DoD STTR Program Phase I Selections for FY09.B

Air Force Selections

DARPA Selections

MDA Selections

Navy Selections

OSD Selections


---------- AF ----------

3TEX, Inc.
109 MacKenan Drive ,
Cary , NC 27511
(919) 481-2500

PI: Alex Bogdanovich
(919) 481-2500
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0130
NCSU
Dept. Materials Science & Engr , Campus Box 7919
Raleigh , NC 27695
(919) 513-0559

ID#: F09B-T36-0109
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT36       Awarded: 5/17/2010
Title: Multifunctional Prepregs and Laminated Composites Made by Shear Pressing Carbon Nanotube Arrays
Abstract:   A novel method of fabricating carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer matrix composites is proposed. It includes growing super-aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flat substrate, using NCSU proprietary shear pressing method to compress the grown arrays into a layer of densely packed, highly aligned CNTs inclined at an angle of several degrees to the substrate, separating the produced CNT sheet from the substrate, infusing polymeric resin into the sheet to fabricate an uncured prepreg, laying up the prepreg plies at desired orientations, and finally curing the laminate. This manufacturing process will result in a thick, high CNT volume fraction reinforced laminate with unique in-plane and out- of-plane reinforcement architectures. This kind of laminates can be used for relatively small size aerospace structures, where special combinations of high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity are required. Experimental validation and scaling up this technological approach will include increasing CNT length and their array growth area, building computer controlled apparatus for precise shear pressing of the grown arrays, developing special means for aerospace grade resin infusion into CNT sheets, ply lamination and cure. Initial experimental studies will include in-plane tensile testing and measurements of through thickness electrical and thermal conductivities. BENEFIT: Aerospace industry may be primarily interested in using these novel CNT reinforced prepregs and composite laminates for unique structures which require low weight and high strength combined with high electrical and/or high thermal conductivity. Immediate applications may include light-weight composite structures for housing various aircraft electronic systems. Currently available composite laminates are not applicable due to their low through-thickness thermal and electrical conductivities. In the proposed CNT prepregs and laminates, with long CNTs extending through the whole ply thickness, these properties will be elevated to a much higher level, at least an order of magnitude. The development of integrated manufacturing cycle for these materials and their structural components will enable to supplying them in large volumes for the next generation unmanned aircraft and surveillance platform structures, as well as for the future civil transport systems.

ACES QC, LC
1421 NW 47th Terrace ,
Gainesville , FL 32605
(352) 377-8257

PI: Rodney J Bartlett
(352) 392-6974
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0151
University of Florida
Quantum Theory Project , PO Box 118435
Gainesville , FL 32611
(352) 392-6974

ID#: F09B-T40-0149
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT40       Awarded: 6/11/2010
Title: Coupled Cluster Methods for Multi-Reference Applications
Abstract:   The objective of Phase I is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the various multi-reference coupled-cluster (MRCC) methods that have been proposed for the description of molecular states depending upon near degeneracies and non-dynamic electron correlation. Such effects are encountered in bond breaking, at transition states, for complex open shell systems like transition metal atoms, and for excited states. The applicable MRCC methods include state- universal and state-specific Hilbert space approaches, and valence universal Fock space methods. They will be assessed for formal consistency and numerical performance, and further compared to the best possible single- reference CC results, which defines the state-of-the-art in the field. There is no MRCC method that yet satisfies all preferred formal properties, encouraging new developments. Armed with this MRCC assessment, in Phase II, the most promising approaches will be further generalized and written into the massively parallel ACES III system that currently runs at >80% efficiency on 40,000 processors enabling DoD scientists and others to routinely make such applications to their problems. Currently ACES offers the best and most extensive collection of single-reference CC applications for comparison. The MRCC capability in ACES III will be unique in the field providing a resource in demand throughout DoD. BENEFIT: Unique quantum chemistry software for computing highly accurate couple-cluster and multi- reference coupled-cluster wave functions for predicting molecular structures, spectra, and energetics. Software for DoD and government use and for potential commercialization.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway , Suite #130
Littleton , CO 80127
(303) 792-5615

PI: Sayangdev Naha
(303) 913-5212
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0146
University of Colorado at Boulder
3100 Marine Street , Room 479, Campus Box 572
Boulder , CO 80309
(303) 492-6221

ID#: F09B-T22-0059
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT22       Awarded: 6/16/2010
Title: Thermoelectric material-coated carbon nanotubes as high conductivity thermal interface materials
Abstract:   The ever-decreasing size of the electronic microchips and the ever-increasing density of electronic components required to support future Air Force platforms are creating the problem of substantial localized heat generation that can impair component operation. State of the art thermal interface materials (TIMs), that are used to dissipate heat from the source to the spreader in a microchip, are severely limited in their operation due to high interfacial thermal resistance, non-compliant structures, supercooling (in phase change materials) etc. Even recent advances in using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by themselves suffers from the drawback of high cost and difficulty in attaining homogenously thick CNT deposits as well as poor interfacial conductivity and limited contact with the mating surfaces due to low filling factor. To address this issue, ADA Technologies, Inc. proposes the development of uniquely treated CNTs dispersed in a conducting polymer. ADA’s proposed approach directly addresses the challenge of interfacial resistance between CNTs and mating surfaces resulting in higher performing TIMs in comparison to current state-of-the-art. BENEFIT: Thermal management is a limiting element in further reduction of microchip size, as well as in the design of more complicated circuits for a variety of Air Force applications (including but not limited to solid state tactical lasers, active airborne denial, power MOSGFETs, on-board electronics for unmanned vehicles etc.). TIM capabilities of effective heat transfer from a source to a sink/spreader inside the microchip are severely limited by interstitial air spaces, limited conductivity, high interfacial thermal resistance etc. ADA’s approach will enable a TIM with much greater bulk thermal conductivity, a high degree of degree of mechanical compliance and at costs projected to be substantially lower than current state-of-the-art CNT-based TIMs. Thus, the commercial potential of the proposed technology will be considerable as it will enable meeting the performance goals of the next generation of Air Force technologies.

ADAP Nanotech LLC
411 Wolf Ledges Parkway , Suite 105
Akron , OH 44311
(330) 701-5983

PI: Ali Dhinojwala
(330) 972-6246
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0167
The University of Akron
Goodyear Polymer Center , 170 University Avenue
Akron , OH 44325
(330) 972-6246

ID#: F09B-T22-0200
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT22       Awarded: 7/14/2010
Title: Nanoscale Conformable Thermal Interface Materials with Electronically Enhanced Heat Conduction
Abstract:   ABSTRACT: Thermal management has become a critical factor in designing the next generation of microprocessors. The current technology is unable to meet the increasing demands. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have excellent heat transport; however, the heat transport across the interface continues to be a challenging hurdle. Here, we have drawn a connection between heat transfer, electronic conduction, and adhesion to propose a solution based on gecko-inspired carbon nanotube adhesives. Geckos use micron-size hairs to stick to surfaces without the use of any glue. These gecko- inspired adhesives stick to surfaces using van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The thin-walled CNT developed for improving adhesion are extremely compliant and conform to the topography of the substrate. The compliance is extremely important in increasing the contact area by at least a factor of two with pressure. We anticipate that these increase in contact area is also critical for electronic and heat transfer across the interface. In phase I, we will test the heat transfer and electronic properties of these thin-walled CNT''s based on the fundamental understanding of its relationship with actual contact area and adhesion. Additionally, we will develop an actual prototype to test these materials as heat sinks on processors. BENEFIT: The continued increase in speed of the microprocessors and the need to dissipate heat from these devices has imposed serious road blocks in designing future processors. The technology developed at Akron and Rice, inspired by geckos, offers the possibility of improving the heat transfer across the interface using soft and compliable carbon nanotubes. ADAP Nanotech is Start-up Company founded by the PI''s who have developed the gecko-inspired carbon nanotube adhesives. This new company has the support of the University of Akron, Research Foundation, and local business agencies, such as Glide and Jump-Start, to commercialize this technology. We anticipate the benefits of this technology in the areas of dry adhesives, thermal interface materials, coatings, and nanocomposites.

Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing
7800A South Nogales Highway ,
Tucson , AZ 85756
(520) 547-0850

PI: Zachary Wing
(520) 547-0861
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0084
University of Arizona
PO Box 210012 , 1235 East James E. Rogers Way
Tucson , AZ 85721
(520) 621-8115

ID#: F09B-T24-0179
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT24       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Innovative Joining of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) for TPS Applications
Abstract:   Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC’s) such as zirconium and hafnium diboride based composites are of particular interest for hypersonic leading edges due to their extreme refractoriness. Successful integration into hypersonic structures will require high strength / high temperature joints to bond ceramic-ceramic or ceramic-metal that can sustain the mechanical and thermal loadings at speeds of Mach 5+. New materials and UHTC joining technologies are necessary to fully integrate and exploit their high temperature properties in hypersonic vehicles. Bonding materials that are similar to the joining pair materials are desirable to provide the best thermo-mechanical match to bulk materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) has become a novel approach to rapidly consolidate ceramics; however, it could be adapted to rapidly join UHTC pairs. A team comprised of Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing (ACM) and the University of Arizona propose the use of Off Stoichiometric UHTCs and a modified SPS sintering technique to produce a rapidly bonded UHTC-UHTC geometry with properties similar to that of the bulk joining pair. BENEFIT: The technology proposed offers a new material brazing system that will produce joints for UHTCs with properties similar to that of the bulk joining pairs. This will allow better, more complex geometries for thermal protections systems (TPS). The materials can be rapidly bonded using adapted Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technology which will allow joints to be formed quickly. This joining technology will have commercial applications for turbine engines and commercial space launch vehicles.

AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
631 Discovery Drive ,
Huntsville , AL 35806
(256) 922-0802

PI: Martin Heimbeck
(256) 922-0802
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0118
University of Buffalo
408 Capen Hall ,
Buffalo , NY 14260
(716) 645-2939

ID#: F09B-T33-0183
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT33       Awarded: 7/15/2010
Title: Terahertz Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:   Recent advances in THz-source stability, power and practicality have opened the door for active THz imaging in both commercial and military settings. AEgis is teaming with U Buffalo to develop a THz detection device that utilizes classical rectification effects in semiconductor point contacts (SPCs) to achieve response in the 1 to 10 THz range and is capable of operating at temperatures over 150 K. The technology be fabricated in a video-rate focal plane array (FPA) capable of spanning this frequency range. The principle of operation is based on rectification of a gate voltage by THz radiation. This detection technique has advantages that include extremely fast operation (ns response time), excellent bandwidth and wide frequency coverage. The project will addresses critical technology gaps including: (1) Demonstration of the SPC above 150 K by measuring nonlinear I/V response and applying readout amplification techniques, (2) Expand the current frequency sensitivity of the SPC to meet the broadband requirements (1 to 10 THz) by incorporating a novel fractal antenna design, and (3) showing the extensibility of the device design and readout electronics to produce a FPA using SPC pixels. BENEFIT: The objective of this proposal is to develop a THz detection device that utilizes classical rectification effects in semiconductor point contacts (SPCs) to achieve response in the 1 to 10 THz range, that is capable of operating at temperatures over 150 K, and which can be fabricated in a video-rate focal plane array (FPA) capable of spanning this frequency range. The principle of operation is based on rectification of a gate voltage by THz radiation. This novel detection technique has the ability to outperform other sensor technologies in this frequency regime with advantages that include extremely fast operation (ns response time), excellent bandwidth and wide frequency coverage.

Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Road ,
Billerica , MA 01821
(978) 663-9500

PI: Joda Wormhoudt
(978) 663-9500
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0144
University of Massachusetts
Research Administration Bldg , 70 Butterfield Terrace
Amherst , MA 01003
(413) 545-0698

ID#: F09B-T34-0240
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT34       Awarded: 5/28/2010
Title: Aerosol Plasmon-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization
Abstract:   Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) and The University of Massachusetts at Amherst will collaborate to develop a novel technique for efficient mass spectrometric analysis of high molecular weight analytes such as proteins and polymers. Laser desorption and ionization with minimal analyte fragmentaton will be carried out on metal nanoparticle substrates in a particle beam sampled by Aerodyne’s proprietary aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Aerosolizing a solution of the molecules of interest together with suspended nanoparticles will allow rapid, real-time sampling. The initial aerosol particles will be dried in a gas flow, and the resulting sample particles composed of analyte molecules and nanoparticles will be sampled into the AMS. The coated nanoparticles intersect a laser beam inside the AMS ion formation chamber where the surface-bound molecules are desorbed, ionized, and detected with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Nanoparticles have been shown to have significant advantages in these applications, including selectivity of adsorption, and enhancement of desorption via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects. Bypassing the substrate preparation steps in conventional matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) will be of great importance in the areas of chemical and biological weapons detection, and have great commercial potential in the pharmaceutical, biomaterials, polymer and catalysis industries. BENEFIT: Analytical methods that are sensitive, selective and as broadly applicable as possible are required for identification of biological and chemical weapons. A post-attack, hospital-based instrument should provide information about the whole spectrum of threats, from chemical weapons, through protein and nonprotein toxins, that is, relatively low-mass nonvolatile substances such as saxitoxin and palitoxin, and extending to intact microorganisms such as viruses, vegetative bacteria and bacterial spores, and fungi. A "universal detector" covering all volatile and nonvolatile chemical and biological warfare agents is the ideal, and mass spectrometry is currently the only viable technique on which to base such a device. ARI’s proprietary technology, the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), provides the means to achieve this development. In Phase I of this project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of applying ARI’s AMS technology to develop a real-time sampling system for mass spectrometry of low vapor pressure, complex molecular materials. At the completion of Phase II, we anticipate we will have developed a prototype of an instrument capable of rapid mass spectrometric measurements of molecules important in a number of critical applications.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road ,
Woburn , MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Matthew Erdtmann
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0122
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Office of Research Admin (ORA) , 600 Suffolk St., 2nd Floor S
Lowell , MA 01854
(978) 934-4723

ID#: F09B-T33-0285
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT33       Awarded: 5/25/2010
Title: Uncooled Photomechanical Terahertz Imagers
Abstract:   Agiltron and the University of Massachusetts Lowell will develop a transformational terahertz (THz) imager based on Agiltron’s established optical readout photomechanical imaging technology. The photomechanical imager contains a MEMS-based focal plane array that transduces THz radiation into a visible signal for capture by a high-performance CCD imager. By leveraging the advances made in the fields of MEMS processing and silicon-based imagers, the photomechanical THz imager will meet the Air Force performance objective of NEP < 10–12 W/Hz1/2 from 1–10 THz and frame rate > 30 fps, all while featuring uncooled operation and a dramatic reduction in size, weight, and power (SWAP) and cost over commercially available THz imagers. In Phase I, through extensive materials investigation, imager testing, and performance modeling, we will extend the photomechanical imaging platform to cover the THz range and meet the Air Force performance objectives. BENEFIT: The proposed uncooled photomechanical THz imager development program represents a major technology breakthrough, facilitating wide use of these highly capable imagers in military applications. Because THz radiation can penetrate through most materials, applications for THz imagers include detection of concealed weapons, land mines and improvised explosive devices, chemical agents, and void and crack formation on aircraft skins. Also, because THz radiation readily transmits through smoke and fog, THz imagers are also useful for target acquisition and identification, terrain avoidance for aircraft, and brownout circumvention for helicopters and other rotorcraft. Targeted DoD end user agencies include the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Marines.

Akermin Incorporated
4633 World Parkway Circle ,
St. Louis , MO 63134
(314) 824-1979

PI: Wayne Gellett
(314) 824-1977
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0102
University of New Mexico
1 University of New Mexico ,
Albuquerque , NM 87131
(505) 277-2640

ID#: F09B-T03-0056
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT03       Awarded: 4/23/2010
Title: Hierarchically-Structured Bio-Electrocatalyst Materials Design
Abstract:   Akermin proposes, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, to demonstrate the viability of electronic connections between biomolecules and engineered surfaces in order to harvest power and energy through biologic systems. This work is in part based on Akermin’s proprietary enzyme stabilization technology, which can be used for many lower power commercial and military applications, including microelectrical mechanical devices, unattended ground sensors, and small mobile power devices. This technology has advantages over similar competing technologies (i.e., batteries, conventional fuel cells, and thermal based power supplies) when addressing the needs of small remote sensors and electronics. Akermin’s unique biofuel cell technology has overcome the limitations traditionally associated with enzymatic biofuel cells such as instability at pH’s other than neutral, short operational and shelf lifetimes, and stability relative to temperature changes. The University of New Mexico will contribute their expertise in the design of high surface are engineered electrode materials containing appropriate metal structures for improved electrical connection to biologic molecules. The combination of technologies will result in the highest performing biocathode for highly efficient and long lasting biofuel cell power supplies. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefit of a commercially viable biofuel cell for low power military applications includes being able to provide improved mission operating times due to having greater energy density than incumbent batteries. Additionally, the proposed biofuel cell can be considered an environmentally benign power source, which can be disposed of without concern for environmental contamination. The technology developed under this proposal also has applications in non-military, high volume disposable consumer applications with existing sales volumes of over 100 million units per year. The primary benefit for consumer applications will be the displacement of existing batteries that contain toxic materials with an environmentally benign biofuel cell alternative.

Amtec Corporation
500 Wynn Dr. Suite 314 ,
Huntsville , AL 35816
(256) 722-7200

PI: Scott vonLaven
(256) 319-0872
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-2113
Vanderbilt University
Division of Sponsored Research , 2301 Vanderbilt Place
Nashville , TN 37235
(615) 322-2631

ID#: F09B-T05-0067
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT05       Awarded: 4/27/2010
Title: Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors
Abstract:   The mission of this proposed research is to develop ultracapacitors (also known as electrochemical or supercapacitors) to address an array of military applications. These applications include pulsed power for directed-energy and kinetic- energy weapons, sensors, and power supplies and control systems for aircraft and spacecraft. The proposed innovation employs carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrodes and ionic electrolyte for the construction of ultracapacitors. This novel approach, using nano-structured CNTs architectures, provides a high surface area of attachment for MnO2 nano-particles to maximize the charge efficiency and the power capacity and to reduce the series resistance. Preliminary results at Vanderbilt University, using CNTs/MnO2 nano-composite as electrodes of an ultracapacitor, has demonstrated enhanced capacitance of >400× over pristine CNT electrodes. The fine tailoring of the nano-scale attachment of the electrode material will ultimately result in optimal energy, power, and cycling capabilities, all of which will meet or exceed the required device performance. BENEFIT: Potential USAF Applications USAF applications of ultracapacitors include pulsed power for directed-energy and kinetic-energy weapons, sensors, and power supplies and control systems for aircraft and spacecraft. Ultracapacitors possess much higher energy density than conventional capacitors, and their power density is far superior to that of batteries including fuel cells, resulting in enhanced efficiency and space and weight savings, which will benefit each of the above applications. We note that most of these applications have missions in all branches of the military. Potential Commercial and other non-USAF Applications Minimizing the use of oil in the US economy requires the invention of advanced energy storage devices that provide orders of magnitude higher efficiencies over present commercial technology. The application of enhanced CNT ultracapacitors in the automotive, aviation, and military represents an enormous market, in which costs will be driven down and innovation will penetrate industries that might not otherwise pursue cutting edge science and engineering due to the inherent risk (and cost) associated with it. With respect to application in other Government agencies, Enhanced CNT ultracapacitors will have particularly dramatic effects on NASA applications. The potential enhancements over current technology will allow MgO2 enhanced CNT ultracapacitors to be utilized anywhere independent power sources are required. Ultracapacitors combined with battery technology can power spacecraft, lunar surface mobility systems, and portable electronic equipment.

Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc.
303 Butler Farm Road , Suite 104A
Hampton , VA 23666
(757) 865-0000

PI: Ryan P. Russell
(404) 385-3342
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0061
Guggenheim School of Aerospace
Georgia Institute of Tech. , 270 Ferst Drive
Atlanta , GA 30332
(404) 385-6797

ID#: F09B-T02-0192
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT02       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Fast Trajectory Generation in High Fidelity Geopotentials using Finite Elements, Mascons, and Parallelism
Abstract:   We propose to investigate the feasibility of obtaining fast and accurate trajectories using global geopotential models representing departures from the two-body plus J2 terms. The proposed geopotential formulations and numerical integration methods rely on multi-core processors and the emerging massive parallel capabilities of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) available to common personal computers. Two approaches of modeling the geopotential are proposed. 1) Finite Element Approach: modernize existing finite element models of the geopotential and trade memory for computational speed through the interpolation of a pre-computed mesh. 2) Mascon Approach: model thousands of mascons within the Earth and tap into the fine-grained parallelism of the affordable and commonly available GPUs. Integration of equations of motion will be performed using parallel explicit and implicit methods as well as modern energy preserving (symplectic) techniques that are ideally suited for conservative problems such as the non-spherical earth. The deliverables of Phase I will be prototype geopotential models and example simulations of high-fidelity trajectories which can ultimately be moved into operations to benefit a wide variety of SSA activities. Using a single desktop computer, we target simulation speed improvements of two orders of magnitude compared to conventional geopotential formulations and serial approaches. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that parts of the proposed research will achieve two orders of magnitude improvement in gravitational acceleration calculation. The parallel implementation and fast integration schemes will further improve trajectory calculation speed, which will benefit the Air Force SSA activities and a wide range of other industries. The commercial applications of the proposed research will involve sales of software and services to governmental agencies and contractors such as NASA, military, aerospace corporations, and software companies supporting the earth and space science industries. Apart from the apparent spacecraft trajectory applications, the proposed computation schemes using GPUs and parallel numerical integration have a wide range of applications, including computational fluid dynamics, structural analysis, large-scale optimization, etc.

Apolent Corporation
3333 Bowers Avenue, Suite 130 ,
Santa Clara , CA 95054
(408) 203-6828

PI: Sanjay Rajopadhye
(970) 491-7323
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0135
Electrical & Computer Engineering
Colorado State University , Engineering Room B104
Fort Collins , CO 80523
(970) 491-6600

ID#: F09B-T06-0329
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT06       Awarded: 5/28/2010
Title: UAV Guidance on GPUs by Nominal Belief-State Optimization
Abstract:   We apply the theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) to the design of guidance algorithms for controlling the motion of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with on-board sensors for tracking multiple ground targets. While POMDPs are intractable to optimize exactly, principled approximation methods can be devised based on Bellman’s principle. We introduce a new approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO). We show that NBO, combined with other application-specific approximations and techniques within the POMDP framework, produces a practical design that coordinates the UAVs to achieve good long-term mean-squared-error tracking performance in the presence of occlusions and dynamic constraints. Although the POMDP/NBO combination exemplifies increased tracking performance, this performance gain can be hindered by computational complexity. Implementing computationally intense subroutines intrinsic to the POMDP/NBO approach in highly parallel graphics processing units (GPUs) will allow the realization of our approach on complex systems in near real time. BENEFIT: Improved UAV surveillance technique, Optimal sensor resource management, High Performance GPU library

Applied NanoFemto Technologies LLC
181 Stedman St. #2 ,
Lowell , MA 01851
(978) 761-4293

PI: Jarrod Vaillancourt
(978) 430-7128
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0095
University of Massachuestts Lowell
1 University Ave. ,
Lowell , MA 01854
(978) 934-4723

ID#: F09B-T37-0141
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT37       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Adaptive multi-mode photodetector and focal plane array
Abstract:   Multi-modal (including spatial, spectral and polarimetric) photodetectors and focal plane arrays (FPA) can dramatically enhance the target detection, tracking and identification capability of a battle field sensing system. Most existing multi- spectral polarimetric sensing systems employ dispersive optics (gratings or prisms), or external polarizer technologies to obtain spectral and polarimetric characteristics of targets. These systems are usually heavy, bulky, and unable to perform on-demand spectral-tuning and waveband selection. Due to the large format (e.g 1Kx1K) FPA and multiple wavebands and polarization states involved in a battle field sensing system, the lack of dynamic detection waveband tuning capability will result in a tremendous amount of unproductive and decision-irrelevant data. This SBIR proposal aims to develop a voltage-tunable multi-spectral polarimetric photodetector and FPA capable of adaptive waveband selection and polarization sensing with significantly reduced device size and enhanced reliability. In phase I, a preliminary adaptive multi-mode photodetector will be developed for proof-of-concept demonstration. In Phase II, an ultra-compact focal plane array (FPA) prototype with voltage-tunable waveband selections and simultaneous polarimetric imaging capability will be developed and hybridized with readout circuits. A preliminary adaptive multi- modal IR camera will be also demonstrated and delivered to Air Force Research Lab in Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed innovation provides an enabling technology for ultra-compact adaptive multi-modal sensing imaging systems with on-demand waveband and polarization imaging capability. It forms a key building block for space and airborne target detection, identification and discrimination systems. Commercial markets include portable IR sensing and imaging systems for atmospheric pollution and drug monitoring, spectroscopy, and medical diagnostics. The technology developed herein is expected to significantly advance multispectral polarimetric imaging technologies and greatly accelerate the commercialization of the ultra-compact and portable multi-spectral polarization IR imaging technologies to meet the potential needs of the billion-dollar defense and commercial market.

Biomimetic Systems
810 Memorial Drive, Suite 106 ,
Cambridge , MA 02139
(617) 758-2505

PI: Socrates Deligeorges
(617) 758-2505
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0094
Boston University
Department of Biomedical Eng , 44 Cummington Street
Boston , MA 02215
(617) 353-2815

ID#: F09B-T12-0013
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT12       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Advanced Auditory Modeling for Acoustic Analysis
Abstract:   The human auditory system out-performs all current machine-based systems for analyzing and interpreting real world acoustic environments. Central to that human performance is the method of auditory scene analysis used by listeners and the mechanisms that allow creation of auditory objects. BioMimetic Systems has implemented real-time biomimetic algorithms in embedded hardware based on the ‘what’ and ‘where’ auditory pathways which are integral components for the formation of auditory objects in the brain. These algorithms provide biologically inspired feature sets representing spike activity from the auditory periphery to various brain centers including the Superior Olive (SO) and Inferior Colliculus (IC), representing critical points in the ’what’ and ‘where’ processing streams. Under this proposal we will accomplish two basic tasks. The first is to unify the features created by these auditory models to create auditory objects as a first step in creating an auditory scene analysis system. The second is to develop models of attentional mechanisms that can be used to modulate the formation of these auditory objects that include neuronal oscillations as well as predictive and competitive mechanisms. The hardware/software system will be tested against simple speech based attention tasks and performance compared to psychophysical data. BENEFIT: The proposed system of biomimetic algorithms and hardware with intrinsic attentional mechanisms will yield significantly increased performance for detection, identification, and localization tasks for acoustic targets. These gains will come in part from the greatly improved signal to noise ratio (SNR) the attentional mechanisms can provide through segregation of component sound sources and enabling analysis on these individual components. There are numerous applications of this technology for military senors in difficult and cluttered battlespace environments, particularly for urban and mountainous terrain with strong reverberation, as well as commercial speech to text systems, cell phone systems, and for advanced robotics.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor ,
Huntsville , AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Vojtech Svoboda
(256) 327-0681
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0052
Michigan State University
Contract & Grant Administratio , 301 Administration Building
Lansing , MI 48823
(517) 355-5040

ID#: F09B-T03-0113
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT03       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Advanced Mediator Architectures for Efficient Electron Transfer in Enzymatic Fuel Cell Electrodes
Abstract:   Our objective is to develop advanced mediator architectures for efficient electron transfer in enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) for low power systems. The proposed EFC will leverage ongoing research at both CFDRC and Michigan State University to provide a fully-integrated lightweight, low-cost, manufacturable, and renewable power supply, for various military and civilian applications. EFC systems offer several advantages over the conventional electrochemical power sources: higher energy density, low-cost and environmentally-friendly catalysts, room temperature and pH neutral operating environment, a variety of renewable fuels (e.g. sugars). In Phase I, we will demonstrate easy-to-synthesize novel mediators with tunable redox potential. In addition we will develop a well-controlled electrodeposition process and finally demonstrate a mediated glucose anode integrated with CFDRC’s existing EFC. In Phase II we will finalize development of the mediator and deposition techniques and create a computational modeling based design tool to obtain maximal anode performance for a given enzyme and fuel with stable and reproducible operation. The fully-integrated prototype will be capable of providing a proof-of-concept demonstration as a portable military power source. A multi- disciplinary team with proven expertise in electrochemical power sources, biomicrosystems, bioelectrochemistry, and system design has been assembled to accomplish these goals. BENEFIT: The major outcome of Phase II will be an enzymatic fuel cell with a state-of-the-art immobilized mediator for a reproducible high performance power source. The use of the improved mediator will provide reproducible high power performance and reduced time to market. Furthermore, the novel mediator developed here will have advantages of performance and manufacturing (immobilized versus diffused) over our existing mediator solution. The fully integrated system will meet a critical need in many small, mobile military systems, which are typically limited by batteries, and their inconvenient replacement/recharge requirements. The high power EFC device proposed here eliminates these limitations by taking advantage of readily available sugar sources of more than ten times higher energy density in biocatalytic oxidation. Immediate military applications for the Phase II device include micro air vehicles (MAVs), unattended ground sensors (UGSs), and wireless surveillance networks. Additionally with some adaptation, the device could be suitable for implantation to meet the military’s vision of remote surveillance through the use of insects and other animals. While the initial development is focused on military markets, there exist parallel commercial efforts including monitoring of plants, bridges, and highways. In the implantable area, the EFC could be adapted for implantable medical devices such as pacemakers and

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor ,
Huntsville , AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Vladimir Kolobov
(256) 726-4847
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0089
Regents of the University of Michig
3003 South State Street ,
Ann Arbor , MI 48109
(734) 936-1289

ID#: F09B-T10-0060
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT10       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: High-Fidelity Simulation of Hypersonic Weakly Ionized Plasmas with Dynamically Adaptive Mesh
Abstract:   The goal of the proposed research is to develop advanced computational tool for high-fidelity simulations of hypersonic non-equilibrium plasmas. Octree adaptive Cartesian mesh will be used for automatic mesh generation and dynamic mesh adaptation to plasma properties, particularly important for hypersonic flows with strong shock waves, transient laminar and turbulent domains with large gradients of flow parameters, and complex geometries. The plasma model will be applicable for both high temperature and low-temperature non-equilibrium weakly ionized flows and include a Boltzmann solver for electrons. This project will combine previous experience of the University of Michigan group in hypersonic plasmas with CFDRC experience in electron kinetics and gas discharge plasmas. The Unified Flow Solver developed at CFDRC for simulations of rarefied and continuum flows will be used as a framework. During Phase I, we will assemble the developed physical models and numerical algorithms into a prototype computational tool for adaptive multi-scale plasma simulations. In Phase II, the proposed software will be fully developed and validated for several benchmark cases of interest to the Air Force. We will demonstrate the new capabilities for hypersonic external flows and study communication blackout and plasma flow control by electromagnetic fields. BENEFIT: The developed computational tool will be utilized for evaluation of plasma phenomena on hypersonic vehicles and ground test facilities. The target applications will include hypersonic flight problems, electric propulsion, and plasma plumes expanding through nozzles. The methodology and software will be extendable for analysis of high-speed plasma jets for material processing and biomedical applications, plasma assisted ignition and combustion. Potential users include Air Force, NASA, and commercial companies utilizing plasma technologies for aerospace, propulsion, power, material processing, and other applications.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor ,
Huntsville , AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Richard Thoms
(256) 726-4810
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0142
University of Tennessee Space Insti
411 B.H. Goethert Parkway ,
Tullahoma , TN 37388
(931) 393-7466

ID#: F09B-T19-0072
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT19       Awarded: 5/28/2010
Title: Laser Induced Surface Improvement for Superior Wear Resistance in Extreme Conditions
Abstract:   The objective of this Phase I project is to evaluate the use of novel Laser Induced Surface Improvement (LISI) techniques to provide surface modification to substrate materials which will provide superior wear resistance in extreme conditions. The specific application of interest is the hypersonic metal-to-metal contact that occurs at high speed test track facilities that can and has lead to catastrophic failure of the guide rail system. Our proposal will modify the surface of the rail material (AISI 1080 steel) to provide an integral alloyed surface with superior wear resistant capabilities. In Phase I we will identify the most promising precursor alloy materials and apply them with the LISI process to test coupons for wear evaluation. Parametric studies of wear response to various LISI process parameters will be performed to find the optimum alloy materials and process for this application. Finally we will apply the process to a section of test track rail to prove the ability to process all wear bearing surfaces (top, sides, and bottom of rail) in a controlled and satisfactory manner. In Phase II we will engineer a delivery system to allow in-situ application of the LISI process to rails in the field. BENEFIT: Extreme conditions for wear are found in many commercial applications. While the high speed test track is an extreme case due to the high speeds encountered, it does have relatively low loads. It is actually the product of pressure and velocity that induces the wear and there are many commercial applications that have lower velocity but much higher pressures (and thus similar Pv quantities as the present application). It is therefore expected that this process can be used in many other high wear situations. The fact that we are working on rail geometry lends itself immediately for use on other rail geometries including train, crane, presses, etc.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor ,
Huntsville , AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Alex Fedoseyev
(256) 726-4928
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0063
Rochester Institute of Technology
University Ser. Ct. Suite 2400 , 141 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester , NY 14623
(585) 475-7984

ID#: F09B-T20-0090
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT20       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Ultrahigh Efficiency Quantum Dot Multi-photon Photovoltaics using Nipi Lateral Architecture
Abstract:   Higher efficiency solar cells are needed to reduce solar array mass, volume, and cost for Air Force space missions. Intermediate-band quantum-dot (QD) solar cells can yield dramatically higher efficiencies than current multi-junction (MJ) technologies. However, several issues must be addressed to demonstrate manufacturable, high efficiency devices. CFDRC aims to develop: 1) High-efficiency, lighter, radiation-tolerant QD nipi (n-i-p-i doped) solar cells, and 2) new, validated computational tools for real shape QD nanostructures. We expect that QD solar cells can achieve efficiencies of 52%, due to optimized absorption across solar spectrum (“multicolor” cell) and quantum confinement of photogenerated carriers and phonons in QDs. Customized modeling tools will be used for QD optimization, including: (i) geometrical ordering and variable QD size, (ii) increased transport and separation of photogenerated carriers; (iii) improved electrical conductivity and enhanced collection efficiency. Phase I work will include modeling and experimental design of QD nanostructured nipi devices capable of fully absorbing the solar spectrum, and efficiently collecting generated carriers utilizing a multi-photon conversion process. Theoretical efficiency of device will be determined. In Phase II, physical mechanisms limiting performance will be identified, leading to optimized device design. The nipi nanostructure cells will be fabricated and prototypes will be delivered. BENEFIT: Air Force space missions require improvements in solar cell efficiency and radiation hardness. Significantly increased photovoltaic conversion efficiency will enable high power platforms supporting higher bandwidth communications and high power radars for space based applications. In addition, higher power per area could enable body mounted solar cells for some spacecraft, greatly increasing space mobility and allowing spacecraft to be built and launched faster. The potential low costs and high manufacturability of nanostructured solar cells will further remove the solar array as a cost driver allowing for plug-and- play array solutions to be developed. The inherently radiation tolerant quantum dots will lead to more robust space defense systems. The new modeling and simulation tools for quantum-dot-based nanostructures will help Air Force to: a) assess technologies, devices, and materials for new efficient photovoltaic solar cells; b) better evaluate the performance and radiation response at early design stage; c) set requirements for hardening and testing; reduce the amount of testing cost and time. In addition, low costs of manufacturing could allow these new solar cells to compete for terrestrial applications such as distributed power or grid power replacement/backup. Potential commercial applications will occur through the development of high performance (high W/kg, high W/m2, and low $/W) cells that could be used

Circular Logic
399 NW 7th Ave ,
Boca Raton , FL 33486
(215) 386-7375

PI: Edward W Large
(561) 706-0863
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0092
Florida Atlantic University
777 Glades Rd ,
Boca Raton , FL 33431
(561) 297-3461

ID#: F09B-T12-0044
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT12       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Modeling Auditory Pattern Recognition and Learning with Gradient Frequency Neural Oscillator Networks
Abstract:   This Small Business Technology Transfer research project addresses the perception and learning of complex sound patterns within complex auditory scenes. The objective is to model auditory signal processing, pattern recognition and learning in the human auditory system. Our novel approach simulates the nonlinear signal processing that has been observed in auditory physiology. By mimicking functionally important nonlinearities, this technology has the potential to simulate many human perceptual capabilities. Our specific goal is to enable the recognition and learning of sound patterns in complex acoustic environments in real time. During Phase I, we plan to 1) simulate complex pattern recognition amidst background noise, 2) simulate complex pattern learning in the presence of noise and multiple targets, and 3) investigate hardware acceleration using GPU and FPGA methods to provide significant speedup by the end of Phase I. A detailed report will be delivered along with a plan for achieving real-time pattern recognition and learning amidst background noise by the end of Phase II. The success of the model will inform fundamental scientific research by further elucidating the role of nonlinear processing in the auditory system. BENEFIT: A technology that can successfully recognize complex sound patterns in natural environments would have significant implications for almost every application, military and civilian, that processes sound. Existing systems would improve, deployment in new environments would be enabled, and new applications would become possible. Military applications would include audio surveillance, biometric security, and sonar. Civilian applications would include hearing technologies, speech technologies, and music applications. Hearing impairment is expected to affect 700 million people worldwide by 2015 and such technology would greatly benefit the users of hearing devices. Improvements to speech technologies would include better recognition rates and noise tolerance for speech recognition systems, and improved cell phone clarity in a range of environments. Music applications would be able to automatically segregate polyphonic recordings, yielding new and improved tools for several million musicians, for hundreds of millions of music consumers who enjoy music recommendation systems, and for copyright identification and management systems.

