|Acquisition Program: ||PM Future Combat Systems Brigade Combat Team|| Objective: ||Develop a sensor that automatic detects and classifies humans, animals, and vehicles. A Profile Feature Extractor (PFx) measures the features of an object’s profile. Once detected the object is then classified as human, animal or vehicle. The PFx should be passive, low cost, small size, low power, and light weight.
|| Description: ||The ability to automatically tell the difference between humans, animals and vehicles is a broad based operational need that addresses a wide variety of applications. What is required is a commercial product that can be integrated into any of today’s military systems using standard interfaces. The PFx component would be as flexible as today’s digital cameras with interchangeable optics and interchangeable detector arrays.
The PFx component should be a passive device with either a linear array of detectors or a 2D array of detectors. The component would be available for applications in different spectral regions (LWIR, MWIR, SWIR) by using different types of detectors. And, the range of the component would be determined primarily by the diameter of the optics and the sensitivity of the detectors. The component should be small size, light weight, low power, and the output of the component should be a small amount of data (a small number of bytes).
In addition, other features such as the number of legs, the motion of arms, and size of back pack may be provided. The PFx component may offer an option for a grayscale silhouette; however, the number of bits in the gray scale should be small.
The PFx component has a ready made commercial market in facility and home security systems. More than 99% of calls made from today’s facility and home security systems to law enforcement organizations are false alarms. Most law enforcement organizations are starting to charge a fee for responding to a false alarm. The PFx component will radically reduce the number of false alarms due to animals and electronic disturbances (lightning). Any manufacturer of facility or home security systems would gladly include short and medium range PFx components as an option in their security systems.
|| ||PHASE I: Phase I will include a survey of existing low cost COTS linear and 2D un cooled detector arrays (thermopile, pyroelectric, photoconductor, micro bolometer, InSb, etc) and low cost COTS optics that will meet the spectral and range requirements as a function of the different detector types. A parallel survey effort would consider COTS low cost digital processing capabilities with standard digital interfaces to other processor systems, architectures and/or networks. The processing capability should have the ability to run code developed in “C”. Phase I should include the development of component prototype descriptions that would be used to design and fabricate prototypes during Phase II.
Phase I should also include the development of one or more concepts for the alignment, calibration, and/or geo registration during installation of ISR sensors that are based on the PFx components. Another way of saying this is; “how do you point the component or sensor during installation?”.
|| ||PHASE II: Phase II will design, fabricate, debug and test at least one each PFx component for short range (20 - 300 feet or less), mid range (300 to 1500 feet) and long range (1 KM and longer). PFx components for Long Wave Infrared are required as a minimum. Both linear and 2D detector array components are required. Digital interfaces and data formats used be the same as used in today's COTS sensors. The three class classification algorithms (human, animal, vehicles) have been published in a number of technical papers, with the details available to the general public.
The Phase II components should be evaluated in a field environment with humans, animals and vehicles as objects of interest.
Deliverables at the end of Phase II will be a minimum of three low cost commercial PFx components (Short, Medium, and Long Range) with mechanical, optical and electronic documentation.
A written description of the alignment, calibration or geo registration process will be developed to insure that the component can be installed correctly. It is understood that a large majority of the time, alignment, calibration and/or geo registration processes will be used in the field more than in a factory environment.
|| ||PHASE III: Phase III will include the use of the passive components in US Army Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) system. This could be an addition to an existing UGS system or it may be a new ISR UGS system. Commercial applications during Phase III includes the use of the PFx component in UGS system for use on the US borders as part of the Department of Homeland Security efforts, and the PFx components would be used as part of a commercial facility security system that is sold, installed and operated by a commercial security company. In all three cases, the PFx component would be used to cue other ISR sensors when humans are detected and classified.
|| References: ||Profiling sensors for border and perimeter security" Eddie Jacobs, Srikant Chari, David Russomanno, and Carl Halford (Universiity of Memphis 901-678-5381 firstname.lastname@example.org)
A). R. B. Sartain, Profiling sensor for ISR applications, Proc. SPIE 6963, pp. 69630Q, 2008.
B). S. K. Chari, C. E. Halford, E. Jacobs, Human target identification and automated shape based target recognition algorithms using target silhouette, Proc. SPIE 6941, pp. 69410B, 2008.
C). D. J. Russomanno, M. Yeasin, E. Jacobs, M. Smith, S. Sorower, Sparse detector sensor: profiling experiments for broad-scale classification, Proc. SPIE 6963, pp. 69630M, 2008.
D). D. Russomanno, S. Chari, C. Halford, Sparse detector imaging sensor with two-class silhouette classification, Sensors 8, no. 12, pp. 7996-8015, 2008.
E). R. B. Sartain, K. Aliberti, T. Alexander, D. Chiu, Long-wave infrared profile feature extractor (PFx) sensor, Proc. SPIE 7333, pp. 733311, 2009.
F). K. K. Jr. Klett, R. B. Sartain, T. Alexander, K. Aliberti, Optical and radiometry analysis for a passive infrared sparse sensor detection system, Proc. SPIE 6941, pp. 69410I, 2008.
G). A. L. Robinson, C. E. Halford, E. Perry, T. Wyatt, Sparse detector sensor model, Proc. SPIE 6963, pp. 69630L, 2008.
H). S. Chari, C. Halford, E. Jacobs, F. Smith, J. Brown, D. Russomanno, Classification of humans and animals using an infrared profiling sensor, Proc. SPIE 7333, pp. 733310, 2009.|
|Keywords: ||ISR, persistent, surveillance, profile, sensor, passive, LWIR, MWIR, linear array, human vs animal, force protection|