|Acquisition Program: ||PMA 205; Aviation Training Systens|| Objective: ||Develop a prototype simulation environment for rotary-wing aircraft that models dynamic wind, rotor-wash, and weather effects across varied ship decks, landscapes, and man-made structures, together with the combined effects of rotor wash on operations.
|| Description: ||Recent developments in the modeling and simulation industry have made it possible to create affordable PC-based simulators supporting helicopter operations in a Navy, Marine Corps, Army, or Coast Guard helicopter environment. While today’s simulated environments can generate a variety of weather states, times of day, and other visual and audio effects, the impact of these variables on simulated objects within these simulated environments has yet to be integrated. Today’s environmental models do not show the combined impact of weather, wind, and rotor wash on even basic simulated tasks such as enemy engagements, vertical replenishments, or search and rescue operations. Consequently, training new personnel to understand and visualize the effects of wind, pitch, and roll on aircraft during movement on deck and during launches and recoveries is a complex and largely abstract process. The catastrophic effects of exceeding these limits all too often remain just that, an abstract idea, until one witnesses the unforgiving laws of nature at work. Recent developments in the modeling and simulation industry have made it possible to create massive multi-player online “game like” environments that allow networked, PC-based training simulations. However, these simulated environments do not use realistic, dynamic wind models.
A virtual environment is sought that not only visually displays the weather, but also accurately displays the impact of airflow around solid objects such as a ship superstructure across the deck of a small ship’s landing area, or correctly models the behavior of search and rescue equipment at high sea states. The simulated objects should accurately model pitch, yaw, roll, and shaking or vibrations that would occur in the real world under actual conditions. Additionally, the rotor wash should accurately model a variety of airframes, including the TH-57, H-60, CH-53, and the V/22 tilt-rotor aircraft – in both hover and forward flight modes of operation. It is proposed that an innovative training environment be developed that necessitates multiple trainees to enact and coordinate the roles of all personnel involved in aircraft launch and recovery). The instructor or the trainees can control the weather effects and wind models or they can be set to randomly vary during the game. Proper coordination within limits will result in a safe landing, recovery, or stowage, while exceeding safe limits may not. After each evolution, provide the trainees with the option of trading positions, trying a different weather condition, etc. The system should include an innovative visible winds feature that enables beginners to “see” the wind, wind gusts, and speed, as well as rotor wash, as the air moves around the ship, past the aircraft, and over the deck during flight operations. As the winds approach the trainee’s limits, the coordination required of the trainees should also intensify
|| ||PHASE I: Identify critical tasks performed by helicopter and tilt-rotor crews that are directly impacted by weather, rotor wash, and/or sea state. Rank the tasks by how they are impacted by the effects of weather, airspeed, and rotor wash. Develop concepts for environmental wind and weather algorithms. Develop concepts for animation of critical physical objects responding to winds, weather, and rotor wash. Project the cost of integrating such models into existing simulated environments. Develop and demonstrate an innovative concept of visually depicting the wind direction, intensity, gusts, etc. Create a training strategy that will involve and motivate trainees to master each role, and to coordinate effectively.
|| ||PHASE II: Develop, evaluate, and refine the algorithms and object models outlined in Phase I. Test the integration of these models into existing simulated databases. Develop, test, and evaluate the systems effectiveness for training personnel in understanding of, and ability to coordinate for, safe flight operations under varied weather and sea state conditions.
|| ||PHASE III: Transition weather, wind and rotor wash models, and models of identified key objects that respond appropriately to these environmental cues to Navy, Marine Corps, Army, and Coast Guard training facilities throughout the world. Adapt training scenarios to be used for entertainment purposes, market the product to the gaming industry.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/|| ||DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: These models could be incorporated into commercial pilot and aircrew training systems for mission rehearsal under a variety of conditions. The models would also provide those who may not be experienced helicopter pilots, an opportunity to observe the predicted effects of environmental conditions, buildings, terrain, rotor wash, etc. on planned operations in a gaming environment. Additionally, NASA, DHS, Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Air National Guard, Coast Guard, Forestry, Intelligence Agencies, and Law Enforcement organizations around the world could use the system to train personnel who interact with or pilot helicopters as part of their duties.
|| References: ||1. Sezer-Uzol, N., Sharma, A. and Long, L.N., (2005). "Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Ship Airwakes," to appear Journal of Aerospace Engineering.
2. Chen, H.N., Brentner, K.S., Ananthan, S., and Gordon Leishman, J. (2005). "A Computational Study of Helicopter Rotor Wakes and Noise Generated During Transient Maneuvers," Proceedings of the American Helicopter Society 61st Forum, Vol. 1, pp. 492-517, Grapevine, TX, June 1-3.
3. Lee, D.; Sezer-Uzol, N.; Horn, J.F.; and Long, L.N. (2003). "Simulation of Helicopter Shipboard Launch and Recovery with Time-Accurate Airwakes," presented at the American Helicopter Society 59th Annual Forum, Phoenix, Arizona, May 6 – 8, 2003 www.personal.psu.edu/users/n/x/nxs216/papers/ahs2003.pdf|
|Keywords: ||Helicopter; Weather; Hoist Operations; Wind Envelope; Simulation; Modeling|