C-K Technologies L.L.C.
116 Holloway Road ,
Ballwin , MO 63011
(636) 394-3331

PI: Harold McCormick
(636) 394-3331
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0117
Air Force Institute of Technology
2950 Hobson Way ,
Wright-Patterson AFB , OH 45433
(937) 255-3636

ID#: F09B-T19-0012
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT19       Awarded: 1/15/2010
Title: Extreme Wear-Resistant Materials
Abstract:   Successful completion of the proposed Phase I work outlined and follow-on Phase II work will provide a system to rank existing materials and coatings for severe wear applications. In addition, the ranking system can be utilized to identify desirable properties in new materials and/or coatings that could be developed for specific severe wear applications. The validated system resulting from the Phase II effort will utilize severe application models on which work was initiated separately by the Air Force Institute of Technology and by C-K Technologies LLC prior to initiating this Phase I proposal. Further refinement and validation of previously developed wear models will be undertaken during the proposed Phase I and Phase II programs. The system will utilize a novel severe wear test fixture design that was identified and evaluated in concept in prior work. However, it should be noted that substantial effort will be undertaken during the Phase II program to develop a design having greater capability in terms of speeds and loads than the present device. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the proposed work will result in a basic understanding and ability to quantify the effect of operating and environmental parameters and material properties on the wear rates of members in sliding contact. This technology can be utilized to reduce development costs and achieve acceptable durability of devices in which severe wear conditions occur. Such conditions exist in military applications (Air Force high-speed sled slipper/rail systems, rail gun projective/rail systems) and commercial applications (diesel engine valve seats, steel rolling mills, etc.).

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road ,
Pipersville , PA 18947
(215) 766-1520

PI: Sanford M. Dash
(215) 766-1520
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0156
CUBRC
4455 Genesee Street , PO Box 400
Buffalo , NY 14225
(716) 204-5112

ID#: F09B-T10-0102
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT10       Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title: High-Fidelity Simulation of Dynamic Weakly Ionized Plasma Phenomena
Abstract:   In the Phase I program, we will design an experiment/test article, and test/validate instrumentation and diagnostics, to be used to obtain plasma properties about a hypersonic vehicle having characteristics and features of the RAM-C flight vehicle. The test model is to be installed and tested in the LENS-XX facility (in Phase II) and experimental planning will be supported by detailed numerical simulations. Langmuir probe and RF transmission attenuation measurements will be used to measure the electron distribution about the body. Numerical simulations will include predicting products released by a phenolic graphite (or other) charring ablator including trace alkali products which impact electron density levels in the plasma layer. Electron distribution predictions will use combined charged species / ablation product kinetics with NLTE models. Due short shock tunnel tests times, the test model will have alkaline impurities injected in accordance with levels based on the numerical studies with an ablator at the simulated flight conditions of interest. In addition to formulating a test program for a full/large scale model at nominally duplicated flight conditions, a code validation plan will be initiated making use of the new CRAVE web-based validation tool under development for the Air Force. BENEFIT: A primary benefit of this program is to obtain high quality data of plasma properties in a large scale test facility providing greater details and higher accuracy than obtainable in flight measurements, at a much lower cost. Data will be used to validate the codes being used to simulate these flow, permitting them to study approaches for remedying the blackout problem. Experimental data obtained will be made available through a web-based commercial code validation tool, CRAVE. This tool stores the data sets and benchmark solutions (grids, solution files, etc.) and contains GUI automation and specialized scripts for each data set so that comparisons can be made on a fully- automated basis. CRAVE was developed under Air Force support for high-speed aero-propulsive data sets, is being extended to include high-speed transitional data under an AFOSR program, and will be further extended to include hypersonic plasma date sets under this program. Other avenues for commercialization include additional experimental work focusing on remedying the "blackout problem" by varied innovative concepts, and, further commercialization of CRAFT Tech CFD codes having a unified continuum/DSMC model for RV/Planetary Entry problems that extends into the Wake, includes ablative products, and contains RF/RCS capabilities.

DCM Research Resources, LLC
14163 Furlong Way ,
Germantown , MD 20874
(240) 481-5397

PI: Genshe Chen
(240) 481-5397
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0139
Syracuse University
Department of Electrical Engin , 4-206 Center for Science and T
Syracuse , NY 13244
(315) 443-4416

ID#: F09B-T09-0319
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT09       Awarded: 6/4/2010
Title: Distributed Pattern Detection and Classification in Sensor Networks
Abstract:   In this proposal, DCM Research Resources (DCM), LLC, and Syracuse University propose a highly innovative distributed pattern detection and classification approach, called Compressive Sensing aided Sequential Pattern Detection and Classification (CSASPDC) in Distributed Sensor Network. Our goal is to develop sophisticated approaches that can effectively detect or classify very weak distributed patterns that are undetectable in the local signatures at individual nodes. At the mean time, any solution to pattern detection and classification needs to take into account the very limited energy and communication bandwidth. We propose a pattern detection/classification framework that combines sophisticated techniques in several areas, including compressive sensing, distributed detection, game theoretic sensor selection and management for detection/estimation, and sequential detection/classification, and secure cognitive radio, leveraging our previous experiences in these areas BENEFIT: The proposed compressive sensing aided sequential pattern detection and classification (CSASPDC) algorithm for distributed sensor network is very important in many military (DoD) applications including reconnaissance and surveillance, homeland security, etc. It can be directly used for developing of advanced mission planning and emergency preparedness decision support systems such as CB agent defense, Space Situational Awareness Fusion Intelligent Research Environment [SAFIRE] program, JSPOC Situational Awareness Response System (JSARS), BMDS system, Future Combat System (FCS), Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, and JSSEO program. During the Phase I, we will work closely with Lockheed Martin MS2, who is prime contractor on the Aegis weapon system, the Littoral Combat Ship, and C2 lead for the DDG-1000 program. We have developed a strong and realistic plan to transition our technology to their programs (support letter attached). In addition, DCM and Lockheed Martin are building a mentor-protégé program. We will leverage this relationship to identify the end customer, and work with these teams to transition our Phase 2 technology into their program. The DOD contact who knows the details of our work and who knows the above programs is Dr. Erik Blasch from AFRL. The market for military applications is quite large.Other potential commercial applications include air traffic control system, network security intrusion detection, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing, robotics, medical applications, and global awareness. The size of this market is not small and hard to estimate. We expect the aggregate market size will be similar to that of military applications.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street , Suite 400
Arlington , VA 22202
(703) 414-5024

PI: David Fiske
(703) 414-5036
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0078
The University of Texas at Austin
101 E.27th Street , Suite 4300
Austin , TX 78713
(512) 471-2668

ID#: F09B-T11-0098
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT11       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: A Multi-Modal State and Measurement Filter for RSO Tracking
Abstract:   Joint Space Operations Center under the United States Strategic Command employs a worldwide network of 29 sensors, known as the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), to track more than 17,000 man-made objects in Earth orbit with sizes 10 centimeters or larger. Decisive Analytics Corporation and the University of Texas Austin Center for Space Research propose an innovate framework for solving stochastic differential equations that will allow non- Gaussian uncertainty estimates to be predicted into the future. This will result in more accurate predictions that can be used for conjunction analysis and other function leading to better space situational awareness. The Phase 1 program can be naturally extended in Phase 2 to address the fusion of non-Gaussian measurement errors. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will increase the accuracy in the prediction of the future ephemeris of space objects. This will increase the Joint Space Operations Center ability to support its mission to analyze new space launches and evaluate orbital insertion; detect new man-made objects in space; inform NASA and other government entities if objects might interfere with the orbits of national assets; and to prevent a returning space object, which looks like a missile to radar, from triggering missile-attack sensors.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street , Suite 400
Arlington , VA 22202
(703) 414-5024

PI: Micah Abrams
(703) 414-5037
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0158
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
1880 Pratt Drive , Suite 2006 (0170)
Blacksburg , VA 24060
(540) 231-3193

ID#: F09B-T40-0097
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT40       Awarded: 6/28/2010
Title: Coupled Cluster Theory (CCT)
Abstract:   Single-reference coupled cluster (SRCC) methods have revolutionized our ability to accurately predict molecular energies and properties. As new developments in theory and computer science extend the application of SRCC methods to larger and larger systems, advancements in coupled cluster methods for studying multi-reference systems have lagged far behind. DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation has teamed with Professor Edward Valeev from Virginia Tech to propose a robust, efficient, easy-to-use coupled cluster method applicable to ground-state and excited-state molecular properties. The parallel explicitly-correlated importance-sampling coupled cluster method (ISCC-F12) will extend the ability to accurately predict molecular energies and properties to large multi-reference applications through a unique combination of an arbitrary-order, general active-space sampling algorithm, a universal perturbative explicitly- correlated basis set incompleteness correction, and an efficient parallel block-sparse multi-dimensional tensor contraction library. BENEFIT: The parallel ISCC-F12 method being developed under this effort has the potential to provide unparalleled accuracy to larger multi-reference applications than ever before. Our method can provide the AFOSR with a predictive tool to study the energy and properties of ground-state and excited-state potential energy surfaces, polyradical species, and low-spin transition metal compounds that are often encountered in the discovery of new energetic materials for propellants and explosives, insensitive munitions, fuels, and gas generators. The parallel ISCC-F12 method will, for the first time, enable scientists to study multi-reference applications without choosing an active-space or hand-selecting reference configurations. DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation and Professor Edward Valeev from Virginia Tech have developed related technologies for multi-reference applications and our team is well- positioned to take advantage of the technology developed under this STTR.

Decisive Point LLC
3800 N Mulberry Dr , Suite 302
Kansas City , MO 64116
(816) 584-2882

PI: James R. Lunsford
(816) 584-2882
Contract #: FA8750-10-C-0148
Park Univeristy
8700 N.W. River Park Drive ,
Parkville , MO 64152
(816) 584-6588

ID#: F09B-T31-0138
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT31       Awarded: 5/12/2010
Title: Innovative Combat Simulation to Craft Tomorrow’s UAV Operational Doctrine
Abstract:   Could the future military use of UAV create a revolution in military affairs as great as the introduction of the airplane or the tank? Is the revolution underway now? If so, how can we best prepare our military for success? The advent of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is once more changing present and future aerial warfare. The configuration, deployment, and face of the United States Air Force is, in 2009, at a historic point, one which will require new ways of thinking and the optimization of new techniques and opportunities for strategizing. This year, for the first time, the Air Force will purchase more unmanned aerial craft than manned; will train more pilots and operators to fly UAV than traditional pilots. UAV have become ubiquitous, with dozens of nations now in various stages of research and development of these low-cost aerial assets. The time to consider new ways of utilizing and combating these new aircraft is now. BENEFIT: The completed UAV serious game will greatly benefit warfighters who want to learn more about the emerging role of UAV in combat operations. They will be able to use the game to better understand current and potential future capabilities and limitations of unmanned aircraft. Students of airpower theory will use the UAV game to conduct “what if” experiments by playing the same scenario multiple times, constantly adjusting UAV characteristics and experimenting with new doctrinal concepts, in order to better visualize the future of UAV.

Delcross Technologies, LLC
3015 Village Office Place ,
Champaign , IL 61822
(217) 363-3396

PI: Robert Kipp
(312) 431-7413
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0152
University of Michigan
University of Michigan , 1301 Beal Avenue
Ann Arbor , MI 48109
(734) 647-1793

ID#: F09B-T13-0134
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT13       Awarded: 6/16/2010
Title: Advanced Computational Methods for Study of Electromagnetic Compatibility
Abstract:   Aircraft often are subject to externally generated electromagnetic interference (EMI) comprising high intensity radiated fields of strengths in excess of 1000 V/m generated by radars operating at 400 MHz and above. They also are subject to generally less intense fields produced by internal sources such as handheld radios. This EMI may adversely affect the aircraft’s communication, navigation, and sensing systems. To quantitatively assess this vulnerability, simulation frameworks aimed at characterizing EMI issues arising inside loaded airframes are required. To address this simulation need, we will develop and implement advanced computational electromagnetics techniques for characterizing transient EMI phenomena on large- and multi-scale platforms supporting (i) antennas, enclosures, boards, and cable shields; (ii) multiconductor transmission lines; and (iii) potentially nonlinear lumped circuits. The proposed techniques are mesh robust, high-order accurate, and computationally efficient. The proposed techniques are (mostly) integral equation based, and hybridize field, cable, and circuit solvers. To achieve the above attributes, these solvers will derive from time domain Calderòn and macro-model enhanced time domain integral equation solvers that are accelerated by broadband plane wave time domain kernels. To ensure the usefulness of the proposed framework to the Air Force community, a graphical user interface (GUI) will be developed as well. BENEFIT: The proposed effort will provide the Air Force with a modeling and simulation capability of unprecedented scope and accuracy for rigorously analyzing real- world EMC/EMI phenomena and HPM/UWB threats upon shielded and unshielded electronic systems. There currently exists no software tool that bring the multiple relevant models to bear in an integrated fashion to address the diverse spatial scales interacting in this problem. The proposed tool accounts for realistic 3-D enclosures (large-scale), multi- conductor cable networks (medium-scale), and complex circuits with nonlinear devices (small-scale). Beyond HPM/UWB threat scenarios, this same tool will be valuable for many commercial and military applications including EMC/EMI analysis for the transportation industry (e.g., interference effects in automobiles, aircraft, trains, and ships), lightning analysis for aircraft (e.g., coupling of lightning strikes to cables and fuel tubes in the aircraft), emissions analysis for electronics manufacturers (e.g., radiated or coupled emissions due to electronic devices), and EMP analysis for power grids and critical infrastructure (e.g., EMP coupling to power transmission lines and computer networks).

DOLCE Technologies, LLC
90 Nassau Street , 4th Floor
Princeton , NJ 08542
(609) 497-7319

PI: John Christopher Dries
(609) 497-7319
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0123
Boston University
25 Buick STreet ,
Boston , MA 02215
(617) 353-4365

ID#: F09B-T33-0278
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT33       Awarded: 7/16/2010
Title: High Performance THz Detector Arrays Using Planar Metamaterial Absorbers
Abstract:   DOLCE Technologies, LLC, in collaboration with Professor Rick Averitt’s research group at Boston University and Eric Shaner’s group at Sandia National Laboratories, will develop and deliver a high performance room-temperature Terahertz detector array solution based on metamaterial absorbers integrated with bi-material cantilevers. The metamaterial approach is frequency scalable and can operate from 0.1 – 10 THz by implementing proper design. The Phase I effort will largely be concerned with design, fabrication, and characterization of single pixel video-rate performance over the frequency range from 0.1 – 3 THz. During Phase II, we will push the sensitivity of the single pixel elements as close to the theoretical maximum noise-equivalent temperature difference of 10mK as possible and extend the responsivity further into the THz spectrum. The Phase II effort will also address practical readout approaches for focal plane arrays based on this cantilever technology with the final result being a prototype video-rate Terahertz detector array operating at room temperature. BENEFIT: The Terahertz frequency band is relatively underutilized for imaging and spectroscopy applications due to the scarcity of inexpensive, high power sources and sensitive detectors. DOLCE Technologies’ will fill this niche of nascent applications in the standoff sensing, chemical detection, and homeland security areas. Biomedical imaging, astronomical as well as terrestrial spectroscopy, and pharmaceutical manufacturing are just a few of the many technical arenas that will benefit from a high performance room-temperature Terahertz imaging platform. Finally, it is likely that no group of corporate founders possesses as solid a track record of commercializing SBIR/STTR products as the former Sensors Unlimited management team that makes up the DOLCE Technologies partnership.

EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street ,
Norwood , MA 02062
(781) 769-9450

PI: David Rauh
(781) 769-9450
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0148
The Pennsylvania State University
Office of Sponsored Programs , 110 Technology Center
University Park , PA 16802
(814) 867-1332

ID#: F09B-T30-0228
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT30       Awarded: 6/9/2010
Title: Tools for Modeling & Simulation of Molecular and Nanomaterials for Optically Responsive Devices
Abstract:   The effective de novo prediction of linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials would be a great resource for developers of military and commercial optical devices. Of particular military interest are multiphoton processes that can be optimized for laser protection as well as for improving photovoltaic efficiencies above the Shockley–Queisser limit, for photodynamic therapy and for optical signal processing. EIC Laboratories and our collaborators at the Pennsylvania State University propose a program of first principles prediction of linear and nonlinear optical properties of molecules, clusters and nanomaterials. In Phase I, we will focus on developing accurate and efficient methods to simulate the two- photon absorption of molecular chromophores in solution. The theoretical models developed in Phase I will be validated against a high quality experimental data set. Phase II will entail further validation of the theory with molecules, nanoparticles and ensembles, and incorporation into an accessible and user friendly software package. BENEFIT: Of particular military interest are multiphoton processes that can be optimized for laser protection as well as for for optical signal processing. The software tools would have applications to materials design for a variety of commercial products, including 1) theoretical modeling software packages useful for designing optical materials, and 2) actual optical limiting materials and devices for protection of electronic sensors and the human eye from damage by intense laser radiation, for medical applications (PDT, optical imaging, etc), for photovoltaics (infrared to visible photon conversion, multiphoton UV to NIR downconversion).

Elissar, LLC
P.O.Box 1365 ,
Monterey , CA 93940
(831) 760-0672

PI: Qi Gong
(831) 459-3753
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0147
University of California Santa Cruz
Office of Sponsored Projects , 1156 High Street, MS:ENGINEERI
Santa Cruz , CA 95064
(831) 459-1574

ID#: F09B-T06-0049
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT06       Awarded: 8/3/2010
Title: Novel Algorithm/Hardware Partnerships for Real-Time Nonlinear Control
Abstract:   The growing complexity of future military systems demands the development of high-performance nonlinear control algorithms. The goal of this proposal is to develop a specially designed software/hardware architecture to enable real- time autonomous closed-loop control of nonlinear high-dimensional dynamical systems. Following the recent success of pseudospectral (PS) computational control methods in solving highly nonlinear real-world control problems, we propose and investigate feasibility of a reconfigurable real-time nonlinear optimal control architecture that combines the recent advances and high efficiency of PS methods with the striking growth in the capabilities of modern computing hardware. The proposed closed-loop control algorithm has the potential to yield significantly improved system performance, meet the stringent physical and engineering requirements of various Air Force systems, and easily adapt to changes in the application, environment, and control objectives. The main objectives of this proposal include: (i ) developing a reconfigurable real-time computational optimal control architecture, (ii ) designing an algorithmic structure that is hardware implementable, (iii ) analyzing the computational feasibility of the algorithm for high-dimensional systems, (iv ) designing the appropriate software/hardware architecture, and, (v ) testing the performance of the proposed algorithm on an example problem of autonomous aerial vehicle. BENEFIT: The real-time reconfigurable nonlinear control algorithm paired with an efficient custom designed hardware configuration is an enabling technology for managing the complexity and achieving superior performance of many Air Force warfare platforms. The results of the proposed research will particularly play a pivotal role in unmanned vehicle platforms used in both military and civilian applications. Unmanned drones and unmanned ground robots are delivering game-changing capabilities in the battlefield and are used by law enforcement agencies around the world. The realtime software/hardware partnership proposed in this project will be of great value to the unmanned vehicle industry and will be pursued as part of the future Air Force advanced technology. Elissar’s commercialization plans are focused on commercializing hardware-specific real-time reconfigurable optimal control technology by facilitating the technology transfer to Air Force platforms. Upon successful completion of Phases 1 and 2 of this STTR proposal, Elissar will pursue this endeavor by deployment of the software/harware package on small-scale unmanned ground vehicles and mid-scale unmanned aerial vehicles. In that regard, Elissar has started investigating potential industry partners who are providers of various hardware architectures. As such, two companies SRC Computers and Versa Logic have

EM Photonics, Incorporated
51 East Main Street , Suite 203
Newark , DE 19711
(302) 456-9003

PI: John Humphrey
(302) 456-9003
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0126
University of Delaware
113 Smith Hall ,
Newark , DE 19716
(302) 831-0071

ID#: F09B-T18-0230
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT18       Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title: Accelerated Linear Algebra Solvers for Multi-Core GPU-Based Computing Architectures
Abstract:   Many large-scale numerical simulations can be broken down into common mathematical routines. While the applications may differ, they often need to perform standard functions such as system solves, Fourier transforms, or eigenvalue calculations. Consequently, producing fast, efficient implementations of these methods will benefit a broad range of Air Force applications. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have emerged as an attractive platform to perform complex numerical computations. Their FLOPS/watt and FLOPS/dollar figures are far below competing alternatives. In previous work, EM Photonics has implemented dense matrix solvers using a hybrid GPU/multicore microprocessor approach, which has resulted in a product we have released to the public called CULA. This has shown the ability to significantly outperform either platform when used independently. In this project, we will develop a complimentary library focused on performing routines on sparse matrices and extend both families of solvers to work in multi-GPU environments. The solver package developed in this project with will be applicable to a wide range of applications from finite element analysis to computational fluid dynamics to image processing while being scalable from a single desktop PC to large, GPU-based high-performance computing systems. BENEFIT: A suite of sparse and dense linear algebra solvers will be particularly useful to air force. Sparse computations arise from finite element methods and in various areas of the CFD space. The importance of these solution spaces cannot be overstated. The Air Force has many CFD efforts, especially related to space missions. Analyzing the fluid flows, aero-acoustic properties, and mechanical characteristics accurately and speedily allows engineers to more quickly turn around designs. Since sparse solvers have applications in the entire FEM space, that further expands the applicability of our project to mechanical analysis and computational electromagnetic analysis. Dense solvers arise in scientific computing disciplines such as electromagnetic analysis for radar signatures and communications and system analysis with eigenvalues. Also image and signal processing techniques such as beam forming and compression are often done with dense matrix routines. Using GPUs, users are able to build single workstations with an excess of four teraFLOPS of computational power as well as create large, high-performance computing systems that are efficient in terms of both cost and power. By leveraging libraries such as the ones we will develop for this project, the user is shielded from the intricacies of GPU programming while still able to access their computational performance.

EM Photonics, Incorporated
51 East Main Street , Suite 203
Newark , DE 19711
(302) 456-9003

PI: Ahmed Sharkawy
(302) 456-9003
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0113
University Of Delaware
140 Evans Hall ,
Newark , DE 19711
(302) 831-8170

ID#: F09B-T25-0101
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT25       Awarded: 5/15/2010
Title: Ultrafast Hybrid Active Materials and Devices for Compact RF Photonics
Abstract:   Optical components for RF-photonic applications such as communication satellites, avionics, optical networks, sensors and phase array radar will require high speed, high capacity and low power. Due to the nature of crystalline electro- optic materials (LiNbO3, GaAs, InP, etc.) today’s commercial electro-optical devices do not perform well above 40 GHz. This limitation can be circumvented by utilizing organic materials unique properties (Nonlinearity, electro-activity, conductivity and electro-opticity). Since amorphous polymers do not have lattice mismatch problems, incorporation of organic (polymeric) materials with conventional materials like Si, SiGe, GaAs, InP and GaN should open up multiple possibilities of achieving high-frequency, high-bandwidth applications such as high-capacity optical networks, THz and mmW imaging, wireless communication, phase array radar and antennae, lightweight broadband avionics etc. Several RF applications will also benefit from the development of such technology, including high-speed switching and gating of RF signals, the development of optically reconfigurable multifunctional antennas, and high speed EO-modulators. BENEFIT: it is highly desirable to consolidate/combine as many functions as possible into single system footprints, which leads to the realization of mutli-functional systems. However, performing such functions through a traditional wide band RF system remains a formidable challenge. A case in point is the emergence of multi-functional RF apertures, wherein communications, RADAR, electronic warfare, and imaging are all performed through a common RF radiating aperture. Another application of optical up-conversion to synthetic aperture imaging lies in the direct processing of correlator data using optical techniques. EM Photonics and the University of Delaware, have demonstrated millimeter- wave synthetic aperture imaging implemented via a carrier-suppressed optical approach .Using the smaller optical wavelengths, Fourier transform operations may be carried out using a simple small optical le ns and a photodetector array

Emergent Space Technologies, Inc
6301 Ivy Lane , Suite 720
Greenbelt , MD 20770
(301) 345-1535

PI: Robert H. Bishop
(512) 471-8129
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0062
University of Texas-Austin
Office of Sponsored Projects , 101 E 27th Street, Suite 4.300
Austin , TX 78712
(512) 471-6305

ID#: F09B-T11-0238
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT11       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Tracking of Resident Space Objects with Covariance Realism
Abstract:   Covariance realism and consistency are critical to precision tracking and long-term orbit prediction of resident space objects (RSOs). This proposal tackles the key challenges that would yield realistic state estimation error covariance measures for tracking RSOs with relevant covariance consistency metrics. The anticipated result is a proposed estimation architecture that provides state estimation error covariance realism with proven covariance consistency. Using a building block approach including carefully developed mathematical models of the environment and sensors and employing linear covariance and Monte Carlo techniques, a quantitative analysis will illuminate the best filtering approach to further refine and develop in Phase II. The results of Phase I will establish the fundamentals of the tracking problem for RSOs using traditional and non-traditional measurements. What can be observed? What states and parameters should be in the tracking filter? What performance can be achieved given the current Space Surveillance Network coupled with our proposed estimation architecture? In Phase II we will investigate particle filters and advanced nonlinear filtering methods utilizing approximate solutions of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations to address the problem of state estimation error covariance realism and test using actual measurement data. BENEFIT: Current methods for tracking and long-term orbit prediction of resident space objects are inadequate for future needs requiring timely and precise tracks for a very sizeable number of targets. Collision probability calculations, which are used to make mission-critical decisions about spacecraft maneuvers, rely on having realistic covariance data from the orbit determination process. The fundamental challenge is to create a tracking process that yields state estimation error covariance measures that reflect the true errors in the estimation process. The recursive tracking algorithms that produce realistic and consistent error covariances developed during Phase 2 will be developed into a software product that could be incorporated into Analytical Graphic, Inc. (AGI)’s Orbit Determination Toolkit (ODTK) as an add-on module or integrated into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) based ground system. This product could then be integrated into the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS). The funding for Phase 3 could then be provided by the JMS program. Incorporating this software into ODTK as an add-on module would enable Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. to leverage the sales and marketing infrastructure of AGI to provide the widest possible dissemination and usage of the technology developed under this SBIR.

G A Tyler Assoc. Inc. dba the Optical Sciences Co.
1341 South Sunkist Street ,
Anaheim , CA 92806
(714) 772-7668

PI: Glenn A. Tyler
(714) 772-7668
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0080
University of Rochester
518 Hylan Building , P. O. Box 270140
Rochester , NY 14627
(585) 275-8036

ID#: F09B-T21-0198
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT21       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Novel protocol for Quantum Key Distribution
Abstract:   The proposed effort develops the understanding required to assess the utility of using OAM states and quantum entanglement as a novel protocol for quantum key distribution for propagation through an aberrating medium such as the atmosphere. In addition a conceptual design of an experiment that is appropriate to further the development of this capability will be developed on the proposed Phase I effort with the intent that it will form the basis of the subsequent Phase II effort. In this regard significant progress has been made. A protocol has been developed using minimum energy loss vortex fields that is capable of increasing the BB84 bandwidth by almost a factor of two over very long propagation paths (on the order of a megameter) with moderate sized optics. BENEFIT: This work will significantly advance the state-of-art in secure laser communication by using entangled OAM states. Analysis results presented in this proposal do not include the impact of entanglement yet but illustrate that the bandwidth of the communication channel can be almost doubled compared to that obtained with the BB84 protocol when smaller optics are used. For similar sized optics the new protocol provides more than a factor of three larger bandwidth. Given this level of performance both commercial and military optical communication links should benefit greatly. In particular this work ensures that ground- to-space or space-to-ground links will be a reality.

Global Engineering and Materials, Inc.
11 Alscot Drive ,
East Lyme , CT 06333
(860) 398-5620

PI: Robert Lipton
(225) 578-1569
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0100
Louisiana State University
Office of Sponsored Programs , 202 Himes Hall
Baton Rouge , LA 70803
(225) 578-2760

ID#: F09B-T29-0237
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT29       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Multi-scale Physics-Based Models for High Strength Titanium Alloys Accounting for Higher-Order Microstructure Statistics.
Abstract:   The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of new multi-scale models for linking higher order micro- structure descriptions to failure initiation and crack propagation for high cycle fatigue of high strength titanium alloys. This includes new high temperature materials such as the lightweight intermetallic titanium aluminide turbine blades to be used in the lower pressure sections of the Boeing 787 engine. The unified fracture initiation and propagation modeling will be incorporated into new software tools and integrated into a larger protocol for aerospace applications. Global Engineering Materials has established the business partnership with SIMULIA (ABAQUS) and will team with Prof. Lipton at Louisianan State University (LSU) to implement its standalone software package in customized Abaqus solution modules. The multi-faceted feasibility study consists of developing an add-on ABAQUS toolkit that will enable the following: 1) a new unified multi-scale fatigue crack growth modeling technique that incorporates micro-structural information obtained from Orientation imaging maps of polycrystalline alloys; 2) a novel multi-scale free energy based method for modeling crack/damage nucleation and evolution that is independent of the finite element mesh; 3) demonstration of the applicability and computational efficiency of the developed toolkit at the component and structural level. BENEFIT: The results from this research will have significant benefits and commercial application in the, DoD labs, and engine industries. It will result in: 1) a commercially viable, accurate, computationally efficient, and user- friendly virtual testing tool to simulate material and fracture properties for a given microstructure of titanium alloy; 2) an integrated analysis framework for fatigue damage prognosis and health management of engine components; 3) a virtual testing tool to reduce current certification and qualification costs which are heavily driven by experimental testing under various alloy configurations and stress; and 4) innovative damage tolerance design and risk management procedures to minimize the risk of fatigue damage. The tool can be used by government agencies and private industries as follows: 1) for material fabricators to accelerate innovative alloy design and material tailoring for a given design objective; 2) for research institutions and design agencies to explore the micro structural dependent crack initiation, corrosion fatigue, and abnormal small fatigue crack growth, 3) for structural certification and government agencies to specify fatigue performance limits and safety standards; and 3) for aircraft and engine manufacturers to provide optimal designs via the effective use of new analysis tools, risk evaluation methods, and health management procedures.

