DoD STTR Program Phase I Selections for FY02

Army Selections

Navy Selections

Air Force Selections

DARPA Selections

MDA Selections


---------- AF ----------

ADVANCED ACOUSTIC CONCEPTS, INC.
200 13th Avenue
Ronkonkoma, NY 11779-6820
(631) 467-7800

PI: Dr. John Pinezich
(631) 467-7800
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0042
CORNELL LAB OF ORNITHOLOGY
159 Sapsucker Woods Rd.
Ithaca, NY 14850
(607) 254-3843

ID#: F023-0161
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-009       Awarded: 09JUL02
Title: Automated Acoustic Monitoring of Birdstrike Hazards
Abstract:   Bird strikes and ingestion of birds into engines pose serious threats to aircraft during takeoff and landing operations at many air bases. AAC and Cornell propose to mitigate these threats by developing an acoustic bird monitoring system that provides both real-time snapshots and historical summaries of bird flight activity. This system would utilize a low cost, high gain array in association with acoustic Detection, Classification, and Localization (DCL) techniques designed to monitor bird vocalizations in potentially noisy environments. The distribution (map coordinates and altitude) and body masses of birds would be would be measured, and predictive models would be developed that relate these data to diurnal, seasonal, and meteorological factors. Alerts will be generated to help aircraft avoid problematic areas that are known or predicted to contain a critical mass of birds. This process will be achieved with a modest number of sensors and sensor sites, and must provide a high probability of detection while generating a very small number of false alarms. Acoustic DCL of birds at useful distances will be facilitated by the use of a multi-element Sparsely Populated Volumetric Array (SPVA). The SPVA uses interferometric processing to provide spatial gain, source localization, and cancellation of interfering sources. Underwater SPVA arrays are currently being deployed on Navy platforms for use in undersea warfare and marine mammal detection applications. Each SPVA system provides an accurate line of bearing. The intersection of lines of bearing from two or more SPVA systems can be used to map the bird's location in map coordinates and altitude. SPVA's can adaptively cancel high intensity noise sources, such as nearby aircraft or ground equipment, which might otherwise mask the bird signals of interest. Outputs of the SPVA will be fed to a two sets of detectors that will estimate signal parameters for several distinct classes of detected bird vocalizations and will identify manmade airport noises, including those from engines, spinning propellers and other air base noise sources. Outputs from both sets of detectors will feed a classifier which will make a determination as to whether a detected signal is a bird vocalization, and if so, estimate the location and identity of the bird. Alerts would be generated based on the aggregate distributions of bird biomass relative to runways and low altitude flight paths. This Automated Acoustic Monitoring of Birdstrike Hazard team will design and build a system to detect and localize bird activity to effectively mitigate harmful effects caused to military and commercial aircraft. The harmful effects to commercial aircraft have increased dramatically and will continue to increase as commercial air flights increase. It the intent of Advanced Acoustic Concept and Cornell to develop and commercially market an Automated Acoustic system which will be utilized within the airline industry safety program throughout the world.

AEROPATH
2420 Story Ave
La Habra, CA 90631
(562) 691-4707

PI: Mr. Mark Milam
(562) 691-4707
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0071
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
CDS 107-81, 1200 E. California Blvd.
Pasadena, CA 91125
(626) 395-6460

ID#: F023-0075
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 22AUG02
Title: Real-Time Trajectory Generation for an Autonomous Aero Utility Vehicle with Constraints
Abstract:   This proposal is focused on enhancing and applying the trajectory generation algorithms originally developed at Caltech to a small free-flight unmanned Aero Utility Vehicle (AUV) that is under development with private funding. Our trajectory generation algorithms are based on a combination of nonlinear and optimal control theory, spline theory, and sequential quadratic programming. Furthermore, the algorithms have been successfully demonstrated on a tethered nonlinear flight control experiment at Caltech demonstrating the benefits of autonomous, real-time, nonlinear trajectory generation. We propose evaluating our algorithms with a simulation of the AUV under a variety of nonlinear trajectory generation and mission requirements. The proposed work would also provide the trajectory generation algorithms to our AUV concept for a hardware demonstration in Phase II. The fast, real-time trajectory generation algorithms and software under development by our team will enable future unmanned vehicles with futuristic capabilities. A global benefit of this proposal would be to enable future unmanned aircraft with autonomous proximity operation, autonomous border control, and strike aircraft like capabilities. This technology would empower exploration vehicles for oil companies and scientists as well as a new generation of search and rescue vehicles that can operate in extreme conditions. Ultimately, we see the potential to create the next revolution in human transportation with our technology.

AGILTRON CORP.
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
(781) 933-0513

PI: Dr. Lei Zhang
(781) 933-0513
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0060
UNIV. OF NEW ORLEANS
AMRI, University of New Orleans
New Orleans, LA 70148
(504) 280-6840

ID#: F023-0131
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Molecular Design of Particle Surfaces
Abstract:   Nanoparticles are attracting increasing attention because of their unique properties. Applications based on particles down to nanometer size range are growing rapidly. The ability to coat high performance layers on nanoparticles would offer unsurpassed functionality and further broaden the range of technological opportunities. This proposal addresses a sequential chemical synthesis technique that allows the fabrication of advanced nanoparticles consisting of oxide or non-oxide inorganic core surrounded by an inorganic shell of different materials with well controlled layer thickness and chemical/physical properties. This novel method allows not only the fabrication of state-of-the-art metallic particles but also the synthesis of compound ferrites and magnetic/semiconductor composite nanoparticles that are interesting for high-frequency applications. In the Phase I period, we will demonstrate magnetic nanomaterials coated with an atomic-layer-by-layer controlled protecting materials. The fabrication of core-shell structured nanoparticles by using reverse microemulsion and micelle expansion two-step processes will also be developed in this program. Success in the Phase I effort will identify a viable manufacturing route for advanced atomic-layer-layer coated nanoparticles. This technology has a wide range of "dual use" applications, from various DoD's applications to commercial applications.

ALD NANOSOLUTIONS, INC.
11711 Chase Ct
Westminster, CO 80020
(617) 480-6947

PI: Dr. Karen Buechler
(303) 460-9865
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0058
UNIV. OF COLORADO
The Regents of the University, of Colorado, 572 UCB
Boulder, CO 80309-0572
(303) 492-2695

ID#: F023-0098
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 29JUL02
Title: Atomic Layer Deposition of Oxidizer Coatings on Aluminum Nanoparticles to Fabricate Superthermite Explosives
Abstract:   Energetic thermite composites are composed of a metal fuel (e.g. Al) and an oxidizer (e.g. Fe2O3). Thermite composites have a much higher reaction enthalpy per cm3 than conventional explosives such as TNT. However, current thermite composites do not yield a higher reactive power because of the large diffusion distance between the metal fuel and oxidizer in thermite powders. To minimize the diffusion distance, the oxidizer can be deposited directly on aluminum nanoparticles. This oxidizer-coated "all-in-one" superthermite explosive particle represents the ultimate in reactive power from a nanoscale energetic material. ALD NanoSolutions, Inc. proposes to deposit oxidizers on aluminum nanoparticles using atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods. The ALD surface chemistry and thin film growth will be investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibrational spectroscopy. The reaction conditions determined from the FTIR studies will then be utilized to coat large quantities of aluminum nanoparticles in a fluidized particle bed ALD reactor. The aluminum nanoparticles will be obtained from Technanogy in Irvine, California. The oxidizer-coated superthermite particles will be tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results of this Phase I work should demonstrate the development of superthermite particles as a superior explosive material. ALD NanoSolutions, Inc. owns options for exclusively utilizing and licensing the intellectual property developed over the last five years by co-founders Profs. George and Weimer at the University of Colorado. The company was founded to develop commercial markets for this ALD technology. One of the largest potential markets under consideration is the coating of fine powders with ultrathin and conformal films. Depositing oxidizers directly on aluminum nanoparticles to fabricate superthermite explosive particles is an excellent ALD application. These "all-in-one" superthermite particles are anticipated to display much higher reactive powers than conventional explosives. Tests of nanoscale powders of Al and MoO3 with particle sizes from 200-500 Ć have been shown to react more than 1000 times faster than conventional powdered thermites. Even higher reaction rates are expected for the "all-in-one" superthermite particles with the oxidizer deposited directly on the aluminum nanoparticle. Consequently, these superthermite particles may replace conventional organic explosives such as TNT in a variety of applications. These superthermite explosive particles may find use in the military as improved munitions and in the civilian sector as better blasting agents.

APPLIED NANOTECHNOLOGIES, INC.
308 West Rosemary Street, Suite 209
Chapel Hill, NC 27516
(919) 928-8009

PI: Dr. Bo Gao
(919) 928-8009
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0093
UNIV. OF NORTH CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL
Applied and Materials Sci., Univ. of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, NC 27599
(919) 962-3297

ID#: F023-0171
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 23AUG02
Title: Carbon Nanotube Based Electric Propulsion Thrusters For Space applications
Abstract:   Small efficient cathodes have many applications in miniature space propulsion. Current thermionic emission cathodes have many drawbacks. These include low efficiency, difficulty of control and pulsation, and lack of miniaturization. ANI has developed proprietary thin film nanotube technologies that enable construction of cold cathodes with high current density, high stability, and rapid pulsation rate. Alkali metals have been shown to intercalate into nanotubes. Due to the extreme high enhancement (>1000 times) of the electric field Cs ions near the nanotube ends may be field emitted when the intercalated materials is positively biased, thus providing a new machnism for thrust generation in field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) systems. We propose to combine the two new technologies proposed here to build an all solid state FEEP micro thruster. In phase I we will: a) build a prototype carbon nanotube cold cathode with the emission current up to 1A, test the stability and durability under various vacuum and gas environments; b) demonstrate the feasibility of the field emitting Cs ions from Cs intercalated carbon nanotube materials and produce a design of the new FEEP thruster. In phase II we will build a prototype FEEL micro thruster using nanotube based materials. The new generation of field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) micro thruster developed in this STTR will have a wide range of applications inclduing low orbit telecommunication satellites, long journey space craft, large area flat panel display, and high power microwave amplifier devices for telecommunication.

ASI TECHNOLOGY CORP.
980 American Pacific Drive, Suite 111
Henderson, NV 89014
(702) 734-1888

PI: Dr. Theodore Anderson
(702) 734-1888
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0052
EASTERN VIRGINIA MEDICAL SCHOOL
Department of Pediatrics, 855 W. Brambleton Ave.
Norfolk, VA 23510
(757) 668-6465

ID#: F023-0084
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-013       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Biological Decontamination for Forward-Deployed Airbase Using Low Temperature Air Plasmas
Abstract:   ASI's plasma consultant, Igor Alexeff, PhD, has invented, tested and patented an atmospheric pressure, dc of 60 Hz AC discharge, that has been operated in air, helium, argon and nitrogen. The apparatus has in laboratory testing successfully destroyed microorganisms. The apparatus does not require a complicated, fragile RF power supply for operation. We propose it to be developed into equipment for decontamination of bioterror materials in the field. The device works well with a simple 60 Hz. Neon transformer. The electrodes are made of unglazed ceramic. The ion density has been measured to be 10 exp 12 per cc. Power consumption used was 300 watts to create several liters of helium plasma. In order to carry out the proposed Air Force program of identifying and evaluating the biologically active species present in the discharge, we propose employing new sensors that can unambiguously detect and measure the concentration of O2, NO and NO2, ultraviolet light, charged ions, and metastable atoms. In addition, we will evaluate methods of producing each species separately. The isolation of each species will be used in the biological studies planned in Phase II to identify which species is effective in biological decontamination. The methodology and apparatus proposed by ASI could revolutionize sterilization techniques throughout the civilian and military communities, if successfully commercialized. The commercial market for safer atmospheric plasma decontamination is quite large. Sepsis is the major post-operative cause of death in American hospitals.

ATMOSPHERIC GLOW TECHNOLOGIES
2342 Stock Creek Blvd
Rockford, TN 37853-3044
(865) 573-7808

PI: Kimberly Kelly-Wintenberg
(865) 573-7808
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0049
UNIV. OF TENNESSEE
Office of Research
Knoxville, TN 37996
(865) 974-4446

ID#: F023-0128
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-013       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Identification of the Species Responsible for Biological Inactivation in the OAUGDP
Abstract:   Atmospheric Glow Technologies (AGT) proposes to initiate studies to elucidate the mechanism of inactivation of microorganisms using atmospheric plasma. In this Phase I work effort, AGT will identify and quantify the active species generated by the APD-210 (Atmospheric Plasma Decon-210). The APD-210 has been independently shown to inactivate a number of different microorganisms including anthrax by convecting active species to the downstream sample. AGT will use a sophisticated Hiden Analytical HPR-60 Mass Spectrometer with a triple filtered quadrupole, a molecular beam inlet, and a selectable electron energy source. Futhermore, the photon emissions will be measured using a UV/Vis Spectrometer. Using the spectra obtained from within the plasma and in the plasma exhaust, identification and concentration of the active species will be determined. AGT's versatile Atmospheric Plasma Decontamination System will initally be marketed to the military as a means to rapidly decontaminate large frame aircraft and assoicated cargo. To date, there are 588 fixed military facilities; of these, 250 are considered major installations. Recent terrorist events have demonstrated the vulnerability of the United States to biological and chemical threats. It is evident that an effective response to any large scale attack will mandate the rapid mobilization of emergency responders particularly at the local level. Consequently, a secondary market will be the First Response Teams located throughout the United States directed to implement immediate countermeasures in the event of terrorist attacks. Upon further development and improvements in manufacturing approach, the APD System will be marketed industrially, where it will have applications in cleaning chemical spills as well as cleaning industrial equipment against biological contaminants. Specific markets may include hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, and food processing plants.

CATAWBA RESOURCES
4011 Klein Avenue, PO BOX 2144
Stow, OH 44224
(330) 686-8916

PI: Mr. Douglas Comrie
(330) 686-8916
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0101
UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
1304 W Green Street
Urbana, IL 61801
(217) 333-5258

ID#: F023-0027
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-010       Awarded: 09SEP02
Title: Geopolymers for Structural Ceramic Applications
Abstract:   Ceramic polymers or "geopolymers" are amorphous to semi-crystalline three dimensional alumino-silicate materials resulting from geochemistry. "Geopolymerisation" is the chemical reaction between various aluminosilicate oxides (Al+3 in Iv, V, or Vi fold coordination) with silicates under highly alkaline conditions, yielding polymeric Si-O-Al-O bonds (HUA & VanDeventer 1999). Geopolymers form co-polymerisation of individual alumino and silicate species, which originate from materials containing host sources of either silicon, aluminum or combinations of the foregoing. In order to form geopolymer chains, rings or complete tetrahedral, positive ions such as K, Na, Ca, Ba, Nhy, H30 (etc) must be present in the framework in order to balance the negative charge of Al. Differing chain and ring structures form at different Si: Al ratios. Polymeric structures are generally formed when the Si:Al ratio is greater than 3. From this polysilicate chains can form 3-dimensional cross-linked structures. It is this cross-linking phenomenon which facilitates the ability to enhance the standard characteristics of traditional ceramics yielding ceramic polymers (geopolymers)which are characterized by: high compressive strengths, higher tensile strengths, flexibility, ductility and wear harden ability, high surface hardness and the ability to adhere to metals. Programs such as STTR will aid the company in maintaining a technologic lead in a world wide emerging technology-ceramic polymers. Through it's association with Tundra-Geo-Technologies Ltd.; Catawba has the ability to attract capital for further future development. In this Phase I program, Catawba is contributing all chemicals necessary in this program at no cost to the program.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
(801) 978-2114

PI: Dr. Balakrishnan G. Nair
(801) 956-1000
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0075
UNIV. OF WISCONSIN-MADISON
750 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-0253

ID#: F023-0029
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-010       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Functional Geopolymer Composites for Structural Ceramic Applications
Abstract:   Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are attractive candidate materials for structural components in military/commercial airframe or engine/turbine components due to their high-temperature mechanical properties. However, current CMCs have two major limitations that have prevented replacement of current materials, namely (1) very high processing/materials costs and (2) insufficient corrosion resistance under hydrothermal oxidizing conditions. Geopolymers, in which amorphous/semi-crystalline aluminosilicates are dissolved into an inviscid, highly concentrated alkaline solution, offer an approach for the development of easily and cost-effectively processed matrix materials for alumina fiber composites. This Phase I STTR proposal is targeted at demonstrating the feasibility of developing a geopolymer-based CMC with appropriate high-temperature performance. Our approach will include chemical design (i.e., aluminosilicate phase selection and solid-solution composition) and thermal processing of geopolymers so as to create, after firing, CMCs at chemical equilibrium ("petromimetics") that, too, have more refractory behavior than current geopolymer systems. What is envisioned is a hybridization of present glass-ceramic and geopolymer processing. The work will establish a chemical processing and design/microstructure/property database for this relatively new class of materials, which will enable functional CMC design. Specifically, the role of a highly doped and reactive intermediate gel phase on properties of the final geopolymer will be studied. Cost-effective processing routes for CMCs with adequate high-temperature mechanical properties are attractive to a variety of applications where high-temperature mechanical performance is required. The use of CMCs in aircraft or stationary engines and turbines have the potential to raise operating temperatures which will result in a significant step up in efficiency than is possible through marginal improvements using currently used materials such as nickel-based superalloys. Further, if the processing route is sufficiently low-cost, the use of ceramic composites will become commercially feasible even for applications for which they are currently considered unrealistic, such as fire-resistant building materials. A step up in strength, will allow for thinner, lighter building materials, which will substantially reduce raw-material and transportation costs. Therefore, the proposed project will result in the development of an enabling technology which has potential for application in a wide range of large, commercially attractive markets.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
(256) 726-4800

PI: Dr. Samuel A. Lowry
(256) 726-4800
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0081
UNIV. OF MICHIGAN
1070 Wolverine Tower
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 936-1289

ID#: F023-0083
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: CONTROL OF SEMICONDUCTOR EPITAXY BY APPLICATION OF AN EXTERNAL FIELD
Abstract:   The quality of semiconductor thin-film grown by vapor phase epitaxy is strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The diffusion of adatoms on the flat surface is largely responsible for the quality of the film. The diffusion rate is directly related to the bond energy of adatoms. Recent experiments have demonstrated that application of an external field can lead to a change in the microstructure of the film. Properly controlled, this phenomenon could be used to improve the quality of the film. However, a fundamental understanding of the influence of the field is first necessary to achieve this improvement. The goal of the proposed work is, therefore, to establish a precise correlation between the quality of the film and the strength and orientation of the external field. First-principle ab initio quantum chemistry and Kinetic Lattice Monte Carlo (KLMC) methods will be used to determine this correlation. Bond energies and activation barriers will be calculated by an ab initio method and KLMC calculations will be performed to obtain microstructures of the film. Michigan State University will provide expertise in KLMC calculations as well as experimental validation. This technology will be incorporate into CFDRC's code CFD-FILM for modeling surface morphology in order to enable development and transfer this technology to the semiconductor industry. Successful completion of the proposed project will provide the semiconductor and opto-electronic industry with the necessary tools to produce thin films with significantly reduced defects. This will lead to improved quality electronic devices such as: LED's, Laser diodes, VCSELs, pHEMTs, HBTs, and FETs. These devices are used in commercially and militarily important applications such as displays, data storage/retrieval, sensors, electronics, and communications.

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Avenue
Northridge, CA 91324
(818) 727-9786

PI: Dr. Yuhong Huang
(818) 727-9786
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0053
UNIV. OF CINCINNATI
Department of MSE
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012
(513) 556-2870

ID#: F023-0114
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: In-Situ Formation of Dense Atomic Layer Coated Nano Particle
Abstract:   This proposed research is to develop an in-situ formation of nanoparticles coated with a atomic layer controlled coating. A novel superparamagnetic particles with orders of higher magnetic moment than current market available magnetic particles and beads will be developed for labeling used in biology and biotechnology, especially for high sensitive portable biosensor. The long-term goal of proposed research is for Chemat to become a supplier of high throughput magnetic particles and beads for biology and biotechnology applications, especially for highly sensitive portable magneto-immunosensors. In Phase I and II research, Chemat focuses on developing stabilizer polymer coated cobalt nanoparticles with very low volume of polymer and excellent stability and protectivity via a simple plasma surface treatment technology. Scale-up and production development will conduct in Phase II. Success of this proposed research and development will be a big impact on magnetic particle and beads market and it will greatly accelerate development of highly sensitive magneto-portable immunosensors. The process can be used for fabrication of polymer coated metal nano-particles. The applications include magnetic labeling, magnetic separation of protein and other bimolecular, magnetic imaging, etc.

CHRONOCHROME, INC.
3677 Johnson Road
Bozeman, MT 59718-0000
(406) 586-5571

PI: Dr. Tiejun Chang
(406) 586-5571
Contract #: F49620-03-C-0002
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
Research & Sponsored Programs, 633 Clark Street
Evanston, IL 60208
(847) 491-3003

ID#: F023-0110
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 01OCT02
Title: Nanophotonic Modulator using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Abstract:   The proposed high bandwidth electro-optic modulator uses an optical waveguide microcavity to enhance the interaction of optical fields with a material that exhibits coherent quantum attributes. The nonlinear characteristic of the light - matter coupling in concert with the resonance requirements of the microcavity provide a sensitive modulation mechanism. In the device the combination of nanophotonic and quantum interference effects can respond to low signal levels at high bandwidth. Electro-optic modulators face stringent emerging specifications to operate at higher bandwidth in response to lower drive signals as electronic processors and data communication link characteristics improve. Applications exist in chip-to-chip data transfer and in multiplexed communication network routing. A specific need has been identified to transfer RSFQ-level signals from cryogenic electronics to an optical carrier.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917-2108
(215) 249-9780

PI: Mr. Neeraj Sinha
(215) 249-9780
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0059
U.MISS/NAT'L CNTR. FOR PHYS. ACOUST
1 Coliseum Drive
University, MS 38677
(662) 915-5630

ID#: F023-0108
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 13AUG02
Title: Mitigation of Aero-Optic Distortions by Active Flow Control
Abstract:   Laser beam interactions with free shear turbulent structures in the context of a recessed cavity window will be investigated. The proposed program will investigate the aero-optic degradation of a laser beam, housed within the cavity, and its remediation using high frequency flow control. Beam wander and displacement statistics, obtained via a Position Sensitive Detector (PSD), will be complemented by non-intrusive flowfield measurements using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Laser Speckle for density fluctuations, Schlieren, etc. Using a previously generated very high-resolution database of high quality, temporal Large Eddy Simulation data, turbulent length-scales, phase-velocity, turbulent kinetic energy spectrum, cross-correlations, etc. will be extracted for the cavity shear layer. Mechanisms underlying effectiveness of high frequency control will be identified and correlated with growth of vortical, large-scale structures. Analytical predictions of beam displacement will be performed and compared with measurements. A Low Dimensional Model, based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), will be used to examine alternate time-dependent strategies for control of turbulent structures in the cavity flowfield. Ascertaining the ability of flow control to manipulate laser/turbulence interactions, thereby reducing the demand upon any adaptive-optics system, is the underlying goal of the proposed STTR effort. The proposed STTR research will lead to a high frequency actuator design concept, which can be directly transitioned to the JSF& UCAV programs. Beyond DE weapons, the flow control technology for reduction of optical degradation by turbulence is of great relevance for reduction of bore-sight-error (BSE) for a tracking system or blur elimination for an imaging system. From the perspective of flow control, the high frequency actuator is closely related to current research in aircraft exhaust noise reduction, exhaust plume infra-red (IR) signature control and weapons bay dynamic load attenuation.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1505 Coal Creek Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
(303) 664-0394

PI: Dr. Naseem A. Munshi
(303) 664-0394
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0073
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, 2131 Sheridan Road
Evanston, IL 60208-2900
(847) 491-5633

ID#: F023-0069
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-011       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Laminated, Electroformed Shape Memory Composite Technology for Thin, Lightweight Space and Ground-Based Deployable Mirrors
Abstract:   Composite Technology Development, Inc. and Northwestern University propose to develop the smart materials technology, manufacturing processes and engineering methods that will enable the design and fabrication of reliable, robust and economical thin, lightweight deployable composite mirrors for space-based and ground-based applications. The Phase I program will address key feasibility demonstrations of this technology. Thin, lightweight, deployable composite mirrors may provide large savings in payload mass for a variety of Air Force, DoD, scientific and commercial applications, leading to tremendous launch cost savings. Thin, lightweight, optical-quality deployable mirrors constructed of smart materials will have wide applicability for large space-based and ground based missions.

DISPLAYTECH, INC.
2602 Clover Basin Drive
Longmont, CO 80503-7603
(303) 772-2191

PI: Michael J. O'Callaghan
(303) 774-2272
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0102
UNIV. OF COLORADO
Dept. of Physics, Campus Box 390
Boulder, CO 80309-0390
(303) 492-6420

ID#: F023-0186
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 11SEP02
Title: Ferroelectric liquid crystal integrated nanophotonics
Abstract:   Specially engineered self-assembling ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLCs) structures are capable of photonic bandgap functions, light emission, GHz electro-optic modulation, and second harmonic generation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the ability to integrate FLCs with silicon integrated circuits for both experimental applications (e.g. smart pixels, optical processing) and commercial applications (we sell a million microdisplays per year for consumer products). We've also demonstrated waveguide devices incorporating FLCs. Because of their unique combination of electro-optic properties and processability, FLCs are potentially the foundation of an important new integrated nanophotonics technology. We propose to test and demonstrate the nanophotonic properties and capabilities of a new generation of experimental FLCs, and to develop preliminary single chip device architectures. Specifically, we aim to simultaneously demonstrate in combination an FLC's photonic bandgap properties (to make a distributed resonator), its electro-optic coefficients (EO modulation and second harmonic generation), and light emission (dye-doped FLC) by showing lasing with simultaneous SHG. The laser's output beam should be steerable by electrically manipulating the FLC's photonic bandgap structure. Benefits of the proposed work include the evaluation of electro-optic properties of new FLCs and a feasibility demonstration of novel FLC nanophotonic functions. Potential commercial applications in telecommunications include high-speed optical modulation (e.g. 40GHz), integrated laser light sources, and electrically tunable photonic bandgap functions.

EE SOLUTIONS, LLC
102 East Main Street, Suite 204
Newark, DE 19711
(302) 456-9003

PI: Mr. Gregory Behrmann
(302) 456-9003
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0092
UNIV. OF DELAWARE
140 Evans Hall, Dept. Electrical Engineering
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 831-8170

ID#: F023-0133
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 21AUG02
Title: Nanophotonics
Abstract:   Advances in integrated circuit manufacturing techniques have allowed for the miniaturization of devices on rapidly decreasing scales. In the last decade, we have witnessed the emergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) from the laboratory to a commercially viable industry that is estimated to reach $15 billion in sales by 2004.1 As MEMS technology has transferred to industry and the marketplace, research organizations have continued to pursue small-scale fabrication and have advanced to the submircon or nano regime. At these dimensions, where feature sizes are less than the wavelength of light, it is possible to produce optical materials and devices that allow for unique photonic control and manipulation. As such a new class of optical devices based on submicron periodic structures has emerged and is referred to as photonic crystals (PhC) or photonic band gap devices (PBGs). Preliminary research indicates that these devices will be capable of performing a wide variety of functions.2 These include but are not limited to switching, splitting, modulation, and filtering. PBGs can be integrated into small packages making them desirable for commercial applications such as optical interconnects and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), as well as military and government applications including quiet communications, sensors, and engineered coatings. To fully realize the potential of PBG devices, there are several major research and development challenges that must be addressed. In fact, a recent report on the state of photonic integrated circuits suggests that the current obstacles to commercialization are software simulation, yields, materials, and test equipment.3 We agree and believe that we have assembled a team with the background and expertise to address these obstacles and bring this technology to market.

ERC, INC.
555 Sparkman Drive, Executive Plaza, Suite 1622
Huntsville, AL 35816
(256) 430-3080

PI: Dr. Douglas VanGilder
(661) 275-5412
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0065
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Dept of EE/Electrophysics, PHE 604
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0271
(213) 740-4396

ID#: F023-0112
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 19AUG02
Title: A New Electric Propulsion Concept Based on Pseudospark Discharges
Abstract:   It is proposed to develop a space propulsion concept based on the physics of pseudospark discharges. The device will be based on a multi-gap pseudospark device with a closed anode. The pseudospark is characterized by a transient phase, where high-intensity are created, and a "super-dense" glow discharge phase when the steady state is achieved. This phase produces very high plasma densities with minimal electrode erosion. In pulsed operation, a transient charged plasma can be used to generate a high density ion beam, which can then be accelerated to higher velocities. The physics of the concept will be investigated in detail to evaluate its efficiency for space propulsion, and scaling properties for micro-propulsion applications. The concept does not use an applied magnetic field and can therefore be very compact; micro-scale effects at the electrode surface may also facilitate the design of micro-thrusters for nano-satellites. Two operational modes will be considered; a steady-state operation, using the high-density plasma of the super-dense glow phase, and a pulsed operation, using the transient formation of a space-charged plasma for ion beam generation. The scaling properties will be determined through numerical simulations, and preliminary designs of a candidate propulsion system and an experiment will be accomplished. The proposed pseudospark-based propulsion system can be designed on various scales or assembled as an array of micro-devices, if it can be successfully scaled. This extends the range of applicability from nano-satellites to conventional satellites, and widens the commercial market for the technology. The commercial applications are therefore primarily aimed at satellite propulsion and station-keeping. Furthermore, the technology can be generalized to other applications, such as power processing and material fabrication and treatment, for which the pseudospark is currently being developed.

GEOPHEX LTD.
605 Mercury Street
Raleigh, NC 27603-2343
(919) 839-8515

PI: Dr. I.J. Won
(919) 839-8515
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0096
UNIV. OF OKLAHOMA
School of Geophysics
Norman, OK 73019-0628
(405) 325-1563

ID#: F023-0090
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 29AUG02
Title: Time-Exposure Acoustics for Imaging Underground Structures
Abstract:   We propose to develop a new technique for imaging underground facilities based on the passive monitoring of acoustic emissions from both stationary and moving equipment within such facilities. It is well known that all mechanical devices, such as motors, gears, etc, emit acoustic signals. It is possible to identify an acoustic source based on its noise spectrum. In addition, by monitoring the acoustic emission from a particular source at several receptors, it is possible to quantify the source location. Passive "listening" has been considered and employed in the past to detect underground structures based upon noise emitted from within. The fundamental difference in our approach is that we rigorously considered the inverse source problem subject only to the assumption that the noise source is localized. Rather than using time delays across a sensor array to "triangulate" on the source, our method, known as time-exposure acoustics (TEA), coherently sums the data receiver over an array of sensors and back-propagates it into the host geologic formation. This procedure yields an image of the source that is similar to the image formation process used in reflection seismic exploration. The mostly commonly used techniques for the detection and imaging of underground facilities are active wave-based methods. For example, seismic reflection can to image an underground feature from the character of the recorded reflected wave that results from an applied wave at the ground surface. There are similar methods that exploit the transmission of waves. The proposed passive method has several advantages of active methods. First, the method does not require active sources that may be precluded in hostile areas. Second, the proposed TEA approach can easily accommodate a random distribution of sensors such as those deployed by an air drop. Finally, TEA can operate unattended and in real time. The proposed method has many geophysical application in exploring geologic resources.

GUIDED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1453
McDonough, GA 30253-1453
(770) 898-9100

PI: Dr. J. Eric Corban
(770) 898-9100
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0085
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Office of Sponsored Programs, Industry Contracting Office
Atlanta, GA 30332-0420
(404) 894-6932

ID#: F023-0214
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 13AUG02
Title: On-Line Trajectory Optimization for Autonomous Air Vehicles
Abstract:   Successful operation of next-generation unmanned air vehicles will demand a high level of autonomy. Autonomous low-level operation in a high-threat environment dictates a need for on-board, robust, reliable and efficient trajectory optimization. The proposed effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative combination of traditional analytical and numerical solution procedures to produce efficient, robust and reliable means for nonlinear flight path optimization in the presence of time-varying obstacles and threats. The solution procedure exploits the natural time-scale separation that exists in the aircraft dynamics using singular perturbation theory. A reduced order problem involving only the kinematics of the position subspace will be treated numerically. The nonlinear aircraft dynamics will be treated analytically in a boundary layer analysis that results in an optimal feedback guidance solution. The developed algorithms will be coupled with a neural network adaptive autopilot and integrated in an existing unmanned testbed. Phase I will produce a demonstration of developed algorithm performance in near-real-time flight simulation. Phase II will expand the scope of mission scenarios that can be addressed, will produce flight code validated in real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation, and culminate in close-range flight demonstration of the developed technology on a fixed-wing unmanned aircraft testbed. It is anticipated that the subject technology will find application in the wide variety of unmanned flight systems now under development. The technology is enabling for next-generation unmanned Department of Defense flight and weapon systems that will be required to operate autonomously at low levels in a high-threat environment. The technology can also be applied to civil and commercial unmanned systems operating in an urban setting, and can potentially be used with other evolving technologies to provide a much needed see-and-avoid capability for all unmanned flight systems.

HEXATECH
5300 Mandrake Ct.
Raleigh, NC 27613
(919) 515-6178

PI: Dr. Ramon Collazo
(919) 515-7083
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0097
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV.
1001 Capability Dr., RB#1, Box 7919
Raleigh, NC 27695-7919
(919) 515-8637

ID#: F023-0166
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 22AUG02
Title: Development of coherent nanophotonic UV sources
Abstract:   It has been shown theoretically and experimentally, that one-dimensional photonic bandgap (1DPBG) structures enhance nonlinear effects for one to three orders of magnitude. By exploiting these effects, one can achieve efficient frequency conversion (second and third harmonic generation, and parametric) in materials with modest nonlinear optical properties and in structures with a total path length on the order of micrometers. By the integration of 1DPBG structures with an existing visible laser diode, one can achieve bright, coherent sources of deep UV light, limited only by the absorption edge of materials used in these structures. HexaTech, Inc., and NCSU will combine their expertise in wide bandgap nitrides and photonics to develop a process for fabrication of nanometer scale 1DPBG structures based on AlN. AlN has a bandgap of 6.28 eV and sufficiently large NLO coefficients (d15 = 4 pm/V, d33 = 5 pm/V) to meet all criteria for successful operation down to 200 nm in wavelength. It is important to note that this wavelength limit is much lower than the theoretical limit for classical AlxGa1-xN laser structures. This approach also bypasses the issue of doping of alloys with high Al content, which remains a serious challenge for classical devices. Intense UV light sources based on efficient frequency conversion in the proposed one-dimensional photonic bandgap structures will find immediate applications ranging from multipurpose sensors of chemical agents and moieties of biological origin in the air above a terrestrial battlefield to optical communications and data processing in space.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
(858) 535-9680

PI: Dr. Michael Larsen
(858) 373-2754
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0094
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV.
ASB-376, Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602
(801) 422-6177

ID#: F023-0028
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Fast, Robust Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Nonlinear Flight Systems
Abstract:   Our approach is to decompose the trajectory generation problem into three distinct, but tightly coupled pieces: waypoint path planning (WPP), dynamic trajectory smoothing (DTS), and adaptive trajectory tracking (ATT). The WPP plans paths at a high level without regard for the dynamic constraints of the vehicle. This affords a significant reduction in the search space, enabling the generation of extremely complicated paths that account for pop-up threats and dynamically changing threats. The essential idea of the DTS is to give the trajectory generator a similar mathematical structure as the physical vehicle. The DTS uses a simple, but novel algorithm to generate smoothed trajectories in real-time without performing any on-line optimization. The trajectories that are generated by the DTS have the same path length as the waypoint path generated by the WPP and also minimize the deviation from the waypoint path. The third step of our approach uses adaptive backstepping to transform the trajectory generated by the DTS to a feasible trajectory that can be followed by an autopilot with appropriate velocity, altitude and heading commands. The proposed approach is computationally efficient: it can handle hundreds of threats, including pop-up threats. It does not require on-line optimization. Is very well suited to applications with timing constraints. Planning can take place at the waypoint level, where it is trivial to calculate path length, and therefore estimated time-of-arrival (ETA). The trajectories can be represented in a compact fashion, in both space and time. In particular, this will allow higher-level task planning algorithms to reason about the feasibility, or desirability of different trajectories.

INNOVALIGHT, INC.
6801 N. 360 Hwy, Building 2; Suite 225
Austin, TX 78731
(512) 795-5835

PI: Mr. Brian Korgel
(512) 471-5633
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0072
UNIV. OF TEXAS
Office of Sponsored Projects, Main Building, Room 303
Austin, TX 78712
(512) 471-6424

ID#: F023-0107
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Atomic-Layer Controlled Coatings on Particles
Abstract:   This STTR focuses on developing new chemistry for coating Group IV nanocrystals primarily to enhance their luminescent properties. Research from the past decade has made it clear that the novel luminescent properties of sub-10nm silicon and germanium nanoparticles are highly sensitive to surface states. For example, surface defects and coatings can either create energetic traps that compromise the luminescent properties and degrade the crystal photochemical stability, or dramatically enhance the photoluminescent and electroluminescent quantum yields. InnovaLight has developed a proprietary in-situ process for synthesizing capped Group IV particles and achieving breakthrough quantum efficiencies and lifetimes. However, realization of these materials in commercial applications requires a better understanding of what is happening both chemically and physically on the surface. This STTR grant will explore the use of various capping agents (both organic and inorganic) to improve the optical and electronic properties of these materials and to gain a better understanding of how reaction conditions affect interfacial bonding. The theoretical quantum efficiency for group IV particles is 100%. Characterizing and controlling the surface states is the key element to realizing efficiencies that approach this number. The commercial application we are most excited about is lighting for the general illumination market. Solid-state lighting is said to be capable of saving $100 billion per year in electricity, and 200 billion tons of carbon emissions per year to create it. This is an enormous gain to society. We have identified numerous other market opportunities for this technology as well, including flat panel displays, specialty lighting, biological sensors, quantum dot lasers, and novel floating gate memory structures. Thus, there is much commercial value to furthering the research on this fundamental science.

INNOVATEK, INC.
350 Hills Street, Suite 104
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-1093

PI: Dr. Trevor Moeller
(509) 375-1093
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0045
OLD DOMINION UNIV RESEARCH FDN
P.O. Box 6369
Norfolk, VA 23508
(757) 683-4293

ID#: F023-0056
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-013       Awarded: 26JUL02
Title: Mechanisms for the Destruction of Biological Surface Contaminants Treated with an Air Plasma
Abstract:   Effective decontamination technology is a national concern for both battlefield and other military applications as well as for terrorist situations. In the event of a bio-agent release, it is imperative that the affected areas are secured and exposed victims, equipment, and environment are decontaminated. Conventional thermal, chemical decontamination, or ultraviolet radiation technologies are not adequate in addressing these concerns. It is well established that atmospheric pressure plasmas effectively sterilize biologically contaminated surfaces. However, the physical mechanisms responsible for the destruction of spores and bacteria are not well understood. The focus of the proposed work is to establish the feasibility of techniques aimed at identifying and prioritizing kill mechanisms of bacteria. We will use diagnostic techniques to characterize an atmospheric air plasma and will conduct plasma decontamination tests of vegetative bacteria and spores, as well as extensive literature reviews of cellular and bacterial destruction mechanisms to accomplish this. The proposed research will ultimately lead to an optimized atmospheric air plasma decontamination system that has minimum power requirements. This development effort will lead to the creation of a device for destroying biological agent and disease organism surface contaminants utilizing a plasma decontamination system that does not harm the surface. The proposed device will be targeted to a wide variety of global scale markets, including civil defense markets and emerging commercial markets such as public health and food safety. Commercial success in meeting these needs depends on the development and demonstration of an inexpensive device that is adaptable to several market niches and uncomplicated from an operator's perspective. To take advantage of market needs, a key component of InnovaTek's business strategy is to work with collaborators to develop a commercially viable prototype using machinable low cost industrial design strategies. InnovaTek is in active discussion with an international company who will become the "launch customer" for our other biosafety and defense products. This same corporation is also considering an equity investment. They recognize the market potential for these technologies and are moving forward at an accelerated pace to complete their review of this overall opportunity. We plan to add this device to our suite of products that include bioaerosol collectors and bio-defense identification technology.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937) 429-4980

PI: Dr. Michael Brown
(937) 252-2706
Contract #: F49620-03-C-0001
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
University of Southern Califor
Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453
(213) 740-7762

ID#: F023-0188
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 01OCT02
Title: Non-Equilibrium Pulsed Plasma Ignitor
Abstract:   The proposed program is directed toward the development of a plasma ignitor to address relight and flame-holding problems experienced by high-altitude aircraft. Conventional spark ignitors are insufficient to overcome these problems that are associated with the reduced temperature and pressure of air-breathing aircraft at high altitude. The proposed ignitor is based on highly non-equilibrium pulsed discharges that initiate low-temperature chemistry which then drives ignition. The proposed Phase I effort combines measurements made in a non-equilibrium, single-component low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon discharge with detailed chemistry modeling to a) characterize the nascent radical pool in the discharge and b) determine the key radical-initiated pre-ignition chemical pathways. This information would permit the "tuning" of the electrical characteristics of the discharge to optimize the ignition capability of the plasma kernel. The Phase II effort would extend this work to heavy-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and mixtures, leading to the design of a prototype plasma ignitor for testing on model combustors. The proposed plasma ignitor will augment or replace conventional spark ignitors in high-altitude aircraft. The plasma ignitor will initiate hydrocarbon ignition and promote flame holding in the reduced temperature and pressure environment that is characteristic of subsonic, high-altitude, air-breathing aircraft engines.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS CO.
PO Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006
(314) 576-1639

PI: Dr. Alan B. Cain
(314) 576-1639
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0051
UNIV. OF NOTRE DAME
Director - Office of Research, 511 Main Bldg.
Notre Dame, IN 46556
(574) 631-3072

ID#: F023-0034
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Aero-Optic Distortion Minimization using Active Flow Control
Abstract:   A system that integrates the use of zero frequency and high frequency flow control is proposed to reduce aero-optic distortions by minimizing large-scale shear layer structures. An important measure of performance for a tactical laser system is the intensity of the beam on a target. The performance of these systems is degraded by index of refraction variations introduced by large-scale flow structures along a beam path. In this investigation, carefully chosen excitation will be used to artificially alter the development of a shear layer, leading to a suppression of large flow structures and systematic improvements to a tactical laser system. Experimental and computational investigation will quantify the effect of forcing on compressible shear layers and provide scaling the results for Mach number and Reynolds number effects. Time resolved wavefront measurements, as well as Schlieren and hot-wire anemometer measurements, will be used to assess the impact of control on the distortion of a laser beam propagating through the shear layer in the compressible regime. Developed capability will enable tactical directed energy weapons, as well as offering new optical communications capabilities for high speed air travel.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
(301) 294-5215

PI: Dr. Chiman Kwan
(301) 294-5238
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0044
CURATORS OF THE UNIV. OF MO
310 Jesse Hall, OSPA
Columbia, MO 65211
(573) 882-7560

ID#: F023-0105
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-009       Awarded: 15JUL02
Title: An Automated Acoustic System to Monitor and Classify Birds
Abstract:   Collisions between aircraft and birds have become an increasing concern for human health and safety. More than four hundred people and over four hundred aircraft have been lost globally. To minimize the number of birdstikes, microphone arrays have been used to monitor birds near the airport or some critical locations in the airspace. However, the range of existing arrays is only limited to a few hundred meters. Moreover, the identification performance in low signal-to-noise environment is not satisfactory. Here Intelligent Automation, Incorporated (IAI) and its subcontractor, Prof. Dominic Ho of the University of Missouri, propose a novel system to improve bird monitoring and recognition system in noisy environments. First, a microphone dish concept is proposed that provides very directional and long range (a few thousand meters) acquisition of bird sounds, can simultaneously pick up and track sound from different directions, and the cost of the dish will be less than $100. Second, an efficient recognition algorithm is proposed which consists of stages of data reduction and feature extraction, and classification using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The overall system is suitable for real-time monitoring and recognition for a large number of birds. The proposed acoustic system involving a novel microphone dish and an efficient recognition system can have many applications, including birdstrike warning system, speech enhancement for aircraft pilots, policemen, firefighters, cellular phone users, etc. It can also be useful as a directional speaker system for underwater communications.

