DoD STTR Program Phase I Selections for FY00

Army Selections

Navy Selections

Air Force Selections

DARPA Selections

BMDO Selections


---------- AF ----------

3TEX ENGINEERED FIBER PRODUCTS
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
(919) 481-2500

PI: Alexander E. Bogdanovich
(919) 481-2500
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0002
UNIV. OF DAYTON RESEARCH INST.
Aerospace Mechanics Division 300 College
Dayton, OH 45469-0110
(937) 229-3010

ID#: F003-0440
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-002
Title: In Situ Evaluation of Composite Structural Performance in Presence of High Stress/Strain Gradients
Abstract:   Feasibility of incorporating multiplexed optical fiber sensors into automated 3-D orthogonal weaving process, in the warp, fill and Z-directions, will be demonstrated. Survivability of the sensors through the weaving and subsequent composite manufacturing will be verified by fabricating and testing 3-D weave composite specimens with embedded optical fiber sensors. To demonstrate the ability of in-situ monitoring of multiaxial, three-dimensional strains, especially in the zones of high strain gradients, a novel concept of composite bonded joint is proposed. A double-lap joint specimen incorporates 3-D weave composite inserts with embedded fiber optic sensors. This allows physical separation of the geometric singularity from the interface between distinct materials and incorporates fiber optic sensors into the highest strain gradient zone. The proposed, instrumented bonded joint specimen will provide a unique opportunity to monitor the transverse peel strain at the fabric unit cell level. Continuous strain monitoring by fiber optics sensors will be supported by conventional foil strain gages mounted to the adherends. Experimental results will be compared to the theoretical strain predictions obtained from the variational 3-D solid mechanics approach and from the strain analysis at the unit cell level, thus providing verification of the analysis tools and direct their further development. The proposed technology of embedding fiber optic sensors into 3-D weave composite structural elements and their bonded joints will enable continuous health monitoring under mechanical loading in aerospace, automotive, marine and infrastructure applications. Success of the program will also provide an efficient experimental tool to validate accuracy of available structural analysis codes and facilitate development of new theories and analysis approaches to predict strain fields and failure in composite structures at micro level.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978) 663-9500

PI: John Zhang
(978) 663-9500
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0038
MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECHNOLOGY
Room 3-243 77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-2295

ID#: F003-0041
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-019
Title: Reduced-order Modeling Tools for the Sensitivity Analysis and Control of Combustion Instabilities
Abstract:   The objectives of this project are to develop an innovative, physically based, computationally tractable methodology to examine the sensitivity of military gas turbine engine designs to combustion dynamics, and the potential for implementing optimal active control techniques to suppress hazardous instabilities. The methodology will be based on coupling a number of consistent, mechanistic, reduced-order models that capture the dynamics of the different processes that contribute to combustion. The models will be developed utilizing physical principles and systematic reduction techniques, and incorporating the state-of-the-art understanding of the interaction among unsteady processes such as vortex shedding, mixing, combustion heat release and acoustics. A hierarchy of models will be assembled for each process, from simple to more complex, including models for sensors and actuators, as well as control algorithms. The proposed methodology will therefore facilitate the prediction of combustion dynamics and its sensitivity to parameter changes within a given design, as well as the design of active control approaches to manage such dynamics. In Phase I, the methodology will be demonstrated using low-order, semi-analytical and semi-numerical models for each module for a case for which experimental data exist. In Phase II, more elaborate higher-order, more computationally oriented models will be used for the different modules. The code will be efficient enough to run on a PC with an expected run time of 12 hours.

AEROSOFT, INC.
1872 Pratt Drive, Suite 1275
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 557-1904

PI: Andrew W. Godfrey
(540) 557-1907
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0056
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
Aerospace & Ocean Engineering
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 231-7667

ID#: F003-0369
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-019
Title: Analysis and Design Tools for Combustion Instabilities
Abstract:   The price paid for efficient, low-emission military and industrial gas-turbine engines is an increasing susceptibility to combustion instabilities. In response to this problem, AeroSoft, in cooperation with Virginia Tech, proposes the application of computational analysis and design tools to study and control thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities in full-scale combustors. The GASP and SENSE commercial CFD software packages will be adapted to flow and sensitivity studies of combustion instabilities revealed through test data from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) combustor test section. If successful, time-dependent flow-field sensitivities to critical parameters such as air flow, fuel flow, and actuator placement will provide invaluable information for use in active combustion control. With this flow and sensitivity analysis, the determination of the significant dimensional groupings relevant to combustion instabilities will be possible. Potential commercial applications directly related to the proposal topic include the analysis and design of industrial gas turbines, internal combustion engines, jet engines, and rocket motors. Time accurate sensitivity analysis for the fluid dynamic equations may be applied to an unlimted range of time-dependent design problems such as flutter, fatigue and aerodynamic divergence.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314-0579
(937) 766-2020

PI: D. Gerald Glasgow
(937) 766-2020
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0057
UDRI
300 College Park
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 2292919

ID#: F003-0444
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-016
Title: Space-Ready Polymer Nanocomposites
Abstract:   Polymer nanocomposites can be inexpensively manufactured, providing a low-cost method to attain high performance materials for space use. Particularly for low-earth orbit, such materials offer the potential for excellent resistance to threats such as thermal distortion during transition from earth shadow to sunlit conditions; atomic oxygen; debris; proton flare and others. In addition, such materials can mitigate static charge buildup and offer reduced radar cross section, due to high absorption in optical and radar bands. In many cases, performance comparable to carbon-epoxy composites can be obtained. Yet, unlike cloth-reinforced polymers, the nanocomposite polymer can be used for inexpensive manufacturing processes such as transfer molding, injection molding and others. Benefits to be sought include higher strength and modulus, reduced processing cost, improved thermal conductivity, reduced radar cross section, improved dimensional stability during thermal cycling and others. In addition to the advantages for spacecraft, polymer nanocomposites are finding utilization in automotives for electrostatically-sprayable polymer sheet molding compound, as well as static charge dissipation; computers, for grounded static-electricity resistant cases, etc.

AUSTRAL ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE, INC.
408 Richland Avenue, Suite 102
Athens, OH 45701
740-593-5912

PI: Enrique A. Medina
(937) 431-8500
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0044
UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
109 Coble Hall 801 South Wright Street
Champaign, IL 61820-6242
(217) 333-2187

ID#: F003-0340
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-003
Title: Software System for Criteria Management in Multi-Objective Optimization Guided Design of Sequences of Materials Processes
Abstract:   Austral Engineering and Software, Inc. proposes to develop a software framework for criteria management in multi-objective optimization guided design of sequences of materials processes. This effort will integrate state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithms and visualization techniques with appropriate systems, materials, process and cost models and simulation tools into the Adaptive Modeling Language object-oriented software environment. The result will be a powerful design environment that utilizes multi-objective optimization for design guidance and provides numerical and visualization mechanisms for exploring design spaces, performing tradeoff studies, and determining effects of changes in design variables or optimization criteria on design metrics. Phase I will use existing multi-objective optimization algorithms and appropriate materials, process, cost, and system simulation models to research and develop prototype computational and visual techniques for communicating complex relations among numerous design objectives, constraints, and decision variables. These prototype techniques will be demonstrated through several limited-complexity multi-stage materials process design problems related to air vehicle design and production. Phase I will design a framework architecture for Phase II development and will produce a prototype software system. Phase II is expected to produce a software framework for multi-objective optimization-guided design with advanced criteria management, design space exploration, and optimization visualization capabilities. Results of this research will be commercialized to military and private-sector organizations as a software tool for multi-objective optimization guided design of products and sequences of materials processes. This tool can be used by integrated product and process development teams for affordability and quality assessment at all stages of design, and is applicable to a broad range of design problems.

BEAM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
687 Highland Avenue
Needham, MA 02494
(781) 239-9777

PI: Simon Rosenblat
(781) 239-9777
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0051
CLARKSON UNIV.
8 Clarkson Ave., PO Box 5630
Potsdam, NY 13699-5630
(315) 268-3765

ID#: F003-0260
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-007
Title: Synthesized Controller Design for MEMS-based Flow Separation Management
Abstract:   BEAM Technologies, Inc. and Clarkson University propose to design and demonstrate a robust, scalable feedback controller that utilizes Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) sensors and actuators to control flow separation on lifting surfaces and in airbreathing engine inlets---offering the potential of significantly higher mission effectiveness in weapons like LOCAAS. Separation is a macro-scale phenomenon. Micro-scale actuation requires exploitation of physical mechanisms that amplify the effects of small-scale input. Viable systems must also extract information sufficient for control from physically measurable input. Through experiments in the ActiveWing facility at Clarkson University, we have demonstrated technology that utilizes wall-mounted sensors and pulsed jets to produce order-one effects with order-epsilon input. Design of a closed-loop controller is the natural next step, and we will integrate our proven technology into candidate algorithms that will be tested during Phase I. Leveraging our expertise in control system design, we will evaluate controllers that utilize boundary layer approximations, stability analyses, optimal design, feedback control theory, and reduced-order modeling. The demonstrated system will consist of an array of pressure/shear stress micro-sensors on the lifting surface that send data in real time to a digital signal processor. A controller will identify locations of incipient separation, based on input from the wall and autopilot data. Pulsed jets will be activated at the locations of incipient separation, using algorithms that compute optimal strength and frequency. Increased performance requirements and tighter constraints on volume and weight force airframes closer to their design limits. Jet engine manufacturers must reduce surge margins for the same reasons. Airframe and propulsion system designers need new tools for these new challenges and all stand to gain from an experimentally validated computational environment for designing MEMS-based, flow separation control systems.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
2555 NE 205th Avenue
Fairview, OR 97024
(503) 667-7772

PI: Eric Udd
(503) 667-7772
Contract #:
UNIV. OF DELAWARE
Center for Composite Material
Newark, DL 19716
(302) 831-8898

ID#: F003-0210
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-002
Title: In Situ Evaluation of Composite Structural Performance in Presence of High Stress/Strain Gradients using Multiaxis Fiber Grating Strain Sensors
Abstract:   In order to measure multi-axis strain fields and strain field gradients interior to composite materials, it is necessary to be able to measure both transverse axes of strain and axial strain. In addition, these sensors should be capable of measuring strain gradients. Blue Road Research has developed a multi-axis fiber optic grating sensor that can be used to meet these requirements. This proposal describes how these sensors may be used to monitor transverse strain, transverse strain gradients, axial strain, and shear strain in the interior of a structure. Blue Road Research in collaboration with the University of Delaware will develop techniques and models to effectively utilize this technology to monitor interior strain changes in textile composite materials while preserving the structural performance properties of the composite structure being evaluated. Composite materials are widely used by the aerospace industry and on ships. Efforts are underway to increase their usage on autos, trucks, and a wide variety of applications where lightweight materials are needed. The system being developed by Blue Road Research and the University of Delaware could be widely applied to improve manufacturing processes and yields for composite materials.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
(256) 726-4800

PI: Carl J. Wordelman
(256) 726-4800
Contract #: F49620-00-C00042
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE
Officed of Research Affairs 200 Univ. Of
Riverside, CA 92521
(909) 787-5535

ID#: F003-0427
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-013
Title: Heat Reduction in Semiconductors by Phonon Annihilation
Abstract:   This proposal is aimed at developing novel methods for heat reduction in semiconductors. In methods proposed for development here, coherent phonon waves will be annihilated with waves of the opposite phase through destructive interference. This work is important since heat management has become a major design and reliability constraint in integrated optoelectronics and the expense and size of cooling systems currently prevents use of the infrared spectrum in many commercial applications. Although new designs of thermoparticulate integrated circuits have done much to advance cooling technology, the applications above call for the development of fundamentally new approaches to heat reduction. To address these issues, CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) proposes to collaborate with Dr. Alexander Balandin at University of California at Riverside (UCR) to: 1) study concepts for heat reduction by phonon annihilation in electronic and optoelectronic devices, 2) develop phonon simulation tools useful for modeling heat reduction effects. The success of the Phase I effort on advanced heat reduction technology will set a good foundation for Phase II, where applications of the cooling technology to lasers with higher power output and to longer wavelength infrared detectors with no external cooling requirements will be studied. Heat reduction by phonon annihilation would allow for higher performance in integrated electronic and optoelectronic devices. For example, transistors could be operated at higher frequencies while maintaining or falling under thermal design constraints. Semiconductor lasers could be pumped for higher output power, and detectors with lower noise could be enabled for increased sensitivity and reduced weight. As a result of work in this area, we hope to develop lower temperature coupled laser systems and simulation tools to enable the design of microelectronic devices with optimal thermal performance and increased thermal reliability.

CRESCENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
450 Memorial Dr., HSMT Suite
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 225-9749

PI: Constantinos Boussios
(617) 225-9749
Contract #:
MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECHNOLOGY
MIT Room E19-750 77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3864

ID#: F003-0224
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-007
Title: Distributed Spatially Localized Control for Suppression of Turbulence in Aircraft Inlets
Abstract:   The emergence of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has made possible the use of large numbers of sensors and actuators for active control of spatially distributed dynamic processes. For such configurations, a recently developed method for synthesis of Distributed Spatially Localized (DSL) controllers comes with the key advantage (over traditional approaches like modal control) that each actuator requires feedback from a limited number of sensors spatially located in its close neighborhood. A candidate application with significant implications in aircraft engine performance enhancement is turbulence suppression in engine inlet diffuser. Prospects for this application are enhanced by recent developments in turbulence dynamics research which have resulted in dynamic models in a form amenable to the DSL approach. We propose a research program that will evaluate the possibility of suppressing diffuser turbulence using MEMS active control. Major focus will be given to evaluating the capabilites of DSL control design as compared to traditional approaches. The program will also validate the dynamic models for turbulence. We propose a collaborative team with expertise in feedback control design and control of fluidistic instabilities. The DSL methodology has a wide range of applications in jet propulsion, "flat-sheet" manufacturing processes, and active structure control. Aircraft engine inlet diffuser compression enhancement. Proof of concept for Distributed Spatially Localized control. Resulting design software also applicable to control design for rotor blade flutter suppression, compressor aerodynamic instability suppression, "flat-sheet" manufacturing processes.

EWING TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
5416 143rd Ave SE
Bellevue, WA 98006
(425) 746-1216

PI: J. J. Ewing
(425) 746-1216
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0043
UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
801 So. Wright St.
Champaign, IL 61820
(217) 333-2189

ID#: F003-0126
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-005
Title: Micro-Discharge Arrays
Abstract:   This effort will develop micro-discharge arrays as novel UV light sources. These sources can be made by semi-conductor processing techniques. However we need to research the optimum excitation methods and fabrication techniques for highly parallel structures. In Phase I we focus on quantitative comparison of the electric power input and optical power output for a single emitter micro-discharge and a modestly scaled array, ~ 25 parallel emitters. Our long-term goal is developing arrays with 1000's of these sources run in parallel and inexpensively produced. We will examine the circuits needed to assure equal power sharing between emitters. Pure DC excitation with ballast, pulsed DC, and AC circuits will be tested. For the pulsed approaches we will vary the pump pulse duration and effective power loading in both the single emitter and the array. Our Phase I focus is on one prototype system, XeI in the UV, both as a potential, environmentally benign, light source to replace Hg based lamps, and also as a prototype for very deep UV emitting source that could be used in materials processing. Issues related to materials and fabrication processes for more reactive species will be defined for study in Phase II. The effort will focus on developing novel light sources for replacement of Hg lamps and for material processing. The parallel device technology will enable a range of other applications including chemical processing, large area high intensity displays, novel laser sources, diagnostics, and optical computing and storage.

