tolerant Control of Autonomous Multiple Air Vehicles
Abstract:   Autonomous control of multiple UAVs and UCAVS offers special advantages for reconnaissance,surveillance and precision strike. Such missions call for unprecedented levels of autonomy, reliability, precision and fault tolerance over long periods of time, especially for missions with communication blackouts. The complexity of the design process for autonomous fault tolerant control of such multi-levels requires hierarchical supervisory controllers of a hybrid type where low level systems involve continuous dynamics and the higher levels involve discrete actions. In this STTR effort, Scientific Systems Company (SSC) in collaboration with Univ. of California, Berkeley, addresses the problem of systematic design, testing and verification of Intelligent Supervisory Control Architectures for Health Monitoring and Realtime Reconfigurable Control for multiple UCAV missions. We will investigate theoretical and design issues involved in the choice of system architecture and methods for interfacing elements of the resulting hybrid system. To incorporate fault tolerance, a novel failure detection, identification and reconfiguration (FDIR) approach using the combined techniques of Interacting Multiple Model-Extended Kalman Filters(IMM-EKF) and adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) are proposed. This approach autonomously detects and reconfigures the control law for suden or gradual failures of various sensors, actuators and system components. The architectures and controller design developed in this STTR effort will be implemented into a software testbed, by integrating them with SHIFT and CASTLE. SHIFT is a realtime simulation environment for hybrid systems developed by UC Berkeley and CASTLE is a nonlinear 6DOF simulation package developed by NAWC. Specific Phase I tasks are (i) Data Acquisition and Problem Formulation, (ii) Design of Flexible Architectures, Verification and Validation Methodologies for Realtime Supervisory Control for Multiple UCAVs, (iii) Development of a Fault Tolerant Controller and Failure Detection Algorithms (iv) Development of a Simulation Testbed using SHIFT and CASTLE to Evaluate Various Supervisory Control Architectures (v) Reports, Meetings and Phase II Recommendations. Phase II will involve further development of the software testbed and protototype development . Issues related to robustness, optimality and realtime FDIR will be futher investigated and concepts will be tested on a practical system.

VORTEC CORP.
3770 Ridge Pike
Collegeville, PA 19426
(610) 489-2255

PI: Nicholas V. Coppa
(610) 489-2255
TEMPLE UNIV./DEPT. OF CHEMISTRY
13 & Norris Streets
Philadelphia, PA 19122
(215) 204-3560

ID#: 107100965
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 98-002
Title: Development of AIN IR Windows for Hypersonic Applications
Abstract:   Vortec proposes to improve the IR transparency, thermal shock resistance, and processing of AlN through the exploitation of the unique properties of nanocrystalline materials. We will construct test windows consisting of nanocrystalline AlN where the grain sizes are on the order of about 100 nm. The thermal conductivity of AlN is very large as compared to other materials currently used for IR window hypersonic flight applications. Improved optical properties and mechanical properties such as strength, ductility are expected so windows with higher thermal shock resistance, greater IR transmittance and lower birefringence are expected as the grain size of the AlN is reduced to below 100 nm. The production costs for polycrystalline parts are a fraction of that for single crystal ones. Therefore through the combination of these factors and Vortec's low-cost nanopowder production process, it is anticipated that a high performance AlN window can be manufactured at low cost. During Phase I, the feasibility of producing IR windows using nanocrystalline AlN will be demonstrated and the windows characteized. The work performed will include the adaptation Vortec's process to the production of AlN, demonstration of improved processing, and the development of test windows demonstrating improved optical and thermal characteristics.