SITIS Archives - Topic Details
Program:  SBIR
Topic Num:  N07-029 (Navy)
Title:  Low-Cost, Eye Limiting Resolution, Immersive Display
Research & Technical Areas:  Air Platform, Human Systems

Acquisition Program:  Joint Strike Fighter
  Objective:  Develop innovative eye limited resolution immersive display technology suitable for real-time training.
  Description:  Real-time training simulators can not afford to provide 20/20 resolution throughout the full immersive field of view (FOV). The 20/20 Snellen eye chart letter “E” appears as 1 arc minute thick bars with 1 arc minute spaces between the bars. In order to display the 20/20 Snellen eye chart under best case conditions, the display must provide resolution of 2 arc minutes per Optical Line Pair (OLP) or at least 1 pixel per arc minute. Typically, immersive display systems provide one half to one fourth this resolution or 20/40 to 20/80 resolution. The result is training pilots in an immersive training experience as if the pilot needed glasses. Training environments are sometimes artificially distorted in order to provide necessary training visual cues on displays with limited resolution. For example the virtual size of a carrier visual landing aid may be greatly increased to be as large as the carrier itself. Some visual cues can not be effectively provided due to limited display system resolution such as the wing orientation of a distant aircraft or some terrain surface objects. The cost per pixel of immersive display systems precludes 20/20 resolution throughout a large immersive FOV. However, new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) displays with a large number of pixels and low cost per pixel are becoming available. For example a COTS 56 inch LCD monitor with 3840 by 2160 pixels retailing for $10,000 will be available in 2006. By using such displays channels, a cost-effective immersive 20/20 display system is feasible if some technical issues are solved. Foremost is the need to develop a solution that eliminates gaps between channels when using low-cost flat panel displays. Other issues include channel matching, alignment, controlling contrast degradation due to cross illumination, as well as other characteristics beneficial to immersive training simulators. At the same time, if a cost-effective method of providing high-resolution immersive stereoscopic or collimated displays can be found, then this would be very useful. Stereoscopic immersive displays would allow more effective training of air refueling, formation flight, and confined area landings as well as integrating pilot helmet mounted displays into the training device. Collimated displays provide realistic motion parallax cues and are mandated by FAA for level D certified trainers. Flat panel displays also provide bright imagery compared to current immersive display systems based on projectors. A bright high-resolution immersive display system would obviate the need for expensive calligraphic display system technology. The advanced technology developed will be incorporated into a display system for use in real-time training simulation.

  PHASE I: Develop the advanced technology preliminary design approach to enable low-cost, gapless immersive display systems. Address issues of production cost, technical risk, weight, and performance factors important to training simulation.
  PHASE II: Develop a prototype and demonstrate in a display appropriate for real-time training simulation. Measure the performance.

  PHASE III: Integrate the new technology into training simulator programs. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/

  DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Commercial flight simulator training devices and visualization for research, engineering, and marketing would benefit from advances in immersive display technology.

  References:  1. http://news.zdnet.co.uk/hardware/emergingtech/0,39020357,39255860,00.htm, 2. http://www.tedmontgomery.com/the_eye/acuity.html, 3. http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/5B7322950DD10F6B862569BA006F60AA?OpenDocument (FAA Advisory Circular AC 120-40B dated 7/29/91 “Airplane Simulator Qualification”)

Keywords:  Simulation; Training; Immersive; Display; Virtual Reality; 20/20

Questions and Answers:
Q: Is it acceptable to accurately track head position and attitude with a non-restrictive following attachement to existing helmet or to add helmet for that purpose?
A: It may be. Every potential solution has advantages and disadvantages. Proposed solutions will be evaluated in overall effectiveness/usefullness.
Q: Is it acceptable to accurately track head position and attitude with a non-restrictive following attachement to existing helmet or to add helmet for that purpose?
A: It may be. Every potential solution has advantages and disadvantages. Proposed solutions will be evaluated in overall effectiveness/usefullness.
Q: 1. Will the screens be used in the Lockheed Martin JSF simulator?

2. Does the screen configuration in that simulator (three adjacent screens at an angle relative to one another) represent the preferred configuration?
A: 1. Not likely.

2. Not necessarily.
Q: What is your field of view requirement?
A: Minimum requirement is immersive. Of course bigger is better, however due to tradeoffs, the largest Field Of View is not necessarily the best solution.
Q: If possible, please provide a typical desired screen size and viewing distance for an immersive training display (understanding of course that there will be many variations)?
A: The proposed solution/approach should be applicable to training seated pilots.
Q: 1. Will the screens be used in the Lockheed Martin JSF simulator?

2. Does the screen configuration in that simulator (three adjacent screens at an angle relative to one another) represent the preferred configuration?
A: 1. Not likely.

2. Not necessarily.
Q: What is your field of view requirement?
A: Minimum requirement is immersive. Of course bigger is better, however due to tradeoffs, the largest Field Of View is not necessarily the best solution.
Q: If possible, please provide a typical desired screen size and viewing distance for an immersive training display (understanding of course that there will be many variations)?
A: The proposed solution/approach should be applicable to training seated pilots.

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