The US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) is responsible for execution of the Army SBIR Program.  Information on the Army SBIR Program can be found at the following Web site:


Solicitation, topic, and general questions regarding the SBIR Program should be addressed according to the DoD portion of this solicitation.  For technical questions about the topic during the pre-Solicitation period, contact the Topic Authors listed for each topic in the Solicitation.  To obtain answers to technical questions during the formal Solicitation period, visit  For general inquiries or problems with the electronic submission, contact the DoD Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).  Specific questions pertaining to the Army SBIR Program should be submitted to:


John Smith

Program Manager, Army SBIR


US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM)


6000 - 6th Street, Suite 100

Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5608

(703) 806-2085

FAX: (703) 806-0675


The Army participates in three DoD SBIR Solicitations each year. Proposals not conforming to the terms of this Solicitation will not be considered.  The Army reserves the right to limit awards under any topic, and only those proposals of superior scientific and technical quality will be funded. Only Government personnel will evaluate proposals.




Army Phase I Proposals have a 20-page limit which includes the Proposal Cover Sheets (pages 1 and 2, which will be added electronically by the DoD submission site and do not require you to leave blank pages nor duplicate the electronically generated cover pages) and Technical Proposal (which begins on page 3 and may include: table of contents, pages left blank intentionally by you, references, letters of support, appendices, and all attachments). Therefore, a Technical Proposal of up to 18 pages in length counts towards the overall 20-page limit.  ONLY the Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report are excluded from the 20-pages.  Army Phase I Proposals submitted over 20-pages will be deemed NON-COMPLIANT and will not be evaluated. This statement takes precedence over section 3.4 of the general DoD solicitation instructions. Since proposals are required to be submitted in Portable Document Format (PDF), it is the responsibility of those submitting the proposal to ensure any PDF conversion is accurate and does not cause the proposal to exceed the 20-page limit.


The entire proposal (which includes Cover Sheets, Technical Proposal, Cost Proposal, and Company Commercialization Report) must be submitted electronically via the DoD SBIR/STTR Proposal Submission Site (  When submitting the mandatory Cost Proposal, the Army prefers that small businesses complete the Cost Proposal form on the DoD Submission site, versus submitting within the body of the uploaded proposal.  The Army WILL NOT accept any proposals which are not submitted via this site.  Do not send a hardcopy of the proposal.  Hand or electronic signature on the proposal is also NOT required.  If the proposal is selected for award, the DoD Component program will contact you for signatures.  If you experience problems uploading a proposal, call the DoD Help Desk 1-866-724-7457 (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).  Selection and non-selection letters will be sent electronically via e-mail.


Any proposal involving the use of Bio Hazard Materials must identify in the Technical Proposal whether the contractor has been certified by the Government to perform Bio Level - I, II or III work.


Companies should plan carefully for research involving animal or human subjects, or requiring access to government resources of any kind. Animal or human research must be based on formal protocols that are reviewed and approved both locally and through the Army's committee process. Resources such as equipment, reagents, samples, data, facilities, troops or recruits, and so forth, must all be arranged carefully. The few months available for a Phase I effort may preclude plans including these elements, unless coordinated before a contract is awarded.


If the offeror proposes to use a foreign national(s) [any person who is NOT a citizen or national of the United States, a lawful permanent resident, or a protected individual as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3) – refer to Section 2.15 at the front of this solicitation for definitions of “lawful permanent resident” and “protected individual”] as key personnel, they must be clearly identified. For foreign nationals, you must provide  technical resumes, country of origin and an explanation of the individual’s involvement. Please ensure no Privacy Act information is included in this submittal.


No Class 1 Ozone Depleting Chemicals/Ozone Depleting Substances will be allowed for use in this procurement without prior Government approval.


Phase I Proposals must describe the "vision" or "end-state" of the research and the most likely strategy or path for transition of the SBIR project from research to an operational capability that satisfies one or more Army operational or technical requirements in a new or existing system, larger research program, or as a stand-alone product or service.


Every Phase I proposal will be reviewed for overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.2 of this solicitation.




The Army implemented the use of a Phase I Option that may be exercised to fund interim Phase I activities while a Phase II contract is being negotiated.  Only Phase I efforts selected for Phase II awards through the Army’s competitive process will be eligible to exercise the Phase I Option.  The Phase I Option, which must be included as part of the Phase I proposal, covers activities over a period of up to four months and should describe appropriate initial Phase II activities that may lead to the successful demonstration of a product or technology. The Phase I Option must be included within the 20-page limit for the Phase I proposal.


A firm‑fixed‑price or cost‑plus‑fixed‑fee Phase I Cost Proposal ($120,000 maximum) must be submitted in detail online. Proposers that participate in this Solicitation must complete the Phase I Cost Proposal not to exceed the maximum dollar amount of $70,000 and a Phase I Option Cost Proposal (if applicable) not to exceed the maximum dollar amount of $50,000.  Phase I and Phase I Option costs must be shown separately but may be presented side-by-side on a single Cost Proposal.  The Cost Proposal DOES NOT count toward the 20-page Phase I proposal limitation.


Phase I Key Dates

10.3 Solicitation Pre-release     July 20 – 16 Aug, 2010

10.3 Solicitation Opens            August 17, 2010 – September 15, 2010

10.3 Solicitation Closes           September 15, 2010; 6:00 a.m. ET

Phase I Evaluations                  September – November 2010

Phase I Selections                    December 2010

Phase I Awards                        January 2011*


*Subject to the Congressional Budget process




Army Phase II Proposals have a 40-page limit which includes the Proposal Cover Sheets (pages 1 and 2, which will be added electronically by the DoD submission site and do not require you to leave blank pages nor duplicate the electronically generated cover pages) and Technical Proposal (which begins on page 3 and may include: table of contents, pages left blank intentionally by you, references, letters of support, appendices, and all attachments).Therefore, a Technical Proposal of up to 38 pages in length counts towards the overall 40-page limit.  ONLY the Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report are excluded from the 40-pages.  Army Phase II Proposals submitted over 40-pages will be deemed NON-COMPLIANT and will not be evaluated. Since proposals are required to be submitted in Portable Document Format (PDF), it is the responsibility of those submitting the proposal to ensure any PDF conversion is accurate and does not cause the proposal to exceed the 40-page limit.


Note!  Phase II Proposal Submission is by Army Invitation only.


For Phase II, no separate solicitation will be issued and no unsolicited proposals will be accepted.  Only those firms that were awarded Phase I contracts, and are successfully executing their Phase I efforts, will be invited to submit a Phase II proposal.  Generally, invitations to submit Phase II proposals will not be earlier than the 5th month of the Phase I effort.  The decision to invite a Phase II proposal will be made based upon the success of the Phase I contract to meet the technical goals of the topic, as well as the overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.3.  DoD is not obligated to make any awards under Phase I, II, or III.  DoD is not responsible for any money expended by the proposer before award of any contract.   For specifics regarding the evaluation and award of Phase I or II contracts, please read the front section of this solicitation very carefully. Every Phase II proposal will be reviewed for overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.3 of this solicitation.


Invited small businesses are required to develop and submit a technology transition and commercialization plan describing feasible approaches for transitioning and/or commercializing the developed technology in their Phase II proposal.  Army Phase II cost proposals must contain a budget for the entire 24 month Phase II period not to exceed the maximum dollar amount of $730,000.  During contract negotiation, the contracting officer may require a cost proposal for a base year and an option year.  These costs must be submitted using the Cost Proposal format (accessible electronically on the DoD submission site), and may be presented side-by-side on a single Cost Proposal Sheet.  The total proposed amount should be indicated on the Proposal Cover Sheet as the Proposed Cost. Phase II projects will be evaluated after the base year prior to extending funding for the option year.


Fast Track (see section 4.5 at the front of the Program Solicitation).  Small businesses that participate in the Fast Track program do not require an invitation.  Small businesses must submit (1) the Fast Track application within 150 days after the effective date of the SBIR phase I contract and (2) the Phase II proposal within 180 days after the effective date of its Phase I contract.




Accounting for Contract Services, otherwise known as Contractor Manpower Reporting Application (CMRA), is a Department of Defense Business Initiative Council (BIC) sponsored program to obtain better visibility of the contractor service workforce.  This reporting requirement applies to all Army SBIR contracts.


Beginning in the DoD 2006.2 SBIR solicitation, offerors are instructed to include an estimate for the cost of complying with CMRA as part of the cost proposal for Phase I ($70,000 maximum), Phase I Option ($50,000 max), and Phase II ($730,000 max), under “CMRA Compliance” in Other Direct Costs. This is an estimated total cost (if any) that would be incurred to comply with the CMRA requirement. Only proposals that receive an award will be required to deliver CMRA reporting, i.e. if the proposal is selected and an award is made, the contract will include a deliverable for CMRA.


To date, there has been a wide range of estimated costs for CMRA.  While most final negotiated costs have been minimal, there appears to be some higher cost estimates that can often be attributed to misunderstanding the requirement.  The SBIR Program desires for the Government to pay a fair and reasonable price.  This technical analysis is intended to help determine this fair and reasonable price for CMRA as it applies to SBIR contracts.


·      The Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower & Reserve Affairs) operates and maintains the secure CMRA System. The CMRA Web site is located here:


·      The CMRA requirement consists of the following items, which are located within the contract document, the contractor's existing cost accounting system (i.e. estimated direct labor hours, estimated direct labor dollars), or obtained from the contracting officer representative:

(1) Contract number, including task and delivery order number;

(2) Contractor name, address, phone number, e-mail address, identity of contractor employee entering data;

(3) Estimated direct labor hours (including sub-contractors);

(4) Estimated direct labor dollars paid this reporting period (including sub-contractors);

(5) Predominant Federal Service Code (FSC) reflecting services provided by contractor (and separate predominant FSC for each sub-contractor if different);

(6) Organizational title associated with the Unit Identification Code (UIC) for the Army Requiring Activity (The Army Requiring Activity is responsible for providing the contractor with its UIC for the purposes of reporting this information);

(7) Locations where contractor and sub-contractors perform the work (specified by zip code in the United States and nearest city, country, when in an overseas location, using standardized nomenclature provided on Web site);


·      The reporting period will be the period of performance not to exceed 12 months ending September 30 of each government fiscal year and must be reported by 31 October of each calendar year.


·      According to the required CMRA contract language, the contractor may use a direct XML data transfer to the Contractor Manpower Reporting System database server or fill in the fields on the Government Web site.  The CMRA Web site also has a no-cost CMRA XML Converter Tool.


Given the small size of our SBIR contracts and companies, it is our opinion that the modification of contractor payroll systems for automatic XML data transfer is not in the best interest of the Government.  CMRA is an annual reporting requirement that can be achieved through multiple means to include manual entry, MS Excel spreadsheet development, or use of the free Government XML converter tool.  The annual reporting should take less than a few hours annually by an administrative level employee.  Depending on labor rates, we would expect the total annual cost for SBIR companies to not exceed $500.00 annually, or to be included in overhead rates.




In accordance with section 9(q) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638(q)), the Army will provide technical assistance services to small businesses engaged in SBIR projects through a network of scientists and engineers engaged in a wide range of technologies. The objective of this effort is to increase Army SBIR technology transition and commercialization success thereby accelerating the fielding of capabilities to Soldiers and to benefit the nation through stimulated technological innovation, improved manufacturing capability, and increased competition, productivity, and economic growth.


The Army has stationed six Technical Assistance Advocates (TAAs) across the Army to provide technical assistance to small businesses that have Phase I and Phase II projects with the participating organizations within their regions.


For more information go to: .




The objective of the CPP effort is to increase Army SBIR technology transition and commercialization success and accelerate the fielding of capabilities to Soldiers.  The ultimate measure of success for the CPP is the Return on Investment (ROI), i.e. the further investment and sales of SBIR Technology as compared to the Army investment in the SBIR Technology.  The CPP: 1) assesses and identifies SBIR projects and companies with high transition potential that meet high priority requirements; 2) provides market research and business plan development; 3) matches SBIR companies to customers and facilitates collaboration; 4) prepares detailed technology transition plans and agreements; 5) makes recommendations and facilitates additional funding for select SBIR projects that meet the criteria identified above; and 6) tracks metrics and measures results for the SBIR projects within the CPP. 


Based on its assessment of the SBIR project’s potential for transition as described above, the Army utilizes a CPP investment fund of SBIR dollars targeted to enhance ongoing Phase II activities with expanded research, development, test and evaluation to accelerate transition and commercialization.  The CPP investment fund must be expended according to all applicable SBIR policy on existing Phase II contracts.  The size and timing of these enhancements is dictated by the specific research requirements, availability of matching funds, proposed transition strategies, and individual contracting arrangements.




All award winners must submit a non-proprietary summary report at the end of their Phase I project and any subsequent Phase II project. The summary report is unclassified, non-sensitive, and non-proprietary and should include:

·       A summation of Phase I results

·       A description of the technology being developed

·       The anticipated DoD and/or non-DoD customer

·       The plan to transition the SBIR developed technology to the customer

·       The anticipated applications/benefits for government and/or private sector use

·       An image depicting the developed technology


The non-proprietary summary report should not exceed 700 words, and is intended for public viewing on the Army SBIR/STTR Small Business area.  This summary report is in addition to the required final technical report and should require minimal work because most of this information is required in the final technical report.   The summary report shall be submitted in accordance with the format and instructions posted within the Army SBIR Small Business Portal at  and is due within 30 days of the contract end date.




A final technical report is required for each project.  Per DFARS clause 252.235-7011

(, each contractor shall (a) submit two copies of the approved scientific or technical report delivered under the contract to the Defense Technical Information Center, Attn:  DTIC-O, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA  22060-6218; (b) Include a completed Standard Form 298, Report Documentation Page, with each copy of the report; and (c) For submission of reports in other than paper copy, contact the Defense Technical Information Center or follow the instructions at




Participating Organizations                                                PC                             Phone                 


Aviation and Missile RD&E Center (Aviation)                        PJ Jackson                                 (757) 878-5400

A10-146                                Detection of Contaminants in Aviation Fuel

A10-147                                Hybrid Impeller Disk for High Pressure Compressor Configurations in Future Turboshaft Engines

A10-148                                Efficient Lifting Surface Method for Rotorcraft Analysis


Aviation and Missile RD&E Center (Missile)                           Buddy Thomas                         (256) 842-9227

                                                                                                              Dawn Gratz                               (256) 842-8769

A10-149                                Weapons System Flow Separation

A10-150                                Near Infrared Stretched Pulse Processing

A10-151                                Deterministic Finishing of Domes with Buried Electromagnetic Structures

A10-152                                High Density Liquid Hydrogen Missile Fuel


Medical Research and Materiel Command                              JR Myers                                    (301) 619-7377

                                                                                                             Dawn Rosarius                           (301) 619-3354

A10-153                                Detection and Serotype Identification of Dengue Virus in the Mosquito Vector

A10-154                                Development of a Molecular Assay to Identify Ticks that Vector Rickettsial Diseases

A10-155                                Multiagent Synthetic DNA Vaccines Delivered by Noninvasive Electroporation

A10-156                                Disposable Coagulation Profiler

A10-157                                Engineered Bacterial Cells for Rapid Toxicity Evaluations of Drinking Water

A10-158                                Deployable Pan-flavivirus and Pan-alphavirus Assays for Screening Pools of Medically Relevant


A10-159                                Software Tool for Complex Biomarker Discovery

A10-160                                Controlled Release of Topical Nitric Oxide for Treating Cutaneous Injuries


Natick Soldier RD&E Center                                                      Dr. Gerald Raisanen                 (508) 233-4223

A10-161                                Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Fabrics for use with Soft Walled Shelters

A10-162                                High Barrier Packaging Based on Melt Extrudable Liquid Crystal Polymers

A10-163                                Fabric with Variable Air Permeability for Use in Parachutes

A10-164                                Energy Efficient Ice Supply in Theatre (EEISIT)

A10-165                                Improved Ballistic Combat Hearing Protection

A10-166                                Overhead Threat Protection (OTP)

A10-167                                Algorithms for Ground Soldier Based Simulations and Decision Support Applications

A10-168                                Selfpowered Solar Water Heater


Program Executive Office Aviation                                        Dave Weller                                (256) 313-4975

A10-169                                Fatigue Crack Initiation Prediction Tool for Rotorcraft Spiral Bevel Gears


PEO Combat Support & Combat
Service Support
                                                                                Robert LaPolice                       (586) 909-9945

A10-170                                Lightweight Transparent Ballistic Material for Vehicles


PEO Enterprise Information Systems                                        Rajat Ray                                   (703) 806-4538

A10-171                                Multimodal Biometrics Score Level Fusion Matching Techniques


PEO Integration                                                                               Fran Rush                                  (703) 676-0124

                                                                                                             Philip Hudner                            (703) 676-0082

A10-172                Obstacle Detection and Awareness via High-Resolution Monocular Video


PEO Soldier                                                                                      John Houston                            (703) 704-3309

                                                                                                             TJ Junor                                     (703) 704-2856

A10-173                                Untethered Video Transmission

PEO Simulation, Training and Instrumentation                     Rob Forbis                                 (407) 384-3884               

A10-174                                Precision Autonomous Virtual Flight Control


Tank Automotive RD&E Center                                                  Jim Mainero                             (586) 282-8646

A10-175                                Robot Localization & Navigation for Night Operations in GPS Denied Areas

A10-176                                Ultra Lightweight Runflat Technology








This is a Checklist of Army Requirements for your proposal.  Please review the checklist carefully to ensure that your proposal meets the Army SBIR requirements.  You must also meet the general DoD requirements specified in the solicitation. Failure to meet these requirements will result in your proposal not being evaluated or considered for award.  Do not include this checklist with your proposal.


____    1.  The proposal addresses a Phase I effort (up to $70,000 with up to a six-month duration) AND (if applicable) an optional effort (up to $50,000 for an up to four-month period to provide interim Phase II funding).


____    2.  The proposal is limited to only ONE Army Solicitation topic.


____    3.  The technical content of the proposal, including the Option, includes the items identified in Section 3.5 of the Solicitation.


____    4. Army Phase I Proposals have a 20-page limit which includes the Proposal Cover Sheets (pages 1 and 2, which will be added electronically by the DoD submission site and do not require you to leave blank pages nor duplicate the electronically generated cover pages) and Technical Proposal (which begins on page 3 and may include: table of contents, pages left blank intentionally by you, references, letters of support, appendices, and all attachments).  Therefore, the Technical Proposal up to 18 pages in length counts towards the overall 20-page limit.  ONLY the Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report are excluded from the 20-pages.  Army Phase I Proposals submitted over 20-pages will be deemed NON-COMPLIANT and will not be evaluated. This statement takes precedence over section 3.4 of the general DoD solicitation instructions. Since proposals are required to be submitted in Portable Document Format (PDF), it is the responsibility of those submitting the proposal to ensure any PDF conversion is accurate and does not cause the proposal to exceed the 20-page limit.


____    5.  The Cost Proposal has been completed and submitted for both the Phase I and Phase I Option (if applicable) and the costs are shown separately.  The Army prefers that small businesses complete the Cost Proposal form on the DoD Submission site, versus submitting within the body of the uploaded proposal.  The total cost should match the amount on the cover pages.


____    6.  Requirement for Army Accounting for Contract Services, otherwise known as CMRA reporting is included in the Cost Proposal (offerors are instructed to include an estimate for the cost of complying with CMRA).


____    7.  If applicable, the Bio Hazard Material level has been identified in the technical proposal.


____    8.  If applicable, plan for research involving animal or human subjects, or requiring access to government resources of any kind.


____    9.  The Phase I Proposal describes the "vision" or "end-state" of the research and the most likely strategy or path for transition of the SBIR project from research to an operational capability that satisfies one or more Army operational or technical requirements in a new or existing system, larger research program, or as a stand-alone product or service.


____    10.  If applicable, Foreign Nationals are identified in the proposal. An employee must have an

H-1B Visa to work on a DoD contract.