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONSULTING CORP.
5004 NW 60th Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32653
(352) 682-6002

PI: Dr. Louis Cattafesta
(352) 682-6002
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0064
UNIV. OF FLORIDA
231 Aerospace Building, P.O. Box 116250
Gainesville, FL 32611-6250
(362) 392-4943

ID#: F023-0197
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Mitigation of Aero-Optic Distortions by Active Flow Control
Abstract:   The goal of the proposed project is to develop and demonstrate an integrated flow control system to reduce aero-optic distortions via control of large-scale shear layer structures and manipulation of the turbulence spectrum in a compressible shear flow. Density fluctuations in a compressible shear layer can produce time-varying index of refraction across the shear layer. Optical systems that must operate in this aero-optic environment experience various types of degradations in performance due to the refractive index changes associated with these density variations. Recent work suggests that control of the compressible shear layer is possible such that an adaptive aero-optical system may be developed to alleviate many of these problems. Active flow control strategies capable of virtually eliminating the large scale coherent structures in the compressible shear layer are addressed. Phase I will develop prototype actuators and demonstrate their impact on the aero-optic distortions in a small scale experimental test configuration. Phase II will refine the actuation and control strategy. Detailed experimental and computational investigations of the flow phenomena will guide the actuation/control work. Results from this project will improve the performance of airborne optical systems. Non-military applications include optical data links for commercial aircraft. Reduced aero-optical distortions. Improved performance of airborne laser systems and directed energy weapons and optical data links for commercial aircraft. Active suppression of oscillations in aircraft weapons bays.

IONFINITY, LLC
2400 Lincoln Ave.
Altadena, CA 91001
(626) 296-6310

PI: Dr. Carl Kukkonen
(626) 296-6310
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0087
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109-8099
(818) 354-3845

ID#: F023-0196
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 13AUG02
Title: Nano-thrusters for Nano-Satellites
Abstract:   Ionfinity proposes to collaborate with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory ane the Aerospace Corporation to design, develop, and demonstrate an innovative ion NANO-THRUSTER for nano-satellite propulsion. The approach is to use the JPL-invented Soft Ionization Membrane nanostructure to efficiently produce ions which are accelerated to high velocities in an electric field. The micromachined propellant tanks, fuel lines and flow sensors developed at the Aerospace Corporation complete the infrastructure of a micro-propulsion system. The proposed nano-thruster is enabling for new generations of micro and nano-satellites. Near-term commercial applications will use the components of the nano-thruster rather than the nano-thruster itself. The Soft Ionization Membrane ionizes nearly 100% of the sample that passes through it without breaking the sample into fragments ("soft ionization"). The Soft Ionization Membrane is a revolutionary advance in production of ion beams. Its immediate application is in the mass spectrometry market where it enables a 50x increase in sensitivity, a 50x reduction in sizeand 10x reduction in cost. In addition to the current $2B/year market for mass spectrometry instruments, the SIM enables a new generation of sensors for Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) warfare agents and for narcotics and explosives.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540) 953-4274

PI: Mr. Roger Duncan
(540) 557-5893
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0084
UNIV. OF PENNSYLVANIA
3451 Walnut Street, Room P221, Franklin Building
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205
(215) 573-6707

ID#: F023-0068
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 22AUG02
Title: Photonic Circuitry for Integrated Sensing Applications
Abstract:   There is an acute need for the development of high quality, robust, photonic circuitry to serve as an integrating medium for optical networks and to perform basic, on-chip functions such as signal conditioning and signal processing. What is needed are photonic circuits that are small, functional, can be manufactured easily and in great volume, yet not have the limitations inherent in present technology. Luna Innovations proposes to begin filling this void through the development of a practical, robust, nano-scale tunable filter, implemented on a single chip for integrated sensing systems and applications that is compatible with large-scale production. In addition to the potential benefits from its nano-scale size, Luna's novel approach will finally permit the monolithic integration of microelectronic and photonic circuits and will serve as an enabling technology for future ultra-dense photonic circuit networks. In Phase I, Luna Innovations, along with its partner, will produce an integrated nano-scale tunable filter for determination of concept feasibility, while considering the integration of multiple devices onto a single chip to demonstrate dense integration densities. Furthermore, a nanoimprinting process to support large-scale production of these devices will be developed. This innovative concept, once proven, will pave the way for Luna Innovations to develop a whole family of photonic circuitry with the potential for revolutionizing the optical computing endeavor and the integrated sensing industries. Some of the anticipated benefits are smaller physical dimensions, ultra-dense integrated packaging, and reduced manufacturing costs through easily automated, high volume production. The device proposed herein will serve as a vital component in tomorrow's dense integrated sensing networks and the novelty of Luna's approach, representing not an incremental increase over present technology but a true quantum leap, will help drive the industry.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540) 953-4274

PI: Mr. Roger Duncan
(540) 557-5893
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0099
UNIV. OF PENNSYLVANIA
3451 Walnut Street, Room P221, Franklin Building
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205
(215) 573-6707

ID#: F023-0073
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 09SEP02
Title: Photonic Crystal Circuits: Single Chip Implementation of a Sub-Micron Optical Switch for Nanodevice Applications
Abstract:   There is an acute need for the development of high quality, robust, photonic circuits to serve as an integrating medium for optical networks and to perform basic, on-chip functions such as signal conditioning and signal processing. What is needed are nanophotonic devices that are small, functional, can be manufactured easily and in great volume, yet not have the limitations inherent in present technology. Luna Innovations proposes to begin filling this void through the development of a practical, robust, sub-micron photonic switch implemented on a single chip for nanodevice systems and applications that is compatible with large-scale production. In addition to the potential benefits from its nano-scale size, Luna's novel approach will finally permit the monolithic integration of microelectronic and photonic circuits and will serve as an enabling technology for future active and passive nanophotonic components. In Phase I, Luna Innovations, along with its partner, will produce a sub-micron photonic switch for determination of concept feasibility, while considering the integration of multiple devices onto a single chip to demonstrate dense integration densities. Furthermore, a nanoimprinting process to support large-scale production of these devices will be developed. This innovative concept, once proven, will pave the way for Luna Innovations to develop a whole new class of nanophotonic devices with the potential for revolutionizing the optical computing endeavor and the telecom and integrated sensing industries. Some of the anticipated benefits are smaller physical dimensions, ultra-dense integrated packaging, and reduced manufacturing costs through easily automated, high volume production. The device proposed herein will serve as a vital component in tomorrow's dense photonic networks and the novelty of Luna's approach, representing not an incremental increase over present technology but a true quantum leap, will help drive the industry.

LUXTERA, INC.
129 N. Hill Ave., Suite 104
Pasadena, CA 91106-1955
(626) 396-0380

PI: Mr. Cary Gunn
(626) 396-0380
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0077
CALTECH
1200 East California Boulevard, MS 201-15
Pasadena, CA 91125
(626) 395-6357

ID#: F023-0038
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Nanophotonic Integrated Circuits
Abstract:   Recent advances in the microelectronics industry facilitate the manufacturing of structures with lateral dimensions on the order of 100 nm with high placement accuracy. Moreover, emerging material systems, such as silicon on insulator (SOI), have been developed for efficient high-speed electronics. These materials are ideally suited for confinement and manipulation of light at telecommunications wavelengths. Luxtera and the Caltech Nanofabrication Group have developed expertise in integrated nanophotonic structures, such as photonic crystals and laser cavities. We believe that recent advances in design and fabrication have created the unprecedented opportunity to develop optical nanostructures which are monolithically integrated with high-speed digital and analog electronics. We will construct multifunctional nanophotonic devices combining switching, modulation, routing, pulse reshaping and regeneration on a single substrate. Compatibility with standard semiconductor processing techniques will allow us to leverage the infrastructure of the semiconductor industry to develop low cost, light weight, and low power consumption nanophotonic systems. Luxtera is bringing "Moore's Law" economics to the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) components market. The commercialization of nanophotonic integrated circuits will allow us to pioneer the integration of the optical and electronic elements required to build multi-channel DWDM circuits that are fabricated in a standard silicon semiconductor process. This technology brings, for first time, the extraordinary manufacturing economies of microelectronics to the construction of optical telecom systems, providing extraordinary ongoing improvements in size, power, speed and price for virtually all fiber-based applications. Furthermore, because Luxtera's technology is fully compatible with standard semiconductor processing, it will radically reduce the cost of OE and EO transitions, fundamentally changing the cost structure of OEO systems. The extraordinary manufacturing efficiencies of nanophotonics will allow the company to bring cost-effective DWDM solutions to previously unaddressable applications.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520) 574-1980

PI: Lori Bracamonte
(520) 574-1980
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0036
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
1 Bethel Valley Rd
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
(865) 574-0008

ID#: F023-0153
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 22JUL02
Title: High Strength, Oxidation Resistant Carbon/Carbon Composites
Abstract:   Higher strength carbon/carbon (C/C) composites are required if such components are to replace currently used titanium products in the aircraft industry. This Phase I STTR addresses this need with the development of C/C composites with a 3-D fiber architecture and a reinforced carbon matrix. The 3-D preform composites have demonstrated superior compressive and tensile strength in relationship to comparable 2-D and 3-D composites. The strength of the carbon matrix will be enhanced by reinforcing with carbon nanotubes, which are theoretically the strongest known materials. Significant increases in strength have already been demonstrated for a commonly used carbon precursor with only 1 wt% nanotube addition. MER Corporation will perform the development effort to produce high strength C/C composites. ORNL will develop coatings for these composites using their new high-density-infrared, transient-liquid coating process which produces coatings with densities up to 98-100% of theoretical with coating thickness of 10Šm to 2mm. The versatility of this technique will be utilized to produce coatings of varying thickness, followed by oxidation studies to demonstrate the ability of the coating to protect composites for thousands of hours. The program will culminate in the generation of composites with specific mechanical properties which will be selected for identified applications. Higher strength, oxidation resistant C/C composites will be enabling for many applications including airframes, engine components, aircraft brakes, turbine engine flaps, rocket nozzles, re-entry vehicle nose tips, etc.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
(678) 287-2445

PI: Dr. Jud Ready
(678) 287-3969
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0104
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
School of Mat. Sci & Eng
Atlanta, GA 30332-0245
(404) 894-2651

ID#: F023-0151
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 11SEP02
Title: Aluminum Nanopowder Production for Nano-Satellite Propulsion
Abstract:   MicroCoating Technologies, Inc. (MCT), proposes the novel approach of using the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process to create aluminum-based nanopowders for use as a solid fuel for nano-satellite propulsion. The aluminum-based nanopowders will be created through a combination of the CCVD process with an incorporation of a fluidized bed to enable the creation of nano-composite powders with specific functional layers. Through the use of multiple layers, MCT will be able to combine fuel, oxidizer and anti-agglomeration agents within a single multi-layered structure to improve the solid fuel performance. An additional aspect of this research will involve modeling and measurement of the combustion flame used during the CCVD process. This modeling will enable MCT to better design micronozzles based on the NanomiserT device (described in greater detail later). Furthermore, the models will allow MCT to more fully understand the complex micro-combustion dynamics, heat-addition, and sublimation characteristics inherent within the NanomiserT device. This research will identify any scaling issues with the nanopowder production or use and will verify this propellants compatibility with silicon oxides. During Phase II of this research, MCT will develop and test prototype nano-thrusters based on the solid-fuels developed during Phase I. The feasibility of the proposed nano-thrusters will be compared with the micro-combustion models developed during Phase I. MCT will work with Prof. Naresh Thadhani of the Georgia Institute of Technology in the development, testing and characterization of the aluminum-based nanopowders developed under this research program. Maintaining possession of the "high ground" has always been a primary military doctrine over the millennia. Since the onset of the space-race, the quintessential high ground has now become outer space. By placing surveillance or other military assets in orbit around the earth, the United States and it's allies can maintain battlefield superiority against adversaries. Due to high density electronics and other miniaturization technologies (i.e., MEMS), orbiting satellites have been steadily decreasing in size and weight. Unfortunately, propulsion sub-components required to place the asset in orbit and maintain it's stability throughout its design life contribute to a significant fraction of the overall spacecraft mass and pose crucial design constraints. A primary cost factor in space operations is the substantial cost per kilogram required to loft a spacecraft into orbit. For this reason, nano-satellites (defined as weighing less than 1kg) have become of major interest within the Department of Defense (DoD). To minimize mass associated with the propulsion component a solid-fuel is a logical choice. Solid fuels eliminate the need for large pumps and feed systems or external power supplies that would be necessary for liquid-fuel or electrical propulsion systems respectively.

MICROENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2007 E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
Vancouver, WA 98661
(360) 694-3704

PI: Mr. Joseph Birmingham
(360) 694-3704
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0063
PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LAB
P.O. Box 999 Battelle Blvd.
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-3759

ID#: F023-0178
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-013       Awarded: 12AUG02
Title: Determination of the Mechanisms for the Plasma Deactivation of Biomaterials
Abstract:   MicroEnergy Technologies (MicroET), CFD Research Corporation (CFD-RC), The Johns Hopkins University- Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU-APL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will search for the mechanisms of plasma deactivation by isolating the possible pathways including ultraviolet light, heat, and ionized gas interactions. Plasma parameters such as the relative concentration of active plasma species in different carrier gases will be measured by mass spectrometry. We will expose an optimized plasma system to a biological simulant and focus on biomaterial deactivation as a function of plasma parameters. In addition, we will use state-of-the-art CFD tools to model a novel plasma surface decontamination system known as the plasma blanket. This novel plasma blanket design produces an atmospheric pressure, low temperature ionized gas that has demonstrated very efficient deactivation (greater than 99.9999%) of lethal Ames strain anthrax in less than 30 seconds supported by SEM micrographs showing ruptured membranes of biological material. Additionally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has illustrated that additional biomarkers are extracted with a plasma lysis pretreatment that facilitate the identification of biological materials. Using the experimental and modeling results that reveal a plasma mechanism, energy consumption will be optimized for deactivation. Decontamination of equipment exposed to biological agents is a serious concern. If decontamination cannot be performed, then personnel must maintain their protective posture to protect against the threat of the agents. The focus of this project is to model the plasma processes and optimize those parameters for the deactivation of biological compounds. The plasma blanket will decontaminate aircraft interior equipment (including large areas or items) safely and quickly. This decontamination will allow personnel to lower their protective posture and thus decrease their stress level. Decontamination of any known or suspect areas will ensure contamination does not spread.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
Post Office Drawer 719, 735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93102-0719
(805) 963-8761

PI: Dr. Tri P. M. Van
(937) 429-9261
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0076
MICHIGAN STATE UNIV.
Contracts & Grants Administrat, 301 Administration Building
East Lansing, MI 48824-1046
(517) 353-7297

ID#: F023-0067
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 20AUG02
Title: Exploitation of Omnidirectional Reflectivity
Abstract:   Omnidirectional reflectors, with nearly perfect reflectivity, have been demonstrated both in academic laboratories and in industrial applications. These designs are similar to multilayer radome designs in that either wide bandwidth or wide angle coverage is obtained by utilizing many layers of dielectric with differing dielectric constants. In radome design, the objective is to achieve nearly perfect transmission over a specified bandwidth and coverage field-of-view. The omnidirectional reflector turns that problem around to achieve nearly perfect reflection without the use of lossy materials such as metals. Another difference between demonstrated omnidirectional reflectors and radomes is the current band of operation (visible and infrared) and number of layers. Commercial applications to date include films for windows that reduce radiant heat through windows as an energy conservation technology. These films, consisting of something like one thousand layers of alternating materials, have been tuned for maximum IR reflection and acceptable visible light transmission. Mission Research Corporation (MRC) has over 20 years of experience designing, fabricating, and testing unique radome configurations for the US Air Force and other customers. One of the aspects of MRC's research and design program over the years is the development of specialized design tools for radome development. One of these, MRC_TLM, uses a transmission line model coupled with a Monte Carlo optimizer to design multilayer radomes. MRC will utilize MRC_TLM to determine the feasibility and anticipated performance associated with a planar multilayer stack designed to be an omnidirectional reflector. However, planar configurations are not the only useful geometry. Concentric layers of cylindrical shells is also of tremendous interest as a dielectric waveguide. Improvements are needed in design to reduce the loss associated with leaky waves. Hence, MRC in collaboration with Michigan State University (MSU), will develop the necessary formulation for implementing a version of MRC_TLM for concentric dielectric shells. Provided the use of multilayer structures is demonstrated in Phase I, a user-friendly computer program (similar to the available MRC_TLM program for the planar case) will be written in Phase II to implement the cylindrical case. In addition, test cases will be designed, fabricated, and tested as part of Phase II for tool validation and demonstration of proof-of-concept. The commercial benefits of the proposed research will have an impact on all applications in national defense technology and telecommunications. A partial list of these applications include: 1) MMW/MW circuitry for better mode control in broadband/high gain/high power amplifiers for high resolution radar systems, 2) remote sensors, 3) low-probability of intercept communications, 4) fly-by-wire control systems, 5) ultra-low loss waveguides (optical fibers), 6) laser cavities, and 7) chemical detection using surface waves. The benefits of this research will impact each of these applications by simply making the applications possible or enhancing them. Solid mathematical formulation and numerical analysis will help to develop accurate and efficient computational algorithms for the study of multilayered structures. These tools will be extremely valuable in designing omnidirectional reflectors and low loss optical fibers for lower frequencies (millimeter-wave/microwave). As an example, a mathematical investigation shows that optimal structures for coating design problems frequently consist of multilayers of two alternating materials with high refractive index ratio. The mathematical formulation and numerical algorithm resulting from our proposed research can be used in optimal design codes (Phase II) which will lead to the development and production of low-loss omnidirectional reflectors and low-loss optical fibers for lower frequencies. The fabrication of these products can be carried out by MRC and its potential partners.

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
510 East 73rd Street, #202
New York, NY 10021
(212) 249-2232

PI: Dr. Chia-Gee Wang
(212) 249-2232
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0091
UNIV. OF N.C., CHARLOTTE
Dept. of E.E. CARC Rm 204, 9201 University City Blvd.
Charlotte, NC 28223
(704) 547-2083

ID#: F023-0066
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 21AUG02
Title: Controlled Nucleation and Growth in Semiconductor Epitaxy
Abstract:   Thermal budget is the most important parameter in the fabrication of high quality epitaxial structures. Many fabrication techniques or processes, however, cannot survive the elevated temperatures. The use of ultrasound to promote the surface atomic mobility during fabrication can reduce the thermal budget, thereby providing new methods that cannot be considered at elevated temperatures. Important widegap materials such as SiC and GaN can possibly be fabricated at reduced temperature with greatly reduced defect densities.

OMNIGUIDE COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
One Kendall Square, Building 100
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 551-8440

PI: Maksim A. Skorobogatiy
(617) 551-8425
Contract #: F49620-02-D-0089
STANFORD UNIV.
Ginzton Laboratory, AP 273, PROF. SHANHUI FAN
Stanford, CA 94305-4088
(650) 723-2610

ID#: F023-0089
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 20AUG02
Title: Exploitation of Omnidirectional Reflectivity
Abstract:   We propose a set of numerical and analytical tools to address electromagnetic wave propagation in dielectric mirrors and waveguides designed on the principles of omnidirectional reflectivity. Design concepts of the broad frequency range of omnireflectivity will be presented, as well as the deleterious role of imperfections in scattering to the surface and radiation states will be investigated. Omnidirectional reflector technology will have a meaningful commercial effect in multiple markets, including efficient radiation delivery at any desirable wavelengths, in particular, visible and mid IR ranges. Anticipated applications include high power delivery of visible to mid IR radiation for laser surgery, as well as for industrial cutting and welding laser tools. IR spectroscopy for medical diagnostics. IR image transmission and optical communications.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PI: Dr. Shawn Wehe
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0054
OHIO STATE UNIV. RESEARCH FOUNDATION
1960 Kenny Road
Columbus, OH 43210-1063
(614) 292-8671

ID#: F023-0082
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 06AUG02
Title: Plasma and Photoionization Approaches for Combustion Initiation
Abstract:   The proposed research will analyze the effect of radical production by non-equilibrium plasmas on the ignition characteristics of methane-air flows. We will develop a plasma ignition module using transverse radio frequency (RF) discharge. Previously, unique stable non-equilibrium RF plasmas have been generated in cold steady-state air and methane flows. Non-intrusive diagnostics including a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, microwave resonance lamp and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) will be employed to characterize the discharge through measurements of OH, H2O, NO concentrations, and temperature. These results will validate a RF discharge kinetic model, and help develop a predictive and development tool for ignition module design. Direct measurements of the ignition delay and energy will be obtained, using an ignition module including RF generator, flameholder, and a spark ignition source located behind the flameholder. Measurements with and without the presence of the plasma will demonstrate the effect of the RF discharge on ignition delay time and energy. Ignition delay measurements will be obtained by measuring the blow-off velocity using a rod-stabilized flameholder. Additionally, the spark energy measurements with and without the RF discharge will quantify the effect of radical production on the minimum ignition energy. This research will yield four important benefits. First is the development of a plasma ignition module which will be applicable to phase II experimentation. This module will be developed using the experimental and modeling information derived from this program with the advantage of advisement from General Electric corporation. They have offered to assist this research effort to help align the development of the plasma igniter with the interest of the customer. Additionally, the experimental data will provide code validation for the development of a predictive numerical tool to be used in further igniter and diagnostic development in Phase II. The successful development of a plasma ignition module will yield improvements in ignition characteristics providing for better flame holding capability and a more reliable high altitude re-light ignition system. Furthermore, the enhanced flammability limits will, in lean fuel conditions, aid in the reduction of NOx generation.

PILATO CONSULTING
598 Watchung Road
Bound Brook, NJ 08805-1746
(732) 469-4057

PI: Dr. Louis A. Pilato
(732) 469-4057
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0086
TEXAS A&M UNIV.
Department of Mechanical Engr., 3123 TAMU
College Station, TX 77843-3123
(512) 301-4170

ID#: F023-0163
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Intermediate Temperature Carbon/Carbon Structures
Abstract:   Carbon-carbon structures are traditionally designed and optimized for high temperature applications. They have very high temperature capability under inert atmospheric conditions but suffer from thermo-oxidative instability above ~700oF without oxidation protection and result in poor mechanical strength. Nanoparticles based on either nanoclay or POSS materials in conjunction with tethering these nanoparticles will be introduced within the carbon-carbon composition prior to cure. The development of the nanocomposite phase within a resin matrix system results in outstanding property benefits such as improved mechanical strength, reduced thermal oxidation, among other improvements. Co-cure/co-carbonization of these resulting nanoparticle modified carbon-carbon compositions is expected to provide improved and maintained mechanical strength by preventing the diffusion of oxygen (oxidation) within the resulting carbon-carbon composites (CCC). This will extend the capabilities of the current CCC materials with improved thermo-oxidative stability and long-term application at 700-1200oF with higher compressive/tensile strength in this temperature range. A nanocomposite phase combined with phenolic cyanate ester carbon-carbon carbon composites will be formulated, fabricated, and tested for mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures (700o to 1200oF) for 1000 hr. Improved thermo-oxidative stability, enhanced mechanical properties at elevated temperatures are expected. This new CCC technology will be able to replace titanium alloy applications with substantial weight savings.

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd, Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
(818) 768-6420

PI: Mr. Dean Baker
(818) 768-6420
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0057
PENN STATE UNIV.
C211 Coal Utilization lab, .Energy Institute
Univaersity Park, PA 16802
(814) 863-0594

ID#: F023-0201
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 29JUL02
Title: Intermediate Temperature Carbon/Carbon Structures
Abstract:   Light weight structures are improtant for many DoD applications. Current research on Carbon/carbon at temerpatrues below 1200 F have been margially successful. More research is mneeded on identifying other methods for protection of the carbon over this temperature range. The team of PSU and Powdermet will e explore several unique methods for carbon/carbon protection. High temperature structures can be used in reenty and engine applications for DioD and commercial applicatins.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
4325-B Forbes Blvd
Lanham, MD 20706
(301) 306-0010

PI: Dr. Daniel J. Sullivan
(609) 580-0080
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0066
PRINCETON UNIV.
MAE Department, Rm D414, E-Quad, Olden Street
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-4741

ID#: F023-0007
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 23AUG02
Title: Plasma and Photoionization Approaches for Combustion Initiation
Abstract:   Ignition and flame holding is one of the key problems in development of ram/scramjet engines in the range of flight Mach numbers from about 4 (the minimum Mach number for ramjet operation) to 7. At Mach number less than 7, the static temperature at the entrance to the combustor is below 1,200 K, and the unassisted ignition delay time is in the millisecond range. At flow velocities of 1,000-2,000 m/s, the unassisted ignition would occur at distances greater than several meters downstream. Thus, reduction of the ignition delay time down to 1-10 microseconds is indeed critical. Thus, there is a clearly identified need and opportunity to develop an efficient plasma ignition and combustion assistance system. We propose to design, test, and develop an efficient plasma ignition and combustion-assistance device, primarily targeted towards hydrocarbon-fuel ram/scramjets. The approach that we propose is to accomplish ignition with very high E/N nanosecond-scale pulses repeated at a rate of up to 100 kHz. Very strong electric fields would generate high-energy electrons that are very effective in ionization, molecular dissociation, and electronic excitation at low gas temperature, while minimizing stagnation pressure losses due to reduced heating. Phase I of this research program will increase the present understanding of combustion ignition through the creation of a kinetic model. This initial work will model will model a methane/air mixture. Results of this work will establish the foundation for modeling of more realistic hydrocarbon fuels such as ethylene and JP-10 in Phase II. The experimental work in Phase I will establish quantitative data which will be used to validate the kinetic model. This work will also result in a quantitative comparison of the relative effectiveness of both conventional (DC spark and laser) ignition processes and that of repetitively pulsed high-voltage (high E/N) plasmas ignition. These results coupled with results from additional microwave flame enhancement tests will provide information critical to the development of Phase II tests which will examine the ignition characteristics of more realistic fuel mixtures over a wider range of flow conditions.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
4325-B Forbes Blvd
Lanham, MD 20706
(301) 306-0010

PI: Dr. Daniel J. Sullivan
(609) 580-0080
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0080
FLORIDA SPACE INSTITUTE
MS: FSI
Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899
(321) 452-4842

ID#: F023-0008
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 20AUG02
Title: Design of a Microwave ElectroMagneto-Static (MEMS) Thruster for Nanosatellites
Abstract:   Research Support Instruments, Inc., with the aid of the Princeton University Photonics and Optoelectronic Materials (POEM) group and the Florida Space Institute (FSI), proposes the development of a revolutionary, high specific impulse, microchip-sized thruster for nanosatellite propulsion. This project will combine recent advances in two areas: larger-sized Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) ion sources developed for ion propulsion (Satori et. al 1996), and a microchip-sized microwave plasma generator (Siebert et. al., 1998). The result will be the Microwave ElectroMagneto-Static (MEMS) thruster, an ECRH-ionized electrostatic thruster with a specific impulse appropriate for a xenon-based ion thruster (~2000 seconds). In addition, the MEMS thruster technology will be immediately applicable as an extremely compact electron source for neutralization in other microthrusters such as the micro-ion, micro-Hall, and FEEP thrusters. FSI will develop new sub-micron models and scaling laws for microwave ionization, ECRH heating, and electrostatic acceleration. RSI will design and fabricate a laboratory model of the MEMS thruster/neutralizer at the POEM Micro-Fabrication Laboratories. An array of MEMS thrusters will provide high specific impulse thruster in microchip form. The development of the MEMS thruster will take advantage of an open, underdeveloped market - compact thruster neutralization - to provide immediate commercial application while development and validation of the actual thruster continues. The MEMS thruster represents a unique opportunity to satisfy the need for high specific impulse micro-machined thrusters onboard nanosatellites, as well as a commercially attractive need for compact neutralization in a variety of existing microthrusters.

SENTOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11551 Nuckols Rd., Suite Q
Glen Allen, VA 23060
(804) 360-5440

PI: Dr. Natalia Levit
(804) 270-1411
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0056
VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIV.
Office of Sponsored Programs, PO Box 980568
Richmond, VA 23298-0568
(804) 828-6772

ID#: F023-0058
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Development of Chemical Sensors Based on Encapsulated Small Particles
Abstract:   Sentor Technologies in collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University proposes to develop a new chemical sensor technology based on encapsulated micro or nano-scale particles. The core of the particles will consist of a material that undergoes a specific property change (e.g. color, refractive index) upon exposure to a vapor of interest. The outer shell of the particles will consist of a new molecularly imprinted polymeric material exhibiting controlled molecular-scale porosity. The shell acts as a filter and is designed to preferentially pass vapors within a particular molecular size range. Vapor detection and identification is accomplished by observing the sequence of property (say color) changes in an array of particle collections, each imprinted for a specific molecular size range. The core property change will signal the presence of a vapor. The specific sequence will be unique to each vapor of interest. If successful, the propsed miniature chemical sensor technology could provide the government and commercial sector with a portable, low cost sensor with performance parameters far superior to existing technologies.

SHAPE CHANGE TECHNOLOGIES
1731 Hendrix Ave.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
(805) 312-5665

PI: Dr. Peter Jardine
(805) 312-5665
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0095
UNIVERISITY OF CALIFORNIA, LA
38-137N Engineering 4 Building, UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 825-6030

ID#: F023-0143
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-011       Awarded: 28AUG02
Title: Developement and Testing of Thin Film Shape Memory Effect Optical Membranes
Abstract:   The development of optical coatings utilising smart thin film shape memory alloys will be investigated using several techniques. The coatings will be placed on optical quality membranes. Processing conditions to ensure compatibility with the polyimide will be investigated including the use of both sacrificial layers and conversion coatings to generate the desired heterostructures. In addition, optically smooth thin film Shape Memory Alloys will be attempted. In this study, Shape Change Technologies will be providing both deposition studies and optical characterization and control of the material. This will include both surface roughness measurements and single point actuation measurements on the material. UCLA will also generate thin film material and perform thermo-mechanical characterization of the thin films, including transformation temperature characterization, stiffness and dynamic loss measurements.These measurements will be integrated in an FEM model of the membrane Finally, we will generate using Labview, a simple control module to control a single point on the membrane. Samples will be delivered to the Sturctural Dynamics group at AFRL (Albuquerque) to generate detailed studies of the thin film behavior using interferometry. Thin film Shape Memory alloys as part of an adaptive optical systems will generate significant interest in the areas of biofluidic analysis. Optimized processing conditions of the thin films for reproducible control is required, and this research allows this development and process refinement. Successful development of smart SME membranes in other areas will also benefit.

SILVACO DATA SYSTEMS, INC.
4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2
Santa Clara, CA 95054
(408) 654-4303

PI: Dr. William French
(408) 654-4313
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0067
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA
475 Evans Hall, Dept. Material Science
Berkeley, CA 94720-1760
(510) 642-0205

ID#: F023-0078
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 14AUG02
Title: Control, Characterization, and Modeling of GaN Low Temperature Growth
Abstract:   Device structures fabricated in III-V materials such as gallium nitride (GaN) require either deliberately induced defects to take advantage of ultra short lifetime effects or ideal defect free crystallinity grown at low temperature to reduce diffusion of hetero-junction interfaces. The essence of the proposed project is to use MBE crystal growth assistance techniques, such as surfactants or in-situ external fields, to control the defectivity or crystallinity of a test vehicle compound semiconductor, such as GaN, which shows promising characteristics for both military and civilian uses. A test device will then be fabricated to demonstrate the different electrical behaviors of the grown semiconductors. In order to reduce the number of iterations before arriving at a particular recipe, it is desirable to model the crystal growth kinetics using software. To summarize, therefore, the total project is split into three main areas:- (i) software modeling techniques to reduce the experimental map. (ii) experimental MBE growth assistance techniques, such as surfactants or locally applied electric fields. (iii) creation of an electrical test vehicle such as a light emitting diode (LED) to investigate electrical quality of the grown layers. The benefits of this program will be the improved control over the crystal growth of GaN and hence the ability to accurately control the growth of defects if required. In order to reduce the total design of experiments it is also proposed that the crystal growth kinetics be modeled accurately using software yet to be developed. The commercial market for GaN runs into the billions of dollars but the material will not reach it's potential until the manufacturing issues are resolved. There would be two major benefits from our work. 1. A technique of controlling the ions during MBE to eliminate random defects 2. The ability to simulate the crystal growth kinetics to reduce the number of physical experiments required to find optimal growth conditions.

SRICO, INC.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
(614) 799-0664

PI: Dr. S. Sriram
(614) 799-0664
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0062
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
633 Clark Street, Crown 2-502
Evanston, IL 60208-1110
(847) 491-3003

ID#: F023-0144
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 19AUG02
Title: High Speed, Low Drive Voltage Optical Waveguide Devices Using Photonic Band Gap Structures
Abstract:   This STTR proposal addresses the development of novel guided wave devices that use photonic band gap technology in epitaxial thin-film ferroelectric barium titanate. This proposed project combines the advanced ferroelectric materials technology developed at Northwestern University with the photonic integrated circuit expertise of Srico to develop next generation nanophotonic hybrid circuit devices. The development of highly integrated thin film, microphotonic systems that generate, guide, amplify, modulate and detect light would dramatically enhance the capabilities of optical communication systems, local area networks and chip-to-chip optical interconnects. Thin film microphotonics can also potentially be used for freespace communication systems. Optical switches are an essential component of many of these systems. Switch requirements include short switching times, low insertion losses and high extinction ratios. Modulators, also a key component in optical communications systems, require very low drive voltage at high transmission speeds as well as low insertion losses and high extinction ratios. The long-term goal will be to develop the technology for the implementation of integrated microphotonic circuits for terabit/second systems based upon ferroelectric thin film epitaxial barium titanate. The research will address the longstanding need for integrated optical devices that require low drive voltage and offer high switching speed and wide operating bandwidth. The proposed microphotonic devices could be used in high speed optical communications networks, local area networks, optical interconnects, and any application where very low (<1 V) drive voltage is required. Successful implementation should significantly impact applications ranging from dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) to optical intrerconnects. Successful creation of thin film barium electro-optic devices would lead to many significant technical performance and cost benefits for commercial optical waveguide devices.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
1800 Quail Street, P.O. Box 9219
Newport Beach, CA 92658
(256) 971-7000

PI: Mr. Hillary E. Roberts
(256) 971-8936
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0083
YOUNGSTOWN STATE UNIV.
One University Plaza
Youngstown, OH 44555
(330) 742-3091

ID#: F023-0162
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-006       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Isomeric Targets for High-Energy Density Applications
Abstract:   This effort will identify sources and production methods for isomeric materials. Isomeric targets will be built and characterized for experiments and potential application studies. Isomers will include Hf-178m2 and other isomers of similar characteristics favorable to triggered energy release by x-ray irradiation. Experiments will include spectroscopic analysis, x-ray irradiation effects, and other energy-time resolved decay measurements to determine reaction cross-sections, trigger energies, triggered decay cascade transitions, and isomer production reaction characteristics. Provides a source of long-lived isomer targets developed for specific triggering experimental protocols. Will provide scientific data to allow development of triggered isomer-based applications including medical oncology, industrial radiography, food sterilization, neutralization of biohazards including military weapons of mass destruction.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3908
(732) 885-5909

PI: Dr. Catherine E. Rice
(732) 885-5909
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0079
UNIV. OF WISCONSIN-MADISON
Room 460 Peterson Bldg
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-0252

ID#: F023-0156
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: A Scaleable Method for Fabricating Nonlinear Photonic Crystals
Abstract:   The University of Wisconsin has developed an MOCVD process by which micron-scale and nanoscale high contrast (air/LiNbO3) epitaxial film photonic structures can be fabricated. As a consequence of the large index difference, as well as the large second order optical nonlinearity of LiNbO3, very compact all-optical and electro-optic devices based on index-confined and photonic bandgap defect waveguides can be realized. These structures will serve as the basis for a new class of truly compact electro-optic and all-optical devices and circuits. The goal of the first phase of this proposed work is to design and demonstrate a reproducible wafer-scale version of the growth process. The follow-on effort will be dedicated to the design, fabrication, and characterization of several devices, including an ultrafast traveling wave modulator, tunable resonator filter, and an all-optical logic switch. This effort will combine the unique expertise of the group of Dr. Leon McCaughan at University of Wisconsin-Madison, discoverer of the technology, Structured Materials Industries, Inc., with extensive knowledge and background in oxide MOCVD processes and equipment, and Pandanus Optical Technologies, for design and fabrication of advanced optical devices. This proposal is addressed to the expressed Air Force need for advanced nanophotonic devices and technology. Successful completion of this program will enable a breakthrough in device capability and quality for a variety of commercial and military applications, including all-optical logic switches, tunable resonator filters and demultiplexers, and very low voltage traveling wave modulators - all part of a growing >$10B market

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

PI: Dr. Amir M. Dabiran
(952) 934-2100
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0061
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
Dept. of Elec. & Comp. Eng., 200 Union Street SE, Room 4-17
Minneapolis, MN 55455
(612) 625-5517

ID#: F023-0193
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 02AUG02
Title: Low Pressure Source for Mass-Selective, Diffusion Assisted Epitaxy
Abstract:   Dramatic differences in the diffusivities of the constituents of novel thin film materials and structures limit material perfection under far from equilibrium growth conditions. We will develop a new light-mass ion source, compatible with the low pressure requirements of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), to provide selective enhancement of the motion of surface atoms. Helium or hydrogen ions incident on a surface at approximately 100 eV will mainly transfer their energy to lower mass, surface atoms. This low-pressure ion source will be compared to a higher pressure Kaufman source for the MBE growth of technologically important III-nitride materials. The low-mass ions will overwhelmingly deposit their energy at the N atoms, effectively setting the growth conditions closer to equilibrium. The results will be compared to literature reports using higher mass ions. For low-mass ions incident at low angles with low energy, the energy transfer will be well below sputtering thresholds. The impinging ions will only be able to excite local phonon modes that selectively enhance surface diffusion. If more momentum transfer is desired, higher mass ions could be used. Development of this new ion source would greatly impact a wide range of materials systems. Currently, the growth of multicomponent thin films and films with hyperabrupt interfaces challenges all growth techniques. The proposed low-mass ion source will allow control of defects, grain size, surface chemistry, and enable abrupt hetero-epitaxial combinations not currently possible. As a proof of concept, the enhanced MBE growth of GaN and InGaN will be demonstrated. This technique would greatly benefit the development of novel semiconductor thin films and structures.