Global Engineering Research and Technologies
2845 E. 2nd Street ,
Tucson , AZ 85716
(520) 829-7655

PI: Ali Boufelfel
(520) 829-7655
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0104
The University of Arizona
1230 E. Speedway Blvd., Tucson ,
Tucson , AZ 85721
(520) 626-5149

ID#: F09B-T18-0256
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT18       Awarded: 5/15/2010
Title: Algorithm Development for Multi-Core GPU-Based Computing Architectures
Abstract:   For the Phase I effort, a team comprised of experts in the areas of alternative high performance computing architectures such as the GPU, IBM Cell BE and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (Research Institution), and finite element analysis and continuum mechanics (Global Engineering Research and Technologies) has been formed to design and develop a framework and a library of algorithms optimized for the GPU architecture and targeted for solving partial differential equations. These algorithms will address problems relevant and important to aeronautics industry, which include solid mechanics, heat transfer and fluid dynamics. In solving specific PDEs, most suitable method will be selected. Newly developed algorithms on the GPU will be evaluated through a performance comparison against CPU platforms. Scalability of the developed algorithms will be tested. BENEFIT: The Phase I effort will establish the validity, merit and feasibility of the proposed approach for solving specific partial differential equations (PDEs). This effort will serve as the foundation for the Phase II development effort. During the Phase II, the framework developed during Phase I will be extended to include additional PDEs that are commonly used in research related to Air Force and other branches of DOD. This research will lead to obtaining solutions to PDEs faster with greater accuracy. Also, solutions to problems previously discarded due to being deemed computationally prohibitive will be within reach. Considering the fact that numerical solution of PDEs is one of the essential components in design, manufacturing and analysis of machines and structures, the vast majority of manufacturing sector (aerospace, automobile, electronics, etc.) will find this research highly attractive.

HEM Technologies
2306 FM 1585 ,
Lubbock , TX 79423
(806) 745-5401

PI: David J Hemmert
(806) 745-5401
Contract #: FA9451-10-M-0097
Pulsed Power Center,Texas Tech
Center for Pulsed Power , Texas Tech University
Lubbock , TX 79409
(806) 742-0526

ID#: F09B-T14-0071
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT14       Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title: Advanced Nonlinear Transmission Lines as High Power Microwave Sources
Abstract:   Current high power microwave technology typically consists of electron beam sources which require high vacuum and large magnets. Such systems are typically difficult to use in the harsh environment associated with the modern battlefield. These systems are very sensitive to vibrations and typically can be easily damaged if dropped or launched from a weapon system. Nonlinear transmission lines, NLTL’s, are a possible technology to replace standard high power microwave sources. NLTL’s consist of lumped solid nonlinear components such as ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials which change their characteristic permittivity and permeability when saturated by high magnetic and electric fields. The Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics at Texas Tech University has recently had significant success in NLTL research and has demonstrated a >10 MW, 4-5 GHz RF output from a hybrid NLTL. HEM Technologies and the Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics propose to continue this research by developing a model of the hybrid NLTL system and characterize additional materials to include in the model. From the characterization and modeling studies, we will determine the requirements to design a >10 GW system as required for the Phase II. BENEFIT: The commercialization of this system will apply to a variety of applications. In addition to the potential applications of the technology for the defense services, the developed technology has potential as a compact commercial nanosecond high power pulser. Such a device has a variety of applications from general research to medical, industrial, industrial, and communication applications.

HPS Simulations
PO Box 3245 ,
Santa Clara , CA 95055
(408) 554-8381

PI: Scott S. Hamilton
(408) 554-8381
Contract #: FA8750-10-C-0153
Stanford University
Office of Sponsored Research , 340 Panama St
Stanford , CA 94305
(650) 725-0088

ID#: F09B-T31-0327
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT31       Awarded: 5/13/2010
Title: Innovative Combat Simulation to Craft Tomorrow’s UAV Operational Doctrine
Abstract:   Existing computer combat wargames offer a sophisticated and high fidelity base platform for accurately modeling standard combat scenarios. However, the rapid development of UAV capabilities in terms of sizes, weapons, sensors, communications and flight ability is presenting a new challenge for these simulations. At the same time, the general state of world affairs is changing such that the likelihood and impact of UAV’s in operations is greater than ever before. Thus, the ability to use effective computer modeling and analysis tools in decision-making at all levels is more critical than ever, especially in the development of UAV doctrine, tactics, procurement, design, and integration into force structures and missions. This project will perform research into improving existing wargame software, specifically the title “Point of Attack”, in terms of increasing the fidelity and overall usefulness of the program to a full range of military planners, commanders, analysts and other users. The project’s initial focus will be on enhancing the modeling aspects of the UAV’s themselves, including net-centric considerations and flexibility in allowing for hypothetical future developments. Additionally, investigations will be made into improving the artificial intelligence (AI) abilities acting on behalf of both itself and/or a human player. BENEFIT: The primary benefits of the proposed model and AI improvements will be that existing and future combat simulations and computer wargames will be more accurate in terms of friendly and enemy force actions involving UAV’s, will offer more challenges to players, and will make them more enjoyable to use/play. All of these things will increase the overall employment of the software in whatever capacity it is used, for example as a course of action evaluator on the battlefield, a training tool, an evaluation vehicle for weapons system or doctrine/tactics development, or as an information device to showcase the effectiveness of new technologies. The commercial benefits are that more enjoyable computer games can be published, increasing sales, as well as offering developers the opportunity to easily and quickly adjust computer models for specific UAV situations without having to rewrite significant portions of the AI and modeling code. For example, the same software can model equally well UAV’s used for border monitoring or forest fire detection/fighting as it can military operations with UAV’s against insurgents.

HyPerComp, Inc.
2629 Townsgate Road , Suite 105
Westlake Village , CA 91361
(805) 371-7556

PI: Vijaya Shankar
(805) 371-7556
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0121
University of Kentucky
435 Anderson Hall , College of Engineering
Lexington , KY 40506
(859) 257-8042

ID#: F09B-T13-0281
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT13       Awarded: 1/15/2010
Title: Advanced Computational Methods for Study of Electromagnetic Compatibility
Abstract:   The leakage of electromagnetic (EM) energy into air vehicles, and particularly into ordnance, poses a hazard that requires careful evaluation. Under current guidelines, such evaluations are primarily to be carried out through extensive testing of items under possible field conditions, a process that can be both time-consuming and costly. The scope of this STTR Phase I activity is to implement a high order accurate full wave time-domain, broad band electromagnetics solver to predict the electromagnetic field environment for integration and certification of armament and munitions for aircraft with complex weapons delivery platforms. This modeling and simulation capability will provide the needed critical support and cost savings to the US Air Force, 46th Test Wing, 780th Test Squadron, Eglin AFB, in performing various test and evaluation (T&E) studies for assessment of aircraft/store EM compatibility. HyPerComp plans to collaborate with Professor Stephen Gedney of the University of Kentucky in this effort. BENEFIT: In addition to serving the vital interests of the Air Force, the development of an electromagnetic solver for electrically large problems will be well suited for a number of commercial applications involving EM simulations. Some of these include patient-specific hyperthermia radiation treatment for cancer, study of long term radiation effects from cellular phones, the sensitivity of cellular phones to various positions in a metropolitan area, hazards from high power lines near residential areas, meeting the EMC specifications of high power microwave circuits, and modeling of waveguide problems. The advancements to be made in quick-turnaround parallel processing using PC-based computing will significantly leverage any commercialization efforts.

HyPerComp, Inc.
2629 Townsgate Road , Suite 105
Westlake Village , CA 91361
(805) 371-7556

PI: Ramakanth Munipalli
(805) 371-7500
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0125
School of Aerospace Engineering
270 Ferst Drive , Georgia Instt. of Technology
Atlanta , GA 30332
(404) 894-9126

ID#: F09B-T38-0136
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT38       Awarded: 5/12/2010
Title: Theoretical Innovations in Combining Analytical, Experimental, and Computational Combustion Stability Analysis
Abstract:   Combustion stability is an important consideration in the design of liquid rocket engines. While fundamental modes of unstable operation in simple geometries are easily identified using analytical methods, recent times have seen these methods greatly expand in scope, applied in semi-numerical format to increasingly complex geometries and flow situations. Much remains to be explored in understanding the role of chemistry and turbulence interaction, nonlinear effects and coupled unstable modes and such others. While analytical models and CFD have largely been kept apart by convention, some recent advances have begun to pave the way for their effective integration. The generalized use of the Galerkin approach to complex physics has enabled a straightforward usage of eigen-functions to preempt numerical solutions such that each solution yields greater physical insight into the problem. We propose here a series of advancements to make combustion stability analysis more efficient by a natural coupling between analysis, CFD and experiments. Among others, these methods will include: the use of reduced basis methods, the ability to model uncertainty in flow calculations, high order accurate and efficient calculations of flows in complex geometries. This research will be performed jointly by HyPerComp Inc. and the Computational Combustion Laboratory at Georgia Tech. BENEFIT: Work proposed here has a broad appeal to manufacturers of solid and liquid propellant rocket motors as well as gas turbine engines. These are significant markets and will be able to sustain a niche software suite to be developed. An effective modeling strategy and an integrated simulation environment can result in tremendous cost savings in trial and error testing. Specifically, the combustion stability application will serve as a front runner to promote HyPerComp Inc.’s upcoming product line of very high order accurate simulation software for multiphysics, a first in the industry. Allied technologies such as uncertainty modeling and reduced basis methods will bring new energy into an otherwise routine set of modeling applications currently in vogue.

InfoBeyond Technology LLC
1211 Mallard Creek Road ,
Louisville , KY 40207
(502) 742-9770

PI: Bin Xie
(502) 742-9770
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0153
University of Louisville
501 East Broadway, Suite 200 ,
Louisville , KY 40202
(502) 852-8359

ID#: F09B-T15-0273
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT15       Awarded: 6/21/2010
Title: Network Coding and Network Tomography (NCNT) Analysis and Algorithms for Dynamic Airborne Networks
Abstract:   The airborne network suffers from the limitations of highly constrained network capacity due to wireless link communication and intermittent connectivity among platforms. Information coding theory is a very new technology that is initially proposed for computer networks in 2001 and for ad hoc networks in 2006. The recent study shows it is able to increase the network capacity for mobile network to 10% or more. In this proposal, we propose the Network Coding and Network Tomography (NCNT) analysis and algorithms for dynamic airborne networks. NCNT includes three algorithms namely, Linear Programing-based Multicast Coding (LPMC), Opportunistic Unicast Coding (OUC), and Pseudo-log Likelihood Estimation (PLE) algorithms. NCNT formulates the network coding problem as an optimization problem. LPMC and OUC are multicast coding algorithm and unicast coding algorithm respectively that increases the airborne network capacity. The time and space complexities of them show the scalability and adaptability for airborne networks. PLE uses network tomography for dynamic network analysis. Our primary study in this proposal shows our proposed algorithms can increase the network capacity superior to other existing approaches and can be adapted to airborne network for practical usage without the need of hardware upgrading. BENEFIT: Air Force can gain significant value from the commercialized dual-use products of the proposed NCNT technology. The developed coding algorithms increase the network capacity (e.g., >10%) for airborne networks without the need of any new hardware. This is critical for Air Force due to the constraint of wireless bandwidth in the airborne network. The resulting profit for Air Force comes from the developed algorithms and protocols that can be used to upgrade a variety of airborne backhaul networking products. It increases return-on-investment through reuse of the already available network hardware and support of the evolution of radio technologies. The proposed design allows rapid technology transition and commercialization success, thereby accelerating the fielding of capabilities to soldiers and to benefit the nation through improved wireless network product performance. The proposed NCNT can also increase the profit for Army and Navy by offering network coding software packages in the mobile ad hoc battlefield networks. For example, we expect the network capacity of the airborne fighter platforms can be increased by 10% by using our developed algorithms in the practical airborne networks. This result is significant and very exciting for supporting mission operations more effectively. The proposed multicast and unicast coding software packages (i.e., LPMC and OUC) can be implemented in the Airborne Fighter Platforms and Air/Space-based C4ISR platforms. We are contacting Boeing for possible support

Innovative Technology Applications Co., L. L. C.
PO Box 6971 ,
Chesterfield , MO 63006
(314) 373-3311

PI: Mark Rennie
(574) 631-1695
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0150
University of Notre Dame
511 Main Building ,
Notre Dame , IN 46556
(574) 631-8710

ID#: F09B-T16-0214
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT16       Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title: Implementation of Facility Models Using Neural Networks for Improved Control of Wind Tunnels
Abstract:   Test facilities such as wind tunnels require stringent control of test parameters such as wind speed, temperature, pressure, etc., in order to satisfy the objectives of the simulation. Control of test facilities can be significantly improved using mathematical models for the facility behavior that are developed from physical principles. A shortcoming of mathematical control models is that they typically contain parameters that must be directly measured in order to match the performance of the actual facility. As a result, it is necessary to “tune” the mathematical models to match the actual facility response. Tuning of the mathematical models can be a very complex and time-intensive activity, particularly for complex facility operations requiring simultaneous control of multiple systems or actuators. The objective of the proposed research is to investigate methods of automating the data collection and analysis associated with tuning mathematical facility models, so that these activities are run simultaneously with regular facility operations and require minimal involvement of facility staff. BENEFIT: This program will result in improvements and automation in the operation of wind tunnel facilities that may be applied to government and industrial facilities.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive , Suite 400
Rockville , MD 20855
(301) 294-5221

PI: Jason Li
(301) 294-5275
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0162
Princeton University
School of Eng. and Applied Sci , Engineering Quadrangle
Princeton , NJ 08594
(609) 258-5071

ID#: F09B-T15-0271
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT15       Awarded: 7/15/2010
Title: Multi-Scale, Multi-Resolution Network Information Flow Monitoring and Understanding
Abstract:   Communication networks can be viewed and analyzed as information flows, which can be better understood with practical design guidelines by capturing the complex interactions across essential network properties and tasks. Intelligent Automation Inc. and its subcontractor propose a novel unifying approach for multi-scale, multi-resolution network information flow modeling and analysis. We introduce a three-dimensional mechanism for network monitoring and understanding with tunable resolution. The three dimensions are time, space, and frequency, which broadly represent the time-series analysis, topological properties, and network dynamics, respectively. Our approach will exploit the correlations of all dimensions to understand the geometry of network data. Network coding will be applied broadly as a general networking paradigm to support our network monitoring/analysis approach based on the high-dimensional network data collected in multiple resolutions. Our innovation is to infer network through a network task over different scales and resolutions, then feed the network information back to the underlying network protocol, thereby stabilizing the network monitoring operation and optimizing the network protocol. Geometric structures of the network optimization problem will be utilized. Our network monitoring/analysis approach operates without fixed traffic parameterization and extends local network deployment and measurement to network-wide property and management policies. BENEFIT: The proposed effort will provide a unifying framework that enables holistic understanding of network information flows that span different resolutions and time-scales. Such insights will benefit various applications including routing, resource allocation, and performance analysis in mobile, heterogeneous Airborne Networks. Besides military networks, such insights are also directly beneficial to various heterogeneous networks. Potential commercial applications include border and coast patrol, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, and various civil applications, possibly with huge amount of users. The size of the market is quite large and may grow rapidly with the demand in wireless network reliability and availability. We expect that the aggregate market size will be similar to or larger than that of military applications. Such a large market need will help attract a great amount of potential investment. IAI is more than a “think tank”, and we have actively pursued with our partners the application of our technologies into actual products in the past. For this proposed effort, in particular, we strongly believe that our work provides the solution needed in both research community and in practice. In addition, IAI will closely work with our partners and collaborator companies such as Raytheon, BAE systems, Lockheed, Boeing, and Telcordia to transfer this technology into the military and commercial

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street ,
Torrance , CA 90505
(424) 263-6362

PI: Glenn Bastiaans
(424) 263-6319
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0119
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
110 8th Street ,
Troy , NY 12180
(518) 276-6283

ID#: F09B-T33-0258
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT33       Awarded: 7/15/2010
Title: A Unique Focal Plane Array Detector for THz and MM Wave Imaging
Abstract:   Detecting explosives and weapons under clothing or in hand carried packages, and imaging terrain and objects through fog and smoke are two high-priority needs that can be met using light in the Terahertz frequency range. However, to image concealed threats, and aid in navigation in fog and smoke, a practical, low cost THz camera is needed. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) in collaboration with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) will address this need by developing a uniquely sensitive and affordable THz camera (specifically, a focal plane array - FPA - device). The new FPA will use an entirely new approach to the detection of THz light, completely distinct from other attempts to realize THz FPAs. IOS will combine its expertise in planar device development with the extensive experience of RPI in THz radiation theory and application development. In Phase I, the feasibility of developing a fast, portable THz camera for counter terrorism and navigation applications will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: With the new THz imaging system proposed here, the detection of concealed explosives and weapons will become widely possible. Such detection can effectively counter terrorist activities and save many innocent lives. Aircraft navigation aids to see through smoke and fog could become practical. Commercial applications would include both civilian and military security screening of people at transportation centers, public buildings, and other public locales, and could also include special aircraft navigation aids, and even medical imaging and industrial process control.

IntelliWare LLC
8540 E McDowell Road, #16 ,
Mesa , AZ 85207
(480) 283-3792

PI: Alex Mahalov
(480) 226-2730
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0067
Arizona State University
Fulton Center 310 , 300 E University Drive
Tempe , AZ 85281
(480) 965-1225

ID#: F09B-T27-0022
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT27       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Fine Scale Modeling and Forecasts of Upper Atmospheric Turbulence for Operational Use
Abstract:   Intelliware LLC proposes to investigate under Phase 1 of the STTR Program the development of a fine scale forecast model capability that will provide a technologically superior, high resolution atmospheric decision tool to accurately predict areas of clear air turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Accurate real time knowledge of the dynamics in the UTLS is needed to support UAVs and operations in high impact turbulence environments. Among the new capabilities required are improved physics based modeling and nesting to integrate models of disparate scales. We will develop fast and scalable numerical algorithms and solvers for effective resolution of the dynamics of the UTLS using high resolution nested simulations. We will also study the feasibility of an integrated hardware-software platform which uses state-of-the-art multi-core technologies for single analytic workloads to accelerate run-time performance for real time operational forecasting. BENEFIT: The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Global Hawk, Predator), U2, reconnaissance, and communication systems will benefit from this STTR project. Additional applications include forecasts in complex terrain or urban areas for problems related to aviation and Homeland Security.

Ionwerks, Inc.
3401 Louisiana, Ste 355 ,
Houston , TX 77002
(713) 522-9880

PI: Ernest K. Lewis
(713) 522-9880
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0133
RICE UNIVERSITY
Department of Chemistry ,
Houston , TX 77521
(713) 348-6384

ID#: F09B-T34-0151
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT34       Awarded: 5/27/2010
Title: Plasmon-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization
Abstract:   Surface analysis of many classes of large polymers (e.g. non-polar synthetic polymer) by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) is not possible using existing MALDI matrices. Here, we uniquely address this problem by combining two recent proprietary commercial products available exclusively from Ionwerks. 1) A nanoparticulate ion implanter decorates a surface with size selected metal or alloy nanoparticulates (NPs) yielding efficient LDMS (intact ions and neutrals). 2) Moreover, our LD ion mobility MS allows submicron spatial analysis of directly ejected ions liberated from these NP treated surfaces. Not only does the “gas phase electrophoresis” of the Ion Mobility sort molecular ions by chemical type, but predominantly desorbed neutrals are localized in space above the sample surface long enough to be ionized by additional laser pulses. Our nanoparticulate implanter is the ideal platform for determining the worth of plasmon resonances to LDMS. NP size, shape, and composition can be tailored to increase optical absorption. Are small NP (non plasmon) better matrices than larger NP (plasmon)? Our work shows small particles (1-10 nm gold) are needed for biomolecular tissue imaging. This may not be the general case—especially if the analysis can be accomplished by engineered NP neutral analyte desorption followed by post-ionization. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefit of this research is to provide a nanomatrix which can be utilized for low laser threshold, high spatial resolution surface analyis of large molecular compounds. MALDI analysis of solids as currently practiced requires dissolving the solid sample and combining matrix molecules in a solution which is subsequently dried and introduced into the LDMS for analysis. The analyte must be water soluble. In contrast, here we tackle the more general and pervasive problem of combining matrix with an intact molecular surface. Soft landing or implanting NP into a solid surface in principle (and so far in limited practice with biotissues) provides a universal means of incorporating matrix with any solid surface. Moreover, this approach retains the possibility to image the possible surface molecular heterogeneity (e.g. co-polymer segregation) at submicron spatial resolutions. Whether plasmon resonances turn out to be useful for these analyses can be uniquely and quickly determined for a broad range of nanoparticulates (our source can produce NP from any metal or metal alloy in size ranges from 1-30 nm). Moreover, as we find optimal matrices for soft landing or implantation into solids, it is but a simple matter to produce these same NP compositions and coverages onto a substrate (such as silicon) which can then serve as a MALDI matrix substrate to which analyte molecules in solution can be applied. Dual use applications for this technology include rapid screening of bacterial and virus

ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway ,
Littleton , CO 80127
(303) 285-5129

PI: Russell Hollingsworth
(303) 285-5154
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0120
Colorado School of Mines
1500 Illinois St. ,
Golden , CO 80401
(303) 273-3538

ID#: F09B-T33-0123
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT33       Awarded: 5/28/2010
Title: Surface plasmon enhanced tunneling diode detection of THz radiation
Abstract:   This Small Business Technology Transfer Research phase I program will develop a new class of uncooled THz detectors for the 1-10THz band with a novel design using surface plasmon resonant cavities with integrated metal- insulator-metal tunneling diodes as the detecting element. Tunneling diodes provide ultrafast broadband response, potentially into the visible (300THz), but demonstrated performance using antenna coupled diodes has been disappointing for a variety of reasons. The proposed approach solves all of the problems limiting antenna coupled detectors. In particular, the design allows for large, tunable collection area to optimize the tradeoff between signal/noise ratio and image resolution, high efficiency power coupling into the tunneling diode detector, and wavelength scaling through geometric parameters with a single detector technology. This program will examine the fundamental mechanisms involved through closely coupled finite element modeling, nanofabrication of test structures operating at 28THz, and detailed optical characterization. Detailed designs for the 1-10THz band will be developed through modeling. BENEFIT: THz imaging has great potential for applications ranging from biological imaging, security screening, and material characterization. The lack of highly sensitive, low power, low cost detectors that can be fabricated into arrays has prevented the introduction of commercial imagers. This program will develop uncooled detector elements for advanced THz focal plane array imagers, greatly expanding the commercial market.

ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway ,
Littleton , CO 80127
(303) 285-5129

PI: Russell Hollingsworth
(303) 285-5154
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0070
Colorado School of Mines
1500 Illinois St. ,
Golden , CO 80401
(303) 273-3538

ID#: F09B-T39-0124
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT39       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Surface plasmon enhanced thin-film photovoltaic systems
Abstract:   This Small Business Technology Transfer Research phase I program will develop a new class of surface plasmon enhanced photovoltaic devices that exhibit increased current collection. Photon management, the manipulation of the incident optical field to increase the probability that a photon is absorbed in the active region of the cell, is critical to the development of next generation thin film solar cells. There is recent evidence that incorporating metallic nanostructures designed to support surface plasmons (SPs) into solar cells can provide this kind of control. While the possibility of using SP modes to optimize optical absorption in thin film solar cells is very intriguing, studies to date have largely been empirical and key questions about the origin of efficiency enhancements must be addressed. This program will examine the fundamental mechanisms involved through closely coupled finite element modeling, nanofabrication of well defined structures and detailed optical characterization. The improved understanding will lead to the design of highly effective structures for improved photovoltaic efficiency. BENEFIT: Markets for photovoltaics exist in both the private and federal government sector. Private sector markets include off-grid applications (such as agricultural water pumping, emergency telecommunications, mobile road signs, supplementary power in watercraft, and household power in areas that are not grid-connected or where the grid is unreliable), rooftop installations, and utility-owned solar installations that help meet state-mandated requirements on renewable power generation. The United States Department of Defense is the largest single domestic consumer of energy, $1B per year of which is spent on electricity for off-grid facilities. Infiltration into large off-grid foreign markets would reduce the United States trade deficit and strengthen the competitiveness in the worldwide market. With continued decreases in photovoltaic costs, it is projected that the worldwide photovoltaic market will be worth $10-15B in 2020 and responsible for some 150,000 jobs here in the United States.

JMSI, Inc. dba Intelligent Light
301 Route 17 N , 7th Floor
Rutherford , NJ 07070
(201) 460-4700

PI: Earl P.N. Duque
(928) 600-2450
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0149
Univeristy of California, Davis
Office of Research, Sponsored , 1850 Research Park Drive
Davis , CA 95618
(530) 754-7958

ID#: F09B-T18-0126
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT18       Awarded: 6/16/2010
Title: Innovative CFD Algorithm, Libraries & Python Frameworks for Hybrid-GPU Computing Architectures
Abstract:   The need for faster highly resolved solutions coupled with the advent of General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) architectures and the development of GPGPU algorithms at the University of California, Davis present an opportunity that JMSI Inc. proposes to leverage by developing algorithmic and software solutions for GPGPUs in “Innovative CFD Algorithms, Libraries & Python Frameworks for Hybrid CPU-GPU Compute Architectures”. In the Phase 1 effort proposed herein, JMSI Inc. proposes to develop prototype algorithms for the core CFD primitives and matrix solvers that can be used with any CFD code through either libraries or a Python Interface Framework. The prototypes are based upon GPGPU research produced by the University COLLABORATORs, Profs. John Owens and Roger Davis, from the University of California, Davis. The MBFLO code by Prof. Davis will be used to demonstrate the core CFD primitives while a development implicit code will be used to demonstrate the use of implicit time stepping algorithms by Owens that are amenable to GPGPU architectures. BENEFIT: Accelerated CFD solutions at lower cost. Open source GPGPU libraries and Python Components that can be used with any CFD solver.

John Tiller Software
142 Sarah Hughes Dr ,
Madison , AL 35758
(256) 289-9631

PI: John Tiller
(256) 289-9631
Contract #: FA8750-10-C-0156
University of Alabama at Huntsville
301 Sparkman Dr ,
Huntsville , AL 35899
(256) 824-6064

ID#: F09B-T31-0001
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT31       Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title: Innovative Combat Simulation to Craft Tomorrow’s UAV Operational Doctrine
Abstract:   This proposal is for the use of state-of-the-art computer wargames to be used in the research on the impact and optimal use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in realistic combat scenarios. High fidelity, historically calibrated wargames ranging from sub-tactical ground-centric game engines through operational, strategic, air campaign, and naval-centric game engines will be used to address the full spectrum of UAVs, their capabilities, and optimal use. These computer wargames all come with a powerful and highly adaptive Artificial Intelligence (AI) capability developed over several years of research and development which allows these wargames to be effectively used in both human-interaction and fully- automated settings. Employing these wargames with this AI feature allows for execution on both interactive and multi- processor computer systems as appropriate for the research being conducted. BENEFIT: UAVs have been a very significant military development recently and are poised to significantly impact all combat scenarios from the very tactical to the strategic in all areas of warfare: ground, air, and naval. As the capabilities of UAVs increases, it is important to anticipate and optimally implement them into combat scenarios. High-fidelity computer wargames together with powerful and highly adaptive AI functionality can be effectively and efficiently used to pursue research into the use of UAVs. It is important that these wargames be effectively calibrated so that any results obtained from them can be viewed with a high level of confidence that they are representative of actual situations. Likewise, it is important that these wargames have both interactive and automated execution modes so that investigations can be carried out both with human-in-the-loop and on high-performance computer systems. The interactive mode supports discoveries of the use of UAVs that might not be realized and understood while the automated modes supports mathematical optimization of their use.

Kassoy Innovative Science Solutions
2000 Kohler Dr. ,
Boulder , CO 80305
(303) 494-9017

PI: David R Kassoy
(303) 494-9017
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0088
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Dr ,
Pasadena , CA 91109
(818) 354-6959

ID#: F09B-T38-0180
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT38       Awarded: 6/11/2010
Title: Theoretical Innovations in Combustion Stability Research: Integrated Analysis and Computation
Abstract:   Quantitative predictions of reactive flow dynamics from large-scale simulations of Liquid Rocket Engines (LRE) appear to be model dependent. Relationships and coupling among the dominant mechanisms most responsible for destabilization are obscured by the complexities of the model and subtle consequences of inherent ad hoc approximations not supported by mathematical rationale. The reliability of predictions is difficult to quantify. These uncertainties provide opportunities for novel theoretical (integrated analysis and computation) research aimed at reducing complexity and identifying primary drivers of instability (dominant coupling mechanisms). Phase I research will demonstrate that thermomechanical concepts and analysis can be employed to address stability processes in a LRE. Systematic asymptotic analysis is used to identify dominant physical processes occurring in an idealized supercritical LRE, and their inherent time and length scales. This form of analysis leads to model equations of reduced complexity, based on derived approximations with an a priori understanding of model limitations. Anticipated Phase II research will apply proven Phase I methodologies to very general equation systems capable of describing coupled chemico-physical phenomena in supercritical pressure, turbulent reacting flows, characteristic of an operational LRE. Computational solutions of the reduced equations will produce quantitative predictions of combustion stability, including concepts that will facilitate improved design practice BENEFIT: Simplified Liquid Rocket Engine computer codes with predictive reliability will; * facilitate LRE design practices based on first principles, * reduce the computational expense of design, * foster more cost-effective LRE design process, * enable the construction of stable LRE''s.

Kuzer
Shannon Campbell , 23933 42nd AVE SE #31C
Bothell , WA 98021
(425) 402-1808

PI: DeLiang
(614) 292-6827
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0159
Ohio State University
OSU Research Foundation , 1960 Kenny Road
Columbus , OH 43210
(614) 247-6080

ID#: F09B-T12-0211
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT12       Awarded: 6/29/2010
Title: An Auditory Scene Analysis Approach to Speech Segregation
Abstract:   This proposal seeks to investigate monaural (one-microphone) speech segregation. Motivated by the observation that the human auditory system has the remarkable ability of segregating an acoustic mixture and grouping the components of the same event into a stream in a perceptual process called auditory scene analysis, the proposed approach is based on auditory scene analysis principles. The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop a speech segregation system that substantially improves speech intelligibility of listeners in noisy environments. To achieve this goal, the proposed segregation system is designed to have several stages of computation, including early processing, simultaneous organization and sequential organization. The proposed system will be evaluated using mixtures of speech and a variety of interfering sounds, and the success of the system will be measured in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and speech intelligibility in noise. BENEFIT: The results of this project are expected to significantly improve the speech intelligibility of listeners in real-world acoustic environments, which in turn could lay the technical foundation for a wide range of applications. Commercial potential includes better hearing aid and cochlear implant design to benefit a large population of people with varying degrees of hearing loss, robust automatic speech and speaker recognition, and human speech communication in adverse civilian and military environments.

