SITIS Archives - Topic Details
Program:  SBIR
Topic Num:  AF071-119 (AirForce)
Title:  Affordable Manufacturing for Compact Hybrid Carbon Liquid/Air Heat Exchanger
Research & Technical Areas:  Materials/Processes

 The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.
  STATEMENT OF INTENT: Innovative, affordable manufacturing methods development
  Objective:  Develop new and highly innovative material processing and manufacturing concepts for affordable compact, nonoxidizing lightweight hybrid carbon compact liquid to air heat exchangers.
  Description:  Research high conductance carbon (carbon-carbon composite and foam) processing techniques for compact air/air heat exchangers with goals of 50 percent less weight and 5 percent higher efficiency and are being considered for all military and commercial aircraft. This technology is proposed to replace metal compact liquid/air carbon heat exchangers for fighter aircraft. This effort requires identification and innovative approaches to novel carbon processing technique challenges. Either plate/fin or plate/foam configuration could be considered for the heat transfer techniques. Heat exchangers to be considered for fighter aircraft are hot fuel/ram air and hot air/fuel or polyalpaolefin (PAO) sink. High conductive carbon-carbon composite thin plates normally have air leakage between the high to low-pressure flow streams, so sealing techniques will have to be developed to reduce, as a goal, zero leakage. Designing for maximum operating pressures of the hot and cold side are a challenge due to potential hydraulic structural load weakness of composites and leakage for the integrated core and heat exchanger manifold. Both the core and protective manifold shall be designed with system integration in mind. Economical carbon processing shall be proposed, including techniques for minimizing processing time and tooling. Core and attachment techniques to the heat exchanger manifold shall be considered. Fabrication and performance and structural testing of actual heat exchanger core will demonstrate the payoff and benefits of the structural and heat exchanger technology.The processed core and manifold housing in Phase 2 shall be manufactured as an integrated heat exchanger. The heat exchanger will be fully tested, both performance and structurally in heat exchanger test facility. Heat exchangers in thermal management are an issue for all DoD aircraft and Army tank platforms. An economical processed carbon manifold housing design shall be proposed in this phase and fabricated for integration in Phase III.

  PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of the advanced material processing proposed enhanced strength and heat transfer compact plate/fin or plate/foam, liquid (PAO)/air (ram air) core concept directed to a aircraft heat exchanger.
  
  PHASE II: The concepts demonstrated in Phase I shall be scaled up and a compact carbon heat exchanger prototype manufactured. The prototype would be a potential future replacement of the existing fighter aircraft liquid(PAO & fuel)/ram air heat exchanger. It is desired that the initial prototype be delivered to the Air Force for further evaluation and testing.

  DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: A fully developed carbon composite material processed fuel/air heat exchanger shall be target for a fighter aircraft or UCAV. Commercial application: All ground commercial ground transportation ram air/coolant liquid radiators examined by DOE can benefit from this technology.

  References:  1. Watts, R., Brow, M, and Alam, K., “Characterization Requirements for Aerospace Thermal Management Applications”, 2003 Fall SAMPE, Dayton OH 2. M. Khairul Alam, Roland J. Watts, Capt.John Price, "Compact Carbon-Carbon Composite Heat Exchanger, IMECE2002-HT-32094, IMECE'02, New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov 17-22, 2002. 3. Watts, R. and Jenkins, L., “Aerospace and Spacecraft Applications Opportunities,” 2004 Spring SAMPE, Long Beach, CA. 4. Beavers, F. and Vrable D., “Application of Carbon-Carbon Heat Exchangers for Aircraft,” #981291, 1998 SAE Power Conference. 5. Watts, R., Vrable, D., and Kearns, K., “Design of a High Temperature Compact Carbon-Carbon Heat Exchanger," 99 ASME IMECE, Nashville TEN

Keywords:  carbon, heat exchangers, and radiators

Additional Information, Corrections, References, etc:
Additional reference:

Roland Watts, Khalid Lafdi "Compact Carbon/Carbon Single Flow Channel Heat Transfer Characteristics for Aerospace Vehicle Applications", 2002 Proceedings for the American Society for Composites 17th Technical Conference, Lafayette, IN

Available through CRC Press. http://www.crcpress.com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail.asp?sku=1501&isbn=0849315018&parent_id=&pc=
Additional reference:

Roland Watts, Khalid Lafdi "Compact Carbon/Carbon Single Flow Channel Heat Transfer Characteristics for Aerospace Vehicle Applications", 2002 Proceedings for the American Society for Composites 17th Technical Conference, Lafayette, IN

Available through CRC Press. http://www.crcpress.com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail.asp?sku=1501&isbn=0849315018&parent_id=&pc=
Ref #2: Available via ASME digital store.
Ref #2: Available via ASME digital store.