EXPERTOLOGY
154 Whitetail Dr
Ithaca, NY 14850
(908) 277-2737

PI: Carla Pedro Gomes
(607) 256-3150
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0059
CORNELL UNIV.
4231 Upson Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
(607) 255-5058

ID#: F003-0259
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-015
Title: Expertise Location using Automatically Generated Network Models
Abstract:   Many information search tasks involve finding a trusted human expert rather than simply a set of documents. Examples include finding experts on technical topics in a large organization such as the military or other governmental body, putting together project teams in an R&D organization, and contracting with freelance programmers for short-term assignments. In order to solve such tasks efficiently it is necessary to understand the social context of expertise in the organization: that is, knowledge of both the expertise of different individuals (e.g. who is an expert on air campaign planning) and of the relationships between individuals (e.g. who are colleagues, who has worked for whom in the past, etc.). Because this kind of highly structured information is rarely directly available expertise location is traditionally a costly manual task. We are building tools to support automated information and expertise location based on techniques from data mining, artificial intelligence, and graph analysis. Components include: (1) tools for gathering unstructured data about people, projects, and organizations from multiple sources; (2) data mining algorithms for automatically structuring this information both in terms of expertise profiles of individuals and a social network model of the relationships between individuals; and (3) search and visualization tools for efficiently finding experts based on this structured data. A major potential benefit of this technology will be to facilitate the flow of information within large, highly distributed, dynamically changing organizations. It will aid in quickly forming high-quality project teams, training new recruits and relocated personnel, and finding the best internal and external consultants, resulting in faster response times to opportunities and emergencies. In additional to the potential for directly marketing these tools to government/corporations for internal use, we are using them to develop our own commercial web sites exploiting these ideas.

GUIDED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1453
McDonough, GA 30253-1453
(770) 898-9100

PI: J. Eric Corban
(770) 898-9100
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0055
CORNELL UNIV.
Office of Sponsored Programs 120 Day Hal
Ithaca, NY 14853-2801
(607) 255-5014

ID#: F003-0234
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-012
Title: Biologically Inspired Biologically Inspired Direct Adaptive Guidance and Control for High-Bandwidth Flight Systems
Abstract:   The capabilities of biological flight systems to autonomously maneuver, track, and pursue evasive targets in a cluttered environment is vastly superior to current engineered systems. The proposed effort seeks to advance the state-of-the-art in engineered flight systems by advancing along two distinct tracks. In the first, the parallelism that exists between direct adaptive control and an integrated approach to tracking and guidance will be exploited to develop a new technique termed direct adaptive guidance. In the second, experimental methods will be employed to characterize the tracking, guidance and control mechanisms of a male fly in pursuit, followed by the formulation of useful algorithms that emulate the fly's behavior mechanisms. The problem formulation in the engineered approach is expected to yield questions about the fly's behavior and mechanisms, and the answers to these questions are expected to in turn inspire both the direct adaptive guidance problem formulation and solution. In this way the team will seek to introduce insect neurobiology to produce superior tracking, guidance and control capabilities for agile autonomous flight systems. The phase I effort will provide evaluation of the developed approach in numerical simulation. The phase II program will offer further study in simulation followed by flight demonstration on a small agile unmanned aerial vehicle.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
PO Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006
(314) 576-1639

PI: Alan B. Cain
(314) 576-1639
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0046
ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
3300 South Federal Street, MB/
Chicago, IL 60616-3793
(312) 567-3035

ID#: F003-0219
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Effective Actuation: High Bandwidth Actuators and Actuator Scaling Laws
Abstract:   This research program addresses two important issues related to the application of active flow control to air vehicles. For active flow control involving the excitation of instability waves, Actuators with High Bandwidth and Large Dynamic Range are required for effective control over the full operating envelope of a vehicle. Actuation requirements will be determined based on operational envelopes for typical vehicles, and the adequacy of various mechanical flow control concepts will be evaluated conceptually. Preliminary considerations suggest that ultrasonic devices combined with acoustic amplifiers offer significant promise for high-frequency high-amplitude excitation. Based on the initial studies, an actuator concept will be selected, designed, bench tested and demonstrated in flow experiments. The second issue to be addressed is active control by High Frequency Forcing (at frequencies in the initertial subrange). Experiments at Boeing have shown dramatic results in some case, but not in others, for unknown reasons. To reconcile these observations, and advance this highly promising concept, direct numerical simulations, triad interaction theory and flow experiments will be utilized to investigate the physics of High-Frequency Forcing and to develop the scaling laws required for application of this concept to acoustic suppression, molecular mixing enhancement and boundary layer control. The work form this program will provide an advance in high bandwidth actuation and reliable delivery of high frequency excitation to control separation, mixing, and suppress acoustic levels.

MECHANICAL COMPLIANCE, INC.
2864, Carpenter Road
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
(734) 971-1644

PI: Russell Osborn
(937) 842-4431
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0037
UNIV. OF MICHIGAN
Div.of Research & Dev. Admin 3003, South
Ann Arbor, MI 48100-1274
(734) 764-7250

ID#: F003-0290
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-006
Title: High Frequency Vortex Generation for Active Flow Control
Abstract:   Mechanical Compliance Inc. and the University of Michigan, with technical support from Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS), propose to develop and validate the performance of an active mechanical flow control device based on advanced compliant structures technology. The mechanical vortex generation device developed will meet or exceed the flow separation control performance of the bet oscillatory pneumatic systems. Furthermore, the compliant structures vortex generator system will be durable and easy to integrate on contemporary and future air vehicles, and will help resolve many of the separated flow problems these air vehicles encounter. The proposed high frequency mechanical vortex generation system (HiMVG), produces separation control vortex structures similar to the best pneumatic systems, can readily be tuned, frequency wise, to produce intermittent vortices between 50 to 500Hz . Additionally, the HiMVG system operates with very low power input across the entire subsonic/transonic speed regime. Compliant structures are capable of receiving the input force or moment, storing the energy in the form of strain energy by undergoing deformation, and finally releasing the energy in a controlled manner with pre-determined force and displacement. They can be readily integrated with piezoceramic and other unconventional actuators. Tools developed by Mechanical Compliance Inc. for design and optimization of compliant structures will be used to develop a "solid state" mechanism for amplifying the output displacement of a piezoceramic actuator for high-frequency vortex generation application. High-frequency, tunable, low-power mechanical vortex generator Subsonic and transonic applications Highly compact, and easy to integrate actuator-compliant transmission system Other commercial applications include: audio speaker systems, and smart actuators

METACOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
650 Hampshire Road, Suite 200
Westlake Village, CA 91361-2510
(805) 371-8750

PI: Sampath Palaniswamy
(805) 371-8750
Contract #: F49620-01-C-0004
UNIV. OF COLORADO
Univ. of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0051
(303) 492-8911

ID#: F003-0180
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-018
Title: Pulsed Detonation Propulsion Alternative for Space
Abstract:   Successful application of pulsed detonation wave engine for rocket propulsion brings with it reduced engine weight, precise control over impulse, ability to operate in a continuous or intermittent mode and ease of maintenance. The proposed effort addresses the critical issues in the development of pulsed detonation wave engines for rocket propulsion including the use of liquid fuel, valve-less operation, energy requirement to initiate and sustain sufficiently rapid combustion, and the impact of residual hot gas on the frequency at which the engine can continually operate. In Phase I of the proposed work the impact of several time scales in the problem on the performance of the rocket engine will be established for a simple geometry. In Phase II the modeling will involve simulation of unsteady, turbulent, multidimensional flow to quantify the findings from Phase I under engine operating conditions. Findings from this effort will lead to optimal design of pulse detonation engines that are application specific. The proposed research addresses the basic issues involved in the design and optimization of pulsed detonation wave engines for rocket application. An optimal design of pulsed detonation engine can greatly increase payload, control impulse bits and operate at higher efficiency. It has potential application in micro satellite propulsion and control, co-atmospheric vehicles, and also air breathing engines for hypersonic flight.

MILLENNIA CERAMICS, INC.
26918 Wolf Road
Bay Village, OH 44140
(440) 835-2660

PI: Chris Marie S.
(440) 835-2660
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0050
CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV.
21000 Brookpark Road MS 106-5
Cleveland, OH 44135
(216) 433-6254

ID#: F003-0387
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-010
Title: Ultrahigh Temperature Composite
Abstract:   The proposed research incorporates several inventions to attain a high degree of feasibility to produce structural components for ultrahigh and pressure applications. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing codeposited carbide/carbide- carbon fiber reinforced composite. The oxidation product of the composite promote thermal resistance at very high temperatures where a radiation mode of heat transfer dominates. The additive combination of the properties of high emissivity of carbide, and the highly reflective nature of the oxidation product improves the radiative properties and effectively expels heat. For the exciting field of SiC epitaxi for solar cells, and blue LED's, the hot hydrogen by-product of the process is best handled with the proposed coatings. Thus it may provide additional civilian commercial applications.

NORFOLK APPLIED SCIENCE, INC.
1510 Runnymede Road
Norfolk, VA 23505
(757) 428-8336

PI: Karl H. Schoenbach
(757) 683-4625
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0011
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
Dept. Mechanical Engineering
Minneapolis, MN 55455
(612) 625-4538

ID#: F003-0202
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-005
Title: Micro-Discharge Devices and Applications
Abstract:   A new deep-UV source has been developed which is a microhollow cathode discharge formed in cathode cavities with dimension on the order of 100 micrometers. The hollow-cathode lamp has numerous advantages over other light sources, including operation at relatively low-voltages in a quiescent DC mode, linear control of the intensity by controlling the current, scalability to large areas in a planar geometry, and a radiant emittance exceeding that of commercially available excimer lamps by more than an order of magnitude. In order to explore the feasibility of converting the basic research result on microhollow cathode discharges into flat panel excimer lamp, plasma deposition techniques will be explored as an economical and scaleable manufacturing method by Prof. Heberlein at the University of Minnesota. Array formation methods, based on forced abnormal glow discharge operation, will be studied by Prof. Schoenbach, Norfolk Applied Science, Inc. and Old Dominion University. The combination of the two techniques, plasma deposition and array formation without individual ballast, promises to lead to the development of a low cost, high radiant emittance, long lifetime, large area flat panel excimer lamp, which covers a wavelength range from 84 nm to 308 nm. Applications of these novel DC excimer lamps are in UV polymerization, photolithography, photo-chemistry, photo-deposition, photo-annealing, pollution control, and lighting. Applications for excimer lamps range from UV polymerization, photolithography, photo-chemistry, photo-deposition, photo-annealing, pollution control, to lighting. Presently the largest market is UV curing. The average growth in this industry has been 10%/year during the last decade. The use of formulated UV (and electron-beam) curable products just in North America is 110 million pounds. Companies involved in UV curing are 3M, DuPont, First Chemical, BASF, amongst others. The highest ranked enabler for growth in this area is "faster cure rates". This requires an increase in the effectiveness and performance of equipment. Considering that the proposed microhollow cathode discharge lamp promises to have an order of magnitude increased power density compared to conventional excimer lamps, the curing industry, a billion dollar industry, would benefit dramatically from the introduction of such a lamp. The cost of a microhollow cathode discharge lamp would be, because of its simplicity and low voltage operation, far less than that of a commercial barrier discharge excimer lamp. By using the same concept as for high power devices, but operate them in a pulsed mode, using simple semiconductor based pulse generators, the illumination can be reduced to any desired level. Applications for low intensity excimer lamps, which do not need to be cooled, are bacterial decontamination and backlighting.

OCEANIT LABORATORIES, INC.
1001 Bishop Street Pacific Tower, Suite 2970
Honolulu, HI 96813-2833
(808) 531-3017

PI: Ken C.K. Cheung
(808) 531-3017
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0034
NOTRE DAME
110 Hessert Center, Dept of Aerospace & Mech Eng
Notre Dame, IN 46556
(219) 631-768

ID#: F003-0400
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-014
Title: High Temporal Bandwidth Optical Wavefront Sensor Technologies
Abstract:   One of the most significant challenges facing directed-energy systems and imaging technologies operated on airborne platforms is the problem of propagating light through an optically active flow field such as an airplane's turbulent boundary layer. The emerging wavefronts are further distorted by atmospheric turbulence and require correction through the use of an adaptive optical system. In order to correct for the optical aberrations, the wavefront distortions need to be measured at high temporal bandwidth, and current optical wavefront sensors are limited in speed specifically at the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor array. The proposed technology replaces the CCD array with an innovative detector array with a significantly higher readout rate, without compromising sensor accuracy. Operating in conjunction with a flow-physics-based data analysis routine, such as the Small Aperture Beam Technique (SABT) or with a flow-scanning system, the technology will be capable of sensing wavefronts at 50 kHz or greater, with 30x30 subaperture resolution. The commercialization potential of this proposed technology is considerable, with broad-ranging applications in government/military programs, academic research & development, and private-industry applications. Some of the highly marketable potential applications are directed-energy systems, flow turbulence diagnostics, airborne imaging and surveillance, high kinetic energy interceptor, ground-based observatories, laser communications, and interferometry.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PI: Thomas W. Vaneck
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0048
UNIV. OF ARIZONA
888 N. Euclid, #510 P.O. Box 3308
Tucson, AZ 85722-3308
(520) 626-4589

ID#: F003-0292
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-012
Title: Implementation of Biomimetic Precision Flight in Autonomous Air Vehicles
Abstract:   Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and the University of Arizona (UA), with consultative support from the Australian National University, proposes to evaluate, adapt, and apply sensory schemes, behavioral strategies, and neural processing techniques of flying insects to the problem of flight of swarms of small, collaborating, and autonomous air vehicles. The mission of these swarms is to detect, acquire, track, surveil, and rendezvous with hostile moving targets in cluttered environments, while avoiding obstacles and evading threats to their survival. Insects perform these complex tasks using sensors that are simple (lack of stereo vision, for example) and processing capacity that is modest (hundreds of thousands of neurons in the brain of a fly). UA will analyze the sensory complements of various insects and their biological neural nets for processing the sensor inputs. From these, PSI will develop a computational model(s) of a selected insect(s). The sensor suite in the model will be gradually expanded to construct a model of a robotic flight vehicle that performs the mission cited above. From this, we will identify a suite of sensors (visual, infrared, chemical, pressure, etc) and neural processing schemes that can be integrated in a single robotic system to perform the mission cited above. The proposed technology has applications to autonomous systems in general and robotic flight vehicles in particular. For example, the optical flow processing schemes can be used to design robots that can find victims in collapsed buildings and other structures during natural disasters. The various chemical sensing and processing schemes can be used to design robots that can detect sources of hazardous chemicals, putting out fires, etc.

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Avenue NE, Suite F-500
Woodinville, WA 98072-6426
(425) 485-7272

PI: Ender Savrun
(425) 485-7272
Contract #: F49620-01-C-0010
UNIV. OF WASHINGTON
3935 University Way NE JM-24
Seattle, WA 98195
(206) 543-4043

ID#: F003-0153
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-008
Title: High Performance Microthrusters for Microsatellites
Abstract:   This SBIR program will identify a non-toxic, high energy density propellant, a catalyst, catalyst bed, combustion chamber and exhaust nozzle material, and design a prototype propulsion system for microsatellites. Computer modeling experiments will be carried out to design a micropropulsion system, and its performance will be simulated using several mono- and bipropellants. The propellants showing the best performance will be selected for compatibility studies with candidate catalyst, catalyst bed, combustion chamber, and exhaust nozzle materials. The initial materials screening will be accomplished through chemical thermodynamics calculations. The promising propellant, catalyst, catalyst bed, combustion chamber, and exhaust nozzle materials combinations will be prepared and their chemical compatibility will be established through high temperature chemical exposure experiments. A micropropulsion system design complete with a high density propellant, catalyst, catalyst bed, combustion chamber, and exhaust nozzle material will be prepared. The developed chemical micropropulsion technology will provide an enabling technology for microsatellites which are proposed for many military and commercial applications. The commercial applications include communications and imaging satellites, companions to large satellites to provide surveillance and inspection capabilities such as to monitor and assure proper deployment of solar panels.