Army SBIR 10.3 Topic Index



A10-146                                Detection of Contaminants in Aviation Fuel

A10-147                                Hybrid Impeller Disk for High Pressure Compressor Configurations in Future Turboshaft Engines

A10-148                                Efficient Lifting Surface Method for Rotorcraft Analysis

A10-149                                Weapons System Flow Separation

A10-150                                Near Infrared Stretched Pulse Processing

A10-151                                Deterministic Finishing of Domes with Buried Electromagnetic Structures

A10-152                                High Density Liquid Hydrogen Missile Fuel

A10-153                                Detection and Serotype Identification of Dengue Virus in the Mosquito Vector

A10-154                                Development of a Molecular Assay to Identify Ticks that Vector Rickettsial Diseases

A10-155                                Multiagent Synthetic DNA Vaccines Delivered by Noninvasive Electroporation

A10-156                                Disposable Coagulation Profiler

A10-157                                Engineered Bacterial Cells for Rapid Toxicity Evaluations of Drinking Water

A10-158                                Deployable Pan-flavivirus and Pan-alphavirus Assays for Screening Pools of Medically Relevant


A10-159                                Software Tool for Complex Biomarker Discovery

A10-160                                Controlled Release of Topical Nitric Oxide for Treating Cutaneous Injuries

A10-161                                Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Fabrics for use with Soft Walled Shelters

A10-162                                High Barrier Packaging Based on Melt Extrudable Liquid Crystal Polymers

A10-163                                Fabric with Variable Air Permeability for Use in Parachutes

A10-164                                Energy Efficient Ice Supply in Theatre (EEISIT)

A10-165                                Improved Ballistic Combat Hearing Protection

A10-166                                Overhead Threat Protection (OTP)

A10-167                                Algorithms for Ground Soldier Based Simulations and Decision Support Applications

A10-168                                Selfpowered Solar Water Heater

A10-169                                Fatigue Crack Initiation Prediction Tool for Rotorcraft Spiral Bevel Gears

A10-170                                Lightweight Transparent Ballistic Material for Vehicles

A10-171                                Multimodal Biometrics Score Level Fusion Matching Techniques

A10-172                                Obstacle Detection and Awareness via High-Resolution Monocular Video

A10-173                                Untethered Video Transmission

A10-174                                Precision Autonomous Virtual Flight Control

A10-175                                Robot Localization & Navigation for Night Operations in GPS Denied Areas

A10-176                                Ultra Lightweight Runflat Technology

Army SBIR 10.3 Topic Descriptions



A10-146                                TITLE: Detection of Contaminants in Aviation Fuel


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes




OBJECTIVE: To create an inline device or sensor that can recognize contaminated fuel before and while refueling Army Aircraft, and shut down the refueling operation immediately upon detection of contamination. This device or sensor should provide an indication to the refueling personnel that contamination has been recognized and shut off refueling operation to prevent the contaminated fuel from entering the aircraft.   


DESCRIPTION: The US Army has had numerous engine flameouts in aircraft over the past five (5) years. Upon detailed review of both the US Army Safety Center and Aviation Engineering Directorate (AED) historical records, numerous flameout have been caused by contaminated fuel containing both particulate and water. 


Army aircraft can be "cold" refueled (aircraft systems non operational) or "Hot" refueled (aircraft systems operational) during normal refueling operations.  Hot Refueling typically occurs when an aircraft lands during missions at a Forward Area Refueling Equipment (FARE) Station (gas station) and takes on fuel.  This is a very common refueling method during war and mission training. The aircraft does not shut down its engines. The aircraft engine(s) and rotor systems remain engaged while refueling, enabling the aircraft ready for immediate take off.  During this period of time (about 10 minutes) it is both a hazard to take fuel samples to determine contaminates and there is not enough time for settling of contaminates inside the aircraft fuel tanks. Therefore no fuel sample is taken.


It is also very difficult to obtain a good representative fuel sample after cold refueling. The recognized particulate settling time is one hour for every foot depth of a fuel tank (ref: Army Aircraft Operating Manual -10). Therefore, contaminants may be in suspension in the fuel and not available at the bottom of the fuel tank (where the fuel sample is taken) for some time. If contaminated fuel enters the fuel system via either of the above refueling methods the minimum negative consequence will be a time consuming mainenance action to clean and flush the system. 


If a device or sensor could be installed in the refueling equipment prior to the fuel entering the aircraft (at the skin of the aircraft) that could identify contaminated fuel and shut down the refueling system if contamination is discovered, Army Aviation would greatly benefit. Having an aircraft take off with contaminated fuel compromises aircrew safety and the mission of Army Aviation.  


Lastly, fuel and refueling equipment is not considered a "high tech" system and the Army is currently working with equipment that has not changed in 30 years. Even the filter coalesors that remove water and particulate have been designed 30 years ago. The systems have served us well but the Army has been experiencing engine flameouts and cleaning aircraft fuel tanks with contaminated fuel for a very long time.  A new fuel sensoring device will enhance safety and ensure continued aircraft availability and readiness. 


PHASE I: Design a device or sensor to be integrated into current Army Aircraft refueling methods:  Gravity, Closed Circuit and Pressure (D-1 Nozzle) and be compatible with the Army's refueling equipment, FARE, and fuel trucks that can identify contaminated fuel during refueling prior to entering the aircraft. 


This sensor must identify particulates of matter at 5 micron level and detect both free and emulsified water at 10 parts per million levels. This device or sensor should notify the refueling personnel and immediately shut down the refueling system to prevent contaminated fuel from entering the aircraft.  Determine the feasibility of integrating this device or sensor into the refueling hose. The device or sensor must operate within the same world wide environment(s), capabilities, and refueling rates as the current refueling systems, 15 to 300 gallons per minutes flow rate at 10 to 55 psi pressure, and be self contained powered.  


PHASE II: Construct and demonstrate the device to ensure it is compatible with existing Forward Area Refueling Equipment (FARE) or refueling truck equipment used to refuel Army Aircraft. The device should be self contained, including power, to operate and be able to stop the fuel flow of contaminated fuel from entering the aircraft. 


The device needs to be passive in nature requiring no oeperational manintenance other than a simple push to test system. 


PHASE III: Review of numerous aircraft accidents/engine flameouts caused by contaminated fuel indicate that there is an outstanding potential for this technology to be incorporated in both the military and commercial environments. We (AMCOM) have already briefed and presented our SBIR project to the Tank and Automotive Research Development and Engineering Command (TARDEC) (Mr. Schmitigal and his supervisor Mr. Turnipseed), and  they were very acceptable to the resolution of contaminated fuel. In addition, they mentioned that this would also help in delivering good clean fuel to the ground equipment that is serviced by the same FARE equipment. It is with their systems that this device or sensor would have to be installed/fabricated to adapt to the Army's refueling systems. As stated in Phase I and II, we will be working very closely with our TARDEC personnel to ensure this program is properly executed and validated on Army equipment. Phase III validate this new device and transition to acquisition. The final phase after successful testing - will be to incorporate this on all Army refueling equipment. 



1. US Army Briefing to Aviaiton Engineering Directorate (Mr. K. Rotenberger 10 Dec 2009.


2. US Army Safety Center Class E Mishap Reports


3. MIL-DTL-83133 Detailed Specification Turbine Fuel, Aviation Kerosene Types, NATO F-34 (JP-8), NATO F-35 and JP-8+100


4. MIL-DTL-52849E Test Kit-Aviation fuel Contamination (Portable)


5. MIL-PRF-81380E Filter/Monitor, Contamination, Aviation Fuel Dispensing System


KEYWORDS: Clean Fuel, Refueling, Forward Area Refueling Equipment, Cleanliness, Pristine




A10-147                                TITLE: Hybrid Impeller Disk for High Pressure Compressor Configurations in Future Turboshaft



TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Space Platforms




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to develop advanced heat treatment capabilities that provide varying microstructure and material properties to impeller disks to produce optimal strength capabilities in the disk core section and improved creep rupture capabilities in the outer section of the disk. This will enable material capabilities that allow life to be met in high pressure ratio compression sections enabling improved engine specific fuel consumption capability.


DESCRIPTION: Ongoing operations in adverse and challenging theaters have created a need for increased performance from advanced turboshaft engines.  It is anticipated that these will be new centerline engines that are greater than 3,000 shaft-horsepower with a 20-35% reduction in specific fuel consumption (SFC), a 50-90% improvement in shaft horsepower to weight, and a 35-40% reduction in production and maintenance cost. These turboshaft engine goals are acknowledged to be highly aggressive. To achieve them will require technology leaps. Innovative material systems are necessary to allow operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressure ratios to meet the necessary system level performance goals, while providing an affordable solution.


The cycle temperatures of turboshaft engines have been increasing in advanced designs to allow for higher horsepower to weight ratios, and reduced specific fuel consumption. In a typical turboshaft engine impeller, the bore region of the impeller operates at a lower temperature than the outer region with a need for high tensile strength due to the large centrifugal stresses generated by the high speed of rotation of the impeller, and the impeller outer rim operates at higher temperatures, with a need for creep growth material capabilities. Current designs often compromise the properties between the two regions to achieve a full life design impeller. The objective of this topic is to develop advanced heat treatment capabilities that provide varying microstructure and material properties to impeller disks to produce optimal strength capabilities in the disk core section and improved creep rupture capabilities in the outer section of the disk. This will enable material capabilities that allow life to be met in high temperature and pressure ratio compression sections enabling improved engine specific fuel consumption capability. Previous work has been accomplished in axial compressor and turbine disks; this program is to specifically focus on the challenges associated with developing advanced heat treatment capabilities for impeller disks. The heat treated impeller shall be capable of operating at advanced turbine engine operating conditions, which include a rotational speed of up to 50,000 RPM, maximum tip speeds in the range of 2200 ft/s, impeller exit temperatures with a range of 400 degrees Fahrenheit  (part power) to over 1300 degrees Fahrenheit (at full power), and bore temperatures of 300 to 800 degrees Fahrenheit over this same operating range, while exhibiting 6,000 hrs / 15,000 low cycle fatigue (LCF) cycles of design life.


PHASE I: Phase I will evaluate the ability of advanced heat treatments to produce the varying microstructures needed along with manufacturability, feasibility, and basic mechanical properties of the advanced heat treatment capabilities for turboshaft engine impeller disks. The offeror shall attempt to coordinate with an engine manufacturer to determine the geometry and operating environment of a representative advanced turboshaft engine impeller for which to apply the subject technology. This phase may include coupon testing for the evaluation of material properties. At the end of Phase I, an advanced heat treatment for impellers shall show feasibility to achieve the necessary material properties to provide improved impeller life for the advanced turboshaft engine environment.


PHASE II: This phase will develop and optimize the heat treatment process to provide improved material properties and life capability for the advanced turboshaft engine impeller identified in Phase I. A full scale component, representative of a turboshaft engine impeller, shall be produced, heat treated, and tested for mechanical properties to include tensile, creep, and fatigue. Material properties of the impeller shall be attained across all regions (bore, transition, and rim) of the impeller and at room and at equivalent elevated temperatures experienced in advanced turboshaft engines. Material structure and failure mechanisms shall be evaluated. Improved life capability shall be validated via engine or spin testing at representative speeds and temperatures. Manufacturability of the heat treatment, along with the affordability of the process shall be evaluated.


PHASE III: This phase will focus on the commercialization of the technology through integration into engine manufacturers’ propulsion systems for use in future engine development programs. 


The technology will be commercialized through integrating the heat treatment capability into an engine manufacturers’ military engine development efforts to contribute to the reduction of specific fuel consumption by 20-35%, improved shaft horsepower to weight by 50-90% and reduced production and maintenance costs by 35-50% with increased operating temperatures and pressures of future advanced military or commercial engine development programs. The technology has a wide application to multiple Program Executive Office (PEO) Aviation current and future platforms in addition to multiple commercial platforms. For example, this technology is applicable to the development of an improved engine to support a growth CH-47 or Joint Multi Role (JMR), or any commercial engine development program.



1. Gayda, John, and David Furrer. "Dual-Microstructure Heat Treatment." Heat Treating Progress 3 (2003): 85-89. ASM International, The Materials Information Society, 01 Oct. 2003. Web. 7 Jan. 2010. <>.


2. Gayda, John. "Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy Assessed."


3. Gayda, John, Tim Gabb, and Pete Kantzos. "Low Cost Heat Treatment Process for Production of Dual Microstructure Superalloy Disks." NASA Technical Reports Server. NASA, 07 July 2009. Web. 7 Jan. 2010. <>.


4. Gayda, John, Timothy Gabb, and Pete Kantzos. "Advanced Heat Treatment Technology for Superalloy Disks Verified." NASA Technical Reports Server. NASA, 29 July 2009. Web. 7 Jan. 2010. <>.


KEYWORDS: Heat treatment, turboshaft engines, varying microstructure, impeller




A10-148                                TITLE: Efficient Lifting Surface Method for Rotorcraft Analysis






OBJECTIVE: Develop an efficient lifting surface method to be incorporated into a rotorcraft comprehensive analysis framework for effective prediction of rotor aerodynamic loading, performance and stability. The method would be more accurate than lifting line methods, yet significantly less computationally intensive than CFD methods.


DESCRIPTION: Computational predictive capabilities are critical for all phases of rotorcraft engineering, research and development. Because of the conflicting requirements for accuracy and computational efficiency, a range of rotorcraft modeling and simulation methods are used by today’s researchers and designers to satisfy these needs. Traditional rotorcraft comprehensive codes, e.g., RCAS (Ref.1) and CAMRAD II (Ref. 2) currently in wide use are based on semi-empirical lifting line methods. Considerable attention is now being focused on coupling such codes with CFD methods to accurately address the most complex aspects of rotorcraft aerodynamic phenomena. These coupled CFD methods demonstrated phenomenal improvement in predictive accuracy for both steady and maneuvering flight (Refs. 3, 4). At least a large part of this apparent improvement is tied to the overly simplistic assumptions in the lifting-line methods. Although these methods are computationally efficient, they lack even simple 3-D flow effects and are, therefore, unable to account for the aerodynamics of advanced planform and tip-shape effects, cambered airfoils, and the aerodynamics of low aspect ratio wing and tail surfaces. In the fixed-wing arena lifting surface methods have been extensively used to model these effects accurately (Refs. 5-11). Lifting surface methods can model the 3-D flow effects leading to accurate prediction of not only lift but also pitch moment, thereby bridging the gap between simple lifting line theory and large CFD methods. This capability is crucial for rotorcraft applications as it drives control loads predictions. However, within the spectrum of rotorcraft analysis tools, such intermediate lifting surface methods are conspicuous by their absence. There have been some rotorcraft developments (Refs. 12-16), but their benefits have been largely neglected by the rotorcraft community. This topic is aimed at developing a suitable lifting surface method, leveraging the most appropriate existing theory, to provide useful and cost effective software that may be integrated with existing rotorcraft comprehensive codes.


The methods of interest will likely be linear methods for maximum versatility and simplicity, probably vortex lattice methods modeling the mean surface of the wing or rotor blade. Panel methods may be considered but are not necessary.  Both rotating and fixed lifting surfaces, e.g., rotor blades and wing/tail, should be addressed. Both steady and unsteady applications are of interest, thus some form of the doublet lattice method is probably appropriate. Ability to predict the inviscid aerodynamic lift, drag (induced), and moment characteristics must be demonstrated.  Complex nonlinear effects, typical of rotorcraft aerodynamics, e.g., shocks, separation and stall effects, and effects of nonlinear wake geometry (self-induced free wake convection) are considered beyond the scope of this topic.  Unsteady aerodynamics should be included, preferably in a state space formulation to enable efficient coupling with structural models for stability analysis (linear eigenanalysis methods). The topic will include basic tools to define and model typical wings and rotor blades having arbitrary geometries, tools to extract resultant blade loading, section aerodynamic properties, etc., and the development of software code in modular form that may be incorporated into a comprehensive analysis.


PHASE I: Define appropriate theory basis for the intended code and extend/develop as appropriate for rotorcraft applications. Design an applicable software architecture including proposed interface with a typical comprehensive code, e.g., RCAS.  Code a prototype version of a portion of the lifting surface method for a rotating component (rotor blade) and demonstrate sample results for a representative configuration.


PHASE II: Complete development of all theory required.  Refine the preliminary design and complete the detailed design of the lifting surface software. Implement the software design including software testing and demonstration for a representative suite of test problems. Perform a detailed analysis and incorporate the full lifting surface code into a rotorcraft comprehensive code. Develop documentation including theory, user, software design manuals, and sample problems.


PHASE III: Develop and refine the lifting surface model into a stand-alone module for application to the rotorcraft design process. This should be programmed to be used either as a stand-alone tool or as a module under a python-based software framework. Initially the module may be coupled into the US Army's RCAS comprehensive code and the future high-performance high fidelity analysis tool, HI-ARMS, to provide alternative levels of fidelity. The industry is also moving towards this type of software framework and the lifting surface module will have a unique position in industry's design tools. Here, advanced design methodology will be equally applicable to military and civilian vehicles, increasing design cycle effectiveness and ultimately reducing development and operating costs and improving vehicle mission effectiveness.



1. Saberi, H, Khoslahjeh, M, Ormiston, R. A., and Rutkowski, M. J., ‘Overview of RCAS and Application to Advanced Rotorcraft Problems,’American Helicopter Society 4th Decennial Specialists‚ Conference on Aeromechanics, San Francisco, CA, January 2004.


2. Johnson, W., “Rotorcraft Aerodynamic Models for a Comprehensive Analysis,” 54th Annual Forum, American Helicopter Society, Alexandria, VA, May 1998


3. Potsdam, M., Yeo, H. and Johnson, W., ‘Rotor Airloads Predictions Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling’, American Helicopter Society 60th Annual Forum, Baltimore MD, June 2004.


4. Bhagwat, M. J., Ormiston, R. A., Saberi, H. A. and Xin, H., “Application of CFD/CSD Coupling for Analysis of Rotorcraft Airloads and Blade Loads in Maneuvering Flight,” American Helicopter Society 63rd Annual Forum, Virginia Beach, VA, May 1-3, 2007.


5. Lan, C.E., “A Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method in Thin Wing Theory”, Journal of Aircraft, Vol.11, No. 9, September 1974, pp. 518-527.


6. Kalman, T.P., Rodden, W.P., and Giesing, J., “Application of the Doublet-Lattice Method to Nonplanar Configurations in Subsonic Flow,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 8, No. 6, June 1971, pp. 406-415.


7. Kocurek, J.D., and Tangler, J.L. "A Prescribed Wake Lifting Surface Hover Performance Analysis." Journal of the American Helicopter Society, 22:1 (January 1977).


8. Margason, R.J., and Lamar, J.E., “Vortex-Lattice FORTRAN Program for Estimating Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Complex Planforms,” NASA TN D-6142, 1971


9. Hough, Gary R., “Remarks on Vortex-Lattice Methods,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 10, No. 5, May 1973, pp. 314-317.


10. Albano, E., and Rodden, W.P., “A Doublet-Lattice Method for Calculating Lift Distributions on Oscillating Surfaces in Subsonic Flows,” AIAA J., Vol. 7, No. 2, February 1969, pp. 279-285; errata AIAA J., Vol. 7, No. 11, November 1969, p. 2192.


11. Carmichael, R.L., and Erickson, L.L., "PAN AIR - A Higher Order Panel Method for Predicting Subsonic or Supersonic Linear Potential Flows About Arbitrary Configurations," AIAA Paper No. 81-1255, June 1981.


12. Ashby, D.L., Dudley, M.R., Iguchi, S.K., Browne, L., and Katz, J., “Potential Flow Theory and Operation Guide for the Panel Code PMARC,” NASA TM 102851, Jan. 1991.


13. Quackenbush, T.R.; Bliss, D.B.; and Wachspress, D.A. "New Free-Wake Analysis of Rotorcraft Hover Performance Using Influence Coefficients." Journal of Aircraft, 26:12 (December 1989).


14. Runyan, H.L., and Tai, H. "Application of a Lifting Surface Theory for a Helicopter in Forward Flight." Vertica, 10:3/4 (1986).


15. Shenoy, K.R., and Gray, R.B. "Iterative Lifting Surface Method for Thick Bladed Hovering Helicopter Rotors." Journal of Aircraft, 18:6 (June 1981).


16. Summa, J.M., and Clark, D.R. "A Lifting-Surface Method for Hover/Climb Airloads." American Helicopter Society 35th Annual Forum, Washington, D.C., May 1979.


KEYWORDS: Lifting surface theory, vortex lattice method, rotorcraft aerodynamics, comprehensive analysis




A10-149                                TITLE: Weapons System Flow Separation






The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: To develop an advanced physics based simulation capable of capturing the flow physics and dynamics of flow separation in a range of weapons systems covering both aerodynamic and propulsive subsystems of the weapon.


DESCRIPTION: Flow separation is one of the two or three most difficult problems facing the designers of advanced weapons systems. It is responsible for both an increase in drag, a decrease in stability, and a loss of thrust for the weapon. In turn, these three items are responsible for the majority of the efficiency loss experienced by the weapon system. The problem is most dramatic for the resultant loss in stability since the weapon air frame can be caused to go unstable and, given sufficient time in this state, the weapon becomes uncontrollable. In the case of the propulsive system, flow separation can result in such a loss of thrust that the propulsive force is lower than the drag and the system continues to slow down to the point that it cannot meet range requirements. Performances loss due to the increase in drag associated with flow separation are usually less dramatic but always result in decreased performance of the weapon system. Hence the need for a predictive dynamic model and design tool for flow separation is driven by some dramatic performance losses and mission failures for weapons systems.


