SITIS Archives - Topic Details
Program:  SBIR
Topic Num:  N113-174 (Navy)
Title:  Encapsulation and Delivery of Non-Lethal Malodorant in a 40mm-munition or Hand-thrown Grenade
Research & Technical Areas:  Weapons

Acquisition Program:  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program; (ACAT IV)
  Objective:  To develop a non-lethal malodorant weapon which can be dispersed from a 40mm delivered munition (fired from standard 40mm launcher) or a hand-thrown munition. Malodorous payloads must be accurately dispersed from the munition as to effectively repel humans, while being maintained at concentrations that do not trigger trigeminal nerve activation. Above the concentration threshold of trigeminal nerve activation, chemicals must be classified as Riot Control Agents per the Chemical Weapons Convention. Existing malodorants including those used by law enforcement are hand-delivered via tubing or must be dispensed in close proximity to the source. A 40mm delivered or hand-thrown malodorant would provide greater standoff ranges and increase operational effectiveness.
  Description:  The Department of Defense (DoD) has developed and tested a malodorant payload, potentially capable of repelling humans at concentrations that do not cause trigeminal nerve activation. Previous attempts to seal this payload into a tactical form-factor, such as a hand-thrown grenade or 40mm-muntion have not been successful as the chemical composition is highly volatile. A malodorant weapon could therefore be created by two means: 1) Developing a sealing or encapsulation technique capable of preventing leaks of the government developed malodorous payload from tactical munitions and developing those munitions or 2) Developing a new malodorous payload, along with the tactical munition. It is understood that depending upon the geometry and airflow within a confined space, multiple munitions may be required to achieve effective concentration levels. However, it is desired that as few munitions as possible be required.

  PHASE I: If a new payload is proposed, perform a literature search to determine an Institutional Review Board (IRB) acceptable dose range for human subject testing. Develop and submit IRB protocols for two sequential experiments. The first will use a lateralization test to determine the threshold at which trigeminal nerve activation occurs. The second will determine the effectiveness at repelling human subjects from an area at concentrations below the established threshold. If it is proposed to use the government developed malodorous payload, develop and submit an IRB protocol to determine the effectiveness at repelling human subjects from an area at concentrations below the established threshold.
  PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate an initial prototype of a malodorant munition that does not leak payload despite the shock expected from transportation and handling in military environments. Perform lateralization tests developed in phase 1 to determine the threshold at which trigeminal nerve activation occurs. Perform effectiveness tests developed in phase 1 for repelling human subjects from an area at concentrations below the established threshold.

  PHASE III: Develop and test a mature prototype in a relevant military environment. Demonstrate effectiveness against highly and lightly motivated personnel. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/

  DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: This technology could be used by any branch of the military or by civilian forces to deny, move, or suppress personnel.

  References:  . Dalton, P. (2006). Evaluation of Psychological vs. Physiological Effects of Malodorants. Malodorants: Psychological vs. Physiological Effects. 2. United Nations Treaty Collection. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction.

Keywords:  malodorant; non-lethal weapon; encapsulation; sealing techniques

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