SYSTEMS & MATERIALS RESERACH CONS
113 S. Cuernavaca
Austin, TX 78733
(512) 263-0822

PI: Alan V. Bray
(512) 263-0822
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0045
SOUTHWEST TEXAS STATE UNIV.
601 University Drive Attn: Diane Grimm,
San Marcos, TX 78666-4616
(512) 245-2205

ID#: F003-0119
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-004
Title: Next Generation, Polymeric-based Ablative Nanostructured Materials
Abstract:   Phenolics have long been the resin of choice for ablative materials, and current rocket motor ablatives are phenolic/carbon composite lay-ups. These expensive structures are heavy, and provide the minimum ablative protection. The proposed phenolic-clay nanocomposites (PCNs) exploit the ablation resistance of BOTH phenolic and montmorillonite clays, can be injection molded to produce inexpensive parts, and are expected to have significantly lower erosion rates than current rocket motor ablative materials. PCNs are an innovative new class of nanocomposite materials. Southern Clay Corporation has agreed to be a Phase I partner, and will help develop optimal clay surface preparations for high phenolic/clay exfoliation levels. The best PCN properties result from complete exfoliation of the clay in the phenolic, and SWT has recently completed preliminary PCN exfoliations that should lead the way toward success in this project. The SMRC/SWT team will test and explore PCNs for dual use as electrical insulators and fire resistant coatings. Southern clay will assist in developing markets for PCN materials - their goal is to increase montmorillonite clay sales volumes through the new nanocomposite applications. Immediate benefits and markets for advanced ablative materials reside within the rocket manufacturing community. The largest supplier of ablative materials for rocket nozzles, and one of the largest rocket manufacturers, provided letters of support for SMRC/SWT PCN development, illustrating their confidence that the SMRC/SWT PCN approach is the technically correct direction for ablative development. Phase I PCN marketing will concentrate on military and commerical rocket applications, and in identifying dual uses for this exciting new family of nanocomposite materials.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109-4416
(505) 342-4412

PI: Charles D.E. Lakeman
(505) 342-4427
Contract #: F49620-01-C-0006
SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES
P.O. Box 5800 M/S - 1411
Albuquerque, NM 87185-1411
(505) 845-7544

ID#: F003-0370
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-009
Title: Solution Routes to Buffer Layers for High Temperature Superconducting Cables
Abstract:   Metallic wires or tapes coated with high temperature superconductors (HTS) offer one means of realizing superconducting wires and cables tht will provide substantial energy and cost svings, when they replace copper wire for electrical generators, motors and power transmission. However, because the HTS coating and metallic substrate are not chemically compatible, "buffer layers" are needed to prevent degradation of the superconductor. TPL proposes to develop processing routes to new buffer layer materials that promote textured growth of HTS films on biaxially textured Ni substrates. The approach will exploit metastability in a multi-component perovskite materials system to achieve highly textured buffer layers using chemical solution deposition (CSD). Successful completion of the program will result in new approaches to fabrication of buffer layers for coated conductor HTS products through control over the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting nucleation and crystallization of the film. CSD combines compositional flexibility, and an easy means for deposition onto long lengths of bustrate material, enabling simple manufacturing of HTS wires. TPL and the PI have extensive experience in deveoping CSD solutions for a diverse range of coating product applications. Teaming with Sandia National Laboratories provides excellent capabilities to achieve the project objectives. Solving buffer layer issues will help realize a scaleable, low cost, energy-efficient fabrication method for HTS-coated wires and tapes that is compatible with continuous manufacturing. Applications for HTS cables in power distribution, compact, energy saving motors, and superconducting magnetic energy storage are anticipated to add up to a world wide market of between $2 billion and $3 billion.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: Huaibing Liu
(978) 250-4200
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0054
CLEMSON UNIV.
Department of Chemistry
Clemson, SC 29634
(864) 656-5020

ID#: F003-0116
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-016
Title: Novel Multifunctional Space Durable Fluoropolymers and Composites
Abstract:   Triton Systems Inc. has teamed with Prof. D. Smith from Clemson University to develop a novel class of fluoro-containing aromatic ether polymers that have unique promise for a variety of multi-functional space applications. On this Phase I program, Triton utilizes the experience gained through years of research, development and commercialization of space durable polymers. The structural moiety which provides outstanding resistance to atomic oxygen and UV radiation will be incorporated into the new fluoro-containing polymer backbones. Several fluoropolymers will be synthesized and characterized. The space durability and their use in multifunctional structures will be evaluated. Samples of membranes, polymer matrix composites and optical components will be fabricated for testing. On Phase II, based on the property evaluations conducted in Phase I, appropriate space and ground based applications will be pursued for the Air Force. Chemical structures and synthetic methods will be optimized to produce polymers for various applications. Processing of desired materials will be optimized and scaled up. Prototype components/systems will be fabricated and tested for performance tests, demonstrations, customer evaluation and space flight testing. On Phase III, in conjunction with a commercial partner, we will produce materials in sufficient quantities to build full sized structures. The proposed multifunctional space ready polymeric materials will serve structural and functional purposes in space. They will be used as matrix resins in fiber reinforced composite structures in satellites and membranes in inflatable large space structures. They will be viable candidates for optical and optoelectronic applications.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432-1894
(937) 426-6900

PI: Rabi S. Bhattacharya
(937) 426-6900
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0036
ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY
9700 South Cass Avenue
Argonne, IL 60439
(630) 255-4930

ID#: F003-0109
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-009
Title: Development of Textured Buffer Layer on Metal Tapes for Oxide Superconductors
Abstract:   High current carrying conductors for various applications can be fabricated by using a coating of high-temperature superconductor such as YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) on a suitable metallic tape. It has been shown, however, that YBCO films deposited directly on polycrystalline metal substrates exhibit poor superconducting properties at liquid nitrogen temperature. A textured buffer layer on metal substrates is needed for the growth of YBCO films with a high critical current density. UES proposes to develop in-plane textured MgO films on Hastelloy substrates (tapes) using a modified bias sputtering technique. In Phase I, RF magnetron sputtering technique will be used to deposit in-plane textured MgO films on Hastelloy substrates. The process parameters including the geometry of the biasing electrodes will be optimized through measurements of x-ray f scan analysis. The feasibility of deposition on short length of Hastelloy tapes will be demonstrated using the reel-to-reel sputter deposition system at UES. It is anticipated that this work will result in a significant breakthrough in eliminating barriers to the manufacturing of superconducting tapes. YBCO films grown on polycrystalline metallic alloys have applications in electric power and energy storage systems.

ZAUBERTEK, INC.
1007 Silcox Branch Circle
Oviedo, FL 32765
(407) 365-0513

PI: Chris Fredricksen
(407) 275-7760
Contract #: F49620-01-C-0012
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
Department of Physics 4000 Central Flori
Orlando, FL 32826
(407) 823-2836

ID#: F003-0342
Agency: AF
Topic#: 00-017
Title: Terahertz Devices
Abstract:   A mode-locked, far-infrared solid-state p-Ge laser, tunable from 2.1 to 4.2 THz (70 - 140 cm-1), will be developed. Innovative concepts include pulse-position modulation (PPM) of the mode-locked output and piezoelectric control of cavity length and intracavity tuning element. Our PPM scheme differs from usual PPM telemetry using mode-locked lasers by being analog modulation, giving potentially higher dynamic range and resolution. It also does not require synchronized clocks at the transmitter and reciever, which will be advantageous for secure local-area communications on a highly-directional free-space THz beam. Piezo control of an intracavity tuning element and of the overall external cavity length will allow continuous tuning (without mode hops), frequency stabilization, and frequency modulation. The tunable laser will feature 10 W peak output power within megahertz spectral width. A turn-key design will demonstrate the commercial viability of the p-Ge laser for communications, materials characterization, process monitoring, plasma diagnostics, atmospheric sensing, and spectroscopy, even in airborne, space, and field applications. The proposed design is much simpler and more compact than the free electron laser or even gas lasers. Applications include communications, telemetry, materials characterization, process monitoring, plasma diagnostics, atmospheric sensing, and spectroscopy.

---------- ARMY ----------

3TEX ENGINEERED FIBER PRODUCTS
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
(919) 481-2500

PI: James Singletary
(919) 481-2500
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0180
CENTER FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS
201 Composites Mfg. Lab.
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 831-8149

ID#: A003-0173
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-002
Title: Impact and High Strain Rate Response of 3-D Woven Composites
Abstract:   3TEX and CCM believe 3-D woven composites offer radical improvements in impact damage tolerance, localization, dynamic deflection, and strength retention over plied unidirectional and traditionally woven architectures. We present experimental evidence of the superiority of 3TEX 3-D weaves over planar reinforcement in armor applications. We propose a rigorous experimental and theoretical characterization of the impact response and high strain rate behavior of 3-D orthogonal weave and traditional, planar-reinforced composites, to demonstrate improvements in impact performance, including drop tower, CAI, Hopkinson bar, and limited ballistic testing. We will use S-2 glass/vinyl ester, a material system of interest in semi-structural and structural armor applications, woven and consolidated in a cost-effective manner. Experiments will be coupled with numerical simulations, using in-house developed fabric geometry/composite stiffness models and varational-based contact/impact model, as well as commercial FE. Understanding gained in phase I will allow 3TEX to calibrate in-house analytical tools for fabric design, machine set up, and impact analysis. This will greatly accelerate future development of impact and penetration resistant applications of 3-D woven composite materials, including personnel and vehicle armor, for military and civilian applications. 3-D woven composites will improve multi-hit capability, edge-hit containment, reduce dynamic deflection, and increase residual strength over current, planar-reinforced FRP systems. These advantages will translate into better protecting personnel armor, with increased multi-hit ability for a wider variety of threats, at reduced blunt trauma. These advantages will translate into more efficient vehicle armor, which reduces vehicle weight by increasing the usable internal volume through reduced dynamic deflection, and by incorporation into the load-bearing structure enabled by greater damage tolerance and residual strength. Advantages inherent to 3TEX's 3-D weaving process will allow these improved armor constructions to be cost-competitive with current, planar-reinforced FRP systems.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706-5013
(520) 434-6345

PI: Mark J. Rigali
(520) 434-6365
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0120
UNIV. CALIFORNIA SANTA BARBARA
Office of Research
Santa Barbara, CA 93106-2050
(805) 893-3890

ID#: A003-0154
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-003
Title: Free Form Fabrication of Novel High-Threshold-Strength, Damage-Tolerant Laminated Fibrous Monolith Composites
Abstract:   Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR) and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) propose to develop novel composite systems with high threshold strengths and fracture toughness for structural applications. This effort will combine our Fibrous Monolith (FM) composite processing and Rapid Prototyping (RP) expertise with UCSB's computational modeling and composite design expertise to develop a new generation of low-cost laminated ceramic-matrix composites. The proposed merger of technologies will allow fabrication of high performance structural components from computer-aided designs (CAD) without part-specific tolling or human interaction. This collaborative research between ACR and UCSB will result in the development and fabrication of low cost structural composites for a variety of DoD and commercial applications including: light weight composites with damage tolerance and multiple hit capability for vehicle armor, wear resistant and damage tolerant coatings for drilling, cutting, and machining of hard materials, and neutron radiation shielding for radiation sensitive electronic systems.

AGENTASE LLC
3636 Boulevard of the Allies, Suite B-17
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
(412) 209-7298

PI: Keith E. LeJeune
(412) 209-7298
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0111
UNIV. OF PITTSBURGH
1249 Benedum Hall
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
(412) 624-9631

ID#: A003-0070
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Biocatalytic polymer skin adhesives
Abstract:   The subject of this Phase I STTR proposal is to evaluate the feasibility of attaching chemically modified enzymes directly to biological tissues. Specifically, we herein propose to attach nerve agent degrading enzymes to skin tissue via polyethylene glycol and cyanoacrylate coupling chemistry to provide protection against organophosphorus poisoning. Agentase, in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh, will demonstrate a high degree of enzyme specific activity retention within skin adhesive formulations, verify residence time on biological tissues, and initiate allergenicity and immunogenicity studies to determine biocompatibility of the composite materials. The use of polyethylene glycol and cyanoacrylate polymerization chemistry, both of which are regularly employed in biological applications with the skin favors successful accomplishment of technical milestones. Successful completion of the research objectives will result in the development of a formulation of enzyme-linked polymer films having compatibility with exposed tissues and open wounds. The potential for such a system to be used in the prevention of contamination makes this technology particularly appealing. There is currently no available technology for the decontamination of nerve agents within open wound sites or on sensitive biological tissues. Existing technology such as DS2 and caustic bleaches lack specificity toward agents and are therefore incompatible with exposed tissues. Successful development of a biocatalytic skin adhesive represents the opportunity to not only treat exposed tissues, but possibly to prevent contamination in the first place. The potential to incorporate active enzymes within skin adhesives has great utility outside the military arena as well, including wound healing and controlled drug delivery.

ANALYTICAL SERVICES, INC.
555 Sparkman Drive, suite 1420
Huntsville,, AL 35816
(256) 890-0083

PI: Darren Boisjolie
(850) 651-6454
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0102
ALABAMA A&M UNIV RESEARCH INSTITUTE
P.O. Box 313
Normal, AL 35762
(256) 851-5866

ID#: A003-0118
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-004
Title: Hand-held and Head-mounted Microdisplays for the Dismounted Soldier
Abstract:   Recent advances in liquid crystal and electroluminescent "microdisplay" technologies have achieved very high resolution in relatively small sizes. Among these advanced technologies is a class of liquid crystal materials that are immune to exposure to extremes in the military range of temperatures, and others that can produce analylogue grayscales. In addition, they are robust, have full color and consume very little power. They can be integrated with RF signal processing components and applied to the needs of the individual soldier both as hand-held and helmet-mounted display (HMD) units. Technology development in theis area will serve to meet the needs of the Land Warrior providing a springboard for advancements towards "Future Operational Capabilities" (FOCs) being advocated by TRADOC. Additionally, this research will provide spin-offs for advanced civilian applications. In phase I of this STTR, ASI, in association with Alabama A&M Research Institute shall develope a world class technical data base to support focused research in this area and develope a breadboard system for optimization and interface studies. In phase II, two optimized prototype units will be developed. The first will be hand held and the second integrated into a helmet. In phase III, ASI will continue development of this technology for commercial applications. We are seeing a continued proliferation of communication and navigation technologies. The commercial market is demanding increased miniaturization and increased performance. A helmet mounted display system would be extremely effective in coordinating teams to accomplish time critical complex operations in commercial and civilian operational environments. Some of these applications could include: inproved coordination of fishing boats at sea; improved coordination of air and/or sea platforms during rescue operations; improved corodination of law enforcement air and/or land platforms during police operations; and improved ground trafffic control at major airports.