Recent tests have pointed to both the need for such a tool and the lack of understanding of the physics of the flow separation problem. It is particularly acute in weapons systems that employ jet interaction or jet thrusters for quick reaction control. It is also particularly acute in weapons systems that employ multi-stage systems. It is also of interest in high dynamic pressure warhead separations from a carrier vehicle.


The elimination of flow separation for certain mission parameters is not possible and, hence, one must resort to solutions that minimize the flow separation effects. This is possible only when one understands the complicated physics of this phenomenon. This requires both an analytical and experimental effort to obtain a solution to this key problem. Therefore, an innovative solution is sought to understand and develop methods for reduction of the flow separation issue for a stage separation problem generated by a jet interaction force or a stage separation event for a supersonic flowfield. Quality flow field data sufficient to understand the separated flow field from previous testing may be used or a test for the purposes of proving out the proposed solution must be included in this effort.


PHASE I: Innovative stage system simulations are sought to describe the transient flow separation event for a supersonic/hypersonic missile flight at low altitude. Additionally, this simulation must lead to at least one method to substantially reduce flow separation effects for a weapons system. Technical approaches will be formulated in Phase I which give special consideration to the following:


1. Flight Mach Number from 1.5 to 8

2. Flight Altitude from 5 to 15 km

3. Use of jet interaction control

4. Air frame stage separation

5. Asymmetric air frames


One meaningful demonstration will then be executed and a flow field solution produced with this advanced computational model during Phase-I. This demonstration shall model the case of separated flow over a missile interceptor configuration with jet-interaction thruster as follows:


Axisymmetric cylindrical body (no external fins or control surfaces)

Conical (30 degreee half-angle) nose

Blunt base (no propulsive exhaust)

Missile length = 1.50 m

Missile diameter = 150 mm

Flight Mach number = 8

Flight altitude = 45 km

Flight angle-of-attack = 0 degrees

Jet centered at 685 mm from the aft end


With jet-interaction thruster properties as follows:

Gaseous H2/O2 fuel

Equivalence ratio = 1.5

Combustor pressure = 13.8 MPa

Exit radius = 25.2349 mm

Throat radius = 7.9629 mm

Conical nozzle with a 15 degree half-angle


The outcome of this test case will serve as a gauge to assess the potential for Phase-II success.


PHASE II: The physical model formulated in Phase I will be developed and refined using computational fluid dynamics to evaluate flow separation and flight characteristics over a broad range of flight scenarios of interest. If quality data is not available, a wind tunnel test shall be conducted to provide this applicable data. Additionally, this advanced computational fluid dynamics model will be run to compare with a test case for which detailed flow field data has been obtained to demonstrate the advanced capabilities for analyzing and modeling a flow separation event.


PHASE III: If successful, the end result of this Phase-I/Phase-II research effort will be a flow separation method validated by a predictive model for the analysis of power-on supersonic/hypersonic endo-atmospheric missile in flight.


The transition of this product, a validated research tool, to an operational capability will require additional upgrades of the software tool set for a user-friendly environment along with the concurrent development of application specific data bases to include the required input parameters such as missile geometries, solid rocket motor properties, and performance parameters.


For military applications, this technology is directly applicable to all supersonic/hypersonic missile systems.


For commercial applications, this technology is directly applicable to all multi-stage commercial launch systems such as the NASA Aries, and the Delta and Atlas families.


The most likely customer and source of Government funding for Phase-III will be those service project offices responsible for the development of advanced missiles such as the PEO Missiles and Space.



1. Ralf Stark, DLR, “Flow Separation in Rocket Nozzles, a Simple Criteria,” German Aerospace Research Center, Lampoldshausen AIAA-2005-3940 41st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Tucson, Arizona, July 10-13, 2005.


2. Springer, Anthony M., “Experimental investigation of plume-induced flow separation on the National Launch System 1 1/2-stage launch vehicle,” NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL AIAA-1994-30 Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 32nd, Reno, NV, Jan 10-13, 1994


3. Simmons, F.S., Rocket Exhaust Plume Phenomenology, ISBN 1-884989-08-X, AIAA, 2000.


KEYWORDS: flow separation, jet interaction, flight dynamics, missile systems




A10-150                                TITLE: Near Infrared Stretched Pulse Processing


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: The goal of this effort is to develop a high-fidelity; near-infrared projector system capable of simulating the laser return signals representative of those encountered in real-world SAL engagements. The system must have the capability to project complex optical waveforms through control of their spatial and temporal characteristics. This system would greatly expand the Army’s ability to test new SAL sensor designs and avoid costly and often incomplete field testing or, worse yet, finding problems during combat conditions.


DESCRIPTION: To evaluate, characterize, or test Semi-active laser (SAL) sensors in a laboratory or hardware-in-the-loop environment requires simulating the laser return signal produced by optical pulses from a laser designator illuminating a target. Presently, the representation of the laser return (pulse) signal is quite simple, being represented as a Gaussian spot with a fixed angular size whose intensity can vary to simulate closure on the target. However, real-world laser return signals can be significantly corrupted both spatially and temporally by atmospheric and surface reflection factors resulting in one or more complex return signals for a given designator pulse. This spatial and temporal complexity may critically impact the sensor performance during acquisition, tracking and aim point selection.


The primary result of spatial corruption is to introduce non-uniformity into the intensity profile of the laser return signal. The non-uniformity is due primarily to the non-uniform reflectivity of the surface illuminated by the laser beam. Another factor of the spatial corruption is the atmospheric conditions, i.e., contributions from dust or smoke which may be present in the atmosphere. The dust and smoke particles scatter and/or absorb the laser radiation (direct or reflected) as it travels through the atmosphere. The density of dust or smoke can vary greatly over the path the optical radiation may travel thereby leading to significant spatial non-uniformities in the return beam profile. Further, range closure alone will significantly change the size of the observed laser pulse during the final, critical stages of engagement.


The primary result of temporal corruption is characterized by stretching, or splitting, of the original laser pulse. Pulse stretching can occur due to the geometrical relationship between the angle at which the designator pulse strikes the target surface and the angle at which the sensor observes the laser return signal. Atmospheric conditions (i.e., dust or smoke) can also contribute to the pulse stretching. Along with pulse stretching, the intensity profile of the laser return radiation may vary over the extent of the pulse length.


The desired laser pulse system should be capable of generating laser pulses with a temporal resolution of one nanosecond across a total period up to 100 nanoseconds. Spatial pulse representation should be 256x256 with pulse spatial widths dynamically controlled across a range of 0.5-20 mrad. Amplitude dynamic range should be >20dB both within the spatial cross-section and across the full temporal profile. The requirements cited are viewed as extremely challenging and not readily available in the commercial segment and pose a high degree of technical risk.


The pulsed laser system should be compatible with current government HWIL operations and be able to be integrated with existing communications infrastructure within the HWIL simulation systems. The pulsed laser system should also support real-time operation (>40 Hz) with minimal latency (<10 msec). Presently, the only time that real-world excitations for Near IR sensors occur is during field testing such as captive flight, tower tests or flight tests. Effective testing in a controlled environment i.e. laboratory will not only result in better system performance but could potentially result in significant cost and schedule reduction in problems which are identified prior to field testing.


The current lasers used to test sensors in the laboratory environment produce a uniformly distributed energy pulse i.e. Gaussian spot. The proposed product is to provide the capability to be able to produce an energy pulse that is representative of the effects seen in the real-world in the laboratory environment. As such, the war-fighter will be provided with either a weapon or sensor system that is more robust by being able to improve the algorithms within the Near Infrared (NIR) sensors prior to flight tests or in field applications.


PHASE I: Develop a detailed system design of the laser pulse simulator supporting the technical specifications described above. Specifically address the costs and technical risks associated with the proposed approach.


PHASE II: During this phase of the program the intent is to transition the proposed system design to a proto-type system which can be integrated with a hardware-in-the-loop projection system or some other projection system to demonstrate the ability to apply intra-pulse modulate to the NIR signal.


PHASE III: The proposed stretched pulse laser system (Near Infrared –NIR) will be transitioned to and used by US ARMY AMRDEC to enhance testing of multi-spectral, in particular the near infrared (NIR) band, sensor systems in relevant environments. The capability could also used by both the US Air Force and US NAVY to test such weapons systems as Joint Air-to-Ground Missile, Small Diameter Bomb and Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDBII), and HELLFIRE. Possible commercial applications could be in the areas of inventory control (bar code scanning technology), manufacturing (increased precision due to high rate modulation), and digital elevation mapping (improved resolution is digital elevation measurements).



1. Temporal Pulse Spreading of a Return LIDAR Signal; R. Krawczyk, O. Goretta, A. Kassighian; Applied Optics, Vol. 32, pp 6784-6788 (1993)


2. Target Detection Method Based on the Single Laser Return Waveform; Z. Nanxiang, H. Yihua, H. Min; Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7382, International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2009: Laser Sensing and Imaging F. Amzajerdian, et al/, Ed. Paper, 2009


3. Semi-Active Laser (SAL) Last Pulse Logic Infrared Imaging Seeker; J.E. English, R.O. White; Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4372, Infrared Imaging systems: Design, analysis, Modeling, and Testing XII, G.C Holst, Ed., pp. 126-136, 2001


KEYWORDS: Semi-active laser projector, near-infrared (NIR), hardware in the loop (HWIL), simulations




A10-151                                TITLE: Deterministic Finishing of Domes with Buried Electromagnetic Structures


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: The goal of this topic is to develop a deterministic method for generating a dome with precise location of a buried grid.


DESCRIPTION: An approach to dome construction has recently been demonstrated that contains a grid that is buried in optical ceramic material. While this approach makes the dome construction easier, it adds an extra level of difficulty to the dome finishing. There are methods available to deterministically finish the outer surfaces to achieve the correct optical performance but none that can accurately position buried structures during the process.  What is required is a way to precisely measure the distance of a buried grid from each surface during the grinding and polishing process.


PHASE I: Demonstrate a process for precisely measuring the location of a conductive grid buried in a piece of optical ceramic material, such as ALON or spinel, during all phases of grinding and polishing. The measurements will be made normal to the surface and will be used to ensure that only the proper amount of material is removed.  Continuous measurement across the surface is not required as long as there is adequate data to calculate the grid location within 1 mil. The process must not depend on the surface quality of the material and must not come in contact with the surface of the work piece or alter material properties. You must demonstrate the ability to precisely measure the location of the grid in samples from various stages of finishing. The samples will be small flats and dome sections. You also need to show how this process would be integrated into the dome manufacturing environment.


PHASE II: Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure the grid location in an ALON or spinel, 7 inch hemispherical dome through every phase of the dome finishing process. The work done in Phase I must be expanded to demonstrate the ability to measure the distance of the grid from both the concave and convex surface. The process must provide grid depth from any location on the dome. The time for the measurement process must be kept as short as possible, measured in minutes not hours.


PHASE III: Demonstrate a full production capability incorporating the accurate placement of a grid buried in optical ceramic domes by using the technique(s) developed and refined in Phases I and II.   The ability to accurately measure metallic structures embedded in optical ceramics will open the design space for high performance imaging and tracking systems such as those used by the military and in the space industry. There is potential to greatly improve imaging performance by tuning the optics for different potions of the spectrum. 



1. “Optical characterization of photolithographic metal grids,” Kurt A. Osmer and Mike I. Jones,  Proceedings of  the SPIE, Tactical Infrared Systems, Vol. 1498, pp.138 -146., October 1991.


2. “Electromagnetic shielding for electro-optical windows and domes,” Clark I. Bright, Proceedings of the SPIE, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials IV, Vol. 2286, pp.388-398, September 1994.


3. "Material for Infrared Windows and Domes," Dan Harris, ISBN 0-8194-3482-5, SPIE Press, 1999


4. "Materials for infrared windows and domes: Properties and performance", Daniel C. Harris, Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, August 1999


5. "Tri-mode seeker dome considerations", James C. Kirsch, William, R. Lindberg, Daniel C. Harris, Michael J. Adcock, Tom P. Li, Earle A. Welsh, Rick D. Akins, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5786, p. 33-40, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials IX; Randal W. Tustison; Ed., 18 May 2005


KEYWORDS: precise measurement, conductive grid, optical ceramic, ALON, spinel, grinding, polishing




A10-152                                TITLE: High Density Liquid Hydrogen Missile Fuel




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: To develop a high density, high specific energy fuel for use in missile propulsion systems.


DESCRIPTION: H2 is the most energetic fuel known for use in missile propulsion. It has a very high specific impulse required for high efficiency propulsion systems, a low combustion temperature, and is relatively inexpensive; however, it is not a volumetrically efficient fuel. There are many techniques for obtaining high density H2 and burning it in a combustor. Examples include the use of liquid H2 that is gasified and burned in the combustor, but this introduces the complication of cryogenic storage and other problems associated with pumping and injecting the fuel into the combustor. Another way to accomplish this densification is the use of different chemical forms of H2 for storage such as solid metal hydrides but the mass and volume penalties have proven to be problematic.


A liquid fueled storable H2 compound would be ideal because of liquid conformability for the storage tanks and the ability to expel any residual chemicals used to generate the pure H2 fuel. There are a number of possible candidate chemical systems that have previously been proposed, e.g. ammonia, but none that have been attractive and synthesized for use as a missile fuel.


PHASE I: This solicitation seeks innovative concepts to store and deliver high density, high specific energy liquid storable (non-cryogenic) hydrogen based fuel for use in missile propulsion systems. The concepts will be identified, simulated, and compared with a baseline gaseous H2 fueled system delivering 0.16 kg/s of H2 for 75 s. The comparisons will include the delivered mass fraction of H2 (total mass of delivered hydrogen divided by the total initial mass of the fuel delivery system) and fuel system volumes.


PHASE II: The concepts formulated in Phase I will be developed and demonstrated both analytically and experimentally in a program defined by the contractor. Briefly describe expectations and minimum required deliverable.


PHASE III: If successful, the end result of this Phase-I/Phase-II research effort will be an experimentally validated high density, high specific energy hydrogen fuel storage system for use in missile propulsion systems.


For military applications, this technology is directly applicable to all high speed air-breathing missile systems.


For commercial applications, this technology is directly applicable to advanced propulsion techniques for commercial applications such as high speed supersonic transports and to orbital launch systems.


While the focus of this SBIR Topic is on hydrogen as a missile propulsion fuel, the topic also has direct application in both the military and commercial arenas to provide for the long sought, safe, high density, portable or semi-portable, source for hydrogen gas to fuel combustion engines or fuel cells. Indeed, the projected U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen and fuel cell budget for CY10 stands at some $174M as an indication of the interest in this area (Reference 5). 


The most likely customer and source of Government funding for Phase-III will be those service project offices responsible for the development of advanced hypersonic missile systems such as the Navy/DARPA HyFly, Air Force X-51, and DARPA Facet programs. However, it is possible that as NASA continues its access to space projects, this technology will become very important.



1. Wilkes, J.S. and Mutch, M.I., “Hydrogen Storage and Generation by Light Metal Chemical Hydrides,” Depart of Chemistry, USAF Academy.


2. Lixiong, L. and Hurley, J.A., “Ammonia-Based Hydrogen Source for Fuel Cell Applications,” AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2005-4587, Air Force Research Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, December 2006.


3. Flanagan, J., “Solid Propellant Laser Fuel Generator,” AFWL-TR-73-195, November 1973.


4. Love, D., et al., “Development of Solid Propellant Gas Generators for Chemical Lasers,” Proceedings of the 11th JANNAF Combustion Meeting, Pasadena, CA, September 1974.


5. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program (


KEYWORDS: hydrogen, fuel, storage, liquid, air-breathing, missile




A10-153                                TITLE: Detection and Serotype Identification of Dengue Virus in the Mosquito Vector




OBJECTIVE: To develop, evaluate and commercialize a multiplexed field deployable assay capable of identifying dengue and its corresponding serotype in field collected mosquitoes from deployed military service areas. This assay should include nucleic acid purification as well as amplification if applicable.


DESCRIPTION: Effective surveillance relies on quick and accurate detection of a pathogen in its corresponding vector. Effective surveillance provides the ability to assess the true risk of infections and to determine where to focus prevention and treatment programs. To accomplish this surveillance areas are monitored by catching large numbers of the vector from a variety of locations using a variety of traps. The insects then need to be tested for the disease of interest, in this case, dengue virus. Complicating matters in the surveillance of dengue is the fact that four different serotypes of dengue virus exist. Knowing which serotype(s) currently circulating in an area is extremely important since prior exposure to one serotype can actually make encounters with other serotypes even more deadly. Because this work often takes place in a field setting, a test that is quick, field deployable and accurate for the four types of dengue is needed.


Desired Capability: The goal of this SBIR is to successfully develop and commercialize a multiplexed, field deployable assay to detect and determine the serotype of dengue virus in pools of up to 50 mosquitoes. The assay should be rapid (less than 4 hours), heat stable (no cold chain required) and have a small logistical footprint (hand held preferred) with a maximum of one man carry weight of less than 90 lbs. Sample preparation should be simple and require one technician. It should take no more than 30 minutes to complete and require no additional powered equipment beyond that needed to run the actual assay. The assay should be at least as sensitive as the gold standard assays (cell culture and IFA) which is approximately 1000 virus particles.


Access to govt. facilities and supplies: Reagents, controls, infected mosquitoes, etc. to support this project may be available from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR). The candidate contractor should coordinate with the Contracting Officer Representative (COR) for any support needed from WRAIR.


PHASE I: The selected contractor will determine the feasibility of the concept by developing prototype assays (to include any nucleic acid purification and amplification equipment required) that will detect and determine the serotype of dengue virus from cultured material. Proof of concept will be shown by the contractor conducting an initial laboratory evaluation of the prototype assay with cultured dengue virus and providing a written report to the Contracting Officer Representative (COR). This assay should be at least as sensitive and specific as the current gold standards for serotype identification of dengue virus. These include cell culture (1 pfu or approximately 1,000 virus particles) and IFA (greater than 9.2 x 10 2 pfu). By the conclusion of Phase I, the selected contractor must provide the COR with sufficient prototype assays to establish the assay in a government laboratory. This will include any associated instruments and enough assays to carry out 100 tests. The selected contractor must coordinate with the COR to access any required reagents from the WRAIR. The degree to which the prototype assay meets the desired capability outlined above will be evaluated at the government laboratory. Data from this independent evaluation will be used in the determination of the Phase II awardee.


PHASE II: The goal in Phase II is to evaluate the prototype assay and determine performance characteristics and conduct initial field testing. The selected contractor shall conduct comprehensive laboratory evaluations of the assay performance characteristics (Limit of detection (LOD) sensitivity, specificity, positive / negative predictive value, accuracy and reliability). The selected contractor will also conduct stability testing of the device in Phase II. Stability testing should be conducted under both real-time and accelerated conditions. This will be done to attempt to force the product to fail under a broad range of temperature and humidity conditions and extremes. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) may provide additional support in testing and evaluation of the developed device to include field trials. The selected contractor will coordinate well in advance with the Contracting Officer Representative (COR) to any support required by the WRAIR.


PHASE III: During this phase the performance of the assay should be evaluated in a variety of field studies that will conclusively demonstrate that the assay meets the requirements of this topic. By the conclusion of this phase the selected contractor will have completed the development of the assay and successfully commercialized. This product does not require FDA or EPA approval since it a vector surveillance tool. The contractor shall provide a report that summarizes the performance of the assay to the Armed Forces Pest Management Board and will request that a national stock number (NSN) be assigned. Contractor shall coordinate in advance with the COR for any support required from the WRAIR.


Military Application: Once an NSN has been assigned to the assay, the Armed Forces Pest Management Board will work with appropriate organizations to have the assay incorporated into appropriated “sets, kits, and outfits” that are used by deployed Preventive Medicine Units.


This assay will also be available for non-military purposes, such as use by commercial pest controllers or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in areas of the world where dengue virus is endemic. We envision that the contractor that develops the dengue virus/serotype assay will be able to market this assay to a variety of commercial, governmental and non-governmental vector control organizations, and that this market will be adequate to sustain the continued production of this device. By the end of this phase, the selected contractor shall make this product available to potential users throughout the world.



1. Henchal, Erik A., J.M. McCown, M.C.Seguin, M.K.Gentry and W.E. Brandt (1983). “Rapid Identification of Dengue Virus Isolates by Using Monoclonal Antibodies in an Indirect Innumofluorescence Assay.” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 32(1):164-169.