Lexitek Inc.
14 Mica Lane #6 ,
Wellesley , MA 02481
(781) 431-9604

PI: Steven Ebstein
(781) 431-9604
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0124
University of Massachusetts Lowell
600 Suffolk Street , Second Floor South
Lowell , MA 01854
(978) 934-4723

ID#: F09B-T34-0038
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT34       Awarded: 5/25/2010
Title: Multifunction Substrates for Laser Desorption Ionization
Abstract:   Lexitek and U. Mass Lowell propose to develop novel laser nanostructured substrates for laser desorption ionization (LDI) that enables mass spectrometry (MS) without an interfering chemical matrix. Lexitek is developing these patented plasmonic devices for molecular sensing using surface enhanced detection techniques. Using a technique invented by U. Mass researchers, the devices are fabricated in semiconductors or metals and consist of a semi-regular array of nanospikes that is subsequently metallized. The surface morphology and metal coating are tailored to optimize the interaction of the incident laser irradiation, the surface plasmons excited in the metal, and the analyte. Lexitek has developed proprietary technology for uniformly spotting the analyte onto the nanostructured surface. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a substrate for LDI that vaporizes analytes with minimal fragmentation. We will optimize the surface morphology and subsequent metallization for a single laser excitation wavelength using an existing MS instrument. In Phase II, we will construct a complete system for doing matrixless LDI and mass spec at multiple wavelengths. We will also develop several novel features of our substrate such as arrayed substrates, performing separation/fractionation in situ, and using soft nanolithography to replicate the nanostructures for very inexpensive substrates. BENEFIT: Our technology will enable very sensitive and specific detection of biomolecules and compounds, enabling a range of applications in biotechnology, clinical diagnostics, and research. The market for molecular diagnostics exceeds $6 billion, worldwide.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle , Suite 400
Roanoke , VA 24016
(434) 483-4254

PI: Zhiguo Zhou
(434) 483-4234
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0045
New York University
665 Broadway, Suite 801 ,
New York , NY 10012
(212) 998-2379

ID#: F09B-T03-0276
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT03       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Hybrid Carbon-Metal Nanowires Mediating Direct Electron Transfer from Redox Enzyme to Electrode
Abstract:   The electron transferring unit of enzymes – apoenzyme and cofactor are deeply buried inside its protein structure, therefore efficient electronic communication between the electrode and the biocatalytic enzyme is inefficient. The development of a reproducible approach that allows efficient electronic connection between enzymes and electrodes would meet the major technical needs in the development of manufacturable biological fuel cell technology. Luna Innovations proposes to use carbon nanospheres to build conductive hybrid nanowires that plug into the depth of enzymes in close proximity with the redox center. This approach not only promotes direct electron transfer from redox centers to nanowires due to the plugging orientation and the unparallel electron-accepting capability of fullerene nanospheres, but also is capable of transporting electrons released from enzymes to electrodes as the nanowire is vertically aligned and immobilized on the electrode. In Phase I, Luna will prepare nanowire-modified electrodes by assembling nanowires onto electrodes from nanosphere building blocks with a capable-of-being-automated method, plug the free ends of nanowires into enzymes, evaluate the device performance (electron transfer rates and current density), and identify parameters to be optimized in a biological fuel cell prototype in Phase II. BENEFIT: The nanowire approach for efficient electron transfer from enzymes to electrodes developed in Phase I would find use in the development of sensing and energy conversion technology, especially in the field of biological fuel cells. The demand for fuel cell products from both military and commercial sectors is dramatically increasing. Fuel cells are favored for distributed power generation, on-site power plants, portable electronics, and motor vehicle power etc. It can power modest-power demand devices. Reliability is critical for military power supply. Biological fuel cells have the advantages of low-cost, ultra-cleanness and without interruption, which can’t be offered by alternative energies relying on sunshine, wind and etc. With success, this proposed program will have huge impact on both military and commercial energy consumers with lower cost and more reliability.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle , Suite 400
Roanoke , VA 24016
(434) 483-4254

PI: Omar Torrens
(434) 483-4245
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-2118
Case Western Reserve University
Office of Sponsored Projects , 10900 Euclid Ave.
Cleveland , OH 44106
(216) 368-4514

ID#: F09B-T05-0277
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT05       Awarded: 4/27/2010
Title: High Speed Carbon Nanosheet Supercapacitors
Abstract:   Using its novel carbon nanosheet technology, Luna Innovations will develop a Supercapacitor with the highest energy densities available in the microsecond to millisecond response times. Nanosheets are vertically aligned graphene sheets that can be grown on a wide variety of substrates without catalyst and have an open, accessible surface area that eliminate the resistance due to pores that cause traditionally manufactured Supercapacitors to have reduced efficiency and speed. Preliminary testing of a nanosheet capacitors has already demonstrated the validity of Luna’s approach. BENEFIT: Current battery technology for energy storage suffers from temporal degradation, inability to effectively deal with transient power fluctuations, and a limited temperature range for effective operation. Luna’s nanosheet Supercapacitor technology could be applied to a variety of energy storage needs including those for regenerative braking in hybrid or electric vehicles, a surge power source for battery-powered systems, as a critical component in uninterruptible power supplies, and as a low-weight, fast-charge energy source in cell phones and other portable electronics.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle , Suite 400
Roanoke , VA 24016
(540) 961-6724

PI: Matthew Davis
(540) 558-1696
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0154
CUBRC, Inc.
4455 Genesee Street ,
Buffalo , NY 14225
(716) 204-5133

ID#: F09B-T32-0142
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT32       Awarded: 6/24/2010
Title: Instrumentation for hypersonic, air-breathing engines
Abstract:   Luna Innovations Incorporated and CURBC (Calspan – University of Buffalo Research Center) are proposing to develop miniature, high-speed, high-temperature, fiber-optic pressure sensors that will fill the void that currently exists between ground and flight test instrumentation. The sensors small size (ø 0.007”) and high-sensitivity (better than ±0.01 psi) combined with a high-speed fiber-optic demodulation system will enable data to be taken during short ground tests and the extended high-temperature performance enables the same sensors to be used for flight applications. During Phase I, Luna and CURBC will demonstrate the feasibility of the system through extensive modeling and laboratory testing. During Phase II the team will validate the system during ground testing of an appropriate engine component, demonstrating the performance of the sensors. BENEFIT: The proposed system has commercial applications for research and development of emerging propulsion and airframe designs. The sensors will aid researchers in measuring transition and high frequency aerodynamic effects that are currently un-measurable. The demodulation system will have a broad range of applications with sensors that are currently being developed for temperature, strain, and pressure measurements in the gas turbine and nuclear industries. While the system would be first developed for the military, it is expected that civilian research organizations, universities, and government laboratories will have a need for the technology. The data obtained from the system will enable safer and more efficient engine designs and monitoring of current engine system control parameters. Once flight qualified, the electronics will be applicable to the commercial aerospace sensing market for use as monitoring and control sensors in turbine engines.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive ,
College Station , TX 77840
(979) 693-0017

PI: Naima Bestaoui-Spurr
(979) 693-0017
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-2114
University of Connecticut
97 N. Eagleville Rd, Unit 3136 , Unit 1133
Storrs , CT 06269
(860) 486-4102

ID#: F09B-T05-0068
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT05       Awarded: 4/28/2010
Title: Advanced Ferroelectric Polymers for High Energy Density Capacitors
Abstract:   To shrink the size and weight of pulsed power systems used by various military systems, the Air Force seeks to increase the energy density of their capacitors. Polymers/ceramics nanocomposites are promising materials for such capacitors. They combine the high dielectric constant of the ceramic and the high breakdown strength and processability of polymers. In collaboration with the University of Connecticut, Lynntech will develop ferroelectric polymers by mixing ferroelectric materials into commonly used capacitor polymers. Density Functional Theory (DFT) method will be used to design materials and complemented with materials synthesis that will provide the experimental evidence of feasibility. BENEFIT: The significant market opportunities arise from the dual-use applications for (i) military applications and (ii) private sector. The commercial market opportunity can provide with a cost-competitive device for high power microwave systems, manned and unmanned aircraft, directed energy weapons, insulation for electric machines, aircraft ignition systems, power conditioning, defibrillators, medical x-ray equipment, particle accelerators, advanced radar systems, and utility distribution substations and machining equipment and other applications. .

Magnolia Solar Inc.
52-B Cummings Park , Suite 311
Woburn , MA 01801
(781) 503-1200

PI: Ashok K. Sood
(781) 503-1200
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0071
University of California
Department of Electrical Eng. , Box 951594
Los Angeles , CA 90095
(310) 825-9786

ID#: F09B-T20-0219
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT20       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: High Efficiency InAsSb / AlAsSb Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Abstract:   Magnolia Solar proposes to develop an innovative high efficiency single junction solar cell working with Prof. Diana Huffaker and her group and utilizing multi photon absorption in InAsSb/AlAsSb quantum dot solar cells. The proposed structure has unique qualities required by Intermediate band solar cell theory to achieve ultra high conversion efficiency. This system has a potential to achieve efficiencies over 50% under concentrated light conditions. The proposed structure has optimum band alignment as well as bandgap for Quantum dot and barrier materials. InAsSb QDs in AlAsSb barriers forms a type II band alignment which has long carrier life times and hence high carrier extraction efficiencies are possible. During the Phase I STTR effort, we will synthesize InAsSb dots with excellent structural and optical properties and demonstrate the technical feasibility of InAsSb Quantum Dot solar cells. Device simulation and modeling will help supplement the device optimization work. Our broad experience in band engineering, simulation and device design will help obtain optimum material properties needed for demonstrating multi-photon solar cells. BENEFIT: The terrestrial, Defense and Spacecraft power photovoltaic markets provide a significant commercial opportunity for the technology developed during this SBIR effort. The worldwide PV market generates over $4.5 billion (US) per year in revenue and has been growing at over 30% annually since the late 1990s. The emphasis on renewal energy and more of the defense energy needs will grow over the next decade and is expected to grow to over 100 Billion in the next ten years. Continued growth in the commercial PV market is currently being hampered by market down turn, while space-based PV systems will utilize technologies that improve radiation hardness, operating temperature range, efficiency, and specific power. Our technology development and commercialization strategy involves several distinct steps. Magnolia has detailed the tremendous long term benefits of increasing the efficiency of Solar cells for terrestrial applications. In addition use of the micro-concentrators also provides a means of inserting Quantum Dot-based solar cells with innovative nanostructured coatings into the renewable energy market.

Mathematical Systems & Solutions, Inc.
685 Busch Garden Dr. ,
Pasadena , CA 91105
(626) 441-2782

PI: Akash Anand
(626) 441-2782
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0138
Case Western Reserve University
Off of Sponsored Projects Adm , 10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland , OH 44106
(216) 368-2009

ID#: F09B-T13-0037
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT13       Awarded: 5/26/2010
Title: Advanced Computational Methods for Study of Electromagnetic Compatibility
Abstract:   The present text proposes development of efficient, accurate and rapidly-convergent algorithms for the simulation of propagation and scattering of electromagnetic fields within and around structures that (i) Consist of complex combinations of penetrable materials as well as perfect and imperfect conductors, and, (ii) Possess complex geometrical characteristics, including open surfaces, metallic coatings, as well as geometric singularities such as corners, edges and multi-scale features. These are configurations of fundamental importance in diverse fields, with application to (a) Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), (b) Electromagnetic interference on cavity-bound electronics (EMI), (c) Evaluation of electromagnetic response of dielectric/magnetic coated conductors, and (d) Evaluation of scattering by modern metallic/nonmetallic aircraft structures - amongst many others. The simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in such complex structures gives rise to a host of significant computational challenges that arise from presence of complex material arrangements, geometric singularities, cavity resonances, and ill-conditioning, amongst other complicating factors. Our electromagnetic solvers have provided accurate solutions for highly challenging problems of great importance in science and engineering. The proposed effort will extend the automatic applicability of such methods to the highly-complex, multi-scale problems arising in the context of Electromagnetic Compatibility, and related areas - as listed in points (a) through (d) above. BENEFIT: The PDE software needs of large high-tech companies, government labs and DoD (such as Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, NASA, DoD agencies, etc.) are massive. MathSys Inc. is well positioned to cater to the needs of such entities, and has open ties at key levels of such organizations. We are certain that the successful completion of the proposed development effort will find manifold uses and it will generate significant business opportunities for our company.

Mathematical Systems & Solutions, Inc.
685 Busch Garden Dr. ,
Pasadena , CA 91105
(626) 441-2782

PI: Akash Anand
(626) 441-2782
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0127
Rice University
Office of Sponsored Research , 6100 Main Street, MS-16
Houston , TX 77005
(713) 348-5584

ID#: F09B-T18-0040
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT18       Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title: Fast, High-Order algorithms for Many-Core and GPU-based Computer Architectures
Abstract:   We propose algorithm development and efficient GPU implementation of numerical PDE solvers based on four novel high-order methodologies: 1) High-order Discontinuous Galerkin approaches, 2) Fast High-Order boundary integral methods, 3) Convergent FFT-based methodologies for evaluation of computational boundary conditions, and 4) Fourier Continuation methods. These methodologies are applicable to a vast array of problems of critical interest to the Air Force, encompassing computational electromagnetics and computational acoustics (including the convective wave equation), isotropic and anisotropic elasticity, heat transfer and fluid-dynamics (including gas-dynamics, incompressible hydrodynamics, shock-dynamics and slow viscous flow). Parallel CPU implementations of such solvers have provided some of the most efficient PDE solution methods in existence today: in some cases, our algorithms are up to one-thousand times faster than the best alternative solvers. We have further demonstrated that GPU implementations of DG solvers can outperform corresponding CPU implementations, in comparably priced multi-core CPUs, by factors of fifty. The proposed effort thus seeks to combine the power of two game-changing emerging paradigms: fast high- order PDE solvers and many-core/GPU computer architectures. We believe the resulting methodologies will significantly advance the state of the art in computational science, and will play central roles in science and engineering in years to come. BENEFIT: The PDE software needs of large high-tech companies, government labs and DoD (such as Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, NASA, DoD agencies, etc.) are massive. MathSys Inc. is well positioned to cater to the needs of such entities, and has open ties at key levels of such organizations. We are certain that the successful completion of the proposed development effort will find manifold uses and it will generate significant business opportunities for our company.

MathSense Analytics
1273 Sunny Oaks Circle ,
Altadena , CA 91001
(626) 437-1604

PI: Ulvi Yurtsever
(626) 437-1604
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0081
Louisiana State University
202 Himes Hall ,
Baton Rouge , LA 70803
(225) 578-2760

ID#: F09B-T21-0130
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT21       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Novel nonclassical-light-assisted protocols for quantum key distribution
Abstract:   The key to making quantum key distribution practical (especially for free-space applications) is to be able to use weak laser pulses (WLP) instead of single photons, while at the same time making sure that any third party wanting to avoid detection and mount an eavesdropping attack is restricted to using beam-splitting rather than photon-number splitting (PNS). In this effort, we propose a novel scheme to restrict eavesdropping to the beam-splitting attack: the use of entangled light pulses randomly mixed with the WLP, where the WLP are used exactly as in the standard BB84 protocol. The key properties of quantum non-locality guarantee an expected finite degree of entanglement measured at the end of the protocol, provided all losses are due to beam-splitter type environmental interactions (or eavesdropping), whereas any attempt to mount a PNS attack would be detected immediately since it results in a complete loss of entanglement. According to our new protocol, BB84 with WLP would be applied only when a complete loss of entanglement is not detected, thus ensuring the absence of a PNS attack, and yielding a key generation rate far more favorable than BB84 alone. BENEFIT: While quantum key distribution is very recent technology in terms of commercial acceptance, it already has a significant potential market, both within the Federal Government, and in the private sector (such as large financial institutions). As the technology matures, the market for QKD implementations can be expected to top $200M annually. At present, the development of a detailed MathSense Analytics commercialization strategy will depend on the details of the results from our Phase I effort. If Phase I is successful, we will attempt to leverage potential Phase II funding with additional commercial capital sources.

Mayflower Communications Company, Inc.
20 Burlington Mall Road ,
Burlington , MA 01803
(781) 359-9500

PI: Xuedong Zhang
(781) 359-9500
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0050
BU Hearing Research Center
44 Cummings Street ,
Boston , MA 02215
(617) 353-4343

ID#: F09B-T12-0055
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT12       Awarded: 6/1/2010
Title: Auditory Cues based Speech Enhancement Processing Technology (ACSEPT)
Abstract:   Mayflower Communications has partnered with the Boston University Hearing Research Center to propose novel techniques for speech enhancement in reverberant environment based on advanced auditory modeling of higher-level processing in the human auditory brain. Speech enhancement or noise suppression has been an area of active research for well over three decades. State-of-the-art single-microphone methods have been shown to be adequate for reducing stationary background noise without introducing audible signal distortions; however, they cannot reduce non-stationary background noises, signal-correlated interferences like echoes and sound reflections in a reverberant environment or interfering background speakers, all of which can occur in real-world use scenarios. The development of the “Auditory Cues based Speech Enhancement Processing Technology” (ACSEPT) will address these and other shortcomings. It leverages existing, US Government-funded projects at Boston University as technical foundation; particularly the BU EarLab project. The EarLab is an auditory modeling environment that provides access to a wide range of models covering many aspects of the auditory function. This effort will specialize, enhance, and augment the EarLab capabilities to meet the desired auditory modeling objectives. Based on the output of the EarLab models, we will derive pertinent auditory cues based on principle of Auditory Scene Analysis which will then be used to identify, and later implement and demonstrate, novel techniques for efficient speech enhancement under conditions of noise and reverberation. BENEFIT: Dealing with speech production in high level of noise and reverberant environment affect our daily lives. Many common occurrence applications would benefit tremendously from technologies, such as ACSEPT, created to efficiently address this problem. The success of ACSEPT, based on mimicking the human brain auditory functions, could present a significant shift compared to the technologies being used today. The potential commercial applications are wide, especially if this technology could be successfully transitioned to the mobile voice communications user devices market; a viable target market for it. Today there are over 3 billion such device in use!

Metacomp Technologies, Inc.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255 ,
Agoura Hills , CA 91301
(818) 735-4880

PI: Sampath Palaniswamy
(818) 735-4880
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0155
Georgia Tech
505 10th Street NW ,
Atlanta , GA 30332
(404) 894-6929

ID#: F09B-T38-0262
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT38       Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title: Theoretical Innovations in Combining Analytical, Experimental, and Computational Combustion Stability Analysis
Abstract:   The occurrence of combustion instability has long been a matter of serious concern in the development of liquid- propellant rocket engines due to the high rate of energy release in a confined volume in which energy losses are relatively small. Shear layer instabilities and intermittent growth rates of the mixing layer cause fluctuations in the burning rates and result in acoustic waves triggering flow instabilities. These flow oscillations may grow uncontrolled if there is a positive feedback between the oscillatory heat release at the combustion front and acoustic waves within the combustion chamber. The proposed work will focus on shear layers and mixing around single and multiple jets under acoustic excitation. Conditions that lead to positive feedback between the acoustic waves and shear layers will be identified and the influence of amplitude and frequency of excitation on shear layer development will be quantified. BENEFIT: The study of shear layer development around fuel jets in the presence of acoustic excitation will furnish useful information concerning the instability mechanisms in rocket engines. It will extend experimental data and enable identification of cause and effect relationships between flow features evolving in three-dimensional, unsteady fields. The outcome of the proposed research has the potential to help build stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The proposed work will support the experimental investigation at AFRL. The experimental results will serve as a validation of the proposed methodology. The simulation will augment the experimental observations by providing a complete, three dimensional view of the evolving flow.

Michigan Aerospace Corporation
1777 Highland Drive , Suite B
Ann Arbor , MI 48108
(734) 975-8777

PI: Dominique Fourguette
(734) 975-8777
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0091
Southern Methodist University
PO Box 750337 ,
Dallas , TX 75275
(214) 768-3200

ID#: F09B-T32-0107
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT32       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Skin-Friction Sensor for Hypersonic Flows
Abstract:   Michigan Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop an optical MEMS based skin friction sensor specifically designed for hypersonic applications. This instrument will be capable of shear stress resolutions as small as 0.01 Pa, have a high dynamic range, and data rates in excess of 100 Hz. The sensor will be compact and tolerant of the extreme environmental conditions of hypersonic propulsion test facilities. BENEFIT: The technology developed during this project will enable the realization of robust, accurate optical MEMS sensors to characterize the operating conditions of hypersonic and more standard aerospace propulsion systems. These sensors can be integrated into scramjet and other engines for in-flight monitoring. As a result, it will be possible to expand existing operating envelopes, thus enabling the development of more efficient hypersonic and other propulsion systems.

MicroXact, Inc.
80 Massie Drive ,
Christiansburg , VA 24073
(540) 392-6917

PI: Vladimir Kochergin
(614) 917-7202
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0083
University of California, Santa Bar
Electrical and Computer Engine ,
Santa Barbara , CA 93106
(805) 893-2971

ID#: F09B-T23-0297
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT23       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Signal Processing with Memristive Devices
Abstract:   To streamline data processing in, e.g., hyperspectral imaging, new massively parallel data processing circuits are needed. The team of MicroXact Inc. and UC Santa Barbara propose to develop circuits based on completely novel computing paradigm, which could be extremely efficient (i.e. dense, relatively inexpensive, and consume very little power) for massively parallel signal processing. We offer to (1) develop fully CMOS compatible hybrid circuits based on the conventional CMOS technology and recently suggested thin film memristive devices; (2) demonstrate analog dot- product computation, which is a core operation for all signal processing applications; and (3) perform rigorous and impartial comparison of their performance to that of flash based circuits. In phase I we will design CMOS compatible memristive devices, experimentally demonstrate the memristive behavior of fabricated devices and theoretically analyze analog and mixed signal memristor circuits. In Phase II we will optimize single memristive devices, develop fully CMOS compatible prototype of hybrid circuits, and will fabricate, test and characterize the memristor circuit designed for dot product operation. We will further develop large scale hybrid architectures for signal processing and bio-inspired networks and perform their detailed simulations using models derived from experimental data. In Phase III we will commercialize the developed technology BENEFIT: According to the ITRS 2007 Roadmap, currently used CMOS technologies will reach the 18-nm technology node and 7-nm physical gate length by 2018. It is anticipated that beyond this point, CMOS scaling will likely become very difficult if not impossible due to power dissipation problem. This represents a tremendous business opportunity for new technologies that will be able to solve the power dissipation problem to capture significant portion of the humongous ($200 billions) market in ten years from now. The team of MicroXact Inc. and UCSB proposes to develop this revolutionary memristive devices and circuits which has the potential to significantly increased efficiency and reduced power consumption by achieving highly parallel information architectures with low heat dissipation. CMOS compatibility of the proposed solution permits significant extending of the lifetime of fabrication facilities and equipment, thus providing the tremendous savings on otherwise imminent replacements of the currently employed technology

MicroXact, Inc.
80 Massie Drive ,
Christiansburg , VA 24073
(540) 392-6917

PI: Vladimir Kochergin
(614) 917-7202
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0059
University of California Los Angele
56-125B Engineering IV Bldg. ,
Los Angeles , CA 90095
(310) 825-1609

ID#: F09B-T39-0160
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT39       Awarded: 3/31/2010
Title: Plasmonics for Solar Energy Generation
Abstract:   Photovoltaics, while promising clean and reliable energy source, is not yet compatible with fossil energy for most applications. Organic-based solar cells have potential to reduce the cost of solar energy due to low-cost active materials, high-throughput reel-to-reel deposition technologies, low-temperature processing and application versatility. Currently organic photovoltaics (OPV) cannot commercially compete with inorganic devices due to low conversion efficiencies. The team of MicroXact and UCLA DRL proposes to extend absorption of OPV down to infrared region and at the same time greatly enhance carriers transport. Such OPV device will provide the conversion efficiency at the level of standard silicon photovoltaic technology, while keeping all the benefits of OPV technology, such as flexibility and possibility for low cost production. The proposed photovoltaic device will effectively marry low cost/flexibility of presently developed OPV devices with high conversion efficiency of inorganic solar cells. The proprietary structure will significantly enhance the absorption of the solar radiation in the active layer of the solar cell, providing the opportunity to use much thinner active layers, which in turn allows highly efficient transport of the free carriers to the collecting electrodes. BENEFIT: Due to constant increase in fossil energy cost and insecurity in oil and gas supplies, the photovoltaic industry experiences tremendous growth. The scenarios from future prospects for the PV industry yield a range of annual worldwide industry revenues of between $18.6bn and $31.5bn by 2011. Thin film (TF) PV market is predicted to be the fastest growing segment with current volume of $1.6bn before climbing to almost $3.4bn in 2010 and 7.2 in 2015, TF PV will penetrate the PV markets by offering a more cost-competitive solution than traditional PVs for many applications, as by opening up new applications through TF PV''s unique properties which include low weight, flexibility, and ability to be embedded into other materials. The most crippling limitation on conventional PV today is the high cost production. Organic PV can address this and other limitations to open up new applications for solar energy due to low cost of active materials, high-throughput reel-to-reel deposition technologies, low-temperature processing, defect tolerance, and application versatility.

MO-SCI Corporation
4040 Hypoint North ,
Rolla , MO 65401
(573) 364-2338

PI: Cheol-Woon Kim
(573) 364-2338
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0143
Missouri Univ. of Science & Tech.
202 University Center ,
Rolla , MO 65409
(573) 341-4154

ID#: F09B-T24-0175
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT24       Awarded: 6/4/2010
Title: Reactive Fusion Welding for Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composite Joining
Abstract:   For this Phase I program, MO-SCI Corporation and Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T) will develop reactive fusion and reactive plasma welding techniques that are capable of joining ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) composites. Past work at Missouri S&T demonstrated the feasibility of fusion welded UHTC composites. This program will build on the joining successes at Missouri S&T through development of reactive and non-reactive filler materials that are needed to improve weld joint quality. Preheat temperature, power input, filler type, filler introduction rate, and cooling rate will be studied to generate a list of critical process variables that affect the quality of fusion welded joints between UHTC composites. Size and geometry restrictions of 2 welding processes will be assessed to better understand the applicability to the manufacture and repair of integrated TPS. The collaborative efforts will 1) demonstrate the feasibility of low porosity fusion welded UHTC joints, 2) measure the ambient and high temperature mechanical properties for three joint geometries, and 3) quantify the effects of the proposed fusion joining processes on the thermal conductivity of the joints. Joints with predictable thermal and mechanical behavior will be produced at the conclusion of this research and joining of these welded UHTC composites to high temperature metallic alloys will be demonstrated. BENEFIT: Military applications for UHTC fusion welding include repair, fabrication, and fixturing of combustor liners and nozzle divergent seals found on Air Force, Navy, Marine and Army turbine engines. Ceramic armor repair and integration of ceramic armor into military transport vehicles is another potential application for the ceramic welding identified in this work. Ceramic welding will enable armor designs that use ceramic armor tiles as load bearing structures rather than sacrificial or ¡°parasitic¡± components. Weight reduction realized by increased use of lightweight ceramics as structural components will relate to large cost savings associated with reduced fuel consumption. Results from Phase I and Phase II will be used to develop similar joining concepts that will decrease the maintenance cost of other high wear and high temperature, ceramic based components. Commercial applications for the joining solutions outlined in this proposal include repair and remanufacture of large ceramic crucibles designed to contain molten metals and integration of ceramic wear components in large diesel engines. Weldability of HfB2-B4C composites may also enable certain fission reactor designs that require complex shaped neutron shielding. The proposed work in the Phase I program will not only develop welding technologies and methods that are applicable to commercial applications, but it will generate a number of consumable welding products that can be commercialized for

MRL Materials Resources LLC
3861 N Chalet Circle ,
Beavercreek , OH 45431
(937) 469-0918

PI: Ayman Salem
(937) 469-0918
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0082
Drexel University
31st and Market Streets , LeBow 345
Philadelphia , PA 19104
(215) 895-1311

ID#: F09B-T29-0164
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT29       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Multi-scale Physics-Based Models for alpha-betaTitanium Alloys Accounting for Higher-Order Microstructure Statistics.
Abstract:   Modern military and civilian aircraft technologies are pushing the performance envelope through design and use of new advanced materials with superior property combinations. Aircraft powerplant manufacturers are facing intense competition to efficiently deliver ever increasing thrust, while meeting the highest standards of reliability and performance over an expanded service life. These performance criteria often impose stringent requirements on the microstructure of the material used in the manufacture of the turbine engines. Titanium alloys are used extensively in turbine engines due to their unique combination of excellent mechanical and physical properties. Design of the turbine engine components for optimal performance under strenuous operating conditions is greatly complicated by the lack of material models that reliably link microstructure and properties. Therefore, MRL/Drexel team offers a next-generation approach to cost-effective accelerated insertion of high strength, high temperature titanium alloys in modern turbine engines by developing and validating a reliable multi-scale physics-based modeling framework that employs an objective and comprehensive quantification of the microstructure using n-point correlation functions. The proposed development will be undertaken in close collaboration with equipment manufacturers and primary titanium producers. The collaboration is expected to result in major building blocks for the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) infrastructure. BENEFIT: multi-scale models that link higher-order microstructure descriptions to anisotropic mechanical properties of alpha/beta titanium alloys using a informatics-based approach.

NanoLab, Inc.
55 Chapel St ,
Newton , MA 02458
(617) 581-6747

PI: David L Carnahan
(617) 581-6747
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0132
M.I.T.
77 Massachusetts Ave , Rm 66-32
Cambridge , MA 02138
(617) 258-7577

ID#: F09B-T36-0150
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT36       Awarded: 5/17/2010
Title: Multifunctional Nanocomposite Structures Via Layer-by-Layer Assembly Process
Abstract:   The goal of the proposed STTR is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a rapid, automated spray layer by layer process, developed by the Hammond group in MIT’s Department of Chemical Engineering, to create polyelectrolyte/carbon nanotube composites for Air Force applications at deposition rates superior to existing layer by layer techniques. This proposal will be led by NanoLab, Inc., a company with expertise in carbon nanotube production and functionalization, and composite manufacture. Dr. Paula Hammond’s group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who developed the spray LbL process, will serve as the academic research institution, providing optimization of LbL thin film nanocomposites, lab scale spray LbL expertise and access to equipment for mechanical characterization. NanoLab will also subcontract to Svaya Nanotechnologies, a company working to automate and scaleup the spray LbL technology platform, based on the technology originated at MIT. Together, the three companies are well suited to accomplish the goal of the effort, which is to demonstrate that high rate spraying of LbL composites can achieve mechanical properties on par with or exceeding the best dipped LbL composite systems. BENEFIT: Missile skins & Structural Components are perhaps the largest opportunity for the DoD. These high strength carbon nanotube-based composites have the potential to replace traditional materials with lower specific properties. Coatings and transparent conductors are other areas where the unique mechanical and electrical properties of the CNT nanocomposites have the potential to upend existing products and create new markets. Nanotube based composites have broad applicability in a number of areas. We also see potential electrochemical applications for these materials as electrodes for supercapacitors, fuel cells, and batteries.

NanoRods, LLC
11601 Regency Dr ,
Potomac , MD 20854
(301) 760-8167

PI: Georo Boishin
(301) 760-8167
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0076
University of Maryland
0107 Chemistry Building , Dept. of Chemistry,Rm. 2341
Colleg Park , MD 20742
(301) 405-7996

ID#: F09B-T37-0003
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT37       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Nano-Structured Multi-Mode Detectors
Abstract:   We will develop a new infrared (IR) radiation sensor technology, which will allow the development of arrays of a new class of multi-mode thermal microbolometer detector. This technology will allow radiation detection from the near-IR to long-wave IR, a capability that is absent in competing detectors. Amorphous silicon and vanadium dioxide has been the dominant materials used for infrared light detection since the 1980s, mainly because of their desirable temperature coefficient of resistance. The disadvantages of such detectors are insensitivity to the spectral content and poor absorption of the incident radiation. This project will use combination of a nanomaterial and amorphous silicon as a new type of infrared sensing layer which can be integrated into silicon thermal detectors and is expected to overcome the limitations above. The outstanding advantages of the proposed detection technology are wavelength tunability, narrow spectral bandwidth and high sensitivity of the new detection layer technology. The proposed sensing layer is integrable to large arrays of microbolometers using conventional fabrication methods and is expected to lead to the manufacturing of multi-color IR detectors with a significantly reduced cost. BENEFIT: Uncooled IR detection and imaging technologies are leading to a booming market in low-cost small size thermal imaging devices with military and civil applications such as night vision, reconnaissance, mine detection, fire fighting, health, pollution monitoring, security, law enforcement, high-power electricity line monitoring, motor vehicle and space exploration. Currently, microbolometer detectors are mainly available in the long-wave IR (LWIR) and only capable of single-color IR sensing. The other available technologies are even more expensive with a very limited capability to penetrate to the potential markets. The proposed technology will allow production of a new generation of microbolometer detectors that are tunable from Near-IR to LWIR and can detect different IR wavelengths simultaneously. The impact of realization of the proposed technology is comparable to the impact of going from black & white to color cameras. The strengths of this technology in the market will be its low cost and compatibility with CMOS technology, integrability to a whole host of electronic and mechanical devices and multi- spectral sensing.

NanoSonic, Inc.
P.O. Box 618 ,
Christiansburg , VA 24068
(540) 953-1785

PI: Hang Ruan
(540) 953-1785
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0160
Virginia Tech
1880 Pratt Drive , Suite 2006
Blacksburg , VA 24061
(540) 231-9056

ID#: F09B-T32-0133
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT32       Awarded: 6/30/2010
Title: High Temperature Metal RubberTM Sensors For Skin Friction Measurements
Abstract:   The Air Force Phase I STTR program would develop and demonstrate high temperature version of ‘sensor skins’ capable of multi-axis flow characterization on air breathing hypersonic engines. This would build upon NanoSonic’s successful demonstration of Metal Rubber™ transducer materials for the measurement of flow-induced skin friction and pressure at low temperatures and transonic and supersonic flow regimes. During this program, NanoSonic would work cooperatively with Virginia Tech to develop an improved mechanical and electrical model of high temperature version skin friction sensor performance that will allow quantitative optimization of material properties and suggest optimal methods for sensor attachment and use for hypersonic engine applications. We will perform synthesis of sensor skin materials with optimized transduction, hysteresis and environmental properties, specifically for high Reynold’s number flow and also varying temperature use. We will fabricate patterned two-dimensional sensor arrays and internal electronics using optimized materials. Calibration of sensor elements will be conducted in both instrumented water and air flow systems at NanoSonic, Virginia Tech and Air Force center. NanoSonic and Virginia Tech will perform complete analysis of sensor cross-sensitivities and noise sources to allow optimization of signal-to-noise ratio and practical sensor sensitivity. Support electronics will be developed to acquire, multiplex, store and process raw sensor array data. NanoSonic and Virginia Tech will also experimentally validate sensor array performance through extended water and wind tunnel evaluation, and possible flight testing with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, and produce a first-generation high temperature skin friction sensor array and data acquisition electronics system for sale. BENEFIT: The anticipated initial market of the high temperature version of Metal Rubber™ sensor skin arrays is for wind tunnel testing and hypersonic engine testing. An appreciation of the instrumentation issues would allow improvements in sensor materials, electronics and packaging, and potentially allow the transition of related products to operational vehicles. The commercialization potential of the Metal Rubber™ technology developed through this Air Force STTR program lies in four areas, namely 1) High Temperature Metal Rubber™ sensor skin arrays for the measurement of skin friction, 2) Broader sensor skin arrays for the measurement of pressure, 3) Single-element air or water flow sensors, and 4) Metal Rubber™ material itself. Such broader commercial sensor opportunities would be considered.