SYNTERIALS, INC.
318 Victory Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
(703) 471-9310

PI: Mr. Dan Petrak
(828) 252-2664
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0088
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
Bldg. 4515 Mailstop 6062, P.O. Box 2008
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6062
(865) 574-5123

ID#: F023-0203
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 04SEP02
Title: Intermediate Temperature Carbon/Carbon Structures
Abstract:   It should be possible to greatly enhance the properties of Carbon-Carbon Composites (CCC) if the materials is designed to be used at temperatures of no more than 1200F. Processing of this new CCC will be aimed at tailoring the material properties to be stable in this intermediate temperature range. The research will be focused at interface coatings, matrix stability and CVD surface coatings with minimal cracking. Interface coatings of carbon will compared to boron nitride based coatings. Matrix processing options will include CVD, phenolic resin derived and phenolic resin blends with polymer precursors for silicon carbide. All three matrices will be treated with phosphate solutions for additional matrix oxidation resistance. Low temperature CVD coatings of Si3N4 will also evaluated for their contribution to oxidation resistance. The cumulative effects of the tailored processing should produce the basis for a new generation of CCC. This research will produce carbon-carbon composites with greater thermal stability and composites with enhances mechanical properties compared to composites that have been designed for use at temperatures over 2600F. These new materials may provide an alternative to titanium for many aerospace applications.

TECH-X CORP.
5541 Central Ave #135
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 448-0728

PI: Dr. David L Bruhwiler
(303) 448-0732
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0050
MIT
77 Massachusettes Ave
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
(617) 253-3856

ID#: F023-0030
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 21AUG02
Title: Exploitation of Omnidirectional Reflectivity
Abstract:   We propose to provide both frequency domain and time domain capabilities for the modeling of electromagnetic (EM) waves in dielectric media with the goal of accurate modeling of omnidirectional reflectors. Omnidirectional reflectors, constructed with layers of dielectrics, reflect electromagnetic radiation is 100% efficiency for all incident angles and polarizations. The Phase I effort will carry this out through a two-pronged approach. To provide time-domain modeling capabilities, we extend the VORPAL EM modeling code of the University of Colorado to allow use of higher-order algrorithms (beyond standard FDTD on the Yee mesh.) We will then carry out a number of numerical experiments for scattering of light off of omnidirectional reflectors. To provide frequency-domain modeling capabilities, we will generalize the Photon Band Gap Structure Simulator of MIT to 3D and include the ability to analyze surface waves. For both cases we will investigate surface waves and carry out rigorous error analyses. The Phase II effort will then be to extend the software to facilitate the definition of Photon Band Gap structures, to harden the algorithms and software through extensive testing, and to provide a graphical user interface to the software. The resulting modeling code suite with a GUI will be a powerful and attractive tool for designing a wide variety of military, commercial and scientific devices, including lasers, microwave tubes, and waveguides. This code will run on PC's with Windows 95/NT, making it accessible to the great majority of potential customers, and on the full spectrum of Unix platforms, making it the design code of choice for scientists and engineers working on large-scale simulations. The entire application will be object oriented so the code can be readily modified and extended in presently unforeseen ways to meet the needs of future users and the challenges of future design efforts.

TECHNOLOGY IN BLACKSBURG, INC.
2901 Prosperity Road
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 961-4401

PI: Dr. Semih Olcmen
(540) 961-4401
Contract #: F49620-03-C-0003
VIRGINIA TECH
Mechanical Dpt and Physics Dpt
Blacsburg, VA 24061
(540) 231-8727

ID#: F023-0087
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 08OCT02
Title: Mitigation of Aero-Optic Distortions by Active Flow Control
Abstract:   Technology in Blscksburg (Techsburg( and the Physics Department at Virginia Tech propose to investigate the potential of both active and passive devices to mitigate the aero-optical distortions generated in a supersonic flow over a cylindrical-base/hemi-spherical-top directed energy system turret. A combined suction and blowing system will be used for active flow control, with vortex generators as passive flow control devices. Phase-front distortions of a large diameter laser beam will be measured using a variable-shear-interferometry techinque. Techsburg has developed a novel method to produce suction and blowing from the same small fluidic actuator that reduces complexity over separate systems and produces more momentum for flow control than traditional blowing. The proposed technique begins by removing the horse-shoe vortex/boundary layer forming on the wall near the nose of the turret with suction. Next the fluid removed from the nose region and some aditional air will be injected in predetermined directions into the wake of the turret to enhance mixing. The air suction will be generated by the blowing action with the use of the ejector pump technique. Vortex genertors with sized much smaller than the local boundary layer thickness will be placed on the hemi-spherical dome to crate vortices to delay the separation location over the aft section of the turret.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: Dr. Bryan Koene
(978) 250-4200
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0046
CLARK ATLANTA UNIV.
223 James P. Brawley Drive
SW Atlanta, GA 30314
(404) 880-6886

ID#: F023-0060
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Carbon-Carbon Composites in Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability
Abstract:   Triton Systems responds to the Air Force need to produce intermediate temperature (700-1200°F) stable carbon-carbon composites. Although such composites are very stable at high temperatures (>1800°F) in an inert atmosphere, they are susceptible to degradation in hot, oxidizing environments. Triton proposes to utilize high temperature stable, resin transfer moldable (RTM, VARTM) phenyl ethynyl terminated imide materials with the incorporation of nanofillers, which will improve both the strength and the thermo-oxidative stability of the resulting composite. Our research has already shown a significant increase of carbon yields as well as improved thermal stability of the resulting composites. We have also shown that the use of minute quantities of our patented nanosilicates can be processed by standard molding techniques (RTM) that yield a highly dense composite. The materials and structures developed on this program will result in low-cost, lightweight, high strength carbon/carbon structures and multi-functional components with long-term (thousands of hours) 700-1200°F use capability The use of carbon-carbon composites in intermediate temperature, oxidative environments will find extensive use in various aerospace structural applications in which only metal (i.e. titanium) are currently suitable.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: Dr. Akbar Fard
(978) 250-4200
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0074
VIRGINIA TECH
460 Turner St., Suite 306, MS 0170, Sponsored Pgrm.
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0170
(540) 231-5283

ID#: F023-0010
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-011       Awarded: 30SEP02
Title: Shape Control and Stabilization of Thin Membranes Using Active Polymers
Abstract:   Triton's team proposes to develop optical quality active material films for the development of mirror shape control and stabilization systems. The development of novel lightweight space qualified optics and support structures is of vital importance to science, to industry, and to national defense. Primary mirrors are one of the main drivers of the mass of space based optical systems, as the other spacecraft masses are roughly proportional to the optical system mass. Therefore lightweight optics are an essential component of the Triton's team commitment to reducing launch costs while increasing payload utility. Electroactive polymers and photoactive polymers represent a special class of "smart materials" whose electronic and physical properties such as conductivity, charge distribution, and shape can be changed in response to the environment (voltage, light, stress). The ability of Electro and photoactive polymers to change structure within a polymer matrix in response to electro or photo stimulation has several applications for large ultra-light-weight optics. These experiments will provide a foundation for applications in the development of light-activated shape control of deformable polymer ultra-light-weight space telescope mirrors <300 grams/m2, as well as solve issues like damping vibrations after re-pointing large space telescopes Some typical applications of smart structure technologies are: ˙Automotive and transportation industries (engine mounting, dampers) ˙Aerospace Industry (smart wings to detect damage, large space structures) ˙Defense industry (stealth technologies, structures supporting weapons and antenna) ˙Biomedical devices (artificial hands and joints) ˙Robotics and industrial machinery (active balancing, dynamically tunable robot arms)

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
(973) 994-4334

PI: Mr. Harry S. Katz
(973) 994-4334
Contract #: F49620-02-C-0040
CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV.
2100 Adelbert Road, KHS Bldg
Cleveland, OH 44106-7202
(216) 368-4172

ID#: F023-0192
Agency: AF
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 10JUL02
Title: Intermediate Temperature Carbon/Carbon Structures
Abstract:   The main objective will be to develop and evaluate carbon/carbon (C/C) structures designed for long term applications at 700-1200°F and with at least 2X improvement in compressive and tensile strength over current C/C composites in this temperature range. These C/C composites will provide a lightweight structural material suitable for many critical applications, including replacement of titanium components in applications in the 700 to 1200F temperature range. Polymer structures with high char yield and desirable mechanical and physical properties will be investigated. We will also develop materials that provide thermo-oxidatively stable impregnants and coatings. Carbon-carbon composites will be fabricated and mechanical, physical and morphological properties will be evaluated and demonstrated. During the Phase I program, UDC in collaboration with research partner will define potential materials and applications goals. This Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of UDC's innovative formulations, processing and oxidation protection approaches for developing C/C structures with 700-1200°F use capability. The Phase I program will demonstrate superior physical properties, oxidation, chemical and thermal stability and processability of specimens. At the end of Phase I, we will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate. The developed C/C composites will provide a lightweight structural material suitable for many critical applications, including replacement of titanium components in applications in the 700 to 1200F temperature range. Composite materials have already found widespread application in the commercial market. The high performance combined with high temperature capability will lead to new applications in all markets, including aerospace, military or commercial. Lightweight high temperature structural materials for civil transport and engine components, exhaust washed structure, thermal management (environmental control and power systems), automotive and specialty vehicle applications (race cars, high speed trains, etc.).

---------- ARMY ----------

ADVANCED CYTOMETRY INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS
Baird Research Park, 1576 Sweet Home Road
Amherst, NY 14228
(716) 689-9797

PI: Mr. Martin Casstevens
(716) 689-9797
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0083
SUNY, BUFFALO
ILPB, North Campus, NSM Bldg.
Amherst, NY 14226
(716) 645-2977

ID#: 44322
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Novel Methods for Rapid Monitoring of Decontamination Efficacy
Abstract:   Conducting military operations in an environment containing biowarfare agents requires sophisticated and rapid laboratory tools to develop and test suitable decontaminants. Flow cytometers are useful in R&D and clinical laboratories because of their ability to obtain spectroscopic information from large numbers of individual cells or beads. A custom-built, autonomous flow cytometer is proposed to monitor the efficacy of numerous candidate liquid decontaminants against bacterial pathogens and their toxins. A novel robust device is proposed that will reduce the size of the optical interrogation spot to accommodate the small size of bacteria. Other proposed methods take advantage of microfluidic flow cells and sensitive detection techniques. All equipment will utilize a sample carrousel to facilitate the automated analysis of a large number of candidate decontamination agents. Unfortunately, a single preparative assay is not universally adaptable to determining the efficacy of decontamination procedures for bacteria (vegetative and nonvegetative) and their toxins. ACIS proposes a unique assay for bacteria, spores and toxins. The proposed methods provide time-dependent quantitative measures of a decontamination agent's effectiveness. The project will conclude with a final report describing the performance of both the equipment and the assays and recommendations for future work to be considered for Phase II. In addition to military applications, the same technology will be useful in combating bioterrorism on the homefront and will be routinely used by the pharmaceutical industry (to develop antibiotics and antimicrobial agents) and by manufacturers of consumer cleaning products and be the foundation for commercial biomonitoring equipment.

ANALYTICAL BIOLOGICAL SERVICES, INC.
701-4 Cornell Business Park
Wilmington, DE 19801-5782
(760) 839-5187

PI: Dr. Mary Reppy
(302) 654-4492
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0072
SRI INTERNATIONAL
333 Ravenswood Ave
Menlo Park, CA 94025
(650) 859-4694

ID#: 44187-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-009       Awarded: 01OCT02
Title: Fluorescent Coated Filters for Detection of Biological Warfare Agent Microorganisms in Water
Abstract:   Reliable and sensitive detection of microbial biowarfare agents (BWAs) such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis is an important challenge for both military operations and domestic anti-terrorism efforts. We are proposing to develop an antibody functionalized biomimetic polymer coating for filter membranes that will become fluorescent when exposed to samples containing BWA microorganisms. These coated filter membranes will be integrated into a portable fluorescence detection device that will also be developed. The integrated device will allow rapid and easy parallel testing of solution samples - either water trapped aerosols or swab samples - for multiple BWA microorganisms. The filter will concentrate the microorganisms and then become fluorescent as the bacteria bind to the antibodies. In Phase I we will develop the antibody/polymer coatings, detect Bacillus subtilis spores as an anthrax simulant, perform appropriate control experiments, and design the detection unit. In Phase II we will prepare coated filters for the detection of several biowarfare agents, build a prototype detection unit and use this to develop screening protocols for detecting multiple microorganism targets in parallel. An easy-to-use rapid portable detection system that can be used by both combat support units and first responders for early warning of attacks with biological warfare agents and post-attack forensic purposes. This technology will also have significant dual-use applications in other areas of microorganism detection such as food safety, diagnostics and environmental testing.

ANALYTICAL BIOLOGICAL SERVICES, INC.
701-4 Cornell Business Park
Wilmington, DE 19801-5782
(760) 839-5187

PI: Dr. Mary Reppy
(302) 654-4492
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0073
SRI INTERNATIONAL
333 Ravenswood Ave
Menlo Park, CA 94025
(650) 859-4694

ID#: 44210-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 01OCT02
Title: Fluorescent Liposomes for Detection of Biological Warfare Agent Toxins in Water
Abstract:   Reliable and sensitive detection of potential biowarfare agent (BWA) toxins such as botulinum toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin, saxitoxin, etc., is an important challenge during both military operations and for domestic anti-terrorism efforts. We propose to develop biomimetic polymerized liposomes/antibody conjugates that will detect toxins in aqueous samples, and will be integrated into a portable fluorescence detection device. The integrated device will allow rapid and easy parallel testing of solution samples (i.e. from swab testing) for multiple BWA toxins. When the toxins bind to the antibodies the liposomes will become fluorescent; the liposomes can be readily formulated with different antibodies targeting different toxin targets and presented in a multiplex format for parallel screening. In Phase I we will prepare liposomes with antibodies to ovalbumin as a toxin simulant and design the detection unit. We will develop the antibody manipulation techniques for preparing the functionalized liposomes and demonstrate proof-of-concept for detection, including control experiments. In Phase II we will prepare separate liposome formulations with antibodies to a variety of BWA toxins incorporated, build a prototype detection unit, and use these to screen samples for multiple targets. An easy-to-use rapid portable detection system that can be used by both combat support units and first responders for early warning of attacks with biological warfare agents and post-attack forensic purposes. This technology will also have significant dual-use applications in other areas of protein detection such as food safety, diagnostics, drug discovery, and environmental testing.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 496-2412

PI: Dr. Eileen B. Entin
(781) 496-2427
Contract #: DAMD17-02-C-0124
UNIV. OF MARYLAND
Office of R&D, 515 W. Lombard, 5th Floor
Baltimore, MD 21201
(410) 706-3615

ID#: 44323
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Telemedicine and Advanced Medical Technology - Refined Training Tools for Medical Readiness
Abstract:   Medical readiness for combat casualty care requires that clinicians maintain a high level of proficiency for skills that are rarely or never used in day-to-day practice. Simulation training environments seem a promising way to provide these learning opportunities, but the effectiveness of simulation-based training for clinicians remains a concern as defining clinical expertise and competency has always been problematic. Performance-measurement approaches from other high-expertise fields such as aviation, where the value of simulation-based training is well established, offer promising approaches for measuring clinical performance in combat casualty care. Our technical objective is to design and develop a performance measurement tool and a comprehensive methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of four classes of medical simulators for medical readiness training. We will apply the systematic measure-development process pioneered by Aptima for military aviation, tailoring it to the medical training domain and identifying the issues associated with measure development in multiple types of medical simulation training environments. This will be followed by a proof of concept demonstration in a mannequin simulator in collaboration with University of Maryland Medical School and design of a validation methodology for the Phase II measurement approach, as well as design of a structure for a commercial integrated performance measurement database. An assessment tool such as we propose to develop will identify and validate simulators for enhanced training of medical skills to increase patient safety. The resulting tool can be targeted to both government and commercial sectors in both a horizontal and a vertical market expansion. This tool would allow commercial developers of medical simulators as well as medical researchers to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the simulators for training. It will also allow medical schools and other medical training institutions to make intelligent evaluations of the effectiveness of simulator tools and to make meaningful comparisons on a number of dimensions across different simulators. Such a tool would make valuable contributions in all sectors to identify and foster the improved design, growth, acceptance, and adoption of the most effective medical simulator technologies.

AVANTI OPTICS CORP.
13755 First Avenue North
Minneapolis, MN 55441
(763) 398-2025

PI: Dr. Steve Case
(763) 398-2029
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0090
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
200 Union Street
Minneapolis, MN 55455
(612) 624-8306

ID#: 44163-EL
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Layered, 3-D RF/Optoelectronic Microstructures with Precision Kinematic Mount
Abstract:   We propose to investigate the feasibility of using Avanti's self-aligning kinematic optoelectronic mounts for active 3-D RF/optoelectronic microstructures. We believe the unique benefit of our approach is the precision alignment of optoelectronic devices for coupling to the outside world (and layer-to-layer). This unique benefit is coupled with additional benefits of easy manufacturability, direct compatibility with existing planar RF devices, and good thermal and electrical interconnect. The benefits of our approach include rapid manufacturability and low-loss optoelectronic coupling to the external world. The attention to manufacturing concerns and easy integration with proven designs make this approach more relevant to commercial development. Avanti intends to apply the broader manufacturing technology to a large class of optoelectronic devices and the extension to RF active circuits widens the applicability base.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
(617) 491-3474

PI: Dr. Mark R. Stevens
(617) 491-3474
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0092
BOSTON UNIV.
Cognitive and Neural Systems, 677 Beacon Street
Boston, MA 02215
(617) 353-6743

ID#: 44156-CI
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-004       Awarded: 15SEP02
Title: Real-time Adaptive Classification Environment using Rules (RACER)
Abstract:   Robust Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms must be able to identify the conditions under which they are operating and tune their parameters to ensure targets are identified while retaining a low false-alarm rate. For example, the image signature of a distant target is fundamentally different from the signature of a near target, so a single ATR algorithm with a single set of parameters will not perform optimally for both conditions. We propose an adaptive classification system called RACER (Real-time Adaptive Classification Environment using Rules). RACER uses meta-features, provided by a human operator or inferred from the scene, to identify the current operat-ing condition. Once the operating condition is identified, the on-line ATR's classifier and feature extraction parame-ters are tuned to maximize target recognition accuracy. The on-line tuning will be rule-based, with rules either speci-fied by an operator or automatically through reinforcement learning. A method for combining the output of multiple classifiers using Dempster-Shafer evidence combination will also be explored. Finally, a requirements study on hardware for a Phase II real-time implementation will be conducted. This includes assessing existing COTS recon-figurable FPGA boards, as well as compilers from C/C++ to the target FPGA. We see several potential applications of the proposed technology: 1) direct application of RACER to DoD ATR pro-grams, and 2) generalization of the classifier and learning algorithms to other domains, in particular the computer vision industry such as target learning & tracking of people using multi/hyperspectral imagery with applications to Homeland security.

CRYO INDUSTRIES OF AMERICA, INC.
11124 South Willow Street
Manchester, NH 03103
(603) 621-9957

PI: Mr. George J. Svenconis
(603) 621-9957
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0094
CORNELL UNIV.
Department of Chemistry
Ithaca, NY 14853
(607) 255-6306

ID#: 44195-MS
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-010       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy
Abstract:   A product development effort aimed at constructing a novel magnetic resonance force microscope that is an exciting powerful new technology for detecting nuclear magnetic and electron-spin resonance of nanoscale samples and imaging subsurface features. A prototype variable-temperature, variable-field instrument has been constructed at Cornell University and has already been used to detect both electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance. In Phase I, we will demonstrate additional key technologies required to bring the instrument to market with single-electron sensitivity. A real-time embedded controller for actively controlling the dynamics of the ultrafloppy cantilevers used in the microscope will be created. Three-dimensional scanning capability is integrated into the prototype research instrument, and will demonstrate a protocol for batch fabricating the first-ever nanomagnet-on-tip ultrafloppy cantilevers. This is the development of the first-ever commercially available scanned probe microscope capable of imaging subsurface features with isotopic selectivity. The proposed magnetic resonance force microscope represents a dramatic enhancement in imaging capability over existing scanned-probe microscopes. Since the magnetic resonance force microscope enables imaging of subsurface features for the first time, and has the unique capacity of being able to image with isotopic selectivity, the potential commercial applications are enormous. CryoIndustries envisions producing a cryogenic magnetic resonance force microscope for initial applications in thin-film materials analysis. The technology will have broad commercial and military utility including: research of advanced materials, advanced semiconductor-device research (e.g. individual impurity and defect characterization), single-molecule analytical chemistry, infectious disease research, biotechnology, nanoelectronics, and new solid-state physics research (e.g. investigations of electron spin coupling mechanisms and quantum computational physics).

DAKOTA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2201-A 12th St. N
Fargo, ND 58102
(701) 237-4908

PI: Dr. Daniel Engebretson
(701) 237-4908
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0069
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV.
Tech Park Bldg 1, Room 106
Fargo, ND 58105
(701) 231-9608

ID#: 44209-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Development of fluorescent liposomes to detect biological toxins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer
Abstract:   Biological toxins are far more lethal than chemical warfare agents and are easily produced which makes them an ideal weapon for terrorist organizations. Toxins can be deployed either by direct contamination of food or water sources or as airborne aerosols. Researchers from Dakota Technologies, Inc. and North Dakota State University propose to synthesize polymerized liposomes to detect cholera toxin by ligand-specific binding that triggers a fluorescent response from the liposome. Fluorescence will be time-resolved to provide a means to discriminate against intrinsic liposome fluorescence and sample matrix fluorescence. When Phase I and Phase II are completed there will be an easy to use tool to detect multiple toxins by immersing the sensing waveguide into the suspect solution. It is anticipated that the proposed tool will be less complex, less expensive, and more sensitive than current technologies. The tool will initially be designed for military use and focus on detection of biological toxins. Modifications of the liposomes will allow detection of other pathogens such as E. Coli and the influenza virus making the tool useful in the food and medical industries as well. The proposed research will result in a tool that can be used to detect and quantify biological toxins such as botulinum toxin, cholera toxin, and ricin. These are extremely lethal compounds that in the hands of a terrorist pose a very real threat to society. Beyond the military application to biological toxins, the tool will also be used in the food and medical industry to detect pathogens such as E. Coli and influenza.

DBC TECHNOLOGY CORP.
4221 Mesa St.
Torrance, CA 90505
(310) 378-4961

PI: Dr. David B. Cohn
(310) 378-4961
Contract #: DAAD13-02-P-0061
SRI INTERNATIONAL
333 Ravenswood Ave
Menlo Park, CA 94025
(650) 859-4694

ID#: 44318
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 28AUG02
Title: Standoff Chemical/Biological Sensor Detection Algorithms
Abstract:   The proposed work addresses advanced development of algorithms for chemical detection by DISC and DIAL and extension of the basic approach to mid and long wave IR biological agent detection. The objectives of the six month Phase I program are to process recent field data with current algorithms as a basis for assessment of further algorithm development for detection of all chemical agents and for varying backgrounds, to outline a theoretical approach to biological agent detection using DISC and DIAL in the mid and near IR, to outline parameters for new field test data sets, and to outline modifications of either (or both) the existing Frequency Agile Laser (FAL) sensor and Manportable sensor hardware for collection of field data. The follow-on Phase II work will be directed to performing algorithm development, implementing the necessary sensor modifications, field data collection and data reduction, and assessment of algorithm effectiveness with recommendations for further work. This work will greatly enhance the utility of laser standoff sensors for battlefield military missions, for surveillance of agent production facilities, for homeland defense, and for monitoring commercial production processes. Near term programs that will benefit directly are the Artemis JPO initiative and the U.S. Army ECBC initiative to develop a sensor for manportable and other platforms where size and weight are critical factors.

ELECTROPHORICS, INC.
75 Forest Lane
Placitas, NM 87043
(505) 720-1115

PI: Dr. Larry Kepley
(505) 720-1115
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0089
UNIV. OF IOWA
214 Technology Innovation Cent
Iowa City, IA 52242
(319) 335-2132

ID#: 44229-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-013       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: Inert metal encapsulation of magnetic particles for improved magnetic field effects at fuel cell electrodes
Abstract:   Magnetic field-enhanced electrocatalysis at the hydrogen and air electrodes of PEM fuel cells have reported improved power densities, three-fold over conventional PEMFCs. Leddy, et al. used micron-sized polymer-encapsulated beads of permanent magnets placed in conventional inks of carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts to enhance MEA performance. Their work showed a qualitatively improved CO tolerance with the magnetically assisted MEA single cell using hydrogen fuel containing 100-ppm CO. Their magnetic electrode with 0.4 mg Pt/cm2 showed performance equal to that for Pt/Ru catalyst, both in tolerating the CO and in recovery when refueled by pure hydrogen. A more quantitative understanding of the effect of the magnetic field has been hindered by uncertainty about the distances between the platinum and the magnetic fields and the irreproducible distribution of gaps due to magnetic aggregation. This proposal will demonstrate that the magnetic effect on electrokinetics is quantifiable when the precious metal catalyst layer is deposited directly on the encapsulated magnetic particle. We have developed a method of coupling the catalyst directly to the magnetic source; the platinum can then be uniformly deployed with each magnetic particle to provide the improvements in the quantitative analysis. These electrodes will be compared to the typical Pt/Ru MEA regime. A successful program would benefit not only the countries air quality but also reduce our dependence on foreign oil importation. Commercial applications include portable consumer electronics, onboard power for microelectronic chips and memory devices, electric vehicles, and off-grid distributed power sources for homes.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
(734) 973-6600

PI: Dr. Kazem F. Sabet
(734) 973-6600
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0062
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
University Gateway, Suite 450, 200 Oak Street SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455-2070
(612) 626-2724

ID#: 44168-EL
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Micromachined, Three-Dimensionally Integrated RF or RF-Optoelectronic Circuit Components
Abstract:   The objective of this Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) project is to develop novel high performance three-dimensionally integrated package designs for optical modulator applications. There are many optoelectronic device designs that show great promise in the research lab, but have demonstrated degraded response once packaged. The proposed effort will develop advanced packaging methods that are complementary to chip-level electronic and photonic packaging. In the Phase I feasibility study, the concept of the three-dimensionally integrated package will be explored through computer simulations. Since there is an ongoing effort on the experimental demonstration of the packaging concept for VCSEL arrays, in Phase I we will also investigate the likely issues that may arise when extending the concept to optical modulators. Among these, we will place special emphasis on the optical fiber connection to the silicon optical microbench. The complete device and package designs will be carried out in the Phase II continuation of the project. The proposed STTR effort will introduce a new generation of high performance package designs for optoelectronic devices. The concepts and designs will be applicable to a wide range of components beyond optical modulators. The outcome of the project will have a major impact on high speed optical communication systems for both military and civilian communications.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
(805) 685-6672

PI: Mr. Gary Key
(321) 277-8396
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0067
UNIV. OF FLORIDA
516 Weil Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-1092

ID#: 44157-CI
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-004       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Analysis and Characterization of Pattern Classifiers
Abstract:   Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) and University of Florida (UF) propose to develop designs for automatically-generated statistical pattern recognition systems (GASPs) that can classify uncooperative targets among time-varying natural and manmade backgrounds. We also propose to analyze the performance of the envisioned GASPs to: (a) covertly acquire feature data (e.g., statistical, spectral, and spatial cues) from target/background imagery, (b) apply multiple classifiers to target/background information to select probable target location and identity, (c) apply inferencing rules to disambiguate infeasible or contra-dictory classifier outputs. Pattern selection, key to successful system operation in mission- and threat-specific scenarios, will utilize Dempster-Schaefer the-ory and UF's powerful data fusion paradigm, Morphological Neural Nets (MNN). Phase-I will evaluate, extend and exploit FTI and UF's success-ful, DoD-sponsored R&D for dynamic pattern recognition and ATR to develop and test an efficient system design for target classifier output fusion and disambiguation. System design will include analysis of complexity and cost of potential hardware implementa-tions. In a Phase-II effort, we will use Phase-I results to drive candidate pattern downselection in FTI's DoD-supported TNE para-digm. MNNs and TNE have been proven highly successful in a wide va-riety of recognition problems, thus we propose to analyze GASP sys-tem performance in realistic ATR scenarios. If successful, the proposed research will constitute a breakthrough in the solution of problems related to automatic target classifica-tion and pattern recognition. These problems occur extensively throughout both the military and commercial sectors: the potential payoff is high. FTI will license or sell the solution to large aerospace companies for military applications. We plan to partner with a commercial company involved in law enforcement technologies, environmental monitoring and drug enforcement techniques. C. KEYWORDS Adaptive Pattern Recognition, Neural nets (NN's), Morphological neural nets (MNN's), Automatic target recognition (ATR), Data Fu-sion, Object and Pattern Classification

FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.
3 Great Pasture Rd.
Danbury, CT 06813
(203) 825-6057

PI: Dr. Ludwig Lipp
(203) 205-2492
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0060
THE UNIV. OF IOWA
305 Chemistry Bldg
Iowa City, IA 52242-1294
(319) 355-2132

ID#: 44227-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-013       Awarded: 22JUL02
Title: Field-Enhanced Carbon Monoxide Tolerance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells
Abstract:   To be commercially competitive, PEM fuel cells have to be able to run on readily available fuels. Fuel reformers are practical, but fuel cell anode catalysts are severely poisoned by small quantities of carbon monoxide from the reformer. Despite much effort invested into increasing CO tolerance, desired performance levels have not been achieved.Recent data has shown great promise in mitigating the effect of CO on the anode when magnetic particles are introduced into the fuel cell anode. Local magnetic fields couple into kinetic pathways through spin polarization and can alter product distributions and reaction rates.The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate that incorporation of magnetic particles into the catalyst layers of an MEA increases the CO tolerance of the anode, and to exceed state-of-the-art performance at CO levels around 100 ppm or higher, at temperatures below 100°C. To this end, magnetic particles of different sizes will be fabricated and their physical and chemical properties studied. Membrane electrode assemblies will be fabricated incorporating these particles and their performance will be tested with a variety of techniques in order to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanism and to define performance limits and favorable operating conditions. This project is anticipated to result in a great advancement in carbon monoxide tolerance and performance of reformate-fed hydrogen/air polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. This will result in increased efficiency and lower cost of fuel cells for transportation and stationary power applications.

GINER ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311
(781) 529-0504

PI: Dr. John A. Kosek
(781) 529-0505
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0075
UNIV. OF IOWA
Division of Sponsored Research, 201 Gilmore Hall
Iowa City, IA 52242-1320
(319) 335-2132

ID#: 44222-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-013       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Magnetically-Modified Anode Catalyst
Abstract:   The proton-exchange membrane fuel cell has the potential to be used as a power source for the military. The fuel cell would derive its fuel from a reformed liquid such as diesel, methanol or gasoline that, in addition to hydrogen, would produce species such as CO that could poison the fuel cell anode catalyst. To overcome the poisoning problem, a team consisting of GINER ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS, LLC and the University of Iowa has been put together to develop magnetically modified anode catalysts that will tolerate the presence of the CO. The University of Iowa, will draw on its background in magnetically modified materials, while GINER ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS, LLC, based on its experience in development of membrane-electrode assemblies, will jointly develop the anode catalyst and related electrode structure. The goal is to minimize the voltage drop, compared to operation on H2/CO2, when operating with CO. Magnetically modified catalysts will be prepared, fabricated into membrane-electrode assemblies and evaluated for tolerance to CO in a hydrogen/hydrogen test cell and a complete proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. Due to recent mandates requiring zero emission vehicles by the mid 2000s, there is potentially a large commercial market for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells with the magnetically modified anode catalyst. It can also be used in dispersed power cogeneration facilities fueled by reformed natural gas. Military applications include mobile electric power generators and transportation applications.

INSIGHTFUL, INC.
1700 Westlake Ave N, Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98109
(206) 283-8802

PI: Dr. Edward C. Chao
(206) 802-2227
Contract #: DAMD17-02-C-0114
UNIV. OF MICHIGAN
3003 South State Street, Room 1044
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 764-7242

ID#: 44329
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-019       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Statistical Methods for Multinomial Data with Multilevel Structures
Abstract:   The ultimate objective of our research is the development of methodology and software for the analysis of multi-level binomial and multinomial data in longitudinal studies. Multi-level data is very common in psychological and biomedical studies. Our research will make fundamental contributions to these studies by evaluating, recommending, and developing robust and efficient algorithms for handling such data. We will focus on parametric approach: generalized linear mixed models, and semiparametric approaches: generalized estimating equation models and generalized additive mixed models. The algorithms will be implemented as an object-oriented software library in the S-Plus language and the approaches will be published in peer reviewed journals. Currently, there is no commercial software for handling multinomial data with multiple hierarchical structures. In the proposed work we will evaluate various algorithms and provide recommendations on when each algorithm should be used. A unified library of well-tested algorithms for performing these analyses will be available in Splus and ported to R. In addition, we will incorporate diagnostic techniques and graphical methods into the software, and we will develop a comprehensive case study guidebook using real problems. Generalized linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations models are widely used in psychology, social sciences, and other areas of scientific research. The computational algorithms we propose to investigate are aiming at categorical data, particularly, binomial and multinomial responses. The product will be implemented as an S-Plus library and ported to R package. The software will be available to the public and will attract consulting projects and short courses for longitudinal data analysis with S-Plus. The inclusion of a Java graphical user interface and guidebook will make these methods accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

LIMBS & THINGS, INC.
16173 Main Avenue
Prior Lake, MN 55372-1766
(952) 447-1954

PI: Dr. Steven L. Dawson MD
(617) 768-8781
Contract #:
CIMIT
The Simulation Group, 65 Lansdowne Street - Room 144
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 768-8781

ID#: 44325
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-017       Selected for Award
Title: Telemedicine and Advanced Medical Technology - Refined Training Tools for Medical Readiness
Abstract:   VALIDATING THE EDUCATIONAL EFFICACY OF SIMULATOR-BASED TRAINING SYSTEMS FOR MEDICAL PERSONNEL IN COMBAT CASUALTY CARE Before a simulator is used for training or assessment purposes, there is an acute need to establish the educational efficacy of the simulator and/or the validiy of decisions made based on a person's performance with the simulator. The research proposed here focuses on the first need - evaluating the effectiveness of simulators and simulation systems in training medical personnel Simulation for medical training in either a military or civilian setting is highly desirable for a number of reasons. These reasons include but are not limited to the ready availability of "patients" to suit any training goal, the ability to evaluate students on standardized "patient" models, the reduction in reliance on live animals or expensive cadavers for training, and the ability to perform repetitive practice inexpensively without the prospect of making mistakes on real patients. Because of these advantages, simulation training is gradually gaining acceptance across all medical disciplines. We expect this emerging acceptance to accelerate with the validation of educational efficacy for Virgil and a variety of other simulators which could be validated through the same or similar method.

LINDEN PHOTONICS, INC.
270 Littleton Road, Unit #29
Westford, MA 01886
(978) 293-7985

PI: Dr. Amaresh Mahapatra
(978) 392-7985
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0079
UNIV. MASS., LOWELL RESEARCH FOUNDATION
600 Suffolk Street, 2nd Floor South
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 934-4750

ID#: 44164-EL
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Micromachined, Three-Dimensionally Integrated RF or RF-Optoelectronic Circuit Components
Abstract:   The use of 3D, micromachined high resistivity silicon to fabricate high frequency RF circuits which are self packaged and hermetic has been successfully demonstrated. To incorporate optical components in the hermetic silicon package an equivalent optical exit port from the hermetic package needs to be developed. We propose the demonstration of a compact, low cost, hermetic optical port using micromachined silicon for passive alignment of fibers and polymeric optical components to complement the RF hermetic ports that have been successfully demonstrated in the literature. If successful, this proposal will demonstrate the ability to make a compact, low cost, hermetic optical port using micromachined silicon to complement the RF hermetic ports using silicon that have been successfully demonstrated in the literature. Such an optical port is essential if 3D micromachined high density circuits are to reach their full potential for optoelectronic circuits. Will reduce cost of optical components manufacture by factor of 10. For DOD applications this means the ability to deploy sophisticated optical networks in the field and on the individual soldier level.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540) 953-4274

PI: Mr. Roger Van Tassell
(540) 961-4502
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0068
VA POLYTECHNIC INST. & STATE UNIV.
Office of Sponsored Programs, 460 Turner Street, Suite 306
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 231-9300

ID#: 44206-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Fluorescent, Polymerized, Affinity Liposomes for the Detection of Bacterial Toxins
Abstract:   Luna Innovations proposes to develop novel, affinity-based, polymerized, fluorescent liposomes (fluorosomes) for the detection of biological toxins in water. The detection platforms will focus on assays that uses antibody or receptor ligands with diacetylene-based liposomes which change their fluorescence intensities or spectra upon binding of their respective toxin targets. At present, methods for detection of biowarfare or bioterrorism agents are based on multi-step immunoassays (ELISA), insensitive colorimetric assays, or poorly characterized fiber-optic platforms. The use of affinity polymerized fluorosomes will combine one-step simplicity, fluorescence sensitivity, ligand specificity and field portability. The proposed Phase I work will use an assortment of lipid-based fluorescent indicators in a variety liposome formulations. Initial studies will focus on the binding interactions of model toxins such as cholera toxin and LPS endotoxin with their respective antibodies and cell receptors (e.g., GM1 ganglioside). Subsequent Phase II studies will expand the classes of toxins studied and determine the optimal testing conditions and functional ranges of the assay materials. Arrays of liposomes for use in fingerprint detection of mixed targets and a portable fluorescent reader format will also be developed. Affinity, polymerized, fluorescent liposomes have the potential to be used in a variety of major markets segments. Not only are such potentially flexible, highly sensitive fluorescent reagents needed for biowarfare and bioterrorist applications, but affinity fluorosomes have the potential for use in high-throughput screening in the pharmaceutical industry and as diagnostic reagents in human and veterinary medicine.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540) 953-4274

PI: Mr. Roger Van Tassell
(540) 961-4502
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0074
VA POLYTECHNIC INST. & STATE UNIV.
Office of Sponsored Programs, 460 Turner Street, Suite 306
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 231-9300

ID#: 44320
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Viability Assay for Monitoring Decontamination of Pathogenic Bacteria
Abstract:   To determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in decontamination and antimicrobial efficacy testing, the plate count method has been traditionally used. This method requires trained technical expertise, large amounts of microbiological growth media and up to several days to complete and often with unreliable results. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a rapid, automated means of determining the efficacy of antimicrobial agents on vegetative bacterial cells using fluorescent probes and antibiotics targeting the primary susceptibility regions of tester organisms (e.g., cell wall, cell membrane and cellular respiration). In the Phase I work, the fluorescence-based formats will focus on measuring changes in pH, redox and cell metabolism to quantify the amount of viable organisms remaining after treatment with the decontaminants and determine the kinetics associated with the cell destruction. Fluorescence-based responses obtained in 5-10 minutes will be compared to traditional plate count determinations as controls. Tester strains will include ampicillin+/- and b-galactosidase+/- strains of Escherichia coli and protein A+/- strains of Staphyloccus aereus. In subsequent Phase II studies, the types of tester organisms will be expanded to include other pathogenic microorganisms and indicator compounds. In addition, the instrumentation will be adapted to have multiple sampling and the high throughput capabilities. The introduction of the concept of viable but nonculturable cells in the 1980s has led to important research work concerning the existence and significance of these kinds of cells within bacterial communities. In addition, quantification of total bacterial numbers in a fast and reliable fashion is a basic and essential task in several areas of microbiology, including public health, biotechnology, food and water industries, pharmaceuticals and the natural environment. Our proposed technology would greatly increase the speed and reliability with which organisms could be assessed after a decontamination event both in the laboratory and in the environment.

MAXWELL SENSORS CORP.
15902A Halliburton Road, #135
City of Industry, CA 91745-3505
(562) 801-2088

PI: Dr. Winston Z. Ho
(562) 801-2088
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0087
SOUTHERN RESEARCH INSTITUTE
431 Aviation Way
Frederick, MD 21701
(301) 694-3232

ID#: 44321
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Rapid ATP-Glow for Biological Decontamination Efficacy Test
Abstract:   A plate count method has been traditionally used to determine the effectiveness of anti-microbial agents in decontamination efficacy testing. This method requires large amounts of microbiological growth media and takes several days to produce results. Maxwell Sensors Inc. (MSI) and Office of Homeland Security at Southern Research Institute (SRI) propose to develop a rapid quantitative platform and assay based on cellular ATP-Glow mechanism for determining the efficacy of biological warfare agents (BWA) decontamination. The proposed ATP-Glow testing platform can quickly (< 30 minutes) and sensitively (5 - 15 cells per well) identify pathogens, accurately determine cell growth/death ratio, and be capable of simultaneously handling multiple samples. This innovative BWA-ATP-Glow system combines the technologies of: (1) immuno-magnetic beads for BWA identification, (2) cellular ATP reduction and bioluminescence for viable cell analysis, and (3) microfluidics for automating assay process. The combined technologies provide the ability to determine the efficacy of decontamination methods with speed, specificity, sensitivity, and ease of operation. The proposed technology can be utilized in biological sample processing for rapid identification of bio-warfare agents in a given environment, and for monitoring the efficacy of the disinfection method(s) employed. Commercial applications for the proposed technology are most apparent in the Pharmaceutical Industry for developing antibiotics and other antimicrobials.