FLORIDA MAXIMA CORP.
507 N. New York Ave., R-1
Winter Park, FL 32789
(407) 647-8021

PI: James E. Driskell
(407) 647-8021
Contract #: DASW01-00-P-3468
AMERICAN INSTITUTES FOR RESEARCH
3333 K Street, NW
Washington, DC 20007-3541
(202) 342-5065

ID#: A003-0202
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-008
Title: Assessment of Team Competencies
Abstract:   Consistent with the Army's effort to address current personnel issues (e.g., attrition and retention) by anticipating future personnel needs, this proposal describes steps to develop an assessment of team oriented knowledge, skill, and attitudinal competencies. This assessment tool will help address the Army's attrition issues through diagnosis of soldiers' teamwork training needs; in conjunction with other assessment instruments it may also be useful to recruiters. Moreover, to the extent that the Army will become increasingly dependent on teams in its warfighting mission, methods for assessing soldiers' ability to work and function in a team environment will become critical to the Army's success. Given the primary goal of this proposal, teamwork measures will assess "team competencies held at the individual level." These competencies are of interest because they enable individuals to function effectively in a wide variety of teams and across a wide variety of team settings. The development of a tool to assess team competencies is of direct operational benefit to the U.S. Army and other Military Services. Moreover, it is anticipated that follow-on funding will be secured from two sources: (a) non-STTR follow-on funding from the military market, and (b) private-sector funding from the commercial assessment/testing market.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451-1196
(781) 684-4239

PI: Thomas Campbell
(781) 622-5504
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0121
RUTGERS UNIV.
96 Frelinghuysen Rd.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
(732) 445-3654

ID#: A003-0214
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-003
Title: High Strength, Damage Tolerant Structures from Novel Layered Geometries
Abstract:   Across a wide array of structures and platforms ranging from temporary facilities to the most advanced aircraft, various layered materials address the need for high strength and stiffness at low weight. Most commonly in fiber composites, these materials involve fiber reinforced face sheets and a foam, honeycomb or balsa wood core sandwich construction. While a range of commercial products are available to meet many specific performance requirements, significant limitations exist in the use of commercial core materials. Foster-Miller, Rutgers University and Weidlinger Associates have joined to develop, produce and market a new approach to layered structure design which exploits advanced geometry algorithms recently developed at Rutgers. The proposed program benefits greatly from the major commitment of these three organizations to this effort and the larger market goals. The overall concept enables low-cost production of an array of multidimensional core materials for different applications. Since the forms are defined by the Rutgers geometry algorithms, they can be analyzed and optimized with mating structural codes proposed by Foster-Miller. Initial comparative data will be generated to demonstrate the validity of the concept and facilitate rapid movement toward Phase II full-scale evaluation and application. (p00627) The proposed program will develop modeling procedures and initial data for an entirely new class of layered composite core materials. The inherently easy to produce materials will have widespread application to systems ranging from advanced aircraft to low cost civil structures. Blast protection barricades are currently the top non-military target application.

GINER, INC.
14 Spring Street
Waltham, MA 02451-4497
(781) 899-7270

PI: John A. Kosek
(781) 899-7270
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0104
TULANE UNIV.
6823 St. Charles Avenue
New Orleans, LA 70118
(504) 588-5207

ID#: A003-0061
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell MEAs
Abstract:   Development of a low-cost high-exclusion proton-exchange membrane for use as an electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell is proposed. This fuel cell, because of its simplicity (no reformer, simple heat management) and inherent reliability (cell membrane flooded with water) is a potentially attractive power source for low- to medium-power applications, such as a battery replacement, back-pack power and battery charger applications. One drawback to direct methanol fuel cells is that methanol permeates across presently available proton-exchange membranes from the liquid to gas side, where it reacts with O2 (air) resulting in a parasitic methanol loss and reduced fuel cell voltage. To overcome this problem, a team consisting of Giner, Inc. and Tulane University proposes to develop membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) for direct methanol fuel cells based on Tulane's experience with polyphosphazene membranes and Giner, Inc.'s expertise in preparing MEAs. These advanced MEAs are expected to provide reduced methanol crossover, as compared to state of the art Nafion MEAs. The research objectives are to fabricate polyphosphazene membrane, evaluate select properties, develop MEAs using the polyphosphazene membrane, and demonstrate performance in an operating direct methanol fuel cell. We expect to develop an advanced MEA for direct methanol fuel cell use that results in a significant decrease in methanol crossover, while providing high fuel cell performance. Direct methanol fuel cell-powered vehicles have a very large market potential in states mandating zero-emission vehicle use within the next several years. Other opportunities include airport and mail vehicles, golf carts, lawn mowers, power tools, cellular phones, and dispersed power generators. Military applications are similar, and also include battery charger applications.

ICET, INC.
916 Pleasant St., Unit 12
Norwood, MA 02062
(781) 769-6064

PI: Srinivasan Sarangapani
(781) 769-6064
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0106
TULANE UNIV.
6823 St. Charles Ave
New Orleans, LA 70118
(504) 588-5207

ID#: A003-0085
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with polyphosphazene membrane
Abstract:   Permeation of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane continues to be a problem in the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Methanol cross-over leads to : (I) parasitic consumption of fuel at the cathode resulting in reduced fuel efficiency and (ii) establishment of a mixed potential leading to reduced terminal cell voltage and thus reduced electrical efficiency. Attempts to reduce the cross-over by alloying with other polymers have always resulted in the lowering of the membrane conductivity. Preliminary work conducted at Tulane University on sulfonated/crosslinked polyphosphazene membranes are very encouraging and show that it is possible to decouple proton conductivity from water and methanol diffusion (crossover). Further work is needed to fabricate and test polyphosphazene-based membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for direct liquid methanol fuel cells. This proposal aims to further develop the work done at Tulane towards the application of the polyphosphazene membranes in direct methanol fuel cells. Membrane properties, fuel cell performance and methods of fabricating MEA without the need for hot-pressing are the proposed objectives of this Phase I program. This research is expected to result in a better direct methanol fuel cell. Immediate application is expected to be in the battery replacement power supplies for communications equipment for the Army. Extension to electric vehicles would also be possible with this development.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive, Suite 202
College Station, TX 77840
(979) 693-0017

PI: Anthony Giletto
(979) 693-0017
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0110
TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Williams Admin. Bldg.
College Station, TX 77843-2142
(979) 845-4747

ID#: A003-0203
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Activated Organophosphate Hydrolase for Coupling to Human Skin
Abstract:   The toxicity of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents results from their penetration through the epidermis and their entry into the general circulation, from which they can reach the nervous system. To deal with this problem, protective clothing has been developed in numerous forms. Naturally occurring organophosphorous hydrolases are being incorporated into external protection systems to hydrolyze chemical agents. An alternative to incorporating the nerve agent-degrading enzymes into protective clothing would be to directly attach the enzymes to the surface of the warfighter's skin. This Phase I STTR describes a collaborative effort between Lynntech, Inc. and Dr. James R. Wild (Texas A&M University) to develop an activated form of Organophosphate Hydrolase (OPH) from Pseudemonas diminuta. This proposal cites the extensive scientific literature from Dr. Wild's laboratory describing the effectiveness of OPH to hydrolyze a broad range of OP nerve agents including Soman, Sarin, VX, and Russian-VX. The proposed technology will generate an "active" form of the enzyme that, when exposed to skin, will form a covalent bond to skin. The proposed chemistry has been previously demonstrated with the successful coupling of OPH to cotton fabric to prepare decontamination towelettes. OPH immobilized on fabric retained activity against OP nerve agent surrogates. In addition, the enzyme remained active when stored at 110*F for months. An activated form of OPH would be of great value to the U.S. military and its allies as an active barrier against percutaneous nerve agent exposure. In addition, OPH can effectively hydrolyze a variety of OP pesticides and insecticides making this technology valuable to those in the agricultural industry including ranchers, farmers, migrant workers, and pesticide manufacturers and distributors.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
(520) 574-1980

PI: J.C. Withers
(520) 574-1980
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0122
WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
100 Institute Road
Worcester, MA 01609
(508) 831-5811

ID#: A003-0147
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-005
Title: Novel, Low-Cost Processing Of Functionally Gradient Ceramic-Matrix, Metal-Matrix Composite Materials
Abstract:   Ceramic matrix and metal matrix composites (CMC and MMC) have exemplary properties but do not meet all requirements for gun tubes and other applications. Combining the two composites into a functionally gradient system has the potential to improve performance over either material independently. This could place the CMC in regions of high temperature, wear and/or corrosion while supported by MMC for enhanced structural integrity. Such composite systems including tubular geometries and rocket nozzels have been demonstrated at MER. This program will model a fiber architecture that meets gun tube requirements in the size range of 20 to 155mm. A novel low-cost CMC of SiC/SiC composite will be produced with a fully dense inside surface and porous outer surface, which will be infiltrated with aluminum that transitions into a functionally graded aluminum fiber matrix composite for structural confinement of the CMC. Since MER has the demonstrated capabilities to produce functionally graded CMC, MMC composite material the MER/WPI team will produce tubular composite systems and characterize; which will identify a select composition that will be produced in tubes for burst tests to failure, thermal shock cycling followed by burst testing and deliverable to the Army. A functionally graded ceramic matrix to metal matrix composite material with improved strength toughness/damage tolerant, wear resistant and lightweight has extensive applications in gun tubes, bearing races, armor, corrosion/erosion resistant piping, heat exchangers, etc.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
(215) 542-8400

PI: Chian-Fong Yen
(215) 542-8400
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0107
CLEMSON UNIV.
School of Textiles, Fiber & Polymer Sci.
Clemson, SC 29634
(864) 656-5961

ID#: A003-0179
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-002
Title: 3D Woven Composites for New and Innovative Impact and Penetration Resistant Systems (MSC P0T05-026)
Abstract:   The objective of the Phase I study is to develop innovative methodologies and techniques for the use of 3D woven composites with enhanced structural and ballistic characteristics for wide ranges of armor and structural applications. The need for efficient structures with enhanced ballistic capability in the various applications is persistent. Traditional laminated composites provide structures with satisfactory in-plane stiffness and strength, but, with a tradeoff of undesired through the thickness properties. It is known that ballistic resistance can be enhanced by including through the thickness reinforcements. A family of three dimensional integrally woven composites, which utilizes multi-layer biaxial and triaxial weave designs, have recently been examined at Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC). These 3D composites have shown great promise for applications in airframes with ballistic efficiency. Properly designed through the thickness reinforcements can significantly improve the through the thickness properties as well as reduce the propagation of delamination commonly induced by severe lateral impact, and thus can greatly enhance the ballistic damage tolerance of composite structures. The Phase I effort will deliver a number of innovative panel designs utilizing integrally woven fiber architectures for enhancement of structural survivability under various ballistic threat conditions. The proposed material concepts will be evaluated by using sound dynamic analytical methods for assessment of ballistic impact damage and post-impact performance. Promising panel concepts will be fabricated for ballistic impact and residual strength testing. This approach will provide products with a variety of protection levels for the ballistics armor market. Applications will include both military and civil markets. The military market includes light, medium and heavy armored vehicles, breacher vehicles for mine sweeping, personnel carriers, amphibious assault vehicles, surface ships, logistic shelters, body armor and aircraft components. The civil market includes armored police vehicles and armored bank cars.

PERICOR SCIENCE, INC.
One Kendall Square, Building 600, PMB 299
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 679-9573

PI: Dale P. DeVore
(617) 679-9573
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0109
HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL
240 Longwood Ave.
Boston, MA 02115
(617) 432-0851

ID#: A003-0160
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Individual Protection Against Nerve Agents
Abstract:   The toxicity of organpophosphorus nerve agents results from their penetration through the epidermis and their entry into the general circulation from which they can reach the nervous system. To deal with this situation, protective clothing has been developed. Naturally occurring organophosphorus hydrolases are being incorporated into external protective systems to hydrolyze chemical agents. In this project, methods will be developed and tested to covalently couple such enzymes directly to the skin surface. This approach may provide safe and effective biodetoxicification of a number of potentially harmful agents. Successful coupling of nerve agent-degrading enzymes to the surface of skin will be of enormous value to military personnel in military conflicts. In addition, non-military commercial applications will be of significant importance for biodetoxicification of industrial, agricultural and chemical agents. Safe and effective topical skin formulations will have widespread utility for extended protection against such agents.

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC.
15 WARD STREET
SOMERVILLE, MA 02143
(617) 547-1122

PI: DANIEL GOODMAN
(617) 547-1122
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0103
TULANE UNIV.
6823 ST CHARLES AVENUE
NEW ORLEANS, LA 70118
(504) 588-5207

ID#: A003-0112
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-001
Title: ADVANCED DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS WITH ELECTRON BEAM-PROCESSED POLYPHOSPHAZENE MEMBRANES
Abstract:   Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are a candidate to fill the Army's need for high-energy lightweight power sources. Methanol is a more convenient fuel source than gaseous hydrogen, but requires advanced membrane materials and alternative processing. A polyphosphazene-based PEM processed with electron beam has the potential to meet the Army's portable fuel cell requirements. Preliminary experiments have shown enhanced conductivity, low methanol crossover and good structural properties. Electron beam crosslinking is an efficient, cost-effective processing method for fuel cell membranes, with chemical and fabrication advantages. Science Research Laboratory Inc. (SRL) is well known in the areas of electron beam (EB) processing, equipment and materials. SRL has been collaborating with the Tulane University and has demonstrated EB-crosslinked polyphosphazene membranes with good properties. Under the proposed program, the work would be extended to fabricate and evaluate MEAs using these materials. A team consisting of SRL and personnel from Tulane and Northeastern Universities possess the necessary experience in PEM and fuel cell fabrication. SRL is also working with fuel cell companies, who will promote fast-track commercialization of advanced direct-methanol cells during Phase II. An efficient high-energy lightweight direct methanol fuel cell will find a host of military and civilian applications including powering portable electronics, communications gear, laptop computers, cell phones and other equipment that is currently limited by battery lifetime or power.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: Fred Lauten
(978) 250-4200
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0123
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA BARBARA
Materials Department
Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050
(805) 893-8481

ID#: A003-0125
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-005
Title: Affordable Hybrid Composites for Next Generation Gun Systems
Abstract:   Triton Systems, Inc. and the University of California, Santa Barbara are teaming to develop a low-cost, hybrid composite technology which combines the high temperature corrosion resistance of ceramic matrix composite surfaces with the high strength, high thermal conductivity, machinability and weldability of a metal matrix composite. These highly integrated metal-ceramic matrix composite (MCMC) structures can be fabricated in a range of component geometries, placing the CMC surfaces in any desired location. For example, MCMC gun barrels will be developed possessing a CMC inner bore surface which is structurally supported by a high strength MMC. These hybrid composite barrels will withstand the extreme temperatures, pressures, and chemical environments created by the advanced gun propellants which are exceeding the capabilities of current metal gun systems. By tailoring density/composition gradients through the wall thickness, the MCMC will possess a functionally graded metal-ceramic interface that controls thermal stresses and through-barrel thermal conductivity both at the micro- and macro-scales. We will develop a material properties database from which an adequate constitutive description of the material can be formulated. This work will be closely coupled with the development of the computational design and analysis tools capable of predicting the behavior of specific MCMC components. The primary near term defense application is light weight, high performance gun tubes for medium and large bore applications. In different configurations the MCMC will be used for armor systems, and missile air frame and propulsion components. The low cost technology has direct application as high and low temperature corrosion resistance components for industrial applications, e.g. fluid transfer pipes for the chemical industry, and wetted components in vacuum systems and waste management equipment.

WHY NOT COMPOSITES
743 W. Sparrow Rd.
Springfield, OH 45502
(937) 327-9491

PI: Eric Lang
(937) 327-9491
Contract #: DAAD19-00-C-0119
SAN DIEGO STATE UNIV.
Dept. of Mechanical Engr.
San Diego, CA 92182
(619) 549-6076

ID#: A003-0162
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 00-003
Title: High Performance Layer Geometry for Damage Tolerance
Abstract:   A research program to develop a manufacturing and processing technology for a novel, low-cost, high strength layer geometry is proposed. An integrated experimental and computational effort directed toward the characterization of the influence of layer geometry on the strength and damage tolerance is proposed. It is anticipated that the result of this research and development effort will be an optimal layer geometry with tunable design parameters for structures with maximum strength and damage tolerance. Methods of forming complex components incorporating the corrugated layer geometry will also be investigated. The anticipated benefit of this research and development project is a low-cost, damage tolerant corrugated layer geometry with commerical and military applications in applications currently using balsa and/or honeycomb core materials.