NanoTechLabs Inc.
409 W. Maple St. ,
Yadkinville , NC 27055
(336) 849-7474

PI: Matthew Craps
(336) 849-7474
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0086
NCA&T
1601 E. Market St. ,
Greensboro , NC 27411
(336) 334-7995

ID#: F09B-T26-0206
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT26       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Enriched Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for High Frequency Large Area Flexible Transistor Arrays
Abstract:   A great deal of research has been done on thin film Carbon Nanotube Transistors. Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) have exceptional electrical properties, High speed circuits require high carrier mobility, and individual SWNTs have a carrier mobility of up to 120,000 cm2/Vs and can be doped n and p-type. Enriched semiconducting SWNTs (s-SWNTs), narrowed down to individual chiralities provide the consistent band gap needed to make transistors with reproducible electrical properties. A scalable process must be implemented to realize the full potential of SWNT based flexible thin film transistors. We propose to ink jet and stamp/transfer enriched s-SWNTs on flexible Kapton substrates to fabricate flexible thin film transistors. Ink jet printing provides controlled lines with small dimensions and great reproducibility coupled with the ability to print s-SWNTs over large areas; while the stamp/transfer method allows for controlled lines and printing many devices at one time. Combining these technologies shows real promise to make large-scale flexible thin film transistors a reality. BENEFIT: Flexible thin film transistors operating upwards of 100GHz are achievable. Eventually, a roll to roll process of fabricating thin film transistors will be possible. Other more complicated circuits will be within reach soon.

NDP Optronics LLC.
236 Saint Martins Dr SE ,
Mableton , GA 30126
(770) 948-1505

PI: Gamini Ariyawansa
(404) 413-6042
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0131
Georgia State University
University Research Services a , P.O. Box 3999
Atlanta , GA 30302
(404) 413-3500

ID#: F09B-T37-0034
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT37       Awarded: 5/26/2010
Title: Nano-Structured Multi Band Visible to Long-Wavelength Infrared Detectors
Abstract:   The aim of this proposal is to satisfy the U.S. Air Force (USAF) requirements for multi-mode sensing (spatial, spectral, polarization, etc) detectors without external components such as filters and polarizers. The main part of the work will involve the development of a four-band detector with wavelength selection capability without using optical filters based on a new device concept. The spectral bands covered are visible-near infrared (VIS/NIR: 0.5-0.9 µm), short-wave-infrared (SWIR: 0.9-2 µm), mid-wave-infrared (MWIR: 3-5 µm), and long-wave-infrared (LWIR: 8-14 µm). The approach for achieving this challenge is to use a back-to-back connected pin diode architecture with In0.53Ga0.47As/InP quantum wells embedded in it as light absorption elements, which is called npn-QWIP. This material system is capable of covering the four wavelength bands specified before and providing the selection of two wavelength bands (VIS/NIR + MWIR or SWIR + LWIR) at a time based on the applied bias polarity. In addition, we will also use metal grids (1D or 2D) as a light coupling method as well as polarization sensitive elements. BENEFIT: A major constrain associated with multi-color detectors is the inability to select response regions without using optical filters and multi-terminal electrical contacts on the detector. The use of optical filters not only reduces the radiation transmission but also makes the detector system bulky and complicated. Having multiple electrical contacts requires sophisticated processing techniques. In this work, the feasibility of four-band detectors providing wavelength selectivity based on the bias voltage polarity alternation will be demonstrated. Hence, the proposed detectors will not need external optical components or electronics for wavelength selection, giving an immense advantage over the existing detectors. Weight will be much less, providing easy maneuverability. In addition, this work will also address the possibility of covering a wide wavelength region from VIS to LWIR using a single device. In addition to the USAF which would benefit from the development of polarization sensitive detectors, the IR detector market covers a wide range, which has a market capitalization of tens of billions of dollars. Some applications include: security and surveillance, geology, agriculture, disaster relief, automobile industry, drug enforcement, and Astronomy applications.

Ness Engineering, Inc.
P.O. Box 261501 ,
San Diego , CA 92196
(858) 566-2372

PI: Richard M Ness
(858) 566-2372
Contract #: FA9451-10-M-0098
University of Southern California
Dept of Contracts and Grants , 837 W Downey Way, Room 315
Los Angeles , CA 90089
(213) 740-6478

ID#: F09B-T14-0080
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT14       Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title: Advanced High Power Solid-State Burst Generator
Abstract:   Recent advances in dielectric and magnetic materials have spurred renewed interest in the field of solid state pulse and RF burst generation using Non-Linear Transmission Lines (NLTL) . The NLTL approach to HPM and UWB generation eliminates the need for an electron beam, vacuum system and magnets required in conventional HPM sources. Furthermore, the novel waveforms of NLTL generated pulses promises to offer a degree of frequency diversity unseen in current electron beam driven HPM sources. Also, a degree of control of amplitude, oscillating frequency, and temporal envelope has been demonstrated using NLTL systems at modest powers. We will design, model & fabricate a test NLTL system to study pulse sharpening & RF generation at currents up to 1000 amperes and voltages up to 10 kV and at a frequency of 1GHz. BENEFIT: The commercial product foreseen from this SBIR Program is the development of high power high rep-rate microwave burst generators for both Air Force and commercial (e.g. biomedical, industrial, environmental, etc.) applications.

NexGenSemi Corporation
27130A Paseo Espada, Suite 1405 ,
San Juan Capistrano , CA 92675
(949) 422-6625

PI: Mark Bennahmias
(949) 340-7209
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0064
Sandia National Labs
PO Box 5800 ,
Albuquerque , NM 87185
(505) 284-1457

ID#: F09B-T35-0207
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT35       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Nanotechnology and Molecular Interconnects
Abstract:   Graphene has become one of the most promising new materials to form semiconductor devices and microelectronic interconnects. NexGenSemi Corporation in collaboration with Sandia National Labs will develop a “Patterned Graphene Interconnect (PGI) and material modification for nanofabrication of transistor devices. This process resolution will dip deep down into the state-of-the-art technology nodes, leveraging some of the mobility, bandgap, and nanoscale structure advantages of the material. During this program, SNL will focus on the supply and process mechanics of high quality graphene films and NGSC will focus on the physical process associated with PGI, both leading to hybrid and graphene based microelectronics. Special emphisys will be placed on developing a reliable/repeatable and low cost process model for future commercialization into VLSI applications. BENEFIT: The program would benefit the DOD and Commercial electronics by providing high frequency, highly integrated, low power electronics, leading to high speed digital signal processing in focal plane arrays and on board computing.

Nico Technologies Corp.
401 W. Morgan Road, ,
Ann Arbor , MI 48108
(734) 945-8131

PI: Kelechi Anyaogu
(734) 945-8131
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0129
University of Michigan
2300 Hayward ,
Ann Arbor , MI 48109
(734) 945-8131

ID#: F09B-T36-0241
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT36       Awarded: 5/13/2010
Title: Multifunctional Nanocomposite Structures Via Layer-by-Layer Assembly Process
Abstract:   The realization of materials with record mechanical and electrical properties is of paramount importance to the Air Force and other branches of the US Armed Forces. Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly is capable of producing nanocomposite materials with record properties surpassing those made by many traditional composite preparation techniques. However the process is time consuming and typically yields small and thin sheets of the composite. In this project we will achieve deposition acceleration by 100 times while retaining high conductivity of the deposited multilayers. In the LBL process we shall utilize carbon nanotubes (NTs) and special flexible polymers. The composite layers of polymer and NTs will be build-up on the substrate and then released for characterization with respect to structure. Record sizes of the samples of LBL composite material will be obtained. Large scale laminates will be made by consolidation of individual LBL sheets. The electrical and mechanical properties of the large scale coupons will be evaluated and optimized. BENEFIT: fast deposition

NuCrypt LLC
1840 Oak Ave., Suite 212S ,
Evanston , IL 60201
(847) 275-8996

PI: Gregory S. Kanter
(847) 733-8750
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0079
Northwestern University
633 Clark Street ,
Evanston , IL 60208
(847) 491-3003

ID#: F09B-T21-0083
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT21       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Novel protocol for Quantum Key Distribution
Abstract:  

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is an exciting application of the quantum theory to the important real-world problem of secure communications. Specifically, QKD may allow for provably secure key distribution. These random keys can then be used either in a one-time-pad style encryption system (for absolute security at low rates) or a standard encryption system (for high security at high rates). Traditional means of distributing keys are not provably secure. The value of QKD thus rests in its unprecedented high level of security, so it is critical to maintain the integrity of the theoretical security advantage in any actual implementation. In practice, issues associated with non-ideal components used in protocol implementation, and with information leakage from the classical communication channel required between the legitimate users, can make it more difficult to guarantee security. They also reduce the key rate and the maximum key distribution distance. We propose to investigate a new protocol for QKD that reduces the burden on the classical communication channel leading to better efficiency and more security. We also investigate the use of emerging technologies for quantum state generation and detection which may also improve efficiency, reach, and security of the QKD systems. BENEFIT:

The technologies investigated in this proposal have a direct use in practical and highly secure quantum key distribution systems. Such systems may benefit ultra-secure applications in the military, government, and the private sector. The sub-components developed have other applications in fields such as imaging, metrology, and quantum computation. For instance, we will be developing very fast single-photon detectors. Such detectors may be useful in a variety of applications including deep-space communications, optical instrumentation, laser ranging, and spectroscopy.


NumerEx
2309 Renard Place SE , Suite 220
Albuquerque , NM 87106
(505) 842-0074

PI: John W. Luginsland
(607) 277-4272
Contract #: FA9451-10-M-0099
University of Michigan
3003 South State Street ,
Ann Arbor , MI 48109
(734) 936-1292

ID#: F09B-T14-0178
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT14       Awarded: 3/8/2010
Title: Gigawatt Nonlinear Transmission Lines (GW-NLTL)
Abstract:   Nonlinear transmission lines offer new vistas in the generation of high power microwave wave (HPM) signals. All electromagnetic sources use an active medium to convert electrical energy to high frequency waves and ultra-wide band signals that can perform useful work. Traditional methods rely on electron beams for the active medium. Nonlinear transmission lines use nonlinear circuit elements to replace these beams, offering highly robust, reproducable, and tunable sources of coherent radiation. By combining world-class theory, simulation, and experimental capabilties, NumerEx and the University of Michigan will extend nonlinear transmission lines to gigawatt-class power levels. We focus on using UM''s Linear Transformer Driver, a next generation mega-amp current source, to drive nonlinear magnetic elements. This combition offers the potential for extremely high power sources at modest voltages (10- 100kV), thereby suggesting highly compact devices for industrial and military applications. BENEFIT: Novel electromagnetic sources, such as gigawatt nonlinear transmission lines (GW-NLTL), offer commercial applications in both industrial and military settings. First, the field of communications, including personal cell phones, would benefit from high power, efficient, and flexible generators of electromagnetic signals. This offers both greater range and enhanced signal diversity for high data rate communication. In the military arena, radar, communication, and electronic counter-measures technology all rely on high power and efficient sources of coherent radiation. GW-NLTL technology bridges these markets by offering the high power associated with vacuum electronics with the reliability of solid-state technology popular in industrial applications. NumerEx and the University of Michigan will work with industrial partners to advance the fundamental results of this STTR to commercial devices.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive , Suite 200
Loveland , CO 80538
(970) 461-2000

PI: Nick Coult
(970) 461-2000
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0085
University of Colorado
Office of Contracts and Grants , 3100 Marine Street, Room 479
Boulder , CO 80309
(303) 492-2695

ID#: F09B-T02-0166
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT02       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Efficient Propagators and Gravity Models in non-Cartesian Coordinate Systems
Abstract:   Accurate and timely surveillance of objects in the near-Earth space environment is becoming increasingly critical to US national security. One of the main difficulties in this domain is efficiently and accurately modeling trajectories of the vast number of objects in orbit around the Earth. The orbital trajectory of a single object is typically modeled as a second- order system of equations which includes a force term. The force term incorporates Newton''s laws of motion, the gravity force model, and any other external forces such as atmospheric drag, solar wind or plasma forces, etc. Even if the forces are modeled to the accuracy desired, the system of equations must still be solved numerically. The choice of algorithms and representation of the relevant digital information affects the efficiency and accuracy of such computations. The proposed research will explore using a novel combination of ODE solvers, gravity models, and coordinate systems to improve computational efficiency without loss of accuracy over existing technology. BENEFIT: Currently, the market for the technology is primarily government-based, as no private entities have the sensor resources available to adequately monitor tens of thousands of space objects in Earth orbit. The United States government is one of the few which actively tracks and monitors such objects, through the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) space surveillance effort and related efforts. As such, US government customers such as AFSPC form the main audience for the technology. The basic research conducted under this proposed effort will identify robust candidate technology that can then be further developed through additional research and engineering to provide enhanced computational efficiency for orbital calculation, allowing higher fidelity and/or lower computational resources for computing the trajectories of tens of thousands of objects in real-time. The software components that will eventually result from this research will be adapted for integration into existing US DOD and civilian systems. As part of a potential Phase II effort, Numerica will seek out appropriate government customers and prime contractors that make up the core market for the technology.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive , Suite 200
Loveland , CO 80538
(970) 461-2000

PI: Randy Paffenroth
(970) 461-2000
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0090
Colorado State University
B204A Engineering ,
Ft. Collins , CO 80521
(970) 491-5914

ID#: F09B-T09-0167
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT09       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Space-Time Signal Processing for Detecting and Classifying Distributed Attacks in Networks
Abstract:   A mathematical framework for detection and classification of weak, distributed patterns on computer networks is proposed. The framework will provide rigorous methods for understanding performance bounds and optimality of intrusion detection methods, while also providing concrete and implementable algorithms. The algorithms will find immediate application in cyber-security efforts, as well as more general sensor networks. The mathematical techniques we propose to use include processing of raw data measurements at the nodes into higher-order process states using Numerica’s expertise in advanced multiple hypothesis testing , extensions of recently developed compressed sensing methods for compression of second order statistics, and pattern detection using dependencies in second order data – coherence estimates, for example, provide a low-dimensional statistic for the identification of pattern classes. The research will be conducted in tandem with simulations on synthetic data, and actual Internet traffic in real-time using the PlanetLab emulation test-bed. Experimental simulations will not only be used to test algorithms and validate performance bounds, but also to inform and enhance measurement plans and hypotheses. BENEFIT: The proposed research will provide a rigorous mathematical framework for understanding intrusion detection algorithms on computer networks. These algorithms will provide immediate enhancements to current cyber-security efforts, and consequently will benefit computer network security in the corporate sector, all federal agencies, and national infrastructures where breaches of cyber-security are becoming more prevalent and have potentially catastrophic consequences. Thus, the algorithms will help to ensure the integrity of our nation’s sensitive computer networks. Commercially, the development of cybersecurity algorithms and software is a multi-billion dollar industry annually and expected to grow robustly as our nation’s exposure to cyber threats increases.

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive , Suite 200
Loveland , CO 80538
(970) 461-2000

PI: Aubrey Poore
(970) 461-2000
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0087
University of Colorado
3100 Marine Street, Room 479 , 572 UCB
Boulder , CO 80309
(303) 492-2695

ID#: F09B-T11-0168
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT11       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Realistic State and Measurement Error Uncertainty Computation and Propagation for Space Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Abstract:   Space surveillance is the component of space situational awareness focused on the detection of resident space objects (RSOs) and the use of multisource data to track and identify space objects. While the propagation of the states of RSOs has been investigated extensively over the last fifty years, the correct propagation of their covariance or the more general (non-Gaussian) probability distribution function has not. Thus, the significance of the opportunity is to develop a robust and consistent assessment of uncertainty throughout the space surveillance network to support correlation, collision avoidance, reacquisition, sensor cueing and tasking, and maneuver/change detection. This proposal aims to balance computational complexity with state-or-the-art algorithms which improve consistency in the estimation of state uncertainties. The ingredients include the choice of coordinate systems, numerical integrators, and advanced nonlinear filtering and initial orbital determination, as well as the treatment of residual biases and the employment of feature and non-traditional data. The adaptation of existing metrics and the development of new ones will be required to evaluate the consistency of uncertainty, especially for online use. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefit from the proposed program will be improved and robust data/track association processing, collision avoidance including probability of collision, probability of reacquisition, sensor cueing and tasking, and maneuver/change detection. The key commercialization of the proposed program would be a transition of the algorithms and software, either alone or embedded in a modern multiple target tracking system, to the JSpOC Mission Systems. This program also provides the opportunity to work with other contractors and the nation''s Air Force labs in support of the nation''s space protection and situational assessment programs utilizing Numerica''s strengths in all phases of multiple target tracking, sensors, sensor resource management, and situation assessment.

Omitron, Incorporated
7051 Muirkirk Meadows Dv.; Suite A ,
Greenbelt , MD 20705
(719) 226-1511

PI: Steve Casali
(719) 226-1511
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0060
Colorado University
University of Colorado Boulder , 526 UCB
Boulder , CO 80309
(303) 492-6935

ID#: F09B-T02-0128
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT02       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Innovative Earth Gravity Reformulation and Numerical Integration for Responsive SSA
Abstract:   Currently, computation of the geopotential acceleration and its partial derivatives consumes a large portion of numerical integration time in special perturbations (SP) applications. The standard geopotential formulation is expressed as a spherical harmonic expansion in geocentric latitude, geocentric longitude, and radial distance. Recent research by Dr. Beylkin of the University of Colorado has demonstrated efficient techniques in evaluation of such functions, taking advantage of readily available memory and upfront computations on a spherical grid. These techniques have the potential to greatly speed up SP processing of the high accuracy catalog in the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), thus improving timeliness of operational SP products and relieving analyst work load. Phase 1 will show the applicability of Dr. Beylkin''s research in an operational context, measuring the speed-up attained by his approach relative to the current model for both geopotential-only and full-up numerical integration. The associated memory cost and numerical integration accuracy will be assessed for operational viability and model optimization. Phase I will lead to a prototype that can be incorporated into the SP automatic catalog update application for full, operationally-oriented testing in Phase II. It will also shed light on the effectiveness of techniques applicable to other force model perturbations. BENEFIT: Many Air Force agencies use SP software similar to the current JSpOC SP applications. Therefore, the potential for greatly improved computational efficiency in SP processing has far reaching applicability to a wide range of DoD users.

Optomec Design Company
3911 Singer NE ,
Albuquerque , NM 87109
(505) 761-8250

PI: Michael J. Renn
(651) 641-2850
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0136
University of Minnesota
Sponsored Projects Admin , 200 Oak Street S.E.
Minneapolis , MN 55455
(612) 626-2244

ID#: F09B-T26-0152
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT26       Awarded: 5/26/2010
Title: Aerosol Jet Printing of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Transistors on Plastic Substrate
Abstract:   Aerosol Jet printing is proposed as a method for printing large area, CNT-based transistor arrays on flexible substrate. The teaming relationship combines expertise in high resolution printing along with device and materials expertise. All semiconductor, dielectric, and conductive materials comprising the TFTs will be solution processed and printed with a single machine. This will lead to a cost effective, high throughput commercial process. The primary task during phase I will be on printing high K gate dielectrics, and aligned SWCNTs to achieve high frequency TFT performance. BENEFIT: This technology will provide a low-cost solution for fabricating large area transistor circuitry on flexible substrate. The process is highly efficient and does not require any hazardous or corrosive materials. Many applications such as disposable sensors and logic circuits will be possible.

Pacific Defense Solutions, LLC
1300 N. Holopono St , Suite 116
Kihei , HI 96753
(808) 268-4478

PI: Daron Nishimoto
(808) 268-2733
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0077
CUBRC, Inc
4455 Genesee Street ,
Buffalo , NY 14225
(716) 204-5137

ID#: F09B-T11-0145
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT11       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Realistic State and Measurement Error Uncertainty Computation and Propagation for Space Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Abstract:   The accurate estimation of real space object (RSO) motion is subject to the complex interaction of gravitational forces, non-conservative drag terms and variable solar radiation pressure. Currently many operational algorithms rely on quasi-linear models with Gaussian-Input-Gaussian Output (GIGO) assumptions that do not capture the non-Gaussian nature of RSO error characteristics. An innovative approach based on a combination of the Gaussian Sum Filter (GSF) and Generalized Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation (GMMAE) scheme is proposed to fully describe the probability density function (pdf) associated with RSO tracks. The GSF can provide an accurate pdf construction of the state error process by approximating the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation in a computationally efficient manner. The GMMAE scheme generalizes the MMAE process by incorporating multiple time-steps of the residual sequence back into the estimation process and using the likelihood of the residual sequence in order to provide a weighted average of the assumed parameter elements in the unknown covariance matrices. The novel mathematical framework provided by the GSF and GMMAE will be implemented against a realistic RSO use case with the goal of assessing the feasibility of using these more realistic recovered state and covariance estimates within the current space surveillance network (SSN) environment. BENEFIT: Currently, the SSN uses the NORAD SGP4 orbit models for predicting satellite positions that do not have the associated covariance estimates. PDS will provide a performance assessment of utilizing these innovative orbit estimation and RSO track association algorithms developed under this project by testing their accuracy and responsiveness of RSO tracking against realistic use cases generated with an innovative space surveillance network (SSN) simulator. Once these algorithms are validated under “real world” simulations, PDS will test and validate these algorithms with actual SSN data. PDS intends to work closely with the Air Force in transferring technology for their critical objectives. The primary DoD end-customer for these algorithms is the JFCC-Space through the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which detects, tracks, and identifies all man-made objects in Earth orbit. Through current program experiences, PDS understands the acquisition process involved in transitioning algorithms from concept to validation, development, testing, (SMC SSA Technology Branch) and deliverance of an operational product to the warfighter (AF Space Command).

Photonic Glass Corporation
5 Mink Trap Lane ,
Sharon , MA 02067
(781) 492-9200

PI: Mark B. Spitzer
(781) 492-9200
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0066
Boston University
25 Buick Street ,
Boston , MA 02215
(617) 353-4365

ID#: F09B-T20-0290
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT20       Awarded: 3/31/2010
Title: Multi-Photon Solar Cell
Abstract:   This proposal addresses the attainment of conversion efficiency exceeding 35% in a single-junction solar cell. Non- absorption of long wavelength photons and thermallization of short wavelength photons accounts for the loss of over half of the incident energy in a single junction cell; however, a large fraction of this energy could be captured if the spectrum is first modified by an efficient photonic process that radically changes quantum efficiency. Such technology may offer reduced cost and weight at efficiency equivalent tandem solar cells, and could yield much higher efficiency than conventional flat panel solar cell approaches. In Phase I the feasibility of using implanted rare earth ions for up- and down-conversion of photon energy is investigated. Si solar cells coated with various ion-implanted thin-film host materials are used as test structures to investigate non-radiative energy transfer. In Phase II, development of highly efficiency cells formed from Si and GaAs will be carried out. BENEFIT: The successful development of this technology will provide a new type of solar cell that can be used for both space and terrestrial power systems. Commercial applications include improvement of power-to-weight ratio of satellite power systems. This technology is also applicable to roof top flat panel solar energy systems. In both applications, improved efficiency offers large system cost benefits, as well as increased power output.

Photonic Systems, Inc.
900 Middlesex Turnpike , Building #5
Billerica , MA 01821
(617) 670-4990

PI: Gary Betts
(978) 670-4990
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0111
University of Southern California
University Park Campus ,
Los Angeles , CA 90089
(213) 740-4415

ID#: F09B-T25-0099
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT25       Awarded: 5/15/2010
Title: Ultrafast Hybrid Active Materials and Devices for Compact RF Photonics
Abstract:   In this project, we propose to use the radiation-assisted poling technique to enhance the electro-optic coefficient of a polymer that we will integrate within a silicon nano-slot waveguide. The electro-optic coefficient in the slot is expected to improve to nearly its optimal value that it exhibits in bulk material. To avoid a free carrier transit time limit and reduce the radio-frequency propagation loss, we also propose to use undoped silicon strips to replace the doped silicon strips conventionally used to create a nano-slot waveguide. Applying an appropriate traveling-wave design to the electrodes will produce an ultra-compact, ultra-high speed, high-efficiency optical modulator that can work with a halfwave voltage less than 1V for millimeter-wave applications with up to 100 GHz bandwidth. BENEFIT: This program to develop 100- Gbps electro-optic modulators will benefit ultra-fast applications such as atmospheric sensing, radio astronomy, passive imaging, 77-GHz automotive RADAR, 60-GHz WLAN, test and measurement synthesizers, and wide-band communication systems including 100 Gbps links for next-generation telecommunications. The greatest demand for 100 Gbps modulators will come from the telecommunications industry. Telecommunication systems will jump in data rate from 40 Gbps to 100 Gbps in the near future. Demonstrated 100 Gbps systems have used multiple modulators to carve out a single 100 Gbps signal. The nanoslot modulator would provide these 100 Gbps signals using one modulator. Using only one nanoslot modulator will reduce cost, volume, and power consumption---an ideal combination of improvements for cost-sensitive commercial markets.

PhyLas
8637 East Dunbar Way ,
Tucson , AZ 85747
(520) 306-7639

PI: Harrry A. Schmitt
(520) 306-7639
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0128
Princeton University
Engineering Quadrangle , Olden Street
Princeton , NJ 08544
(609) 258-3500

ID#: F09B-T09-0021
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT09       Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title: Data Adaptive Fusion for Information Assurance / Information Operations
Abstract:   We propose a nine month research program to demonstrate the potential of a set of novel data fusion methods for detecting and localizing distributed patterns of interest in complex networked systems. The technical challenges posed by this problem are significant, but, if they are overcome, the tactical impact is great. Tactical hierarchical sensor networks envisioned or deployed currently operate far from their full potential. The mathematical approaches we propose have the potential to significantly close this performance gap by providing the means to distill information from network data fast, act on it fast and with greater insight than an adversary, and to do that consistently. Our approach is based on recent research by our university subcontractors in two areas: (1) learning the multi-scale dependencies between network node measurements; and (2) constructing sparsifying transforms that facilitates anomaly detection and localization by adaptive aggregation of node measurements. Their method exploits multi-scale spatial structure of the network by performing a hierarchical clustering, and then uses an unbalanced Haar construction to sparsify the network change patterns. Because network activity is summarized by a few large coefficients, the SNR is effectively increased. BENEFIT: The ability to robustly detect and estimate weak distributed patterns in a networked system which are undetectable in the local signatures of individual nodes in the network will enable the Department of Defense and Intelligence Agencies to more fully exploit the inherent potential of complex multi-scale networks in highly dynamic environments. This problem arises in a large number of commercial applications, such as: detecting incipient changes in a spatial field like contamination level monitored by a sensor network, the onset of malicious activity due to a virus spreading in the Internet and identifying statistically significant sets in a gene network or anomalous patterns of social activity. A mixed commercial / government application is the prediction and localization of earthquakes. This is based on the observation that a sudden jump in the number of small quakes in one area seems to be predictive of a larger quake. The challenge is detection this pattern weak pattern against substantial background ‘noise.’

Physical Engineering Corporation
5807 Wales Ave. ,
Port Orange , FL 32127
(386) 308-3177

PI: Chris Fredricksen
(386) 631-7319
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0069
University of Central Florida
4000 Central Florida Blvd. ,
Orlando , FL 32816
(407) 823-5208

ID#: F09B-T39-0266
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT39       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Metal-blacks for plasmonic enhancement of solar-cell efficiency
Abstract:   This Phase I STTR proposal will demonstrate nanostructured “metal-black” coatings to enhance absorption by thin film solar cells. The problem is that silicon has low absorption due to its indirect gap. The opportunity is that nano-scale metallic scattering centers increase the effective optical path length and enhance the solar electric-field strength in thin-film solar cells, leading to more efficient harvesting of solar photons. We propose deposition of so-called “metal blacks”, a nano-structured conductor that requires no lithographic patterning and gives a broad particle-size distribution. Effects of coverage, particle size distribution, co-deposition of dielectric polymers, and co-deposition of different metal-blacks will be investigated. The role of plasma oscillations will be elucidated and optimized by correlating efficiency improvements with Photo-Electron Emission Microscopy images of resonance hot-spot distributions. BENEFIT: Anticipated benefits of this research are order-of-magnitude increases in light harvesting and photo-voltaic conversion efficiency by means of a simple low-cost coating process. This can substantially decrease the number and weight of solar panels. In addition to usual photo-voltaic power generation, commercial opportunities significantly include space-flight and airborne applications having restricted weight budgets.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center ,
Andover , MA 01810
(978) 689-0003

PI: Yuliang Wang
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0065
University of Notre Dame
Office of Research , 511 Main Building
Notre Dame , IN 46556
(574) 631-5537

ID#: F09B-T35-0248
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT35       Awarded: 3/31/2010
Title: Parallel Fabrication of Magnetic Nanocomputing Architectures by Electrospinning
Abstract:   The Air Force has expressed an interest in identification and evaluation of nanoscale device architectures capable of functional logical operation in a VLSI format. However, fundamental limits prevent straightforward extension of optical lithography to nanoscaled device fabrication. Non-conventional lithography techniques such as x-ray and particle based methods (e.g., electron beam lithography) possess the requisite resolution, albeit at very high cost and process complexity. Here PSI and their STTR partner – the University of Notre Dame, propose a facile electrospinning technique to fabricate nanoscale computing devices based on the Magnetic Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) architecture. MQCA can perform Boolean logic operations and could be interfaced with silicon CMOS circuits for hybrid computing systems. The parallel fabrication of multiple MQCA wires and binary signal transmission in these wires will be demonstrated at the end of the Phase I period. Building on the results obtained from the Phase I study, during Phase II we will fabricate and other MQCA devices, such as logic gates, using the same self-assembly technique. In addition, the integration of several individual MQCA devices to work in concert for more complex algorithm demonstration will be initiated during Phase II. BENEFIT: The ability to fabricate functional devices of smaller and smaller size is essential to much of modern science and technology. The most successful example is provided by microelectronics, where “smaller” has meant greater performance ever since the invention of integrated circuits: more components per chip, faster operation, lower cost, and less power consumption. Today’s armored fighting vehicle carries an ever-growing array of electronic sub-systems which add new capabilities. Future Air Force systems will require that all electrical and electronic components operate at higher efficiencies with reduced dimension, thus the devices need to be further miniaturized. The materials technology at nanoscale dimensions offers a broad range of applications in micro and nanoelectronics, molecular electronics, and growth of novel materials, which will advance US capabilities for a range of science and technology objectives. The immediate applications for the proposed MQCA paradigm are in low-power computation. Magnetic circuitry would decrease power requirements and form factors for electronic devices, so the gear carried and used by soldiers could be lighter, last longer on a power charge, and be able to do more tasks. Ultra-small circuits could mediate between electronic devices and molecules, enabling close integration of electronics with sensors and with living organisms. Capabilities such as real-time chemical detection, rapid image processing, image recognition, and natural language processing could be integrated organically with

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center ,
Andover , MA 01810
(978) 689-0003

PI: Juan Montoya
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0068
Massachusetts Institute of Technolo
77 Massachusetts Avenue , Building E19-750
Cambridge , MA 02139
(617) 253-1696

ID#: F09B-T39-0169
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT39       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Solariton: Solar Energy Generation using Plasmon Cavities on Organic Solar Cells
Abstract:   Solar cell technology is a promising alternative energy source. Present challenges for viable solar technology include decreasing material cost (using thin-film organic polymers), increasing production (using printing processes), and increasing the efficiency. Surface plasmon organic solar cells address these challenges. Surface-plasmons provide confinement in thin-film solar cells and allow for waveguiding which increases the optical path length in the active absorbing medium. The increased path length provides for greater efficiency resulting in an enhanced photocurrent response. The goal of this program is to achieve greater than 10% efficiency in thin film organic solar cells. The Phase I program will prove feasibility through design and simulation of surface-plasmon energy trap configurations which result in an efficiency enhancement greater than 10%. Phase I will include a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration as risk reduction in preparation for Phase II. BENEFIT: Incorporating nanostructures on organic thin film solar cells will allow for increased power conversion efficiency beyond the 10% threshold necessary for commercialization. Successful commercialization of thin-film organic solar cell technology will allow for solar energy harvesting on residential and commercial rooftops. Due to their flexibility, organic solar cells are being considered for insertion into every day objects such as windows and fabric. In this program we will collaborate with Solarmer to increase the efficiency of their organic solar cell technology.

Plasma Technology Inc.
1754 Crenshaw Blvd. ,
Torrance , CA 90501
(310) 320-3373

PI: Satish Dixit
(310) 320-3373
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0157
Argonne National Laboratory
9700 South Cass Avenue, , Bldg. 362
Argonne , IL 60439
(630) 252-5279

ID#: F09B-T19-0153
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT19       Awarded: 7/1/2010
Title: Extreme Wear-Resistant Thermal Spray Coatings.
Abstract:   The demand for higher performance and rapid transition of new technologies into extreme performance has lead to the need for engineered materials and surface modification technologies. The present proposal is focused on finding a surface engineered solution that can withstand exceptionally harsh environments such as those found in supersonic ground test tracks or rail gun environments. This SBIR program objective is to develop and demonstrate an improved and reliable high temperature wear resistant solid lubricant coating system for the supersonic ground test tracks or rail gun applications that is capable of surviving repetitive sliding contacts at Mach 8 and above. BENEFIT: Successful implementation of applying the solid lubricant wear resistant coatings on rail gun material will provide a superior wear resistance and improved fatigue strength at higher speeds. This will also prove how the plasma spray coatings will demonstrate performance under extreme operating conditions. Developing these coating systems and proving their applicability in such extreme harsh environments will also pave the way for other such applications in automotive and aerospace extreme environment applications.