2. Honorio, N. A., R. M. Nogueira, et al. (2009). "Spatial evaluation and modeling of Dengue seroprevalence and vector density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil." PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3(11): e545.


3. Regis, L., W. V. Souza, et al. (2009). "An entomological surveillance system based on open spatial information for participative dengue control." An Acad Bras Cienc 81(4): 655-662. 


4. Vasilakis, N. and S. C. Weaver (2008). "The history and evolution of human dengue emergence." Adv Virus Res 72: 1-76.


5. Weaver, S. C. and W. K. Reisen (2009). "Present and future arboviral threats." Antiviral Res.


6. Weaver, S. C. and N. Vasilakis (2009). "Molecular evolution of dengue viruses: contributions of phylogenetics to understanding the history and epidemiology of the preeminent arboviral disease." Infect Genet Evol 9(4): 523-540.


KEYWORDS: dengue, serotype, detection, field-deployable




A10-154                                TITLE: Development of a Molecular Assay to Identify Ticks that Vector Rickettsial Diseases




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Develop, evaluate and commercialize a method using molecular techniques to identify to the level of species ticks that vector militarily important rickettsial diseases worldwide. The method should be capable of determining the species based upon use of nucleic acid preparations derived from individual ticks using commercially available equipment and reagents. The method should be at least as effective as a Tick Identification Key. In addition, the assay must be able to identify the tick in any stage of life that it is in.


DESCRIPTION: Infectious rickettsial diseases, to include: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, African tick-bite fever,  tick-borne lymphandenopathy, Queensland tick typhus, Japanese spotted fever, Siberian tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever, ehrlichioses, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Q fever pose a significant threat to deployed military forces (Kelly et al 2002, Burnette et al. 2008). In order to minimize the impact of rickettsial tick-borne diseases on military operations, the rapid identification of the ticks vectoring diseases in military forces is required. Though ticks can be identified by tick keys, these are often difficult to use, require an expertise and familiarity with them, are often restricted to a region or country and are difficult to use with immature life stages. Thus a much more specific, sensitive, easier to use, real-time method needs to be developed (Shone 2006, Dergousoff 2007, Patterson 2009). Key requirements for the molecular assay to identify ticks should include the following: i) must be capable of tick identification in all life stages collected from anywhere in the world, ii) must be compatible with nucleic acid preparations using commercially available equipment and reagents, iii) should allow for the rapid (<1-year) development of method at a modest cost (<$100,000), and iv) should provide flexibility to both the commercial company and to the DoD so that the specific assay can be rapidly provided. The ticks to be identified include but need not be limited to: Amblyomma maculatum, Amblyomma trista, Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma variegatum, Amblyomma hebraeum, Dermacentor variabilis Dermacentor andersoni, Dermacentor reticulatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus boophilus, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma somalicum, Hyalomma erythraeum, Ixodes scapularis, and Ixodes pacificus.


Desired Capability: The goal of this SBIR is to successfully develop and commercialize a molecular assay for the identification of ticks that vector rickettsial diseases. The assay should be capable of identifying to the species level ticks at any stage of their life from any location in the world. The assay shall be performed on nucleic acid derived from the tick. In addition, this same nucleic acid can be used for the identification of rickettsiae, viruses, bacteria and parasites known to cause disease of military importance. Performance of the product should be comparable to tick identification keys. The assay should include an internal control to ascertain whether or not inhibitors are present within the nucleic acid preparation. Although not absolutely required, the reagents of the assay should be lyophilized if possible. As part of this effort, positive and negative control material for the assay shall be provided as separate products.


PHASE I: The selected contractor determines the feasibility of the concept by developing a prototype molecular assay to identify a single tick species (to include positive and negative control material). By the conclusion of Phase I, the selected contractor must provide the Contracting Officer Representative (COR) with sufficient prototype material to establish the assay in a government laboratory and to carry out 100 tests. The degree to which the prototype assay meets the desired capability outlined above will be evaluated at the government laboratory. Data from this independent evaluation will be used in the determination of the Phase II awardee.


PHASE II: The goal in Phase II is the successful development of the tick identification assay as described above. Specific goals for the assay include: i) that it will be able to identify a single tick to the species level, ii) that the assay will be sensitive and specific enough to identify tick species from a panel of “near” and “far” neighbor DNA preparations, iii) that assay developed will be able to make the identification on any life stage of the tick, and identify ticks from around the world. Once these objectives have been met, the tick identification assay (to include positive and negative control material and internal control) should be made available commercially.


PHASE III: The tick identification molecular assay developed under this SBIR topic will be suitable for use in a variety of military medical units, to include both deployable units and non-deployable units with a PCR platform. This assay will also be available for non-military medical purposes, such as use by regional medical clinics or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in areas of the world where the tick-borne pathogens are present. We envision that the contractor that develops the tick identification assay will be able to sell and/or market this product to a variety of commercial medical and entomological organizations, and that this market will be adequate to sustain the continued production of this device.



1. Kelly DJ, Richards AL, Temenak JJ, Strickman D, Dasch GA. The past and present threat of rickettsial diseases to military medicine and international public health. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34(suppl 4):s145-s169.


2. Burnette WN, Hoke CH Jr, Scovill J, Clark K, Abrams J, Kitchen LW, Hanson K, Palys TJ, Vaughn DW. Infectious diseases investment decision evaluation algorithm: a quantitative algorithm for prioritization of naturally occurring infectious disease threats to the U.S. military. Mil Med. 2008 Feb;173(2):174-81.


3. Shone SM, Dillon HJ, Hom SS, Delgado N. A novel real-time PCR assay for the speciation of medically important ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2006;6:152-60.


4. Dergousoff SJ, Chilton NB. Differentiation of three species of ixodid tick, Dermacentor andersoni, D. variabilis and D. albipictus, by PCR-based approaches using markers in ribosonal DNA. Mol Cel Probes 2007;21:343-8.


5. Patterson EI, Dergousoff SJ, Chilton NB. Genetic variation in the 16S mitochondrial DNA gene of two Canadian Populations of Dermacentor andersoni (ACARI: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 2009;46:475-81.


KEYWORDS: tick, rickettsial tick-borne diseases, molecular assays, nucleic acid preparations




A10-155                                TITLE: Multiagent Synthetic DNA Vaccines Delivered by Noninvasive Electroporation


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Biomedical


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative, cost-effective and efficient multiagent DNA vaccination strategy using a noninvasive electroporation delivery device


DESCRIPTION: Endemic, emerging and genetically engineered pathogens pose great risk to deployed military personnel.  Although vaccination is the single best means for preventing infectious diseases, conventional vaccine development methods, which require attenuation or inactivation of dangerous pathogens, are not amenable to the rapid development of novel vaccines or for production of multiagent vaccines. In contrast, DNA vaccines can be rapidly engineered, readily combined and present minimal safety risks. Despite these attributes, DNA vaccines face a number of challenges before they can realize their full potential. A key obstacle for mass vaccination with DNA is the absence of an effective and tolerable delivery method. Delivery has remained problematic because it is essential that the DNA enter host cells in order for it to generate immunogenic proteins. The most commonly used method of delivery, needle injection into muscles, results in poor immune responses because the DNA is deposited into intracellular spaces and is not efficiently taken up by the host cells. More effective delivery methods include gene gun delivery and intramuscular electroporation. For gene gun delivery, DNA vaccines are coated onto microscopic gold beads and are deposited into skin cells by gas propulsion.  Although this method is painless and effective, only a very small quantity of DNA can be delivered at one time; thus, this method is not well-suited for delivering multiple DNA vaccines.   Intramuscular electroporation involves injecting the DNA then quickly applying short electrical pulses to the delivery site. The electrical charge causes temporary pores to form in cellular membranes and facilitates uptake of the DNA vaccines. Electroporation has been found to greatly improve immune responses to DNA vaccines as compared to injection alone, and it allows for delivery of larger quantities of DNA in a single dose, making it suitable for multiagent vaccine delivery.  However, intramuscular electroporation is more invasive and painful than is desirable for use in mass vaccination.  In order to advance DNA vaccine technology, a novel and innovative solution for a more tolerable, yet still effective delivery method is needed. The optimal vaccination strategy would capitalize on the efficiency of electroporation, eliminate the discomfort associated with intramuscular injection, and be useful for simultaneous delivery of two or more DNA vaccines. A minimal successful outcome would provide effective delivery with reduced discomfort for one DNA vaccine.


PHASE I: This Phase will demonstrate the feasibility of delivering the vaccine using a noninvasive electroporation method after injection of a DNA vaccine.


PHASE II: In this Phase, the vaccination method developed in Phase 1 will be validated in appropriate animal models using a combination of at least three DNA vaccines of interest to the military.  This phase will involve further refinement of the noninvasive delivery device, such that injection and noninvasive electroporation can be performed using a single integrated device.  


PHASE III: The resultant vaccine technology would be of value to both military and civilian populations for preventing infectious diseases. The technology would provide a means to painlessly deliver several vaccines in a single dose, thus reducing vaccination burden. Examples of combination vaccines that would be of dual use for civilian and military populations include: trivalent vaccines for Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis; bivalent vaccines for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; quadravalent vaccines for Dengue hemorrhagic fever; and multigene vaccines for malaria. The technology would also provide both civilian and military populations with a path toward rapid response to unknown, emerging, or genetically engineered pathogens. Spin-off technologies would include further improvement in equipment and biologics required for the DNA and device. Transition to use in the military and to civilian populations would most likely involve acquisition of the technology by a large Pharmaceutical Company interested in producing commercially viable vaccines for civilian and military use. 




1.  Frederic Kendirgi,  Nadezda E. Yun, Nathaniel S. Linde, Michele A. Zacks, Jeanon N. Smith, Jennifer K. Smith, Harilyn McMicken, Yin Chen, and Slobodan Paessler, Novel linear DNA vaccines induce protective immune responses against lethal infection with influenza virus type A/H5N1. Human Vaccines, v.4, p410-419, December 2008.


2. Gail Dutton, DNA vaccines inch toward human use.  Genetic Engineering & Biotechnolgy News. 29, n.5, March 2009 


3. Dominick J. Laddy, Jian Yan, Ami S. Khan, Hanne Andersen, Amanda Cohn, Jack Greenhouse, MarkLewis, Jody Manischewitz, Lisa R. King, Hana Golding, Ruxandra Draghia-Akli, and David B. Weiner. Electroporation of synthetic DNA antigens offers protection in nonhuman primates challenged with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Journal of Virology v 83, p4624-30, May 2009.


KEYWORDS: Linear DNAElectroporationMultiagent VaccineGenetically engineered pathogenInfectious Disease




A10-156                                TITLE: Disposable Coagulation Profiler


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Electronics


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: To develop a disposable cartridge and handheld analyzer that directly provides a complete thromboelastometry profile.  The proposed handheld device should produce comparable characterization data to existing bench-top laboratory equipment, which includes CT (clotting time), CFT (clot formation time), alpha-angle, and MCF (maximum clot firmness).


DESCRIPTION: Non-compressible (Truncal) hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths from combat injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom1. In these types of traumatic injury, the incidences of coagulation abnormalities are high2.  For example natural supplies of proteins such as Factor VII are quickly depleted after trauma, which can quickly lead to hemorrhage related death. Time to detection of these abnormalities after trauma can often be a predictor of morbidity and mortality. These diagnostics, therefore, guide life-saving action, such as blood treatment and transfusions.  Although techniques such as prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) can test coagulation, they only test the first state of coagulation and measure plasma hemostasis rather than patient hemostasis. Separating the plasma greatly complicates the blood processing and adds steps to the coagulation initiation. Other coagulation profiling techniques such as thrombelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) provide a more complete profile by using whole blood. The use of whole blood includes the role of platelets and phospholipids in the coagulation cascade. Unfortunately standard coagulation tests (PT, PTT, etc.) and newer systems such TEG and ROTEM, require relatively large pieces of equipment and trained technicians to perform tests, which can prevent these diagnostic tools from being used in all but highest level Medical Treatment Facilities (MTF). In order to most effectively treat traumatic injuries, it is critical to diagnose coagulation abnormalities at forward medical facilities, such as MTF Levels 2 and 3.  Ideally even battalion aid stations (MTF Level 1) and Forward Support Medical Teams could rapidly evaluate the severity of blood loss and take early course of action in guiding transfusion or administering other coagulation related drugs.   Inexpensive and small PT monitors have recently been developed3; however, similar TEG or ROTEM devices are more difficult to implement. To address the need for forward coagulation profiling, a disposable cartridge and associated handheld analyzer needs to be developed. This coagulation profiler should provide standard types of coagulation characteristics or the equivalent. Examples are the clot time, the period from 2 mm amplitude to 20 mm amplitude, the alpha angle, and the maximum strength. Innovative solutions beyond the state of the art are desired.  Proposed solutions should go beyond simply miniaturizing existing bench top solutions and leverage recent technologies to improve upon original designs.          


PHASE I: Perform feasibility study on the proposed disposable thromboelastometry profiling system.  Performance considerations should include: 1) a preliminary design of both the cartridge and associated analyzer; 2) a system that provides a coagulation reaction curve, which captures elasticity over time. The curve should provide parameters such as, CT (clotting time), CFT (clot formation time), alpha-angle, and MCF (maximum clot firmness); and 3) a design that can transition into a product capable of high-volume manufacturing. Simulations that support the characterization of the technical approach are recommended. Handheld analyzer should be small enough to be held by one hand while being operated by the free hand. The disposable cartridge should fit into the analyzer. The cartridge should be small and compact, however easily changed or manipulated with the free hand.   


PHASE II: Phase II deliverables should include a complete design of the disposable thromboelastometry cartridge and handheld analyzer; production of a prototype system which includes the handheld analyzer and at least 15 identical cartridges; testing of the device using blood samples from a coagulopathic animal model. Tests of the CT, CFT, alpha angle, and MCF must provide results statistically similar to those obtained from currently accepted laboratory diagnostic protocols or against bench top thromboelastometry device. The system should be assessed in its ability to profile coagulation in a variety of clinical conditions, including hemodilution, acidosis and hypothermic temperatures. 


PHASE III: Building off of the successes of Phase II, transition the system from prototype to production design.  Work with DOD to provide the optimum, user interface, ergonomics and packaging.  This end product should provide critical data on par with existing technologies such as PT, PTT, TEM or ROTEM.  Phase III efforts should be focused on securing FDA medical device approval.  The device should also be small, lightweight, and use inexpensive disposable cartridges.   



1. JB Holcomb, NR McMullin, L Pearse, et al. “Causes of death in US Special Operations Forces in the global war on terrorism”: 2001-2004, Ann Surg, v. 245 n. 6, p. 986-991, 2007.


2. Jana B. A. MacLeod, MD, MSc, Mauricio Lynn, MD, Mark G. McKenney, MD, Stephen M. Cohn, MD, and Mary Murtha, RN, “Early Coagulopathy Predicts Mortality in Trauma”, The Journal of TRAUMA_ Injury, Infection, and Critical Care.


3. David T. Yang, Ryan S. Robetorye, and George M. Rodgers “Home Prothrombin Time Monitoring: A Literature Analysis” American Journal of Hematology 77:177–186 (2004).


KEYWORDS: disposable cartridge, handheld analyzer, blood coagulation profile, thrombelastography




A10-157                                TITLE: Engineered Bacterial Cells for Rapid Toxicity Evaluations of Drinking Water


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Develop a rapid toxicity test using bacterial cells engineered for responsiveness to a wide range of chemicals in water and having a resistant resting stage capable of long-term survival with minimal effects from environmental factors such as temperature.


DESCRIPTION: As part of a research program to identify environmental hazards to soldiers resulting from exposure to toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research (USACEHR) is seeking new methods for providing rapid toxicity evaluation of water samples. Rapid toxicity test kits for water (e.g., US EPA, 2006) can be useful for evaluating drinking water quality, but many tests have a limited capability for rapid response to a wide range of TICs (van der Schalie et al., 2006) and most require substantial control of environmental parameters (such as temperature) to facilitate reagent or test system shelf life, which limits use of the tests under field conditions. Current bacterial toxicity tests, such as those using luminescent marine bacteria, respond to many chemicals and, in general, require minimal care. While these tests have limitations, including low sensitivity to some toxicants for which appropriate receptor pathways are absent (e.g., neurotoxicants), potential interference from non-toxic materials such as nutrients (Hansen and Sorensen, 2001) and the need for refrigeration of either bacteria or test reagents, there are opportunities for substantial improvement, such as genetic engineering approaches to increase sensitivity (Yagi, 2006), stabilization techniques to reduce or eliminate the need for refrigerated storage (Kuppardt et al., 2009; Bjerketorp et al., 2006), and the use of spore-forming bacteria to lengthen viability under a range of storage conditions (Date et al., 2007). We are seeking innovative and creative research and development to provide an efficient, rapid screening tool using bacterial cells for a broad range of TICs in water samples without interference from normal field water constituents while minimizing the need for environmental control during storage or testing.


PHASE I: Conduct research to provide a proof of concept demonstration of a toxicity sensor device for water. Note that because the recommended test chemicals are intended to represent a broader range of toxicants, analyte-specific sensors for these individual chemicals are not an appropriate solution to this topic. Design and performance considerations for a proof of concept demonstration are listed below.

1. The bacterial test system must be responsive to toxicity induced by different modes of toxic action representative of a broad spectrum of TICs. To represent a significant improvement over available test kits, the test system must respond within 60 minutes to at least 8 of 12 chemicals used by van der Schalie et al. (2006) at concentrations above the 7-14 day Military Exposure Guideline (MEG) levels for each chemical (USACHPPM, 2004) but less than the estimated human lethal concentration (van der Schalie et al., 2006).

2. Minimal time (30 minutes or less) should be required to prepare the test system and the biological component for use after a water sample is provided for testing.

3. The test system and its components, including consumables, should remain viable for at least six months without the need for temperature or other environmental controls.

4. The test system should require minimal processing steps and should be capable of being transitioned to a battery-powered hand-held device.


PHASE II: Expand upon the Phase I proof of concept demonstration to construct a hand-held prototype toxicity sensor device. Show the device sensitivity (with respect to the 7-14 day MEG concentration for water) and response rapidity (within an hour) with at least 20 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action for which MEGs and human lethal concentrations are available. Demonstrate viability of test system components under environmental conditions likely to be encountered in field testing. The device should have minimum logistical requirements and provide for straightforward data interpretation. Demonstrate that the device can function without false alarms in water matrices typical of Army field water supplies. Provide two toxicity sensor devices for independent evaluation and testing.


PHASE III: Evaluate the ability of the toxicity sensor device to identify the suitability of drinking water for deployed troops under field conditions. Field tests will involve testing at Army water production facilities. Military users include Preventive Medicine (PM) personnel at Level III PM Detachments, Level II Brigade Combat Teams, or other line units for whom the ability to rapidly detect chemical toxicity in field water will help accomplish their assigned water quality surveillance and risk assessment missions. This device will be an important component of the Environmental Sentinel Biomonitor (ESB) system for drinking water evaluation. Given current on-going concerns regarding accidental or intentional contamination of water supplies, this technology will have broad application for water utilities as well as state and local governments. A well-formulated marketing strategy will be critical for success in these commercial applications.



1.Bjerketorp J, Hakansson S, Belkin S, Jansson J.K. 2006. Advances in preservation methods: keeping biosensor microorganisms alive and active. Curr. Opin. Biotech.17:1-7.


2. Date A, Pasini P, Daunert S. 2007. Construction of spores for portable bacterial whole-cell biosensing systems. Anal. Chem. 79:9391-9397.


3. Kuppardt A, Chatzinotas A, Breuer U, van der Meer JR, Harms H. 2009. Optimization of preservation conditions of As (III) bioreporter bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 82:785-792.


4. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM), Version 1.3—Updated May 2003 with January 2004 Addendum. Chemical Exposure Guidelines for Deployed Military Personnel. Technical Guide (TG)-230. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. (


5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). 2006. Rapid Toxicity Test Systems. Environmental Technology Verification program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,


KEYWORDS: toxicity sensor, toxic industrial chemicals, drinking water, bacteria




A10-158                TITLE: Deployable Pan-flavivirus and Pan-alphavirus Assays for Screening Pools of Medically Relevant Arthropod




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: This topic seeks to develop assays that can detect a broad range of alphaviruses (to include Chikungunya, O'nyong-nyong, Sindbis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and Mayaro) and a broad range of flaviviruses (to include Dengue 1-4, tick-borne encephalitis virus complex (Kyasanur Forest disease, Russian spring summer encephalitis, Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis, Central European tick-borne encephalitis, and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus), Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus) in a field setting. These assays would be used by preventive medicine units in the field for screening pools of medically relevant arthropods for either alphaviruses or flaviviruses (genus level assays). Assays specific for each individual virus (species level assays) are not part of this topic.