MIRUM CORP.
805 Gibbon St.
Alexandria, VA 22314
(703) 683-1840

PI: Joseph Chiara/Jose Cortin
(703) 993-1000
Contract #: DASW01-02-P-0747
GEORGE MASON UNIV.
4400 University Drive, MSN 4C6
Fairfax, VA 22030-4444
(703) 993-2299

ID#: 44306
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Promoting Realistic Self-Assessment as the Basis for Effective Leader Self-Development
Abstract:   The proposed research effort has several intents. The first is to identify those cognitive and motivational processes that contribute to leader self development (enabling processes) and those processes, such as ego defensive and self-enhancement biases that interfere with effective self-learning (minimizing processes). Another is to identify and develop assessment tools for attributes that promote realistic self-assessment and self-evaluation as a foundation of an effective leader self-development program. The third intent is to design a leader self development support program that emphases enabling processes, bypasses minimizing processes, and targets (a) leader self-development skills, and (b) leader interpersonal skills. In military careers, and increasingly in civilian careers, change and adaptation to new environments, new jobs, and new responsibilities are increasing frequent. Adaptations require the openness and flexibility to develop skills, knowledge, and perspectives to meet new demands successfully. In terms of personnel the fundamental unit is the individual. The abilities of individuals to pro-actively engage in self-development processes and assessment is the basis for organizational adaptation and organizational achievement under dynamic, multi-dimensional environmental change. Understanding the pre-conditions for self-development to take place and the processes by which it can be enhanced and accelerated reliably appears to us to have substantial applications for individual and organization in and out of government which are knowledge based organizations.

MORPHOTEK, INC.
210 Welsh Pool Road
Exton, PA 19341
(215) 966-4065

PI: Nicholas C. Nicolaides
(215) 966-4026
Contract #: DAMD17-02-C-0121
ROCKLAND
P.O. Box 326
Gilbertsville, PA 19525
(610) 369-1008

ID#: 44344
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-018       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Systems For Alternate Sources Of Thrombin And Fibrinogen For Human Use
Abstract:   Morphotek and Rockland will collaborate to develop mammalian cell lines that are capable of producing significant amounts of recombinant fibrinogen and thrombin from mammalian-based systems as an alternative source to plasma-derived proteins for their use in developing affordable hemostatic bandages for widespread use. Morphotek will employ its platform technology and expertise in whole cell evolution to derive lines that can over-produce these proteins as a means to lower the costs associated with the processing and analysis of purified protein. Rockland will employ its technology and know-how to scale the production of these lines in 15L fermentors to achieve robust production of these proteins to a level > 0.5g/L in serum-free medium. Successful achievement of the goals of the Phase I will allow for an opportunity to develop these reagents at a reasonable cost-of-goods for use in wound care products and use in developing cost-effective hemostatic bandages for military use. The generation of robust recombinant protein expression from a defined culture system as outlined in this application will lead to a cost-effective bioprocessing system for generating the proposed recombinant materials as products for wound care. Upon successful completion of the Phase I program, we will apply the derived reagents and technology in a Phase II proposal to demonstrate equivalent bioactivity of these molecules in in vivo wound models and in in vitro clotting assays as well as develop a streamlined process for the cost-effective production of fibrinogen and thrombin for use in hemostatic bandages. The successful completion of these goals will lead to commercialization of affordable hemostatic bandages as wound care products for civilians and military personnel.

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
720-I Lakeview Plaza Blvd.
Worthington, OH 43085-4733
(614) 842-6606

PI: Dr. Matthew M. Seabaugh
(614) 842-6606
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0059
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Office of Sponsored Research, 1200 E. California Blvd.
Pasadena, CA 91125
(626) 395-6357

ID#: 44180-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Low Temperature Fuel Cells Based on Proton Conducting Ceramic Membranes
Abstract:   The development of compact, lightweight and continuous power sources to replace battery-based systems offers substantial advantages for military operations. Fuel cells offer high energy density (up to 1000 Wh/kg) and operate continuously as long as fuel is provided. Advantages of fuel cells include high efficiency and very low release of polluting gases. Current proton exchange fuel cell technology is based on polymeric membranes that operate at temperatures below 100C and require purified hydrogen as a fuel. In this program, NexTech Materials, in conjunction with the California Institute of Technology, will develop fuel cells based on proton conducting ceramic electrolyte membranes. This approach provides fuel cell operation at approximately 400C, which allows the direct use of hydrocarbon fuels without pre-reforming. In Phase I, electrolyte, cathode and anode materials will be identified and the electrical, chemical, and mechanical compatibility of the materials set will be confirmed. In parallel, processing routes to produce electrode-supported membranes will be developed, and single cell fuel cell tests performed. In Phase II, fabrication will be optimized and comprehensive fuel cell testing performed to validate this technology for Army portable power applications. Compact, lightweight and continuous power sources are required by the Army to provide soldiers power for communications, target acquisition, combat service support, miniaturized displays and microclimate cooling. In addition to military applications, fuel cells are being developed for commercial applications ranging from portable telephones and laptop computers to higher-power automotive and residential systems.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074-3415
(405) 372-9535

PI: Dr. Robert Deans
(617) 441-8871
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0076
KECK GRADUATE INSTITUTE
535 Watson Drive
Claremont, CA 91711
(909) 607-8564

ID#: 44188-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-009       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Detection of Infectious Bacteria in Water
Abstract:   In this Phase I STTR, Nomadics has teamed with the Keck Graduate Institute to develop a new form of highly sensitive biological filter intended for the protection of water supplies. In light of the growing concern about bioterrorism, an early warning system for the presence of biological agents in potable water would be desirable. The proposed system will be capable of supplying real-time data in a continuous setup to indicate the presence of BW agents. It should enable the detection of a broad range of microorganisms, while offering the ability to expand the specificity as needed. The system will be portable and easy to operate. The basis of the proposed system is a breakthrough amplifying fluorescent polymer developed at MIT and functionalized by Nomadics to detect biological agents. In the proposed work, lechtins will be used as the binding agent in a proof-of-concept demonstration in the detection of Salmonella and E. coli, two potential biological warfare agents. The proposed system is clearly beneficial to the nation's efforts at homeland security and national defense. However, the sensor system is a platform technology that will have wide application across many fields with the use of specifically functionalized polymers that can detect biological or chemical contaminants in industrial, municipal, and recreational water supplies and fluid systems.

NUVANT SYSTEMS, LLC
10 West 33rd. Street, Suite 127
Chicago, IL 60616
(312) 567-7032

PI: Dr. Yipeng Sun
(312) 567-7031
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0081
ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
3300 South Federal Street
Chicago, IL 60616
(312) 567-3035

ID#: 44179-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Compact Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells
Abstract:   Fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEA's) operating between 250 and 400 C will be optimized to utilize hydrogen (H2) fuel contaminated with methanol reforming side products. At this operating temperature, H2/CO equilibrium mixtures can be made by reforming liquid fuels, such as methanol-water mixtures. The proposed MEA structures are based on a proprietary hybrid electrolyte system that consists entirely of inorganic components. This novel electrolyte design offers very low fuel crossover and improved mechanical properties. In addition, because of the high temperature of operation, the fuel cell has high CO tolerance and enhanced catalyst activity. The focus of the Phase I research effort is to test and optimize performance and durability of these inorganic components. Preliminary stability and lifetime studies will also be conducted in Phase I. Because the system is CO tolerant, its performance characteristics under dynamic load should be superior to those of PEM fuel cells coupled to external reformers. NuVant's hybrid electrolyte design should solve several of the outstanding problems of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells: low catalyst activity, poor tolerance to CO, high cost of catalysts and membranes, poor thermal integration of fuel reformers, and poor response to transient power loads. Development of these fuel cells in Phase I and Phase II will allow NuVant to commercialize fuel cells for both military and civilian applications. The early market insertion point is in the 10 W - 500 W system range, where the cost per watt is not a figure of merit. In this power range, internal reforming of methanol and conventional balance-of-plant components are viable options. The primary military application in this power range is for recharging units for portable secondary batteries, and the target civilian application is high reliability backup power. As the technology develops, NuVant plans to adapt the system to external reforming of lower cost hydrocarbon fuels for larger scale (10 kW to megawatts) backup power systems and stationary power generation.

PACIFIC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
P.O. Box 359, 1000 Edison St
Santa Ynez, CA 93460-0359
(805) 688-2088

PI: Ms. Michele Hinnrichs
(805) 688-2088
Contract #: DAAD13-02-P-0056
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
6620 Culebra Road, PO Drawer 28510
San Antonio, TX 78228-0510
(210) 684-5111

ID#: 44314
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Detection of Liquids on Surfaces using Long Wave Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroradiometer
Abstract:   Chemical warfare agents with their low vapor pressure can stay on a surface for long periods of time and thus pose a serious threat to anyone coming in contact with that surface. Silicone oils, which have strong infrared absorption, around 1000 wave-numbers (10 mm), can be used to simulate chemical agents. Sky shine for example, acts as an infrared source in the 8-14 micron region of the spectrum. Liquid residual chemical agents on surfaces will show up as areas of higher absorption and can be detected with a spectral imager tuned to the appropriate wavelength band. Recent work in the area of imaging spectroscopy has shown that very weak signals can be detected by taking advantage of spatial and spectral information. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) using an uncooled longwave infrared hyperspectral camera, has detected silicone oil on an aluminum surface from several meters using spectral/spatial processing algorithms. PAT, along with our team member Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) will use this approach during Phase I to demonstrate the technology and improve the algorithms based upon experimentation. In addition, we will generate models based on radiometry that will determine the sensitivity of the PAT hyperspectral imaging technology for this application. A handheld Chemical Biological warfare detection camera system can be used by the US Armed Forces in the battlefield to detect harmful agents remotely before military personnel are exposed to them. The same technology can be used in the commercial market for gas leak detection in oil and gas processing plants as well as the pharmaceutical industry.

PHYSICAL DOMAINS
3700 Cedarbend Dr.
Glendale, CA 91214
(818) 236-3623

PI: Dr. Elliott Brown
(818) 236-3623
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0088
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA, CA 91109-8099
(818) 354-3845

ID#: 44135-EL
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 23SEP02
Title: THz Differential Absorption Radar for Bioparticulate Detection
Abstract:   Recent measurements of the electromagnetic transmission through bacillus subtillus, an anthrax facsimile, have revealed absorption resonances in the THz region. A system-level analysis previously carried out by the proposer has shown that at least one of the resonances (centered at 14.05 cm-1, or 421 GHz) is located at a frequency of low enough atmospheric absorption to be detectable by an active remote sensor at a significant stand-off. The proposed STTR effort would construct such a sensor as a differential absorption radar using all solid-state components. All components are commercially available except the highly-tunable, mW-level coherent source required to make a useful transmitter for field applications. The transmitter will be developed through this STTR project in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) who have in-house solid-state source technology that can produce up to approximately 10 mW cw in the 420-GHz region with a tunability of at least 5 %. In Phase I, the proposer will integrate the JPL source into a working bench-top 420 GHz transmitter, construct a working direct (incoherent) receiver with off-the-shelf electronics, and combine the transmitter and receiver in a working sensor demonstration. This demonstration will be carried out with innocuous bioparticles (e.g., baccilus subtillus) that may be provided by the Government Sponsor. If successful this project will produce the first known sensor capable of measuring low densities of bioparticle at a large stand-off. The commercial applications of such a sensor would be in counter-terrorism and in public health (monitoring the movement of human disease).

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PI: Dr. David J. Cook
(925) 743-1110
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0077
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIV. OF CA
c/o Sponsored Projects Office, 336 Sproul Hall #5940
Berkeley, CA 94720-5940
(510) 642-8114

ID#: 44133-EL
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Terahertz (THz) - Frequency Differential-Absorption Spectrometer for Remote Biological Agent Detection
Abstract:   Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in conjunction with the University of California, Berkeley proposes to develop and demonstrate a biochemical-specific standoff sensor for detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) methodology will be used to provide chemical and biological specificity. Our innovation is the extension of DIAL technology to Far-IR (THz) wavelengths corresponding to the frequencies of collective modes of DNA and proteins, potentially a "fingerprint" spectral region for BWAs. This technology represents a long-standing need with the DoD, FAA, and security community for detection of BWAs. Furthermore, the potential structure penetrating nature of this radiation allows for the possible detection of BWAs concealed in luggage, packages, and under clothing. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept through experimental measurements of absorption spectra of target compounds and the first demonstration of a differential-absorption sensor for BWAs in the THz frequency regime. In the Phase II portion of the program, a sensor will be developed and field tested at a selected Army test site. This program will demonstrate a standoff THz-DIAL apparatus with the capability of chemically- specific detection of biological weapon agents. Such an apparatus represents a long-standing need in the military for BWA detection. This technology can also fill a critical need for civilian security and homeland defense. Significant commercial applications of the enabling sensor technology exist in the petro-chemical and bulk materials processing industry. PSI has already established a commercialization partnership with the Dow Corporation to exploit these markets.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978) 689-0003

PI: Christopher M. Gittins
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: DAAD13-02-P-0053
MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIV.
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, MI 49931-1295
(906) 487-3043

ID#: 44313
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Detection of Liquids on Surfaces using Long Wave Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroradiometer
Abstract:   Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to augment AIRIST, its LWIR hyperspectral imaging spectrometer technology, to enable polarization-selected imaging. The resulting spectrometer will enable the detection of surface contamination based on enhanced reflectivity of either s-polarized or p-polarized light. Calculations suggest that surface-deposited persistent liquid chemical warfare agents, such as VX, will exhibit strong differential polarization signatures in the LWIR. Differential polarization signatures are expected to be less sensitive to detection scenario, and therefore easier to detect and identify, than surface reflectance spectra recovered from (non-polarized) absolute radiance measurements. (The modified AIRIS will recover absolute radiance spectra as well as polarization spectra.) Proof-of-concept will be demonstrated in Phase I. A prototype instrument based on the concepts demonstrated in Phase I will be constructed in the Phase II program. The proposed program will lead to a single sensor for performing sensitive, selective standoff detection of liquid and vapor phase chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition to potentially improving its detection sensitivity to CWAs by incorporating polarization-selected detection, AIRIS's imaging and adaptive spectral sampling capability will enable wide areas to surveyed more rapidly than with conventional stand-off sensors, e.g., imaging and non-imaging FTIR and grating spectrometers. In addition to military applications, the proposed sensor will be useful for surface contamination/composition measurements in industrial environments as well as for screening of biological samples (biopsied tissue) for medical applications.

PICOTRONIX, INC.
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
(734) 864-5600

PI: Dr. David Zimdars
(734) 864-5639
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0085
NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Office of R & D, 3504 GITC,, 323 King Blvd.
Newark, NJ 07102
(973) 596-3103

ID#: 44134-EL
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Terahertz (THz) - Frequency Differential-Absorption Spectrometer for Remote Biological Agent Detection
Abstract:   We propose to develop a continuous wave terahertz imaging spectrometer tunable from 0.2 to 3 THz in order to remotely detect, monitor and identify chemical and biological agents such as the aerosol simulant Bacillus subtillus. The fully realized system will consist of a high brightness THz source illuminating the region of interest and detected by a tunable THz interferometric imaging array. The array elements will consist of a multiple spaced THz semiconductor heterodyne photomixers driven by a common fiber optic coupled frequency stabilized tunable optical heterodyne source. In phase I, the THz imaging array with wide field of view and high spatial resolution will be designed. A proof of principle array will be constructed using modified commercial THz photomixing modules driven by a single two-color diode laser optical heterodyne source. Initial tests will be made using homodyne photomixing detection. The high speed photomixing devices for heterodyne detection will be tested in order to determine the optimum intermediate frequency. While photomixing devices will serve both as source and detectors in Phase I, the heterodyne detected array will be source independent and the optimum high power source will be chosen for Phase II. A database of required THz-frequency spectral signatures for target agents and expected interferent agents will be developed using existing time-domain THz spectroscopy equipment. A successful Phase II will result in a compact tunable THz chemical and biological agent remote detection system. No such interferometric imaging THz spectrometer is currently commercially available. The proposed system will be useful not only in defense applications as a stationary perimeter defense system and outward looking remote surveillance system, but for civilian security applications as well, such as airport screening for explosives, biological agents, and other contraband. In addition, the components designed will have commercial applications manufacturing, process control, medical, and environmental diagnostics.

PIXON LLC
9295 Farnham Street 2nd Floor
San Diego, CA 92123-1201
(858) 287-4966

PI: Dr. Timothy R. Gosnell
(858) 287-4966
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0093
OHIO STATE UNIV.
200 OSU Research Foundation, 1960 Kenny Rd.
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 292-1673

ID#: 44194-MS
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-010       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Essential Image Processing for Magnetic-Resonance Force Microscopy
Abstract:   Two fundamental challenges face development of the magnetic-resonance force microscope (MRFM): sensitivity and image deconvolution. Because of the non-local nature of the MRFM response to a single spin, image processing of as-captured MRFM data will be so critical a component of the instrument that its performance will have a profound impact on the entire system design. In this Phase I STTR project, Pixon LLC will combine the MRFM hardware research efforts at Ohio State University and the California Institute of Technology with the company's proprietary, high-performance image-reconstruction technology in order to demonstrate unmatched capabilities in MRFM imaging. In particular, compared to the best competing techniques, the Pixon method of image reconstruction offers 2 to 3 times better resolution and 10 to 100 times better sensitivity. At the same time, the information-theoretic principles that underlie the Pixon algorithm make its performance effectively impossible to surpass. In short, this project will establish absolute limits on MRFM imaging capabilities and make specific recommendations for MRFM hardware design that optimize the benefit of Pixon post processing. BENEFITS: Optimizes sensitivity and spatial resolution of the MRFM. APPLICATIONS: Image processing for MRFM, MFM, and potentially all microscopies.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 933-5355

PI: Dr. Bo Ling
(781) 933-5355
Contract #: DAMD17-02-C-0120
HARVARD UNIV.
Office of Scientific Research
Cambridge, MA 02138


ID#: 44328
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-019       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Novel Statistical Estimation Algorithms and Tools for Binomial and Multinomial Longitudinal Data
Abstract:   Statistical modeling and analysis for longitudinal data are important in many applications ranging across behavioral and medical sciences. Statistical theory based on continuous variables and Gaussian distributional assumptions is well developed, and appropriate tools such as NLME (Nonlinear and Linear Mixed Effects: see Pinheiros and Bates (2001)) are available. Corresponding algorithms and software for discrete binomial and multinomial data are much less well developed, and pose nontrivial choices and challenges. We propose to develop methods based on probit assumptions that essentially say that the data arises from discretizing hidden continuous variables, whence "missing value" methods such as EM algorithms and MCMC data augmentation Bayesian methods can be devised that can build on the available software for the continuous case. We believe R software to accomplish this is a feasible project that will significantly extend what is currently available and will be found useful by many researchers. The proposed new statistical algorithms and tools can benefit many public and private organizations, including the federal government, and academic and other nongovernmenal research institutions such as pharmaceutical companies, where longitudinal and other forms of hierarchical data are common. The published theoretical results will benefit the statistics community in general. A software package written in R will reach many users, and, eventually, the algorithms can be implemented in other collections such as MATLAB and SAS, thus multiplying the effect of the initiative and increasing the payoff from our small business enterprise resources to improve the effectiveness and validity of data analysis in many fields.

SEA RUN HOLDINGS, INC.
339 River Rd.
Arundel, ME 04046
(207) 775-6000

PI: Dr. Evelyn S. Sawyer
(207) 985-7957
Contract #: DAMD17-02-C-0110
UNIV. OF PENNSYLVANIA
221 Franklin Bldg, 3451 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
(215) 898-7293

ID#: 44341
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-018       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Salmon clotting proteins for human bandages
Abstract:   Fibrin bandages have shown considerable promise in controlling major blood loss. However, two significant problems are cost, and the possibility of infectious agents. Our overall objective is to solve both problems with the use of fibrinogen and thrombin from salmon plasma. Phase I aims are: 1. To prepare a viral-inactivated, stable, salmon fibrinogen and thrombin; and 2. To characterize this material. Salmon clotting proteins are compatible with human proteins, and are less likely to be expensive due to the large untapped blood supply from farmed salmon. They offer safety from mammalian infectious agents, especially prions, due to the evolutionary distance between fish and mammals, and the low body temperature of these fish. We propose to develop viral-inactivation methods by spiking the salmon proteins with salmon viruses, and then determining virus titer after lyophilization and heating. The virus-inactivated proteins will be used for stability studies that measure identity, purity, and potency, with and without additives, after defined storage conditions. Characterization studies of the salmon proteins will determine possible advantages over mammalian proteins. Salmon clotting proteins offer an effective, innovative, material for human use that is likely to be safer and less costly than human proteins. The anticipated benefits of the proposed work is a safer, less -costly fibrin bandage.

SENSERA, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
(978) 606-2600

PI: Senerath Palamakumbura
(978) 606-2600
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0084
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
4000 Central Florida Blvd
Orlando, FL 32826
(407) 823-5173

ID#: 44189-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-009       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Fluorescent Coated Filters for the Detection of Biological Warfare Agents in Water
Abstract:   Sensera, Inc., in collaboration with U. of Central Florida, proposes to develop a rapid real-time sensor for fluorescent detection of Biological Warfare Agent (BWA) micro-organisms in water. The proposed sensor does not require the additional steps of typical heterogeneous immunoassays such as: multiple reagent additions, incubation, and washing steps. We propose two biomimetic coating platforms with their own distinctive advantages for pre-concentrating BWAs, as well as providing an environment conducive to bio-recognition. These platforms are such that their physicochemical properties can be easily and systematically tuned for optimum binding and signal generation. Commercial fluorophores - as well as fluorophores developed in our laboratories - that possess much higher photo-stabilities and fluorescence quantum yields will be used as probes. The resulting sensors will feature reduced leaching of the probe into the biological medium, alleviating toxicity and contamination concerns, and assuring intimate interaction between the BWAs and the probes. In Phase I, we will develop a fluorescent polymerized biomimetic filter coating for the detection of a model BWA simulant. Phase II will be devoted to developing this membrane platform for the detection of multiple BWAs, designing and constructing the fluidics hardware, and the complete characterization of the resulting sensors. The proposed rapid biosensor will find commercial application in real-time monitoring of water reservoirs, livestock and crops. Other commercial applications include: food-quality monitoring and sensors for the personal security industry.

SIMMETRIX, INC.
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Dri
Clifton Park, NY 12065
(518) 348-1639

PI: Mr. John Tourtellott
(518) 348-1639
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0080
RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
110 8th St.
Troy, NY 12180-3590
(518) 276-6283

ID#: 44141-MA
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-003       Awarded: 01SEP02
Title: Toolkit to Support Parallel Adaptive Computations on Unstructured Meshes
Abstract:   This project will provide a software toolkit to support the development of parallel adaptive numerical analysis codes. This toolkit is primarily focused on computations on unstructured meshes as these types of computations are the most difficult to effectively parallelize. Building on top of Simmetrix' existing tools and those currently in development, this will result in a complete environment for developing parallel adaptive analysis codes including: parallel mesh generation, adaptivity, dynamic and predictive load balancing and close ties to visualization tools. The toolkit will support a combination of both multithreaded and distributed computing to allow a wide range of parallel computer architectures to be utilized effectively. Development of parallel analysis software is a difficult task since virtually all of the infrastructure for managing information in parallel must be developed from scratch for each application. The availability of this toolkit will allow software developers to build their applications significantly faster and less expensively as much of the needed functionality will be already available. This toolkit will be an enabling technology to allow many more analysis codes to be supported on a wide range of parallel computer architectures.

SIMQUEST INTERNATIONAL, INC.
8401 Georgia Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910
(410) 280-2240

PI: Dr. Gerald A. Higgins
(301) 587-9446
Contract #: DAMD17-02-C-0126
HOWARD UNIV. HOSPITAL
2041 Georgia Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20060
(202) 856-6100

ID#: 44327
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Telemedicine and Advanced Medical Technology - Refined Training Tools for Medical Readiness
Abstract:   This research will develop a standardized approach for the assessment of simulators for training combat casualty care in the military using training-transfer methodologies adopted from the aviation and military simulation domains. The approach will use a combination of subjective and objective methods previously developed for non-medical simulation applications, and the investigators will test the efficacy of the training platforms by studying the transference from simulator training to medical performance. The collaboration involves the evaluation of simulation products being developed by SimQuest in concert with the Howard University College of Medicine, providing a context in which to examine medical simulators in a surgical residency program. Workshops and a pilot study will be held during the Phase I project to establish the foundation for development of a standardized framework for assessment of the effectiveness of medical simulators under the guidance of an expert Advisory Board. Additional studies during the Phase II project period will extend the framework developed during the Phase I project period to combat medic and trauma surgery training centers in the military. It is anticipated that this approach will provide tremendous value for determination of the effectiveness of medical simulation in the U.S. military. The ability to bring a robust and objective framework for evaluation of medical simulators, developed in the context of the proposed STTR project, will greatly enhance the dissemination of SimQuest's products because they will be proven to provide a valuable training experience for the end-user. SimQuest's products are initially targeted on prehospital and surgical skills training. In the military, there are almost 100,000 medical personnel who can benefit from training. Enlisted medical personnel such as medics and corpsmen, are now being asked to perform life-saving surgical methods. The emergence of the 91W combat medic requires advanced life-saving skills training, and these are expected to eventually require paramedic skills. Almost 27,000 91W combat medics will require certification, and SimQuest's medical simulators can be used to train and assess the performance of these individuals. In the civilian sector, there are 122,569 state-licensed paramedics (EMT-P), 501,584 individuals licensed at the EMT-Basic (EMT-B) level and 45,009 at the EMT-I (Intermediate) level.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7
Burlington, MA 01803-5169
(781) 273-4770

PI: Dr. Steven Richtsmeier
(781) 273-4770
Contract #: DAAD13-02-P-0071
LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY
C-PCS, MS J567
Los Alamos, NM 87545
(505) 665-0154

ID#: 44319
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 09SEP02
Title: 3D Lidar Simulation Model for Development and Validation of Biological and Chemical Agent Detection and Identification Algorithms
Abstract:   There is a diversity of active and passive sensors and associated processing algorithms proposed and under development for remote detection of chemical and biological agents. It would be highly beneficial to have a consistent and accurate means for comparing, evaluating, and projecting system and algorithm performance over the full range of anticipated operational conditions. For many practical reasons, including cost, time, and the release of hazardous materials, field measurements alone cannot fulfill this need. However, field measurements supplemented with scene/sensor simulations offer a robust solution to this problem. Spectral Sciences, Inc. in collaboration with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, proposes the development and validation of a state-of-the-art physics-based scene/sensor simulation model targeted at active and passive sensors and algorithms for chemical and biological agent detection. The model will be an extension to an existing simulation package developed by SSI for hyperspectral and multispectral imaging sensors. It would be validated against existing field measurements to demonstrate its ability to realistically represent real world situations. This would enable reliable simulation-based extrapolation of limited field data to other environmental and background/clutter conditions, different biological and chemical agents, viewing platforms, and sensor wavelengths types. The commercial product will be a LIDAR scene simulation software package for use by researchers for development of vapor/aerosol detection algorithms as well as by instrument designers.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
(858) 675-7404

PI: Dr. M. Martin Szczesniak
(858) 675-7404
Contract #: DAAD13-02-P-0054
OAK RIDGE (BWXT Y-12, LLC)
Y-12 National Security Complex, P.O. Box 2009, Bear Creek Rd
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8096
(865) 574-1717

ID#: 44315
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Detection of Liquids on Surfaces using Long Wave Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroradiometer
Abstract:   The objective of the Phase I Fast Track STTR is to conduct a feasibility study of detecting liquid contaminants on the ground using a passive LWIR HSI spectroradiometer. SOC has already developed an accurate and validated VIS-LWIR HSI optical signature code which includes models of the cold sky irradiance onto contaminated surfaces to determine the differential radiance as a contaminant is placed on various surfaces, e.g., painted metal, concrete, grass and dirt. Due to the importance of the effort, SOC has already identified a qualified Phase II partner to support our effort. The SOC team including Y-12 National Security Complex (NSF designated FFRDC), SSI, TRA and CEB Metasystems has already conducted an initial liquid contaminant detection on various substrates feasbility analysis utilizing a passive LWIR HSI spectroradiometer analytical and hardware sensor simulation models. To satisfy the objective of the Phase I program, the SOC team will conduct the following tasks: (1) Conduct liquid contaminants detection phenomenology definition analysis; (2) Conduct laboratory materials measurements; (3) Conduct liquid simulant/background signatures simulations; (4) Define LWIR HSI spectroradiometer requirements; (5) Conduct LWIR HSI spectroradiometer laboratory and field measurements; (6) Identify potential sources of capital for commercialization; (7) Provide reporting. Completion of these tasks will satisfy the objective of our program, "to conduct a feasibility study of detecting liquid contaminants on the ground using a passive LWIR HSI spectroradiometer." The effort will develop the technical underpinnings for a real-time LWIR HSI sensor and signature based processing techniques to detect liquid contaminants on various battlefield surfaces. Using laboratory materials measurements and the available ENSIR simulation code, SOC will determine the expected performance of a LWIR HSI spectroradiometer to detect the liquid contaminants so as to be able to define a realistic Phase II plan for development and demonstration on an improved breadboard LWIR HSI instrument for dual-use applications. The program will provide the technology background to be able to design and develop future high performance real-time LWIR HSI instruments, heretofore unavailable, benefiting not only the Army, but also industry. The real-time high performance LWIR HSI spectroradiometer system developed under this topic could be applied to a range of planned commercial HS remote sensing systems for both commercial and military applications. Potential military applications include night attack CC&D target detection and identification, terrain/trafficability analysis. Potential commercial applications include remote sensing for geological, land use monitoring, agricultural, and mineral exploration purposes.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive, P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-2150
(734) 213-1637

PI: Dr. Alexander Schechter
(734) 213-1637
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0070
UNIV. OF MICHIGAN
3003 South State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1274
(734) 764-7242

ID#: 44177-CH
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Novel Membranes and Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cells
Abstract:   In this phase I SBIR, T/J Technologies will demonstrate the use of an intermediate temperature (200-250oC) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The fuel cell will be based on a novel polymeric membrane Polyvinazene (2-vinyl-4,5dicyanoimidazole). We will collaborate with investigators from the University of Michigan who have developed new synthetic methods to produce this polymer and are the leaders in the field of imidazole based polymers. The Polyvinazene has high thermal stability (>300oC) and contains electron withdrawing cyano groups that increase the acidity of the imidazole. This should impart high proton conductivity at low levels of humidification and without requiring high concentrations of supporting acids. Easy processibility and low cost are also advantages over other polymer materials previously suggested for use in fuel cells. Proton conductivities will be determined for undoped membranes and membranes doped with phosphoric or sulfuric acid. Promising candidates will be tested for methanol vapor and oxygen permeation and will be used in DMFC cells operating at 220oC. In Phase II we will use the best performing membrane from Phase I to demonstrate a compact DMFC stack with an output power of 20-50W and temperature of 250oC. Other fuels may also be considered in Phase II. This project will result in intermediate temperature direct methanol fuel cells based on a new family of polymer electrolytes. This fuel cell will provide high power density, low water dependency of the conductivity, and will not leach out acids. The new polymer electrolytes could also significantly reduce the cost of PEMFC that operate on reformed hydrocarbons by substantially enhancing CO tolerance. The projected commercial cost of the membranes are $50/lb, significantly lower than Nafionr. Broad commercial applications exist for intermediate temperature fuel cells, including portable/off-grid power supplies and vehicle propulsion.

THE DAVIS NELSON COMPANY
810 Polk Street
Port Townsend, WA 98368
(541) 726-1151

PI: Ms. Phyllis Chiasson
(541) 726-1151
Contract #: DASW01-02-P-0749
INSTITUTE OF COGNITIVE & DECISION
1227 University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1227
(541) 346-0475

ID#: 44307
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Underlying Cognitive Processes of Leadership Behavior & Development
Abstract:   A serious problem in leader selection, training, and development is that certain tendencies (such as ego defense mechanisms and biased processing of self-related information) present significant barriers to accurate self-awareness hindering new learning, improvement, and effective decision-making. Seventeen years of field research indicate that barriers to accurate self-awareness have roots in non-verbal reasoning habits. This proposal delineates the research plan for evaluating the accuracy and effectiveness of the Davis Non-verbal (DNV) assessment of reasoning habits and the context(s) for which each habit-pattern is most effective. Since reasoning habits are non-verbal, people rarely know how they arrive at a decision or judgment, making it difficult to independently change or adapt these ingrained habits, even when desiring to do so. Self-insight about these habits rarely occurs without information gained from the application of our measurement instrument (DNV). This research plan aims to establish the feasibility of applying the DNV tool (used 20+ years in business and education) to the domain of leadership development in the U.S. Army. This proposal aims to scientifically evaluate: 1) the reliability of the DNV; 2) its ability to assess habitual reasoning styles; 3) its ability to predict leadership behavior beyond standard measures of intelligence and personality. Phase I will validate the DNV's ability to predict leadership behavior, and produce the necessary validation for commercialization of the DNV assessment tool. We anticipate wide commercial application of the Phase II end product in its use as a tool in situations where the outcome of implemented decisions have significant impact. For example, DNV assessment results can be (and have been) used for self-development, leader training, career planning, hiring decisions for executive positions, for reducing worker-injury, for increasing teacher effectiveness, and to facilitate problem-specific interventions for persons with developmental disabilities. The variety of applications of the DNV are limited only by available resources.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117-3139
(805) 968-6787

PI: Mr. Ben Juricek
(805) 968-6787
Contract #: DAMD17-02-C-0119
UNIV. OF WISCONSIN-MADISON
Research & Sponsored Programs, 750 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-0253

ID#: 44330
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-019       Awarded: 16AUG02
Title: Generalized Linear Mixed-Effects Models in R
Abstract:   The Nonlinear and Linear Mixed-Effects (NLME) package for the open source statistical software system R provides an effective and efficient way to analyze longitudinal data collected from nested groups of subjects when the response of interest is on a continuous scale. At present it does not provide methods for analyzing binary, multinomial, or ordinal responses. There are some functions in other R packages, such as the glmmPQL function in the MASS package and the glmm function in the GLMMGibbs package, that can fit a generalized linear mixed model suitable for binary responses. Models for multinomial or ordinal responses are not yet as well defined as models for binary responses. For Phase 1 we will concentrate on enhancing the R implementation of the generalized linear mixed model, beginning with the glmmPQL approach but allowing for later extensions to more accurate approaches (e.g., Adaptive Gaussian Quadrature). We will use a set of simulated data sets described by Rodriguez and Goldman (1995, 2001) to test and validate the toolbox. We will evaluate different approaches to modeling ordinal and multinomial data, the theory of which is less well developed than that of binomial data, and identify methods for implementing the approaches in the toolbox. The successful completion of this research will result in extensions to the NLME package for R that will enable statisticians and analysts to build generalized linear mixed-effects models for binary and ordinal data, especially longitudinal data.

TWILIGHT TRAINING
912 Midnight Pass
Rockwall, TX 75087
(214) 335-9949

PI: Mr. J. Chris White
(214) 335-9949
Contract #: DASW01-02-P-0748
FOUNDATION FOR RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS
5723 Harvest Hill, Suite 1039
Dallas, TX 75248
(972) 239-9559

ID#: 44309
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 03SEP02
Title: Leader Self-Development Support Program with Classroom and Web-Based Components
Abstract:   Twilight Training and the Foundation for Responsible Citizenship propose to develop a leader self-development support program for the Army that includes both a classroom component and a web-based component. The classroom component will serve to introduce participants to numerous concepts and theories related to self-insight and self-development, as well as conduct several self-assessments to gage the current self-development awareness and skills of each individual participant. At the conclusion of the classroom component, tailored action plans will be developed for each individual participant. The web portal then serves as the mechanism for follow-on training, collaboration, and other activities (e.g., journaling). Each participant's view of the web portal will differ based on the individual's action plan. The list of on-line courses to take, resources to review, and other action items will be different for each participant. The web portal is then used to access these on-line courses and resources, as well as communicate and collaborate with others in this new Army leader community. Additional self-assessments can be conducted via the web portal to compare development progress with baseline scores from the classroom component of the program. Because leaders are often at higher levels of an organization and, therefore, influence or put in place the "system" in which others have to operate, leaders have a serious responsibility to "do the right thing." Being able to do the right thing stems from the individual leader having a strong sense of who he or she is, what he or she stands for, and how he or she operates and relates to others. This is all part of the self-development and self-improvement process for the leader. The leader self-development support program proposed on this effort addresses these issues and will push each participant to gain a fuller and more honest understanding of his or her identity, preferences, strengths, and areas for improvement. The end result will be a set of leaders who have integrity, forthrightness, and trustworthiness. In addition, through the web portal, these leaders will have a community in which they learn new skills, develop new insights, and collaborate and learn from others in the same field. This increases the opportunity for and quality of self-development for each individual. In addition, the proposed program has enormous commercial applicability as well. Many business and education organizations have as much need for strong and capable leaders as the military does.

XIDEX CORP.
8906 Wall Street, Suite 105
Austin, TX 78754
(512) 339-0608

PI: Mr. Vladimir Mancevski
(512) 339-0608
Contract #: DAAD19-02-C-0064
THE UNIV. OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
PO Box 7726
Austin, TX 78713-7726
(512) 471-6424

ID#: 44193-MS
Agency: ARMY
Topic#: 02-010       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Using Ultrasensitive Oscillators
Abstract:   Xidex Corporation and The University of Texas at Austin propose to demonstrate the feasibility of single nuclear spin detection using ultrasensitive mechanical oscillators. Two oscillator configurations will be investigated: high-Q silicon multiple-torsional oscillators, and carbon nanotubes fabricated for use as oscillators using Xidex?s proprietary method. The work will build on earlier success of the Xidex-UT team by demonstrating the low-temperature force sensitivity of our current oscillators and by fabricating oscillators with one to two orders of magnitude better sensitivity, thereby achieving minimum detectable force levels required for single spin detection in Phase II. Phase I will include detection of a submicron size specimen of protons at a temperature of 0.3 K, detection of nanotube oscillator resonance and determination of the achievable force sensitivity of carbon nanotube oscillators with different diameters. Our commercial objective is to introduce a new analytical instrument that affords single atom detection and resolution. Applications include composition and crystal structure of materials, structural biology, dopant concentration at atomic resolution for semiconductor manufacturing, and new solid state physics research applications. We also plan nearer-term commercialization of a room-temperature quantum microscope based on NMRFM technology for use in clinical medicine and biological research. Composition and crystal structure of materials, structural biology, dopant concentration at atomic resolution for semiconductor manufacturing, and new solid state physics research applications, clinical medicine and biological research.

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COUGAAR SOFTWARE, INC.
9401 Mathy Drive, Suite 360
Fairfax, VA 22031-5312
(703) 764-7000

PI: Dr. Todd M. Carrico
(703) 764-7000
Contract #: DAAH0102CR201
UNIV. OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK
Office of Research, 3112 Lee Building
College Park, MD 20742
(301) 405-4577

ID#: 02ST1-0012
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 12JUN02
Title: Agent-based Active Methods: Process-oriented User Environments for Dynamic Assembly of Composite Functional Applications and Distributed, Collaborativ
Abstract:   Cougaar Software is proposing a innoavtive new approach to user environments, one powered by distributed agent technology and utilizing the latest in JavaBean, Component, Design Pattern and Agent technology to achieve something never before possible - dynamic process-based composable user interfaces with active shared data spaces, as shown in Figure 1. This approach will realize the concept of Active Methods as well as provide significant flexibility and control to the operational user. By realizing the objectives of this proposal a powerful new user interaction environment will be created which will give users the power to manage functional process, automatically maintain collaborative information space between applications and among distributed users, and assemble new functional processes and composite applications on the fly. Ultimately, this will achieve the first generation of intelligent user interaction environments.

DAKOTA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2201-A 12th St. N
Fargo, ND 58102
(701) 237-4908

PI: Dr. Mark Pavicic
(701) 237-4908
Contract #: DAAH0102CR204
LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LAB
One Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 46A-1123
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 486-7471

ID#: 02ST1-0037
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-006       Awarded: 02JUL02
Title: FISO Digitizer for Flash Capture A/D Conversion
Abstract:   Serious resolution, power, and affordability barriers confront the state-of-the-art in high-speed analog-to-digital (A/D) converters. Many applications require accurate capture of short, widely spaced transients, as opposed to continuous digitization. A "flash capture" approach to transient digitization could improve resolution by 2-4 bits, reduce power requirements by 100, and reduce unit cost by a factor of 25. More than a decade's experience with the "fast-in slow-out" (FISO) approach to flash capture A/D conversion is available from neutrino telescope and similar high-energy physics projects. In this approach, the device samples the input signal at a high rate for the duration of a transient and stores the samples in an analog memory. Then, at lower rate, the stored samples are converted from analog to digital form. The team of Dakota Technologies, Inc. (DTI) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is targeting a sub-micron CMOS device that also incorporates digital signal processing on the chip. A wide range of military, commercial, and research applications is envisioned, including calibration and interference cancellation in communications and radar systems, detectors in high-energy physics, and instruments that analyze fluorescence decay profiles to detect biological agents. The low power, low cost, and exceptional performance of the transient digitizer chip make it highly suitable for a wide variety of pulse measurements, including calibration and interference cancellation in communications and radar systems, high-energy physics detectors, and biological agent detection. It is especially valuable for systems with many signal channels. The chip is also likely to replace digital oscilloscopes and board-level transient digitizers in high-speed applications where continuous or long transient digitization is not required.