PolarOnyx, Inc
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F ,
Sunnyvale , CA 94085
(408) 245-9588

PI: Jian Liu
(408) 245-9588
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0166
University of California
P.O. BOX 2039 ,
Merced , CA 95344
(209) 734-4309

ID#: F09B-T01-0205
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT01       Awarded: 7/12/2010
Title: Supercontinuum Fiber Laser for Multi-Spectral Energy Propagation
Abstract:   Based on our success in developing the world first commercial high power femtosecond fiber laser system and our leading technology development in ultrashort pulsed fiber laser and nonlinear fiber optics, PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, a compact all fiber based high power (>kW) mid-IR supercontinuum source (1-5 micron) to meet with the requirement of the AF solicitation AF09-BT01. The laser is a specialty fiber based MOPA incorporating our proprietary technology of pulse shaping, spectral shaping and polarization shaping in generation mid-IR pump source at 3 um and mid-IR supercontinuum generation. A tabletop experiment will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame for proof of the concept. A hardware will be delivered in Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed high power fs fiber laser can be used in many applications, such as countermeasures, metrology, sensing, spectroscopy and space, aircraft, and satellite applications of LADAR systems and communications, laser weapons, and target designation and illumination. With successful development of the laser, the technology proposed by PolarOnyx will provide a vital tool to solve the existing and potential issues and merge with the huge markets including • Material processing. This includes (1) all types of metal processing such as welding, cutting, annealing, and drilling; (2)semiconductor and microelectronics manufacturing such as lithography, inspection, control, defect analysis and repair, and via drilling; (3) marking of all materials including plastic, metals, and silicon; (4) other materials processing such as rapid prototyping, desk top manufacturing, micromachining, photofinishing, embossed holograms, and grating manufacturing. • Medical equipment and biomedical instrumentation. The high power amplifier/laser can be applied to ophthalmology, refractive surgery, photocoagulation, general surgery, therapeutic, imaging, and cosmetic applications. Biomedical instruments include those involved in cells or proteins, cytometry, and DNA sequencing; laser Raman spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, and ablation; and laser based microscopes.

Polestar Technologies, Inc.
220 Reservoir Street, Suite 32 ,
Needham Hgts , MA 02494
(781) 449-2284

PI: Ranganathan Shashidhar
(781) 449-2284
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0101
Rutgers University
Dept. of Chemistry Olson Labor , 73 Warrem Street
Newark, , NJ 07102
(973) 353-1254

ID#: F09B-T03-0247
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT03       Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title: Engineered nanometric architectures or conductive matrices for efficient electron coupling
Abstract:   The overall objective of this program is to develop an effective means for integrating enzymes onto an electrode in order to improve electron transfer and enzyme loading and stability. The approach is based on conformably coating a layer of functional polymer onto an arrayed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrode. The immobilized enzymes will be further covalently encapsulated by a hydrogel mesh. This approach is significant because of a) high enzyme loading (the amount of immobilized enzymes will be around 100-fold higher than other means); b) efficient electron transfer (the electrical communication will be facilitated by a reduced distance between enzyme and electrode); and c) improved stability. This combination is very unique and has not been achieved to date. Owing to the high biocompatibility of hydrogel and related shielding effect, the immobilized enzymes are expected to have an extended lifetime more than 45 days (the maximum lifetime reported so far). Thus, this technique will meet the military need to power modest-power demand devices that require mW to W for extended periods of time. BENEFIT: This program will develop an effective means for integrating enzymes onto an electrode. This will enable the military to have a practical enzyme-based biological fuel cell in the future. The commercial applications include implantable biological fuel cell, high sensitive sensor, and portable power supplies etc.

Portage Bay Photonics
214 Summit Avenue E, #402 , c/o Michael Hochberg
Seattle , WA 98102
(626) 487-7211

PI: Michael Hochberg
(206) 221-4089
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0110
University of Washington
4333 Brooklyn Avenue NE , Box 359472
Seattle , WA 98195
(206) 543-4043

ID#: F09B-T25-0014
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT25       Awarded: 6/8/2010
Title: Ultrafast Hybrid Active Materials and Devices for Compact RF Photonics
Abstract:   The proposed research is targeted at developing revolutionary ultrafast photonic devices within the silicon system. The goals of this two-phase program include: (1) Demonstrating all-optical on-chip gain at speeds of several terahertz in a silicon-organic hybrid waveguide system. This will be a demonstration of an all-optical transistor equivalent, operating at speeds well in excess of what can be achieved in electronics. (2) Building ultra-low-voltage electro-optic modulators based on organic-clad nanoslot waveguides. The Hochberg group currently holds the world record for the lowest voltage electro-optic modulator (0.25V), and has shown that their approach can be radically improved with further work. With the proposed approach, it will become possible to create modulators that provide significant gain from the electrical-to-optical transition. This will radically change the fundamental tradeoffs in the design of radio frequency and millimeter wave systems, from radars to high speed analog signal processing chips. Both of these devices will bring the benefits of integrated optics (particularly radically reduced size, weight, and power for hugely complex systems) to defense-critical signal processing and RF photonics applications. These two new classes of device will serve as proofs-of-concept for the use of silicon-organic hybrid technology as a practical platform for nonlinear optics. BENEFIT: This proposal focuses on developing revolutionary, ultrafast silicon photonic devices using silicon-organic hybrid technology. Today, all-optical modulators with signal gain at THz bandwidth simply do not exist, and EO modulators with sub-1 Volt bias-free Vπ values do not exist. Practical chip-scale all-optical modulators with THz bandwidth and signal gain could become the basis of ultra-high-speed all-optical logic on-chip. The most notable application for such a capability would be as a path to higher bandwidth logic than is possible with conventional electronic millimeter-wave integrated circuits. Low-power EO modulators could radically alter the design of RF photonic systems, eliminating the need (for instance) to amplify signals coming off of antennas before launching the RF signals onto an optical fiber. The best competing technologies for highly linear analog modulators, based on lithium niobate, use a very mature technology which is unlikely to scale below a couple of volts Vπ at 20 GHz (for example). Our approach offers a path to 2-3 order-of-magnitude improvements in operating voltage, and 4-6 order-of- magnitude improvements in operating power. Very low voltage EO modulators, coupled to sensitive on-chip antennas, may also provide the basis for ultra-sensitive electric field and RF probes, and as components of revolutionary analog- over-fiber systems. The Hochberg laboratory has demonstrated world-record low voltage electro-optic modulators with

Prime Research, LC
1750 Kraft Dr Ste 1000-B ,
Blacksburg , VA 24060
(540) 961-2200

PI: Raymond C. Rumpf
(540) 961-2200
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0099
UNC at Charlotte
9201 University City Blvd. ,
Charlotte , NC 28223
(704) 687-8123

ID#: F09B-T37-0119
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT37       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Nano-Optical Elements for Multi-Mode Detectors
Abstract:   Prime Research and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte propose to devevelop space-variant nano-optical elements to integrate passive spectral and polarization filters directly into infrared focal plane arrays. This novel technology will enable multi-mode detection by allowing pixels to be uniquely tuned for wavelength and polarization across a focal plane array using a simple fabrication process that is suitable for volume production. Diffraction-free photonic crystals will perform the filtering functions while dramatically reducing blurring and interaction between adjacent pixels. Key performance goals are broadband operation, reduced diffraction effects, and consistent behavior at oblique angles of incidence. Exploratory concepts include incorporating zero-thickness materials to achieve angle- insensitive filtering. The proposed technology promises revolutionary advances in remote sensing, surveillance, target discrimination, imaging, spectroscopy, and more. BENEFIT: By integrating nano-optical structures into detector arrays, additional degrees of freedom will be given to imaging systems to control and manipulate light. Wavelength and polarization diversity will enable systems to identify and improve image quality of man-made objects in cluttered or low- contrast environments. Other applications of computational and diversity imaging techniques include improving depth- of-focus, restoring distorted images, or determining additional properties about objects such as surface qualities, spatial position and orientation, and velocity. Aside from imaging, the emerging field of computational spectroscopy will directly benefit because the ¡§fingerprint¡¨ region for molecular resonance is in the 2 to 20 ƒÝm region. The proposed technology will also give these systems additional degrees of freedom to interrogate samples, multiplex experiments, and manipulate their spectral signatures. Outside of DoD and Homeland Security, the proposed technology promise many applications in law enforcement, astronomy, medicine, and more.

Privatran
1250 Capital of Texas Highway South , Building 3, Suite 400
Austin , TX 78746
(512) 633-3476

PI: Koneru Ramakrishna
(512) 680-4169
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0112
Stanford University
Dept. Mechanical Engineering , Bldg. 530, 440 Escondido Mall
Stanford , CA 94305
(650) 725-2086

ID#: F09B-T22-0299
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT22       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Nanoscale Conformable Thermal Interface Materials with Electronically Enhanced Heat Conduction
Abstract:   Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), single and multi-walled, have very high thermal conductivity and are natural choices to increase teffective thermal conductivity of thermal interface materials (TIMs). However, they have high interfacial thermal resistances of CNT at the base (seed) and at the heat sink end. Broadly, two approaches have been taken to reduce interfacial thermal resistance of CNT on heatsink side. The first method involves increasing the interfacial pressure and the material above (Fischer and co-workers). In the second approach a layer of solder is introduced between CNT and the heat sink. The later approach reduced the interfacial thermal resistance by an order of magnitude. No attempts have been made to reduce the interfacial resistance on the seed side of CNT. In this proposal, a metallic conformal coatings have been proposed. They consist of a flash of Pd, followed by Cu, followed by solder. Such a conformal layer ensures complete, area coverage and is tolerant to variations in manufacturing variable such as statistical variation in CNT heights. On the seed side, it is proposed to etch out the seed followed by polishing/CMP is proposed to eliminate that interface. We propose to investigate indium and a lead-free solder. Attempts will be made to understand the interfaces through modeling. We also propose to simulate thermal performance of a package, to be chosen by Air Force, with proposed changes to TIM. BENEFIT: The proposed conformal coatings can significantly decrease the overall thermal resistance of a TIM with CNT compared to a CNT-solder interface. They can accommodate statistical variations common to CNT manufacturing process. The conformal coatings are compliant and can better withstand cyclic stresses induced due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch during temperature cycling. Additionally, we are the first ones to decrease (eliminate) the interfacial stress between CNT and its seed. The impact of significantly decreasing TIM thermal interfacial resistance is beneficial across all product lines where TIMs are used.

Privatran
1250 Capital of Texas Highway South , Building 3, Suite 400
Austin , TX 78746
(512) 633-3476

PI: Burt Fowler
(512) 431-8460
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0098
Rice University
6100 Main St. MS 222 ,
Houston , TX 77005
(713) 348-6246

ID#: F09B-T23-0317
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT23       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Advanced Memristor Materials and 3D Integration Architectures
Abstract:   PrivaTran proposes the use of newly-developed manufacturing methods that convert materials commonly found in conventional integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing into memristor devices with increased packing density and an advanced, three-dimensional (3D) architecture. The memristor devices can be formed in the interconnect layers of a conventional IC so that the area available for underlying transistors is not affected. This approach results in a 3D architecture achieved using a single substrate without the need for bonding multiple die together with flip-chip or through-silicon-via technologies. Furthermore, the memristor devices are much smaller than single transistors for any given technology node, and will scale to smaller dimensions as IC technology continues to progress towards smaller and smaller transistor sizes. The two-terminal memristor devices have numerous advantages including on/off conductance ratios greater than 104, reversible and fast switching, long retention times and immunity to current-induced degradation. In addition, their inherent simplicity makes them highly compatible with Si-based microelectronics technology, leading to a 3D architecture that can be readily transferred into semiconductor products at the most basic, integrated circuit level. BENEFIT: The memristor is of great interest to the Department of Defense (DoD) since it can potentially revolutionize numerous analog and digital circuit technologies. Specific Air Force applications that would benefit from this technology include tunable RF circuits in software defined radios, delta sigma modulators, and analog- to-digital converters (ADC). Furthermore, memristors can theoretically be used to simulate the human synapse, making them useful for non-Boolean, neuromorphic computing, which is an attractive computing technique due to its massive parallelism, scalability, and inherent fault-tolerance. Such neuromorphic computers could lead to game changing capabilities in managing and exploiting the global information grid, as well as enabling revolutionary advancements in cyber information processing and “cloud computing,” which requires an IT infrastructure of hundreds of thousands of servers and storage systems. The memristor can also be used for nonvolatile memory. Applications include radiation hardened devices for space-based surveillance platforms, launch vehicles and miniature kill vehicles for the MDA ballistic missile defense system; integrated sensor systems for imaging sensors used for automatic object identification and target recognition; friend or foe identification; and theater threat assessment. The DoD is aggressively developing robotic technologies for unmanned and totally autonomous air, ground, and sea vehicles which require a multitude of sensors and high-speed, high-density, low-power memories for obstacle detection, identification, and avoidance, as well

SA Photonics
650 5th Street , Suite 505
San Francisco , CA 94107
(971) 921-3401

PI: Dave Pechner
(408) 781-7416
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0072
California State University, LA
5151 State University Dr. ,
Los Angeles , CA 90032
(323) 343-4480

ID#: F09B-T21-0079
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT21       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Novel protocol for Quantum Key Distribution
Abstract:   Quantum cryptography, and in particular Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a secure method to distribute a secret key between two distant authorized partners whose security is based on the laws of physics. Current public key cryptosystems have not been proven to be secure and are based on the computational complexity of evaluating one-way functions. These functions are easily evaluated, but extremely difficult to invert. The problem from a cryptographic point of view is that the existence of a fast algorithm for factorization has not been ruled out; a sudden mathematical breakthrough would make many internet communications completely insecure. A secure cryptosystem can be achieved if one encodes information in a quantum system. To be more precise, quantum mechanics is able to transmit perfectly secure, random keys which can then be used in standard secret-key protocols. SA Photonics will team Dr. Fred Daneshgaran’s team at CSULA to develop Sphinx, the first true-end-to-end Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system. The Sphinx development will augment proven quantum key distribution approaches with novel techniques to improve key rate performance and also enhance security validation. By leveraging Dr. Daneshgaran’s expertise in quantum cryptology in association with SA Photonics extensive experience in developing complex photonics based communication systems, we will be able to develop a true end-to-end system ready for commercial and military use. BENEFIT: Key Distribution by quantum means will provide provably secure communications, enhancing security for the most critical communication links. The Sphinx system will have widespread use, including use in all branches of the military and government, as well as financial and corporate commercial applications.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue ,
Burlington , MA 01803
(781) 273-4770

PI: Jason Quennenville
(781) 273-4770
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0096
Stanford University
450 Serra Mall ,
Sanford , CA 94305
(650) 736-8860

ID#: F09B-T30-0204
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT30       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Full-Response TDDFT on Graphical Processing Units for Modeling Optical Response in Materials
Abstract:   Limited computational resources remain a serious obstacle to the application of quantum chemistry in problems of widespread importance, such as the design of new catalysts for use in fuel cells, or for modeling of material and optical properties of liquids and solids. Researchers have a considerable impetus to relieve this bottleneck, both by developing new and more effective algorithms and exploring new computer architectures. Research at Stanford has yielded a working quantum chemistry code for graphical processing units (GPUs) that calculates electronic ground states of systems as large as 2000 atoms using the DFT method. We propose to extend this work to allow calculations of the full optical response of materials using real-time (RT) TDDFT with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs). Our Phase I approach consists of two tasks. First, we will validate our approach for condensed phase problems of interest to the Air Force using existing codes. Secondly, we will derive algorithms for RT-TDDFT method and for PBCs that are suitable for GPU implementation. At the end of our phase II project, we plan to deliver a RT-TDDFT code that can be used with PBCs and that executes on the highly efficient, highly scalable GPU platform. BENEFIT: The product of the proposed STTR effort, after Phase II, is a computer software module that would allow for the efficient and accurate prediction of the linear and non-linear optical response of materials. The software, which will be designed to run on graphical processing units, will permit efficient, thousand-atom simulations using the high-level real-time TDDFT method and periodic boundary conditions. These simulations will 2-3 times faster and 10 times bigger than those performed by current software on standard CPU platforms. The Phase I proof-of-principle demonstration will consist of a test of full- response function, real-time (RT) TDDFT for its applicability to Air Force problems and the derivation of the mathematical algorithms for RT-TDDFT with periodic boundary conditions. This new simulation software will enable modeling of the complex interaction of light and matter in photovoltaic materials and non-linear optical devices, as well the UV/Vis absorption spectra of chemical and biological agents, explosives for better detection techniques.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue ,
Burlington , MA 01803
(781) 273-4770

PI: Matthew Braunstein
(781) 273-4770
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0093
Iowa State University
Spedding Hall 201 ,
Ames , IA 50011
(515) 294-0452

ID#: F09B-T40-0093
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT40       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Innovative Approaches to Scalable and Multi-reference Coupled Cluster Methods
Abstract:   Increased computational speed and improved numerical algorithms have made computational chemistry an important tool in the development of new chemical compounds and processes. In particular, single-reference coupled cluster (CC) methods, such as CCSD(T), provide an excellent compromise between speed and accuracy in applications involving molecules near their equilibrium geometries, capturing most of the relevant dynamical correlation effects. However, single-reference CC methods may be less reliable for systems far from equilibrium or in characterizing electronic states with significant multi-reference character. At present, no such equivalent method is generally available for modeling these kinds of systems. We propose to address this need by developing a hierarchy of three CC methodologies designed to treat systems with a significant multi-reference character and to capture non-dynamical correlation effects. To reach a large community and to ensure the proposed approach is applicable to a large class of systems, the algorithms will be developed in a scalable (multi-processor) fashion and tested within GAMESS, a freely available, well documented, and popular suite of electronic structure codes. A wide range of chemical problems will be modeled and evaluated against many proposed and existing CC methods. Several benchmark calculations will be performed. BENEFIT: The proposed work will provide a unique technical capability which has several immediate military and industrial applications, including the development and testing of energetic materials for propellants and explosives, insensitive munitions, fuels, gas generators, chem-bio defense, advanced nanomaterials, and small- molecule drug design. In Phase I, existing and new methods will be evaluated, and a basic approach will be designed, tested, and evaluated within the GAMESS suite of electronic structure codes. Higher level methods will also be demonstrated and evaluated with expert level codes. By the end of Phase I, an evaluation of the relative speed and accuracy of a large number of CC approaches targeting non-dynamical correlation effects will be made. By the end of Phase II, several candidate higher level CC approaches will be fully implemented and benchmarked in GAMESS.

Streamline Automation, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW ,
Huntsville , AL 35805
(256) 713-1220

PI: Alton Reich
(256) 713-1220
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0137
Southern Illinois University Edward
Rendleman Hall , Box 1046
Edwardsville , IL 62026
(618) 650-3010

ID#: F09B-T16-0005
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT16       Awarded: 6/3/2010
Title: Fusion of a Real-time Analytical Model with Facility Control Systems
Abstract:   AEDC personnel have developed and demonstrated the effectiveness of coupling a control volume model with a wind tunnel control system. The performance of the model was hampered because parameters of the model were assumed to be constant, when they are likely variables. A method for using facility data to determine functional relationships defining these parameters would allow them to vary during hardware in the loop testing and likely improve the results produced by the model. A framework is needed that is flexible enough to be utilized on different wind tunnels that will perform data fusion to tune system model parameters. Streamline Automation and Southern Illinois University Edwardsville propose to utilize our Intelligent Data Extraction Algorithm to process and fuse data captured from multiple sensors during operations of a wind tunnel facility. The algorithm will then be used to tune the model parameters for use in hardware in the loop testing. During the Phase 1 project, the team will develop and test the algorithm for use on the SIUE wind tunnel. During Phase 2, the team will apply the methodology to an Air Force wind tunnel facility. BENEFIT: There are several high-performance wind tunnel facilities at AEDC that can benefit directly from the technology proposed herein. It will enable data that is difficult to measure directly to be extracted to from the measured data. This data can be used to determine relationships between cause and effect that will improve the fidelity of facility models and improve hardware in the loop testing. The technology can be utilized directly at other wind tunnel facilities, including those at NASA and at universities.

Structured Materials Industries
201 Circle Drive North , Unit # 102
Piscataway , NJ 08854
(732) 302-9274

PI: Gary S. Tompa
(732) 302-9274
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0075
Boise State University
Department of Electrical & Com ,
Boise State Universi , ID 83725
(208) 426-3395

ID#: F09B-T23-0226
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT23       Awarded: 5/1/2010
Title: Development of Advanced Programmable Memristors
Abstract:   Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI), working with others have demonstrated functioning fundamental memristor material technology. In this program, working with our University partner and end use collaborators, we propose to provide an infrastructure for making memristor materials at production scales, expand/refine the known memristor materials, provide samples of the produced memristor materials to all qualified requestors, and explore specific applications of the memristor materials. In Phase I we will demonstrate an expanded set of well characterized memristor materials – sampling them and evaluate explicit range of applications with a focus on their application to nonvolatile and radiation hard memory. In Phase II we will continue the development efforts, but on 6” and 8” wafers – becoming a material source for our focused application and for all developers/end users/implementers of the technology. We will specifically demonstrate refinement, diversification and scaled producibility of radiation resistant materials we have already produced, for bipolar (~10E5 change in resistance), reversible, low power consuming, non-volatile, fast switching (<100nsec) element integrated into nanoscale Si memory. In Phase III SMI will serve as a materials and process tool technology foundry for all memristor developers and manufactures of devices incorporating memristors. BENEFIT: The memristor is a nonlinear circuit element that no combination of resistors, inductors and capacitors can duplicate and thus represent a new opportunity to transform how circuits operate; however, to realize this opportunity sources of memristor materials and circuit elements are needed for application development – this program will enable that availability for all end users are needed. Target applications include: tunable RF circuits in software defined radios, delta sigma modulators, A/D converters, and non-volatile memory elements – among many others that include non-Boolean neuromorphic computing enablement. This project will enable SMI to fulfill the market need for research materials as well as for the tools to make the materials and devices.

Tanner Research, Inc.
825 S. Myrtle Ave. ,
Monrovia , CA 91016
(626) 471-9778

PI: Ravi Verma
(626) 471-9700
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0073
California Institute of Technology
1200 E California Blvd ,
Pasadena , CA 91106
(626) 695-4123

ID#: F09B-T39-0310
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT39       Awarded: 3/31/2010
Title: Plasmon Induced Photoelectrochemistry for artificial photosynthesis
Abstract:   The Air Force has a strategic need for a fuel source that is renewable (and which does not rely on foreign petroleum sources). Several approaches to a renewable fuel source have been investigated; with “artificial photosynthesis” being one example. At its core, the photosynthesis reaction is a photoinduced charge separation reaction with light being concentrated by antenna complexes onto a catalyst with molecular resonance; and most artificial photosynthesis systems are derived from this approach. However, this approach suffers from a generic problem in that catalysts with molecular resonances tend to degrade rapidly when exposed to light. Tanner Research and Caltech are proposing to leverage recent developments in plasmon-induced photoelectrochemistry catalysis to develop a low cost artificial photosynthesis system that can generate charge separation as the first step, and which uses that charge buildup to generate fuel as the second step. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a low cost artificial photosynthesis system with incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) efficiency of 20%. In Phase II, we will demonstrate a complete system that generates fuel with 10% efficiency. BENEFIT: Renewable fuel sources will significantly improve the strategic security of the USAF.

Techno-Sciences, Inc.
11750 Beltsville Drive , 3rd Floor
Beltsville , MD 20705
(240) 790-0600

PI: Murat Yasar
(240) 790-0600
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0074
Oklahoma State University
Office of Research Adm , 201 Advanced Technology Ctr
Stillwater , OK 74078
(405) 744-5001

ID#: F09B-T39-0147
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT39       Awarded: 4/1/2010
Title: Plasmonics for Energy Generation
Abstract:   Conversion of sunlight to chemical fuels by artificial photosynthesis has been a long-sought goal. The major goal of the proposed effort is to develop a novel fuel-generating (e.g., hydrogen) photolytic device, which consists of a semiconductor nanowire decorated with metal nanoparticles. The project targets a low-cost technology by fabricating and utilizing the nanowire-nanoparticle conjugate devices in the form of a suspension (e.g., in water). The project also aims at high photolytic conversion energy and stability by making use of multifunctional nanostructures with unique plasmonic, photonic, and electronic attributes at the nanoscale. BENEFIT: By 2030, global demand for energy is projected to increase by 50%. There is also growing awareness that the Earth’s oil reserves may run out during the present century. Therefore, an energy shortage is likely to emerge, unless some renewable energy source replaces the fossil fuels in the next few decades. The proposed hydrogen generation technology will be inexpensive, portable and a new source of clean and renewable energy to address the imminent energy needs the world’s population consumes today. From fuel cells to hydrogen cars, the use of hydrogen as a fuel has multitude of applications. The entire effort will have a potential to impact our entire energy infrastructure in a very fundamental way.

Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Ave, Suite A ,
Boulder , CO 80303
(720) 974-1856

PI: John Loverich
(303) 996-2029
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0115
George Washington University
2121 Eye Street NW, ,
Washington , DC 20052
(202) 994-9137

ID#: F09B-T10-0089
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT10       Awarded: 6/1/2010
Title: Simulation Tool for Modeling Weakly Ionized Plasma
Abstract:   We propose to develop a commercial weakly ionized plasma modeling capability based off of Tech-X’s high energy density plasma fluid code TxFluids. The new additions will be able to be used to model hypersonic vehicle physics including shock waves, plasma chemistry and innovative techniques for blackout mitigation and hypersonic vehicle control through the application of electric and/or magnetic fields. A small part of the project will be spent on the development of a new experiment at George Washington University for validating the code. BENEFIT: Currently there is no commercially available weakly ionized plasma modeling tool that is immediately applicable to hypersonics. Through this project a commercial weakly ionized modeling tool will be developed and will be available to the air force, industry and academia. Air force applications include modeling hypersonic flow control, blackout mitigation, hall thrusters, ionizing shock waves, dielectric barrier discharge and in the highly ionized regime applications include modeling pulsed power devices and other plasma devices used in generating neutrons for detecting IED’s or nuclear materials. Non Air Force applications include modeling biological plasmas used in sterilization, industrial plasma arcs and lighting.

Tempest Technologies
Suite 506 , 8939 South Sepulveda Blvd
Los Angeles , CA 90045
(310) 216-1677

PI: Yun Wang
(310) 216-1677
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0107
Wayne State University
656 W. Kirby ,
Detroit , MI 48202
(313) 577-6734

ID#: F09B-T06-0234
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT06       Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title: Novel Algorithm/Hardware Partnerships for Real-Time Nonlinear Control
Abstract:   The real-time implementation of controls in nonlinear systems remains one of the great challenges in applying advanced control technology. Often, linearization around a set point is the only practical approach, and many controllers implemented in hardware systems are simple PID feedback mechanisms. To apply Pontryagin’s principle or Bellman’s equation using conventional hardware and algorithms for high dimensional nonlinear systems requires more computing power than is realistic. The success of linear control theory, especially certainty equivalence and LQG approaches, leads us to hope for additional gains from fully nonlinear controls. We propose an innovation in computational nonlinear control that offers ground breaking potential for real-time control applications, making fully nonlinear problems solvable with the computational efficiency of linear problems. Our Phase I effort will provide a proof-of-concept integrated hardware-software solution implementing max-plus arithmetic for efficient solution of nonlinear stochastic control problems. We have had success in implementing nonlinear deterministic controls in field programmable gate arrays, and we propose to extend those efforts to stochastic control in this effort. We will conduct research into the feasibility of applying max-plus arithmetic methods in the stochastic setting, coupling algorithms with innovative hardware for efficient solutions. BENEFIT: If this effort proves successful, it will revolutionize the field of control theory. The computational efficiency improvements we expect to see will permit fully nonlinear control techniques to be applied in crucial tracking and guidance systems and flight controls. Performance enhancements for unmanned systems will provide warfighters with greatly improved tools for surveillance and combat.

TPL, Inc.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE ,
Albuquerque , NM 87109
(505) 342-4471

PI: Kirk Slenes
(505) 342-4437
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-2115
University of Connecticut
97 N. Eagleville Rd, Unit 3136 ,
Storrs , CT 06269
(860) 486-4102

ID#: F09B-T05-0170
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT05       Awarded: 4/28/2010
Title: High Energy Density Nanocomposite Based on Tailored Surface Chemistry
Abstract:   High energy density capacitors are required for practical implementation of GW-class pulse power loads. In response to this need, TPL has established unique dielectric and capacitor capabilities. Revolutionary materials, designs and manufacturing process have been developed for power sources that have potential for an order of magnitude reduction in mass and volume relative to current commercially available systems. The technology is based on novel nanocomposite formulations that can be reliably formed into capacitors of complex shape and efficiently scaled for system integration. At present, TPL’s nanocomposite capacitors are capable of delivering the necessary sub-microsecond power with an energy density greater than any established technology. The proposed development will focus on advancing this technology by investigating nanopowder surface chemistries for increased composite voltage stress capability and energy density. Doping processes developed by TPL for ceramic capacitors will be applied to modifying titanate nanopowders to achieve tailored vacancy structures and charge transfer behavior. Experimental data will be acquired on capacitors and reconciled against theoretical, atomic-scale modeling at University of Connecticut. It is the overall program objective to establish a predictive model for charge behavior at particle-polymer interfaces and define an approach to delivering capacitors that meet Air Force requirements. BENEFIT: Successful completion of the proposed program will benefit development in several defense related power conditioning, control electronics and directed energy systems. High energy electrical storage systems with reduced size and weight are required for applications including: high energy laser, high power microwave, electric armor, electric guns, electric launch, particle accelerators and ballistic missile applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD ,
CHELMSFORD , MA 01824
(978) 250-4200

PI: John Blum
(978) 250-4200
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0141
Northeastern University
360 Huntington Avenue ,
Boston , MA 02115
(617) 373-5600

ID#: F09B-T26-0027
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT26       Awarded: 6/4/2010
Title: Ink Jet Printing of Flexible Carbon Nanotube Based Transistors over a Large Area(1001-458)
Abstract:   Triton Systems, Inc. and our partners, propose to develop a commercially viable process to print high speed thin film transistors (TFTs) onto large area flexible substrates. We propose to use a commercially available deposition system to deposit high mobility semiconductors onto flexible substrates. It uses an additive process with no masks or screens necessary. The printing technology is readily scalable to 1 x 3m sizes and larger. We also propose to increase the operating characteristics of the deposited TFTs (e.g. on/off ratio and mobilities). BENEFIT: This effort supports the Air Force’s desire for large area, flexible, high speed circuitry. The proposed effort will allow for such circuits to be produced quickly and economically at room temperature and pressures. A wide variety of military and commercial applications, such as wearable electronics, RFID, conformable sensors could benefit from the proposed effort.

TTC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. Box 1527 ,
Stony Brook , NY 11790
(631) 285-7127

PI: Ken Alabi
(631) 285-7127
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0161
Ohio State University
Engineering Research Services , 228 Bolz Hall, 2036 Neil Ave
Columbus , OH 43210
(614) 292-2411

ID#: F09B-T10-0224
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT10       Awarded: 7/15/2010
Title: High-Fidelity Simulation of Dynamic Weakly Ionized Plasma Phenomena
Abstract:   A computational and experimental research program is proposed to develop and validate a high-fidelity 3D non- equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma compressible flow code for advanced aerospace applications. The code will incorporate a physics-based kinetic model of air plasma with non-equilibrium conductivity sustained by an externally applied electric field. The model will include electron and ion motion in externally applied electric and magnetic fields, a non-equilibrium plasma chemistry and energy relaxation mechanism, as well as a mechanism for coupling the plasma with the flow via body force (Coulomb and Lorentz) interaction and purely thermal (i.e., localized heating) interaction. Feasibility studies will be carried out in Phase I, with rigorous validation of the software using results from recent low-temperature MHD flow control experiments. Proposed rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS) measurements of temperature rise produced by Joule heating in a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge will be used for further validation of the kinetic models and the code. A comprehensive development, implementation, and validation of the complete software tool will be carried in Phase II. The project leverages the expertise and extensive, first-of-its-kind relevant experimental experience at The Ohio State University, and the pioneering high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based work at TTC Technologies. BENEFIT: The end product of the project will be a fast, well-validated, high-fidelity software module for accurate and robust modeling of dynamic weakly-ionized plasma phenomena in the presence of induced and/or external magnetic field. The software will be available both as a standalone tool that will be delivered to the Air Force and as a module that will be plugged into, and validated in, TTC''s flagship commercial multidisciplinary software AEROFLO. Thus, the developed tool will be a marketable product which, in Phase III, will be fully transitioned to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), government, commercial air frame companies, and third-party software companies. Most industries using CFD do not have the capability for modeling dynamic weakly-ionized plasma phenomena in the manner detailed in this proposal. Therefore, TTC''s new product line will be quite marketable, as companies will find it cheaper to plug it into their own CFD software packages, rather than developing the capability from scratch. The more accurate predictions from the resulting code will also bring more consulting business to TTC. Both government and non-government concerns will find the proposed software to be very valuable. The Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will need the tool in their various research and design efforts on advanced hypersonic

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road ,
Dayton , OH 45432
(937) 426-6900

PI: Kiet Nguyen
(937) 426-6900
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0145
Iowa State University
Sponsored Programs Admin. , 1138 Pearson Hall
Ames , IA 50011
(515) 294-5225

ID#: F09B-T30-0088
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT30       Awarded: 6/15/2010
Title: Tools for Modeling & Simulation of Molecular and Nanomaterials for Optically Responsive Devices
Abstract:   Military applications for CBRNE/GWTO and C4ISR require R&D for materials to protect personnel and equipment. However, challenges remain in experimental synthesis and characterization of new materials, such as providing insight into observed properties for further advancement. Thus, it is essential to develop a predictive modeling and simulation approach that will not only provide a fundamental understanding, but also allow the a priori prediction properties of materials. Our propose phase I work is to develop, implement, and validate response methods for polarizability and hyperpolarizability in user friendly software that supports the task of developing new materials. Software implementation will be integrated in the GAMESS-US program that can effectively utilize massively parallel computers. This enables predictions of properties for materials to be carried out in an efficient manner. BENEFIT: Upon successful completion, software required for the designs of new NLO materials for will be available for distribution/commercialization. Industrial applications of the new software include 3D optical storage memory, confocal microscopy, second harmomic generation, and photodynamic therapy as cancer treatment.