DESCRIPTION: The rapid identification of relevant arthropod transmitted pathogens and the determination of potential human disease risk, especially in hostile environments, is of great importance to the U.S. military. In some cases, determining if a given pathogen is present in a given area is important for emphasizing the level of personal protective equipment (PPE) or personal protective measures (PPM) necessary for a given area. To determine if an arthropod-borne pathogen is present in a given area, hundreds of pools of arthropods would need to be screened for each pathogen of interest. The development of an assay(s) that has the ability to detect multiple species of flaviviruses or alphaviruses present in pooled arthropods would save considerable amounts of time and resources. The assay(s) would not need to differentiate between viral species, but would need to be able to detect, at minimum the alphaviruses and flaviviruses listed in the objective and potentially different strains of the aforementioned viruses.


Requirement: To quickly and accurately detect medically relevant alphaviruses and flaviviruses in arthropods collected during military deployments to minimize the impact of the diseases on deployed troops. The assay(s) would need to be fieldable, with minimal logistical requirements, and should be designed for far forward applications in a deployed setting.


A. Desired Capability/Concept of Final Product: The primary vision for the final product would be a handheld, single assay (devices are considered assays for this topic) that could detect the presence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses in a pool of arthropods and that the assay readout would tell whether the arthropod pool contained alphavirus or flavivirus. As an alternative, two assays, one for flavivirus and one for alphavirus, would be acceptable as the handheld assays where each assay was specific for one group of viruses. The assay should be rapid (less than 60 minutes), cost effective, easy to use, and stable at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time (e.g. 40'C for 2 years). The assay should start with a method for preparing/grinding the arthropods, followed by a one- or two-step procedure using a minimal volume (e.g. an amount that could be handled in a 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube), and concluded with an easily read readout. If appropriate, any associated electronic readout devices should run off of batteries or using a car plug-in adapter. The assay should be 80% as specific (e.g. 80% not cross reacting with bunyaviruses or other arthropod sequences/antigens) and 80% as sensitive as the current gold-standard assays (e.g. PCR, ELISA) for the individual viruses, as applicable.


B. Technical Risk: There is a degree of technical risk associated with this project. Currently, there is no single assay that fulfills the requirements of this proposal. The candidate contractor is expected to use innovative and in-house or associated expertise to develop a prototype that meets the needs of the Department of Defense.


C. Access to Government Facilities and Supplies: Reagents, positive control material, infected arthropods, and other reagents and supplies to support this proposal may be available from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) or from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The candidate contractor should coordinate with the Contracting Officer Representative (COR) for any support they may need.


PHASE I: The selected contractor will determine the feasibility of the concept by developing a prototype assay(s) that has the potential to meet the needs discussed in this topic. For Phase I, the prototype should be able to detect at least three of the alphaviruses and at least two of the flaviviruses (if Dengue is chosen as one of the targeted viruses, then a second non-Dengue virus is requested) listed in the Objective. The contractor will conduct initial laboratory evaluations of the prototype device with active or inactivated pathogen and will supply a written report to the COR. By conclusion of Phase I, the contractor will provide a single lot of 100 prototype assays to the COR for evaluation. The degree to which the prototype assay meets the desired capability as outlined above will be evaluated at a government laboratory. Data from this independent evaluation will be used in the determination of a Phase II awardee, if applicable.


PHASE II: The goal of Phase II is the refinement of the prototype assay(s) developed in Phase I, whereby the assay(s) can detect all of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses listed in the Objective, and can provide 80% specificity (e.g. 80% not cross reacting with e.g. bunyaviruses or other arthropod sequences/antigens) and 80% sensitivity as compared to the current gold-standard assays (e.g. PCR, ELISA) for the individual viruses, as applicable. Once the specificity and sensitivity requirements have been met, the selected contractor will conduct comprehensive laboratory evaluations of the assay(s) performance characteristics (to include, but is not limited to the number of arthropods in a single pool, positive and negative predictive value of the assay, accuracy, reliability, ease of use, and range of usable work conditions (e.g. conducting the assay where the sun is shining on the work area and where the work is conducted at 35'C in a dusty environment) and initial field testing.


The selected contractor will also conduct stability testing of the assay(s) as part of Phase II. The stability testing should be conducted under both real-time and accelerated conditions (e.g. attempt to force the product to fail under a broad range of temperature and humidity conditions).


Support for live agent testing of the prototypes may be provided by the WRAIR or USAMRIID but require advance coordination through the COR. Due to select agent and biosafety regulations, some pathogens may only be used at registered institutions, therefore coordination with the COR is essential.


Since a genus level assay is desired for detecting arthropod-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses, a detailed list of the virus species and strains used in the evaluation of the assay must be included in the Phase II proposal.


PHASE III: During this phase, the performance of the assay(s) should be evaluated in a variety of field studies that will conclusively demonstrate that the assay(s) meets the requirements of this topic. By the conclusion of Phase III, the selected contractor will have completed the development of the assay and successfully commercialized the product. The contractor should provide a report that summarizes the performance of the assay to the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) and will request a National Stock Number (NSN) be assigned. The contractor should coordinate in advance with the COR for any support required from the WRAIR or USAMRIID.


Military Application: Once an NSN as been assigned to the assay(s) the AFPMB will work with the appropriate organizations to have the assay(s) incorporated into the appropriate “sets, kits, and outfits” that are used by deployed Preventive Medicine Units.


Commercial Applications: This assay(s) will be made available for non-military purposes, such as for use by commercial pest controllers or non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) in areas of the world where alphaviruses and flaviviruses are endemic. We envision that the contractor that develops the genus level alphavirus and flavivirus assay(s) will be able to market this assay to a variety of commercial, governmental, and non-governmental vector control organizations and testing facilities, and that this market will be adequate to sustain the continued production of the assay(s). By the end of Phase III, the selected contractor will be able to make this product available to potential end-user customers throughout the world.



1. O'Guinn M, Lee JS, Kondig JP, Fernandez R, Carbajal F, 2004. Field detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the Amazon Basin region of Peru using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction adapted for field identification of arthropod-borne pathogens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 164-171.


2. Kuno G, Chang GJ, Tsuchiya KR, Karabatsos N, Cropp CB, 1998. Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. J Virol 72: 73-83.


3. Gu W, Lampman R, Novak RJ, 2004. Assessment of arbovirus vector infection rates using variable size pooling. Med Vet Entomol 18: 200-4.


4. Philip Samuel P, Tyagi BK, 2006. Diagnostic methods for detection & isolation of dengue viruses from vector mosquitoes. Indian J Med Res 123: 615-28.


5. Lundstrom JO, 1999. Mosquito-borne viruses in western Europe: a review. J Vector Ecol 24: 1-39


KEYWORDS: alphavirus, flavivirus, diagnostic assay, arbovirus, entomology, arthropod vector, infectious disease




A10-159                                TITLE: Software Tool for Complex Biomarker Discovery




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative software tool to identify complex biomarker signatures (e.g., using multiple genes or multiple proteins) of toxicity from microarray, proteomic, and other high dimensional data.


DESCRIPTION: Many laboratories have begun screening for novel measurable molecular or biochemical alterations (biomarkers) in biological matrices, such as fluids, cells, or tissues occurring in response to hazardous chemical exposures, other insults, and diseases. The US Army Center for Environmental Health Research (USACEHR) is using toxicogenomic (whole genome microarray assays) and toxicoproteomic [whole proteome protein mass spectrometry (MS)] methods to discover novel biomarkers of environmental and industrial toxicant exposure in model systems, including animals and cultured mammalian cells. Since biomarkers can indicate the degree of exposure, biological effects, and susceptibility to disease from toxic hazards, they have many potential applications in Force Health Protection and health surveillance. Both functional genomic and proteomic experiments generate very large amounts (gigabyte to terabyte range) of highly multivariate data, and the complexity of these data can be an impediment to their use. Moreover in practice, the “biomarker” of toxic insult or of a complex disease state may be a protein or gene expression “signature” or constellation of responses rather than an alteration in the abundance of a single protein, RNA, or small molecule. There is a lack of efficient and robust methods, algorithms and workflows for reliably identifying multivariate changes in RNA, small molecule, and protein abundance which may prove to be good biomarkers genomic and proteomic data. The methods for complex biomarker identification that exist are principally targeted at biomarkers for binary classification, such as cancerous/non-cancerous cells, rather than at biomarkers that reflect continuous host responses to continuous stimuli or insults, such as toxicant exposures. An additional difficulty with the analysis of data from functional genomic and proteomic experiments arises from the large number of variables but low level of replication characteristic of such studies; this condition tends to lead to overfitting of models and lack of reproducibility in complex biomarker discovery efforts.


PHASE I: USACEHR will provide genomic and/or proteomic data sets from toxicological exposures in model systems from either open access data bases or from USACEHR’s own work, and the performer will provide a preliminary prototype of a generically applicable set of computational and bioinformatic tools or an analytical pipeline for identifying biomarker constellations that show a continuous response to toxicant exposure and that distinguish between different insults (e.g., toxicants with distinct modes of action). The analytical workflow provided by the tool need not consist of all or even any entirely new algorithms or methods but must provide significantly heightened functionality. Thus, the tools may include conventional feature selection and machine-learning approaches (such as pattern recognition, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines), but must significantly extend the capabilities of such methods through the workflow, and be able to provide a read-out of continuous response. The performer will develop improved analytical methods/pipelines for a. Extracting biological signals from continuous transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. b. Selecting and ranking biological features (potential biomarkers). c. Validating and verifying complex biomarkers. Software developed for the Phase I period may run in any environment convenient for development. 


PHASE II: The prototype will be further developed and validated using data provided by USACEHR from either USACEHR’s work or from public databases. It is expected that the product will distinguish between host responses to distinct experimental insults with high specificity and sensitivity, and additionally provide a numerical indication of the severity of the response. The finished Phase II prototype will meet all Army requirements for obtaining an Army Certificate of Networthiness (CON) as well as specifications for software development and documentation detailed in the Army Directorate of Information Assurance Security Technical Implementation Guides or comparable standards prevailing at the time of Phase II completion. The contractor will: provide a reproducible copy of the software with all documentation required above participate if necessary in the CON process provide USACEHR personnel with sufficient training or instructions in printed or digital format for utilizing the software on USACEHR equipment provide a description of the performance and function of the software sufficiently detailed to meet the requirements for publication of the biological analysis of the datasets in peer-reviewed scientific journals provide the results obtained by the performer from analyzing the test datasets in a format appropriate for manipulation for manuscript preparation and archiving. 


PHASE III: The tool for biomarker identification and validation will be applicable to wide array of biomarker discovery problems. The tool will be useful for developing panels of biomarkers for environmental risk assessment for civilian and military chemicals, for screening pharmaceuticals, potentially for identifying biomarker of pathogen exposure and infection, and for occupational health surveillance. Moreover, the biomarkers developed using the tool would be expected to have civilian applications in homeland security and disaster response, as chemical spills and accidents often require biomonitoring of first responders. The application of the tool will depend chiefly on the particular collection of input data. The number of possible applications for the technology is limited only by the reliability of the input data and the design of the validation studies.



1. Anderson, N.L . The roles of multiple proteomic platforms in a pipeline for new diagnostics. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 4:1441-1444 (2005).


2. Conrads, T.P. et al. High-resolution serum proteomic features for ovarian cancer detection. Endocrine-related cancer. 11, 163-78 (2004).


3. Edelman, L.B. et al. Two-transcript gene expression classifiers in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. BMC genomics. 10:583 (2009).


4. Li L. et al., Gene selection for sample classification based on gene expression data: study of sensitivity to choice of parameters of the GA/KNN method. Bioinformatics. 17:1131-42 (2001).


5. Ryan, P.B. et al. Using biomarkers to inform cumulative risk assessment. Environmental health perspectives. 115, 833-40 (2007).


6. Saeys Y. et al. A review of feature selection techniques in bioinformatics. Bioinformatics. 23:2507-17 (2007).


7. Vissers, J.P.C. et al.. Analysis and Quantification of Diagnostic Serum Markers and Protein Signatures for Gaucher Disease. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 6, 755-766 (2007). 


8. Xu, M. et al., A stable iterative method for refining discriminative gene clusters. BMC Genomics, 9(Suppl 2):S18doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-S2-S18 (2008).


KEYWORDS: bioinformatics, software, biomarkers, proteomics, genomics




A10-160                                TITLE: Controlled Release of Topical Nitric Oxide for Treating Cutaneous Injuries




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: To identify or develop stable topical dressings, gels, nanostructures or other platforms capable of delivering therapeutic nitric oxide (NO) with tunable release kinetics for the comprehensive improved treatment of cutaneous battlefield injuries.


DESCRIPTION: The warfighter faces a plethora of cutaneous trauma, including thermal and chemical burns, lacerations, punctures and excisions. These wounds take varying lengths of time to heal, leave permanent scars and ultimately compromise skin functionality. Moreover, cutaneous battlefield injuries are susceptible to life- and limb-threatening microbial infection. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bio-signaling molecule whose role has been extensively characterized in the body’s endogenous immune, inflammatory, and tissue regenerative responses. The therapeutic application of exogenous topical NO has been demonstrated to be a powerful, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent (Ghaffari, 2006), and is capable of providing numerous wound healing benefits if delivered at the proper concentrations (Shekhter, 2005). However, the practical deployment of NO has not occurred because products have not been realized that stably sequester and controllably deliver therapeutically relevant levels of NO from a condensed phase (liquid or solid) (Luo, 2005). This solicitation aims to identify or develop stable molecular NO storage and delivery modalities to transition to the battlefield and/or supporting treatment centers.


The beneficial effects of therapeutic NO are highly concentration dependent; therefore, products that demonstrate tunable NO-release kinetics will provide the warfighter and care provider with the best therapeutic flexibility to deliver either large boluses of NO to fight infection, or low-to-moderate concentrations of prolonged NO-release to modulate inflammation, angiogenesis, and synthesize collagen to accelerate wound closure and/or otherwise improve functional outcomes. The release of gaseous NO from a condensed phase platform should be triggered rather than occur spontaneously, thereby improving stability. The release of NO may be triggered by any mechanism related to wound contact (e.g. thermal or aqueous stimuli, biochemical interaction, etc.) or can be triggered by the care provider (e.g. light source, chemical mixing, etc.).


Among the numerous potential benefits of sustained and controlled release of therapeutic NO is the reduced frequency with which a care provider must contact the wounded skin to apply therapeutics and exchange dressings. Reducing this frequency will mitigate the pain felt by the casualty and decrease the probability of microbial infection. To this end, any type of stable, NO-releasing modality will be considered. This includes, but is not limited to, NO-releasing wound dressings, hydrogels, creams, gels, nanomaterials, biocompatible meshes, thin films, etc.


PHASE I: NO-releasing platforms will be identified and characterized, and a prototype product meeting the minimum essential characteristics will be produced. The contractor will show that the prototype will stably sequester and release therapeutic levels of exogenous NO with highly tunable kinetics; therefore, the materials (e.g. gels, dressing, nanomaterials, etc) will be characterized for their thermal stability, room temperature shelf life, refrigerated storage life and triggered release kinetics. NO-releasing platforms will be identified and characterized, and a prototype product meeting the minimum essential characteristics will be produced. The contractor will show that the prototype will stably sequester and release therapeutic levels of exogenous NO with highly tunable kinetics; therefore, the materials (e.g. gels, dressing, nanomaterials, etc) will be characterized for their thermal stability, room temperature shelf life, refrigerated storage life and triggered release kinetics. 


Minimum essential characteristics: The prototype technology will be a condensed-state platform, demonstrating thermal stability and maintaining greater than 90% activity (90% NO storage retention) following exposures to temperatures >40 C for a minimum of 4 months. Thermal stability can also be tested using accelerated aging protocols routinely used to characterize the stability of medical devices, products and packaging. Accelerated aging performance will be indicated by 90% actively at 55 C for 1 month.  Products must store and release 1 nanomolar to 10 micromolar quantities of nitric oxide per milligram of solid substrate. In addition to the high storage of nitric oxide, quantifiable nitric oxide release durations may range from acute time periods (minutes) to 24 hours to support an adequate therapeutic window.  Nitric oxide storage and release will be quantified via standard electrochemical, chemiluminescent, or colorimetic assays routinely used in characterizing NO-based materials


By the end of Phase I, the contractor will design proof of concept in vivo studies in the appropriate animal models and environments.


PHASE II: The contractor will demonstrate the efficacy of lead candidate NO therapeutic platform in the appropriate in vivo model. The prototype will be refined to provide highest degree of medical benefit and most robust stability and deployability. The contractor will generate quantitative evidence of broad spectrum cutaneous antimicrobial activity in vivo, and/or measurable modulation of inflammation, angiogenesis and/or collagen synthesis showing improved wound healing over the standard-of-care for any or all cutaneous battlefield injuries. Finally, the contractor will produce a product commercialization plan and demonstrate the potential for industrial-scale production.


PHASE III: The contractor will complete preclinical studies and develop a plan for transition into FDA trials. This might include partnering with a larger pharmaceutical company for further development, or additional in-house development. At the culmination of Phase III studies, lead candidate NO-releasing platform product(s) will have the potential to serve the medical needs of the Department of Defense as well as the civilian sector. Other NO-releasing platforms NOT chosen as lead candidates (e.g. occlusive dressings, gels, biocompatible matrices, etc.) may be tested for efficacy in specific types of cutaneous injuries.


Potential Phase III military applications of the technology:  Controlled release of topical therapeutic NO in the form of bandages, gels, or other scaffolds will provide combat casualty care providers with the means to quickly mitigate the inflammatory response of thermal and chemical injuries, hence providing a technology that reduces burn injury pathology. The technologies can also be deployed as a means to avoid or eliminate bacterial infection and biofilm formation in various cutaneous wounds (broad spectrum antimicrobial applications). In a long-term care setting, warriors will benefit from the application of NO-releasing gels, meshes or bandages that promote wound healing by activating and regulating the biochemical mechanisms that control angiogenesis (anti-necrosis applications for wound flaps, punctures, etc), cell proliferation (re-growth of removed skin) and collagen synthesis (anti-scarring applications).  Due to the fundamental biochemical action of NO biochemistry, the potential number of medical applications and individual products resulting from the desired base technology is very high.


There is vast potential for commercial application of the NO releasing technologies intended for military combat casualty care. Each product developed in the line of caring for cutaneous battlefield injuries will be applicable to civilian emergency, hospital and home care settings. Spin-off technologies may also include pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic products that provide benefits for scar prevention, acne treatment, cosmetic skin conditioning, etc.



1. Ghaffari A, Miller CC, McMullin B, Ghahary A (2006) Potential application of gaseous nitric oxide as a topical antimicrobial agent. Nitric Oxide 14: 21-29


2. Luo, J.-d.; Chen, A. F. Nitric oxide: a newly discovered function on wound healing. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 26(3):259-264 (2005)


3. Shekhter, A. B.; Serezhenkov, V. A.; Rudenko, T. G.; Pekshev, A. V.; Vanin, A. F. Beneficial effect of gaseous nitric oxide on the healing of skin wounds. Nitric Oxide 12:210-219 (2005)


KEYWORDS: Nitric Oxide, Improved, Cutaneous, Wound Healing, Antimicrobial, Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Scarring




A10-161                                TITLE: Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Fabrics for use with Soft Walled Shelters


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) shielding shelter liner. The liner material must satisfy specific criteria to be considered for incorporation into US Military soft walled shelters.


DESCRIPTION: The current soft-wall shelters in use by the U.S. Military have little or no electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) protection. By contrast, current rigid-wall shelters have systems available that provide considerable EMI/RFI shielding or attenuation. The option of a quickly deployable soft walled shelter that is adequately shielded will eliminate the need for the heavier, less mobile, rigid-wall shelter alternative (such as an ISO Container).


By developing a soft-walled shelter liner system comprised of ruggedized shielding fabric, devices that require protection can be placed in more expeditionary situations. EMI/RFI shielding is important in any situation that frequency jamming can be factor. This would be a specialty liner and would only be deployed in shelters that required it. For example, it is crucial that expeditionary forces can have functional Command & Control Centers without worry of interference or frequency signature difficulties.  The objective of this program is to provide this protection while maintaining the mobility provided by using soft-wall shelters. Transporting and stationing of rigid-wall shelters requires more time, more equipment, and more fuel, therefore comes at a higher cost than using soft-wall shelters. 