---------- BMDO ----------

BIPOLAR TECHNOLOGIES
4724 Brentwood Circle
Provo, UT 84604
(801) 225-1974

PI: Stephen Perusich
(801) 225-1974
Contract #: F33615-00-C-2070
AUBURN UNIV.
240 Ross Hall
Auburn, AL 36849
(801) 225-1974

ID#: 00-0128T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Fully Ion-Conductive Membrane for Li-Polymer Batteries
Abstract:   Among the critical needs in advanced lithium batteries, is a viable polymer electrolyte. The ideal polymer will have high ionic conductivity, chemical stability, and low cost. Proposed herein is membrane material, which meets these requirements, and has a lithium ion transfer number of one. Analogous to Nafion and comparable materials, it exhibits excellent conductivity when prepared properly, and is ideally applicable for Li polymer batteries. Phase I will be used to prepare and characterize membrane materials, and do cell-level evaluations of performance. Phase II will involve more careful material optimization and full-scale battery demonstrations. Improved Li-polymer batteries for consumer applications, electric and hybrid vehicles, and numerous military systems.

BOSTON NITRIDE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20 Taylor St., P.O.Box 1506
Littleton, MA 01460
(617) 353-1910

PI: William J.Shaff
(617) 353-1910
Contract #: DTRA01-00-P-0203
CORNELL UNIV.
Cornell Univ., Dept. of EE 311 Phillips Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
(607) 255-3974

ID#: 00-0063T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: New low resistance ohmic contactacs for high power HEMTs
Abstract:   This STTR program is aimed to develop a novel very low resisitivity Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, which are a building block of high power microwave high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Virtually all characteristics of high power transistors depend on the Ohmic contact resistance including: wall plug efficiency, heating of the device, reliability, noise figures of merit, ft, fmax, power added efficiency, and maximum power. The development of very low resisitivity contacts to n-AlGaN, has and enormous commercial potential by virtue of involvement of all major application areas of GaN based devices such as high power electronics, wireless communications and photonics. The major technical objective of Phase I is to demonstrate a new class of low resistance Ohmic contacts based on n-type AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN, which exhibit internal electric fields due to spontaneous and piezoleelctric polarization effects. BNT will optimize this novel contact technology. The optimized contacts will be employed in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, which will be used in the next generation microwave amplifies for base stations. Cornell University will contribute state of the art techniques for fabricating HEMT test devices. Based on the success of the Phase I program, we will demonstrate in Phase II high performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. New contact technology can find its application in BJTs, HEMTs and HBTs for high power electornics, LEDs and laser diodes.

BOSTON NITRIDE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20 Taylor St., P.O.Box 1506
Littleton, MA 01460
(617) 353-1910

PI: Joe C. Campbell
(617) 353-1910
Contract #: DTRA01-00-P-0204
UNIV. OF TEXAS, DEPT. OF E&CE
Univ. of Texas, Dept. of E&CE
Austin, TX 78712
(512) 471-9669

ID#: 00-0064T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Novel high-performance III-N solar blind photodetector
Abstract:   PN-junction AlGaN photodetectors with a cut-off wavelength shorter than 300 nm (solar blind) have been recently demonstrated. This type of device, which holds a potential to deliver performance not matched by any other types of photodetectors, are required for several defense and civilian applications. However, the efficiency of these devices is limited by the high resistivity of p-AlGaN. Boston Nitride Technologies proposes a novel fabrication approach for demonstration of high-performance p-n heterojunction AlGaN-based solar blind photodetectors. In this program a novel solution for p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys will be explored. Significant enhancement of p-type doping in AlGaN with Al mole fractions exceeding 35 % will be achieved by employing short period p-doped AlGaN/GaN superlattices. In addition, we will implement a novel device design using a recessed window structure developed at the University of Texas at Austin. As a result of the Phase I effort, we expect to demonstrate enhanced efficiency in AlGaN-based solar blind photodetectors. This type of device can be used for monitoring hazardous chemical species, detecting flame, tracking and guiding missiles

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Ave.
Northridge, CA 91324
(818) 727-9786

PI: Prof. G. Hill
(818) 727-9786
Contract #: F33615-00-C-2071
CHEMISTRY DEPT., EMORY UNIV.
1515 Pierce Drive
Atlanta, Ga 30322
(404) 727-6611

ID#: 00-0116T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Solid Electrolyte for Solid State Thin Film Lithium Batteries
Abstract:   This proposed work is to develop electrochemically stable solid electrolyte with higher lithium ion conductivity than lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) for applications in thin film lithium batteries by using proposed nanocomposite. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries have numerous possible applications as active or standby power sources for microelectronics. Examples of the former include implantable medical devices, remote sensors, miniature transmitters, smart cards, and MEMS devices. Standby power applications include PCMCIA cards and other types of CMOS-SRAM memory devices. The figure below illustrates how a thin-film battery can be integrated into a multichip module by fabricating the battery directly onto the ceramic package. Solid electrolyte has wide application in batteries, supercapacitor, oxide-based solar cell, electrochromic devices, and fuel cell.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
(303) 604-2000

PI: Mr. Dallas Joseph
(303) 604-2000
Contract #: F33615-00-C-1735
FISK UNIV.
1000 17th Ave. N.
Nashville, TN 37208-3051
(615) 329-8538

ID#: 00-0137T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Broadly tunable mid-infrared lasers based on Co2+ doped chalcogenides
Abstract:   TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (limit your abstract to 200 words with no classified or proprietary information) This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project will combine crystal growth, spectroscopy, and laser demonstrations resulting in the development of broadly tunable mid-wave infrared lasers based on Co2+ doped chalcogenides. The work leverages successful efforts by Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) and Fisk University with the isomorphic material Cr2+:ZnSe that has resulted in the demonstration of a highly efficient, room-temperature, multi-watt, 2 to 3 um tunable laser. The potential advantages of the Co doped laser material include broad continuous tunability in the 3 to 4 um wavelength range, high efficiency, room temperature operation, long energy storage times, and direct diode laser pumping. Advantages over nonlinear optical devices, such as optical parametric oscillators, include simplicity, higher overall efficiency and higher spectral stability. Presently, there are no broadly tunable direct laser sources in this spectral region. The proposed work combines laser materials research at Fisk University, a Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institution, with laser development and application expertise at CTI. Phase I research will include crystal growth, spectroscopic materials characterization, and lasing trials. The proposed laser sources will be useful in a variety of technical fields including remote sensing (multi-spectral detection and imaging; non-cooperative target identification; infrared countermeasures; detection and measurement of pollutants, hazardous chemicals, and bioaerosols; atmospheric chemistry studies; and meteorological measurements), battlefield free-space communications through obscurants, rangefinders, weapons simulators, search and rescue beacons, spectroscopy, medical science, and ultrafast studies. Eyesafe remote sensing of hazardous chemicals and bioaerosols, meteorological measurements, high resolution optical spectroscopy, tunable laser seed sources, laser beacons for search and rescue, surgery, ultrafast studies.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
(301) 590-3155

PI: Geoff Taylor
(860) 486-2666
Contract #: F33615-00-C-1737
UNIV. OF CONNECTICUT
260 Glenbrook Road
Storrs, CT 06209
(860) 486-2666

ID#: 00-0109T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: High Frequency Optoelectronic Pulse Source for ADC and Digital Communications
Abstract:   High frequency electrical/optical pulses are needed in many applications. One is a jitter free clock for ADC. A second is a distributed optical clock for a large digital processor to eliminate clock skew. A third is a pulse source for digital radar/radio, requiring a sequence of fixed width pulses with precise duty cycle. The pulse spacing, known only by the receiver, contains the information providing for secure communications. A key requirement is a high speed OE pulse source with programmable duty cycle, substantial power and optimized output coupling. We propose a novel single-chip solution comprising an optoelectronic thyristor, integrated with HFETs and waveguides in a GaAs OE technology. It is configured as an oscillator with optical feedback to induce switching after a precision delay. Each time the device is switched optically, it generates an optical and an electrical (up to 15V) pulse with a width of 1 - 10ps. 2n optical paths may be configured with the optical signal routing determined by integrated directional couplers providing a major cost/perfomance advantage. The pulse output is guided by transmission line to an edge-emitting dipole antenna element or to a waveguide coupler. This STTR will develop the technology to produce an integrated pulse source. The OEIC technology resulting from the integrated approach will find widespread applications related to both military and space based data processing requirements. Some applications include 2D parallel signal processing, read and write optical memories, transmitters and receivers, high speed optical switching and optical computing. The success of this technology will also allow it to extend the capabilities of current applications as well as to define a large number of new markets.

LIGHT PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4028 Laurel Branch Ln
Orlando, FL 32817
(407) 823-6856

PI: M.J. Soileau
(407) 823-6856
Contract #: N660001-00-C-7004
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
P.O. Box 162700 4000 Central Florida Blvd.
Orlando, FL 32816-2700
(407) 823-5538

ID#: 00-0132T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Bragg selectors of transversal modes for pulsed neodymium laser
Abstract:   The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the volume diffractive gratings in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass for transverse mode selection of lasers. PTR glass is a promising photosensitive medium because it has high laser-induced damage threshold, excellent response at high spatial frequencies, spectral window from UV to mid IR, and perfect thermal, optical and mechanical stability. Thick Bragg gratings have high angular selectivity. Besides, it is possible to vary the diffraction efficiency of grating across the beam. Therefore, Bragg selectors in the resonators can be the key components for lasers with low beam divergence. It is expected that such selectors will allow creation of single-mode oscillators with considerably higher power of radiation. It will lead to essential decrease of laser sizes which are prevailing in military optical systems like LADAR or LIDAR and for civilian applications in technology, medicine, optical communications, etc. The work will be dedicated to the experimental study of characteristics of transmitting Bragg gratings in PTR glasses and their effect on the transverse mode selection. Phase I project will be resulted in demonstration of mode selector in Nd: doped YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The potential commercial application of this proposal is the use of transmitting holographic gratings as transversal mode selectors for high-quality lasers. Though there are a number of captive manufacturers, relatively few firms serve the public at large. All of these companies use polymer technology that is inferior to the inorganic glass grating. We will attempt to segment the market on quality and the ability to simplify design by using a volumetric grating. The most suitable targets are angular selectors and deflectors for laser systems.

LIGHT PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4028 Laurel Branch Ln
Orlando, FL 32817
(407) 823-6856

PI: M.J. Soileau
(407) 823-6856
Contract #: N660001-00-C-7005
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
P.O. Box 162700 4000 Central Florida Blvd.
Orlando, FL 23816-2700
(407) 823-5538

ID#: 00-0134T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: High-efficient holographic narrow-band mirrors for pulsed neodymium laser
Abstract:   The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of holographic narrow-band mirrors in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass for the detection of selected spectral lines in optical systems like LADAR, LIDAR or radiometer. This glass is a very promising photosensitive medium for volume holograms because it has excellent response at any spatial frequencies up to ~10000 1/mm, large spectral window from 300 to 4000 nm, and perfect thermal, optical and mechanical stability. Transmitting Bragg gratings created in PTR glass show a high absolute diffraction efficiency (> 90 %), the low losses (a few percents for a sample of 2 mm thickness), and a high tolerance to elevated temperature (up to 400řC) and exposure to radiation (from a spectral window). It is expected that the phase volume holographic mirrors recorded in PTR glass will have high reflectance in extremely narrow spectral region because this glass allow making rather thick hologram (up to 1 cm). Such holographic mirrors can be the key components for receivers in passive and active sensors. The target is the narrow-band mirrors. Holographic mirrors are currently available but at greatly increased price versus ordinary thin film filters. Holographic mirrors have the advantage of being able to achieve extremely narrow bandpass with good reflectance. Stability is higher than normal filters and they can be favorable priced. Primary markets for these mirrors are military applications (lasers, LADAR, etc.), scientific applications (spectroscopy, laser beam formation, etc.) and industrial applications (telecommunications, spectral analysis, etc.). The holographic narrow-band mirrors will be much narrower wavelength selective devices in comparison with interference filters or multilayer mirrors.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
(678) 287-2403

PI: Terry Stout
(678) 287-2443
Contract #: F33615-00-C-1739
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Centennial Research Building Room 290, MC 0415
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-4544

ID#: 00-0113T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Low K Dielectric Constant Packaging Materials Using an Innovative Atomizer
Abstract:   The high computational speeds required for functional missile defense systems require minimizing the spatial separation between conductors. The insulating material between these conductors must have a low k dielectric constant to reduce crosstalk. Ring containing polymers, such as polyimides, parylenes, polyphenylenes, and polynobornenes have been recognized as suitable materials and have the chemical and thermal stability needed for manufacturing and use in advanced electronics. However traditional coating methods, such as spin-on processing, produce films with low degrees of planarization and often require additional processing steps during manufacture. The proposed R&D plan focuses on process developments using the Nanomiser device, an innovative liquid atomizer (patent pending), for deposition of low k dielectric polymers to achieve high degrees of planarization(DOP). The project is designed to eliminate the need for extra planarization steps and reduce the level of waste generated for passive layers in multi-layer printed wiring board. For proof of concept polyimides will be deposited on patterned surfaces of commercially available copper clad board. With the aid of Dr. Paul Kohl at Georgia Institute of Technology's Microelectronics Research Center, MCT will develop these low k dielectric coatings using the innovative Nanomiser device based on commercially available polymer precursors. The use of low k dielectric constant materials is widespread in the field of advanced electronics. The capability to apply these proposed low k dielectric constant coatings in the open atmosphere with improved planarization using the Nanomiser device will give electronic component manufacturers increased flexibility, in fewer processing steps, and at a lower cost than traditional methods. MCT was recently awarded the 1998 Tibbetts Award by the NSF for the commercialization of CCVD SBIR technology in advanced electronics. MCT along with its partners will commercialize successful results for this project through technology licenses, manufacturing services, and equipment sales.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3901 Green Industrial Way
Chamblee, GA 30341
(678) 287-2410

PI: Suzanne K. Polmar
(937) 433-0477
Contract #: DTRA01-00-P-0179
YALE UNIV.
155 Whitney Avenue
New Haven, CT 06520
(203) 432-2460

ID#: 00-0098T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Amorphous Aluminum Nitride as A New Gate Dielectric in Wide Bandgap MISFETs
Abstract:   This project concerns research and development of amorphous aluminum oxy/nitride films as a new gate dielectric for high frequency and power silicon carbide (SiC) MIS (Metal Insulator Semiconductor) transistor devices. SiC has a high critical breakdown field (Ec=2.5 MV/cm) making it an ideal semiconductor material for power devices. SiC's high electron drift velocity makes it attractive for high frequency devices. In order to take full advantage of this material property, a dielectric with a higher permittivity is needed to serve as gate insulator in MIS structures. One of the most promising complimentary materials is aluminum nitride (AlN) which has a dielectric constant (k = 8.5) that is very close to that of SiC ( k = 10); therefore the problem associated with conventional silicon-dioxide insulators of high potential drop across the gate dielectric is almost non-existent. In addition, aluminum nitride has a wider bandgap (6.2 eV) than SiN and offers a higher band offset, thus assuring more reliable performance at high temperatures. CCVD Aluminum nitride will also be applied to GaN-based Devices. Herein we propose to apply an adaptation of our proprietary CCVD (Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition) technology to the development of much-needed AlN thin films.

MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1500 Sheridan Road, Unit 8A
Wilmette, IL 60091
(847) 491-7251

PI: Manijeh Razeghi
(847) 491-7251
Contract #: F49620-00-C-0049
CENTER FOR QUANTUM DEVICES
2225 North Campus Drive
Evanston, IL 60208
(847) 467-1947

ID#: 00-0129T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Back-Side Illuminated Solar Blind AlxGa1-xN Ultraviolet Photodiodes by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
Abstract:   The objective of this Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of lateral epitaxial growth (LEO) to achieve high enough quality very wide bandgap AlxGa1-xN by MOCVD (x>0.53) for use as a base template in back-side illuminated solar blind ultraviolet photodiodes exhibiting a cut-off wavelength ~270 nm. The technical challenges in this endeavor find their roots in the improvement of the AlxGa1-xN material quality for such high Al concentrations. These include the enhancement of their n-type conductivity and the reduction of the dislocation count. The LEO process will be investigated and optimized to achieve these objectives. The materials will be characterized through x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as capacitance-voltage measurements. P-i-n ultraviolet photodiodes using these LEO grown very wide bandgap AlxGa1-xN will be grown, fabricated and measured. Their electrical and optical performance will be benchmarked using parameters such as for example: responsivity and solar blindness. The results will be compared with those from identical detectors fabricated using standard non-LEO technology in order to address the potential of the proposed LEO technique for higher performance back-side illuminated solar blind ultraviolet photodetectors. The technology developed here will constitute the fundamental basis for achieving back-side illuminated solar blind ultraviolet photodiodes based on AlxGa1-xN materials. It is anticipated that these results will provide the means necessary to advance towards the realization of solar blind ultraviolet focal plane arrays and meet the demands of BMDO systems such as the TMD and NMD. The technology is also expected to result in highly n-type doped AlxGa1-xN, as well as low defective AlxGa1-xN materials. These will in turn be the cornerstone for a range of III-Nitride based commercial and defense applications, including high power microwave electronics and compact solid state ultraviolet light sources.

