SITIS Archives - Topic Details
Program:  SBIR
Topic Num:  AF071-282 (AirForce)
Title:  Radar Signal Processing Algorithms
Research & Technical Areas:  Information Systems, Sensors

 The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.
  STATEMENT OF INTENT: Developed better signal processing for extracting target, this is an extremely important topic to the PEO
  Objective:  Develop advanced signal processing techniques and algorithms to optimize multi-mode Space Radar performance for Surface Moving Target Indication (SMTI) and Open Ocean Surveillance (OOS) missions.
  Description:  The Space Radar (SR) mission includes detecting and characterizing surface moving targets operating in a variety of background environments with very different clutter characteristics, including on the open ocean and in littoral areas. Littoral areas, especially at the land/sea boundary, provide difficult challenges due to the overall inhomogeneity and presence of large discrete spikes in sea clutter. Land and open sea areas present similarly stressing but different challenges. Advances in clutter cancellation/suppression techniques for SMTI are required, as well as advances in developing an Open Ocean Surveillance (OOS) mode. In addition to target detection, the SMTI mode should incorporate the capability to extract target characterization information. This effort should include investigation and maturation of High Range Resolution (HRR) and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) modes that extract target profile data or produce SAR/MTI co-products that can be used in determining a two dimensional (2-D) mover signature. All proposed algorithms and techniques must be assessed against realistic operational constraints in order to determine the impact on system performance. In particular, analyses and/or models that support the resource and performance trades required for optimizing sensor collection times and area coverage rate in operational scenarios for the target characterization algorithms and techniques are required.

  PHASE I: Formulate innovative SR signal processing approaches for target detection and characterization in OOS and SMTI modes. Develop and mature basic algorithms and candidate implementing architectures, and the assessment methodologies and criteria for evaluating performance against alternative concepts.
  
  PHASE II: Develop an evaluation and verification model and realistic environmental scenarios for predicting and comparing SMTI and OOS algorithm performance and effectiveness in detecting and characterizing surface moving targets in various clutter and backgrounds environments. Implement recommended algorithms in code; evaluate performance and utility for various SR missions. Document code and results.

  DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: Supports the DoD's ISR capability need for improved global, persistent detection and characterization of surface moving targets in stressing environments including littoral regions and open ocean. Commercial application: The new methodologies and algorithms have significant potential for commercial applications such as iceberg monitoring, sea traffic control, drug cartel movements, and pollutant monitoring.

  References:  1. Carrara, Majewski, and Goodman, "Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar: Signal Processing Algorithms (Remote Sensing)," New York: Artech House Publishers, 1995. 2. Guerci, J. R., "Space-Time Adaptive Processing for Radar," New York: Artech House Publishers, 2003. 3. Committee on the Navy's Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities, Naval Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council of the National Academies, "Navy's needs in space for providing future capabilities," Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, c2005. 4. United States of America. United States Coast Guard, National Strategy for Maritime Security: "National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness," 1995.

Keywords:  high range resolution, SAR, SMTI, OOS, radar clutter mitigation, clutter cancellation algorithm, space radar, target detection, moving target characterization, radar signal processing algorithms, STAP, littoral surveillance, maritime surveillance

Questions and Answers:
Q: Are radar data that are representative of Space Radar available for the program, and if so, for which modes, types of target, and environments?
A: There is no plan to provide representive space radar data for this effort. The government cannot ensure availability of comprehensive data sets compatible with all potential signal processing approaches which could be proposed. For this reason, developing "an evaluation and verification model and realistic environmental scenarios" for predicting an comparing algorithm performance and effectiveness is included in the Phase II effort.
Q: Can other radar modes/methods (i.e., other than HRR or ISAR - for example, polarimetry) be proposed as a means to detect/discriminate targets from sea clutter and littoral areas?
A: Proposers should assume that the system hardware has only the capability to support the operational modes called out in the system description. Other radar modes/methods could be proposed if they do not levy any additional hardware requirements on the system and if they provide the same resolution/fidelity as the stated modes of interest.
Q: Does this topic address targets moving on land as well as water?
A: Yes, this topics addresses targets moving on land, on the open ocean, and in littoral (coastal) regions.

Conventional surface moving target indication (SMTI) assumes the targets are moving over land. Since detection of moving targets on the open ocean and in littoral regions have not generally been considered requirements for SMTI in the past, they were called out specifically in the topic description. This emphasis was not meant to exclude land-based targets.
Q: Are radar data that are representative of Space Radar available for the program, and if so, for which modes, types of target, and environments?
A: There is no plan to provide representive space radar data for this effort. The government cannot ensure availability of comprehensive data sets compatible with all potential signal processing approaches which could be proposed. For this reason, developing "an evaluation and verification model and realistic environmental scenarios" for predicting an comparing algorithm performance and effectiveness is included in the Phase II effort.
Q: Can other radar modes/methods (i.e., other than HRR or ISAR - for example, polarimetry) be proposed as a means to detect/discriminate targets from sea clutter and littoral areas?
A: Proposers should assume that the system hardware has only the capability to support the operational modes called out in the system description. Other radar modes/methods could be proposed if they do not levy any additional hardware requirements on the system and if they provide the same resolution/fidelity as the stated modes of interest.
Q: Does this topic address targets moving on land as well as water?
A: Yes, this topics addresses targets moving on land, on the open ocean, and in littoral (coastal) regions.

Conventional surface moving target indication (SMTI) assumes the targets are moving over land. Since detection of moving targets on the open ocean and in littoral regions have not generally been considered requirements for SMTI in the past, they were called out specifically in the topic description. This emphasis was not meant to exclude land-based targets.

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