Achieving the required functionality of the liner should be possible with current available knowledge of EMI/RFI shielding. Current shielding fabrics are too narrow in effective frequency range and usually focus on higher frequency. Commercial materials that come close to the desired specifications are often too stiff, expensive, or have other material properties that make them unfit for military shelter use.  Materials of interest for incorporation into the fabric include nickel, copper, aluminum, silver, tin, or cobalt implemented on a strong, lightweight fiber material. The use of carbon nanotube based shielding is also an area of relatively unexplored possibilities, as well as carbon-impregnated thin foams. Current products also lack a truly effective way to create a Faraday cage-like effect by providing a completely enclosed shielded area with uninterrupted conductivity.


The liner must be robust enough for use in a US Army soft-walled shelter system and must conform to the cloth fabric performance specifications of MIL-PRF-44103D. The solution should be easily packaged for mobility, or integrated into the shelter itself for transport. The process of set up and tear down of the shielding material should withstand a specified number of cycles in addition to being lightweight, noncorrosive, and fire retardant.


The shielding capabilities of the fabric should cover a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies ranging from what is considered low frequency (LF) up to or above super high frequency (SHF).  If the material requires grounding, a safe and durable grounding solution will be required as well (may be of need in situations such as a lightning strike). ASTM E 1851-04 should be referenced for testing and measuring attenuation performance of the fabric.


This topic could be transitioned alongside a University Affiliated Research Center (UARC) as there is currently relevant research being performed.


Target values of the EMI/RMI solution are as follows:

Physical Specification                            Value

Weight                                                       10 – 15 oz/yd2

Toxicity/Mildew                                      In accordance with MIL-PRF-44103D [1]

Fire Retardant                                          In accordance with MIL-PRF-44103D [1]

Toughness                                                 In accordance with MIL-PRF-44103D [1]

Durability                                                  50 Erect & Strike Cycles

Temperature Range                                In accordance with MIL-PRF-44103D [1]

Weather Resistance                                In accordance with MIL-PRF-44103D [1]

Frequency Range                                    Shielding Effectiveness (dB) [2]

30 kHz – 150 kHz (LF)                          20 +

150 kHz – 10 GHz (LF-SHF)                40 +


[1] Fabric shall conform to the requirements specified in Table I and sections 3.4 through 3.8 of MIL-PRF-44103D. See Table III of MIL-PRF-44103D for required test methods.

[2] ASTM E 1851-04 testing procedure must be used to conduct measurements of shielding effectiveness


PHASE I: The initial phase of this program will be to research and develop a state of the art fabric liner material as EMI/RFI shielding solutions. The fabric will need to be developed to the point where military utilization could be possible, particularly in the area of ruggedness and harsh weather survivability (if an outer liner). The performance of the material must not degrade below the specified shielding effectiveness due to wear, weathering, temperature, or any other factor that is not a material failure.  The cost target for this fabric will be $30 per square yard. Phase I deliverables will consist of 2D fabric samples (at least 2 sq.ft in size), small-scale test results of shielding effectiveness, and physical specification compliance. The testing should be conducted in comparison to a control (a sheet of aluminum or copper is suggested) and should be tested in the same test location while following the same procedure.


In order to transition to Phase II, the material developed in Phase I must show promise in its ability to shield/attenuate from the data gathered during the required testing. The developed material must be easily welded or seamed. Without these properties, the material is of limited use as a liner with use in military soft walled shelters.


PHASE II: A full-scale 3D prototype of the shielding for a soft walled shelter will be created from the fabric liner material developed and analyzed in Phase I. This will include a solution for securing the liner in the soft walled shelter. The full scale system will also address key factors in maintaining an effective shield, such as the continuity of conductivity along the seams, in corners, and around fenestration.  Solutions for the filtering or shielding of HVAC openings, power entry, and other possible openings in the shelter will need to be addressed in Phase II as well. The full shelter solution should function comparably to a complete Faraday cage. If necessary, a solution for grounding the system will be developed during this phase. The shielded area will be entirely enclosed by shielding materials (including the shelter floor). Testing procedures used in Phase I will be completed again at full-scale and the results evaluated. The complete shielding system and its parts must remain in accordance with the specifications in Phase I. Significant importance is placed on the simplicity and time required for installation and removal of the shielding liner. A successful installation implies no break in the conductivity of the shielding system.


PHASE III: The fabric developed in Phase I and II will be the first fabric liner to shield/attenuate a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as the first EMI/RFI shielding fabric liner that meets military standards. These systems could be suitable for command and control centers and could be integrated into the Early Entry Logistics Support Element, a command and control shelter system.  Phase III will consist of investigating other and pursuing other uses for the solution the material provides. The manufacturing industry could be a sector of interest, particularly for facilities that handle EMI/RFI sensitive material or machinery. A liner material could provide a lower cost alternative to a radio-frequency anechoic chamber that uses solid shielding material. The liner material could also line rooms that contain devices that create large amounts of RFI/EMI (such as high voltage lines) therefore shielding sensitive machinery and people that are in close proximity. Another potential market is in the extreme northern and southern parts of the earth, which experience high EMI/RFI from aurora activity.  This liner material could provide a good private sector or commercial solution in these areas.  These are just a few applications for EMI/FRFI shielding; a liner material should offer a cost drop over the more commonly used shaped solid metal applications.



1. ASTM E1851 - 04 Standard Test Method for Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Durable Rigid Wall Relocatable Structures


2. MIL-PRF-44103D Performance Specification, Cloth, Fire, Water, and Weather Resistant


3. “Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of copper/glass fiber knitted fabric reinforced polypropylene composites,” by K. B. Cheng, S. Ramakrishna and K. C. Lee, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 31, Issue 10, October 2000, Pages 1039-1045.


4. “Application of MWNT-added glass fabric/epoxy composites to electromagnetic wave shielding enclosures,” by Ki-Yeon Park, Sang-Eui Lee, Chun-Gon Kim and Jae-Hung Han, Composite Structures, Volume 81, Issue 3, December 2007, Pages 401-406


5. “Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of electroless Cu-plated PET fabrics,” by Eun Gyeong Han, Eun Ae Kim and Kyung Wha Oh, Synthetic Metals Volume 123, Issue 3, 24 September 2001, Pages 469-476.


6. “PET fabric/polypyrrole composite with high electrical conductivity for EMI shielding,” by M. S. Kim, H. K. Kim, S. W. Byun, S. H. Jeong, Y. K. Hong, J. S. Joo, K. T. Song, J. K. Kim, C. J. Lee and J. Y. Lee, Synthetic Metals, Volume 126, Issues 2-3, 14 February 2002, Pages 233-239.


7. “The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of carbon nanotubes polymer composites,” by Wern-Shiarng Jou, Huy-Zu Cheng and Chih-Feng Hsu, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volumes 434-435, 31 May 2007, Pages 641-645, Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Metastable and Nano-Materials (ISMANAM-2005), Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Metastable and Nanomaterials (ISMANAM-2005)


8. “Electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics of multiwalled carbon nanotube filled polyacrylate composite films,” by Yong Li, Changxin Chen, Song Zhang, Yuwei Ni and Jie Huang, Applied Surface Science, Volume 254, Issue 18, 15 July 2008, Pages 5766-5771.


9. “Electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of carbon nanotube/cellulose composite paper,” by Bunshi Fugetsu, Eiichi Sano, Masaki Sunada, Yuzuru Sambongi, Takao Shibuya, Xiaoshui Wang and Toshiaki Hiraki, Carbon, Volume 46, Issue 9, August 2008, Pages 1256-1258.


10. “Attenuation of electromagnetic waves by carbon nanotube composites,” by Björn Hornbostel, Ulrich Leute, Petra Pötschke, Jochen Kotz, Daniela Kornfeld, Po-Wen Chiu and Siegmar Roth, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, Volume 40, Issue 7, May 2008, Pages 2425-2429, Proceedings of the E-MRS 2007 Symposia L and M: Electron Transport in Low-Dimensional Carbon Structures and Science and Technology of Nanotubes and Nanowires


11. Drawing # 5-4-8852 for TEMPER TENT, LINER MATERIAL. (Uploaded in SITIS 8/14/10.)


KEYWORDS: EMI, RFI, electromagnetic, attenuation, frequency, interference, shielding, fabric, shelter




A10-162                                TITLE: High Barrier Packaging Based on Melt Extrudable Liquid Crystal Polymers


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Develop high barrier food packaging materials for the military using liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) that are melt processable into either cast flat film, blown films or sheets. These materials and structures should take advantage of LCP gas barrier and mechanical properties and overcome processing limitations currently observed in LCP conversion technology.


DESCRIPTION: Modern operational requirements demand state-of-the-art, high quality combat rations that provide for the nutritional needs of the Warfighter in extremely intense and highly mobile combat situations as well as other contingency operations. Consequently, combat ration packaging must maintain performance and shelf life in humid to dry conditions and at temperatures ranging from arctic to desert (e.g., -20 degrees F to 120 degrees F) environments. Ration packaging must withstand various levels of rough handling abuse during transportation, distribution, and storage. Currently, primary flexible ration packaging is based on laminated foil technology in order to provide the necessary gas barrier properties to meet the military shelf life requirement of three years at 80 degrees F and six months at 100 degrees F. For example, the maximum allowable oxygen permeation rate for the current retort pouch of the Meal, Ready-to-Eat™ (MRE™) is 0.06cc/meter squared-day-atm at 50% relative humidty (RH) and the maximum allowable water vapor permeation rate is 0.01g/meter squared-day-atm at 90% RH. Current aluminum foil-based systems are prone to pin-holing and stress cracking, and can negatively impact heating uniformity during the use of novel food sterilization techniques including pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) and microwave sterilization.The development of an innovative process that has the capability to produce a single- or multi-component packaging film and/or sheet structure based on high-performing Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCPs) will enable the production of materials with high barrier to oxygen and water vapor that is independent of environmental conditions. LCP films/sheet must also have the capability to withstand microwave sterilization and temperatures up to 135 degrees C, which will allow for high-temperature applications such as retort processing currently used for MRE™ entrees as well as Unitized Group Ration (UGR) lids and thermoformed trays.1 Based on an annual MRE™  demand of 3 million cases, elimination of the foil laminated structure in the food pouches will provide an annual cost savings of $1M to $3M which includes savings from reduced packaging material costs and the reduction in lot discards.


Despite their excellent gas barrier and mechanical properties, LCPs have been known to present a processing difficulty when working in the area of melt-extruded films. Further, there is a lack of data and experience in the industry about LCP film extrusion. Proven processing limitations have included high processing temperatures combined with difficult adhesion to substrates, thickness variations, surface finish, and non-isotropic mechanical properties as the result of uni-axial orientation of polymer chains in these materials.2  Bi-axial orientation of these polymers has been obtained through a patented rotating blown film extrusion die that overcomes the structural limitations of conventionally extruded LCP; through speed variation of the shaft and cylinder of the subject die, as well as flow rate, and temperature to affect the degree of orientation imparted to the ordered polymer feedstock.3  Additional orientation is imparted to the extruded film by virtue of the blowing processes, both following the extrusion and as a part of the heat treatment. Blends of LCPs with more processable materials such as polyolefins has shown promise and has been reported throughout the literature.4,5,6 The development of advanced, next-generation LCP films with high temperature stability, low water uptake, excellent adhesion to metals, exceptional electrical properties, and low permeability to oxygen and water vapor will provide new opportunities for food packaging. 7 The development of novel processing methods and materials for LCP films will lead to optimized film production, lower production costs, and more accurate process control.


PHASE I: Research, develop, and design an innovative Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) concept and processing method, and quantify arguments to determine technical feasibility.  Comparisons should be made to existing barrier packaging technology, as well as to other similar applications.  Cost, processability, and functionality are important characteristics that should be featured in the design.   With regard to cost, the goal is to reduce the retort food pouch price by 10-20%. Although LCPs cost more than most polymers, the advantage is that only a very thin core layer of LCP is needed for barrier properties in a multilayer polymeric film. The cost would be less since there would be a reduction in the number of polymeric layers in comparison to the existing 4 layer foil pouch which also undergoes a lamination production step. There is also life cycle cost savings assuming the performance is better with less pin-holing and stress cracks than the current foil food pouch.


Demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of this process for producing film and/or sheet structures, and provide an initial analysis of the film products to include oxygen and water vapor barrier properties and mechanical properties. The barrier data must be performed according to American Standards for Testing Materials (ASTM) methods: ASTM D3985 - Standard Test Method for Oxygen gas transmission rate through plastic film and sheeting using a coulometric sensor and ASTM E96/E 96M-05 Standard Test Methods for water vapor transmission of materials. Sheet structures must be evaluated for their ability to be thermoformed into single-cavity tray configurations. Deliver a final report specifying full-scale performance for Phase II, conceptual design, performance modeling, safety factors, risk mitigation measures, MANPRINT considerations, and estimated production costs. 


PHASE II: Optimize and refine the novel processing concept and method. Develop and produce a Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP)-based prototype film and/or sheet structure to demonstrate technical capability that meets all temperature, barrier property, and mechanical property requirements. In addition, this system should be sufficiently mature for technical and operational testing, limited field-testing, demonstration, and display. Define manufacturability issues related to full-scale production of the prototype system for military and commercial application. Identify and address safety and human factors associated with the production and use of the prototype. 

The following metrics will be used to judge success of the technology as a pouch structure: oxygen transmission rate less than 0.06 cc/m2-day,water vapor transmission rate less than 0.01 g/m2-day, low concentration within the pouch(>90% at 20cc or less), maintain pouch integrity with >90% of the pouches exhibiting no rupture or seal separation greater than 1/16 of an inch, and integrity of the pouch after environmental handling with <15% failure rate for defects at inspection.


Required Phase II deliverables include: the processing methodology to produce melt-blown and/or flat polymeric films and/or sheet for high barrier packaging applications, prototypes based on such melt-extrudable LCPs that meet or surpass the following specifications, as applicable:  

(1) MIL-PRF-44073 Performance Specification - Packaging of Food in Flexible Pouches; or (2) MIL-PRF-32004B Performance Specification - Packaging of Food in Polymeric Trays. Performance for barrier, thermal and mechanical properties will be compared to the current technology controls.


PHASE III: Upon successful completion of Phase II, the Phase III transition process will include the delivery of cost effective high barrier military food packaging structure(s) to U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC), Combat Feeding Directorate (CFD) and other appropriate U.S. Army customers for evaluation. The new packaging structure(s) must be developed from the melt processing of Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCPs). The items must have performance properties that meet or surpass all current U.S. Army specifications for performance ((MIL-PEF-44073F or MIL-PRF-32004B, as applicable.).


Use of this advanced LCP technology will provide new and expanded opportunities for food packaging, aerospace, and medical products applications. The use of a fully-polymeric, LCP-based packaging structure will benefit all users by reducing package defects, costs, and weight. Further, this technology may be used with recently Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-accepted and/or novel sterilization methods such as pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) and microwave sterilization. Potential non-food packaging related applications include electronics in space; high performance fibers; medical tubings, hybrid fuel vehicles; cookware; and microelectronics.



1. Website:, Engineering Fundamentals, Polymer Materials Properties Database.


2. Lusignea, R. 2004. Orientation of LCP Blown Film with Rotating Dies.  Polymer Engineering and Science, 39 (12): 2326-2334.


3. Harvey et. al, Foster Miller Incorporated, “Biaxially Oriented Ordered Polymer Films” United States Patent # 4,963,428 (1990).


4. Narh, K.A. Liquid Crystalline Polymer Blends as a Route to Self-Reinforcing Nanocomposites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 28, (16):1957-1963 (2009)


5. Magagnini, P.L., Paci, M., La Mantia, F.P., Valenza, A. A Study of Polycarbonate-Liquid Crystal Polymer Blends, Polymer International, 28, (4), 271-275 (2007)


6. Roy, S., Sahoo, N.G., Mukherjee, M., Das, C.K., Chan, S.H., Li, L. Improvement of Properties of Polyetherimide/Liquid Crystalline Polymer Blends in the Presence of Functionalize Carbon Nanotubes, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 9, (3):1928-1934 (2009)


7. Anonymous, 2002.  Liquid Crystal Polymers and Packaging.  Semiconductor International, (7), Reed Elsevier Inc.


8. Website: http://medical, Composites and Liquid Crystal Polymers Work Where Others Cannot, Sep 1, 2008


KEYWORDS: Liquid crystal polymer, melt processing, barrier properties, food packaging




A10-163                                TITLE: Fabric with Variable Air Permeability for Use in Parachutes


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Human Systems




OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a technology for use in parachute canopies that will actively change the fabric level of air permeability.


DESCRIPTION: Military parachute canopies are constructed from cloth that has a fixed air permeability which cannot be altered once the canopy is constructed. It is assumed the fabric permeability is an inherent parameter of the fabric and remains invariant. The level of air permeability in a fabric significantly affects the opening speed of the parachute, filling time, opening shock and rate of descent.


Parachute canopies constructed from low air permeability fabric are high drag parachutes with a fast opening and a slow rate of descent. However, the negative feature of using low air permeability fabric in a parachute is a high opening shock, potential canopy damage, and greater parachute/payload system oscillation during descent. Choosing a higher air permeability fabric will result in less drag, lower opening shock, and reduced oscillation but will also increase the rate of descent and impact upon landing. The overall porosity of the parachute canopy is generally varied by introducing geometric porosity into the canopy design such as slot or holes (e.g. ring slot parachutes or vent hole at the canopy apex). While incorporating geometric porosity into the canopy design can be an effective way of achieving some desired parachute performance, such design elements are fixed (or offer limited alterations) and cannot be used to actively affect the parachute performance.


The ability to actively change the fabric air permeability during flight will be beneficial to personnel and cargo airdrop. Actively altering the fabric permeability in all or portions of the canopy surface will allow the parachute designer to tailor the parachute performance during the canopy inflation and during steady descent for round parachutes or alter the lift and drag characteristics of guided parachutes for enhanced performance and higher accuracy. A thorough review of current literature did not yield examples of applying this type of technology to parachute designs. For example, a parachute canopy constructed from a variable permeability fabric with a native low permeability state could be activated or triggered into a high permeability state during the parachute inflation to reduce the opening shock. Once the parachute was fully inflated, the trigger could be removed and the fabric would be brought back to a low permeability state to allow for a slow rate of descent. This technology would be applicable to both traditional round parachutes as well as parafoil guided parachute systems such as the Joint Precision Airdrop System (JPADS) 2K lb and 10K lb. JPADS 2k and 10K are Programs on Record that have Pre-Planned Product Improvements (P3I) to decrease system weight and increase accuracy.


Traditional parachute fabrics are twill, ripstop, or modified twill weaves using a continuous filament nylon yarn that is bright, high tenacity, lightweight, and heat resistant. Parachute cloth is lightweight, ranging in weight from 1.1 to 1.5 ounces per square yard (oz/yd2) for personnel parachutes and 2.25 to 3.0 oz/yd2 for cargo parachute applications. The cloths used in military cargo and personnel parachutes have air permeability that is largely defined by the fabric weave geometry which is altered through the fabric finishing processes. Multiple passes through a calendaring operation smooth and flatten the yarns in the weave to reduce air permeability while a silicone or fluorocarbon finish applied to the surface blocks airflow even more. Most cloth used in personnel canopies have a volumetric flow rate of 0.5 to 5.0 cfm while most cargo canopy cloth are 100-200 cfm when tested under a pressure differential across the fabric of 0.5 inches of water. The permeability of these fabrics is fixed and cannot be varied once manufactured.


Previous research has shown limited success with the use of elastomeric yarns and knit fabrics incorporated into the canopy to change the air permeability of the parachute (References 1-3). These materials did not work well because the increase in air permeability is triggered by environmental changes such as loading conditions during deployment and cannot be controlled by the user or an active control unit which would control the parachute system. The development of a fabric that actively changes air permeability maybe possible with the recent commercial advances of electro-textiles and shape memory polymers (References 4 and 5). An active change in air permeability of the fabric can be achieved through such methods as a change in yarn diameter or modification of fabric surface characteristics. Activation would be initiated by triggers employed by the user or a control unit during specific stages of deployment and descent to cause a reversible change in air permeability of the fabric. Examples of these mechanisms could be the application of an electric current from a control unit (mounted either on the canopy or on the payload), a stress/strain change around a threshold value, or other innovative triggering mechanisms. It should be noted however that any technology or trigger mechanism developed must be compatible with parachute manufacturing and packing/rigging techniques as well as be able to survive and function properly while the parachute deploys, inflates, and falls during steady descent. If the activation control unit is planned to be located on the payload, careful consideration should be given on the communication method between the control unit and the canopy.