US Ferroics LLC
300 CM Allen , Suite 100
San Marcos , TX 78666
(410) 798-6106

PI: Ravi Droopad
(602) 763-1058
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-2117
Texas State University
601 University Drive ,
San Marcos , TX 78666
(410) 798-6106

ID#: F09B-T05-0225
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT05       Awarded: 4/26/2010
Title: SUPER-HIGH ENERGY DENSITY HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS
Abstract:   The US Ferroics and Texas State University team will analyse theoretically and model the behaviour and feasibility of high energy density storage capacitors based upon giant dielectric constant CCTO materials. We will determine the feasibility of non-linear CCTO based super capacitors. by optimizing material properties and processing as both ceramic and near single crystal solgel film diodes. We will characterize surface, structural, mechanical adn electrical properties. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of practical devices that would exceed the requirements of the SBIR topic. BENEFIT: Availability of affordable CCTO high energy density ceramic or solgel supercapacitors will revolutionize energy storage capacity /densities and delivery rates for AF and other DOD applications, which include hybrid drive systems rail guns and aircraft and missile launch systems. Dual use beneficiaries include the automobile industry, electrical power industries and many others involving machine drive systems.

Voss Scientific, LLC
418 Washington Street, SE ,
Albuquerque , NM 87108
(505) 255-4201

PI: William R. Zimmerman
(505) 255-4201
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0097
University of Maryland
IREAP, Bldg. 223 ,
College Park , MD 20742
(301) 405-4957

ID#: F09B-T08-0076
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT08       Awarded: 4/15/2010
Title: Modeling and Testing of RF/HPM Effects in a Voltage Controlled Oscillator
Abstract:   Military applications for the use of directed electromagnetic energy, which include high power microwave (HPM), seek to disrupt electronic systems by exploiting non-linearity in semiconductors. While current mode second breakdown is a thermal non-linearity often exploited, it has been demonstrated that a broad class of semiconductors have more subtle non-linearities that can be utilized to induce upset. For example, “designer waveforms” tailored to specific classes of semiconductors can induce sub-harmonics that can be particularly effective on digital timing circuits. Once induced, these sub-harmonics result in digital upset and it is necessary to recycle power to restore normal circuit operation. The proposed task is to demonstrate the feasibility of modeling the effects of RF/HPM fields on circuits containing Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs). The Phase I task will incorporate and improve current models of the effects of electrical transients on VCOs as well as recent work on the development of a probabilistic electromagnetic coupling model. In addition tests will be carried out on representative VCO circuits in order to validate the model. The specialized waveforms developed during the Phase I and associated Phase II work will enable entirely new classes of missions for HPM and electronic warfare (EW) military applications. BENEFIT: The development of a modeling capability for HPM induced upset of Voltage Controlled Oscillators would have an immediate effect on the ability to predict upset of digital circuits. The resulting models would assist in the development of end-to-end HPM effects codes and the development of waveforms targeted at specific types of equipment. Commercial applications would include modeling of RF susceptibilities, support of EMC/EMI testing of digital equipment, and possible inclusion into design standards.

Wolverine Energy Solutions and Technology
535 Glenmore Drive ,
Ann Arbor , MI 48103
(734) 709-1184

PI: Stephanie Goodson
(734) 812-8402
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-2116
The University of Michigan
931 North University Ave , Department of Chemistry
Ann Arbor , MI 48109
(734) 763-7188

ID#: F09B-T05-0217
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF09-BT05       Awarded: 4/28/2010
Title: Development of Strategic Organic Energy Storage Capacitor Devices
Abstract:   High energy density and high power capacitors operating at a high frequency are in great demand for a variety of residential, military, medical, and industrial applications. In fact, a large percentage of the cost of alternative energy components is consumed by the cost of capacitors. Although there have been some developments in the fabrication of inorganic super-capacitors, the problems encountered at high voltage operation prohibit their realistic implementation. Recently, investigations carried out by the founder of Wolverine Energy Solutions and Technology (WEST) at the University of Michigan demonstrated that organic materials with high dielectric constants and low loss are attainable in hyper-branched dendritic systems. A high dielectric constant (>46) and low dielectric loss (~0.001) were observed in a hyper-branched copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dendrimer with very small dielectric dispersion. Thus, in this Phase I application WEST and the University of Michigan will make large yields of particular pthalocyanine dendrimer systems, test the temperature and long term stability of the capacitance effect at high frequency, model the mechanism of polaron delocalization, and test prototype devices for real energy storage capacitor applications. The ultimate goal is to push the use of organic dielectric materials in to mainstream manufacturing of energy storage devices. BENEFIT: The requirements for high density energy storage and fast energy release are critical now for a variety of important applications. High performance capacitors with low dielectric loss at high operational frequencies would enable greater acceleration in hybrid and electric cars (on highways for example); quicker switching response in electronic devices such as printed circuit boards, smaller size in portable devices such as laptops and defibrillators. With further advancements in synthetic procedures as well as detailed understanding of electronic and optical properties of organic materials, it has been shown that novel organic macromolecules are very promising for a broad variety of optical and electronic applications. In a typical electronic system, discrete passive components outnumber the active integrated circuits (IC’s) and occupy more than 70% of the surface. Thus, organic substrates with embedded capacitors are predicted to play a increasing role in high density IC-packaging technologies. A big advantage of organic macromolecular materials made in this STTR application is that they are relatively cheap, easily processible and flexible. The co-PI (Goodson) at the University of Michigan has developed a novel strategy of using the strong polaron delocalization in hyperbranched structures to create a high dielectric constant organic material which has the lowest reported dielectric loss. This new technology will drive the miniaturization and cost reduction in power electronics and

---------- DARPA ----------

Aerius Photonics, LLC.
2223 Eastman Ave., Suite B,
Ventura, CA 93003
(805) 642-4645

PI: Timothy Strand
(805) 642-4645
Contract #: N10PC20086
University of Illinois at Urbana-Ch
3108 Micro and Nanotech Lab, 208 N. Wright Street
Urbana, IL 61801
(217) 265-0563

ID#: 09ST2-0015
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-003       Awarded: 2/16/2010
Title: High Speed Polarization Modulation of Microcavity Lasers for Laser Radar (LADAR) Applications
Abstract:  &nbs A need exists for polarization interrogating and discriminating Ladar systems to detect and discriminate defilade targets. In the proposed effort, Aerius, and our partner at the University of Illinois, will apply photonic crystal technology to extend Aerius’ high power, high wall plug efficiency, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) results to develop a stable polarization switched VCSEL source. The proposed effort will apply this device to a bread board coherent Ladar system demonstration in Phase I and a full-scanning Ladar system in Phase II. The application of this device will enable dynamic and rapid polarization diverse measurements to detect and discriminate defilade targets. The proposed approach addresses the historical inadequacies associated with stability and modulation speed of polarization controlled laser diodes. Additional applications for optical communications and other methods of remote sensing will also be investigated. Phase I will achieve TRL 3-4 and Phase II TRL level 6.

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive,
Manassas, VA 20110
(617) 500-0536

PI: Javier Luis
(617) 500-0249
Contract #: N10PC20252
Massachusetts Institute of
77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building E19-750
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3907

ID#: 09ST2-0025
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-005       Awarded: 7/30/2010
Title: Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite Cluster (MicroMAS)
Abstract:  &nbs Small satellites working in coordinated manner as part of a distributed constellation hold the promise to revolutionize DoD space operations. However, small satellites also have significant inherent limitations. Their size limits the types of sensors that they can accommodate. It also limits propulsion, power generation and attitude control capabilities. One way of overcoming some of these limitations is by developing a coordinated architecture where the resources of multiple smallsats are combined to accomplish the mission objective. Aurora proposes to systematically define how constellations of multifunctional small satellites can replace, enhance or augment existing space based capabilities through the investigation of of mission performance and technology infusion into those platforms. In this proposal, we will develop a systematic quantified methodology for analyzing various constellation architectures with military applications. This will allow us to quantify the benefit that small satellite constellations can provide to the DoD. Furthermore, this same methodology will allow us to identify key technologies whose development will greatly decrease the technical and programmatic risk. This work is based on modeling techniques that we have developed over the years and have applied to a range of missions, an example of which (Techsat 21) is presented in the proposal.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road,
Waltham, MA 02451
(781) 890-1338

PI: Sherman Tyler
(781) 890-1338
Contract #: N10PC20083
Children's Hospital
300 Longwood Avenue, Hunnewell 2
Boston, MA 02115
(617) 355-4615

ID#: 09ST2-0001
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-001       Awarded: 8/19/2010
Title: Memory Optimization through Vagally Enhanced Signaling (MOVES)
Abstract:  &nbs There are many situations in DOD missions when soldiers could operate much more effectively if they could successfully recall previously presented information that is vital for mission execution. However, the quantity of information supplied to today’s Warfighter is constantly increasing. This is due to greater reliance on network-centric operations and the expanding range of missions Warfighters must address, including conventional and asymmetric warfare and stability and support operations. Neurocognitive research indicates that information is acquired most effectively when the brain is in certain synchronous states. Specifically, receiving new information when brainwaves are in a Gamma state seems to improve working memory encoding, while a Theta brainwave state seems to enhance long-term storage of new information. What is needed to address the information challenge, then, is a simple device exploiting the advantages of these brainwave states to improve Warfighter memory. Infoscitex proposes to develop a device, Memory Optimization through Vagally Enhanced Signaling or MOVES, to meet this objective. This device will induce productive brainwave states in Warfighters and present important new information to those users when these states are attained. This will result in better memory for key information leading to much more effective mission performance.

Innovative Technology Applications Co.,
PO Box 6971,
Chesterfield, MO 63006
(314) 373-3311

PI: Alan Cain
(314) 373-3311
Contract #: N10PC20088
University of Toledo
Researchand Sponsored Programs, 2801 W. Bancroft St.
Toledo, OH 43606
(419) 530-2844

ID#: 09ST2-0023
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-004       Awarded: 8/9/2010
Title: Novel Methods for Sensor Quieting in Turbulent Flows
Abstract:  &nbs Undersea acoustic sensors are a critical need for U.S. Navy surveillance applications. They are used for measuring acoustic energy originating from distance source to help detect and classify quiet threat targets, as in sonar applications. To expand their field of regard, large sensor arrays are placed at multiple locations along the vehicle body where flow turbulence-induced noise plays a major factor in reducing the sensors’ effectiveness. It is desired to quiet this flow turbulence-induced noise floor that severely limits the ability of an acoustic sensor to detect quiet acoustic signals. We propose to design and investigate a novel, localized active flow-control (AFC) approach to quiet an acoustic sensor by significantly attenuating local turbulence and wall pressure fluctuations around the entire boundary layer around the sensor. The Phase I effort will establish feasibility of the hydrodynamic AFC technique using a combination of numerical and experimental studies in addition to filtering and post-processing schemes to correct for fine-scale disturbances that remain in the flow region of interest. The final product is expected to be a quiet acoustic sensor package design with integrated localized, hydrodynamic flow-control system that can be scaled and mass produced to meet the Navy platform requirements.

MacroCognition, LLC
PO BOX 533,
Yellow Springs, OH 45387
(937) 767-1128

PI: Gary Klein
(937) 767-1128
Contract #: N10PC20084
Wright State University
3640 Colonel Glenn Highway,
Dayton, OH 45435
(937) 775-2391

ID#: 09ST2-0009
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-002       Awarded: 3/15/2010
Title: Modeling Leadership Dynamics in Multinational Environments
Abstract:  &nbs We propose to develop a computational model of leadership designed to capture complex variables including cultural differences in leadership requirements along with task differences, primarily ill-defined goals, which pose leadership challenges. Rather than avoiding these kinds of complexity and developing a computational model that is unlikely to scale up, we believe there is more to be gained by confronting these kinds of issues and using what we learn to conceptualize a richer leadership model at the outset. We will prepare a conceptual design for the computational model in Phase I, along with initial efforts at prototyping. We will also take advantage of the virtual Calamityville simulation of humanitarian relief as a possible candidate scenario, a comparison case, and a starting point for developing evaluation methods for assessing the computational model of multinational leadership.

Progeny Systems Corporation
9500 Innovation Drive,
Manassas, VA 20110
(703) 368-6107

PI: Jim Powers
(801) 359-4566
Contract #: N10PC20089
University of Utah
Office of Sponsored Projects, 1471 Federal Way
Salt Lake City, UT 84102
(801) 581-8948

ID#: 09ST2-0024
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-004       Awarded: 8/13/2010
Title: Novel Methods for Sensor Quieting in Turbulent Flows
Abstract:  &nbs The Progeny – University of Utah team proposes a new approach for flow noise reduction to improve acoustic sensor performance. Our proposal is to investigate the ability of controlling the turbulent flow by utilizing acceleration which makes the flow locally laminar. Our proposed method of achieving acceleration is to send the flow around a concave surface, by adding a “two-dimensional bump” to an otherwise flat wall. Wall pressure versus distance measurements have shown that the pressure decreases in the first part of the concavity of the bump, and becomes normal again (fully turbulent) downstream. This means that the total amount of flow noise reaching a sensor below the bump will be less than if the sensor were under a flat wall, with turbulence along its entire length.

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner,
San Mateo, CA 94404
(650) 931-2726

PI: Eric Domeshek
(650) 931-2700
Contract #: N10PC20085
Engines for Education
3 Longview Drive,
Holmdel, NJ 07733
(732) 888-8121

ID#: 09ST2-0014
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-002       Awarded: 2/1/2010
Title: Applications of Computational Command Leadership AI Models (ACCLAIM)
Abstract:  &nbs A military without good leadership is a mob. Identification, preparation, guidance and mentoring of potential leaders are critical functions across all services. Leadership training and support can be substantially improved by refinement of theories and models on what constitutes good leadership, and what enables individual to be effective leaders. DoD needs better models of how leaders learn, decide, and act—cognitive models that include social and emotional influences, and support computation for explanatory tracking, prediction, and/or prompting. Stottler Henke proposes to work with Roger Schank’s Engines for Education organization to develop computational theories and models of command leadership, built on artificial intelligence (AI) technology, shaped by cognitive science insights, and driven by the functional demands of selected applications. The resulting theory and system—Applications of Computational Command Leadership AI Models (ACCLAIM)—will capitalize on observations and data on how real leaders think, communicate, and act. During Phase I we will gather data and prior theory on command leadership; elaborate our initial theories; identify promising applications; use those applications to clarify theory requirements; develop preliminary ACCLAIM designs suiting those requirements; characterize metrics and methods for evaluating ACCLAIM; and develop a Phase II plan to follow through on theory, design, and evaluation.

The Granville Group Inc.
P.O. Box 488,
Milford, MI 48381
(248) 529-3627

PI: J. Granville
(248) 529-3627
Contract #: N10PC20091
University of Michigan
EEC 3225, 1301 Beal Ave.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
(734) 764-0500

ID#: 09ST2-0031
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-005       Awarded: 3/12/2010
Title: New Thruster for Proliferated Satellites Has More Force and Longer Life
Abstract:  &nbs Granville has designed a new satellite/spacecraft propulsion engine, GREP, delivering over 100.mN/1.0 kW of force from strong electromagnetic energy… more force magnitude and efficiency than existing propellant limited ion thrusters. And, because it uses renewable power from on-board solar/electric panels, GREP offers extended propulsion maneuver life, up to 15 years or more, substantially longer than existing mass and volume limited chemical reaction propulsion engines. GREP, although electromagnetic, is subject to Newton’s 3rd Law: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. However, there is a new Granville insight into Newton 3 enabling GREP. That is, electromagnetic energy, processed by modern electronic circuits, can generate interactions within the engine chamber to yield the normal action energy, and … with the reaction energy dependent on certain chamber setup electrical/mechanical values, the reaction energy becomes equal and parallel to the action energy, and thus propulsive, and not the usual equal and opposite non-propulsive reaction. GREP was peer reviewed by a west coast physics professor, by two east coast EE professors, and by two government propulsion PhD’s. No flaws were found. Thus, we propose in Phase 1 to finalize/assemble the hardware, and in Phase 2 to test, Demo, and improve the system.

Ziva Corporation
6440 Lusk Blvd, D-107
San Diego, CA 92121
(858) 458-1860

PI: Matthias Gross
(858) 458-1860
Contract #: N10PC20087
UC Santa Barbara
Electrical and Computer, Engineering
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
(805) 893-4486

ID#: 09ST2-0021
Agency: DARPA
Topic#: 09-003       Awarded: 3/4/2010
Title: Polarization switching VCSEL (P-VCSEL)
Abstract:  &nbs Ziva Corporation in collaboration with UCSB will assess the feasibility of developing a directly modulated polarization switching laser based on the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) geometry with a 3dB frequency of at least 10 GHz. This will be a major breakthrough in the ability to cost effectively fabricate directly modulated lasers (even in 2-D arrays) with polarization diversity which has hitherto been only possible by using expensive, bulky and lossy external modulators. The basic principle that we propose relies on the fact that the polarization of a diode laser optical output can be influenced by the direction of the current flow. As opposed to the horizontal geometry of a waveguide diode laser, the vertical VCSEL geometry makes it possible to inject pump current in two orthogonal directions. Two electrode pairs can be placed orthogonally around the cavity and the resulting orthogonal current directions can overcome the built-in asymmetry given by birefringence to actively control the polarization of the emitted laser light. We believe that this new class of device will be critical for laser-detection-and-ranging (LADAR) applications, and will open up a whole new class of devices and applications which exploit high speed polarization modulation.

---------- MDA ----------

Anokiwave, Inc.
12526 High Bluff Dr. Ste 300,
San Diego, CA 92130
(858) 481-6004

PI: Nitin Jain
(858) 481-6004
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7397
University of California, Irvine
University of California, Irvine Office of Research Adm.
Irvine, CA 92697
(949) 824-8109

ID#: B09B-004-0076
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T004       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Low Cost, High Performance Transmit/Receive Integrated Circuits on a single chip
Abstract:  &nbs The objective of this Phase I proposal is to demonstrate, through a rigorous design and modeling, the feasibility of a single chip Transmit/Receive Integrated Circuits (TRIC) with on-chip controller and compensation networks for next generation X-band radar systems. TRIC will include RF, analog and digital circuits on a single chip. TRIC functionality would include Frequency-modulated Continuous Wave (FM-CW) and Pulsed mode radar operation. The technology node for the single chip solution will be advanced silicon based process such as CMOS sub-um or SiGe BiCMOS process. These processes allow a seamless integration of high performance RF circuits with compact digital circuits. Moreover, they provide a low cost solution as compared to multi-chip modules (MCM). To address performance variability of the transceiver due to process and operating condition variation, a self-correcting approach driven by Built-In Self-Test (BIST) procedure is implemented. The TRIC designed will have high bandwidth (30%), high power 0.5-2W, high transmitter efficiency (>20%) and low system noise figure (<3dB). These system specifications are well suited for applications like FMCW and Pulsed phased array radar applications.

Applied Physical Electronics, L.C.
PO Box 341149,
Austin, TX 78734
(512) 264-1804

PI: Thomas Holt
(512) 264-1804
Contract #: W9113M-10-P-0045
Texas Tech University
PO Box 41105,
Lubbock, TX 79409
(806) 742-2985

ID#: B09B-010-0033
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T010       Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title: Novel Directed Energy Options in Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:  &nbs Ballistic Missle Defense (BMD) systems vary wildly in size and scope and include ground-based interceptor platforms with anti-ballistic missile (ABM) warheads, air-based high-power laser platforms such as the Airborne Laser (ABL), and ship-based systems such as the Aegis BMD system. The problems addressed in this proposal are the traditionally large sizes, number of support systems required, and limited range of HPM systems, all of which have prevented an HPM-based BMD system from being deployed. Applied Physical Electronics, L. C. proposes to team with Texas Tech University to advance the state-of-the-art technology by developing prototypes for two of the most promising geometries in the S-Band. The primary goals of the phase I program will be to: (1) evaluate and possibly improve on the two geometries, and determine the most promising form to be used in a deployed system, (2) develop a plan to improve the performance of both geometries under rep rate conditions, and (3) develop predictive capabilities that can be benchmarked against the experimentally acquired data. Phase II efforts will develop a ruggedized, battery powered version of the source and also investigate phase-locking dual sources in order to create arrays which would increase the effective range of a system.

Applied Radar, Inc.
210 Airport Street, Quonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
(401) 295-0062

PI: William H. Weedon
(401) 295-0062
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7385
MIT Lincoln Laboratory
244 Wood Street,
Lexington, MA 02420
(781) 981-2484

ID#: B09B-003-0073
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T003       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Software Defined Wideband DREX Receiver
Abstract:  &nbs To realize next generation missile defense radar systems with a significant improvement in performance requires more cost effective system implementations. Software defined radar (SDR) technologies together with field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations promise reusable and low cost DREX multichannel receivers in smaller form factors. Real time firmware reconfiguration enables radar mode modifications in response to dynamic signal environments. To validate these capabilities and advantages, our team will investigate three advanced missile defense radar SDR benchmarks: 1) multichannel digital equalizers to compensate for manufacturing variances, 2) dynamically assignable channelized (DAC) filtering to enable spectral resource management and 3) multichannel independent phase dithering for system spur reduction. We will follow a modular, macro-based firmware development process that maximizes firmware maintenance and reuse. Our existing DREX prototyping testbed will be used to demonstrate the channelized SDR firmware. The innovative spur reduction processing incorporates novel SDR firmware into unique chip-level CMOS synthesizer hardware developed by our research partner. Application consistency is maintained through the use of ROSA open system interfaces. Our team’s unique background in missile defense radar research enables us to conduct hardware tradeoffs of SDR radar technology during Phase I to confirm the benefits of software defined radar technology.

ASR Corporation
7817 Bursera, NW,
Albuquerque, NM 87120
(505) 830-3000

PI: Michael D. Abdalla
(505) 830-3000
Contract #: W9113M-10-P-0046
University of Arizona
Optical Sciences Meinel Bldg., 1630 East University Boulevard
Tucson, AZ 85721
(520) 626-8183

ID#: B09B-010-0014
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T010       Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title: Novel Directed Energy Options in Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:  &nbs High power microwave (HPM) sources have been developed over the past few decades for many important DoD missions ranging from electronic warfare to intentional EMI to impulse radar. In this proposal, we describe an integrated program that seeks to develop innovative solutions based on mesoband source and antenna technology to improve the effectiveness of HPM-based BMD systems. Our research will be focused both on the sources that generate the HPM energy and the antennas that deliver it. The primary current limitation on the antenna front is the development of efficient radiators that can fit into the compact spaces available on BMD systems. To address these issues, we propose metamaterial-enhanced and metamaterial-inspired compact antenna designs that take advantage of recent advances in low power electrically small antennas for communications applications.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor,
Huntsville, AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Alex Fedoseyev
(256) 726-4800
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7386
Rochester Institute of Technology
University SC, Suite 2400, 141 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, NY 35805
(585) 475-7984

ID#: B09B-005-0017
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T005       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Multi Junction Solar cells for Satellite
Abstract:  &nbs Higher efficiency solar cells are needed to reduce mass, volume, and cost of DoD space missions. However, to achieve higher efficiency and radiation hardness of the best to date multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) devices, several challenges must be addressed. This project aims to develop: 1) Quantum Well (QW)-based multi-junction cell that exhibits enhanced efficiency, and 2) Radiation-hardened PV cell design demonstrating the radiation tolerance of the QW multi-junction cell. Customized modeling tools will enable QW optimization, including: (a) geometrical ordering and variable QW size, (b) increased transport and separation of photogenerated carriers; and (c) improved electrical conductivity and enhanced collection efficiency. In Phase I, CFDRC, together with Rochester Institute of Technology, will concentrate on the design and demonstration of the middle cell in a multi-junction (InGaP/GaAs/Ge) configuration, the most sensitive to radiation effects. The design and implementation of QWs in this middle cell will be directly applicable to a state-of-the-art lattice-matched cell and a metamorphic cell. We will fabricate a prototype QW cell and perform baseline irradiation testing/evaluation. Phase II will continue development by implementing the QW response and radiation resistance within a multi-junction cell, resulting in significantly improved QW solar cell performance under AM0 spectrum and post-irradiation at the end of life.

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71,
Hanover, NH 03755
(603) 643-3800

PI: Weibo Chen
(603) 643-3800
Contract #: W9113M-10-P-0062
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive,
Pasadena, CA 91109
(818) 354-7903

ID#: B09B-007-0021
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T007       Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title: An Efficient 35 K Cryocooler Driven by Electrochemical Compressors
Abstract:  &nbs Next-generation missile defense systems will utilize infrared sensing technologies that will require efficient cooling at low temperatures. We propose to develop an innovative solid-state cryocooler that can provide cooling at temperatures below 35 K while rejecting heat at temperatures up to about 300 K. The cooler uses compact, efficient electrochemical compressors with no moving parts to enhance the system reliability and eliminate payload jitter. The cooler also uses a novel thermodynamic cycle to enable the system to reject heat at temperatures above 300 K. The proposed system will be capable of providing 2 W of refrigeration at 35 K and can be easily scaled to provide much lower or much higher cooling power. The unique characteristics of the cryocooler permit distributed cooling at multiple sites with very high thermodynamic efficiency, resulting in low input power and reduced mass. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the solid-state compressor, design the Phase II system, and predict detailed cryocooler performance data by analysis. In Phase II, we will design, build, and demonstrate a vibration- free, compact cryocooler system.

DGNSS Solutions, LLC
133 Valley Run Drive,
Powell, OH 43065
(614) 937-1993

PI: George Dedes
(614) 937-1993
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7387
Ohio State University
205 Dreese Laboratoty, Electrical Engineering
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 292-1300

ID#: B09B-003-0066
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T003       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Software Defined Multi-Channel Radar Receivers for X-band Radars
Abstract:  &nbs The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop proof of concept of a software programmable X-Band radar system using low cost antenna array technology with digital beamforming architecture based on multiple receiver channels. The performance objectives will aim at a minimum of 400 MHz instantaneous bandwidth and a minimum instantaneous dynamic range of 52 dB. The objective of the tunable bandwidth will be at the 1 GHz level. The receiver architecture will be based on a multi-channel design capable of being combined with antenna arrays and software-defined algorithms for adaptive beamforming.

EPIR Technologies Inc
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B,
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
(630) 771-0201

PI: Silviu Velicu
(630) 771-0203
Contract #: W9113M-10-P-0061
University of Michigan
3003 S. State St., Rm. 1070,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
(734) 936-1356

ID#: B09B-007-0058
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T007       Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title: Low Temperature Thermoelectric Cooling of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays with HgCdTe-based Superlattices
Abstract:  &nbs The deployment of next generation focal plane arrays sensing in the long wavelength infrared will improve the detection capabilities in all major MDA infrared systems. However, a major limitation to the employment of these high sensitivity arrays is the cooling system. Current tactical cryocoolers cannot meet the desired temperature requirements. The goal of this project is to develop the technology required for the fabrication of thermoelectric devices capable of cooling the infrared arrays from 65 K to 35 K and to integrate them with current-generation cryocoolers that reach 65 K. We propose the development of nanoscale superlattices (SLs) as the active elements of high efficiency thermoelectric coolers. Recent models predict that the HgCdTe-based SL room temperature thermoelectric figure of merit ZT can exceed 6. The feasibility of using HgCdTe-based SL materials with embedded nanodefects for increased hot-carrier transport will be demonstrated in the proposed Phase I program. We will perform calculations to optimize material parameters to maximize ZT. We will use our extensive experience in molecular beam epitaxy to grow the designed structures. Finally, we will develop device structures and metallization methods appropriate for performing ZT measurements, measure the ZTs of fabricated devices and compare results with theory.

Exothermics, Inc.
60 Route 101A,
Amherst, NH 03031
(603) 732-0079

PI: STEPHEN G. DIPIETRO
(603) 732-0077
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7388
SORI
757 TOM MARTIN DRIVE,
BIRMINGHAM, AL 35211
(205) 581-2371

ID#: B09B-002-0068
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T002       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Ultrahigh Temperature Materials for Missile Defense Propulsion and Aerothermal Applications
Abstract:  &nbs This proposal addresses the requirement to significantly improve the affordability, maintainability and performance of KKV DACS components. Exothermics and their Phase 1 partner Southern Research Institute will endeavor to increase the performance, lower the cost and enhance the technical property characteristics of SDACS and hypersonic components by examining the use of a new class of ultrahigh temperature capable materials based on the concept of hafnium alloy coating of C/SiC substrates. The coatings will be applied to the substrates by directed magnetron sputter deposition methods, and, once optimized, these methods and materials will offer outstanding possibilities for fabricating SDACS components such as hot gas valves and hypersonic nosetips having superior technical properties at much reduced cost relative to rhenium, the present material of choice for SDACS hardware. Phase 1 development efforts will focus on producing limited numbers of test articles for simulated SDACS propellant testing at ATK-Elkton in Elkton, MD, and for thermomechanical properties characterization at Southern Research Institute (SoRI) in Birgmingham, AL.

Gloyer-Taylor Laboratories LLC
2212 Harton Blvd,
Tullahoma, TN 37388
(931) 393-5108

PI: Gary Flandro
(931) 393-7217
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7389
University of Tennessee Space
411 B.H. Goethert Pkwy,
Tullahoma, TN 37388
(931) 393-7212

ID#: B09B-009-0005
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T009       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: UCDS Unsteady Reaction Model
Abstract:  &nbs The UCDS process uses a rigorous theoretical model to understand the dynamics of combustion instability. In addition to predicting the amplitude of pressure oscillations, UCDS provides clear insight into why a propulsion device oscillates. To enhance and optimize UCDS for missile defense applications, GTL proposes to refine the UCDS unsteady combustion model to capture the special features of monopropellant and hypergolic combustion. To accomplish this, GTL intends to merge a new analytical chemistry model with a computational reactor model. The objective of this effort is to provide inputs to the UCDS distributed heat release model, which describes how the steady and unsteady heat release and temperature work together to feed energy into the wave motion of the chamber. With the capability to predict both the unsteady and steady heat release and temperature for complex reaction processes, it will be possible to begin to model the impact of multiphase effects, thermo-chemical processes and complex kinetics on the system dynamics. This will allow UCDS to begin to explain the available experimental data in order to reveal insight into how these processes really work in monopropellant and hypergolic propellant engines.

IllinoisRocstar LLC
P. O. Box 3001,
Champaign, IL 61826
(217) 417-0885

PI: Mark D. Brandyberry
(217) 766-2567
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7390
University of Illinois
OSPRA, 1901 S. First,
Champaign, IL 61820
(217) 333-2187

ID#: B09B-009-0003
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T009       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: High-Fidelity Multiphysics Simulations of Nozzle Erosion
Abstract:  &nbs A collaborative effort is proposed between IllinoisRocstar LLC and the University of Illinois to develop and commercialize a computational framework to investigate nozzle erosion in solid-propellant rocket motors (SRM) and tangential instability modes in liquid rocket engines (LRE). For SRM, highly resolved simulations will be performed to understand the effects of turbulent inlet conditions, as well as nozzle vectoring, on nozzle erosion. The thermal boundary layer is captured along the nozzle walls to compute the heat flux and erosion rates. To optimize the computational resources, the SRM nozzle configuration is studied by itself and appropriate inflow conditions are imposed. Two complementary formulations to apply these inlet conditions are described: the first is based on extracting the flow field from the full motor configuration for turbulent flows; while the second invokes a multiscale asymptotic analysis of turbulent flows inside rocket motor. Preliminary results suggest that specifying turbulent, rather than uniform, inlet conditions has a significant effect on nozzle erosion. For LRE, a full three-dimensional configuration is proposed to investigate tangential instabilities.

Inlustra Technologies, Inc.
5385 Hollister Ave., #113
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
(805) 504-4639

PI: Paul T. Fini
(805) 504-4639
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7398
University of Notre Dame
511 Main Building , Office of Research
Notre Dame, IN 46556
(574) 631-8710

ID#: B09B-001-0032
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T001       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Producibility of Gallium Nitride Semiconductor Materials
Abstract:  &nbs Inlustra Technologies and the University of Notre Dame propose a Phase I STTR program that, combined with a subsequent Phase II effort, will result in methods for the scalable production of semi-insulating non-polar GaN substrates. These substrates will be utilized in the fabrication of high-power/high-frequency AlGaN-GaN electronic devices capable of reliable operation under high thermal load. In Phase I, Inlustra will demonstrate the feasibility of reproducible doping conditions needed for the growth of semi-insulating non-polar (a-plane and m-plane) GaN boules. Concurrently, Notre Dame will perform detailed electrical characterization (for example, temperature- dependent Hall measurements) of Inlustra’s semi-insulating GaN material. These measurements will provide frequent feedback required for Inlustra’s GaN boule growth effort. The proposed program will lay a solid foundation for further work in Phase II, focusing on commercially practical growth of semi-insulating GaN boules and benefits for (Al,Ga)N high-power/high-frequency devices.

Kyma Technologies, Inc.
8829 Midway West Road,
Raleigh, NC 27617
(919) 789-8880

PI: Robert Metzger
(919) 789-8880
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7399
University of Nevada at Las Vegas
4505 S Maryland Pkwy,
Las Vegas, NV 89183
(702) 895-1094

ID#: B09B-001-0060
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T001       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: In-Situ Monitoring during HVPE for the Producibility of Semi-Insulating GaN
Abstract:  &nbs This program will utilize in-situ monitoring devices during the HVPE growth of GaN in conjunction with thermal and gas flow modeling, to establish tighter tolerances over growth variables such as substrate temperature and growth rate, which will lead to more robust, producible HVPE GaN growth processes, and in turn increase large area wafer yield and boule thicknesses. The in-situ monitoring devices which will be used are a Laytec EpiTT 3-wavelength pyrometer to directly measure substrate temperature throughout the GaN HVPE process, and a deep UV source/spectrometer that will be used to monitor the GaCl precursor concentration above the growing GaN surface. These tools will help establish a robust, producible GaN HVPE process capable of producing large area bulk wafers and boules of thicknesses 1 cm and greater.