DSP TECHNIQUES, INC.
3121 Althorp Way
Lexington, KY 40509
(859) 543-2428

PI: Mr. Ernest Seagraves
(859) 543-2428
Contract #: DAAH0102CR209
UNIV. OF KENTUCKY
312 CRMS Bldg, University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506
(859) 257-8827

ID#: 02ST1-0025
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-003       Awarded: 24JUN02
Title: Exploitation of Nonlinear Wave Phenomena in Sensing and Communication
Abstract:   Fundamental defense applications ranging from communications to remote sensing systems exploit the information content of acoustic electromagnetic signals and waves. In practice, both intentional and unintentional nonlinear interactions play significant performance determining roles in the systems responsible for generation, transmission, reception, processing, and analysis of the signals. Analytic and numerical tools for understanding the detailed nature and systems level impact of these nonlinear phenomena are critically needed for a spectrum of applications ranging from controlling intermodulation distortion in novel amplifier designs to the solution of inverse scattering problems associated with surveillance problems. Present modeling and design capabilities are impeded by the high computational complexity of current models and data analysis techniques in these arenas. The goal of this research will be the development and validation of efficient new numerical and data analytic tools for empirical real time modeling of nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic or acoustic waves, and demonstration in applications of defense interest. The goal is to achieve efficient decomposition of complex interaction and dimensionality reduction in representations of nonlinear devices and systems. The resulting representations should be capable of providing an effective and affordable "fingerprinting" of nonlinear effects encountered in systems of interest to the DoD. Present modeling and design capabilities are impeded by the high computational complexity of current models and data analysis techniques in these arenas. The goal of this research will be the development and validation of efficient new numerical and data analytic tools for empirical real time modeling of nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic or acoustic waves, and demonstration in applications of defense interest. The goal is to achieve efficient decomposition of complex interaction and dimensionality reduction in representations of nonlinear devices and systems. The resulting representations should be capable of providing an effective and affordable "fingerprinting" of nonlinear effects encountered in systems of interest to the DoD.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451-1196
(781) 684-4242

PI: Mr. John Williams
(781) 684-4375
Contract #: DAAH0102CR205
UNIV. OF WASHINGTON
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Box 3524000
Seattle, WA 98195-2400
(206) 543-4043

ID#: 02ST1-0034
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 20JUN02
Title: Condenser and Particle Separator for Liquid Air Cycle Engines
Abstract:   The innovation addressed in this proposal is a Condenser and Particle Separator, or CAPS, for liquid air cycle engine (LACE) heat exchangers. LACE-based propulsion concepts have a great deal of promise for powering single stage to orbit (SSTO) and hypersonic cruiser vehicles. However, to realize this promise, they must overcome two fundamental problems: 1) heat exchanger fouling due (primarily) to atmospheric water vapor, and 2) vulnerability to foreign object damage (FOD). The proposed CAPS system would address both of these issues in an entirely passive manner, employing no moving parts, electrical power, or expendable materials. (P020325) The proposed innovation is focused on LACE-enabled SSTO launch services and hypersonic flight. However, CAPS water and FOD mitigation technologies can find broad commercial applicability in the domestic and international economies. For example, many sectors of industry rely on cryogenic fluids to supply gas on demand. One of the most critical components of these systems is the ambient air cryogenic vaporizer. Current designs for cryogenic vaporizers in low- to moderate-flowrate installations are greatly oversized to accommodate the deleterious effects of frost formation. In addition to the cost penalty of the redundant surface area, the resulting volume and footprint of these systems often dictates dedicated site planning. If a forced-air CAPS system could provide the same gas flow from, for example, a compact rooftop system, a large market for vaporizer installations and retrofits would open up. The chemical, petroleum, plastics, medical, aerospace and biotechnology industries are all consumers of process gas technologies. In addition to cryogenic vaporizers, CAPS will also present spin-off opportunities in the areas of particle and phase separation. This is a critical component of numerous industries. Innovations made toward high-performance, low pressure-drop separators would find immediate application across a wide spectrum of economic activities.

MAYA VIZ
2100 Wharton Street, Suite 702
Pittsburgh, PA 15203
(412) 488-2900

PI: Dr. Steven Roth
(412) 488-2900
Contract #: DAAH0102CR202
CARNEGIE MELLON UNIV.
School of Computer Science, 5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
(412) 268-8812

ID#: 02ST1-0016
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 12JUN02
Title: An Electronic Workspace for the Commander
Abstract:   The military is moving toward a more agile command and support structure requiring flexible, responsive tools. To address the emerging needs of this updated structure, systems must be able to rapidly adapt to the needs of the group charged with solving a problem, and they must allow commanders to rapidly transform information into knowledge. Most decision support environments are stovepipes - systems where information is trapped in the applications that create it - and thus cannot adequately address these needs. Earlier work at MAYA Viz has established the viability of our approach to solving stovepiping problems through a robust and flexible information architecture, user-composible appliances, and a consistent interface physics. Our systems have been successful at promoting individual, local understanding of logistics and planning problems. In this paper, we propose developing a knowledge-level information architecture that aggregates ongoing analysis products according to command-level requirements. The proposed solution would allow commanders to bring isolated plans and assessments together in ways that inform and expand their knowledge of the status of local efforts The outcome will be government and commercial applications for monitoring the implications of information flow and an infrastructure for command-level decision-making. More generally, components for visualizing and navigating across multiple layers of disparate data spaces can be embedded in future applications in many domains.

POLEXIS, INC.
2815 Camino del Rio South, Third Floor/Suite 300
San Diego, CA 92108
(619) 542-7256

PI: Mr. Barrett F. Richey
(619) 542-7226
Contract #: DAAH0102CR203
UC SAN DIEGO, SDSC
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0505
(858) 534-5035

ID#: 02ST1-0018
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 19JUN02
Title: Active Methods for Warfighters
Abstract:   The software prototype explores an open architecture that walks many collaborators through a series of steps for completing a task by presenting the collaborators with just the right collaborative tools positioned in just the right place and configured in just the right way with just the right content and with just the right instructions to complete each step. The prototype explores 1) the use of XML to describe the mission-specific, role-based processes, including process controls, inputs, outputs, etc., screen layout, tool configuration, collaborators, and workflow; 2) visually-oriented process authoring; 3) the automatic screen layout, invocation, configuration, and synchronization of collaborative tools on all of the collaborators' desktops at each step in the task; 4) a full-screen Virtual Acetate that a) permits the collaborators to create and share annotations (e.g., lines, notes) on their shared view of each step; b) attaches lines (programmatically) to objects rendered in the various windows to show relationships among the objects. The Virtual Acetate allows lines and other annotations to cross window and window pane boundaries, while the windows still reside on their native desktop (i.e., no requirement for a virtual desktop). The benefits of walking collaborators through a series of steps increase as the complexity of the collaborative process increases and as the number of collaborators increase, such as when the collaboration involves hundreds of collaborators and many different collaborative tools (e.g., maps, portals, spreadsheets, mission-specific analysis tools), where different tools and different configurations are used for each step. In today's global economy, more and more companies are geographically distributed, and in this age of information the need to share information and collaborate are ever increasing. Coupled with the ever-present business pressures to reduce costs, effectively conducting distributed, collaborative tasks is paramount. Furthermore, the terrorist attacks on U.S. targets in September have caused a decline in business travel and have put companies under increasing pressure to find ways to collaborate over long distances, according to CIMdata, a research and consulting firm.1 1 Elliott, Recession Spurs Collaboration Market, Design News, Dec. 17, 2001, Vol. 56 Issue 24, p27

SCIPERIO, INC.
5202-2 N. Richmond Hill Rd.
Stillwater, OK 74075-1637
(405) 624-5751

PI: Mr. Michael Wilhelm
(405) 624-5751
Contract #: DAAH0102CR199
APPLIED RESEARCH LAB - PENN STATE UNIV.
Pennsylvania State University, PO Box 30
State College, PA 16804
(814) 863-7187

ID#: 02ST1-0005
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 13JUN02
Title: Innovative Antenna Concepts for Soldier and Field Applications
Abstract:   The future battlefield will feature highly advanced targeting and firepower and will therefore require significant advancements in real-time information feed back for individual soldiers. Advanced communications and sensors systems can inform the soldier and his commander of, for example, the locations and identities of hazards and details of his physical condition. To advance this goal, radio-frequencies, RF antennas are typically large, stand alone metallic rods, or wraparound wires, not part of the soldiers uniform's fabric. Antennas and RF circuit elements that could be placed on fabric would provide significant advantages. Antennas on fabric could turn camouflage net, tents, or backpacks into communications systems. Sciperio is ideally positioned to take its existing direct-write antenna technology, demonstrated on ceramics and plastics, and moved to the logical next step, conformal antenna deposition on cloth. Sciperio's prototype technologies and processes enable the direct writing of a variety of sensor and circuit elements onto textiles or other flexible materials, E.G., the uniform by individual soldiers. Broadband and multiband antennas used as integrated features in textile garments. Devices usable in nearly every situation in which users now communicate with headsets or handheld communication devices.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: Dr. Arthur Gavrin
(978) 250-4200
Contract #: DAAH0102CR200
UNIV. OF MASS AT AMHERST
8-B Marcus Hall, Dept of Electrical & Computer
Amherst, MA 01003
(413) 545-2127

ID#: 02ST1-0006
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 14JUN02
Title: Conformal RF Antenna
Abstract:   Triton's team proposes to develop a conformal RF antenna technology incorporating polymeric materials that can be used in variety of applications from fabric-based solider antennas to antennas that can be applied in the field to a variety of surfaces. In phase I, we will evaluate the integrity of the proposed conformal RF antennas, in terms of fatigue, creasing, and launderability. In phase II, we will design and fabricate several prototype antennas that can be used for a variety of applications from wearable to field deployable. In phase II, we will also verify the performance of these antennas through laboratory and field-testing. The proposed technology will be used by both land and sea based Special Operations Forces and may be useful for programs such as Small Unit Operations (SUO).

XCOR AEROSPACE, INC.
P.O. Box 1163
Mojave, CA 93502
(661) 824-4714

PI: Dan DeLong
(661) 824-4714
Contract #: DAAH0102CR208
CALIFORNIA SPACE INSTITUTE
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0524
(858) 822-2545

ID#: 02ST1-0032
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-004       Awarded: 20JUN02
Title: Piston Pump for Rocket Propellant Applications
Abstract:   Large rocket engines have traditionally used turbo-centrifugal pumps. These have worked well, but are not suited for the small-scale applications up to 10,000 lbf thrust. XCOR proposes to develop a piston pump to fill this size niche. Anticipated benefits include the ability to start and stop in tens of milliseconds to allow use with reaction control and maneuvering thrusters. Advantages compared to the current small-scale pressure-fed systems include lighter weight propellant tanks, and the ability to support higher chamber pressure, thus allowing lighter rocket engines with higher expansion nozzles and higher specific impulse in the same packaging volume. Commercial applications include satellites and low cost upper stages for satellite launch. Military uses also include target, interceptor, and satellite maneuvering vehicles. XCOR has designed, built, and started testing a breadboard piston motor-pump assembly, and proposes to characterize performance of this test article. We will also do preliminary design of a flight weight piston pump sized for a small-scale rocket engine. Phase one design work will determine suitability for flight applications, and estimate development and manufacturing costs. This development is applicable to the oxidizer section of hybrid rockets as well as liquid systems. Once developed, this technology will allow substantial reductions in the dry weight of rocket propulsion systems currently using pressure-fed propellants, such as satellites, small upper stages, and divert thrusters. The combined size of these markets for small propulsion systems represents a potential pump market of $20 million per year for government and commercial customers. In addition, small pump-fed engines are an enabling technology for the emerging small reusable rocket vehicle market -- this market is currently undeveloped, but has significant growth potential. Small and affordable pumps may also open the tactical missile market to liquid and hybrid propulsion in niches currently dominated by solid propellants, opening up a much larger potential market.

YANKEE SCIENTIFIC, INC.
93 West St.
Medfield, MA 02052
(508) 359-7999

PI: Dr. Eric C. Guyer
(508) 359-7999
Contract #: DAAH0102CR206
PURDUE UNIV.
1282 Grissom Hall
West Lafayette, IN 47907
(765) 494-5126

ID#: 02ST1-0033
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 02-004       Awarded: 17JUL02
Title: Small Scale, Fast Reacting On-Demand, Propulsion Pump
Abstract:   The recent emergence of practical scroll fluid machine technology presents a new opportunity in liquid-fuel rocket engine propulsion pump and system design. In a number of terrestrial small-scale fluid power conversion applications, the scroll machine has become commercially important and has been shown to have key advantages over traditional reciprocating piston and other positive displacement fluid machines. There are a number of potential benefits of scroll fluid machine technology to the design of both the power-producing expanders and pumps of that comprise small-scale rocket propulsion pump systems. One of the distinguishing features of the scroll device is its ability to work with the expansion and compression of two-phase flow. Also, scroll fluid machines can achieve high isentropic efficiency similar to that of reciprocating pistons, but require no inlet and exhaust valves or valve operators. Unlike reciprocating machines, the scroll fluid device can be completely dynamically balanced, allowing for relatively high-speed, lightweight, and smooth-running machines. The proposed project will evaluate the potential of scroll fluid machine technology in the development of improved small-scale liquid-fuel rocket propulsion pump and engine systems. This will be achieved by bringing together developers of both scroll fluid power devices and rocket engine systems. The scroll fluid machine technology investigated and developed in this project will build upon and advance on-going commercial development of small-scale scroll machine fluid power and engine systems. This work can lead to improved small-scale rocket engine designs as well as commercial and industrial power conversion systems of many different types. Yankee Scientific is well-positioned to exploit new technology in this area.

---------- MDA ----------

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706-5013
(520) 573-6300

PI: Dr. Ranji Vaidyanathan
(520) 434-6392
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0280
UNIV. OF ARIZONA
P. O. Box 210012
Tucson, AZ 85721
(520) 621-3513

ID#: 02-0126T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 19AUG02
Title: Low cost integrated thermal management structures for high power electronics
Abstract:   In this Phase I SBIR program, a team consisting of Advanced Ceramics Research Inc. (ACR) and the University of Arizona (UA) propose to develop a novel, low-cost, integrated micro-channeled heat exchanger system for high power electronic applications such as that for space, high-speed missiles, and other weapon systems. The increased power density for these applications result in demanding conditions such as CTE mismatch and the need for increased thermal dissipation. In radar and other applications involving power electronics, thermal dissipation from the electronics approach levels as high as 500 W/cm2. ACR's Extrusion Free Forming approach will permit the fabrication of geometrically complex, three-dimensional structures directly from CAD designs. ACR will partner with UA to evaluate the effectiveness of these novel heat exchange structures for thermal management of high-power electronic modules. The components will be tested in single-phase and two-phase (boiling) flow in the UA Heat Transfer Laboratory to assess the overall heat transfer coefficient of several different geometries of heat exchangers that can be used in both passive and actively pumped cooling systems. Improved cooling techniques are required for reliable electronics with current trends toward increased packaging densities and higher power levels for applications such as aircraft avionics, electric power systems, radar and weapon systems.

ADVINTEC, LLC
3213 W. Main St., #267
Rapid City, SD 57702
(605) 484-1534

PI: Mr. Jon Nielsen
(605) 484-1534
Contract #: F69601-F-02-0245
S.D. SCHOOL OF MINES & TECHNOLOGY
501 E. St. Joseph Street
Rapid City, SD 57701-3995
(605) 394-2343

ID#: 02-0127T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 07JUN02
Title: Improved Performance of Composite Tanks in Cryogenic Storage Applications
Abstract:   The overall objective of the proposal is to improve performance of polymer matrix composite materials for cryogenic tank applications. The specific objectives of the program are: 1. Determine the effect of cryogenic exposure on PMCs, particularly on the interphase region. 2. Examine failed composite cryogenic tanks at the nanometer-level and higher to understand failure mechanisms. 3. Develop protocols to determine appropriate polymer curing to achieve better PMC performance in cryogenic tank applications. The technology transfer research detailed in this proposal will improve the performance of polymer matrix composites with respect to producibility and cycle life. With more information concerning permeability, PMC cryogenic tanks will find use in airborne laser systems, although this is not expected to be a high volume application as only 7 airborne laser systems are expected to be in service at any one time. The composite cryogenic tanks are also necessary for the development of 2nd and 3rd generation space vehicles, particularly reusable launch vehicles. Lightweight composite cryogenic tanks are required to reduce the launch cost from >$10,000/ lb. payload to <$1,000/ lb. payload, and overall mission cost to $5-7 million. Over $5 billion in grants are expected to be awarded towards developing these low cost space vehicles, showing the expected commercial potential of these vehicles, which are not feasible without composite cryogenic tanks.

AEROASTRO, INC.
520 Huntmar Park Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
(617) 451-8630

PI: Mr. Scott McDermott
(703) 709-2240
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0248
UNIV. OF ALABAMA IN HUNTSVILLE
203 Sparkman Drive
Huntsville, AL 35899
(256) 824-6578

ID#: 02-0069T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26JUN02
Title: A Multi-Mission, Integrated Avionics Module for Short-Duration MDA Applications
Abstract:   For missions deploying maneuverable vehicles for Boost-Phase and Space-Based Intercept, as well as refueling and resupply for SBIRS Low and Space-Based Laser, MDA requires a compact, highly versatile avionics core with a design that can be reused at very low cost for a variety of missions. Leveraging previous work, AeroAstro and the University of Alabama Huntsville propose to develop a flexible, capable, and inexpensive multi-mission core avionics module that will serve as a common core for a variety of short-duration missions. This core will be highly flexible and re-useable for multiple mission designs. While varying MDA applications require unique spacecraft solutions, there are many similarities in basic avionics requirements that can be leveraged for a significant overall cost savings. Conventional design is heavily biased toward long-lifetime, solar-powered missions with high power and complex control schemes. Similarly, conventional design is effected in two discrete parts: a payload system, and a support system ("bus"). Although this functional partitioning of tasks should provide a foundation for efficient system design, the physical constraints inherent in spacecraft often force a structural interdependence that minimizes these advantages. This project will eliminate the reliance on a custom bus approach. AeroAstro and UAH believe there is a strong demand for this low-cost, flexible spacecraft electronics module, both within the government and in non-government organizations. The types of applications this development will benefit can be broken up into three main categories. The first category includes technology demonstration missions. These missions are generally budget limited and require only a limited time in space to demonstrate the performance of the device - these two factors make technology demonstration missions perfect candidates for the proposed technology. The second category includes Space Station deployables. There are a number of experiments for which the Space Station is an ideal launch platform but a poor experiment platform due to the shock, vibration and drag acceleration. A short-duration spacecraft, deployed from the Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for a low-cost mission; this is why we are focusing on ensuring its compatibility with the Space Station from the onset of the effort. The third category includes ejected vehicles - those missions which involve a larger spacecraft deploying small, ephemeral vehicles for exploration, communications relay, or synthetic aperture creation. The inexpensive nature of the proposed technology, along with its manufacturability, makes it ideally suited for these types of missions, significantly reducing schedule and budget concerns.

AEROASTRO, INC.
520 Huntmar Park Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
(617) 451-8630

PI: Mr. Ray Zenick
(858) 481-3785
Contract #: N00178-02-C-3125
MIT
Office of Sponsored Programs, 77 Mass. Ave., Room E19-750
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3856

ID#: 02-0075T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 20JUN02
Title: A Lightweight, Inexpensive, Low-Power Star Tracker for Small Satellites
Abstract:   Space vehicles designed to resupply systems such as SBIRS Low and Space-Based Laser, as well as maneuverable targets and interceptors, require an affordable, low system-impact sensor for attitude determination, especially when a high degree of navigation is required for high delta-v maneuvers. Today's star trackers are too massive, expensive, and power hungry to appropriately serve small maneuverable vehicles. However, lower-impact technologies, such as sun sensors, do not offer the flexibility and performance required for advanced mission profiles. AeroAstro and MIT propose an innovative approach to a low-impact star tracker serving these small maneuverable vehicles, balancing accuracy with power consumption, mass, and cost. No solution currently exists in this area of the trade space. The design uses a pinhole in place of traditional optics, takes advantage of the processing capabilities embedded in newer CMOS imagers to reduce power consumption and limit the amount of glue logic required, and exploits highly compact pattern recognition algorithms to find star pairs using a minimal star catalog. The solution offers accuracy better than 100 arc-seconds, meeting the unique requirements of small maneuverable space vehicles at a fraction of the cost, mass, and power consumption of larger, higher impact star trackers. AeroAstro and MIT see a wide variety of commercial and scientific applications enabled by the development of this star tracker technology. The system occupies a unique niche above sun sensors in capability but below CCD-based star trackers in cost and system impacts. The small satellite and maneuverable space vehicle communities have been seeking a component such as this for years, and commercialization of this product is expected to be received very positively. Ancillary benefits of this development work include an increased understanding of the use of a pinhole to replace bulky traditional optics, advances in developing fast and compact algorithms for pattern recognition, and an improved ability to take advantage of the imbedded processing capabilities in CMOS imagers to simplify component integration. Numerous microsatellite and nanosatellite programs planned for the near future will benefit from a star tracker that can operate within the limited mass, power, and cost budgets of small satellite missions. This star tracker will allow for a three-axis stabilized design at very low cost and open up new missions for small satellites and small maneuverable vehicles that were never before possible, especially in the areas of maneuverable targets and interceptors and on-orbit resupply missions. AeroAstro's work in the small satellite community enables us to bear witness to the nascent demand for this type of sensor, and to serve that demand effectively by commercializing this technology in Phase II.

AGILTRON CORP.
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890-4666
(781) 933-0513

PI: Dr. Lei Zhang
(781) 933-0513
Contract #: F33615-02-M-4023
TUFTS UNIV.
4 Colby Street
Medford, MA 02155
(617) 627-3417

ID#: 02-0030T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 30AUG02
Title: Continuous Wave Terahertz Source Photonic Band Engineering
Abstract:   The terahertz (THz) wave region is an underutilized electromagnetic spectrum in which generation is difficult. The existing THz sources are generated either by large and expensive free electron laser or by pulsed optical radiations. There is an increased need for continuous THz wave source of high temporal and spatial coherence. The practical use of THz spectrum requires new laser technology that are also energy efficient and cost effective. Recent progress in photonic band gap engineering holds a promise of realizing highly efficient coherent THz laser of most cost effective. Although there are several theories predicting efficient photonic band nonlinear optical generations of THz waves, such a feasibility demonstration has not been reported. In this program, AGILTRON and Tufts University propose to demonstrate a continuous wave terahertz parametric oscillator directly pumped by a diode laser using photonic crystal as parametric gain medium. With the engineerable phase matching and enhanced high gain properties available through photonic crystal, state-of-the-art cw terahertz wave laser is anticipated. The devices have a wide range of "dual use" applications in space communications and in active and passive imaging.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 413-1440

PI: Dr. Randolph E. Treece
(303) 413-1440
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0268
UNIV. OF COLORADO
Department of Electrical, and Computer Engineering
Boulder, CO 80309-0425
(303) 256-2326

ID#: 02-0056T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: Combinatorial Approach to Improved P-Type Contacts via Optimal Molecular Doping
Abstract:   Astralux, Inc. proposes to develop a novel and enabling p-type doping technology for the III-V nitrides with significant applications in the electronic and optoelectronic device arenas. Specifically, we will use molecular doping of magnesium (Mg) and oxygen (O) by ion implantation to improve upon the existing p-type doping technology, with the goal of significantly enhancing the dopant solubility, hole activation and hole mobility. Improved dopant solubility, hole activation and mobility will decrease the resistivity of the p-doped GaN material. The optimum molecular doping concentrations and material annealing times will be determined by using the combinatorial chemistry approach. The fundamental improvements in p-doping technology, and resultant reduction of resistivity, will not only enable improved contact technology and thereby ease the fabrication of InGaN laser diodes (LDs), but also facilitate commercial development of high power microwave devices such as AlGaN/GaN HBTs. During phase I we will unambiguously demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technical approach. In the anticipated Phase II effort we will focus on a commercial HBT fabrication process with device demonstrations for this promising new technology. The Astralux team includes experts in wide bandgap materials and devices, as well as combinatorial chemistry. The material improvements expected from the outcome of this research should enable the AlGaN/GaN system to reach its full potential in electronic applications such as heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and bibolar junction transistors (BJTs). Furthermore, improved p-type doping technology will lead to increasing the lifetimes of InGaN laser diodes and allow them to operate at lower bias voltages than is possible today.

ATLAS SCIENTIFIC
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120
(408) 507-0906

PI: Dr. Ali Kashani
(408) 507-0906
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0273
UNIV. OF WISCONSIN-MADISON
Dept of Mechanical Engineering, 1500 Engineering Dr.
Madison, WI 50706
(608) 262-0253

ID#: 02-0062T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: Hybrid Cooler System for Superconducting Electronics
Abstract:   We propose to develop an innovative 10 K cooling system that will be ideally suited to the cryogenic packaging requirements of a space-based superconducting electronics system. To achieve the most efficient and reliable hybrid cooler possible, we propose to combine a multi-stage, linear-drive pulse tube with a low-temperature reverse-Brayton stage. In this way we will take advantage of the strengths of each system, while minimizing their respective weaknesses. The system avoids the inherent losses associated with a regenerator at low temperature, as well as, the inefficiencies associated with the Joule-Thompson process, by incorporating a novel turbo-expander in the low temperature reverse-Brayton stage. The use of a low-vibration, linear, compressor for the pulse-tube stage provides a large pressure ratio allowing the size and expense of the recuperative heat exchanger to be minimized. These features result in a low-mass reverse-Brayton stage that can be fabricated reliably, at a reasonable cost, without sacrificing performance. The proposed hybrid cryocooler will achieve unprecedented efficiency below 10 K without resorting to high-unit-cost technologies such as super-critical shafts or extremely precise bearing clearances. The system will exhibit the high reliability and low vibration associated with pulse-tube and turbomachine-based reverse-Brayton systems. Many advances in missile defense applications, such as ground or space-based systems for surveillance and missile tracking, will require advances in electronic devices. For example, to improve the ultimate signal to noise ratio obtainable from cryogenic IR focal plane arrays (FPA), it is desirable to have on-focal plane, high-resolution, analog-to-digital data (A/D) converters. Such A/D converters, based on the Josephson effect in low-temperature superconductors, and supporting technology are currently in various stages of development Cryocoolers can also be employed in a wide variety of commercial applications. The following lists present and potential future applications: cryopumps for semiconductor manufacturing, liquefaction of industrial gases, HTS filters for the communication industry, superconducting magnets for MRI systems, superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage, SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies, superconducting router, radio astronomy, laboratory environment. The cooler that will be developed in the proposed project can be utilized in any number of the areas listed above. Potentially large markets for economical cryocoolers are the semiconductor and the communications industries.

CALL/RECALL, INC.
6160 Lusk Blvd., Suite C206
San Diego, CA 92121
(858) 550-0596

PI: Dr. Ed P. Walker
(858) 550-0596
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0284
OPTICAL SCIENCES CENTER,ODSC,UA
1630 E.University Blvd., Meinel Building
Tuscon, AZ 85721
(520) 621-8280

ID#: 02-0122T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 22AUG02
Title: Feasibility Analysis of Ultra Fast Data Rate Optical Random Access Storage Systems
Abstract:   The objective of this effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of producing at low cost, a removable write-once random access volumetric digital storage system that is capable of very high capacity (~TByte per removable media), fast access time (~100ms), and ultra fast recording and readout data rates (~1Gb/S) while achieving very high volumetric densities (~3Tb/in3). These figures make the proposed hybrid tape and disk based system ideally suited for security, and reconnaissance systems supporting high-speed data filtering, and content as well as index based data searching algorithms. The proposed hybrid tape recording disk readout approach presents the opportunity to launch a series of new products targeted for security and reconnaissance systems by the second half of this decade providing revolutionary performance critically needed for these applications.

CBL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1095 Eden Bower Lane
Redwood City, CA 94061
(650) 725-6910

PI: Dr. Glenn Solomon
(650) 725-6910
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0302
STANFORD UNIV.
Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 723-9775

ID#: 02-0083T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: High-Quality, Low-Cost GaN Epitaxy and Characterization
Abstract:   CBL Technologies and Stanford University propose a VPE growth process and novel GaN epilayer design for electronic/optoelectronic applications. In our low-cost, high-efficiency growth technique, thick GaN and related compounds can be deposited on a variety of substrates. Sequentially, but with altered growth parameters, the process also allows for device quality layers. Typically in other materials systems extremely thick buffer layers provide limited benefits; however, here thick buffer layers of various structures may provide significant electrical contact layers, thermal heat sinking, structural layers for lift-off processes, and improved crystal quality. We believe such a system has a wide range of applications from low-cost light-emitting diodes to solar-blind detectors and high temperature, radiation hard devices. To this end CBL Technologies and Stanford University propose to provide crystal growth, materials characterization and device fabrication of GaN related structures. In Phase I, CBL Technologies will produce GaN epilayers of various thicknesses and their quality will be assessed through materials characterization by Stanford University. This will provide an analysis of the range of device possibilities, and the effects of various growth conditions, as well as provide feedback for improvements. Phase II will consist of a full implementation of the system for novel device fabrication. It is expected that the characterization, assessment and improvement to the VPE-related growth processes made during the proposed work will translate to improved GaN-based devices. For example, low-cost structures could be fabricated and have a major impact in areas such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for white lighting applications. Other devices where performance is the driver may also benefit. For example, solar blind detectors, radiation hard devices, and lasers could be manufactured with improved performance. Because of the great military and commercial interest in systems utilizing GaN-based devices, we anticipate significant benefit from the development of this growth process. In Phase I of this proposal initial growth and characterization studies will provide the necessary feedback to improve the epilayer quality, and will help assess the possible range of device applications. In Phase II, target device structures will be fabricated and evaluated.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road, Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
(404) 351-0005

PI: Mr. Jeff Nause
(404) 351-0005
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0286
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
778 Atlantic Drive
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-9884

ID#: 02-0039T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Development of Lattice-Matched AlInN MBE Technology for UV Emitters and High Frequency Electronic Applications
Abstract:   Cermet, in collaboration with researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology, propose to implement a lattice matched AlInN using existing substrate technology. The implementation of a lattice matched substrate promises to produce near dislocation free AlInN heterojunction for the first time while the use of an existing substrate technology dramatically lowers development cost and reduces the development cycle. Specifically, we propose to use existing semiconductor substrates to grow lattice matched AlInN by Molecular Beam Epitaxy to produce superior optoelectronic and electronic devices. The MBE technique to be employed will ensure a greater control over the composition of the metals in the AlInN. The target composition of AlInN will result in the optimum wavelength (263nm) UV-emitters possible (ideal UV emitter wavelength preferred by DOD being 280nm), and should lead to reduced defect densities in transistor devices. Highly efficient vertical current LEDs and FETs will be demonstrated early in Phase II, based on the successful completion of Phase I objectives. The successful completion of Phase I goal will demonstrate the use of this technology to improve the performance of UV-Emitters, short wavelength LEDs, Laser Diodes, and other high frequency electronic devices.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road, Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
(404) 351-0005

PI: Dr. Vicente Munne
(404) 351-0005
Contract #:
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
225 North Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-6422

ID#: 02-0121T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: ZnO Based Integrated Photonics
Abstract:   ZnO is an excellent candidate for the growing field of nanophotonics due to its index of refraction, availability of native substrates, and the possibility of light emission. These properties make ZnO an ideal candidate on this growing field. Phase I work will concentrate in designing and characterizing waveguides, which will be the interconnects of future ZnO based devices built homoepitaxially on ZnO or heteroepitaxially on silicon. The ability to produce a photonic integrated circuit will produce a large cost reduction on optical telecommunications circuits as many fiber interconnects will be eliminated. In addition, a substantial reduction in optical device size will also be possible. Moreover, a new generation of photonic integrated systems will be enabled.

CF TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3 Le Mans Place
Pine Brook, NJ 07058
(973) 808-1081

PI: Dr. Haijiang Ou
(781) 762-0865
Contract #:
NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Professor Ken K. Chin, Department of Physics
Newark, NJ 07102
(973) 596-3615

ID#: 02-0035T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Lock-In Focal Plane Array
Abstract:   The current focal plane array (FPA) technology cannot detect extremely weak image and spectral photon signals buried in strong background (Is / Ib < 10 -7 ~ 10 -4), the detection of which is, however, crucial for missile defense systems. The lock-in amplifier [1] has been playing major roles in the detection of extremely weak photon signals. However, it costs a few thousand dollars and works only for a single photon detector. The challenge is how to utilize the principles of lock-in technique to the FPA. Recently, the theory and experimental demonstration of a single pixel of the lock-in focal plane array (LI-FPA) have been published [2-4]. As a first step in the process of making LI-FPA a practical device that will play vital roles in missile defense systems, as well as various commercial products, the objective of this proposed Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a linear LI-FPA. The technical goal is to design, fabricate, and test a 1x128 quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) LI-FPA, to be used as the sensor of a very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) spectrometer. The proposed combination of the two technologies _ the lock-in and the focal plane array _ offers a unique opportunity not only for the R&D of Missile Defense Agency and other DOD components, but also for astronomy and astrophysics, environmental monitoring, biomedicine, optical communications, and various areas involving the detection of extremely weak imaging, spectroscopic, and spectroscopic imaging signals. astronomy, soalr physics, astrophysics, environmental monitoring, optical communications, cancer early diagnosis, non-intrusive measurement of blood glucose level, and other biomedical applications.

CHAN & ASSOC.
23520 Telo Avenue, #4
Torrance, CA 90505
(310) 408-3225

PI: Dr. William S. Chan
(310) 408-3225
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0264
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE
University Blv., S2230 Engineering Gateway
Irvine, CA 92697
(949) 824-4194

ID#: 02-0042T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Ultra-sensitive Uncooled Bolometer FPA for Space Interceptors
Abstract:   An uncooled long wave infrared (LWIR) focal plane array (FPA) is proposed. It is fabricated with ultra-sensitive micro bolometers, micromachined entirely out of silicon using the MEMS (micro electro-optical mechanical system) technology. It consists of a 256x256 array of micro bolometers, each micromachined in a special form to possess an extremely high temperature-resistance coefficient for a detectivity of about an order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art bolometers. Integrated with on-chip readout and control electronics, the FPA is capable of a thermal imaging sensitivity of 0.001 K, ideal for space interceptor and missile seeker applications, for which compactness and uncooled operation are premium requirements. Phase 1 will define the FPA requirements, design the FPA and delineate its fabrication processes. Phase will fabricate, integrate and test a breadboard FPA with supporting electronics and optics. Interceptors and seekers, medical imaging and gas sensing

CHAN & ASSOC.
23520 Telo Avenue, #4
Torrance, CA 90505
(310) 408-3225

PI: Dr. William S. Chan
(310) 408-3225
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0279
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE
S2230 Engineering Gateway, University Blvd.
Irvine, CA 92697
(949) 824-4194

ID#: 02-0043T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: Uncooled VLWIR FPA Using Interferometry
Abstract:   We propose to develop a very long wave infrared (VLWIR) FPA (focal plane array) for missile seeker and space surveillance applications, for which the LWIR region is very important. It consists of a 2-D array of micromachined micro Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs), each of which contains a micro airgap cavity formed by two partially-reflecting mirrors, enclosing a micro-volume of air, and a photvoltaic detector sensitive to visible radiation. One of these mirrors is attached to a movable membrane that forms one wall of the cavity. When VLWIR radiation falls on the cavity, the movable mirror moves relative to the non-movable mirror due to the heating of the air by the incident VLWIR. This movement causes an interference of the visible light beam allowed to incident the cavity, and the inteference amplitude proportional to the heating of the cavity is detected by the visble photovoltaic detector attached to the non-movable mirror. Thus, the photovoltaic detector is highly sensitive to the VLWIR radiation falling on the cavity. The proposed FPA is essentially an array of visible detectors operated at room temperature and fabricated with the 0.25-micron CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) process. Its high VLWIR sensitivity is due to the interference effect caused by heating of the micro-volume of air in the cavity. Its fabrication involves the CMOS as well as the MEMS (micro electro-optical mechanical system) process technologies. Phase 1 will define the FPA system requirements, design the FPA system structure and delineate the fabrication processes. Phase 2 will fabricate the FPA using foundries and integrate and test a beadboard FPA system. Missile tracking, weapon systems, medical imaging and gas sensing

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Avenue
Northridge, CA 91324
(818) 727-9786

PI: Dr. Yuhong Huang
(818) 727-9786
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0286
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
4800 Oak Grove Drive, M/S 277-207
Pasadena, CA 91109
(818) 354-2067

ID#: 02-0066T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 22AUG02
Title: Mass Production Development of MicroPower-On-Chip
Abstract:   High performance power sources with lightweight and small volume are desirable to satisfy miniaturization in sensors, actuators, smart card, telecommunications, and space applications. High power density, energy density and long cycle life are defined as high performance for energy sources. In today's consumer market, there is a strong trend towards making consumer equipment smaller, portable and more highly functional. This, in turn, is greatly increasing demands for battery power systems to be light and small but still provide long run times. A common problem of in using a battery-only power source is that the capacity of the battery drops off dramatically at high discharge rates. With a combination of battery and supercapacitor to form a power pack, the power density of a 0.84 watt thin battery can be doubled with a 30 mF supercapacitor in parallel. At the mean time, the run time of the thin battery can be improved by a factor of 5. Therefore, we proposed to develop a screen printing process of fabricating thin film Zn-alkaline battery/supercapacitor hybrid power pack on plastic and chip: i.e. a micropower-on-chip technology with low cost. The power requirement for thin film power source can be divided into several categories: 1) high voltage and low current, such as for MEMs; 2) Low voltage and high current, such as for microprocessors, 3) Low voltage and low current, such as for memory backup in space, and 4) low voltage high pulse power and volume-less, such as for cell phone and smart card.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043-1613
(650) 210-9000

PI: Mr. Kenneth Potter
(505) 323-4900
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0247
TEXAS A&M UNIV.
332 WERC, 3000 TAMU (TEES)
College Station, TX 77843-3000
(979) 845-1324

ID#: 02-0031T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 17AUG02
Title: Integrated Simulation of Orbital and Structural Dynamics, Formation Flying, and Attitude Control for Flexible Space Systems
Abstract:   This effort will develop a novel flexible space system simulation architecture for predicting the on-orbit performance of large aperture space systems such as those envisioned for Space-Based Laser and other MDA/DoD applications. The principal objective of this proposal is to develop an architecture for a single unified simulation capability that encompasses all of the effects needed to accurately predict and subsequently control the complex dynamics of future lightweight flexible space systems. Specifically, this architecture will include orbital dynamics and perturbations, attitude dynamics, flexible body dynamics, formation control, and other effects to produce a physics based visualization tool for assessing the behavior of these systems. This effort will provide an improved capability for modeling and simulating the performance of flexible spacecraft and other complex systems (e.g. robotics). Benefits include: higher fidelity models, decreased design time, and visualization tools for understanding the complex dynamical behavior of these systems.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043-1613
(650) 210-9000

PI: Dr. Jerry Alcone
(505) 323-4900
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0269
DUKE UNIV.
Dept. Mech. Eng. and Mat Sci., Box 90300
Durham, NC 27708-0300
(919) 660-5435

ID#: 02-0032T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 13SEP02
Title: Optimal Sensing/Actuation Strategies for Vibration and Acoustic Control of Airborne Optical Systems
Abstract:   This effort will investigate a blending of Optimally Distributed Sensing and Actuation (ODAS) with Adaptive Filtering and Disturbance Feed-forward (AFDF) techniques with promise for simultaneously mitigating the impacts of Directed Energy (DE) system payloads on aircraft while improving the Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (ATP) performance of DE systems. The innovation is the integration and application of research in ODSA techniques with AFDF to coupled aircraft-flexible beam train applications. The ODSA techniques provide: 1) Sensor-actuator suite to measure and mitigate disturbances to the aircraft arising from the DE system; 2) Disturbance signal representing the structural/acoustic modes disturbing the forward path of the ATP system; 3)Similarly derived sensor set/signal representing those structural/acoustic modes disturbing the ATP feedback path. These signals are coherent with the beam control jitter induced by the respective modes and represent the dominate contributions of these modes. Thus they are ideal for use with AFDF to simultaneously control and mitigate vibration/acoustic induced effects on the coupled aircraft-DE system. The commercial potential for the Optimally Distributed Sensing and Actuation (ODAS) system and Adaptive Filtering and Disturbance Feed-forward (AFDF) techniques developed in this effort are significant, due to their broad applicability to many industries (e.g. automotive, semi-conductor, medical, etc.). Initially, CSA will focus on a transition to ABL. CSA is currently supporting Lockheed-Martin on the development of the integrated beam control system for ABL. This provides a transition path to the ABL program from a successful STTR effort. CSA also supports a number of other DoD, NASA , and commercial customers in the development of aerospace stabilization systems. Since CSA is an established provider of these solutions, insertion of the higher performance OSDA-AFDF algorithms represents a significant opportunity. CSA has broadened its customer base, recently completing projects in the automotive and semi-conductor industries that required advanced disturbance rejection. These customers are receptive to potential performance enhancements that require minimal hardware changes and investments. Because OSDA-AFDF potentially offers higher performance-lower cost via a more efficient use of available sensing and actuation capability, we believe these customers will be receptive to incorporating it in both existing and future products such as isolation tables for wafer manufacturing, high performance automotive suspension systems, etc.