NITRONEX CORP.
616 Hutton Street - Suite 104
Raleigh, NC 27606
(919) 807-9100

PI: Robert Davis
(919) 807-9100
Contract #:
NC STATE UNIV.
Department of Material Science Box 7907
Raleigh, NC 27695-7907
(919) 515-2377

ID#: 00-0148T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Pendeoepitaxy Based Gallium Nitride on Silicon For Electronic Device Applications
Abstract:   Nitronex (www.nitronex.com) and NC State University will develop Pendeoepitaxial crystal growth for large area / low cost Gallium Nitride on Silicon substrates for use in integrated electronic device application. The properties of these revolutionary low-defect-density GaN on Silicon wafers makes higher performing power devices with a high degree of device integration possible resulting in system level improvements in military (power transmission, radar, wireless communications), industrial, and consumer applications. Pendeoepitaxy is a radical new method of maskless lateral overgrowth using MOCVD, which has been shown to reduce defect densities by 4 orders of magnitude. In addition, Pendeoepitaxy provides an optimal process route for integrating Gallium Nitride with Silicon on a fundamental atomic level. This integration allows for the device level combination of CMOS devices on Silicon with power FETs on Gallium Nitride. The properties of Pendeoepitaxy grown GaN films will be evaluated using non-destructive methods to correlate structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties with expected electronic device performance. SEM/CL, photoluminescence, and x-ray mapping will be correlated to structural and device properties including lateral coalescence, wafer tilt, dislocation density, electron mobility, and carrier concentration across 50 mm wafers during phase 1 and 100mm during phase 2 for GaN on Silicon pendeoepitaxy wafers. Electronic device (MESFET, HEMT, HBT, etc.) need low defect density wafers of Gallium Nitride in order to achieve the device application breakthroughs for which these GaN on Silicon has tremendous potential. Through this work, a substrate for the direct integration of GaN electronics with Silicon devices will be developed and available for sale.

NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
(952) 996-1607

PI: Robert L. Wells
(952) 996-1608
Contract #: DTRA01-00-P-0171
MINT, UNIV. OF ALABAMA
P O Box 870104
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0104
(205) 348-2404

ID#: 00-0100T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Ultra-Sensitive Spin Dependent Tunneling Devices Without Biasing
Abstract:   The development of nanotechnology leads to shrinking physical dimensions of solid state devices. However, ultra-small size will lead to thermal instability problems. Our proposed proprietary approach takes advantage of the shrinking sizes for magnetic portions of the devices. This approach will work until the lateral sizes of the devices become less than about 10 nm. This is many generations beyond the state-of-the-art photolithography capability (120 nm for year 2000) spearheaded by the semiconductor industry. The final device will have hysteresis free output with very high sensitivity, require no biasing, and have very-low power consumption (combining with high resistance of tunnel devices), and be very small in size. NVE and the University of Alabama (UA) will demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by exploring basic materials, material compatibility, device design, and application issues. Phase II will produce prototype devices using microelectronics fabrication techniques which are suitable for mass production. The devices will be especially suitable for low field and low power applications such as solid state compass, magnetic medium detection, nondestructive evaluation, biomedical sensing, and remote sensing.

PACIFIC WAVE INDUSTRIES, INC.
10390 Santa Monica Blvd.,Suite 100
Los Angeles, CA 90025
(213) 740-7762

PI: Lloyd Armstrong Jr.
(310) 229-0099
Contract #: F33615-00-C-5019
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
University Park, Department of Contracts and Grant
Los Angeles, CA 90089
(213) 740-7762

ID#: 00-0080T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Polymer Photonic RF Phase Shifter
Abstract:   We propose to develop a new polymeric photonic RF phase shifter suitable for electronically scanned optically interconnected phased array antenna system, which will have unique capabilities for early-warning radars, command control, and communications. The phase shifter will combine novel electro-optic polymer materials with a unique triple-nested Mach-Zehnder architecture for optimized performance. This photonic RF phase shifter offers major simplifications in the optically controlled phased array architecture, dramatically reducing the number of microwave components and allowing for remote operation via a single optical fiber. Our system offers electronic beam steering combined with an optically interconnected distribution network in a very simple robust package requiring just a single phase shifting element and a minimum of optical components. The system is compact and very lightweight. Its remote optically interconnected control unit allows for conformal implementation of phase array antenna radiating elements. Our approach combines recent USC advances in electro-optic polymer materials with Pacific Wave Industries newly developed serial feed configuration for optically controlled phased arrays. This distinguishes it from the current generation of electronically scanned antennas as well as older optically controlled systems, which merely substitute optical components for appropriate RF elements. This program will develop a new generation of photonically controlled RF devices based on novel electro-optic polymer materials. Our photonic RF phase shifter opens up a way of implementing electronically scanned phased array antennas, which will be extremely lightweight, small in size and remotely controlled. The use of our optical serially fed interconnects will reduce the cost and weight so that numerous applications will now become practical for the NMD, FAA and commercial markets.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

PI: Bruce Wessels
(952) 934-2100
Contract #: DTRA01-00-P-0151
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
Materials Science & Eng. 2225 North Campus Drive
Evanston, IL 60208
(847) 491-3219

ID#: 00-0094T
Agency: BMDO
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Thin Film Modulator for Si-Based Optoelectronics
Abstract:   Ferroelectrics have a multitude of optoelectronics applications. For use as thin film waveguides and modulators optical loss has been a major impediment to its wide spread utility. We propose a deposition technique for fabricating low loss thin films which could lead to practical integration of optical modulator with silicon based optoelectronics and result in significant advances in the performance of many DoD missions that require fast signal processing, enhanced rad-hardness and secure communication. BaTiO3 is known to have very large electro-optical coefficient and is a promising candidate to fulfill that role. The complex oxide layer will be deposited on silicon through a suitable buffer layer. The initial layer will take place in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) reactor environment to produce clean interface and high quality seed layer. Characterization of the material, device fabrication, and high modulation will be investigated during Phase I. The feasibility of producing low loss films on silicon will lead to a host of optical applications for commercialization. A successful program would also benefit other important applications of ferroelectrics such as for memory storage, gate oxide, infrared sensor and silicon-based microactuator. Successful completion of the proposed program would lead to advances in communication tools, fast computing, high density memory, and microactuator products.

---------- DARPA ----------

ADVANCED WIRELESS & TELECOM CORP.
4721 Cornell Road,
Cincinnati, OH 45241
(513) 489-6648

PI: Jeffrey Marshall
(513) 489-6648
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R209
NMSU PHYSAL SCIENCES LABORATORY
Box 30002,
Las Cruces, NM 88003
(505) 522-9266

ID#: 00ST10014
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-003
Title: Miniature High-Bandwidth Data Transceiver with Integrated Antenna
Abstract:   With the advent of the personal communications industry, a new sector of wireless component manufacturers has emerged that have developed semiconductor processes that provide new levels of integration for radio frequency (RF) subcircuits. These processes have been primarily applied in commercial consumer devices (pagers, cell-phones) needing only modest environmental qualification (room temperature, low shock/vibration). A need exists to adapt these new processes for high-rel wireless data applications while taking advantage of their inherent cost benefit. The elements of this proposal bring the benefit of integration (smaller size, lower power, and reduced cost) while providing increased performance (higher data rate and operating range). The team's strong background in high-rel radio communications equipment design, manufacturing, and testing makes it partcularly well-suited to address these topics. Benefits include miniature size, lower power, higher bandwidth, longer operating range wireless data communications Commercial applications include embedded wireless data communications for long distance applications (automotive, aeronautical, naval, industrial)

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road,
Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 273-3388

PI: Gerald Morse
(781) 273-3388
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R199
SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES
P.O. Box 5800,
Albuquerque, NM 87185
(505) 844-5064

ID#: 00ST10034
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-008
Title: Advanced Tracking Techniques for FOPEN GMTI Radars
Abstract:   The tracking of ground targets moving under foliage is an important military problem with significant technical challenges that include high false alarm rates and large measurement uncertainties. ALPHATECH will develop new tracking technology for FOPEN GMTI by building on its broad experience in tracking and adapting features of its Multiple Hypothesis Tracker. Because the expected high revisit rates and large measurement uncertainties will make track initiation difficult, we will investigate clustering and local batch processing to improve track initiation. Since the radars may be polarimetric, we will investigate the utility of using polarization to improve association accuracy. Polarization may be particularly important since the narrow bandwidths envisioned for a FOPEN GMTI Radar may limit effective use of range extent measurements. Finally, persistent false alarms such as those arising from incomplete cancellation of a bright stand of trees will be suppressed using the discrete detection and tracking algorithms under development in the Discoverer II program. Additionally, the existing GMTI Tracker Testbed and analysis tools developed under other ALPHATECH programs will be adapted to the FOPEN GMTI program. This will provide an environment to analyze the effectiveness of tracker modifications and candidate GMTI system parameters against postulated environments and target scenarios . The technology developed under this program will contribute directly to the overall objective of using a FOPEN GMTI radar to detect tactical targets concealed in foliage. This technology will be generally applicable to other sensor with similar characteristics, i.e., poor measurement uncertainties and large false alarm rates. This may potentially benefit civilian systems such as FAA tracking.

BOSTON MICROMACHINES CORP.
96 Parker Street,
Westwood, MA 02090
(617) 353-6373

PI: Thomas Bifano
(617) 353-6373
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R207
BOSTON UNIV.
881 Commonwealth Avenue,
Boston, MA 02215
(617) 353-4365

ID#: 00ST10025
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-005
Title: Adaptive Optics for Micro-Platforms
Abstract:   In this project, we will integrate a lightweight, low-power, micromachined silicon de-formable mirror (ćDM) with a high speed VLSI controller to form a compact adaptive optics (AO) system, capable of improving imaging resolution in telescopes and targeting applications, or improving beam focus in horizontal-path laser communication applications. The project involves merging a multi-zone, solid-state deformable mirror with an advanced solid-state optoelectronic sensor and controller. The micro-opto-electro-mechanical system (MOEMS) device that will be used as a deformable mirror in this project is the tangible result of a three-year DARPA research program conducted by the Principal Investigator. In this recently completed program, a number of difficult design, fabrication, and integration challenges were met. The resulting devices are the first (and only) continuous-membrane micromachined deformable mirrors capable of the required electromechanical and optical performance required for real-time closed loop adaptive optics. ćDM mirrors for the Phase I project are already packaged, and ready for integration into an AO platform by BMC in partnership with the BU team.

CIMARRON SOFTWARE, INC.
175 S. West Temple Street, Suite 530
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
(801) 521-3210

PI: Peter Cartwright
(801) 521-3210
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R205
UNIV. OF UTAH
Office of Sponsored Projects, 1471 Federal
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
(801) 581-3003

ID#: 00ST10008
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-002
Title: An Integrated Information Repository For Biology Research
Abstract:   Biological research is generating unprecedented amounts and varieties of data. Sources of these data include investigations in sequencing, functional genomics, gene expression in cells, genetic variations (genotyping), and models of biological pathways. These data arise from many organisms, including drosophila, C. elegans, mouse, E. coli, microbes such as pyrophillites, crop species such as rice and wheat, and man. Individual, localized successes in acquiring these data have created the need and opportunity for an integrated approach to organizing, analyzing, visualizing, browsing and querying across these two dimensions of source and organism. This project will design and prototype a data warehouse providing such integration, building on Cimarron's extensive commercial experience in analysis and management software for molecular biology laboratories. The integrated, dynamic database to be constructed by this project will have immediate and wide ranging benefits to commercial and academic biological research. It will naturally and powerfully extend existing laboratory information management systems, and enable the discovery and articulation of new knowledge cutting across many domains including basic research, drug development, diagnostic and forensic services, agricultural and livestock improvement, and gene discovery.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
One Hopkins Place,
Ithaca, NY 14850
(607) 273-7340

PI: Paul Anderson
(607) 273-7340
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R210
UNIV. OF WISCONSIN - MADISON
Room 440, A.W. Peterson Bldg, 750 Univer
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-4880

ID#: 00ST10021
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-004
Title: A Framework for Aspect-Oriented Programming of Embedded Systems
Abstract:   Commercial programming frameworks for embedded software that enable aspect-oriented software development and property-based debugging will require semantically rich deep-structure program representations. Such representations convey the preprogrammed generic analyses, and enable the subsequent application-driven analyses and transformations, that are needed to support weaving and composition of crosscutting software aspects. In contrast, it has been expedient, until now, for researchers in aspect-oriented programming to use only the simplest surface-structure representations of programs. GrammaTech, in partnership with the University of Wisconsin (Madison), has the opportunity to be a leading supplier of such tools: (1) we have a considerable head start in commercial-grade deep-structure program representation technology; (2) we plan to transition and apply powerful program-composition ideas pioneered by our academic partners; (3) we have a strong team that includes key participants of the original Wisconsin work; and (4) we are active in both the programming-language community and the embedded-systems market. In Phase I, we will design the overall framework, analyze feasibility and demonstrate concepts with a prototype implementation, and illustrate applicability to a real-time embedded-system problem. End-user aspect-oriented programming tools for real-time embedded systems that will be built on GrammaTech's deep-structure representation technology platform. Such tools will be marketed either by GrammaTech, or by tool vendors who license GrammaTech's technology.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court Street, Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
(315) 798-1377

PI: Lawrence Nelson
(315) 798-1377
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R200
COLORADO STATE UNIV.
Department of Mathematics, Colorado State
Fort Collins, CO 80523
(970) 491-6695

ID#: 00ST10036
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-008
Title: Advanced Tracking Techniques for FOPEN GMTI Radars
Abstract:   The tracking of ground moving targets that are screened by foliage is a serious problem. Foliage Penetrating (FOPEN) radars present significant tracking challenges not currently faced. Integrated Sensors Incorporated, ISI, in cooperation with Colorado State University is pleased to present an innovative approach to tracking FOPEN GMTI targets. By taking a systems approach that considers the tracking algorithm to be part of a larger system, the ISI/CSU tracker has the potential to significantly enlarge the domain of trackable targets. The appoach includes: 1. A sensor resource manager, SRM, to control transmit polarization, radar mode, signal processing parameters, local detection thresholds, etc. in order to maximize tracking effectiveness. 2. The innovative use of a low resolution SAR mode to generate clutter maps. 3. Selected use of Doppler Beam Sharpening to enhance angular accuracy. 4. Use of Bayesian network technology to classify detections and tracks as either clutter or target using inputs from clutter maps, elevation databases, land cover databases and vector feature databases. The use of an efficient, multi-frame most probable hypothesis (MFMPH) tracking system that is superior to MHT trackers. These techniques maximize target sensitivity while minimizing the impact of clutter leading to improved tracking performance. Several military and non-military potential applications have been identified as potential candidate for the expected tracking technology. The peacekeeping and counter-drug operations cited in the STTR topic are excellent candidates. These military applications are difficult tracking problems in terms of target numbers and difficult environment and would benefit from robustness of the advanced tracking technology. Commercial opportunities include the monitoring of ground traffic in the severe clutter and multipath environment typical of many congested airports. A similar opportunity exists for harbor management that is also characterized by a large number of targets in potentially severe sea-clutter and man-man clutter. ISI currently provides video instrumentation and Image Express„ analysis software to the military test range organizations involved in equipment and weapon testing applications. A few applications such as the tracking of several hundred parachutists and hundreds of artillery projectiles would benefit from this technology. Another commercial application that is very close to the ImageExpress„ market place exists within the automobile industry. The high-efficiency requirements placed on automakers have created demanding analysis needs for almost every system that goes into today's automobiles. Our customers have expressed a need to analyze fuel injectors with ImageExpress„; unfortunately, the current 3D tracking technology is not robust enough to deal with the thousands of droplets/particles that need to be tracked. The integration of the advanced tracking technology could potentially satisfy their need. ISI intends to begin investigating these and other applications early in the development cycle. Where possible ISI will engage 3rd party, such as an automaker, participation as early in the development as possible.