Questions and Answers:
Q: 1. Can a part of the heat exchanger not be carbon based?
2. Is the 5% efficiency improvement the heat transfer per pressure drop efficiency or the HEX actual versus theoretical heat transfer efficiency?
3. What are the detailed requirements for the first application of interest?
4. Will there be multiple Phase I awards?
A: 1. Hybrid concepts may be acceptable. However, our main interest is in the feasibility demonstration of a carbon or organic matrix composite, lightweight heat exchanger. All metal or all ceramic will not be considered.

2. Heat transfer per pressure drop.

3. No detailed requirements can be provided due to proprietary restrictions. However, more general requirements that bound the desired properties are:
Inlet Temps in the range of 350 deg F, Inlet Pressures in the order of 40 to 80 psia, and Max Pressure drop of 10%. On mechanical properties it is fair to say that the HX should be able to withstand the basic aircraft environment as with an Al HX. I would suggest talking to any of the aircraft HX manufacturers.

4. Unknown at this time.
Q: 1. What is the range of operation temperatures and pressures of the fluids for this liquid air HX?

2. Is a polymer matrix in consideration?
A: 1. No detailed requirements can be provided due to proprietary restrictions. General ranges of interest are: Inlet Temps in the range of 350 deg F, Inlet Pressures in the order of 40 to 80 psia, and Max Pressure drop of 10%. On mechanical properties it is fair to say that the HX should be able to withstand the basic aircraft environment as with an Al HX.

2. Polymer matrix may be considered as long as it is compatible with the environment seen by an aircraft HX.
Q: 1. What are the benchmark weight and efficiency?
2. Is there a standard metal compact heat exchaner for comparison?
A: 1. Weight should not exceed that of an all metal aircraft compact heat exchanger. Efficiency should be at least as much as current systems.

2. Aircraft compact Aluminum heat exchangers.
Q: 1. Can a part of the heat exchanger not be carbon based?
2. Is the 5% efficiency improvement the heat transfer per pressure drop efficiency or the HEX actual versus theoretical heat transfer efficiency?
3. What are the detailed requirements for the first application of interest?
4. Will there be multiple Phase I awards?
A: 1. Hybrid concepts may be acceptable. However, our main interest is in the feasibility demonstration of a carbon or organic matrix composite, lightweight heat exchanger. All metal or all ceramic will not be considered.

2. Heat transfer per pressure drop.

3. No detailed requirements can be provided due to proprietary restrictions. However, more general requirements that bound the desired properties are:
Inlet Temps in the range of 350 deg F, Inlet Pressures in the order of 40 to 80 psia, and Max Pressure drop of 10%. On mechanical properties it is fair to say that the HX should be able to withstand the basic aircraft environment as with an Al HX. I would suggest talking to any of the aircraft HX manufacturers.

4. Unknown at this time.
Q: 1. What is the range of operation temperatures and pressures of the fluids for this liquid air HX?

2. Is a polymer matrix in consideration?
A: 1. No detailed requirements can be provided due to proprietary restrictions. General ranges of interest are: Inlet Temps in the range of 350 deg F, Inlet Pressures in the order of 40 to 80 psia, and Max Pressure drop of 10%. On mechanical properties it is fair to say that the HX should be able to withstand the basic aircraft environment as with an Al HX.

2. Polymer matrix may be considered as long as it is compatible with the environment seen by an aircraft HX.
Q: 1. What are the benchmark weight and efficiency?
2. Is there a standard metal compact heat exchaner for comparison?
A: 1. Weight should not exceed that of an all metal aircraft compact heat exchanger. Efficiency should be at least as much as current systems.

2. Aircraft compact Aluminum heat exchangers.

Record: of