CU AEROSPACE
2004 S. Wright St. Extended
Urbana, IL 61802
(217) 333-8272

PI: Dr. David Carroll
(217) 827-1077
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0275
UNIV. OF ILLINOIS, U-C
306 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St.
Urbana, IL 61801
(217) 333-2187

ID#: 02-0064T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 09JUN02
Title: Composite Materials for Cryogenic Storage Tanks and Superconductivity Applications
Abstract:   Composite cryogenic storage tanks will enable ABL and SBL program objectives by reducing structural weight, increasing reactant mass, reducing systems costs, and reducing risk to the programs. A recent development in composite materials design for multifunctional damage mitigation is proposed as a solution to the microcracking problem for composite tanks for storage of cryogens. By incorporating secondary functional phases in the polymeric matrix of a structural composite, microcracks can be effectively sealed automatically whenever they occur. Reactant materials flow into the cracks and are solidified in place, sealing the cracks and allowing the material to recover structural function. A multifunctional composite cryogenic tank based on this technology would prevent leakage by sealing microcracks throughout the lifetime of the tank and enable the use of composites in this critical application with low risk to mission success. This technology is critical to not only ABL and SBL mission objectives, but is fundamental to all superconductivity devices in which cryogens are used to maintain operational temperatures at design specifications. Multifunctional composite materials will be developed for applications in composite cryogenic storage tanks utilizing the filament winding processing technique. Successful development of the material system and processing methodology will enable the use of lightweight composite materials in a wide range of technological applications whenever there is a critical need for cryocoolers and stored cryogens.

EMITECH, INC.
476 Locust St., suite 5
Fall River, MA 02720-5059
(508) 324-0758

PI: Dr. A. Rakitin
(508) 324-0758
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0271
UNIV. OF RHODE ISLAND
Dept. of Chemistry,, 51 Lower College Rd., Pastore
Kingstone, RI 02881-0809
(401) 874-2318

ID#: 02-0033T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Electronic Smart Materials Based on Carbon Nanotube Sensors/Actuators
Abstract:   Emitech, Inc. proposes an innovative approach aimed at the development of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based thin film actuators/sensors possessing gravimetric work density up to 24000 J/kg per cycle, operating at frequencies up to 1 MHz, and at temperatures up to 700 C. This new concept is based on the quantum chemical effect of nanotube dimension change under charge doping/injection. The ability to move the position of CNT Fermi level through varying the voltage applied to the gate electrode (field effect) allows to control the doping charge through shifting Fermi level with respect to the CNT charge neutrality point. Two-in-one (actuation-sensing) scheme is implemented through using field-effect geometry, where actuation takes place when varying the voltage applied to the gate electrode, with sensing being achieved by monitoring current flowing through the nanotube. Direct charge injection scheme is implemented through using carbon nanotubes as (liquid or solid) electrolyte-filled electrodes of a super-capacitor. CNT actuators of this kind have advantage of low operational voltage beneficial for many applications. Thin-film actuators based on CNTs are anticipated to gain an advantage over piezoelectric films, shape memory alloys, and active polymers in: Much higher strain and strain energy density; Wider operational frequency and operational temperature range; Ability to simply control the actuator/detector operation range and signal level; Enhanced chemical stability; Simple and robust fabrication technique. The current multi-million dollar market for the thin-film actuators/detectors stands up for their numerous applications in military and consumer electronics, medicine, and space industry. The advanced features inherent to CNT-based actuators are believed to make them elemental devices to build up a new generation of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) beneficial to the whole field of emerging technologies.

EWING TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
5416 143rd Ave SE
Bellevue, WA 98006
(425) 746-1216

PI: Dr. J. J. Ewing
(425) 746-1216
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0293
UNIV. OF ILLINOIS
801 S. Wright Street, Office of Grants and Contracts
Champaign, IL 61820-6242
(217) 333-2187

ID#: 02-0059T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: 02-214B Gallium Nitride UV Detector Array with Micro-discharge Amplification.
Abstract:   This STTR Phase I effort will develop a Gallium Nitride avalanche photodiode detector array. The detector array will be sensitive in the UV, but will use a photoelectron avalanche mechanism that is applicable to detectors working at other wavelengths. As such the core technology can be readily extended to shorter UV wavelengths with the substitution of a different semi-conductor photo-sensitive electrode, such as SiC. The core technology can also be readily extended to IR wavelengths, again by the substitution of photo-sensitive electrode. The universal wavelength avalanche mechanism is a micro-discharge. These novel discharges feature small dimensions, of order 50microns, and high operating pressure. Our team has shown arrays of up to 900 micro-discharge elements in a few square mm with a silicon electrode. This work will extend the effort to UV sensitive photo-electrodes. Phase I will demonstrate the effect with a UV sensitive electrode. The research will lead to a broad range of very simple, amplifiying photo-detector arrays. The long term result will be sensitive detectors and inexpensive development and fabrication. The detectors can be used in hyper spectral imaging, remote sensing and machine vision.

FIREHOLE TECHNOLOGIES
P.O. Box 751
Laramie, WY 82073-0751
(307) 742-9227

PI: Dr. Steven Mayes
(607) 871-2058
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0244
ALFRED UNIV.
Office of Research, Saxon Dr.
Alfred, NY 14802
(607) 871-2863

ID#: 02-0105T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 12JUN02
Title: Improved Analysis Methods for Composite Cryogenic Storage Tanks
Abstract:   A drastic reduction in structural weight is an indispensable prerequisite to realize future Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) systems. Boost Defense segments of the program such as the Airborne Laser (ABL) and Space-Based Laser (SBL) require the storage and transport of large amounts of cryogens. All elements contributing to the cryogenic system mass must be as light as possible. Advanced composite materials have the potential to meet reduced weight requirements. Reliance on composite materials for cryogenic tanks increases the demand for accurate finite element analysis (FEA) failure predictions. Current failure analyses of engineered composite components using FEA is inadequate. Composites are made up of at least two materials that have drastically different properties and failure may be limited to a single constituent. Current FEA technology combines the constituent mechanical properties and models the composite as an idealized homogenous material. As a result, critical information about the failure of the constituents is sacrificed. Multicontinuum Theory (MCT) allows efficient extraction of constituent stress and strain fields from those of the composite during routine FEA. Constituent information allows implementation of failure prediction methodology at the constituent level where composite failure initiates and offers improved simulation of macro-level structure-load response. Firehole Technologies is a small Wyoming corporation looking to build on its composite analysis expertise and extend the capabilities of the MCT methodology that forms the core of its business. Developing a verified constituent based thermal analysis capability, including failure simulation, will expand the market that could benefit from such analyses (Integrated circuit board industry specifically), adding significantly to the value of MCT software and the net worth of Firehole Technologies Inc. Phase I development would provided the necessary foundation for developing innovative and improved composite cryogenic tank designs in Phase II based on improved thermal response simulations. Anticipated task to be accomplished under Phase II include the fabrication and testing of small scale, low mass, composite cryogenic tanks. Possible design concepts include: a. Low mass bosses in place of the existing metallic boss closure. Possible configuration include both metal and plastic bosses in either dome or flat plate closure design. b. Integrated tankage conforming to the system that it services. Ideally, the tank would serve a dual structural member-fluid storage role. c. Hybrid composites for tank construction. A coating (liner) is chosen that is compatible with the fluid to be contained and serves as a permeation barrier, carbon/epoxy layers provide structural containment, a layer of insulating material prevents large temperature gradients, an aramid layer provides impact resistance, and a final outer coating for fireproofing. Possible commingling of the aramid and carbon fibers could create a layer that provided both structural containment and impact resistance. Parametric design rules would be developed to allow laminate architecture to be custom designed to withstand a particular set of thermal and mechanical load requirements. Fabrication of a mass efficient composite cryogenic tank would be the deliverable under Phase II. A business decision will have to be made whether to develop a small filament winding capability in-house at Firehole Technologies (which would be a unique capability in Wyoming) or form a joint effort an out-of-house filament winding company. Following a building-block approach and using technology developed in Phase I and early Phase II fabrication of innovative mass efficient composite tanks would began with coupon testing, scaling up to small bottles, and finally to a sub-scale tank. This risk minimization approach that will result in the development and successful verification of the a sub-scale tank built of a composite material that is compatible with cryogenic liquids. Additional potential commercial applications of mass efficient composite cryogenic storage tanks include alternative-fuel motor vehicles, off-shore oil production, liquid-oxygen tanks for self contained breathing apparatus, chemical manufacturing, fuel tanks for launch vehicles, upper-stage space vehicles and other air- and space- born craft.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451-1196
(781) 684-4242

PI: Mr. Ronald Roy
(781) 684-4183
Contract #: N00178-02-C-3127
BOSTON UNIV.
25 Buick St.
Boston, MA 02215
(617) 353-4365

ID#: 02-0073T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Superior and Affordable Infrared Windows for High-Speed Missiles
Abstract:   The program will demonstrate the scientific, technical and commercial merit of our innovative infrared window material and cost-effective production process. The materials will have IR transmission characteristics close to that of current monolithic sapphire and ALON window materials. Additionally, our self-reinforced single crystal oxide material will provide a substantial improvement in thermal shock resistance and fracture toughness over sapphire and ALON. Also, our process can produce large and contoured windows to net shape. Our patented process involves short run times, can produce multiple components in one run, and can be automated. The resulting windows will cost substantially less than sapphire or ALON windows. Our team includes a major missile producer who will conduct optical testing for comparison to state-of-the-art IR window materials. The Phase I program will involve fabrication of IR window specimens, characterization (key optical, mechanical and thermal properties), preliminary performance and cost analyses, and formation of a strong team to start the commercialization process for this technology in Phase II. (P-020426) The thermal shock and temperature resistance of our material will enable IR windows and domes for hypersonic missiles for which a solution is currently not available. Our technology will also provide lower cost IR windows than sapphire or ALON for many current and future aircraft, missiles, ground vehicles and ships. Commercial applications will be found in sensor windows for industrial systems to monitor functions such as fuel combustion, pollutant generation and corrosion onset.

HEXATECH
5300 Mandrake Ct.
Raleigh, NC 27613
(919) 515-6178

PI: Dr. Ramon Collazo
(919) 515-7083
Contract #: F33615-02-M-5428
KANSAS STATE UNIV.
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Durland Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-5102
(785) 532-4320

ID#: 02-0084T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: Growth of large-area, single-crystalline AlN substrates (Subtopic A: Electronic Materials)
Abstract:   The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of large-area aluminum nitride (AlN) wafers for III-nitride substrate applications. The growth strategy consists of growing single crystalline AlN on adequately prepared SiC templates using a sublimation process. We propose to employ a multi-step deposition process to (1) avoid SiC decomposition, (2) prepare the SiC seed surface for AlN growth, and (3) to greatly reduce stress in the overgrown, single crystalline AlN. The use of SiC templates is appealing due to the ability of instantly producing large area growth. In this project, the feasibility of the proposed growth process will be explored on 1" 6H-SiC wafers. The proposed growth strategy will demonstrate the growth of large-area, single crystalline AlN crystals using specially prepared SiC wafers as seeds. The availability of large-size 6H-SiC wafers will enable and expedite future upscaling efforts. AlN wafers that will be fabricated eventually from the grown crystals will find an immediate application as lattice-matched substrates for high-quality epitaxy of III-nitrides and will enable the fabrication of superior quality AlGaN electronic and optoelectronic devices, including blue and ultraviolet solid state laser diodes, high-power and high-frequency transistors, solar-blind UV detectors and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Since the epitaxial processes and a variety of III-nitride device structures have been developed during the past ten years on less favorable substrates with large lattice mismatch, the penetration of these new AlN wafers into the market place can occur without delay and to the immediate benefit of device performance.

HEXATECH
5300 Mandrake Ct.
Raleigh, NC 27613
(919) 515-6178

PI: Dr. Ramon Collazo
(919) 515-7083
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0282
CLEMSON UNIV.
College of Engr. and Sciences, 114 Riggs Hall
Clemson, SC 29634
(864) 656-3200

ID#: 02-0120T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Process for volume production of GaN substrates (Subtopic A: Electronic Materials)
Abstract:   The objective of proposed research is to develop a commercially viable process for ammonothermal growth of gallium nitride (GaN) crystals suitable for fabrication of GaN wafers. The ammonothermal crystal growth method is modeled after the very successful process of synthesizing alpha-quartz in supercritical water. In this process, a mineralizer attacks bulk nutrient to generate anions that are soluble in supercritical fluid. These small molecules migrate rapidly through the low-density fluid to appropriate seed crystals in a lower temperature zone. This creates supersaturation with resultant deposition and crystal growth. Laboratory-scale studies of GaN have demonstrated dissolution and transport in supercritical ammonia. In this Phase I STTR project, we propose an innovative approach to develop the process for growth of GaN single crystals by the ammonothermal route to a point where it will be interesting for commercial growth of GaN. The proposed ammonothermal growth process for GaN single crystals is modeled after the commercially highly successful synthesis of alpha-quartz in supercritical water, a process that yields an annual production volume of one thousand tons of high-quality quartz. Optimization of ammonothermal growth of GaN thus promises to lead to a commercially interesting process route for the cost-effective production of high-quality, large-area GaN single crystals. Single crystalline GaN wafers are critically needed as lattice-matched substrates for III-nitride epitaxy, in order to greatly reduce the dislocation density in overgrown, active layers. Since electronic and optoelectronic, nitride-based devices have already been grown using a variety of deposition techniques on non-lattice matched substrates, GaN substrates can be anticipated to be introduced into the marketplace without any further delay.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
(914) 592-1190

PI: Dr. Deepnarayan Gupta
(914) 592-1190
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0281
UNIV. OF ROCHESTER
Electrical and Computer Eng., Hopeman Building
Rochester, NY 14627-0126
(585) 275-4879

ID#: 02-0055T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 14AUG02
Title: Direct Digital Predistorter for Linearization of RF Transmitter Power Amplifiers
Abstract:   HYPRES, in collaboration with University of Rochester, proposes to develop a novel architecture for rf transmitters. A digital predistortion scheme will be developed for direct manipulation of the rf waveform at GHz frequencies, using the high-speed digital signal processing capability of low-temperature superconductor (LTS) electronics. This digital-RF predistorter will be integrated with a quantum-accurate digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to achieve performance levels that cannot be achieved by conventional baseband predistortion techniques. We propose to generate the rf waveform from an oversampled digital bit stream following up-conversion of baseband signals, all in the single flux quantum (SFQ) digital domain. The predistortion is performed directly on the SFQ digital bit-stream. HYPRES has already developed key components for a digital receiver for direct digitization of rf waveforms. Following the design of the predistorter circuit architecture in Phase I, HYPRES will develop, fabricate and demonstrate LTS integrated circuits for the digital-RF transmitter in Phase II. This will lead to the development and commercialization of a line of digital-RF transceiver products for the military and the commercial markets. Through better linearization of power amplifiers the spectral purity of the transmit signal is enhanced, yielding benefits, such as accurate target characterization and discrimination, elimination of false targets and extended range for radar systems. The amplifiers can also be made more linear over a broader bandwidth, enabling multi-carrier, multi-function (radar, communications, electronic warfare) operation. Finally, the ability to linearize strongly nonlinear amplifier characteristics allow the use of cheaper, more efficient amplifiers, resulting in significant savings in procurement cost as well as operational expenses. Theis technology will not only have a major impact on US military technology but also be extremely valuable for commercial wireless communication systems.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626-4532
(714) 444-8760

PI: Dr. Volkan Ozguz
(714) 444-8715
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0275
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
Room 336, Sproul Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720-5940
(510) 642-8109

ID#: 02-0065T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 14AUG02
Title: Superconducting Electronics With CMOS Embedded Memory (02-214D)
Abstract:   Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC), in collaboration with University of California, Berkeley, is proposing to quasi-monolithically combine CMOS circuits with superconducting electronics. Superconducting electronics, especially rapid-single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) logic, hold promise for 50 to 100 Gb/s clock frequency operation. The proposed innovation is the integration technique, shown in Figure 1, in which CMOS circuits are combined with superconducting electronics with no loss of performance. The approach involves placing tested CMOS circuits in a specially prepared silicon-based alignment fixture, planarizing the front and back surfaces, and adding superconducting electronics on top of this active substrate. The overall goal of the proposed effort is to demonstrate embedded CMOS memory with superconducting processing functionality. Superconductor integrated circuit modules are being developed for ultra-high bit rate processing in very large focal plane array sensors, telecommunications, and supercomputing. Sufficient quantities of compatible memories will be a key enabling component for these applications. Embedded-memory superconducting electronics will be relevant to critical space-based signal processing and switching functions. Commercial applications are concentrated in the high-speed data communication market, including supercomputeres and Internet routers.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127-4107
(303) 285-1739

PI: Dr. Brian Berland
(303) 285-5107
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0267
UNIV. OF COLORADO
The Regents of the University, of Colorado, 572 UCB
Boulder, CO 80309-0572
(303) 492-2695

ID#: 02-0109T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 14AUG02
Title: Tunneling Barrier Engineering: High Speed Diode Optimization for Next Generation Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:   ITN Energy Systems, Inc. proposes to develop its direct conversion device (DCD) consisting of a high speed diode coupled to the feedpoints of a microantenna, to address the BMDOs need for next generation IR focal plane arrays and sensor suites. ITN believes that by replacing existing detector technologies (bolometers and photodiodes) with its DCD, we can achieve greater sensitivity, greater bandwidth, and reduced cost. The key to the antenna based detector is the high-speed diode monolithically integrated into the antenna array. The commercialization of this exciting technology is limited by unifor and reliable fabrication of the high speed tunneling diode. ITN proposes to use advanced processing techniques to create an engineered diode barrier with improved uniformity and reproducibility and increased stability in performance. ITN's antenna based approach to high frequency detection (>THz) provides a versatile approach to sensing/imaging applications from the RF to Optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using an advanced high frequency diode, ITN's technology provides superior bandwidth, increased sensitivity, target tracking, and decreased cost, compared to other state-of-the-art detectors (e.g. bolometers, photodiodes). A natural application of ITN's detector technology is uncooled IR detection where ITN's technology will serve as the detector in a focal plane array. Current application are both government and commercial including surveillance, night vision, mobile targeting, and direction finding.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
(919) 789-8880

PI: Mr. Mark Williams
(919) 789-8880
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0010
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV.
2230 Stinson Dr., 2 Leazar Hall C/B 7514
Raleigh, NC 27695-7514
(919) 513-2148

ID#: 02-0060T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Ohmic Contacts to Bulk N-type Gallium Nitride
Abstract:   Kyma Technologies and NCSU will collaborate to produce ohmic contacts to single crystal gallium nitride (GaN) substrates. We propose to develop metallization schemes for ohmic contacts to GaN substrates for device fabrication. This will be of the utmost importance for producing devices with a vertical device structure on a native gallium nitride substrate. Gallium nitride devices produced on sapphire have a horizontal structure which increases die size and limits productivity. The objective of Phase I is to identify viable Ohmic contacts to bulk n-type GaN substrates, and to investigate the polarity-dependence in Ohmic contact characteristics. To achieve this goal, transition metal based Ohmic contacts will be prepared on GaN, and its polarity-dependency will be explored. These are of great importance since low specific resistivity Ohmic contact will enhance overall device performance. It is also of importance to investigate polarity dependence on Ohmic contact characteristics since polarity will significantly influence electrical characteristics of metal-semiconductor contact. Metallization of GaN wafers will be useful in developing various types of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. The development of ohmic contacts for GaN wafers will result in vertical device structures, and subsequently will increase number of die per wafer. The advent of advanced materials processing technology has ushered in the era of GaN based optoelectronics. In spite of this development, a lack of the availability of native substrates has hindered further progress in GaN based device technology. However, through substantial research and development, bulk GaN substrates are now becoming a reality. Low defect density gallium nitride films will benefit many microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. This material will lead to the commercialization of blue lasers in data storage and solid-state white lighting. The development of contacts to GaN substrates is fundamental in commercialization of these devices. The development of vertical device structures on native GaN substrates will decrease die size and increase productivity.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540) 953-4274

PI: Daniela Marciu Topasna
(540) 953-4270
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0273
VA POLYTECHNIC INST. & STATE UNIV.
Office of Sponsored Programs, 460 Turner Street, Suite 306
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 231-9300

ID#: 02-0034T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: BMDO/02-214B Organic Thin Films for Multilayer Capcitors
Abstract:   In this Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project we will employ a new method applicable to the fabrication of polymer thin film multilayer capacitors. This method is based on the ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) methods of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer. These methods have been proven to yield self-assembled, electronically and photonically-active polymeric thin films. Luna Innovations and its university collaborators have already demonstrated that the ISAM technique could be used to fabricate polymer light emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices and electrochromic films. The ISAM fabrication method allows for incorporation of a variety of functional materials, including nanoparticles, fullerenenes and carbon nanotubes. We propose to evaluate the enhancement of the dielectric function of thin film capacitors through incorporation of specific polymers that create noncentrosymmetric thin films. The films can be conformally fabricated over large areas on flexible substrates and they are made using aqueous chemistry at room temperature and atmosphere without the need for vacuum deposition equipment. This makes the proposed technique a cleaner, low-cost alternative for volume manufacturing processes necessary for consumer products and related markets. The program builds on extensive demonstrated product commercialization and growth by Luna Innovations in cooperation with major industrial partners and numerous customers. Multilayer capacitors have excellent thermal and mechanical properties, making them appropriate for harsh environments. This new technology would be used in a variety of missile and defense-related applications, in military and commercial satellites, and in consumer products like laptop computers and cellular phones. Other potential applications include electric and hybrid vehicles, solar-powered equipment, and power electronics.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540) 953-4274

PI: Dr. Yanjing Liu
(540) 557-5883
Contract #: F33615-02-M-2298
VA POLYTECHNIC INST. & STATE UNIV.
Office of Sponsored Programs, 460 Turner Street, Suite 306
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 231-9300

ID#: 02-0052T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: BMDO/02-214B - Nanomaterials Technology for High-Temperature Packaging of Power Semiconductor Devices
Abstract:   Recent advances in SiC power semiconductor devices offer opportunities for developing smaller, lighter, and more efficient power converters because of the superior switching characteristics of these wide band-gap devices and their ability to function at high temperatures. However, the state-of-the-art packaging technology based on wire-bonding and solder reflow presents a technical challenge for realizing the full advantages of these devices in a power converter circuit. This Phase I STTR program proposes to develop an innovative nanomaterials technology for packaging these power devices by investigating the use of free-standing nanometal cluster-filled thin films fabricated by a novel ionic self-assembly monolayer (ISAM) process. Since the driving force for densification of a powder compact increases with decreasing particle size, it is theoretically achievable to densify a nanocluster film at low temperatures. Our joint team between Luna Innovations and Virginia Tech consists of researchers with extensive expertise in ISAM process, materials characterization, packaging and assembly, and testing of power devices. Successful completion of this program will provide packaging solutions that fill the gap in the technological development of wide-band gap semiconductor devices for power electronics applications and significantly impact the future growth of the trillion-dollar electronics industry. Successful completion of the proposed project will lead to the development of a novel nanomaterials-based processing technology for high-temperature power semiconductor devices. The technology will enable the military to build more powerful electronic equipments capable of operating at harsh conditions. The technology has a very broad application in any commercial sectors that involve electronic devices, especially in automobile industries.

MAGELLUS CORP.
c/o For-e-tel, 1406 Camp Craft Rd., Suite 800
Austin, TX 78746
(512) 899-8539

PI: Dr. Norman Schumaker
(512) 899-8539
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0299
THE UNIV. OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
Office of Sponsored Projects, MAI 303 F3900
Austin, TX 78712-1100
(512) 471-6424

ID#: 02-0040T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: ADVANCED NITRIDE-BASED MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE ELECTRONICS
Abstract:   This proposal discusses materials and related device research in the area of wide-bandgap compound semiconductors in the III-N system. The major tasks involve the growth of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction device structures and the development of improved materials. These devices are important for a wide variety of high-performance electronic systems, including high-power and high-frequency microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers for phased-array radars, satellite communications, digital radio, wireless local-area networks, and wireless communications base stations, as well as for high-temperature and radiation-hardened electronics. While there is great potential for these applications, several important materials issues remain to be resolved. The current state-of-the-art performance for nitride heterojunction field-effect transistors is still below that theoretically projected for this material system. In Phase I, Magellus proposes to develop novel device structures in this program that are projected to provide improved performance at high currents and high powers. In Phase II, Magellus will develop stable materials and device process technologies that will be used to develop production models for devices and circuits based upon these devices. The Goals in this second Phase will be to demonstrate useful devices operating above 5W/mm with high yield and efficiencies above 60% with the reliability required for initial system insertion. Improved performance for communications, radar, and high-frequency electronic systems. Improved high-temperature and radiation-hard electronic systems. Instrumentation for oil field exploration and sensing.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
(703) 560-1371

PI: Dr. T.S.Sudarshan
(703) 560-1371
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0277
COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY
P.O. Box 8795
Williamsburg, VA 23187
(757) 221-3967

ID#: 02-0096T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 20AUG02
Title: BAND GAP ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS FOR MISSILE SENSORS (02-214A)
Abstract:   The far-UV radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum show enormous promise for a variety of applications ranging from extra terrestrial missile sensors to next-generation lithography. However, this region has not been utilized to any great extent so far, due to the absence of window materials that can transmit light of wavelengths below 125 nm. With nanotechnology being increasingly perceived as an important tool in band-gap engineering, Materials Modification, Inc. (VA) proposes to tap on its vast expertise in this field to fabricate novel materials that are transparent to far-UV. The goal of this STTR project in collaboration with the college of William and Mary, Williamsburgh, VA is to develop and commercialize nanostructured quantum dot based optics for the vacuum ultraviolet region. MMI has earlier developed cost effective processes for producing and processing nanoparticles and these established techniques will be employed for the synthesis of far-UV-transmitting materials. Apart from use as window materials in extraterrestrial detectors for rogue missiles and rockets, there is also enormous commercial demand for far-UV transparent materials for future lithographic techniques2. Academic interests include UV-vis spectroscopy and ultraviolet astronomy.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
(678) 287-2445

PI: Dr. Zhiyong Zhao
(678) 287-3944
Contract #: F33615-02-M-2297
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV.
Dep. of Matls Science & Eng., 1001 Capability Dr., Box 7919
Raleigh, NC 27695-7919
(919) 515-8637

ID#: 02-0070T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 26AUG02
Title: Low Cost Fabrication of Diamond Films Using Combustion CVD
Abstract:   Diamond represents a multimillion market due to its unique combination of superior thermal, electronic, optical, dielectric, chemical, and mechanical properties. However its applications are far from fully developed. One of the hurdles is the lack of a suitable technique to make high quality diamond with low cost comparable to that of other materials in various application areas. MicroCoating Technologies (MCT) proposes to synthesize thin film diamond at lower cost utilizing its proprietary Nanomiser technology and Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process, and expertise in thin film deposition targeting applications in thermal management and electronics. Professor Zlatko Sitar at North Carolina State University, an expert in heteroepitaxial growth of diamond thin films, will collaborate with MCT on this Phase I effort. This novel concept, if successful, will result in a low cost, high quality platform for enormous electronic devices, enabling its widespread commercial and military uses. Envisioned applications include, but not limited to, field emission displays, electronic packaging, thermal management, super capacitors, IR windows, piezoresistive sensors, gas sensors, and surface acoustic wave devices.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
(678) 287-2445

PI: Dr. Yongdong Jiang
(678) 287-2477
Contract #: N00178-02-C-3121
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Matls Science & Engineering, 771 Ferst Drive
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-6762

ID#: 02-0115T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Epitaxial Thermochromic Thin Films for Optical Modulator Applications via CCVD
Abstract:   The continued proliferation of imaging infrared (IR) missile systems has created the need for fully representative IR scene generators. In order to test these imaging IR systems correctly, a very large dynamic range is required of the scene generator. This can not easily be produced by the standard approach of an array of suspended resistor heater elements. IR optical modulators based on thermal switching property of thermochromic (TC) materials, in particular, vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films, is a promising alternative to the conventional resistor heater elements. In addition, with the fast increasing need for more energy and the decrease of energy resources, there is also an increasing need for new technologies to reduce energy consumption. TC glazing windows coated with VO2 thin films have been being investigated widely for this application. It is reported that one can lower electricity bill by 30% by using glazing windows in summer time alone and can also save fuels if used for automobiles. Both of the military and civilian applications represent a huge market. Using its innovative, high volume, low cost and open-air Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) technique, MCT's proposed Phase I program is to deposit dense, single-phase, and epitaxial oxide thin films on single crystal substrates for the optical modulation applications, and to evaluate the materials and thermochromic properties of these films.

MICROSAT SYSTEMS
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107
(303) 285-1833

PI: Mr. Cary Clark
(303) 285-5113
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0243
MIT
Office of Sponsored Programs, 77 Mass Ave, Rm E19-750
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
(617) 253-3922

ID#: 02-0029T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 12MAY02
Title: BMDO/02-214B Electronic Devices - Foldable Integrated Thin-film Stiffening (FITS) for Spacecraft Electronic Solar Array Power Components
Abstract:   The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has future missions that require space-based surveillance and interceptor platforms to support the National Missile Defense effort. Rapid, affordable deployment and validation of these platforms is a necessary step toward operational architectures. However this will require lightweight, low-cost solutions to providing power generation and storage on-board these satellites. Ever-increasing power needs for the surveillance and tracking sensors proposed for space-based missile defense platforms are driving the solar energy collection systems to sizes that require large and expensive launch vehicles. Mass and cost reductions are needed to meet these demanding requirements of spacecraft electronic power components. Unfortunately, the state of the art (SOA) rigid space solar cell technology has reached its limitations in system cost & specific power: ˙ Cheapest "off the shelf" cost = $1000/watt ˙ Highest beginning of life specific power = 106 watt/kg. MSI's foldable, integrated, thin-film stiffened (FITS) array for flexible thin-film or crystalline photovoltaics provides the solution to achieving lower cost (less than $200/Watt) and higher specific power (greater than 300Watt/Kg) for space solar arrays. FITS technology advances the capability beyond SOA for traditional spacecraft electronic power components and enables the use of thin-film photovoltaics (PV) for space by using an innovative, lightweight, integrated and passively deployed stiffening system. Advancing the capability of electronic power components for spacecraft power solar arrays by increasing the specific power in Watt/kg, of solar array systems for space, and decreasing the cost in $/Watt. MSI has performed a study to understand the feasibility of using thin film PV and the FITS design for arrays up to 15Kwatts while maintaining spacecraft controllability. Array configurations were studied in the 1Kwatt, 6Kwatt, and 15Kwatt sizes on spacecraft buses with mass properties consistent with those powers. All arrays proved feasible and are estimated to have first unit prices in the $600/watt range with average unit costs in the $500/watt range. Additional benefits included a specific mass of 200watts/Kg and a 50% reduction in stowage mass during launch.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES, INC.
Suite 106, 120 Centennial Ave.,
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3908
(732) 885-1088

PI: Dr. Ganesh Skandan
(732) 885-1088
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0269
FRAUNHOFER CENTER - DELAWARE
501 Wyoming Drive
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 369-8057

ID#: 02-0079T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 07AUG02
Title: A New Class of Polymer Nanocomposites Using Surface Passivated Reactive Nanoparticles
Abstract:   Building upon Fraunhofer Center's recently developed process of producing reactive nanoparticles (e.g., metals, carbides and nitrides) at high rates in a pristine environment, and Nanopowder Enterprises Inc.'s technology of dispersing nanoparticles uniformly as a second phase in a polymer matrix, we propose to develop a generic technology for fabricating polymer nanocomposites, wherein the dispersed phase is a reactive material. A novel aspect of the proposed approach is that the surface passivation layer is integrated into the matrix during post processing, thereby leading to a clean and continuous interface between the nanoparticle and the matrix. While the technology we propose to develop is generic and can be applied to metals and ceramics alike, we will demonstrate its applicability by fabricating essentially oxygen-free aluminum nitride - polymer nanocomposites that have a high volume loading of nanoparticles, thereby leading to exceptional thermal conductivity in heat sinks. Partnerships have also been formed with major corporations to implement the generic technology in multiple applications, once it is fully developed in Phase II. The lack of an effective surface passivation technology has prevented realizing the full potential of reactive nanoparticles, particularly because a majority of the nanoparticles do not lend themselves to self-passivation. The proposed approach is generic and applies to a range of electronic applications. We propose to demonstrate the technology for heat sinks (for use in power transistors, thyristors, LD and LED) in Phase I.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9380 SW 72nd Street, B-180
Miami, FL 33173
(305) 275-6998

PI: Dr. Jame J. Yang
(305) 321-5288
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0288
UNIV. OF MIAMI
Office of Research Adm., Rhodes House Building 37-A
Coral Gables, FL 33124-5215
(305) 284-4541

ID#: 02-0111T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 22AUG02
Title: Large Scale Photonic Switching Using Laser Writable Polymer Waveguide Along with Reconfigurable Gratings
Abstract:   Photonic approaches are attractive for next generation computing and communication systems. In particular, photonic switch matrix is useful for reconfigurable optical interconnection of several high-speed computing systems for missile defense applications. Existing switching device architectures requiring N square cascaded matrix switching elements for N x N non-blocking switching limits the scalability of switch matrix. The large number of switching nodes involved makes the switch matrix suffer from significant crosstalk due to imperfect analog switching. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. and University of Miami propose herein a novel photonic switch matrix using all optical control for switch pattern reconfiguration. It is based on a new laser writable polymer waveguide and recording of instant gratings on such fast response waveguide. By minimizing the switching nodes and incorporating binary switching the novel device should minimize the switch crosstalk, improve device throughput, and offer the simultaneous advantages of large scale matrix forming capability and fast switch pattern reconfiguration. It further minimizes switch system sensitivity to EMI due to all-optical binary switching. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed switching concept. Phase II will realize a large-scale photonic switch matrix for reconfigurable optical interconnection for missile defense applications. The successful development of the photonic switch matrix with large-scale matrix forming capability and fast switch pattern reconfiguration can result in dual use applications. It will benefit greatly to military and MDA systems for fast computing and signal processing for targeting, missile interception, and fast access to large intelligent database. The reduced EMI sensitivity can improve the system reliability under hash environment. It will also benefit the communication industry to improve network routing speed for better video conferencing, video e-mail, and internet access.

OCIS TECHNOLOGY
1401 W. Saltsage Drive
Phoenix, AZ 85045
(480) 283-0858

PI: Dr. Michael A. Tischler
(480) 283-0858
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0290
BOARD REGENTS UNIV. WISCONSIN SYS.
400 Peterson Building, 750 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-0252

ID#: 02-0021T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: High Speed GaN Schottky Diodes
Abstract:   Power electronic devices based on gallium nitride (GaN) have a wide range of advantageous properties. However, to date, GaN-based electronics have been limited by substrate quality, size and cost. The two substrates that are used most widely are sapphire and silicon carbide (SiC). Sapphire is available in large diameters but has a large thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE) and lattice mis-match to GaN and a low thermal conductivity. This results in high defect levels and reduced device and circuit performance. SiC substrates have high thermal conductivity, but are extremely expensive and available only in small diameters. Also SiC is not lattice or TCE matched to GaN (the mis-matches are smaller than to sapphire however). This proposal describes a novel approach to eliminate these defects, and make highly conductive GaN wafers of large diameter at commercially acceptable cost that are TCE matched to the device layers and provide high thermal conductivity. These substrates will be used for the development and commercialization of GaN-based Schottky diodes. A key application is to replace silicon PIN diodes; in this case GaN Schottky diodes will match the breakdown voltages but provide much higher switching speeds and lower losses. This development will result is a process to make high power GaN Schottky diodes on large area substrates with improved characteristics at a low cost, permitting widespread use of these devices in both Government and commercial applications.

OPEL
22 Quail Run Road
Storrs/Mansfield, CT 06268
(203) 264-0632

PI: Dr. Geoff W Taylor
(860) 486-2666
Contract #: N00178-02-C-3120
UNIV. OF CONNECTICUT
14 Dog Lane Unit 4133
Storrs, CT 06269-4133
(860) 486-8517

ID#: 02-0094T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 10SEP02
Title: High frequency optoelectronic pulse source for digital communications
Abstract:   Clocks and pulse sources are critical elements for next generation ICşŢs such as DSPşŢs and čYprocessors which depend critically on stability and jitter. Clock skew becomes significant because of the large chip dimension. ADCşŢs and DACşŢs are mixed signal circuits which demand extremely precise clocks at multi GB/s rates. Telecommunication transceivers and transponders at 40 GB/s require phase-locked-loops with fs jitter control. Digital radar requires pulse sequences with fixed pulse width and controllable duty cycle. The stable, low jitter pulse source is the key. We propose a novel pulse source built around an optoelectronic thyristor integrated monolithically with HFETs in a GaAs technology. As both a laser and a thresholding detector, it implements an oscillator which is optically triggered after a fixed optical path delay. The delay sets the duty cycle and for each optical switching event, an electrical pulse is generated of up to 15V with a width of 1 şV 10ps. The path delay and thus pulse spacing are uniquely controlled by HFET logic activating directional couplers which are also integrated. The pulses are guided by transmission line to a integrated dipole antenna element at the chip edge. In this STTR, we will develop the integrated pulse source technology. The integrated OEIC technology has diverse applications in both military and space data processing. Applications include 2D parallel signal processing, read and write optical memories, transceivers, high speed optical switching and optical computing. While addressing current application needs for low cost integrated components it also defines a large number of new markets.

OPEL
22 Quail Run Road
Storrs/Mansfield, CT 06268
(203) 264-0632

PI: Dr. Geoff W Taylor
(860) 486-4409
Contract #: F33615-02-M-4024
UNIV. OF CONNECTICUT
14 Dog Lane, Unit 4133
Storrs, CT 06269-4133
(860) 486-8571

ID#: 02-0097T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 30AUG02
Title: True time delay for interference cancellation
Abstract:   True time delay (TTD) is essential for optically coupled phased array radars. How to implement the phased array is not so clear since a complete manifold of delays for transmit and delays must be implemented without introducing glitches associated with switching. In a continuous transmit and receive mode, it is difficult to interrupt the operation to implement a new TTD delay combination in a noiseless way. However, TTD could be used more directly to eliminate spurious signals such as cancellation of transmitted signals on a separate nearby receiving antenna. In such a case, the TTD delay is fixed. By implementing an adjustable signal gain, with 180,a of phase shift, the delay can be used for cancellation of excess transmitter signal. We introduce an optoelectronic technology in the form of integrated circuits to implement the TTD. The technology provides lasers (at 980nm, 1300nm or 1550nm), directional coupler switches interconnected by passive waveguides, HFET logic and detectors all in GaAs based epitaxy. A single integrated circuit combined with a fiber delay line and a duplicate transmitter on the receive circuit offers a rugged , low power, light weight transmitter canceller. In this STTR, we will develop the integrated components to realize TTD. Successful development of this technology will provide high speed optical delay lines and will enable linear arrays of vertical cavity lasers to be coupled to fibers with controlled rf optical frequencies as required for many potential applications including photonic phase shifters, optoelectronic oscillators and optical beam forming networks. The components also enable interconnect technology required for many commercial applications including multi-gigabit networks, distributed computing architectures and high quality real-time multi-media distribution.