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
5395 West 700 South,
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
(801) 530-4987

PI: Jan-Fong Jue
(801) 530-4987
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R204
UNIV. OF UTAH
1471 Federal Way,
Salt Lake City, UT 84102
(801) 581-3008

ID#: 00ST10005
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-001
Title: A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)-Based Portable Power Source
Abstract:   A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)-based portable power source is proposed. The proposed SOFC-based power source will be made of anode-supported, high performance, planar, internally manifolded stack with metallic interconnects. The unit will contain six cells, operate on direct (unprocessed) liquid fuels such as undiluted methanol (or a concentrated methanol solution in water) at 650C in a thermally self-sustaining mode and will be thermally well-insulated. The anticipated power at the operating voltage will be ~10W. With the stack at 650C, the surface of the module is expected to be at ~50C. The anticipated size of the stack will be ~25 cm3 (with insulation 125 cm3) and the weight will be lower than 300 g. Including a 150 cm3 of fuel canister, the anticipated volume and weight will be lower that 600 cm3 and 500 g respectively. Phase I technical objectives include: 1) Fabrication of single cells and demonstration of a stack operating on methanol; 2) Analysis and design of a thermally self- sustaining stack; 3) Analysis and design of requisite thermal insulation. The demonstration of a fully integrated unit complete with fuel canister is the objective of Phase II. The proposed work will lead to palmsize power sources operating on liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These will have applications in the microelectronic devices, military, toys, and many consumer electronic products.

NANONEX CORP.
7 Foulet Drive,
Princeton, NJ 08540
(609) 683-3973

PI: Jian Wang
(609) 683-3973
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R208
PRINCETON UNIV.
Office of Technology Transfer, 5 New South
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-3110

ID#: 00ST10026
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Development of Innovative Nanoimprint Lithography Tools
Abstract:   The objective of the project is to develop nanoimprint lithography (NIL) machines that are suitable for patterning nanostructures with high throughput and excellent uniformity over large areas. In phase-I, Nanonex corporation, teamed up with Prof. Chou group of Princeton University-an originator of NIL, will search for optimum approaches in scaling up NIL machines for manufacturing and perform a design study of the key parameters. In particular, a number of innovative design concepts by Nanonex will be investigated. The key personnel of Nanonex are former Post-docs and graduate students of Prof. Chou's group, and are experts in NIL. Nanonex has received the exclusive rights on the NIL principle patent as well as other intellectual properties related NIL, therefore having a unique position in commercialization of NIL. Development of NIL will provide DoD a revolutionary manufacturing tool that can revolutionize hardware in many areas. The technology will allow fabrication of innovative sensors, microprocessors, random access memory arrays, and many others. NIL will impact many other areas such as optical communication, displays, data storage, integrated circuits (ICs), pharmaceutics, biotech, and chemical synthesis.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 W. Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
(203) 268-1249

PI: Richard DiDomizio
(203) 268-1249
Contract #: DAAH01-00-C-R203
STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Stanford Research Institute, 333 Ravensw
Menlo Park, CA 94025
(650) 859-4424

ID#: 00ST10040
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 00-009
Title: Multi-Frequency/Multi-Phase Center SAR Processing for Foliage Canopy and Surface Clutter Suppression
Abstract:   Recent military conflicts demonstrate that critical targets hide from airborne sensors by deploying below the foliage canopy or in underground facilities. The use of multi-phase center antennas and frequency or polarization diversity in foliage penetration (FOPEN) and ground penetration (GPEN) radars may allow the suppression of the first scatterer return and enhance the detectability of these targets. These same techniques can improve the mapping of forested areas and detection of buried mines. During Phase I, the Technology Service Corporation / Stanford Research Institute team will develop innovative clutter cancellation algorithms including interferometric nulling and foliage height estimation techniques. TSC will also investigate the use of advanced methods such as its complex indicated angle technique that was recently extended to multiple sources and apertures. TSC will determine the theoretical algorithm performance using available SAR data and design evaluation simulation software. SRI will investigate 2-D and 3-D processing of its PENRAD-5 GPEN radar that recently collected data on buried mines at Yuma Proving Grounds. In Phase II, TSC will refine and optimize these techniques, and implement them as C/C++ modules to support more extensive evaluations using a combination of synthetic and measured UWB P-3 radar, FOLPEN-II and GeoSAR data. TSC and SRI will also apply the techniques to improve GPEN radar performance and extend it to targets at greater depths. The clutter suppression techniques to be developed on this effort have an immediate DoD application in locating military targets hidden either in foliage or underground facilities. Additional applications of this technology include improving the accuracy of topographical and Land Use/Land Cover mapping in forested areas, as well as the detection and improved location of buried objects such as pipes, electrical cables, utility lines, storage tanks, drums, unexploded ordnance, antipersonnel/antitank land mines, sink holes, grave sites and archaeological items. These techniques would also enhance search-and-rescue missions in forested areas, as well as commercial efforts to map cultural and natural features such as road networks, abandoned mines, illegal dump sites, earthquake fault lines, and water drainage patterns. These capabilities are of tremendous interest to commercial mapping, oil and mineral exploration industries, and state and federal government agencies.

---------- NAVY ----------

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 413-1440

PI: John T. Torvik
(303) 413-1440
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0161
KANSAS STATE UNIV.
PreAward Srvc,2 Fairchild Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-1103
(785) 532-6804

ID#: 525030158
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Nitride Semiconductor Substrates
Abstract:   We propose to develop and commercialize AlInGaN-based high-gain solar-blind/visible blind ultraviolet Optoelectronic Field Effect Transistor (OFET) by combining our novel Strain/Energy Band Engineering (SEBE) technology, selective area growth technique, and device passivation for the leakage current reduction. We will use AlInGaN layers and multi-layered structures with graded Al/In molar fractions in order to accommodate lattice mismatch between the substrate and active AlInGaN photodetector layer. The OFET will be able to perform as a two-terminal photovoltaic photodetector with transparent Schottky electrode. In the three-terminal regime, the current in the OFET will be controlled by the variation of the transparent Schottky gate bias under UV illumination. The detector/FET integration will allow us to develop a high-temperature subsystem with smaller weight, improved noise characteristics, increased reliability, better performance characteristics, improved manufacturability, and reduced cost. The potential applications include missile detection and space technology, flame sensing, medicine and UV-spectroscopy

ASTROPOWER, INC.
Solar Park
Newark, DE 19716-2000
(302) 366-0400

PI: Michael G. Mauk
(302) 366-0400
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0154
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
4800 Oak Grove Dr.
Pasadena, CA 91109-8099
(818)354-0239

ID#: 525030117
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-008
Title: Development of III-V Compound Alloys and Device Technologies For Uncooled Infrared Photon Detectors and Arrays
Abstract:   The proposed work aims to exploit several enabling materials technologies developed in the low-bandgap III-V compound antimonides (e.g., InAsSbP, InGaAsSb) by AstroPower. We have demonstrated new and modified crystal growth and epitaxy technologies including 1. ternary "virtual" substrates and compositionally-graded thick epitaxial layers with adjustable lattice parameters to overcome constraints imposed by lattice matching conditions and miscibility gaps in these materials systems; 2. epitaxial lateral overgrowth on patterned, masked substrates to effect defect filtering and stress reduction, both of which greatly improve material quality and widen the range of available bandgaps; 3. new device structures using epitaxial lateral overgrowth to provide novel device structures for resonant cavity detectors; 4. rare earth doping to reduce background impurity levels; and 5. thallium- and bismuth-containing III-V alloys for extending the spectral response wavelength to 8-12 microns. These technologies will be combined with detector and detector array design, fabrication, analysis, modeling, and characterization expertise by Jet Propulsion Laboratory to provide high-resolution, high sensitivity infrared detectors operating at room temperature in the 3- to 12-micron wavelength range. The near-term (1 to 2 year) anticipated benefits of this program are based on the potential timely development of detectors and relatively sophisticated arrays made possible by adapting and/or modifying already demonstrated materials technologies used for related devices

ATEC, INC.
11890 Old Baltimore Pike, SteC
Beltsville, MD 20705
(301) 931-3221

PI: Reza Shekarriz
(301) 931-3221
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0158
UNIV OF MD/DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENG.
Center for Env. Energy Eng.
College Park, MD 20742-3035
(301) 405-5263

ID#: 525030135
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-007
Title: CHIP-INTEGRATED EHD PUMPED CRYOGENIC COOLING SYSTEM
Abstract:   Advanced Thermal and Environmental Concepts (ATEC), Inc. in collaboration with the University of Maryland propose to develop a chip-integrated ultra low parasitic noise cryogenic cooling system. The following elements make up the innovative system being proposed here: 1) electrohydrodynamic (EHD) micro-pumping of single-phase liquid nitrogen to produce low noise removal of heat directly from the surface of the HTS filters and sensors where it is needed most and 2) innovative microstructures to provide enhanced rate of heat transfer from the surface. An innovative 3-D fabrication in a HTS compatible material using bump bond technique will be utilized for the development of the EHD pump electrodes. The bump bond technique is currently under development at TRW. The micropump loop system can later (Phase II and beyond) be integrated into a cold head cooled by an innovative two-stage "Stirling-type" pulsed tube cryocooler, currently under development at Mesoscopic Devices, Inc. EHD micropumping is particularly suitable for this application due to the fact that no moving parts are used, either in a motor or impeller used in most conventional pumps, for recirculation of the cryogenic coolant over the hot surfaces. Innovations in the microstructural geometries are intended to create higher dissipation rates per unit surface area of the sensor. Finally, coupling the EHD pumped loop into a low noise pulsed-tube cryocooler via the cold head eliminates any leakage of noise from the cryocooler system to the sensors and filters to be cooled. A major advantage of the proposed system is the ability to produce a pumped loop for cooling of distributed electronics with variable cooling load while maintaining the advantage of low parasitic noise. During Phase I and Phase I option, we intend to demonstrate the feasibility of fabrication and operation of the proposed system and determine the performance envelope of this system under cryogenic temperatures. This work will involve a combination of analysis and exploratory laboratory testing. In Phase II, we will perform detailed analysis and computational modeling of the system for optimization and proceed to develop a prototype to be tested under realistic conditions advised by HTS sensor and filter manufacturers. Heat rejection from HTS devices has been perceived to be a problem due to the high demand on thermal fluctuations and vibration. This system addresses a critical problem in a field where the sensor and filter sensitivity and dynamic range depend strongly on how well they are cooled. Therefore, we believe our final product, a chip-integrated EHD pumped cryogenic cooling system, in addition to application in defense-related technologies, will have a significant commercial value to a broader industry, including the aerospace, computer electronics, and communications industries. Other markets may be satellite communication and high speed computing.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12110
(518) 783-0863

PI: J. Carlos Rojo
(518) 276-2494
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0160
RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
110 8th Street
Troy, NY 12110
(518) 276-6283

ID#: 525030147
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Nitride Semiconductor Substrates: Application of bulk AlN substrates for high power microwave devices
Abstract:   In Phase I, we propose to prepare single-crystal substrates of AlN epitaxial growth of AlxGa1-xN structures. These structures will be fabricated into high power HFETs and compared with similar devices fabricated on sapphire, SiC, and bulk GaN. Extremely high power microwave and millimeter wave devices will have extensive applications in both the DoD and in civilian applications. The use of aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates will accelerate this development. In addition, AlN substrates may be extremely valuable for uses in high temperature electronics for propulsion applications, for space electronics where radiation hardening is imperative, and for UV solid state emitters and detectors for missile defense, optical communications and data storage. Because of the anticipated benefits for improved nitride epitaxy on AlN substrates, there is great commercialization potential for blue/uv laser diodes for data storage (such as higher density DVD) by reducing the manufacturing costs over competing substrates.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
(914) 592-1190

PI: Deepnarayan Gupta
(914) 592-1190
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0166
RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
Room CII 6123
Troy, NY 12180
(518) 276-2919

ID#: 525030161
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-001
Title: Si-Ge Amplifier Technology for High Data Rate Digital Systems
Abstract:   HYPRES, in collaboration with Rensselaer Polytechnique Institute (RPI), proposes to develop an amplifier technology using Silicon Germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for high data rate (20 Gbps and higher) digital links. SiGe HBTs offer higher manufacturing yield at lower cost than other fast semiconductor technologies. Moreover, on-chip digital signal processing circuits can be integrated with the amplifier to enhance the link performance. The primary application of this amplifier technology will be to provide high-speed digital links from low-energy superconducting electronics to higher energy room temperature. In Phase I, we will address the issues concerning extraction of low-energy, high-speed signals from superconducting circuits to room temperature through an intermediate temperature stage with SiGe amplifiers and demultiplexers. The complete link will be built and demonstrated in Phase II. The applications of HBT amplifiers, designed in Phase I, will encompass a variety of high-speed digital systems, including high data-rate optical communication networks. Superconducting electronics (SCE), based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logic, has been demonstrated to have vastly superior performance in terms of speed, bandwidth, sensitivity, and accuracy than other integrated circuit technologies. It is extremely attractive for a number of Navy applications, including high-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs), wideband digitizers, and fast digital signal processing (DSP) elements for digital receivers. Since superconducting circuits work only at 4-5 K, we must build a link to room temperature to take advantage of its superior properties. This is enabled by incorporating SiGe HBT amplifiers and demultiplexers at an intermediate temperature. SiGe HBT technology will also enable faster optical communication networks by allowing faster electrical-to-optical interfaces. Other potential applications include low-noise pre-amplifiers in a transmitter power amplifier chain in free-space communication.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
(301) 590-3155

PI: Geoff Taylor
(860) 486-2666
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0168
UNIV. OF CONNECTICUT
260 Glenbrook Road
Storrs, CT 06209
(860) 486-2666

ID#: 525030121
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-004
Title: Optoelectronic DAC and ADC Integrated Circuit Technology
Abstract:   Digital array radar requires AD and DA conversion located close to the antenna. For a radar operating in the RF band from 3.1 - 3.5 GHz, one could eliminate down conversion by converting directly from the antenna. Furthermore, an AD converter with optical output can couple to a fiber link for direct transmission to the processor. Similarly, D/A conversion at 3 GHz with a digital optical input from fiber could interface directly to the power amplifier and eliminate up-conversion. State-of-the-art electronic research-based converters provide GS/s but only with 4 - 6 bits of resolution whereas 10-12 bits are needed for digital radar. Recently we reported a new concept for optoelectronic ADC with an optoelectronic thyristor as the comparator and with HFET differential amplifiers to form a compact quantizer. A unique attribute of this converter is the digital optical output from the thyristor. Using the smart comparator in the inverse mode implements the DA operation with digital optical input at multi GB/s data rates. These ADC/DAC combinations are ideal building blocks for digitized TR modules. The ADC has been demonstrated with discrete thyristors and COTs amplifiers. In this STTR we will develop the integrated circuit technology to demonstrate single chip high speed operation. The thyristor/FET will enable practical very high speed O/E ADC and DAC pair's. The optical output and CCD compatibility can translate to a host of other applications including videoconferencing, high definition TV (HDTV) and voice in SONET/ATM systems. This approach reduces component count dramatically compared to all electronic ADC's and will enable a overall optoelectronic approach to the for commercial ADC/DAC applications.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
2 Research Place, Suite 202
Rockville, MD 20850
(301) 590-3155