PHASE I: This phase will focus on establishing the technical feasibility to develop materials and/or methods to actively vary the air permeability of fabric for use in parachute applications. Several methods to develop novel parachute fabrics, trigger mechanisms and interconnects across seams should be investigated for their suitability and effectiveness. Test methods shall be developed to evaluate fabric air permeability, strength, weight, thickness, flexibility and durability within the fabric and across seams. The developed fabric with variable air permeability shall be lightweight, flexible, and durable in the inactive and active state to parachute manufacture, packing, deployment and recovery procedures. Air permeability changes that can actively span the full range of current materials (0 to 200 cfm) are desired although if this is not achievable a smaller subset will be considered. The desired effect is to develop a material which could change between states of high permeability (on the order of 150-200 cfm) to low permeability (0-5 cfm) or vice versa. Examples of materials currently used as cargo and personnel parachutes are identified in References 6-8. It is anticipated the developed material(s) will have similar characteristics as current parachute fabrics with the additional benefit of being able to actively vary air permeability. Upon application of a trigger, the inactive material should have a high response rate and change to the active state in a few seconds at most. Benchtop proof of concept demonstrations of the fabric performance should be performed. These demonstrations should be performed with the tension in the fabric and the pressure differential across the fabric surface in conditions similar to that of a parachute in flight. Power and electrical requirements needed to activate and maintain the variable permeability should be included in any analysis. The most effective designs, materials, manufacturing processes and test methods will be determined and proposed for Phase II efforts. A report and functioning material samples shall be delivered documenting the research and development supporting the effort along with a detailed description of materials, processes and associated risk for the proposed Phase II effort.


PHASE II: During Phase II, further development of the concepts derived in Phase I could be pursued with the ultimate goal to demonstrate the technology on prototype parachutes. The awardee shall develop, demonstrate, and deliver fabric and parachute prototype(s) that are in accordance with the objectives identified in Phase I as possessing the ability to actively change air permeability upon application or removal of a trigger mechanism. While scaled model parachutes could be part of the demonstration process, the technology should also be demonstrated on a full-scale parachute deployed from an aircraft in an airdrop environment. Partnership between companies with smart textile knowledge and those with experience manufacturing and developing military parachutes is encouraged. In addition to the delivery of fabric and parachute prototypes, a report shall be delivered documenting the research and development supporting the effort along with a detailed description and specification of the materials, designs performance and manufacturing processes.


PHASE III DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Follow-on activities by the offeror could include development of techniques and methods for larger scale production of variable permeability fabric for use in parachutes and other applications. Fabrics that allow active control of permeability have potential commercial application in airbags, filtration; foreign military; technical clothing; shelters; sails; kites; simple toys and novelties. The offeror should aggressively pursue opportunities for the employment of the variable permeability fabric in these applications or other innovative uses. Further refinement of the fabric properties along with enhanced methods of joining (e.g. sewing) pieces of fabric together while ensuring interconnection of power and/or communication channels between pieces is maintained could be undertaken during Phase III development. 



1. Hunt Ingels, M. Variable Porosity Material for Parachutes U.S. Patent 2,527,553. 31 October 1950,


2. Boone, J.D. Variable Porosity Material for Aeronautical Decelerator U.S. Patent 3,222,016. 7 December, 1965,


3. Skelton, J.; Abbott, N., Development for Stretch Fabric for Parachute Canopies, Fabric Research Laboratories, Dedham, Ma, Tech. Rep. ASD-TR-74-26, 1974, unclassified


4. Ethridge, E.; Urban, D., ElectroTextiles Technology to Applications, D1.1.1., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 736, Mateirals Research Society, 2003


5. Natarajan, K, Dhawan, A., Seyam, A., Ghosh, T., Muth, J., Electrotextiles Present and Future, D2.10.1., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 736, Mateirals Research Society, 2003


6. Parachute Industry Association Specification, PIA-C-44378, Cloth, Parachute, Nylon, Low Permeability Available on


7. Parachute Industry Association Specification, PIA-C-7020, Cloth, Parachute, Nylon, Available on


8. Parachute Industry Association Specification, PIA-C-7350, Cloth, Parachute, Nylon, Low Permeability Available on


KEYWORDS: KEY WORDS: parachute, permeability, variable air permeability, airdrop, porosity, fabric, electro-textiles, shape memory polymers, smart textiles, textiles




A10-164                                TITLE: Energy Efficient Ice Supply in Theatre (EEISIT)




OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate mobile ice-production systems that use far less energy and power than current institutional equipment.


DESCRIPTION: Large quantities of ice are necessary to sustain warfighters and field-feeding in hot climates. Water and beverages are more palatable when cool; therefore, ice ensures readiness by boosting morale and promoting adequate hydration.  Individuals require at least 8 pounds per supported person per day (PSPD) according to the Combined Arms Support Command and the Coalition Forces Land Component Command. Ice is also used in group-feeding during preparation and serving, for the preservation of perishable rations, and for medical purposes. 


The journey to, and subsequent onsite storage of, enormous quantities of ice used at Forward Operating Bases (FOBs) is logistically troubling. Currently flown to the Area of Responsibility (AOR) and trucked to FOBs using freezer trailers, the supply chain utilizes significant assets that require protection in transit. The ice must be packaged and kept frozen, requires labor to load and unload, has less than half the shipping density of water, and a percentage of the product is lost along the way. Ice could be purchased from the local economy in limited quantities, but that can be difficult to control, maintain, and monitor for safety and security.


To avoid these issues, the most recent Force Provider Expeditionary, Capability Production Document now requires ice creation on-site in theater. In response, the Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Combat Feeding Directorate has activated a Joint Service Need for development of Battlefield Ice Supply (BIS) equipment that can produce at least 1,200 lbs/day, with an objective of 2,400 lbs/day for each 150-troop camp module. 


While on-site production provides a net savings over purchase and transportation of pre-manufactured ice, the overall situation encourages development of advanced ice machines that use less energy than commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) offerings. On average, ice machines consume 5.5 kWh of energy to produce 100 pounds of ice per day in 100F environments, during which Tactical Quiet Generators will use at least 0.41 gal of JP-8. Meeting the 8 pounds of ice PSPD for 100,000 troops in the AOR therefore requires over 1.2 million gallons of fuel each year -- 170 seven-thousand-gallon fuel tankers.


Fortunately, with advancements in vapor-compression and absorption refrigeration cycles; DC motors; absorbents; heat-exchangers; low-cost variable-speed drives; proportional integral derivative controllers; process monitoring, logging and anticipatory software; and electronically-controlled valves, it is expected the efficiency of ice machine chilling systems can be improved by an average 30% -- requiring less energy overall, but also less power -- boosting the coefficient of performance (ice-production per unit of input-energy) from 1.5 to a target threshold of 2. 


Once equipment becomes more efficient, a second opportunity emerges: power by solar.  Besides offsetting fuel consumption, solar will reduce or eliminate maintenance on military generators for which the Mean Time Between Failure is only 500 hours. Current military solar-array shelters produce about 3 kW of electricity at peak insolation. This size supports modularity, transport, and harsh-weather survival goals, and they are relatively easy to set up and require very little maintenance. While their net energy output will vary based on location, weather and time of year, it can be estimated, using the PV Watts Calculator from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, that for Baghdad the average electrical energy potential per day is ~11 kWhrs (15 kWhrs in July and 7 kWhrs in December). The desired threshold production rate for advanced field ice-makers is 200 lbs/day, with an objective of 250 lbs/day.  With 11 kWhrs of available energy, commercial ice-makers could produce this much, but they are incapable of utilizing the low power output from solar arrays at the beginning and end of each day; thus, actual production would suffer without advances in efficiency.


Both electric and heat-driven processes, including hybrids, will be considered. Focus will be on maximizing efficiencies and limiting peak power consumption; this will include means to utilize the fluctuations in power availability natural to solar. One example of how this can be achieved comes from Axaopoulos and Theodoridis, but proposals suggesting any and all concepts are encouraged. Working fluids must be justified for any flammability, toxicity, or pollutant properties. Heat-driven processes must justify the fragility of solar-heat harvesting panels.  Burners, batteries or auxiliary generators as backup energy sources may be necessary.


The ice manufacturing mechanisms developed by commercial manufacturers are very mature, but acceptable designs will be still judged based on cost, simplicity, size and weight, and usability, reliability and maintainability in a theater of war. Besides the 200 lbs/day output, the advanced ice makers shall store 150 lbs against surge or periods of production deficits. The process shall be water-efficient (threshold of 95%, objective of 99%), require few resources or parts during routine maintenance, and shall not suffer reliability issues due to scaling or biological activity. They shall be sanitary, meeting procedural and quality standards sufficient to pass the Veterinary and Preventive Medicine inspection requirements for potable ice; this likely dictates there be some sort of enclosure to prevent risk of contamination from the environment. It is desired that once the BIS equipment arrives at a FOB, it shall take no more than four hours to set up and begin production. It must be compatible with any source of potable water (tanks, bladders, or field purification units, etc.), and capable of operating from multiple sources of energy, such as shore, generator, solar and JP-8 burners. 


PHASE I: During Phase I, offerors shall materially demonstrate (i.e., not just perform a paper study) the feasibility and practicality of their concept by, at a minimum, developing, building and demonstrating benchtop components and subsystems. A final report shall be delivered that specifies how full-scale performance requirements will be met in Phase II. The report shall also detail the conceptual design, performance modeling, safety, risk mitigation measures, MANPRINT (Manpower and Personnel Integration Program), estimated production costs, and knowledge gained during the development process. Phase I proposals will be judged on how clearly, yet concisely, they present a focused concept and developmental path, and on their detailed and quantified arguments for feasibility. Comparisons should be made against existing technology, as well as other conceivable approaches that might be proposed. Concepts will be judged on innovation, anticipated water and energy efficiency performance, and important metrics such as cost, complexity, reliability, maintainability, size and weight. These and other measures of worth should be quantified and discussed explicitly. Research teams will be evaluated based on their core competency relative to the technology proposed, their level of effort, their ability to commercialize, and the potential for commercialization of the specific technologies. 


PHASE II: During Phase II, researchers are expected to refine the technology developed during Phase I, and demonstrate how the goals of the project are met, by fabricating and delivering two fully-functional solar-powered ice machines that meet all the requirements discussed and are sufficiently mature for technical and operational testing, limited field-testing, demonstration and display. A final report shall be delivered documenting the theory, design, safety, MANPRINT, component specifications, performance characteristics, potential manufacturing issues, and recommendations for future enhancement of the overall system or specific technology pieces.


PHASE III: Ice makers that consume less water and -- through greater efficiency and solar harvesting -- use less energy, will be an asset not just to disaster relief organizations and the Army, but other DoD branches that rely on Forward Operating Bases, mobile kitchens, and mobile medical facilities. The commercial sector too will benefit -- restaurants, supermarkets, industrial food service, and institutional kitchens, etc. The military's pilot application is envisioned to be a containerized system producing 200 lbs of ice per day in a manner meeting requirements already mentioned.



1. Petros J. Axaopoulos, Michael P. Theodoridis, Design and Experimental Performance of a PV Ice-Maker Without Battery, 2 March 2009 


2. LTG Michael A. Vane, Army Capabilities Integration Center, NDIA Combat Vehicle Conference, Command, 21 Oct 2008, 


3. LTG Michael A. Vane, The Big Five Warfighter Outcomes to Guide S&T Investment, 29 July 08


4. Given, J., Force Provider Presented to the Joint Chemical & Biological Decontamination and Protection Conference, June 07,


5. Mobile Electric Power Handbook -


6. National Renewable Energy Laboratory PV Watts Version 1 Calculator, and


7. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines,


KEYWORDS: ice, preservation, sustainment, kitchens, beverages, hydration, appliances, solar, mobile




A10-165                                TITLE: Improved Ballistic Combat Hearing Protection


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Research and design a low profile Ballistic Combat Hearing Protection Device that significantly improves ear comfort and ability to hear spoken verbal commands in high impact noise and continuous steady state noise exposures. Increase the warfighter's ability to recognize the direction of sounds while increasing protection from hazardous noise levels, and from ballistic fragments to prevent irrereversible hearing damage. Create a wireless, cable-free design, that amplifies hearing and situational awareness (to 360 degrees), that Soldiers, Marines, and Aircrewmen will want to wear in combat.


DESCRIPTION: This SBIR will research "doubled" hearing protection worn today and create a new approach to combine the components necessary for sound localization and auditory advancements, while improving attenuation from the high impact and steady state noise hazards. It should be lightweight (a few ounces) and be modular (tailorable) to interface with as many military helmets as possible: for Ground Infantry, Artillerymen, Military Police, Transportion, Maintenance, Fuelers, and Crewman. Strive to meet the requirements of the Army's military Tactical Communication Aural Protection System (TCAPS) hearing protection device and MC Headborne Systems.


PHASE I: The Ballistic Combat Hearing Protection CAD design or physical model should show a technology approach to:

a) provide hearing protection equivalent to current "double hearing protection" (Plug AND muff worn together) from noises above 104 dBA, 165 dBP

b) be lighter weight than current earplugs worn with lightest earmuff headsets

c) be dramatically comfortable for extensive continuous use, using materials that are soft (such as "thin pillows exteranl to the ear) and can absorb some impact from IED blasts and small fragments

d) low non-protruding profile in order to accomodate other types of communication systems within the helmet.

e) increase wearer's situational awareness in 360 degrees directional source around his head.


Research means of incorporating micro-power sources if necessary to provide continuous operability, requiring little to no disposal of batteries in the battlefield, or means that avoid additional weight burden to the head (vs current configurations), solar, or other natural source combinations.


The most prominent deficiency of passive (non-powered) hearing protection for our infantry is the lack of situational awareness in combat. Research and create a design that affords hearing protection equal to or better than combined earplug and earmuff (double ear protection) products, and in a wireless configuration to eventually upgrade the TCAP program Block III.


Deliverables of PHASE I should be a monthly report of research findings and engineering theory of proposed design solution; and deliver at least one illustration in addition to the final design model and Final Research Report at the close of period of performance. State predictable performance risks or tradeoffs for hearing protection level capabiity vs improved auditory capability.


PHASE II: Develop the concept further to integrate its alpha and beta prototype components in order to interface it with designated military headgear (helmets, tactical headsets, eyewear). Describe specific engineering components and operability with new technical drawings, schematics, and prototype parts. Produce a single prototype. Identify engineering interface issues and propose alternatives during the development of the prototype build as needed.


PHASE III: Make any necessary changes needed to the model with Govt Engineer/reviewer involvement. Demonstrate Proof of concept: Build 6 prototypes and conduct in-process testing of the components to ensure efficacy of the conduit design will work to achieve the auditory and hearing protection level improvements. Test the final 6 system prototype for performance goals: noise attenuation, high impulse energy testing, amplification testing, sound localization (directional source), speech intelligibility, and establish a Noise Reduction Rating. Measured the performances required for systems safety levels. Based on availability of funding, these systems will be tested in lab setting for the tests listed in references 6-9 below. Civilian uses for this technology include: Law enforcement and rescue community, commercial distribution warehouse centers, construction industry, electrical workers, crane industry.



1. US Army Requirement: TCAPS Tactical Communication Aural Protection System (includes Enhanced Hearing Communication and Protection System- Capability Development Doc, Revised for Signature),


2. Ruskin, A. Armed Forces Battle Invisible Disability, Hearing Review article, May/June 2008


3. Xydakis, M., Air Force Theater Hospital, and Robbins, A. , David Grant Medical Center, Tympanic-Membrane Perforation as a Marker of Concussive Brain Injury in Iraq, Aug 23, 2007.


4. Navy Environmental Hearing Conservation program website:


5. Center of Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine: and


6. Test Standards:  ANSI S3.2-1989 (R1999). American National Standard Method for Measuring the Intelligibility of Speech Over Communication Systems


7. ANSI S12.6-1997 (R2002). American National Standard Methods for Measuring the Real-Ear Attenuation of Hearing Protectors


8. ANSI S12.42-1995 (R2004). American National Standard Microphone-in-Real-Ear and Acoustic Test Fixture Methods for the Measurement of Insertion Loss of Circumaural Hearing Protection Devices


9. ANSI S12.7-1986 (R2006). American National Standard Methods for Measurement of Impulse Noise


10. Specification for performance references.  Performance Specification For Hearing Protection Tactical Headsets, PEO-Soldier. Project Manager Soldier Warrior, 7 Sept 2007.


11. Hearing Armor Inc Customer Report. A Comparison of the Performance of Various Earplugs in Impulse and Continuous Noise, Mary Binseel, US Army Research Lab, 8 Sep 2009


12. Attenuation Performance of Auditory Protection Devices, Helmets, and Communication Equipment, CRADA Report from General Dynamics for US Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), 25 July 2007, POC at AFIOH, Maj Hobbs.


13. MIL-STD-662 for V50 ballistic test protocols: No specific ballistic hearing protection test protocol.

14. Additional information from TPOC in response to FAQs for A10-165, 53 sets of Q&A (uploaded in SITIS 9/8/10).


KEYWORDS: CAD design or physical model; solar, or other natural sources (micro power).




A10-166                                TITLE: Overhead Threat Protection (OTP)


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: To develop an Overhead Threat Protection (OTP) system for direct hit survivability that can withstand or dissipate specified static and dynamic loads without failure.


DESCRIPTION: The US Army requires a novel Overhead Threat Protection (OTP) frame structural system which will cover a volume, such as a shelter, at a set standoff. The support structure of the protection system must span over the covered volume and not enter through it. The system will undergo a constant static load over the entire structure as a base load (in addition to the weight of the structure). The OTP will support the weight of ballistic paneling directly on top of the structure and a pre-detonation layer at a five foot stand-off.  Large dynamic (impulse) overpressure loads must be withstood or dissipated by the OTP system while resulting in minimal deflection into the shelter within the covered volume. TEMPER Tents (frame(1) and airbeam(2) supported) are the initial covered shelters for application of this concept. There are several critical design constraints for this system.   There must be connection points to attach ballistic paneling (directly on the structure) and pre-detonation layer paneling (5 psf at 5 foot standoff). The connection points for the ballistic and the pre-detonation paneling shall be spaced every 3 feet in the vertical and horizontal direction (3 x 3 grids).  The system must also be anchored to the ground and be capable of withstanding 50 mph steady winds with gusts to 65 mph.


Currently available commercial items are not viable options to meet the desired specifications for a number of reasons. Some of these downfalls include: one-time use, low durability and lack of robust design for expeditionary use. 


Performance, deployability, and cost will be heavily weighted aspects during the review of proposals.  Factors defining deployability include weight, transportation package, durability, and ease of erect and tear down processes. The preferred concept structure will be as light as possible to achieve the required specifications. Ideally, the system would be able to deploy over the volume it covers with no need to displace anything within the volume. The cost is usually determined by materials and manufacturing processes; it is encouraged to use low cost materials and standard processes as frequently as possible. The ease at which the solution allows for ballistic panel installation and comprehensive panel coverage will be an important characteristic.


The OTP must also be able to continue to support a static gravitational load (its own weight and that of the ballistic and pre-detonation panels) even with the loss of some structural supports.  With this in mind, high reparability is a desired characteristic of the system. 


Preferably, the concept developed for this system would allow it to be scaled to different volume coverage if needed in the future. A possible solution for this project may be a mobile bunker-like shelter that provides ballistic protection from all sides while remaining above ground and transportable. Another possible route could be to supplement the existing Modular Ballistic Protection System (MBPS) with a strictly Overhead Threat Protection system as MBPS currently provides ballistic protection to shelter sidewalls.


It should be understood that the small business is not responsible for providing the ballistic paneling or pre-detonation layer material, only the support structure and deployment system.


Specification                                                                   Target

Static Loading (ballistic and pre-detonation panels)      35 psf

Normally Reflected Pressure                                            550-700 psi (impulse)

Positive Phase Duration                                                   2-3 msec

Volume Under Structure                                                  26 ft. x 38 ft. x 15 ft. (W x L x H) [1]

Survivable Support Loss                                                  10%, Continuous

Durability/Deployability                                                  20 Erect/Strike Cycles

Support Structure Weight                                                 7 psf or less


[1] Dimensions of frame and airbeam supported TEMPER Tents with a 3 ft. stand off from tent shell.


PHASE I: In Phase I, the main focus is to develop the Overhead Threat Protection (OTP) concept, resulting in a sub-scale (1:3) model of the structure. This need not be a functional model, only proof of concept showing the protection/coverage possibilities and deployability characteristics.


Above is a table of the specifications that must eventually be met by a fully developed prototype, this must be kept in mind when creating the sub-scale model. The challenge of this topic comes in the magnitude of the dynamic forces that require dissipation. Be aware that impulse loading is dramatically different than static loading and what seems like an unreasonable number (550-700 psi) is not in the case of impulse overpressure, although this is still a challenging force. The ability of the structure to handle the impulse load is a matter of dynamic force dissipation or transfer, not structural loading.  