MaXentric Technologies LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302,
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
(858) 272-8800

PI: Mohammed Billoo
(201) 242-9800
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7391
Cooper Union
41 Cooper Square , Dept. of Structural Eng
New York, NY 10003
(212) 353-4100

ID#: B09B-003-0059
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T003       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Software Defined Multi-Channel Radar Receivers for X-band Radars
Abstract:  &nbs The United States Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is searching for a software-defined multi-channel radar receiver that would provide improved performance and added flexibility over currently deployed radar systems. In response, MaXentric is proposing a system codenamed MASR (Manycore Adaptive Software Radar). The MASR system is composed of a hierarchy of X-band front-ends, high-speed digitizers, FPGAs, and Manycore processors that can be reconfigured and scaled to fit the requirements of individual applications. MASR will benefit the MDA with its high degree of flexibility in allowing many different radar algorithms as well as different beamforming structures, which will in turn greatly enhance MASR equipped radar systems in their ability to acquire, track, and identify ballistic missile threats.

Metacomp Technologies, Inc.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255,
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
(818) 735-4880

PI: Sampath Palaniswamy
(818) 735-4880
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7392
Georgia Institute of Technology
505 10th Street NW,
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-6929

ID#: B09B-009-0063
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T009       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Propulsion Modeling
Abstract:  &nbs The occurrence of combustion instability has long been a matter of serious concern in the development of liquid- propellant rocket engines due to the high rate of energy release in a confined volume in which energy losses are relatively small. Positive feedback between the acoustic waves and unsteady combustion could lead to the destruction of an engine in a fraction of a second. The situation is especially serious for engines of MDA’s concern in which the energy density is exceedingly high. The proposed work will employ physics-based simulations of the interaction between unsteady flow oscillations, acoustic waves, and combustion response in liquid-propellant rocket engines to identify and quantify underlying physiochemical mechanisms for driving combustion and flow oscillations. The effect of various design attributes will be investigated systemically.

Noisefigure Research LLC
P.O. Box 552,
Lubbock, TX 79408
(858) 336-5120

PI: Donald Lie
(858) 335-2153
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7400
Texas Tech University
Electrical Engineering Departm, 1012 Boston Ave.
Lubbock, TX 79410
(858) 335-2153

ID#: B09B-004-0046
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T004       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Low Cost, High Performance Transmit/Receive Integrated Circuits on a single chip
Abstract:  &nbs Traditional RADAR implementations suffer from bulky transmitters with cluttered microwave plumbing and antenna support systems that make systems expensive. Today, phased array transceiver architectures providing moderate power (10–100W) can provide RADAR performance with beam-steering capabilities with modest size of the systems. However, these conventional phase array architectures do not scale well to compact, low cost RADAR applications as the III-V semiconductor technologies are mainly used for the RF circuitry while silicon digital CMOS technology is employed for control and timing circuits. Thus, making the assembly, packing and characterization processes high cost and low yield. To achieve truly low cost and compact size, it is necessary to integrate as much of the active circuitry as possible into single chips – as in the handset industry. Here, we proposed a new T/R IC architecture that will include on-chip digital control compensation networks to ensure performance uniformity at the element level. We aim to achieve all functionalities necessary to make a robust scalable TRIC system with the addition of RF build-in-self-test (RF-BiST) capability to reduce cost and increase system robustness. We will show that our proposed system architecture and components can provide a low-cost, high-performance single-chip TRIC for scalable phase-array X-band RADAR solution.

Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road,
Huntsville , AL 35811
(256) 851-7653

PI: Daniel Butts
(256) 851-7653
Contract #: W9113M-10-P-0044
University of Alabama
301 7th Avenue/116 Houser Hall, Box # 870202
Tuscaloosa, AL 35401
(205) 348-1589

ID#: B09B-002-0041
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T002       Awarded: 4/30/2010
Title: An Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic with Improved Fracture Toughness and Oxidation Resistance
Abstract:  &nbs Hypersonic missile defense systems are being designed to reach global threats. During flight, external surfaces are predicted to reach temperatures in excess of 2200C. As a result, innovative, high performance thermal protection systems (TPS) are of great demand. Among ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC), it is well known that ZrB2- and HfB2-based materials have high melting temperatures and relatively good oxidation resistance. However, major obstacles, such as low fracture toughness, oxidation resistance at temperatures above 2000C, and lack of economical processing methods, will prohibit widespread employment of these UHTCs in future thermal protection systems. Plasma Processes proposes to address fracture toughness, oxidation and fabrication limitations of the ZrB2/SiC system. An investigation of lamellar microstructures observed in VPS ZrB2/SiC-based materials (and not hot pressed ZrB2/SiC) will be conducted. Avenues to improve fracture toughness by microstructure control of these phases will be identified. To improve oxidation resistance beyond 2000C, rare earth compounds will be added to in-situ form stable pyrochlore phases. Finally, the ability to apply ZrB2-SiC protective coatings to C/C and fabricate near-net-shape monolithic structures will be demonstrated. These efforts will demonstrate the economical fabrication of ZrB2 based materials, with improved toughness, and enhanced oxidation resistance at temperatures >2200C.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr., Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
(937) 433-2886

PI: Todd Grimes
(937) 433-2886
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7401
Purdue University
Sponsored Program Services, 610 Purdue Mall, Hovde Hall
West Lafayette, OH 47907
(765) 494-2361

ID#: B09B-006-0071
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T006       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Development for Radiation Hardened Applications of Advanced Electronics Materials, Processes, and Devices
Abstract:  &nbs The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) seeks technical investigations related to the development and application of advanced electronic materials, processes, and devices to meet its need for radiation hardened, high performance electronics for critical space and missile applications. With the advent of smaller transistor dimensions and reductions in price per bit, significant changes in materials and processes have been required to achieve these goals. More recent advancements have allowed semiconductor technology to push further into the nanoscale regime. However, these advancements are becoming more difficult and at an increased cost. As a result, new advanced materials, processes, and devices are required to continue the trend for higher functional density and decreased cost in terms of function. As result, we are planning to demonstrate our methods for increasing radiation hardness in the development of radiation hardened (rad-hard) SRAM architecture. The radiation hardened SRAM to be designed will provide inherent protection from TID, and immunity against single event latch up, and single event effect.

Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc.
1195 Atlas Road,
Columbia, SC 29209
(803) 647-9757

PI: Jinwei Yang
(803) 647-9757
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7402
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
110 8th Street,
Troy, NY 12180
(518) 276-2201

ID#: B09B-001-0056
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T001       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: AlInN/GaN HFET over Free-Standing bulk GaN substrates
Abstract:  &nbs SET, Inc. proposes to develop lattice-matched AlInN/GaN HFET structure on free-standing GaN substrate. By employing native low-defect GaN substrates and by using lattice-matched heterostructures with the incorporation of indium, we expect dramatic enhancement of these HFET in power density, reliability and high frequency operation. Homoepitaxial growth on native substrate and the use of AlInN/GaN lattice-matched structure will reduce the defects density by 2-3 orders of magnitude, resulting in RF devices with high reliability. Furthermore, it will lead to an increased electron concentration at the heterointerface, making the depletion extensions shorter and thus improving the cut-off frequency power trade off.

Sinmat Inc
2153 Hawthorne Road, GTEC Center, Suite 129, Box2
Gainesville, FL 32641
(352) 334-7237

PI: Rajiv K. Singh
(352) 246-7420
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7396
University of Florida
Material Science & Engineering, PO Box 116400
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 246-7420

ID#: B09B-001-0065
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T001       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Contamination-free, Ultra-rapid Reactive Chemical Mechanical Polishing (RCMP) of GaN substrates
Abstract:  &nbs Gallium Nitride (GaN) substrates are ideal materials for fabrication of high-power and high-frequency devices based on III-V materials. The current state-of-the-art Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) methods are plagued by several challenges, including, surface charge affects due to surface contamination, and sub-surface damages, which can limit the quality of III-V devices. Furthermore, there is a need to enhance polishing rates to increase throughput and decrease manufacturing costs. Sinmat Inc., in collaboration with University of Florida proposes to develop a surface contamination-free, Ultra-rapid Reactive Chemical Mechanical Polishing (RCMP) process for the production of epi- ready GaN substrates. This process also facilitates removal of surface/ sub-surface damage that can be detrimental to epitaxial growth. In Phase I we plan to demonstrate the feasibility of this RCMP process for polishing GaN substrates, whereas in Phase II high performance electronic devices will be fabricated on such GaN substrates.

Spire Semiconductor, LLC
25 Sagamore Park Road,
Hudson, NH 03051
(603) 595-8900

PI: Daniel Derkacs
(603) 689-1213
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7393
University of Texas, Austin
Electrical and Computer Engine, 10100 Burnet Rd., Bldg. 160
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 232-5167

ID#: B09B-005-0030
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T005       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Low Cost Multi Junction Solar Cells for Space Applications Incorporating Quantum Wells Sub Cells
Abstract:  &nbs Spire Semiconductor proposes a novel MOCVD growth scheme that will substantially reduce the production costs of inverted multi-junction solar cells. Incorporating quantum well structures will be investigated as a means to improve device efficiency and end of life cell performance in the space environment. The theoretical target efficiency is 39.8% under the AM0 spectrum.

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road,
Dayton, OH 45432
(937) 426-6900

PI: HeeDong Lee
(937) 426-6900
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7394
University of Aabama
Dept. of Met. & Mat. Eng.,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
(205) 348-1589

ID#: B09B-002-0004
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T002       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Fabrication of Ta-Hf-C-based Ultra High Temperature Composites via a
Abstract:  &nbs This Phase I STTR program seeks a new fabrication method to produce stronger (>100 kpsi) and tougher (>10 MPa m1/2) ultra high temperature Ta-Hf-C-based composites (UHTC) with an outstanding oxidation resistance for use as thermal protection systems for hypersonic applications, as well as for advanced rocket nozzle throat components. UES will apply a novel "Top Down" approach to control the microstructures of the composites. This approach will produce a very unique grain structure that can offer high strength, high fracture toughness, and high oxidation resistance. Hot-pressing will be used as a means for densification during the Phase I feasibility study. In the Phase II work, a sinter/HIP process will be explored for near-net shape fabrication. During the Phase I program, UES will collaborate with the University of Alabama to evaluate oxidation mechanisms and to conduct microstructural characterization. UES will process the powders and will also evaluate the mechanical properties.

United Silicon Carbide, Inc
New Brunswick Technology Center, 100 Jersey Ave.Building A
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
(732) 565-9500

PI: Larry X. Li
(732) 565-9500
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7403
Rutgers University
3 Rutgers Plaza,
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
(732) 932-0115

ID#: B09B-006-0053
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T006       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Development for Radiation Hardened Advanced Electronic Circuits
Abstract:  &nbs In response to SBIR topic 09-T006, USCI proposes to develop the first medium-level integrated circuit for radiation-tolerant applications. The advanced integrated circuit will be demonstrated based on a novel yet simple design SiC transistor that has the potential to provide a factor of 10X improvement in performance comparison to state-of-the-art. The SiC transistor can be fabricated by a substantially simplified processing technology that has been developed in-house. Phase I will be focused on the radiation-tolerant design of all critical device components, all subcircuit blocks and the final complete integration of the circuit. A large number of design paramters will be studied and optimized including the transistor radiation tolerance, switching speed, conduction loss, blocking voltage, overall efficiency and temperature dependence. Phase II will be focused on (i) the fabrication of multiple batches of the critical device components, subcircuit blocks and the completely integrated circuits, (ii) the electrical and thermal characterization of all components, subcircuit blocks and the entire IC, and (iii) the evaluation of radiation tolerance of the key device components, subcircuit blocks and the complete ICs. Phase III will be focused on improving manufacturing yield and packaging of the IC for prototype system demonstration.

Utron Kinetics, LLC
9441 Innovation Drive,
Manassas, VA 20110
(703) 369-5552

PI: Karthik Nagarathnam
(703) 369-5552
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7395
Southern Research
757 Tom Martin Drive,
Birmingham , AL 35211
(205) 581-2103

ID#: B09B-002-0037
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T002       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Rapid Combustion Driven High Pressure Powder Compaction of Refractory Alloys and Dispersion Strengthened Composites for High Temperature Applications
Abstract:  &nbs This Phase I STTR effort will be focused on fabricating and scientifically characterizing Mo/Re (59 Mo-41 Re), and W-25Re alloys with other alloying additions such as small % of dispersion strengthening materials such as zirconia, hafnia, tungsten carbide, Hafnium (Hf), Zirconium, TaC, Hf-based carbides in select geometrical shapes using UTRON Kinetics''s innovative, and cost-effective Combustion Driven Powder Compaction (CDC) at higher pressures (e.g., up to 85-150 tsi). The samples will be fabricated using commercially available fine powders and select geometries to be fabricated include 1 inch diameter cylindrical disks, 3.5 inch long tensile dogbones as well as small scale near net shape geometry such as hollow cylinder valves using the existing tooling. We will develop the key CDC process optimization for various proposed alloys, suitable sintering response in hydrogen or suitable environment (e.g., vacuum/hydrogen sintering), density changes, geometry/surface/part quality, select mechanical tensile properties at room and elevated temperatures (e.g., 3500 F or higher in consulation with MDA sponsor and subcontractors such as ATK/SORI), microstructures and microchemistry. Based on the optimum process conditions, representative small scale hollow valve/liner (Phase I) and other complex high temperature components will also be fabricated using a special die/punch assembly and scaling up in Phase II. Further process optimization on the most promising W-Re and Mo/Re alloys or the dispersion strengthened alloy composites and rapid manufacturing strategies will be established and continued in Phase II and Phase III.

Versaq
75 Fifth Street NW, Centergy One, Suite 314
Atlanta, GA 30308
(404) 483-5236

PI: Thomas Backes
(404) 483-5236
Contract #: HQ0006-10-C-7404
Georgia Institute of Technology
777 Atlantic Drive NW,
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-5161

ID#: B09B-004-0019
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 09-T004       Awarded: 5/3/2010
Title: Low Cost, High Performance Transmit/Receive Integrated Circuits on a Single Chip
Abstract:  &nbs In the proposed effort we plan to build a fully-operational X-band T/R Integrated Circuit. One of the key-elements to building a fully operational radar is the requisite RF electronics that feed to each antenna element. Historically, radar transmit/receive (T/R) modules have been implemented as complex, multi-chip GaAs MMICs, resulting in very high cost per T/R module, high launch weight, and high power dissipation; all of these characteristics are clear disadvantages for weight and size restricted vehicles. Very recently, however, SiGe technology, coupled with the low-power-density array radar system design paradigm has emerged as a viable path in defense radar system design and is rapidly gaining traction. While this low-cost, light-weight radar design paradigm was initially begun as a path forward for next-generation defense ground-based X-band tactical radars, this SiGe radar design methodology is clearly extendable to a variety systems, and will provide compelling advantages for MDA applications, other defense radar systems, and eventually commercial applications as outlined in this proposal.

---------- NAVY ----------

Aechelon Technology
600 Townsend Street, Suite 125W
San Francisco, CA 94103
(831) 461-1040

PI: David Morgan
(913) 851-3886
Contract #: N68335-10-C-0221
University of Louisiana Lafayette
537 Cajundome Blvd, Suite 239, LITE Bldg.
Lafayette, LA 70506
(337) 255-6005

ID#: N09B-038-0020
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 09-T038       Awarded: 1/29/2010
Title: Innovative Application of Urban ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance) Imagery for High Fidelity Training Devices
Abstract:  &nbs Military operations in urban areas have increasingly become a key capability for our armed forces. The increased risk of use of the unique nature of large urban environments by hostile forces to their tactical advantage, and related civilian casualties, requires updated procedures, comprehensive training, and constantly evolving capabilities. Current training technologies fail to address the significance of missions in large urban environments due to the extremely high manual effort involved in creating urban scenarios that can stand up to close scrutiny as exhibited in training for missions inside such an urban environment. This proposal is to study the feasibility of leveraging existing intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance sources, including multi-spectral correlated sensor data, to allow the efficient and effective creation of much more detailed urban environments that will improve fidelity in simulator based training, resulting in enhanced combat readiness levels for the missions our forces are facing today.

Aerovel Corporation
83 Oak Ridge Rd,
White Salmon, WA 98672
(541) 490-4103

PI: Tad McGeer
(541) 490-4103
Contract #: N68335-10-C-0154
University of Washington
Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Seattle, WA 98195
(206) 616-3590

ID#: N09B-039-0008
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 09-T039       Awarded: 1/28/2010
Title: Rotor development for a miniature tilt-body UAV having long endurance and VTOL capability
Abstract:  &nbs We envision a class of miniature robotic aircraft dubbed Flexrotors which offer range, endurance, and economy at levels associated with wing-borne flight, together with capability for hover and VTOL. Such aircraft would use low-disc-loading rotors which must operate efficiently from zero advance ratio in thrust-borne flight, with rotor axis vertical, to high advance ratio in wing-borne cruise, with rotor axis horizontal. Our proposed Phase I work would advance structural and aerodynamic development of the necessary rotor blades, including wind-tunnel testing. Phase II would include demonstration of long range and endurance with a Flexrotor aircraft.

CG2, Inc., a Quantum3D Company
5400 Hellyer Avenue,
San Jose, CA 95138
(407) 982-2104

PI: Lisa Spencer
(407) 982-2101
Contract #: N68335-10-C-0207
University of Central Florida
Office of Technology Transfer, 12201 Research Pkwy; Suite 501
Orlando, FL 32826
(407) 882-0340

ID#: N09B-038-0017
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 09-T038       Awarded: 1/28/2010
Title: Innovative Application of Urban ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance) Imagery for High Fidelity Training Devices
Abstract:  &nbs In today’s information age, there are vast resources of data on every region of the Earth. The application of geospecific imagery over large areas has been limited to terrain for the most part. The hindrances to full use of geospecific imagery are the labor required to create the databases, and limits on the rendering capacity of current image generators (IGs), both in polygon count and texture volume. In this effort, we propose to create modeling tools to automate the application of ISR imagery on geospecific urban geometry and to use advanced rending techniques to visualize dense urban scenes in real time. The modeling tools will aid both current and future systems for out-the- window (OTW) and sensor simulation. The rendering techniques will enable denser urban environments as well as improve the overall scene quality.

Dragonfly Pictures, Inc.
PO Box 202, West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
(610) 521-6115

PI: David Hodder
(610) 521-6115
Contract #: N68335-10-C-0175
UMD Rotorcraft Center of Excellence
3181 Glenn L. Martin Hall, Bldg #088
College Park, MD 20742
(240) 464-3871

ID#: N09B-039-0018
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 09-T039       Awarded: 1/28/2010
Title: Modeling of Small-scale Tilt-rotor Unmanned Air Vehicles
Abstract:  &nbs DPI will be well positioned to deliver a fully functional prototype in Phase II that exceeds the proposed performance goals of: vertical take-off and landing, endurance of 37.5 hours, range of 3750km. The UAS will be powered by a combination of heavy fuel engines and electric auxiliary motors, and will be suited to deployment from a single vehicle (e.g., JLTV), by two operators. This 150 lb vehicle may enter testing with interim solutions based on blade planform modifications, and will be simply converted to embody conformable prop-rotors for the Phase III demonstration.

Thorpe Seeop
One North MacDonald, Suite 201
Mesa, AZ 85201
(480) 355-2435

PI: Douglas Thorpe
(480) 355-2435
Contract #: N68335-10-C-0153
Arizona State University
Polytechnic Campus, SIM Bldg, 7442 East Tillman Avenue
Mesa, AZ 85212
(480) 727-1129

ID#: N09B-039-0019
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 09-T039       Awarded: 1/28/2010
Title: Modeling of Small-scale Tilt-rotor Unmanned Air Vehicles
Abstract:  &nbs Modeling of multi-flight-mode rotors that provide lift in hover and lift is proposed. Work leverages on company sponsored development efforts that have followed an innovative risk reduction spiral technology development approach. The proposed effort features a wind tunnel test in Phase I to demonstrate modeling fidelity.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive,
Goleta, CA 93117
(805) 968-6787

PI: Andrew Brown
(805) 968-6787
Contract #: N68335-10-C-0220
Brown University
Office of Sponsored Projects, 164 Angell Street
Providence, RI 02912
(401) 863-9328

ID#: N09B-038-0021
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: 09-T038       Awarded: 2/1/2010
Title: Innovative Application of Urban ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance) Imagery for High Fidelity Training Devices
Abstract:  &nbs Toyon Research Corporation and Brown University propose to develop a complete real-time software solution which ingests multi-sensor ISR imagery and produces geo-specific, realistic simulated imagery for flight simulators and training devices. The technical innovations enabling this solution include fully automated 3-d model construction from sequences of ISR video frames, and geo-registration of multi-sensor video to enable realistic multi-spectral imagery simulation. Real-time processing will be achieved with a proposed massively parallel graphics processing unit (GPU)-based implementation. A key component of the proposed development plan is indentifying appropriate data formats and protocols for interfacing with current and future commercial flight simulation products. The focus of the Phase I effort will be on demonstrating the performance of the component algorithms and software prototypes, benchmarking key components of the GPU implementation, and developing a plan for Phase II development and flight simulator integration. Algorithm demonstrations will be performed in Phase I using ISR video available at Toyon and Brown Univ., from past and ongoing involvement in multiple DoD ISR video exploitation programs.

---------- OSD ----------

Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 496-2415

PI: Nathan Schurr
(781) 496-2453
Contract #: N00014-10-M-0114
University of Illinois at Chicago
Office of Research Services , 304 Administrative Office
1737 West Polk St., IL 60612
(312) 996-7044

ID#: O09B-004-4014
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T004       Awarded: 5/6/2010
Title: Validation and Evaluation of Remote, Interactive Teams of Autonomous Systems (VERITAS)
Abstract:  &nbs different modes, while using different combinations of subsystems. This presents a challenge for the personnel validating the system during design and development; the number of combinations of environments, modes, and subsystems is exponential. They cannot all be tested, so an optimal subset of tests must be run. We propose to develop VERITAS: Validation and Evaluation of Remote, Interactive Teams of Autonomous Systems, a tool that will optimize the specification of tests for complex UV systems and supports analysis of performance. VERITAS will enable system developers, testers, and operators to define the attributes and capabilities of a system, its operating modes, and mission environments. The VERITAS tool will analyze system performance to (1) identify the factors that are responsible for mission performance and outcomes, and (2) define the performance envelope (capabilities and limitations) of the system. VERITAS will accomplish this by (1) optimizing the form and sequence of test cases to define the performance envelope most rapidly and effectively, and by (2) providing an advanced user interface that simplifies configuration of the test environment, monitoring of test progress, and comprehension of test results.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street,
Cambridge, MA 02138
(617) 491-3474

PI: Daniel Stouch
(617) 491-3474
Contract #: N00014-10-M-0113
Boston University
881 Commonwealth Avenue, Comptroller''s Office-Admin.
Boston, MA 02215
(617) 353-3529

ID#: O09B-004-4004
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T004       Awarded: 4/29/2010
Title: MANERVA: Mission Assessment of Non-Manned Entities for Rating the Validation of Autonomy
Abstract:  &nbs The dependability, persistence, and versatility of unmanned systems have made them indispensable assets in today’s warfighting. As they are tasked to fulfill new missions in unpredictable, dynamic environments, they are transitioning from remote control into the realm of autonomy. Here they perform rapid and semi-autonomous behaviors, such as re-planning and re-tasking, to accomplish mission objectives in mixed-initiative fashion along with skilled human operators. For operators and their commanders to develop confidence in these autonomous control algorithms, they must demonstrate that they can reliably complete mission tasks, and provide operators with a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of their systems during varying mission scenarios. We propose to develop a Mission Assessment of Non-Manned Entities for Rating the Validation of Autonomy (MANERVA) analytical verification and validation workbench. MANERVA will allow the user to configure verification experiments for particular mission scenarios, select autonomous control algorithms to run, choose metrics (and add new ones) to promote objective evaluation, execute simulations to generate vehicle paths and behavioral actions, and analyze the results and rate the validity of the vehicle’s determined course of action by representing its effectiveness using novel visualization techniques.

INFINIA CORPORATION
6811 West Okanogan Place,
Kennewick, WA 99336
(509) 735-4700

PI: Songgang Qui
(509) 735-4700
Contract #: N00014-10-M-0054
Washington State University
PO Box 642920,
Pullman, WA 99164
(509) 335-8654

ID#: O09B-002-4013
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T002       Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title: Coupled Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE), Stirling Cooler, and Absorption Chiller (FROST) for Shelter Air Conditioning
Abstract:  &nbs The cost of logistical fuels, including transportation and distribution, is significant. According to the Defense Energy Support Center, nearly $3B was spent on fuel in 2007. The increasing use of electronics is driving a growing need for shelter air conditioning, which in turn is another demand for fuel. Existing Environmental Control Units (ECU) coupled to electrical generators can provide the necessary cooling, but are inefficient. In recent years, the DoD has pursued a wide range of technologies for tactical power generation and environmental control. Feasibility demonstrations of novel power sources, such as fuel-cells, have produced units with one or more key deficiencies such as short operating life, poor reliability, excessive weight, and/or inability to use logistics fuels. An energy efficient solution that conserves fuel is needed while still generating sufficient cooling effect for electronic systems. Infinia, with support from Washington State University, proposes to develop a Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) coupled to a Stirling Cooler and Absorption Chiller (FROST) powered by a JP-8 burner. At the core of the system is Infinia¡¦s long-life hermetically sealed Stirling engine. This unique combination of technologies will deliver 7.2 refrigeration tons at 46„aF in a 95„aF ambient with a COP of 0.87 to 0.93.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
(321) 631-3550

PI: Robert P. Scaringe
(321) 631-3550
Contract #: N00014-10-M-0053
Florida Institute of Technology
150 West University Boulevard,
Meoburne, FL 32901
(321) 674-7239

ID#: O09B-002-4016
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T002       Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title: Demonstration of a JP-8 Powered Compact ECU
Abstract:  &nbs Military shelters currently use electrically driven Environmental Control Units (ECUs) to provide cooling for the air inside the shelter. The ECU is vapor compression cycle powered by a diesel generator, operating on JP-8 fuel. Other than fueling jet engines, the largest drain on U.S. military fuel supplies in current operations comes from running generators at forward operating bases. In hot climates, ECUs consume the largest share of generated power. The overall fuel–to-cooling COP of current systems is about 0.45. The DoD seeks an improvement to an overall COP of 0.9. Prior DoD efforts have been unable to achieve a competitive COP and compact size. This proposal discloses a compact lightweight system to achieve the required COP, size, and weight. The goal of this STTR Phase I effort is to demonstrate experimentally the benefits of Mainstream’s system. This proposal contains the details of a JP-8 Fuel-Powered ECU cooling/heating system that will provide 5 tons of cooling, weigh less than the 575-pound limit (excluding fuel), and operate at ambient temperatures, ranging from -25°F to 130°F.

Pikewerks Corporation
105 A Church Street,
Madison, AL 35758
(256) 325-0010

PI: Preston Wilson
(256) 325-0010
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-1883
Concurrent Technologies
15091 Alabama Highway 20, Suite A
Madison, AL 35756
(256) 560-6612

ID#: O09B-003-1005
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T003       Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title: Improving Software and Data Security in Industrial Control Systems
Abstract:  &nbs Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are critical elements in electrical, water, oil/gas, and manufacturing services involving supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), distributed control systems (DCS), and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). These systems allow operators to monitor sensor data and remotely control field devices. Initially, these devices were designed for closed-network or non-networked environments inside of physically secure facilities. These early systems did not take into account cyber threats such as viruses, worms, Trojans, and system exploitations from buffer overflows, logic errors, network protocols, and denial of service (DOS) attacks. However, ICS have evolved into highly technical distributed systems directly and indirectly connected to the Internet where they are exposed to cyber attacks. Pikewerks proposes to research and develop a system for protecting the software executing on these systems without requiring any changes to the source code.

Real-Time Innovations
385 Moffett Park Drive, Suite 115,
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
(408) 990-7422

PI: Stanley Schneider
(408) 990-7412
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-1882
PNNL
PNNL, 902 Battelle Boulevard
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2674

ID#: O09B-003-1001
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T003       Awarded: 2/25/2010
Title: Improving Software and Data Security in SCADA Systems
Abstract:  &nbs To build a more intelligent grid, electric utilities must now construct a new architecture from connected, standard technologies. This smart architecture will connect SCADA systems so they can interact more efficiently. It will employ distributed monitoring and power-use optimization. It will also connect SCADA networks to corporate networks, wireless systems, and remote monitoring stations. Unfortunately, these innovations also open our key national infrastructure to easy attack. We must develop more secure infrastructure technologies. Real-Time Innovations (RTI), a top mission-critical, standards-based middleware vendor, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a key power engineering research center, will develop the security and networking technologies that intelligent power systems need. In particular, we will apply the best enterprise security technologies to the proven standard for demanding defense networks. We will target initial proof of our solution at the nation’s largest power generation plant, the 6.8GW Grand Coulee Dam, where the Army Corps of Engineers is already deploying RTI middleware. To ensure wide-area applicability, we will partner with the Bonneville Power Authority (BPA), one of the nation’s key grid control centers. Finally, we will work with the emerging North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) to standardize our work for eventual deployment across the continent.

Technical Support Inc.
11253 John Galt Blvd.,
Omaha, NE 68137
(402) 331-4977

PI: William L Sousan
(402) 331-4977
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-1880
University of Nebraska at Omaha
6001 Dodge Street, EAB 203,
Omaha, NE 68182
(402) 554-2286

ID#: O09B-003-1010
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T003       Awarded: 3/5/2010
Title: SCADA Hawk – An Integrated Anti-Tamper Technology
Abstract:  &nbs Our proposal is to develop SCADA Hawk: an integrated anti-tamper technology that uses a hardware-software combined methodology for the observational monitoring of existing systems with selective reaction capabilities. By enabling detailed monitoring capabilities our goal is to isolate anomalies in system behavior and take preventive measures. While profiling of normal behavior on traditional IT systems might be infeasible, the repetitive and predictable nature of SCADA system operation lends itself nicely to the technique. The monitoring will eventually be accomplished by the creation of various “instrumentation modules” whose job is to examine such items as network traffic, commands being delivered by the SCADA system, and so forth. We plan on utilizing two kinds of modular constructs: 1. Software Instrumentation, named (COLLECTORs) that actively collects and reports any transitions in the operational states of the SCADA system and prevents tampering by blocking unauthorized or unexpected instruction sequences. 2. Firmware-based Behavior Monitoring modules, named (AGENTs) that continuously verifies in real-time that the operational states collected by the COLLECTOR match the expected operational profile for the monitored software application. Anomalies are reported to a central station as well as preventive steps (if known) are conveyed back to the COLLECTOR to engage in tamper-prevention steps.

ThermAvant Technologies, LLC
1000 A Pannell Street,
Columbia, MO 65201
(888) 415-7306

PI: Joe Boswell
(888) 415-7306
Contract #: N00014-10-M-0055
University of Missouri-Columbia
Dept of Mech & Aerospace Engrg,
Columbia, MO 65211
(573) 884-5944

ID#: O09B-002-4001
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T002       Awarded: 2/24/2010
Title: High Efficiency, JP-8 Fueled Refrigeration Cycles for Shelter Air Conditioning
Abstract:  &nbs The proposed JP-8 powered cooling technology was co-invented by ThermAvant Technologies, LLC and the University of Columbia-Missouri (MU). The technology is based on the ejector cooling cycle and has the following unique features: thermodynamically and fluid dynamically optimal working fluids for increased high heat transfer and reduced entropy generation; low-shock loss, momentum conserving ejectors designed specifically for the selected working fluids; rotational flow mixing chamber for increased refrigerant entrainment and improved heat transfer; and ultra-low thermal resistance evaporators to minimize superheat between working fluids and heat sources. This novel heat actuated cooling technology will enable the Department of Defense to reduce its fuel consumption of environmental control units in military shelter units by directly converting the thermal energy of JP-8 fuel into useful cooling without the need of expensive, inefficent electricity generation which powers existing environmental control units. If successful, this Phase I research project will lead to the development of heat driven air conditioners and chillers for military and commercial applications that can operate in extreme high temperature environments. 100% of the work will be performed in Columbia, MO by ThermAvant and MU.

Zenpanion LLC
5309 Wurzbach Rd, Suite 100-1
San Antonio, TX 78238
(210) 520-5167

PI: Matt Rasmussen
(210) 520-5167
Contract #: FA8650-10-M-1881
Southwest Reseach Institute
P.O. Drawer 28510,
San Antonio, TX 78228
(210) 522-6416

ID#: O09B-003-1012
Agency: OSD
Topic#: 09-T003       Awarded: 2/19/2010
Title: Improving Software and Data Security in SCADA Systems
Abstract:  &nbs Zenpanion LLC proposes a hardware-based protection mechanism to substantially improve the security of a key component of a SCADA system. The protected component is the on-site intelligent electronic controller installed to perform energy management in a home or business. The controller’s responsibilities include monitoring and controlling local devices such as lighting, appliances, and HVAC systems to reduce energy use and lower costs. In the SCADA architecture of the new Smart Grid, such controllers are a key component of demand response and other resource controls. For example, a controller receives a demand response directive from the utility provider via an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) channel. The controller then responds by reducing local resource use. The controller is typically also connected to the Internet, e.g. to obtain weather data or allow the home or business owner remote access. Controller vulnerabilities allow an intruder to perform actions such as shutting down all controlled electrical devices. A hardware-based protection system is proposed to secure the controller, ensuring it is not compromised. The protection system is transparent to the controller, has full monitoring and control access, and is interfaced in a way that makes it much more difficult to compromise than the controller itself.