ORMET CIRCUITS, INC.
2236 Rutherford Road, Suite 109
Carlsbad, CA 92008
(760) 931-7096

PI: Mr. Dan Baxter
(760) 931-7068
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0270
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE
Henry Samueli School of Engine, 305 Rodwell Engineering Ctr.
Irvine, CA 92697-2700
(949) 824-7462

ID#: 02-0106T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 15AUG02
Title: Compact, Polymer-Based IC Package with Integrated Passives and Active Cooling
Abstract:   Development of a polymer-based semiconductor chip package integrated with embedded passives and active cooling is proposed. Integration will increase overall system performance, reduce the PWB real estate consumed in support of each chip, as well as reduce assembly costs and improve reliability. OCI envisions the use of a polymer insulated metal substrate onto which layers of resin-coated foil with conductive-paste-filled microvias and layers of copper foil bearing thick film capacitors and resistors are laminated to produce a high speed, functionally integrated electronic package. To directly remove heat from the chip and keep the embedded passives within their optimum operating temperature range, integration of thermoelectric cooling, either from patternable pastes or by building the package directly on a commercial thermoelectric module, is also envisioned. The proposed approach integrates the high performance and reliability of thick film passive devices with conventional copper wiring and the space savings of solid microvias. A metal substrate, in addition to providing integral thermal spreading and dissipation, will provide a flat surface to facilitate etching of very fine features. OCI's solution differs from other approaches in that it integrates a metal substrate, resin-coated foils, solid microvia, embedded passives and active cooling technology directly into the package. Competing polymer-package integration approaches lack integrated thermal management and tend to focus on standard parallel processing of multiple circuit substrates with plated through holes to interconnect circuit layers and access the embedded passives. OCI's solution will provide substantially higher circuit density, lower parasitics, and excellent thermal management - particularly in harsh environments. Successful completion of this research will provide solutions to a wide array of military and commercial electronic devices/products. Integrated passives will facilitate miniaturization of electronic products and integrated electronic cooling will improve reliability of portable and harsh-environment electronic systems. Applications include missiles, laptop computers, PDAs, and wireless devices.

QFLEX, INC.
1220 S. LYON ST.
SANTA ANA, CA 92705
(714) 835-2868

PI: Mr. Harshad K. Uka
(714) 835-2868
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0249
UNIV. OF ARKANSAS
MEEG 204, Mechanical Engineering
Fayetteville, AR 72701
(501) 575-6561

ID#: 02-0088T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 20JUN02
Title: M.F.S. For Aerospace Vehicles
Abstract:   M.F.S. units can be used in many Military Aerospace applications such as for Airborne Laser (ABL), Launch Vehicles and Spacecraft (Space Based Infrared). Implementation of this project can result in lower mass and volume. Typical savings can be as high as 70 % depending upon application. It can also result in higher reliability due to reduction of human labor during assembly / testing operations. Enhanced testability is another strong point due to the ability to have redundant test nodes on M.F.S.

RST SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INC.
2331 W. Lincoln Ave, Suitr 300
Anaheim, CA 92801-5103
(714) 772-4744

PI: Mr. R. S. Tahim
(714) 772-8274
Contract #: F33615-02-M-4025
TEXAS A&M UNIV.
College Station
College Station, TX 77843
(979) 845-5285

ID#: 02-0103T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 30AUG02
Title: Multi-band phased array antenna for airborne systems
Abstract:   The multi-channel, wide-band phased array antenna systems operating at a number of high microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies without the need for switching or reconfiguration are desirable for high volume data transfer in a timely manner. A number of multi-band phased array antennas in a network (on the air platform) will allow instantaneous communication link with the ground stations and with the other airborne systems. The conventional design approaches to phased array antenna generally result in very complex, expensive, narrow-band and less efficient systems because of high RF loss in the diplexer circuits needed at the antenna to isolate the transmit and receive frequencies. This proposal circumvents the problem by an innovative design approach in which the necessary isolation between the-transmit and receive frequencies is achieved partially by the field orientation between the-transmit and receive signals and partially by the low loss filters. The new approach will result in low loss diplexer design thus providing more efficient antenna system design in terms of high EIRP and low receiver noise figure. The system noise figure is expected to be 2 to 4 dB lower than the conventional design at (Ka-band). Low cost beam scan techniques are also described. Such multi-band phased array antenna design will significantly enhance the system flexibility for air platforms. The proposed research will have a far-reaching impact on future high data rate communication systems, cross link communication between the airborne systems, surveillance, planar active arrays, and sensors.

SEMISOUTH LABORATORIES
One Research Blvd., Suite 201B
Starkville, MS 39759
(662) 324-7607

PI: Ms. Janna B. Dufrene
(662) 324-7607
Contract #: F33615-02-M-5429
MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV.
Box 9571 - ECE Department, Hardy Road
Mississippi State, MS 39762-9571
(662) 325-3669

ID#: 02-0119T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 30AUG02
Title: Radiation and temperature-tolerant SiC JFET technologies for Space-Based Systems
Abstract:   SiC JFET technology for control IC's in space based systems enable the possibility of temperature-tolerant, rugged, radiation-hard circuit operation. Additionally, it offers the possibility of combining with SiC power devices, a high level of integration, reduced parts count, reduced cost and weight in satellite systems. SemiSouth Laboratories, Inc. plans to transfer critical JFET IC technology developed at Mississippi State University to prototype status, and work with key DoD customers to provide early adaptation of the technology. Will further SiC I.C. development, especially in integrated control electronics which are needed for high-temperature sensors and power modulators under distributed control.

SINMAT, INC.
8615 SW 19th Road
Gainesville, FL 32607-3489
(352) 333-7201

PI: Dr. Deepika Singh
(352) 333-7201
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0285
UNIV. OF FLORIDA
Department of Materials Engr., Rhines Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 846-1086

ID#: 02-0090T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Deep Ultra Violet (DUV) Diamond Based Light Emitting Diodes (02-214B)
Abstract:   Sinmat Inc. working with University of Florida, proposes to develop an economical and scalable process for fabrication of diamond light emitting diodes (LEDs) that operate in the deep ultraviolet regime. These LEDs are expected to have significant usage in BMDO related activities as compact sources in detection and probes. The formation of diamond LEDs has recently been shown on doped homoepitaxial films that exhibit room temperature exciton emission. However, commercialization of diamond LEDs is limited by poor crystal quality achieved during diamond growth, lack of reproducible n-type doping and prohibitively high cost of homoepitaxial substrates. Sinmat proposes to solve these challenges by fabricating LEDs on large area (50-100 mm2), nearly dislocation-free, synthetic diamond substrates. Such substrates have not been readily available until recently. Sinmat estimates that the cost per LED will be reduced more than one thousand times by using this methodology, while at the same time enhancing yield and performance of the LEDs. Issues dealing with homoepitaxial growth, reproducible "p" and "n" doping during growth, and patterning/ohmic contact formation will be investigated in this project. Research in this project will be conducted in collaboration with Prof. Steve Pearton at the University of Florida who has extensive expertise in processing of wide band-gap semiconductors. The research team is known worldwide for its expertise in the the area of diamond film synthesis, wide band- gap processing and have the necessary infrastructure to meet the goals of the project. The successful development of DUV diamond LEDs is expected to be used as sensor and probes in military applications and as white light sources, pathogen deactivation, and sensors in civilian environments.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3908
(732) 885-5909

PI: Dr. Nick M. Sbrockey
(732) 885-5909
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0289
UNIV. OF WISCONSIN - MADISON
Room 460 Peterson Bldg., 1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-0252

ID#: 02-0099T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: MOCVD System for LiNbO3 Thin Film Waveguide Modulators and Optical Switches
Abstract:   Electro-optical modulators and switches are needed for increased speed, capacity and flexibility of modern optical communications systems. The designs for these devices exist, as do materials with suitable electro optical properties, such as LiNbO3. However, their potential has not been realized, due to the limitations of diffused structures in bulk LiNbO3 crystals. Recently, our STTR partner at The University of Wisconsin - Madison (UWM) have demonstrated that high quality epitaxial LiNbO3 thin films can be produced by MOCVD. The UWM team has also invented a simple process for defining patterned structures from these films. This technology opens the way for a new class of electro-optical devices, including compact high-speed modulators and optical switches. Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI) has a long history developing MOCVD systems for complex oxide films. UWM will work with SMI to transition the epitaxial LiNbO3 film technology to commercial viability. We will also partner with a commercial supplier of electro-optical components, to provide technical guidance to the Phase I/II efforts and commercialize the resulting products in Phase III. Together, this team is well positioned to commercialize LiNbO3 thin film waveguide devices. UWM has invented the needed process technology and SMI will develop the necessary commercial hardware. Optical communications systems represent a multi-billion dollar market with double digit annual growth rates. Fiber optic networks are being implemented in industry, defense and domestic and international telecommunications. Our proposed technology will enable new products that will add increased speed, capacity and flexibility to growing optical communications networks. We anticipate the products developed from this effort to achieve a significant market share by the year 2005.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

PI: Dr. Andrew Wowchak
(952) 934-2100
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0283
UNIV. OF MINNESOTA
200 Union Street S.E.
Minneapolis, MN 55455
(612) 625-3300

ID#: 02-0037T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 19AUG02
Title: Organic Field Effect Transistors for Large Format Electronics
Abstract:   Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) are gaining rapid attention for their vast technical and commercial potential. Their low cost, low-temperature processing, and compatibility with flexible substrates are key attributes and are especially suitable for large format electronics manufacturing. Although organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already in production for displays in cell phones and PDA's, the electrical properties of these organic compounds have not been as well exploited due to technical difficulties. By developing the OFET one can envision the enabling of large area display drivers (together with organic light emitters), electronic circuits on smart cards, and many other commercial and military applications. Here we propose vacuum processing which is more difficult than wet chemistry processes such as spin coating, but allows better control on device structure and interface properties to address the material challenges. In Phase-I, we propose a combination of device modeling and process development for tight control of the process parameters, leading to a better understanding of the material deposition and device performance. Low cost production will be investigated in the follow-on phase. Once the process is developed the OFETs can be scaled up for manufacturing using existing OLED production tools. Organic electronics is an enabling technology for large format displays on flexible substrates and smart cards. It would benefit consumer products from wearable personal computers to secured electronics commerce.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3677
(952) 934-2100

PI: Dr. Peter Chow
(952) 934-2100
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0276
NORTHWESTERN UNIV.
Office of Research & Sponsored, Projects, 633 Clark Street
Evanston, IL 60208
(847) 491-3003

ID#: 02-0053T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 19AUG02
Title: Large Area Si Substrates for InP Based Electronics and Optical Device Manufacturing
Abstract:   InP-based devices have applications encompassing the entire communication technology including wireless and fiber-optic telecommunications. It is especially suitable for very high frequency (up to 200GHz) operation. Therefore they are increasingly a critical component in all military missions. Their manufacturing costs are high in large part due the high cost of InP substrates, and their much smaller size compared to that of Si. Device throughput per wafer is proportional to the square of wafer diameter, so to gain economy of scale larger wafer size is much more favorable. Furthermore, system performance may benefit from integration of the compound semiconductor devices directly on silicon. We propose an investigation of growing InP on silicon wafers which, when scaled up, could lead to 300 mm wafers for device fabrication. The robustness of the Si substrate will also lower processing costs. Such Si-based wafer platform could make the manufacturing significantly less expensive, and provide advanced architecture for integration of opto- and micro-electronics to silicon-circuits. Larger substrates will produce significantly less expensive devices for optical and microwave communication, automotive electronics, medical equipment, and consumer electronics.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
12214 Plum Orchard Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20904
(301) 572-7834

PI: Dr. Michael Mastro
(301) 572-7834
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0287
UNIV. OF FLORIDA
Material Science Dept., P.O. Box 116400
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 846-1086

ID#: 02-0077T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Insulating GaN Substrates for High Performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
Abstract:   AlGaN/GaN HEMTs offer excellent dc and rf device performance over a broad range of contact dimensions. Future refinements should focus on reducing defect density in the epi layers that can lead to current collapse and thereby provide more stable operation over commercially significant periods. There is an urgent need for insulating, lattice-matched substrates with good thermal conductivity. UF has recently demonstrated the use of MgO and Sc2O3 surface passivation films for reducing the effect of surface states on the dc and rf performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The major remaining hurdle to commercialization of HEMTs is the availability of insulating, lattice-matched substrates. TDI, Inc will focus on developing insulating bulk GaN, while UF will perform the epi-growth and device fabrication and testing. Insulating bulk GaN substrates developed by TDI, Inc will be used for growth and processing of high performance HEMT device structures. Homo-epitaxy will allow a reduction in defect density and the insulating nature of the substrate will avoid reducing the rf performance of the HEMT through additional capacitance.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
12214 Plum Orchard Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20904
(301) 572-7834

PI: Dr. Vladimir Dmitriev
(301) 572-7834
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0288
ARIZONA STATE UNIV.
Dept. Chemical & Materials Eng, 1711 S. Rural Rd., MC: 6006
Tempe, AZ 85287
(480) 965-0835

ID#: 02-0113T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Homoepitaxial technology for GaN layers grown on bulk GaN substrates
Abstract:   TDI, Inc. and Arizona State University propose to develop production technology for fabrication of high quality GaN homoepitaxial layers on bulk GaN substrates. Recently bulk GaN substrates were demonstrated by TDI, Inc. These substrates were sliced from GaN bulk crystals. Arizona State University performed a detailed investigation on mechanisms of defect formation in GaN epitaxial layers grown by heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates. Results of these developments open an opportunity to develop a novel technology for homoepitaxial deposition of GaN. The goal of Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate high quality GaN homoepitaxial materials grown on bulk GaN substrates. Samples will be delivered. In the Phase II, we will optimize homoepitaxial technology for GaN substrates with different surface orientations and develop manufacturing technology for 2 inch GaN homoepitaxial structures. The development of GaN homoepitaxial technology will benefit development of all types of GaN-based devices. Additionally, this program will speed up the development of bulk GaN substrates. High performance GaN-devices fabricated on bulk GaN substrates will find a host of applications in UV optoelectronics and high-power/high-frequency electronics for military and industrial needs.

THE FOX GROUP, INC.
1154 Stealth St
Livermore, CA 94550
(925) 980-5645

PI: Dr. Mark Ramm
(925) 371-3070
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0285
KANSAS STATE UNIV.
Dept of Chemical Engineering, 2 Fairchild Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-1103
(785) 532-6804

ID#: 02-0078T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 01AUG02
Title: Highly durable crucible materials to support large AlN crystal growth
Abstract:   The company has developed and patented a proprietary crucible technology that is impervious to aluminum and nitrogen and can be used at high temperature for rapid growth of large AlN crystals. KSU will study the durability of the crucible material as a function of temperature and growth conditions and determine the best method for utilizing low-impurity, low-stress, self-nucleated crystals as seeds in crucibles or cones. TFGI will bootstrap small seeds to demonstrate the feasibility of growing AlN crystals up to 5 cM (2") diameter in Phase II. Large AlN wafers will be suitable for high temperature integrated electronics for controlling a wide range of military and commercial system that require operating temperatures that cannot be achieved with existing semiconductor materials.

TOLMIE, INC.
204 Brand Farm Dr.
So. Burlington, VT 05403
(802) 859-9587

PI: Mr. Bernard Tolmie
(802) 859-9587
Contract #: DASG60-02-P-0295
UNIV. OF VERMONT
85 So. Prospect St.
Burlington, VT 05401
(802) 656-1922

ID#: 02-0014T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Selected for Award
Title: Large 10Gb/s Bandwidth electrical connector technology and process of producing same.
Abstract:   A new technology for the manufacture of 10Gb/s electrical/electronic connectors. The new manufacturing process has the potential of producing a low cost, large bandwidth,high dentsity of contacts in a robust and thermally tolerant package. The connector is Metallic and is extruded in a coniguous housing having multiple cavities for a plurality of contacts. Thus the rectangular connector is survivable in harsh EMI, thermal and mechanical enviornments. The Phase 1 program will deliver drawings, a mechanical mock-up and computer simulated electrical performance. In this manner Phase 1 will produce required material for a successful Phase 2 where working prototypes and preproduction connectors will be produced. The proposed electrical and electronic connectormeets sever military requirements and andd have low production costs for commercial applications. the proposed technology has the potential of high connector througput at low component cost. additionally, the technology has the potential of significant performance at lower cost then conventional connector manufacturing technology.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059-9707
(304) 547-5800

PI: Mr. Rick D. Lucas
(304) 547-5800
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0246
CLEMSON UNIV.
161 Sirrine Hall, Box 340971
Clemson, SC 29634-0971
(864) 656-5961

ID#: 02-0102T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 17JUN02
Title: Thermal Protection Systems for Space Applications
Abstract:   The Missile Defense Agency's (MDA) ballistic missile defense system is made up of a variety of components including land- and sea-based missiles, satellites, and space-based laser, all part of the Theater and National Missiles Defense Systems. Reusable hypersonic and reentry vehicles are being designed to meet Defense Department requirements. Two specific programs, the MDA's Space Based Laser (SBL) and the Space Maneuver Vehicle (SMV) program have requirements for innovative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). Touchstone Research Laboratory has developed two novel materials. One can be used as a stand alone TPS, Carbon Foam (CFOAM[R]) for environments between 1000 and 3000 degrees F. When combined with the second material, Brazed Aluminum Matrix Composite (BAMC[TM]), it provides a sandwich structure combining a structural thermal insulator, carbon foam, (with compressive strength of up to 4000 psi) with a high-specific strength metal matrix composite (BAMC[TM]), which maintains its strength even above 750 degrees F. The innovative lightweight Carbon Foam (CFOAM) and Brazed Aluminum Matrix Composite (BAMC) research will provide a new generation lightweight thermally efficient and affordable Thermal Protection System (TPS). It will protect sensitive spacecraft optical and structural components enabling the thermal subsystems to minimize power consumption. A new TPS system can potentially increase payload fraction as well as provide additional mass margin by increasing propellant mass fraction. Such a system would open design space and reduce the risk of future mass growth. The technology will be directly applicable to NASA's on-going and future launch vehicle and space platform programs. It will be of great benefit to the commercial satellite industry.

V SYSTEM COMPOSITES, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
(858) 587-4200

PI: Mr. Michael J. Louderback
(626) 938-7077
Contract #: F29601-02-C-0271
NATIONAL COMPOSITE CENTER
2000 Composite Drive
Kettering, OH 45420
(937) 297-9434

ID#: 02-0125T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 10JUN02
Title: Fabrication of Large Composite Structure Fairings for Advanced Launch Vehicles Using Low Cost, Out-Of-Autoclave Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:   A low cost, out of autoclave manufacturing process is proposed for large composite structure fairings for advanced launch vehicles that will be used to launch future MDA large payload systems such as the Space Based Laser (SBL) and Space Based Infrared Sensor System (SBIRS) components. Current composite manufacturing technologies for large fairings are limited by the size of the processing autoclaves and the amount of time to fabricate the structure before the prepreg materials cure. This innovation is based on the combination of two diverse enabling technologies: (1) a novel, newly demonstrated process for low cost, net-shape preform fabrication via robotic fiber placement--the Programmable Powdered Preform Process for Aerospace (P4A), and (2) low cost, out of autoclave processing of complex shapes via High Performance Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (HyperVARTM). The use of dry P4A preforms and secondary, out-of-autoclave HyPerVARTM processing addresses the conventional composite processing constraints; shear size of component and the amount of time to layup the structure. The P4A/HyPerVARTM processing approach limits the size of the component only by the size of tool that can be fabricated and the amount of space required to subsequently store that tool for processing. The demonstration of the P4A/HyPerVARTM composite manufacturing process for large fairings for advanced launch vehicles will establish a cost-effective approach for manufacturing large lightweight composite structures that have been limited by available autoclave facilities and current manufacturing processes. The results will be applicable for large fairings for launch vehicles for commerical space launches, and also for other large structures such as public transit buses, train cars, monorail cars, and other very large unitized body composite structures applications.

WILSON COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGIES
1004 River Rock Drive, Suite 240
Folsom, CA 95630
(916) 989-4812

PI: Mr. Ron Mitchell
(916) 989-4812
Contract #: F69601-02-C-0272
UNIV. OF DAYTON RESEARCH INST.
300 College Park
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 229-3623

ID#: 02-0101T
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 02--00       Awarded: 30JUN02
Title: Composite Compatibility with ABL Systems
Abstract:   The proposed statement of work under this SBIR effort for the Airborne Laser Program is intended to provide a significant weight saving for the storage and dispensing tanks on the airborne system. The program will utilize linerless composite technology as developed by Wilson Composite Technologies (WCT) for cryogenic storage and dispensing systems. In addition to the elimination of metallic liners and substitution of composite materials for all-metallic tankage, this program will integrate data from the ongoing Composite Boss SBIR Design Contract under MDA sponsorship and will have the intent of coming up with a totally composite tank and pressure vessel technology for implementation in the ABL program. The tasks under this Phase I study will involve simplified screening tests to review the available materials from the liquid oxygen compatibility contract and will use these minimal screening tests to down select those materials to two or three candidates, which will cover the entire spectrum of compatibility with the ABL fluids. Coupling of the selected materials with linerless design concepts and composite boss usage will result in attainment of the goal of this program, which is major weight reduction for the ABL system. Benefits to the Government will involve the significant weight savings attributed to substitution of composite material storage containers and pressure vessels for use in storage and dispensing of airborne laser fluids and also the ground support delivery of these fluids to the airborne system. Pressure vessel designs and materials selections will be used in the additional ABL systems, which are planned for fabrication and implementation in a potential Phase II program. Commercialization of this technology will involve the commercial handling and provision of the airborne laser fluids to selected ABL operational sites.

---------- NAVY ----------

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706-5013
(520) 573-6300

PI: Mr. Anthony C. Mulligan
(520) 573-6300
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0237
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA
10920 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1200
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1406
(310) 794-0135

ID#: N023-0186
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Robust, Video Communications for Highly Mobile Networks
Abstract:   In this program Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR) and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) will team to combine an error resilient video compression and transmission technology with a new low-cost high-endurance small Unmanned Ariel Vehicle (UAV). The focus of the program will be to miniaturize the university's hardware implementation of this new technology such that the total package size does not exceed 4 lbs. The package will be integrated into the Smart War-Fighter Array of Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) UAV. A successful Phase I will lead to a Phase II program for the development of a new long range, high data rate, and robust radio system. This system would be applicable to existing UAV platforms and will provide significant benefit to next generation high-speed UAV platforms with aggressive maneuver capabilities. Commercial markets are large, widespread, and include application in Navy SWARM UAV's, military modem based video communications, internet video communications, and next generation G3 video cell phones.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706-5013
(520) 573-6300

PI: Mr. Anthony C. Mulligan
(520) 573-6300
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0236
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
Department of Civil & Environment Engineering
Berkley, CA 93106
(310) 614-5448

ID#: N023-0208
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Real-time Multimedia Communications in Highly Mobile Networks.
Abstract:   The aim of this proposal is to assess the viability of building a prototype UAV Swarm. A successful swarm technology must enable hundreds of air vehicles to act in concert to execute wide-area surveillance or pursuit missions under hard real-time constraints. Our vision requires a lean, agile, low cost UAV platform. It also requires a technology for network centric organiation. For example, a swarem of vision sensor equipped UAV's, should be a roving compound eye in the sky. The target market niche is to produce a new networked video surveillance and communication technology for use in the low cost SWARM concept for the Navy.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706-5013
(520) 573-6300

PI: Mr. Anthony C. Mulligan
(520) 573-6300
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0263
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA
10920 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1200
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1406
(310) 794-0135

ID#: N023-0199
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Sensor Allocation in Highly Mobile Networks
Abstract:   Under the proposed project, Advanced Ceramics Research (ACR) and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) will team to evaluate the utility of learning methods as applied to sensor management. Reinforcement learning methods suitable to control the sensor network for the discovery of remote Threat Locations and Radio Jamming frequencies (TLRJ) will be developed. In conjunction with RL methods, the team will develop optimization techniques that compute the best Vector of Sensor Positions (VSP) and Vector of Sensor Radio Link Frequencies (VSRF) given threat locations and detected radio frequency jamming signals. Sensor management algorithms developed at UCLA will be integrated with the Smart War-fighter Array of Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) developed by ACR. In Phase I the team will demonstrate the management system with actual flight testing and evaluate reinforcement learning for the discovery of TLRJ information. A successful Phase I will lead to a Phase II program where sensors are autonomously controlled under the direction of VSP and VSRF solutions. This system will be applicable to existing UAV platforms and will provide significant benefit to next generation high-speed UAV platforms with aggressive maneuver capabilities. Commercial markets include application in autonomous control of Navy SWARM UAV's and air traffic control for collision avoidance as well as congestion management.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706-5013
(520) 573-6300

PI: Mr. Anthony C. Mulligan
(520) 573-6300
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0239
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA
10920 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1406
(310) 794-0135

ID#: N023-0204
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Fault Monitoring and System Diagnosis Through Bayesian Inference
Abstract:   In this program Advanced Ceramics Research (ACR) and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) will team to develop and demonstrate a real-time monitoring and fault detection system for a network of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). The goal of the program will be to monitor critical network state variables, detect changes and, most importantly, failures and ensure that this information is communicated to the proper layers and locations in the network to enable rapid reconfiguration of the system status based on widely varying levels of diagnostic support. The UCLA software package will be integrated with the Smart War-fighter Array of Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) developed by ACR. In Phase I the team will demonstrate the monitoring system with actual flight testing featuring a variety of induced system failures. A succesful Phase I will lead to a Phase II program for the development of a much more comprehensive and agile monitoring system. Commercial markets are large, widespread, and include application in Navy SWARM UAV's., medical diagnosis, assembly line control, and remote technical support.

ADVANCED DESIGN CONSULTING, INC.
126 Ridge Road, PO Box 187
Lansing, NY 14882
(607) 533-3531

PI: Mr. Basil Blank
(607) 533-3531
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0258
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
Code ME/PA
Monterey, CA 93943
(831) 656-3381

ID#: N023-0125
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-003       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Securing And Fendering For Skin To Skin Replenishment
Abstract:   The current state of the art for roll-on/roll-off ships (RO/RO) transfer in the stream is sea state 3 (winds up to 16 knots and waves up to 5 feet), and many ramps are not certified for these conditions. This proposal includes a conceptual design for a RO/RO Cargo Transfer system between two freely floating vessels in the stream in sea states up to state 5. This Cargo Transfer design allows for unlimited end ramp tortional flexibility and reduced weight. Torsional Flexibility Commercial shipping companies would likely be interested in lightweight, strong and flexible ramps if they were affordable. High-speed ferries, which currently rely on shore-based ramps due to the weight of a shipboard ramp, would also be particularly interested in lightweight ramp technology as it can afford a greater range of operational flexibility while limiting the weight impacts on the ship.

ADVANCED DESIGN CONSULTING, INC.
126 Ridge Road, PO Box 187
Lansing, NY 14882
(607) 533-3531

PI: Mr. Alex Deyhim
(607) 533-3531
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0260
CORNELL UNIV.
Theoretical and Applied Mechan, 212 Kimball Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
(607) 255-8818

ID#: N023-0138
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Advanced Fibers, Anti-Friction Materials and Jackets for Navy Ropes
Abstract:   This proposal addresses development of a new generation of ropes based on advances in fibers, protective materials and manufacturing. These ropes must be as strong and stiff in tension as current wire ropes, yet be much lighter and more flexible. New materials must be resistant to abrasion, wear, creep, and thermal degradation. Phase I will focus on an initial study to identify economically viable materials and processing. It will consider many potential applications including opportunities for cost-effective modifications to rope pathway equipment. The work will be performed by a team experts in fibers, rope mechanics, materials science, and mechanical design chosen from Cornell, ADC and Reading. Tasks will include visits to Naval facilities and rope, fiber an polymer manufacturers to determine (a) improved versions of aramid, polyethylene, PBO and polyester fibers, as well as a new fiber, "M5", (b) new heat-resistant, anti-friction treatments, (c) new strand jacketing materials (e.g. M5 fiber), and (d) new rope design software. One or more specific rope designs will be proposed for further development. Offshore structures, ship mooring, hoists including deep mine elevators, cranes

BRANDES ASSOC., INC.
1417 Crestline Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
(805) 687-7261

PI: Mr. Joseph Gattuso
(231) 719-1396
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0256
UCLA
Box 951596
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1596
(310) 825-4367

ID#: N023-0100
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Real-time Multimedia Communications in Highly Mobile Networks.
Abstract:   Improved networking capabilities for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) will be a compelling necessity for a wide range of 21st century applications, both military and commercial. To make these applications successful, two main technical challenges must be addressed: (1) dynamic, highly mobile network technologies to provide reliable, time-critical exchange of the network's media, and (2) information management and control system technologies to enable the networked UAVs to function as an integrated system to accomplish designated military or commercial missions. Rigorous solutions in these areas would provide the technological foundation for Intelligent Networks. The objective of this project is to assist the Office of Naval Research in making significant forward strides in these technology areas by conducting a Phase I feasibility and tradeoff study to research and then recommend optimal solutions for state-of-the-art dynamic, mobile network technologies. This effort will involve exploring a wide range of advanced decision support systems (along with their application methodologies) and offering recommendations on an optimal solution to provide information management and control systems for the dynamic network. The research and recommendations provided by this study will provide the foundation for a follow-on Phase II proposal. Dynamic, highly-mobile UAV networks combined with effective, efficient, and responsive decision support systems providing a variable degree of autonomous control for a wide range of mission functions will enable commanders to leverage the synergistic benefits achievable by a combination of sensors, communications nodes, and weapon systems deployable by a network of UAVs, minimizing threats to manned tactical, reconnaissance, surveillance, or transport aircraft. The technical capabilities identified in this proposal will also significantly enhance and directly address established requirements of U.S. Special Operations forces - specifically, operational requirements now extant for reconnaissance, surveillance, and other support functions that could be provided by such Intelligent Networks. Significant commercial applications also exist for Intelligent Networks possessing the ability to gather and distribute a wide range of media and rapidly adapt to changing circumstances based upon a pre-established set of rules or body of expertise. Firefighting, border patrol, illegal drug monitoring, police/SWAT, disaster/emergency response teams, commercial shipping, and many other industries and market segments will benefit from UAV networks possessing intelligent, variably autonomous decision-making abilities.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, # 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
(215) 542-1400

PI: Mr. James Stokes
(215) 542-1400
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0248
UNIV. OF MEMPHIS
Tennessee Board of Regents
Memphis, TN 38152
(901) 678-2143

ID#: N023-0028
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-006       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Speech Interface Architecture For Human To Agent Interactions
Abstract:   The use of agents as synthetic entities is a key technology in the development of next generation simulation based training and performance support systems. In these systems agents must collaborate with humans, communicating through speech. Unlike many existing speech technology applications which require only simple sequential dialogs, military domains frequently involve time critical communications. This fact imposes requirements for real time operation and the support of more complex speech interactions, such as interruptions. Unfortunately many of the technologies available for system development impose latencies on the processing of speech interaction. This is particularly problematic in the case of speech understanding, which can become computationally intensive when robust performance is required, as for fluid human-agent speech interaction. We propose to analyze the available technology solutions, including network solutions commonly used in virtual environments, identify latencies, their impact, and possible solutions. Available speech understanding approaches will be evaluated and selected for real time viability. General networking solutions based on compensation, circumvention, and prioritization will be developed, resulting in a network speech protocol for human-agent speech interaction. Captured in a human-agent reference architecture, the Phase I results will drive the Phase II development of Voice Interaction and Recognition for Virtual Environments - VIRVE. The proposed research will lead to the development of technology that can be employed in a broad variety of military and commercial simulation based training and performance support systems. A fully developed reference architecture, network speech protocol, and real time speech understanding components will support the construction of agent-based synthetic team members for training and collaborative task performance. These technologies will be of considerable value in domains such as emergency response and disaster relief, as well as a wider range of military settings. In the commercial sector, voice-interactive training systems and multiplayer online gaming stand to benefit from this technology

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
(805) 898-1060

PI: Dr. John Langan
(805) 898-1060
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0245
UNIV. OF MARYLAND
Dept of Mathematics, 1303 Mathematics Building
College Park, MD 20742-4015
(301) 405-5047

ID#: N023-0021
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: New Staring IR Architectural Readout Approach for Image Processing
Abstract:   Low power real-time processing of large area image sensor data is not computationally feasible using existing digital technology. A practical solution to this computational bottleneck centers on the use of neuromorphic array based, low power analog vision processing systems. Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) proposes to develop core enabling technologies for the development of a new massively parallel 3-D structure of highly integrated, multi-layered, programmable analog VLSI image processing layers that will support navigation and guidance requirements in mobile platform applications. This development will enable the first new architectural approach to the readout of staring focal plane sensors since their invention in the early 1970's - continuous parallel processing without synchronous multiplexer operations. Specifically, we propose to develop modular, wide dynamic range analog filter array layers for incorporation into multi-layered architectures using state-of-the-art micro-via vertical interconnect technology to seamlessly link unit cells of adjacent layers. Our design concept extends our previous work using Thin Film Analog Image Processors (TAIP) and CMOS analog image processors for spatio-temporal motion detection to image processing layers having continuous, non-multiplexed, computational capabilities. This architecture also allows direct (no storage well) sampling of IR sensor irradiance and enables full utilization of the sensor spectral dynamic range for improved signal to noise performance and alias free operation as in biological systems. Commercial, integrated, analog image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military imaging applications. Analog image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including navigation and guidance markets as well as automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance and machine vision applications.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937) 320-1877

PI: Dr. Patrick J. Hood
(937) 320-1877
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0244
UNIV. OF ROCHESTER
Ofc of Research & Proj Admin, 5th Floor Hylan Building
Rochester, NY 14627-0140
(585) 275-1502

ID#: N023-0047
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-011       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Covert Micro-Reflector Tags
Abstract:   Cornerstone Research Group, Inc., with the University of Rochester, proposes to develop a covert marking system based on dust-sized micro-reflector tags composed of a material with unique reflectance signatures not visible to the naked eye. These tags will be coupled with an imaging sensor capable of uniquely distinguishing tag signatures from the background environment. Material development will leverage previous R&D accomplished for DOD and NASA. Operational Benefits: (1) Provides real-time covert sensing of adversaries or suspects hidden among friendly or neutral populations or camouflaged in the environment; (2) Provides real-time covert tracking of activity patterns of people or vehicles traversing terrain; (3) Capable of supporting tactical combat operations in daylight or night time, compatible with Night Vision Goggles (NVG) for night-time operation; (4) Low acquisition cost and simple, low cost operation. Commercial Applications: (1) All military components' ground combat units; (2) Law enforcement at federal, state and local levels; (3) Private investigations and surveillance; (4) Wildlife and livestock management.

CORTLAND CABLE COMPANY
44 River Street, P.O. Box 330
Cortland, NY 13045-0330
(607) 753-8276

PI: Mr. Douglas Bentley
(607) 753-8276
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0261
AUBURN UNIV.
Dept of Mechnical Engineering, 202 Ross Hall
Auburn University, AL 36849-5341
(334) 884-3336

ID#: N023-0166
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-008       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Advanced Rope Materials
Abstract:   High strength fiber ropes and cables have gained acceptance for many static and quais-static applications such as antenna tower guys, ship handling cables and Navy Lifelines. There are many dynamic cable applications where wire rope is currently used that can realize an improved performance spectrum by substituting an improved non-metallic cable. It is generally recognized that high modulus fiber cables are less resistant to lateral damage than their steel counterparts. This study will examine the factors in the design of a synthetic rope that can improve their resistance to internal and external abrasion and compressive stresses associated with winding over sheaves and wrapping on and off a cable winch drum under tension. Based upon comparative test data, recommendations will be made for the design of tougher non-metallic ropes. The research proposed herein will provide benefits in two ways. Firstly, current designs of tow cables and other dynamic strength members can be improved by having a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to loss of strength integrity in such cables. The methods developed to make non-metallic cables tougher can be incorporated into existing cable designs to make them last longer. The second benefit will be to provide cables for applications once thought to require steel, such as crane and winch cables and running rigging for sailing vessels. The successful development of ways to ruggedize non-metallic cables will lead to their acceptance in new applications.

CYNETICS CORP.
P.O. Box 2422 (2603 S. Highway 79)
Rapid City, SD 57709-2422
(605) 394-6430

PI: Mr. Don Lefevre
(605) 394-6430
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0249
S. D. SCHOOL OF MINES & TECHNOLOGY
501 E. St. Joseph St.
Rapid City, SD 57701
(605) 394-2451

ID#: N023-0172
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Ultra-wideband Sensor Web
Abstract:   Cynetics Corporation proposes to determine the feasibility of using ultra-wideband (UWB) sensors which combine both communications and radar in a single waveform. The Principal Investigator for the proposed research has already converted a UWB radar into a one-megabit per second communications system. That effort lead to an understanding of certain critical issues in implementing UWB systems. Cynetics will use this understanding of these critical issues to generate a UWB system methodology that preserves the good features of UWB systems while dealing with their inherent difficulties in a way that will not generate an increasingly complex system. The Cynetics UWB system is expected to have excellent immunity to UWB pulse distortions. The proposed technology, if proven feasible, will enable self-calibrating sensor webs which can determine the presence of intruders and vehicles, and their positions. The same technology will allow asset tracking, which can be applied to logistics, but also to warehousing and asset tracking in the commercial sector. This represents a very large market.

FAKESPACE LABS, INC.
241 Polais Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
(650) 688-1940

PI: Mr. Ian McDowall
(650) 688-1940
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0230
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
CNTV School, Univeristy Park Campus
Los Angeles, CA 90089
(213) 740-2311

ID#: N023-0174
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Improved Head-Mounted Displays for Immersive Virtual Reality
Abstract:   The close-quarters battle (CQB) simulation application is a demanding one but it is exciting to realize that the technology pieces are all now available to actually realize a wide FOV HMD for this kind of application. Putting them together and meeting the ergonomic constraints will be to realize many peoples' expectations for HMDs at last. Finally, there are commercially available microdisplays in decent resolutions for head mounted display (HMD) applications. We have also been watching for wide field of view optics developments and are pleased that we have invented a potentially commercially viable solution called WideVision. Fakespace is looking forward to working with our Research Partner, the University of Southern California. Professor Scott Fisher has extensive experience in the creation of interactive virtual environments. Kirk Moffitt will serve as a consultant to the project and has extensive experience with the ergonomic, optical, and display design issues for HMDs in both military and civilian applications. An HMD design which is both wide field of view and provides clear images for close-quarters battle. Such an HMD is also well suited to commercial applications such as interactive entertainment, games, and design. There is an opportunity at the present time because the component technologies to pull this together are now availbel commercially and at reasonable cost.

ICOSYSTEM CORP.
545 Concord Ave
Cambridge, MA 02138
(617) 520-1070

PI: Dr. Paolo Gaudiano
(617) 520-1070
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0266
MIT
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-7086

ID#: N023-0031
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Multi-agent control and intelligent sensor allocation with Genetic Programming and Reinforcement Learning
Abstract:   The US Navy has identified the need to develop quantitative frameworks to solve a variety of challenging problems, including sensor management and allocation, and adaptive flight control of Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) swarms. In collaboration with the MIT AI Lab, we propose to develop a framework that combines Reinforcement Learning (RL) and Genetic Programming (GP) to evolve adaptive solutions to these problems. The RL+GP framework will scale up to realistic problems, and will be analytically tractable. The proposed framework will also make it possible to conveniently incorporate domain-specific information, giving it the capability to develop "customized" solutions to each problem at hand. We will also develop an Agent-Based simulator of swarms of UAVs, and use the simulator as a testbed for the RL+GP framework. The simulator will allow testing of various sensor configurations, specification of UAV missions, and will include the ability to simulate a variety of normal and adverse scenarios. The simulator will also serve as a tool for visualization and for quantitative evaluation of the proposed framework or other flight control and sensory allocation technologies. The RL+GP framework combines the power of learning and of evolutionary computation, but is analytically tractable and simplifies the process of encoding domain information, more so than other adaptive frameworks. Coupled with the Agent-Based UAV simulator, we expect this framework to be applicable to a wide variety of problems of military and commercial interest.