PI: Geoff Taylor
(860) 486-2666
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0155
UNIV. OF CONNECTICUT
260 Glenbrook Road
Storrs, CT 06209
(860) 486-2666

ID#: 525030126
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-008
Title: A Monolithic Infrared Array with Integrated Readout Capability
Abstract:   A new optoelectronic technology is proposed to use intersubband absorption in a monolithic structure. In the conventional QWIP structure, a multiquantum well is sandwiched between two n type contacts. The barrier to dark current flow is that of the quantum well, so cooling to near 60K is needed to achieve the desired BLIP operation. Also, the devices are hybrid bonded to a Si ROIC for readout. In the proposed technology, the intersubband process takes place in a modulation-doped quantum well, in which the barrier to the flow of dark current is the generation current across a wide band-gap material. The result is BLIP operation near room temperature. Therefore the high speed of response, high array uniformity and small signal resolution are available without cooling. Most significant is the elimination of the hybrid ROIC. The detector is the storage section of a pixel of a CCD array. The CCD shift register clocks the signals to one or several output amplifiers. Significant advantages are obtained in terms of pixel density, noise cancellation, power dissipation, circuit size and cost and radiation. In this STTR the detector will be demonstrated in the form of an active pixel or as part of a CCD. The inversion channel intersubband detector will enable practical low cost thermal sensors for night surveillance, medical imaging and machine/equipment failure modes. The CCD output and electronic compatibility can translate to a host of other applications including image transmission, sensor fusion etc. The elimination of cooling opens the technology to low cost consumer products such as night vision for autos.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
(805) 963-8761

PI: John H. McAdoo
(703) 339-6500
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0164
JOHNS HOPKINS U/APPLIED PHYSICS LAB
11100 Johns Hopkins Road
Laural, MD 20723
(443) 778-5974

ID#: 525030120
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-002
Title: Periodic Silicon-Carbide Limiter
Abstract:   An X-band high-power limiter is proposed using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistors (FETs). To achieve operation between 7 to 11 GHz the limiter circuit will consist of a periodic array of FETs connected together with bond wires. The parasitic capacitance of the FETs and the inductance of the connecting wires will form a synthetic transmission line with a characteristic impedance of 50 . The concept will be tested in Phase One using L-band FETs that are immediately available. The use of SiC instead of gallium arsenide or silicon will enable the bandwidth to be achieved with much lower insertion loss. The reason for this is that SiC can operate at much higher temperatures and has higher thermal conductivity than either gallium arsenide or silicon. Therefore the combined periphery of all the FETs in the circuit can be substantially smaller, and this reduces the losses. A broad-band SiC FET-based limiter offers unsurpassed performance with wide military and commercial applications. Due to its small footprint and tolerance to high temperature, it is ideally suited for upgrading systems already in wide use. In addition, it will provide protection from high-power pulsed sources - an area just beginning to be addressed by military planners. Similarly, as the exploding wireless technology floods the commercial market, needs will be surfacing for similar protection for these products.

MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1500 Sheridan Road, Unit 8A
Wilmette, IL 60091
(847) 491-7251

PI: Hooman Mohseni
(847) 491-7251
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0156
CENTER FOR QUANTUM DEVICES
2225 North Campus Drive
Evanston, IL 60208
(847) 467-1947

ID#: 525030146
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-008
Title: Uncooled Infrared Photon Detectors
Abstract:   Commercially available uncooled IR imaging sensors use ferroelectric or microbolometer detectors which are inherently slow. The objective of this phase I program is the demonstration of the feasibility of strained InAs/GaInSb type-II heterojunction detectors for high-speed uncooled infrared detection in the mid and long infrared ranges. We have already demonstrated higher detectivity than HgCdTe at room temperature at 11mm from type-II superlattices. Since semi-insulating GaSb substrates does not exist, these detectors are grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate in order to reduce the shunt resistance of the substrate. However, the 6% mismatch between the epi-layer and the substrate induces considerable interface roughness and misfit dislocations. We propose a novel technique that can isolate the superlattice from the conductive GaSb. Higher carrier mobilities and lifetimes are expected from the nearly defect free superlattices grown with this technique. Uncooled photon infrared detectors can reduce the weight, dimension, and power consumption of high speed infrared systems significantly by eliminating the need for cryocoolers. This can reduce the overall price of these systems while increasing their reliability and lifetime. We believe that the smaller and lighter infrared systems based on uncooled IR photon detectors will find many new military and civilian applications when speed is an important issue. Some of these application are: proximity fuzes, smart munitions, active infrared countermeasure systems, missile detection/situational awareness for highly maneuvering airborne platforms, LIDARs, and free-space communication.

NITRONEX CORP.
616 Hutton Street - Suite 104
Raleigh, NC 27606
(919) 807-9100

PI: Kevin Linthicum
(919) 807-9100
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0159
NC STATE UNIV.
DeptMaterial Science,Box 7907
Raleigh, NC 27695-7907
(919) 515-2377

ID#: 525030172
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-006
Title: Nitride Semiconductor Substrates
Abstract:   Nitronex (www.nitronex.com) and NC State University will develop Pendeo crystal growth for large area / low cost Gallium Nitride on Silicon substrates for use in integrated electronic device application. The properties of these revolutionary low-defect-density GaN on Silicon wafers makes higher performing power devices with a high degree of device integration possible resulting in system level improvements in military (power transmission, radar, wireless communications), industrial, and consumer applications. Pendeoepitaxy is a radically new method of maskless lateral overgrowth using MOCVD, which has been shown to reduce defect densities by 4 orders of magnitude. In addition, Pendeoepitaxy provides an optimal process route for integrating Gallium Nitride with Silicon on a fundamental atomic level. This integration allows for the device level combination of CMOS devices on Silicon with power FETs on Gallium Nitride. The properties of Pendeoepitaxy grown GaN films will be evaluated using non-destructive methods to correlate structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties with expected electronic device performance. SEM/CL, photoluminescence, and x-ray mapping will be correlated to structural and device properties including lateral coalescence, wafer tilt, dislocation density, electron mobility, and carrier concentration across 50 mm wafers during phase 1 and 100mm during phase 2 for GaN on Silicon pendeoepitaxy wafers. Electronic device (MESFET, HEMT, HBT, etc.) needs low-defect density wafers of Gallium Nitride in order to achieve the device application breakthroughs for which these GaN on Silicon has tremendous potential. Through this work, a substrate for the direct integration of GaN electronics with Silicon devices will be developed and available for sale.

NOMADICS, INC.
1730 Cimarron Plaza, PO Box 2496
Stillwater, OK 74076-2496
(405) 372-9535

PI: Joel Roark
(405) 372-9535
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0153
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV.
203 Whitehurst
Stillwater, OK 74078
(405) 744-6501

ID#: 525030140
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-005
Title: Sailor
Abstract:   Nomadics has teamed with Oklahoma State University to develop a personal communication device for shipboard personnel. The device will be portable, lightweight, self-powered, and capable of voice and digital data transmission and reception. Additionally, the device will support external equipment such as health monitors, barcode readers, headsets, etc. to improve its usability. The device will be capable of connecting to local area networks and hardware communication services. Personal communication device and local area network interface for military, law enforcement, hospital, first responder, and plant personnel.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
(513) 860-3456

PI: Michael Geile
(513) 860-3456
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0169
UNIV. OF CINCINNATI
2600 Clifton Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45221
(513) 556-4765

ID#: 525030145
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-005
Title: alphaCom Communications System
Abstract:   The Naval Fleet has successfully leveraged several recent advances in commercial technology. However, user demands require collaboration of several different systems that are accessed using different handheld equipment. Naval personnel require voice communications that include simple point-to-point operations, complex multi-user conferencing, and remote data transfers. Passive monitoring of the user information, such as state of health and position, is also desired. Managing and maintaining multiple devices detracts from user efficiency. The focus of the proposed development is to collect the desired features into the alphaCom Communicator Card, designed for wear as a security badge complete with picture ID. The program's success is achieved by leveraging available commercial component technology, such as IS-54 cellular standard components, and by exploiting the experience of Nova and the University of Cincinnati in implementing digital voice conferencing, physical layer waveforms, multiple access methods, and networked sensor systems. The proposed work provides efficient reuse of the component technology used in the Motorola StarTAC„ cellular phone and pager devices, and further reduces power consumption by applying recent low power processor innovations. A body worn device, such as the alphaCom Communicator Card, substantially increases communications flexibility. This technology represents high potential payoff in general business, hospitals, trauma centers, or emergency relief operations. Similar to Naval operations, these disciplines strive to increase the communications flexibility between personnel.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21 Cavalier Way
Latham, NY 12110
(518) 783-0608

PI: Remis Gaska
(518) 783-4369
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0162
SOUTH CAROLINA RESEARCH INSTITUTE
901 Sumter St, 517 Byrnes Bldg
Columbia, SC 29208
(803) 777-5587

ID#: 525030152
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-003
Title: Ultraviolet AlInGaN Optoelectronic Field Effect Transistor
Abstract:   We propose to develop and commercialize AlInGaN-based high-gain solar-blind/visible blind ultraviolet Optoelectronic Field Effect Transistor (OFET) by combining our novel Strain/Energy Band Engineering (SEBE) technology, selective area growth technique, and device passivation for the leakage current reduction. We will use AlInGaN layers and multi-layered structures with graded Al/In molar fractions in order to accommodate lattice mismatch between the substrate and active AlInGaN photodetector layer. The OFET will be able to perform as a two-terminal photovoltaic photodetector with transparent Schottky electrode. In the three-terminal regime, the current in the OFET will be controlled by the variation of the transparent Schottky gate bias under UV illumination. The detector/FET integration will allow us to develop a high-temperature subsystem with smaller weight, improved noise characteristics, increased reliability, better performance characteristics, improved manufacturability, and reduced cost. The potential applications include missile detection and space technology, flame sensing, medicine and UV-spectroscopy

SIENNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
19501 144th Ave. NE, Ste F-50
Woodinville, WA 98072-6426
(425) 485-7272

PI: Lev Lipkovker
(425) 485-7272
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0157
THE UNIV. OF ARIZONA
888 N. Euclid, #515,
Tucson, AZ 85721
(520) 626-4607

ID#: 525030097
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-007
Title: An Aluminum Nitride Package with Built-in Cooler for Cryogenic Temperatures
Abstract:   A range of ultra-sensitive sensors and microelectronic devices operating at low power levels exhibit ultimate performance when background noise, caused by thermal fluctuations, is reduced by operating these devices at cryogenic temperatures. However, no suitable active localized cryogenic cooling technique as part of the device/IC package is available for these devices to be integrated into the systems. This program will develop an aluminum nitride package with an integrated, self-enclosed, energy efficient, active cryogenic cooling system for high performance, high sensitivity and high-density electronic devices. The proposed aluminum nitride package will incorporate a compact, built-in active cryogenic cooling system, free of hydrodynamic and electromagnetic noise. This provides high thermal control and dissipates multi-watt heat loads. In Phase I, large surface area micro-channels will be designed using a novel method and incorporated into aluminum nitride ceramic substrates. Three-dimensional thermal analysis will be conducted to estimate heat dissipation performance of the package. Aluminum nitride ceramic substrates incorporating the novel micro-channels design will be produced, insulated, hermetisized and metallized. Test vehicles will be fabricated to evaluate the 77oK base temperature stability of two ONR defined sensors attached/bonded to the aluminum nitride ceramic substrates with built-in cryogenic cooling system. The potential commercial applications for internally cryogenically cooled Aluminum Nitride ceramic packages include high performance RF devices, DDS, imaging systems, superconducting devices/systems, high-power/high-density processor chips, high- and ultra-sensitive sensing systems and aerospace and telecommunication electronics.

STERLING SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
22660 Executive Drive, Ste 101
Sterling, VA 20166-9535
(703) 834-7535

PI: Cengiz Balkas
(703) 834-7535
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0163
CARNEGIE MELLON UNIV.
Dept. of Matls Science & Eng.
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
(412) 268-2170

ID#: 525030174
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-003
Title: A Novel Approach to Growth of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Crystals
Abstract:   In response to Navy N00-T006 STTR, Sterling Semiconductor porposes to investigate a novel approach to the growth of aluminum nitride (AlN) crystals. Preliminary investigation by the PI shows the potential of this technique for growing AlN. It is the goal of this work to investigate and optimize the materials and growth parameters for the feasibility of AlN boule growth. Aluminum Nitride wafers will be used in a variety of high frequency, high power and optoelectronic device applications.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL
8660 Dakota Dr.
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
(301) 208-8342

PI: Vladimir Dmitriev
(301) 208-8342
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0165
PURDUE UNIV.
1285 Electrical Engineering
West Lafayette, IN 47907
(765) 494-3514

ID#: 525030124
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-002
Title: Silicon carbide microwave limiters
Abstract:   TDI, Inc. and Purdue University propose to develop high-power, high-speed microwave limiters based on 4H-SiC epitaxial diodes. Recently high quality SiC structures grown by liquid phase epitaxy have been demonstrated by TDI. Highly doped (>1020 cm-3) p-type SiC materials and abrupt p+/n junctions have been grown. Stable electric breakdown was demonstrated. Processing technology for high power microwave SiC diodes has been developed at Purdue University. These results open the opportunity to develop high-power high-speed SiC microwave limiters. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate 4H-SiC pn diodes for microwave limiters. SiC pn diodes will be modeled to determine the optimum device structure. Temperature breakdown voltage coefficient will be investigated. The initial microwave power dissipation tests will be performed. In the Phase II, we will focus on the fabrication of encapsulated 4H-SiC limiters. Device structure optimization will be undertaken to ensure an average dissipated power of more than 50 W of microwave power at 7-11 GHz with an insertion loss lower than 1.0 dB. Test samples will be delivered. The manufacture of SiC limiters will result in the creation of more powerful microwave parts with low insertion losses, high power dissipation, and short recovery time. SiC limiters will find a host of applications in microwave communications and satellite links.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
(703) 691-7794

PI: Charles Hsu
(703) 267-2313
Contract #: N00014-00-M-0167
THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIV.
Electrical & Computer
Washington, DC 20052
(202) 994-3772

ID#: 525030159
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 00-004
Title: High Dynamic Range Digital Waveform Synthesizer & Beam Forming
Abstract:   The objective of this proposal is the exploitation of the digital transceiver array and beam forming accuracy by means of analog-to-digital and vice versa conversion for arbitrary wide-band waveform at tens G Hz RF. In order to achieve a high dynamic range of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with consideration for sensitivity of circuit non-idealities, we propose a third-order delta-sigma (DS) modulator ADC with 14 effective bits over minimum 100MHz bandwidth that utilizes the DS architecture and BiCMOS process. The combination of 45 GHz Bipolar, 0.2 micron CMOS, with a high accuracy poly silicon resistor and five layer metals will be used in implementation. The greater 1 million-gate backend CMOS integration capability enables a low power, high performance "ADC-system-on-a-chip". Once the DS ADC is accomplished, multiple optimized DS ADCs are integrated together with ultra-high-speed sample-and-hold circuits and multiplexers to perform data conversion at tens G Hz. The integrated circuit will be illustrated by SPICE and final tuning of the circuit components is necessary to avoid the parasitic capacitance and resistance after wiring. Trident proposes to develop a low cost, flexible, and high performance ADC for attachment to the digital array radar system. The successful completion of this project will provide an ADC to increase the accuracy of high dynamic range digital waveform synthesizer and beam forming. In addition, this technology can be successfully transitioned to commercial applications and embedded into the entertainment system such as HDTV and provide a low cost and easy-maintenance environment.