IMAGIZE LLC
1940 Vine Street
Berkeley, CA 94709
(510) 528-6301

PI: Dr. Tibor Kozek
(510) 204-9555
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0246
OREGON HEALTH & SCIENCE UNIV.
20000 NW Walker Road
Beaverton, OR 97007
(503) 748-4037

ID#: N023-0135
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Efficient Compact Bio-inspired Sensory Information Processing
Abstract:   We propose to evaluate the space-time characteristics of biological feature detectors found in the mammalian retina and use these mechanisms as the basis for generating algorithmic feature detectors implemented in image processing devices. Both conventional digital hardware and cellular nonlinear networks, a massively parallel analog array processor with architecture much like the vertebrate retina, will be considered for implementation. The mammalian retina forms about a dozen different images representing feature sets derived from input stimuli and embodied in a set of stacked strata that span the depth of the inner plexiform layer. These representations are carried intact to higher visual centers by different populations of optic nerve fibers and comprise the complete set of abstracted images that we use to perceive the world, and as such represent a rich feature space for vision. These features are then integrated through higher brain function to generate more comprehensive recognition capabilities. We intend to develop image processing systems that will generate the same set of images that are formed by the natural retina on combine them to achieve robust detection, discrimination, and recognition functions. We hope to learn why nature developed this representation and will use it to create feature detection and filtering systems with enhanced capabilities and compact implementation. The proposed research and development effort aims to enhance current capabilities in sensory information processing applications such as targeting, visual tracking, or night vision. At the same time, results from this effort are expected to enhance our understanding of biological vision and also to provide modeling and experimental tools for further studies. Applications of Navy interest addressed by the proposed effort include image restoration and enhancement, real-time image analysis, target detection and tracking, automatic target recognition, and image compression. New or enhanced military products that may result from this effort include vision systems for targeting, guidance, night vision, as well as surveillance and reconnaissance systems, battlefield communication systems, smart munitions, UAVs and airborne sensor payloads. Commercial applications of the proposed research and development include civilian aviation both in the form of landing instruments for commercial aircraft and as ground-based instrumentation for flight control and runway surveillance, industrial inspection and process control, traffic monitoring, commercial asset protection, and visual communications.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
(585) 424-1990

PI: Dr. Michael J. Roemer
(585) 424-1990
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0240
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
School of Electrical and, Computer Engineering
Atlanta, GA 30332-0250
(404) 894-6252

ID#: N023-0113
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Real-Time Health Management Supervisors for Autonomous Fault Detection/Accommodation and Decision Support
Abstract:   Impact Technologies, in cooperation with the Georgia Institute of Technology, propose the development of an autonomous health management supervisory software capable of fault detection, isolation and accommodation utilizing adaptable models implemented throughout all regimes of vehicle operation. Utilizing an integrated and hierarchical software architecture that is suited for adaptive modeling and control, and can simultaneously support health management reasoner development, a novel system health supervisor will be demonstrated for autonomous optimization of vehicle operations. Specifically, through accurate vehicle regime recognition and fusion of health management and controls logic, adaptable data-driven and physical models will be utilized with intelligent reasoners to provide automated response analysis to changing environmental and system degradation/failures in real-time. The proposed program will develop a generic health management (HM) supervisor architecture with a modeling paradigm that can be extended to various air/ground, manned/unmanned vehicle applications. The end goal is to enable a hierarchical supervisor and design paradigm that allows for full operational coverage of system/vehicle faults and degradation, but also support rigorous system testing/validation. A realistic demonstration of the HM supervisor will be developed for an unmanned rotorcraft application under a threat engagement scenario. With the successful developments and implementation of this proposed Phase I effort, it is strongly anticipated that the health management supervisor technologies will be able to be applied in a variety of DoD ground/air vehicle applications. Hence, during the follow-on Phase II effort, commercial-grade HM Supervisor software will be available for specific design applications. Although the developed HM supervisors will first be tested utilizing a UAV application, the potential for use of the developed technologies is much broader. With the generic supervisor modeling architecture proposed, the developed software modules can be easily adapted for advanced integrated logistics in a number of applications such as the Navy UCAV program and others. Examples of key industrial customers that could also benefit through use of the developed HM supervisor technologies include; commercial airlines, electric power producers, oil and gas transmission companies, and marine propulsion applications.

INDESIGN
8225 East 56th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46216-1056
(317) 377-5441

PI: Mr. Tim Comerford
(317) 377-5448
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0226
CARNEGIE MELLON UNIV.
Computer Science Department, 5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
(412) 268-2622

ID#: N023-0034
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Pocketable Language Translation System for use in Noisy Environments
Abstract:   We propose to develop a wearable device that allows the warfighter to eavesdrop on conversations in a non-English language, extract keywords from the speech, and help the warfighter form an impression of the significance of the conversation relative to the current mission. The firmware of the device will be engineered to function under acoustically difficult conditions and will be integrated into a larger system that provides rapid configuration, dynamic learning, and human backup services. The electrical and mechanical design of the pocketable device will be engineered to allow it to operate in challenging field environments. The success of most commercially available speech understanding systems is limited by their need for very high-quality speech input, free of degradations produced by additive noise sources, unknown linear filtering, nonlinear distortion, and transient interference. The approach to Pocketable Language Translation System design described in this proposal will transition current state-of-the-art robust recognition techniques into an operational setting. The integration of core technology components into a prototype, as well as the definition of an overall system, will create a platform that can support the Pocketable Language Translation System and can be used in other scenarios that require small portable devices for language computation, in both military and commercial areas where speech translation and/or conventional speech capture capabilities are required. Potential commercial examples include emergency medical services, hands-free motor vehicle operations, and in-flight hands-free operations. Through contacts in key industries, such as automotive, communications, medical, and military, Indesign is well positioned to bring the concept of a pocketable speech translator in front of critical decision makers. Indesign also has technology relationships with leaders in key manufacturing and semiconductor industries where voice technologies are being explored.

INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS, INC.
8200 Greensboro Drive, Suite 800
McLean, VA 22102
(703) 893-2007

PI: Mr. Robert Woodward
(703) 893-2007
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0238
GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIV.
801 22nd St
Washington, DC 20052
(202) 994-9380

ID#: N023-0206
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Real-time Multimedia Communications in Highly Mobile Networks.
Abstract:   Innovative Concepts and George Washington University (GWU) will build on the existing research and will examine and test the feasibility of a system that will support mobility and provide connectivity without complicated system management techniques. This network shall provide a quality of service algorithm to select the most efficient path to transmit data/voice to self-level the congestion of the network. Voice and data on the network must be given separate priorities. Fault management techniques will also be involved to support the loss and addition of nodes in the network structure. The result of this study would be the definition of an architecture for a highly mobile data/voice network with the following performance characteristics: ˙ Guaranteed connectivity ˙ Reliable, time-critical exchange of voice and data ˙ Highly mobile, scaleable, and bandwidth efficient ˙ Supports secure exchange of critical command and control information without centralized facilities. Once the protocol becomes a commercial standard, it could be applied to hundreds, if not thousands, of uses in the mobile wireless business. Innovative Concepts would continue development of the concept in our area of expertise, seamless mobile connectivity. Any entity that needs to move, fast in and out of networks, without having to worry about connectivity would benefit from this effort. Military, government, and civilian agencies involved in law enforcement, recovery operations or other types of activities requiring secure, reliable, mobile communications would benefit

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
(301) 294-5215

PI: Dr. Eric van Doorn
(301) 294-5229
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0250
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
3280 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
(407) 882-1353

ID#: N023-0117
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-012       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: UWB Sensor Web Based Phased Array
Abstract:   The military is rapidly developing an information centric focus, and based partly on the projected capabilities of radios, sensor nets, and communication technology in general, is defining many next-generation systems, such as Future Combat Systems. A UWB sensor net, which has (in addition to accurate ranging between nodes) tight synchronization in time, provides revolutionary agility offers N2 improvements in radio and radar power. The key innovation in the proposed work is the ability to achieve ad hoc networks where neighboring network nodes are able to create ad hoc phased arrays for radar imaging and directional transmission. This corresponds to optimal use of all sensors cooperatively for both radar imaging (target detection) and communication of information among sensors, and from the network to a remote point outside. The power transmitted at the focus point is proportional to N2 where N is the number of nodes so there are very significant gains to be achieved over transmission from a single unit. This capability is revolutionary and will have revolutionary benefits in terms of range, power savings watts at the receiver), radar imaging resolution, and covertness. In addition, we propose a novel method to obtain accurate range measurements, even when no Line Of Sight (LOS) exists. Phased Array capability for networks of radio and radar units will deliver much increased sensitivity and ability to relay data from the battlefield. Besides military applications, national border and government facility security will be major markets for this new technology.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
(301) 294-5215

PI: Dr. Chiman Kwan
(301) 294-5238
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0242
UNIV. OF CINCINNATI
814 Rhodes Hall, PO Box 210030
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030
(513) 556-4763

ID#: N023-0084
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: An Intelligent Health Monitoring and Fault Accommodation Approach for Nonlinear Aircraft Operating in Multiple Regimes
Abstract:   Here Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes a new approach for designing intelligent health monitoring supervisor and fault tolerant controllers for non-linear air vehicles. First, a novel on-line monitoring system performs model validation and fault diagnosis. The monitor automatically distinguishes between fault occurrence and operating regime switching. It can directly deal with nonlinear fault models, handle unstructured modeling uncertainty and unexpected failures, and is suitable for real-time operations. Second, a new reconfiguration supervisor makes decision regarding controller selection and resource management. The supervisor provides a unified framework for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant controller, which is still lacking according to a recent survey paper. Another new feature is that the effect of fault detection time on system stability has been explicitly taken into account. Third, a controller suite with novel robust controllers to deal with different failure modes in each regime is proposed. The fault tolerant controllers are designed based on recently developed nonlinear adaptive/neural net techniques by the Principal Investigator, Dr. C. Kwan. The controller guarantees closed-loop stability for a general class of nonlinear systems. Moreover, it has an on-line tuning scheme that eliminates off-line training of the neural net, which is extremely important in rapidly varying environment. The proposed method combines several breakthroughs in fault detection and isolation, and robust control techniques in a unified framework. The proposed method can be used for applications such as aircraft, spacecraft, motors, robots, submarines, and nuclear reactors. We expect the method to be widely used in many commercial and military applications.

INTELLIGENT INFERENCE SYSTEMS CORP.
333 W. Maude Ave., Suite 107
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-4367
(408) 234-2192

PI: Dr. Hamid R. Berenji
(408) 730-8345
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0265
UC-BRERKELEY
EECS Department
Berkeley, CA 94720-1776
(510) 642-4959

ID#: N023-0070
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Perception-based Co-evolutionary Reinforcement Learning for UAV Sensor Allocation
Abstract:   Perception-based reasoning will be an important capability of future intelligent systems. One of the key aspects of this theory is granulation, which will allow agents to process imprecise information in large complex state spaces. In complex and uncertain environments, autonomous agents will need to adapt the initial definitions of granules and perception structures according to new information received from the environment. We propose a general Perception-based Reinforcement Learning framework for dynamically adapting strategic decisions about motion and sensor management in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). As a motivating example, we will consider a reconnaissance mission by UAVs with the goal of identifying and tracking relevant targets. Such a mission requires sensor allocation at two levels: the individual UAV and the team-wide allocation. At the individual level, the total available UAV sensor resources need to be dynamically allocated to tracking appearing and disappearing targets. At the team level, each UAV is treated as a composite sensor, and these composite sensors need to be allocated to different regions of the search space in proportion to the density and importance of targets there. In Phase I of this research we will study the feasibility of co-evolutionary adaptation of individual and team-level sensor allocation policies. The algorithm for allocating UAV sensor resources to dynamically appearing targets can be applied with minor modifications to many resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks, e.g. call admission in circuit switched networks and multimedia flow allocation under DiffServ QoS paradigm in the Internet. The team level algorithm for allocating UAVs to different regions of the search space can be used in distributed dynamic load balancing, e.g. moving cached content on the Web closer to "hot spots."

IONFINITY, LLC
2400 Lincoln Ave.
Altadena, CA 91001
(626) 296-6310

PI: Dr. Carl Kukkonen
(626) 296-6310
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0267
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109-8099
(818) 354-3845

ID#: N023-0187
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Autonomous Underwater Sensing of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
Abstract:   Ionfinity and its collaborators - the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Pace Technologies propose to develop an innovative, miniature and highly sensitive system to sample and analyze water and air in real time within the payload bay of an underwater platform. PaceTech is experienced in underwater sensing and has developed a patent-pending liquid sample acquisition system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has invented the Soft Ionization Membrane and the Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer which, when combined, yield an extremely sensitive and compact system for real-time detection of radioactive materials, chemical agents (including industrial chemicals) and biological warfare agents in water and air. The sensor can also detect explosives and narcotics. Ionfinnity is commercializing the JPL technology. Ionfinity has two patents pending and is collaborating with Beckman Coulter Incorporated to develop commercial prototypes. The proposed system will provide detection levels at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) for many species in a miniature, low-power package. The package and its components have many commercial applications including environmental monitoring, industrial process control, drug discovery and medicine. The Soft Ionization Membrane, which ionizes nearly 100% of the sample that passes through it without fragmentation, represents a revolutionary advance in the production of ion beams. Its immediate application is in the mass spectrometry market where, together with the Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer, it enables a 50x increase in sensitivity, a 50x reduction in size, and a 10x reduction in cost. In addition to the current $2B/year market for mass spectrometry instruments, the SIM enables a new generation of sensors for nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents and for narcotics and explosives.

IRI COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS CORP.
19562 Ventura Blvd, Suite #209
Tarzana, CA 91356-2955
(818) 996-1698

PI: Dr. Izhak Rubin
(818) 996-1698
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0255
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 180-904
Pasadena, CA 91109
(818) 354-3845

ID#: N023-0132
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-015       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Integrated Resource Management for Real-time Multimedia Communications in Highly Mobile Networks.
Abstract:   We propose to develop integrated resource management models and a prototype tool for supporting real-time multimedia communications in highly mobile networks. The network is configured as a scalable hierarchical UV-aided Mobile Backbone Network based ad hoc wireless network. In Phase I, we will develop the network integrated resource management structure and performance models, characterize the monitoring functions, identify the network and MAC layer algorithms to be employed in each Access and Backbone Net. Models will be developed to determine the allocation of network assets in response to dynamic occurrences of key change events, to meet mission and flow quality-of-service performance objectives on a priority oriented basis. To include the impact on the communications traffic imposed by other key assets, we will also develop models for characterizing the performance of spatially distributed sensing and navigation/timing functions, in terms of the underlying available communications networking resources. The integrated network resource management models developed in Phase I, will be implemented in Phase II as software agents embedded in network management and control nodes as well as a resource management tool that produces performance tradeoff and resource assignment results in realtime. Next generation highly mobile UV aided communications networks will employ a dynamically configurable structure, utilizing ground based and airborne unmanned vehicles. They must support the transport of mission induced realtime multimedia streams. We propose a scalable and manageable architecture that will provide for the implementation of such networks, based on our recently developed mobile backbone network concepts. Since the underlying mission and operational environment is continuously changing, it is essential that a resource management tool is employed to allocate in realtime system and network resources. This tool must integrate the impacts of multiple asset classes on the communication network resource assignment process. There are no current distributed software agents and integrated resource allocation tools that can operate in realtime for such networks. Our proposed models and tool will be able to react in realtime to mission, end-user and network changes in allocating multiple-class assets to applications based on their quality-of-service requirements. Such intelligent models and tool must be employed to connect the network monitoring functions with the system control mechanisms, to ensure realtime adaptivity and a survivable operation.

KONARKA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
600 Suffolk St., Fourth Floor
Lowell, MA 01854-0000
(978) 654-6961

PI: Dr. Kethinni Chittibabu
(978) 273-6525
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0227
UNIV. MASS, LOWELL
265 Riverside Street, Olney Hall, OH 420
Lowell, MA 01854-0000
(978) 934-3687

ID#: N023-0023
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-004       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Flexible Solar Cells Using Biotech Materials Processing
Abstract:   In Phase I STTR research, KTI and UMASS Lowell will demonstrate the feasibility of employing bioprocess synthesized macrodyes as well as redox gel electrolytes prepared from complexable macromolecules in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs offer design flexibilities, and cost advantage. KTI has already addressed most of the key issues involved in reel-reel manufacturing of DSSCs on flexible substrates. The major objective of the Phase I research is to identify appropriate class of macrodyes for sensitization of titanium oxide and macro-complexing agents for the preparation of gelled redox electrolytes. The macrodyes and macro-complexing agents will be further optimized for employment in reel-to-reel production of large area DSSC based PV modules with high conversion efficiencies during Phase II research. A prototype flexible solar cell with bioprocess derived macrodyes and gelled electrolytes will be demonstrated during Phase I Research. Results from Phase I research will be used in developing optimum dyes and redox electrolytes during Phase II research. Expected benefits include products suited for military applications, ranging from enhanced performance for handheld electronics (e.g., GPS) to portable (wearable) PV generators for communications, powering lightweight displays, bio-sensors, etc. We envision our technology eventually in the form of a power-generating textile, used in soldiers' tents and field hospitals. Low raw material costs and inexpensive module manufacturing processes are expected to yield a cost <$0.5/Wp for large scale production of DSSC (relative to >$3/Wp for silicon cells).

LANGUAGE SYSTEMS, INC.
5959 Topanga Canyon Blvd. Ste 340
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
(818) 703-5034

PI: Christine Montgomery
(818) 703-5034
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0225
UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE
Irvine
Irvine, CA 92697-5011
(949) 824-6310

ID#: N023-0153
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Pocketable Language Translation System for use in Noisy Environments
Abstract:   A critical requirement in combating terrorism is the ability to acquire advance knowledge of the plans and intentions of terrorist groups. As a step toward this goal, this solicitation requests the development of a pocketable device to identify significant foreign language conversations based on key words and to translate such conversations. In the proposed work, LSI will build upon the PocTransT (Pocketable translator) technology previously developed for ONR, and on our core voice-to-voice translation technology. In order to prove the feasibility of the concept outlined above, we have defined several sets of tasks which will allow us to construct an initial version of such a system, experimentally test it, and demonstrate a functional prototype. These sets of tasks are comprised of linguistic development tasks, system development tasks, and tasks which will experimentally test a range of novel methods for improving recognition of key words in noisy environments by applying noise cancellation and filtering techniques. Finally, the functional prototype derived from these tasks and experiments will be demonstrated. The objective of the Phase I Option tasks is to evaluate design alternatives for a ruggedized system, and to produce a report detailing the evaluation, and presenting design recommendations. There are numerous commercial uses for this technology in law enforcement, fire/paramedic, and critical incident response operations. Language Systems Inc. (LSI) is especially interested in these areas, since the organizations involved are current clients for our PC Windows-based two-way voice-to-voice translation systems. (See our web site at www.lsi.com.)

MADISON TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, LTD.
28 Cottrell Street, P.O. Box 683
Mystic, CT 06355-0683
(860) 245-0245

PI: Mr. George C. Connolly
(860) 245-0245
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0218
UNIV. OF NORTH CAROLINA
Office of Research Services, 300 Bynum Hall CB 4100
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-4100
(919) 962-5625

ID#: N023-0045
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-010       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Biologically Inspired Underwater Navigation Based on Geomagnetism
Abstract:   Several ocean animals, including sea turtles, migratory fishes, and lobsters, have evolved accurate compasses for undersea navigation. Some have even evolved a way to move directly to specific geographic locations by exploiting distinctive features of the Earth's magnetic field. MTI, Ltd. in conjunction with the University of North Carolina's Lohmann Laboratory, will develop techniques to adapt these incredible innate navigation capabilities to Navy applications - specifically, to provide autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and divers with the ability to compensate for compass and displacement errors and to navigate to specific geographic locations without needing to surface to use the global positioning system (GPS). Phase I will investigate the navigation systems of sea turtles and spiny lobsters, which are among the most sophisticated in the animal kingdom. From the insights gained, an approach to implementing a biologically inspired navigation technology will be developed using an innovative magnetic sensing technology -- the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect. The resulting navigation system will be small, low power, and low cost. It will provide a revolutionary undersea navigation capability for AUVs and divers, because it will be able to update its position or otherwise correct for displacements caused by compass error, currents, waves, etc., without surfacing. The small, energy efficient, affordable, innovative underwater navigation system proposed would be extremely useful for: a) seismic exploration by the offshore oil industry, b) locating pipelines, cables or wrecks, c) extended AUV and ROV operations, and d) commercial divers.

MAXDEM, INC.
140 East Arrow Highway
San Dimas, CA 91773
(909) 394-0644

PI: Dr. Matthew Marrocco
(909) 394-0644
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0228
NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABS
1617 Cole Boulevard
Golden, CO 80401-3393
(303) 384-6405

ID#: N023-0123
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-004       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Solar Cells From Bio-Materials
Abstract:   Solar cells based on Grätzel type cells are proposed. These solar cells will use bio-chemically derived dyes and polymer layers, and thus will be environmentally safe. The proposed solar cells will use renewable materials to provide renewable energy. The solid-state thin-film structure of the cells will allow incorporation into textiles to enable their integration into tents, back packs, clothing and other field portable equipment. The target efficiency is 12%, comparable to the best current Grätzel (liquid) systems. World solar cell production and use is growing at about 20% per year. Nevertheless, only about 0.02% of U.S. electrical energy is generated from solar cells. The key limitation to greater usage is cost. Solar modules now cost between $4/W and $6/W. Because the proposed cells use low cost materials and simple construction the cost will be significantly lower than silicon or thin-film inorganic cells. Costs of $1-2/W may be possible, even at current solar cell production volumes. It is anticipated that such a cost reduction would drive additional and faster market penetration. The development of light weight, flexible cells would allow their use in portable equipment as a replacement for or supplement to batteries. The proposed solar cells could directly replace existing units for roof-top or stand-alone installation. Environmental benefits are also anticipated. Replacement of 1 kW/hr of fossile-electric with solar-electric power eliminates roughly two pounds of carbon dioxide emission.

MICROFAB TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1104 Summit Avenue, Suite 110
Plano, TX 75074
(972) 578-8076

PI: Dr. Bogdan Antohe
(972) 578-8076
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0220
UNIV. OF ARIZONA
DR. PAUL CALVERT, 4715 E. Fort Lowell Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85712
(520) 621-5254

ID#: N023-0016
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Artificial Muscle Technology
Abstract: Abstract is unavailable.

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS LLC
Apt. 3/L, 70 Summer Street
Somerville, MA 02143-2722
(617) 776-8376

PI: Dr. John D. Madden
(617) 776-8376
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0219
MIT
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-0321

ID#: N023-0071
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Increased Propulsion and Noise reduction via Molecular-Driven Unsteady Flow
Abstract:   Torpedoes, mine-countermeasures, and other small underwater vehicles require high thrust levels to achieve speeds in excess of 20 m/s. Concurrent with the performance requirements are the conflicting demands for small size, high efficiency and speed, as well as stealth. The issue of excessive noise in particular has drawn great attention, because stealth is an integral part of so many modern missions. Noise is transmitted to the water through the hull and structure, as well as through the blade itself, wherein noise scales with the blade tip speed raised to the sixth (or lower) power. For a given vehicle, an increase in blade lift performance thus allows one to consider both reductions in propulsor diameter and rotational speed. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of applying unsteady flow to increase thrust, thereby reducing blade speed and noise. Deflecting foils and blades are employed to demonstrate the increased thrust. The forces, displacements, rates and power required to generate such flow is also determined. Another key aim is the demonstration of a suitable actuator drive technology. The bandwidth of conducting polymer molecular actuators will be greatly improved, making them capable of deflecting foils and blades with the required force, displacement, power and bandwidth. Noise reduction and/or increased thrust and/or size reduction in underwater vehicles and pumps. Active Medical Device applications. Improvements in prosthetics, robotics and MEMS actuators.

N-VISION, INC.
1350 Beverly Road Suite 115, MS: 239
McLean, VA 22101
(703) 615-3482

PI: Mr. Minoo Bablani
(703) 615-3482
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0229
UNIV. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
4000 Central Florida Blvd.
Orlando, FL 32816-2700
(407) 823-6870

ID#: N023-0103
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-005       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Improved Head-Mounted Displays for Immersive Virtual Reality
Abstract:   In response to the need for new high-performance immersive display technology, n˙vision proposes to develop a new state-of-the-art head-mounted display utilizing lightweight projection optics and high-resolution microdisplays. Prototypes of this device have been developed and tested at the School of Optics/CREOL at the University of Central Florida. The technology has the potential to deliver a field-of-view greater than 100° per eye using optical components weighing only a fraction of conventional eyepiece optics used in existing head-mounted displays. In addition to weight and performance, another issue limiting immersive display technology today is mobility. Users are typically restricted to a radius of less than 6 meters, tethered to bulky and awkward cables. Current wireless systems are limited to low-resolution broadcast video standards. As an optional Phase 1 effort, nvision proposes a collaboration with the Integrated Media Systems Center of the University of Southern California. This will leverage their research and current off-the-shelf networking components and software to develop a new digital interface that would extend the range immediately by using an Ethernet interface to transmit video, audio, and other data, over a small LAN. This technology would have far-reaching benefits by allowing integration with emerging wireless LAN technologies. The goal for Phase 1 of this project is to investigate the design of an affordable, lightweight, wide field-of-view immersive display. In addition to high-fidelity military applications such as Close Quarters Battle training, other industries will find this new technology appealing. Product engineers can benefit from 3D collaborative design, exploring complex assemblies and interacting with movable parts. Architects will have an economically compelling solution for offering a virtual walk-through of home and office space interiors prior to construction. Automotive designers will have an alternative to the large, expensive projector walls used today and allow themselves and their managers a more interactive, collaborative environment to analyze design options. Augmented reality applications such as medical visualization will benefit from the intrinsically correct occlusion of virtual objects by real objects unique to the head-mounted projection optics proposed. And entertainment applications, such as those found at DisneyQuest, using an HMD provided by nvision, will take advantage of a wide field-of-view, user friendly design. Finally, an affordable immersive display with these specifications will support new ideas for virtual reality applications by allowing more developers access to the technology. The optional Phase 1 effort will study the feasibility for a new network-based digital interface using off-the-shelf components and software. An Ethernet interface will extend benefits for all VR applications by removing restrictions inherent in existing tethered systems that limit the range of operation with bulky and awkward cabling. Moreover, there are potential benefits beyond VR applications. By implementing Ethernet with off-the-shelf protocols, this interface promises to scale to emerging wireless LAN technologies, enabling a generalized high-bandwidth mobile audio/video access point throughout an office or home.

NASCENT TECHNOLOGY CORP.
20 Joyce Rd
Arlington, MA 02474-2913
(617) 253-1441

PI: Dr. James D. Paduano
(617) 968-4552
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0264
MIT
77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room E19-750
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
(617) 253-1441

ID#: N023-0175
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-016       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Reinforcement Learning and Genetic Learning Classifier Systems for Sensor Management and Adaptive Flight Control System
Abstract:   The work proposed here will build on current research results to develop and implement algorithms for planning trajectories of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) working cooperatively. Their common mission is to reach a target by flying in an unknown environment, which they learn about through onboard sensors. The resulting sensor resource control problem is solved via dynamic programming. The algorithms to be developed and flight tested are envisioned as part of a first-of-a-kind autonomous VTOL UAV system being developed by NTC. This system will bring military operations closer to the goal of safe, effective operation in dangerous urban warfare environments. In addition, NTC is pursuing commercial uses of UAVs in education, newscasting, and entertainment.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074-3415
(405) 372-9535

PI: Mr. Matt Dock
(405) 372-9535
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0268
UNIV. OF RHODE ISLAND
Oceanography, Bay Campus, CACS Room 207
Narragansett, RI 02882
(401) 874-5138

ID#: N023-0115
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-014       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Autonomous Underwater Sensing of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
Abstract:   Nomadics has teamed with the University of Rhode Island to propose a sensor payload to be carried by a REMUS unmanned underwater vehicle in order to patrol coastal regions and the areas around deployed ships for protection against attack. The system will be able to patrol large areas autonomously and detect threats from radiological, chemical, and biological weapons of mass destruction. Further, the device will allow mapping of the extent of releases from such weapons. A chief component of the sensor package will be a revolutionary technology based on an amplifying fluorescent polymer developed at MIT. The polymer has been demonstrated to be effective in the detection of explosives as well as chemical and biological warfare agents. Government-conducted tests have demonstrated that the sensor can detect landmines with a sensitivity many times greater than available systems. The AFP has exhibited detection of explosives and BW/CW surrogates in water. In tests for the Office of Naval Research, Nomadics has deployed a prototype AFP sensor on a crawler that carried the detection payload underwater and was able to provide real-time detection and mapping of TNT plumes in the water. The proposed design is modular to help ensure low costs, flexibility, and maintainability. The proposed system will be capable of patrolling coastlines and the areas around ships abroad to detect covert attacks using weapons of mass destruction. Once detected, the system can also map the extent of any releases. By implementing detectors sensitive to other analytes, the device will have commercial application for the detection of environmental contaminant releases, search and rescue operations, oceanography research, and other functions.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
4325-B Forbes Blvd
Lanham, MD 20706
(301) 306-0010

PI: Dr. Jon R. Fox
(609) 580-0080
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0243
PRINCETON UNIV.
MAE Department, Rm D414 Equad, Olden Street
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-4741

ID#: N023-0092
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-011       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Passive MEMS Tagging of Personnel (PMTP)
Abstract:   RSI, in collaboration with the Applied Physics group of Princeton University, proposes to utilize MEMS electroforming techniques to produce a passive micro-machined metal corner cube retro-reflector on the 20--100 micron size scale. As a Passive MEMS Tag for Personnel (PMTP), such a all-metal retroreflector would be outfitted with an optically absorbing thin filter. The tags, when interrogated optically, would retroreflect with different intensities at two different wavelengths, providing a simple encoding scheme. The intensity ratio would be varied in each production batch by altering the deposition thickness of the filter coating. The six month base Phase I program will produce a single size prototypical tag with a set of three different filter thicknesses. Exercising the optional extra three month program would support an additional range of sizes of PMTPs. By the end of the program, 1) optical filter tags will be designed and validated; 2) a prototype microscopic retroreflector will be designed, 3) fabricated, 4) examined to ascertain the success of fabrication and 5) PMTP tags will be characterized to determine the optical properties of such a microscale retroreflector. The fight against insurgent groups who coalesce for a campaign and then scatter upon conclusion could be greatly aided by the PMTP personnel tag, which can be applied covertly and survive undetected for an extended period of time. The PMTP tag is interrogated optically, out of the perceptual range of adversaries, and potentially from a wide range of distances. The ability to encode information as to what batch of PMTP tags a suspect is unwittingly wearing may also give important intelligence as to enemy troop movements and aid in interrogation. The usefulness of a microfabricated optically interrogated tag would not end with the tagging of enemy personnel. Friendly forces, suspected double-agents, and non-combatant civilians, criminal suspects, documents, materiel, and vehicles could similarly be tagged and labelled using microscale tags. Commercial markets include law enforcement, hospital security (patient management), wildlife management, and currency and document validation.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
4801 S. Lakeshore Drive, Suite 103
Tempe, AZ 85282
(480) 752-7909

PI: Dr. Link Jaw
(480) 752-7909
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0241
APPLIED RESEARCH LAB - PENN STATE UNIV.
P O Box 30
State College, PA 16804
(814) 863-3991

ID#: N023-0057
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-017       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Real-Time Supervisors and Monitors for Performing Health Monitoring and Fault Detection for Systems Operating in Multiple Regimes
Abstract:   SMI and ARL at Penn State will collaborate to develop a real-time, intelligent, hierarchical control system for fault detection, prediction, performance prediction, model validation and real time resource management and system reconfiguration. This Autonomous Monitoring and Control System (AMCS) will: ˙ Improve the fault detection and prediction in UAV's ; ˙ Differentiate between fault signatures and operational regime switching; ˙ Replace the remote human operator of UAV's with a more efficient real time on-board control system. The AMCS architecture will be hierarchical and flexible, in order to make it adaptable to different UAV systems and sub systems as well as other applications. The technical approach is to combine SMI's and ARL's fault detection and performance prediction approach with a behavior based intelligent controller to create a flexible architecture. The AMCS will have a comprehensive health monitoring (CHM) function which will use techniques form both Robust Control and Gated Experts. The behavior based intelligent controller will reconfigure the system to adapt to changes in the systems performance and fault status. At the end of Phase I, SMI and ARL plan to demonstrate the AMCS on a selected subsystem of a UAV. The proposed program implements innovative technology in a deployable solution. This technology will eventually provide a commercial product that will improve safety, performance and reduce operational cost for airplanes, jet engines, power plants and military equipment. The project is geared towards autonomous flight, which is a military application. SMI will collaborate with an airframe manufacturer to commercialize this product for military applications. The goal will be to work closely with an aircraft manufacturer in order to package and sell these services to them, for their existing and new buyers, especially in the Military sector. The commercialization strategy will also begin with working within SMI's core competency of aircraft engines. The beginning tier will target engine manufacturers. This product will improve safety of commercial engines. In order to make the product more attractive to Engine manufacturers, SMI will have to demonstrate its effect in terms of reduced operation costs. The intermediate tier extends the product to Airlines and the Power industry. The power industry uses technology very similar to jet engines. A good reputation with engine manufacturers will provide in roads into the power industry, especially since some of the engine manufacturers are big players in the power industry.

SEAWARD INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3470 Martinsburg Pike
Clearbrook, VA 22624-0098
(540) 667-5191

PI: Mr. Robert L. Beach
(540) 667-5191
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0257
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
505 Tenth Street, NW, Georgia Institute of Tech.
Atlanta, GA 30332-0420
(404) 894-2294

ID#: N023-0196
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-003       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Securing And Fendering For Skin To Skin Replenishment
Abstract:   The objective of this proposal is to develop advanced fendering concepts for skin-to-skin replenishment of Navy ships. The U. S. Navy has not utilized skin-to-skin cargo transfer on a large scale, because of the potential for incurring damage to the superstructures and masts as the ships roll and pitch in a seaway. However, new demands for at-sea transfer of containers and other large cargo items, in addition to typical refueling and replenishment operations, requires better fendering technology for Navy ships, as well as new technology for cargo transfer control and ship securing. An objective in this proposal is to develop the necessary performance predictions for new and innovative fender designs as inputs into further ship motion studies. Successful conceptual designs will hopefully meet or exceed the cargo transfer objectives for sea state capability, safety, and transfer speed. Future work would then involve transferring general performance criteria to the operations of specific Navy vessels, with the goal of developing recommended fender configurations for various combinations of vessels. An objective in this proposal is to develop the necessary performance predictions for conceptual fender designs as inputs into further ship motion studies. Successful conceptual designs will hopefully meet or exceed the cargo transfer objectives for sea state capability, safety, and transfer speed.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court, Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
(734) 327-8000

PI: Dr. Paul Nielsen
(734) 327-8000
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0231
UNIV. OF MICHIGAN
School of Information, 3080 West Hall 550 East U.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1092
(734) 615-5225

ID#: N023-0136
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-006       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Speech Interface Architectures for Human Interaction with Computer-Generated Forces
Abstract:   Combat superiority requires training superiority. Current training state-of-the-art combines virtual reality, gaming techniques and intelligent forces. A key element missing from this equation is realistic speech interaction, with intelligent agents representing opposing forces, friendly forces and non-combatants. This effort will combine current research in speech interaction and understanding with proven technology for communicating with intelligent agents, to produce a more realistic training environment for warfighters. Communication between agents, humans and agents, and intelligent agents and other constructive forces, must be robust and sufficiently natural for human interaction, account for the inherent ambiguity of spoken language, and allow for processing time delays and multi-person communications with interruptions. To more readily enable interchange of roles between humans and intelligent agents, this research will model mechanisms used in the real world rather than create simulation-specific versions. For example, radio messages are natural language representations of the same, doctrinally correct, English utterances spoken by Marine and Navy warfighters and commanders. We will survey speech interaction research (both human/human and human-agent), explore relevant issues related to realism for virtual training, evaluate speech interaction networking architectures, and propose a plan for transferring the next generation in speech research into a key component of effective military training. Expected benefits will be greater realism and believability (for example, via emotion-enhanced speech patterns, inflection and intonation), improved management of multi-person/agent communications (including cross-talk and interruptions, processing time delays, and multiple language support), better speaker recognition and flexibility in deviating from strictly specified grammar, and intelligent agents that are more adept at communications (knowing how and when to answer, when to repeat themselves or rephrase, gain understanding despite interruptions, and be attuned to emotional states of other agents, etc.). Commercial applications in the U.S. military will include training, mission rehearsal and acquisition in all services, plus foreign military sales to allied forces. In civil defense and government markets, there will be direct applications of this technology in emergency response, disaster relief, police and security. In business, applications include employee training, automated help desks, and intelligent assistants. In the entertainment industry, speech interaction with computer-generated characters can enrich the playability of the next generation of interactive computer games.

SPEECHGEAR, INC.
3454 Circle Bluff Court
Faribault, MN 55021-7258
(507) 664-9123

PI: Mr. Robert Palmquist
(507) 664-9123
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0224
UNIV. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
500 Olin Hall
Los Angeles, CA 90089
(213) 740-8017

ID#: N023-0163
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-002       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Pocketable Language Translation System for use in Noisy Environments
Abstract:   Mission Statement: "To develop and deploy a Pocketable Language Translation System (PLTS) that identifies and translates keywords as they are spoken even though significant background noise and/or degradation of the audio signal may be present. The system shall support bi-directional identification and translation of multiple languages. Conversations of interest shall be automatically recorded, saved and identified. The resulting system will be low in cost, easy to use in all environments, comfortable to carry and/or wear, be easily expandable to additional languages and vocabulary words, ruggedized to shock, dust and water, be small in size, lightweight and have an extended battery life." This research effort will investigate the scientific merit and commercial feasibility of the system described in the preceding mission statement. Four technical areas will be investigated: speech recognition, conversation analysis, language translation, and the computing platform(s). By combining the technical and commercial elements with end-user's needs, a complete definition of a successful system will be achieved. This definition will be used to develop and deliver to the government representative(s) a prototype system that demonstrates key performance elements along with a final report documenting the results. An option is included for integrating the prototype system with a government selected platform. Applications include all individuals who require multi-lingual translation capabilities in noisy environments. The mobile translator system will benefit a wide range of individuals including military personnel, airport employees, border patrol and customs agents, police, fire fighters, rescue personnel, retail clerks, bank tellers, delivery personnel, phone operators, tourists and any industry that sells, develops or manufactures products to/in global markets or employs individuals that do not speak the native language.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard, Mailstop 100
Pasadena, CA 91107
(626) 792-3000

PI: Dr. Patrick Shoemaker
(626) 792-3000
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0247
UNIV. OF WASHINGTON
3935 University Way N.E.
Seattle, WA 98105-6613
(206) 543-1659

ID#: N023-0129
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-007       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Biological Motion Processing for Low-Light-Level Multi-Spectral Sensors
Abstract:   Modern warfare is increasingly conducted during conditions of low/no visibility, often using small autonomous weapons platforms requiring miniature sensor systems for navigation and guidance. Flying insects provide excellent models from which guidance, navigation, and moving target detection/tracking principles can be derived and applied for military usage. Many animals have visual sensing and processing that operate under very weak ambient illumination. Nocturnal hawkmoths are capable of precise visually guided hovering and rapid flight under starlight conditions. Strategies for developing bio-vision for military use under low light conditions include temporal and spatial integration. The motion detectors of nocturnal species employ radically different temporal filters than diurnal insects, and elementary motion detection (EMD) involves nonlinear processing, therefore, neural integration along with nonlinear EMD operations may yield a more nearly optimal approach to motion processing under low light levels. In Phase I, the academic partner will study and model motion processing in nocturnal hawkmoths, and the commercial partner will develop an approach to implement this enabling technology in analog VLSI, and (optionally) plan its integration with other key technologies (e.g., tunable MEMS etalons) into a multi-spectral sensor system. We will leverage our ongoing R&D on insect-based EMD and tunable MEMS etalons. Military/commercial applications currently exist for use in medium caliber autonomous munitions; and, in miniature UAV GN&C systems for near-ground flight. Similarly, compact multi-spectral sensors enable low-light moving target detection from miniature autonomous platforms.

TAO OF SYSTEMS INTEGRATION, INC.
471 McLaws Circle, Suite 1
Williamsburg, VA 23185-6317
(757) 220-5040

PI: Dr. Siva Mangalam
(757) 220-5040
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0221
TEXAS A&M UNIV.
332 WERC, 3000 TAMU
College Station, TX 77843-1658
(979) 862-1696

ID#: N023-0111
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-001       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Biomimetic Underwater Propulsion System Using Hybrid Synthetic Muscles
Abstract:   Electro-Active Polymers (EAP) and Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) will be used to develop hybrid synthetic muscles to propel underwater biomimetic vehicle. EAP materials that offer excellent dynamic (high frequency) response with small strains will be integrated with SMA actuators that provide large static deflections. The primary objective of the synthetic hybrid muscle development will be to integrate the attractive features of EPA and SMA. We will incorporate such synthetic muscle designs in a propulsion system with active feedback control. As a second innovation, we will use intelligent, non-intrusive micro-thin skin sensors for real-time measurement and control of the most important viscous effects in blade hydrodynamics. The Phase I effort will focus on the following: 1. Definition of properties required of flexible propulsion devices for naval application. 2. Design, fabrication, and demonstration of sample muscles with required operating characteristics. 3. Demonstration of the ability to obtain, in real time, critical hydrodynamic flow phenomena that impact blade performance. 4. Identification of key issues for the Phase II R&D effort. Valuable technology for the design of underwater autonomous vehicles, small boats, racing boats, recreational,a nd commercial water vehicles. Tremendous potential for industrial water pumping with quiet and low-energy pumping performance.

WAYA RESEARCH, INC.
1907 Buena Vista SE #80
Albuquerque, NM 87106-1003
(505) 265-4604

PI: Dr. David G. Wilson
(505) 265-4604
Contract #: N00014-02-M-0259
SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES
PO Box 5800
Albuquerque, NM 87185-1003
(505) 845-9015

ID#: N023-0096
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 02-003       Awarded: 01JUL02
Title: Securing And Fendering For Skin To Skin Replenishment
Abstract:   Waya Research Inc. (WAYA) and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) propose to develop an innovative lighter tracking control system for transferring cargo from deck-to-deck using motion control cranes while compensating for the motion of the sea. This system will feature a nonlinear solution to the feedforward open-loop control, a robust feedback tracking control law that compensates for initial state errors, external disturbances, and modeling uncertainties. Additional features include a lighter motion sensor hardware system, and optimized motion control crane system improvements. Our lighter robust tracking control system will offer the Navy Logistics, U.S. Navy fleet, and eventually commercial fleet an innovative approach to applying trajectory planning and robust control system designs to the problem of ship-to-ship transfer of cargo at sea states greater than level three. WAYA/Sandia will develop and market to the U.S. Navy and private industry a robust tracking control system for general ship-to-ship cargo transfer. This will include corresponding real-time controller hardware and motion sensor hardware system. WAYA/Sandia will continue to serve as a consultant for the government and private industry in the areas of related scientific and engineering problem solving.