The support loss criterion of 10%, continuous is meant to convey that the system can have 10% of its load support mechanisms removed in a row, or one after the next, without complete structural failure.


As mentioned above, the principle deliverable of Phase I is a 1:3 scale, proof of concept model of the system. In addition to the scale model, validated Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models should be constructed and analyzed for the overpressure impulse loading and static loading. FEA models should provide supporting data that the concept can perform as promised at full scale. A formal report of the FEA analysis and subsequent design improvements is expected.


PHASE II: Phase II should provide three full scale, functional prototypes built with knowledge gained from, and suggested improvements upon, the Phase I sub-scale concept model. The prototypes are to be tested under the equivalent loads given in the list of specifications in the description. Testing of overpressure load survivability is a government organization task and is not expected to be administered by the small business. The first major deliverable will be an initial report of results, analysis, and design improvements is to be produced following the first round of testing. The second deliverable will be a cost and manufacturing feasibility report that is developed alongside with the full scale prototype. A final round of design improvement implementations will be made and testing will follow on three revised full-scale prototypes. A full final report detailing the structures performance under the testing loads is required by the end of Phase II.


PHASE III: The commercial outlook for this system is heavily military, but the versatility and multiple applications of the structure is a considerable advantage. Multiple branches of the US Military would have interest in a mobile overhead protection structure with high load strength and durability. Possible applications still exist for the private sector. Applications such as hurricane survivability shelters and hazardous commercial work environments (where blasts are a danger ex. chemical, gas, or fuel processing plants) are very possible markets to transition this product into.



1. MIL-PRF-44271C - Performance Specification, TENT, EXTENDABLE, MODULAR, PERSONNEL (TEMPER)


2. NSN 8340-01-558-4701 (tan) and 8340-01-559-3852 (green). Outdoor Venture Corp. Air-Supported STAT 32 Tent, MFR# OVAST-324422T


3. Quigley, Claudia, Karen Horak, Ryan Devine, Habib Dagher, Larry Parent, Eric Landis, Keenan Goslin, and Eric Cassidy. THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MODULAR BALLISTIC PANELS FOR FABRIC SHELTERS. Tech. U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, 01 Nov. 2006. Web. <>.





AND LABORATORY TESTS, Methods of interest 516.6, 517.1 & 522.1


6. Ref. 6 has been DELETED 8/6/10.


7. Kappos, Andreas J., ed. Dynamic Loading and Design of Structures. New York: Spon Press, 2002.


8. Numerical simulation of structural response and damage to simultaneous ground shock and airblast loads, by Chengqing Wu and Hong Hao, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 34, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 556-572.


9. Impact of a shock wave on a structure on explosion at altitude, by S. Tr lat, I. Sochet, B. Autrusson, K. Cheval and O. Loiseau, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 20, Issues 4-6, July-November 2007, Pages 509-516

Selected Papers Presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, Sixth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions.


10. Modeling of simultaneous ground shock and airblast pressure on nearby structures from surface explosions, by Chengqing Wu and Hong Hao, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 31, Issue 6, July 2005, Pages 699-717.


11. Blast load assessment using hydrocodes, by B. Luccioni, D. Ambrosini and R. Danesi, Engineering Structures, Volume 28, Issue 12, October 2006, Pages 1736-1744.


12. Calculation of equivalent static loads and its application, by Woo-Seok Choi, K.B. Park and G.J. Park, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume 235, Issue 22, November 2005, Pages 2337-2348.

13. Fig. 1 Tricons and Additional Information from TPOC for A10-166.


KEYWORDS: Support structure, shelter, force dissipation, high loads, overhead protection




A10-167                                TITLE: Algorithms for Ground Soldier Based Simulations and Decision Support Applications


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: To develop, and demonstrate methodologies and algorithms that enhance analysis driven, ground Soldier centric constructive simulations and provide proof of concept for small combat unit decision support applications. 


DESCRIPTION: Modeling and simulation (M&S) provides an analytic environment to assess potential materiel solutions in an operational context. However, many current constructive simulations require analysts to script missions in extensive detail and may also require analysts to detail response behaviors to multiple conditions. The end result is that current simulations often require significant set-up to realistically represent the spectrum of actions that may occur in a tactical operating environment.  This may limit their realism, analyst set-up time, the analyst’s capability to fully assess materiel solutions or the ability to reuse scenario elements. One reason for this extensive scripting is that not many algorithms exist that would allow constructive simulation agents to be automated enough to respond appropriately to changes in their situation while at the same time executing tasks that have only been defined with mission goals, initial/boundary conditions, and constraints. Also, our small combat units are lacking decision support applications that can support execution of their operational tasks, even while advertisements claim that there are now over 100,000 iPhone applications. There is potentially significant overlap between many algorithms needed for a constructive simulation focused on small unit operations and those algorithms that would be useful in operational decision support applications that could aid our ground Soldiers.  In both cases the need to understand and represent important elements of the real world is a key element in the development of algorithms and is a critical component in validation.  Route selection and emplacement of forces or sensors are examples of tasks that need to be executed in both the simulation and in real operations where algorithms can be developed to support execution of the task. For example, many of the factors that are important to the real world unit leader are also ones that, if utilized, would improve the path selection and movement algorithms for constructive simulations.  There are common elements in the development of many simulation algorithms and those needed in decision support applications. In each case we would need to: identify the decision that we are trying to represent or support; identify the factors that are important; identify and develop methods of obtaining the needed data; develop user interfaces; develop methodologies and computer algorithms; and address platform integration issues. In both cases, highly relevant factors will include METT-TC elements (mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available and civil considerations).  


This effort would research, develop, and demonstrate methodologies and algorithms that enhance automation and execution of a variety of ground Soldier and small combat unit (platoon and below) tasks within constructive simulations and provide proof of concept for small combat unit decision support applications. There are opportunities in numerous areas, to include; locating forces to minimize exposure while maximizing fields of view and fire, assessment of threats and vulnerabilities, servicing of targets or locating an enemy shooter. Potential approaches should address the data, methodologies, algorithms, and validation audit trail. Proposals should identify how the proposed research will advance the current state of the art. The products should result in more intelligent and realistic unit behaviors and improved execution of tasks within the simulation, an improved analyst capability to assess materiel solutions, and support development of battlefield decision support applications. 


PHASE I: Phase I will provide a proposed concept for the generation of algorithms and methodologies that support automation of tasks and missions within the simulation with less involvement by the military analysts and provide a proof of concept to potentially transition to ground Soldier battlefield decision support applications. The focus will be on urban operations. This will include identifying a number of specific operationally relevant decisions and actions that could be at least partially automated within the simulation and/or supported by a decision support application. The sponsor will assist with this process.  The sponsor will assist with identifying a set of small combat unit tasks, initial/boundary conditions, links to higher level mission goals, military constraints, operational considerations, and other supporting data elements that will support execution of this effort. Examples of composite tasks that require the execution of more elemental tasks include cordon and search, building clearing, and enemy reconnaissance. 


The proposed concept should support an extensible and generalized solution that is computationally efficient within the constructive ground Soldier simulation or battlefield decision support aid. Any data needs and assumptions required by the concept to be compatible with a constructive ground Soldier simulation should be clearly outlined and explained. 


Phase I will perform a proof of concept that describes how one proposed concept may be utilized within a ground Soldier battlefield decision support aid and implementation in a specific constructive ground Soldier simulation, such as the Infantry Warrior Simulation (IWARS). Metrics in phase I will include:

-          the usefulness of the algorithm to supporting quality analysis across a range of situations,

-          the applicability and utility of an initial methodology and algorithm to be implemented within a simulation and/or decision application,

-          the degree that it represents the important elements of the real world (valid),

-          the applicability of the selected approach to the development of other algorithms,

-          documentation and its ability to be demonstrated. 


PHASE II: Phase II will include identification and prioritization of additional operationally relevant tasks to include specific decisions and actions that lend themselves to automation through algorithm development. Phase II will also include design and implementation of multiple algorithms and methodology necessary in accordance with the Phase I concept.  Sufficient knowledge elicitation will be conducted with small combat unit SMEs to ensure that critical real world factors (i.e. METT-TC) are identified and included in such a way as to support the development of each methodology, to include the necessary data elements and data structures.  In Phase II, a plan will be developed to validate and test the algorithms and methodologies. The plan may also include how specific applications could be developed.  A set of use cases that describe relevant military operations or missions could be utilized or developed to guide research and the methodology development. The use cases would also support testing and exercising the methodology and techniques. For example, one use case may be a scenario where the goal is to perform a cordon and search and the mission is complicated by the presence of enemy snipers that cause our forces to shift their locations while they respond. Development will lead to demonstration of algorithms developed in phase II within a simulation tool, such as the IWARS. 


Other tasks include documenting and delivering a report including all algorithms, methodologies, and any data structures or software products necessary to support transition of the work to DoD simulation developers. The phase II report should also demonstrate and document how algorithms may be adapted or transitioned to support implementation into battlefield decision support applications. Metrics for this effort will include the number of methodologies and algorithms developed, the degree to which they represent the important elements of the real world, their potential utility within the simulation and/or decision application, documentation and their ability to be demonstrated. Other considerations include the degree to which the algorithms are computationally efficient, can be modified if additional elements need to be included, and can be implemented within a simulation or decision application.


PHASE III: The developed methodologies and associated implementation have commercial applications in simulation products that incorporate decision-making and Human Behavior Representation. There may also be follow on work related to the continued development and transition of algorithms and methodologies for constructive simulations, e.g. IWARS or OneSAF. In addition, there is potential application of these simulation products to proposed DoD materiel solutions whose goal is to provide Soldiers decision support applications that will support enhanced Soldier situational awareness and improved decision-making. Also, there is potential application to future automated or semi-automated ground Soldier battlefield systems; such as a system that automatically distributes ammunition from a supply point when troops are in contact with the enemy. Non military applications could relate to security details, crowd control, or other operations where there are common elements with small combat unit operations.



1. IWARS fact sheet,


2. FM 7-8, Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad, 


3. Briefing provided to the Behavior Representation in Models and Simulation (BRIMS) Conference on 15 April 2008, entitled Link Between Human Behavior Representation for Models and Military Systems


4. Killzone AI: Dynamic Procedural Combat Tactics,


5. Department of the Army Pamphlet 5-11, Verification, Validation, and Accreditation of Army Models and Simulations, 30 September 1999


KEYWORDS: Decision Support Application, Soldier Analysis, Ground Soldier, Modeling and Simulation, Situational Awareness, Simulation Algorithm, Infantry Warrior Simulation.




A10-168                                TITLE: Selfpowered Solar Water Heater




OBJECTIVE: To develop a lightweight low cost mobile solar powered system for heating and pumping water to support organizational systems (kitchen, showers, laundries, and latrines) at Forward Operating Bases.


DESCRIPTION: Water is currently heated by electrically powered JP8 burners and moved with electric pumps. Fuel is consumed by the burners as well as the oversized generators used to power this equipment. Each field kitchen will heat thousands of gallons of water for beverages, thawing and heating frozen foods, rehydrating dehydrated foods, preparing menu components, reheating tray rations, and washing, rinsing, and sanitizing equipment. Force Provider(1), a packaged 600 Soldier base camp uses 1925 gallons per day (g/d) in the kitchen, 12,000 g/d in the showers, 5200 g/d in the laundry, and 2700 g/d in the latrines for a total of 21,825 g/d, or 36 gallons per Soldier. It is estimated that at least half of this water is heated with burners. To heat 18 gallons of water by 100F with 75 percent efficient burners, requires about 1 gallon of JP8. Multiplying times 100,000 troops and 365 days per year equals 36.5 million gallons per year or over five thousand 7000 gallon tankers.


Although solar water heating is effective in most climates and particularly effective in climates within 45 degrees of the equator (which includes all of Africa), for the purpose of design, South West Asia (SWA) and Baghdad are used for standardization. Most of the 800 Forward Operating Bases in SWA employ 150 Soldiers or less. Force Provider is developing a 150 Soldier module(2), which is the target application for this topic. The 150 Soldier module is packaged and transported in 16 TRICON shipping containers and includes the same functions as the 600 Soldier version but at a reduced scale. Given the average solar insolation for Baghdad is 1675 British Thermal Unit per square foot per day (BTU/ft2/d), to heat 50 gallons of water by 100 Fahrenheit (F) would theoretically require 24 ft2 of surface. Of the four organizational systems:  Showers and latrines could operate with a 50F temperature rise and would require 358 ft2 and 80 ft2 respectively; and kitchens and laundries require higher water temperatures and at a 100F temperature rise would require 114 ft2 and 310 ft2 respectively. These solar water heaters would save about 100 gallons of fuel per day per 150 soldier module.


Commercial solar water heaters(3,4,5) are permanently mounted rigid roof panels constructed with either fragile glass or heavy metal tubes. None have been found with integrated PV and none are light or rugged enough for mobile military use. It is envisioned that each of the four organizational systems would include a number of thermal/electricity collectors, 100 gallon hot water storage, power storage and a pump.  To generate power for the pump, the black body adsorption will be laminated with photovoltaic (PV) cells, so the total solar insolation is divided between heat and electric power.  200 watts per group of collectors should be adequate for driving a 5 gpm pump. Ambient water is provided in 3000 gallon blivets that are already located at each of the organizational systems so the water heaters will draw from the blivets, and heat and store 100 gallons of water. It is also desired that an electrical storage system be included to provide power consistently throughout the day. The desired shipping container is the TRICON, an 8 x 8 x 6.5 foot container.  The collectors and other components must be man-portable (the MIL-STD-1472 limit for a 4 person lift and carry is 147 pounds) and this requirement and the dimensions of the TRICON will determine the actual area and quantity of the individual collectors. The collectors can be rigid or flexible, troughs or flat, sun tracking or fixed, whichever combination minimizes the cube, weight, and cost, and provides adequate reliability and ruggedness for field applications.  The system must be safe, operable with little or no training, and easy to clean (or have built in anti-microbial surfaces).


PHASE I: Research, develop, and design an innovative concept with detailed and quantified arguments for feasibility. Comparisons should be made to present-day technology, as well as other similar applications. Fabricate one integrated collector (electric and heat) that when subjected to an interpolated Baghdad diurnal insolation cycle is capable of heating and storing 40,000 BTU of hot water (raising the temperature of 50 gallons of water by 100F) and generating and storing 1000 watt-hours of electricity at 24 vDC. Maximum performance, minimum size, weight, and cost, and durability are important characteristics that shall be featured in the design. Demonstrate (i.e., not just perform a paper study) the feasibility and practicality of the Selfpowered Solar Water Heater. Deliver a final report specifying how full-scale performance and control requirements will be met in Phase II. The report shall also detail the conceptual design, performance modeling, safety, risk mitigation measures, MANPRINT, and estimated production costs.


PHASE II: Refine the concept and fabricate one 150 Soldier, TRICON based prototype system that meets all temperature, heat and power output, control, storage, and man-portability requirements and is sufficiently mature for technical and operational testing, limited field-testing, demonstration, and display. Define manufacturability issues related to full scale production of the prototype system for military and commercial application. Identify safety and human factors and provide user manuals and training to support testing of the equipment.


PHASE III: The initial use for this technology will be to provide hot water for military base camp organizational systems. Solar heat and electric is applicable to both military and civilian markets. The Army Strategic Action Plan for Sustainability includes objectives, measures and targets for fuel reduction (30 percent by 2020). The Army Energy Security Implementation Strategy(6) also has several fuel objectives including: Objective 2.6 Increase energy efficiency of current and tactical equipment/platforms. There are also initiatives for Zero-footprint Base Camp, the NetZero Plus Joint Concept Capability Technology Demonstration, and the Force Provider Environmental Technologies Working Group(7-10), all of which focus on technology to reduce fuel and water consumption.  There are also tax incentives for solar water heaters for home owners and businesses.



1. US Army NSRDEC Commander’s Smartbook Equipment Catalog


2. Memorandum, Subject: PM FSS System Executive Summary for the Urgent Materiel Release of the Force Provider (FP) Prototype Expeditionary System (FP-ES) 150 Soldier Base Camp Module.


3. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy web site on Solar Water Heaters:


4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory web site on Solar Hot Water:


5. P. Denholm; The Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  NREL/TP-640-41157; March 2007;


6. Army Energy Security Implementation Strategy, 13 January 2009,


7. Defense Science Board Task Force on Improving Fuel Efficiency of Weapons Platforms, More Capable Warfighting Through Reduced Fuel Burden, January 2001, p. 43,


8. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on DoD Energy Strategy--More Fight, Less Fuel.


9. TRADOC Pamphlet 525-66, 07 Mar 08, Force Operating Capabilities,


10. Reducing DoD fossil fuel dependence. Sept 2006.  The JASON group, MITRE, JSR-06-135.


KEYWORDS: solar, water heater, photovoltaic, renewable energy, alternative energy




A10-169                                TITLE: Fatigue Crack Initiation Prediction Tool for Rotorcraft Spiral Bevel Gears


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: This topic seeks to develop a microstructure-sensitive probablistic based analytical technique for predicting the time to crack initiation for high performance spiral bevel gears currently used in rotorcraft drive systems.


DESCRIPTION: Spiral bevel gears are used in nearly all modern rotorcraft. Their ability to operate at high speeds with non-parallel input and output shafts enables the power to be transferred from a horizontal plane to the vertically mounted main rotor shaft. These gears are typically manufactured using case carburized alloy steels such as AMS 6265 and AMS 6308. The fatigue strength of the finished gears are a function of the basic geometry, the material micro and macrostructure characteristics, surface finish, lubrication, and the contact pattern achieved between the mating pinion and gear. Current life prediction methods such as the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) method are empirically based. The AGMA method produces a Stress Index which is difficult to correlate with true stresses that would be obtained via strain gages or the use of modern finite element design methods. This topic seeks to develop a probabilistic based analytical technique for predicting the time to crack initiation for high perfromance spiral bevel gears currently used in rotorcraft drive systems. The method to be developed shall utilize a commercially available finite element method(FEM) based tool to model the spiral bevel gear geometry and the loading and contact pattern of the meshing pinion and gear. The model shall output stresses to be used in a microstructure-sensitive probabilistic based crack initiation prediction tool. AS a minimum, this tool shall include the effects of material cleanliness, grain size, chemical composition, residual stress, hardness, and other factors which are known to influence fatigue strength. The statistical distribution of these characteristics about the mean desired target properties shall be the basis for the probabilistic prediction of load cycles to crack initiation.      


PHASE I: Phase I effort shall consist of a feasabilty analysis assessing the applicability of existing FEM tools to effectively and afforbably create models of  meshing spiral bevel gears that will yield accurate stresses for use in the probabilistic life prediction tool. The specific factors effecting fatigue crack initiation in case hardened steel gears fabricated from either AMS 6308 or AMS 6265 shall be identified and the relative influence of each of these factors shall be analized. The potential variation of these factors shall also be identified.  An assement of the potential accuracy of the basic approach is a desired outcome of the phase I effort. A Manufacturing Technology Readiness level of 3 is expected at the conclusion of Phase I.


PHASE II: Phase II shall combine the FEM and probablistic life prediction tools developed in Phase I into a single integrated tool for predicting stress cycles to crack initiation. Effort will be conduct to refine the accuracy stresses generated by the spiral bevel gear FEM model. Effort shall also be conducted to acquire experimental data required to verify the relative influence of factors effecting crack initiation. The use of the FEM tool shall be exercised using a suitable case carburized spiral bevel gear. The participation of a helicopter OEM shall be sought for Phase II effort and a target helicopter spiral bevel gear selected for use in the analysis. The stresses predicted by the FEM tool shall be used as input to the probabilistic life prediction tool. A beta version of the analysis tool shall be developed for assessment by potential commercial users. A Manufacturing Technology Readiness level of 5 is expected at the conclusion of Phase II.


PHASE III: Phase III shall consist of further refinement of both the FEM tool and the Probabilistic life prediction tool and the interfaces between the two parts of the tool. Further validation to the accuracy of the approach may be perfromed by conducting specifically designed fatigue testing. A market ready version of the spiral bevel life predition tool should also be refined. The commercial availability of this software package is seen as the end vision of this topic. A Manufacturing Technology Readiness level of 7-8 is expected at the conclusion of Phase III.



1. Tryon, R. G., Cruse, T. A., (1998) "A Reliability-Based Model to Predict Scatter in Fatigue Crack Nucleation Life", Fat. Frac. Eng. Mat. Str., Vol. 21, pp. 257-267


2. James, M. R., Morris, W. L., (1986) “The Effect of Microplastic Surface Deformation on the Growth of Small Cracks,” Small Fatigue Cracks, Ed., R. O. Ritchie, J. Lankford, TMS, Warrendale, PA, pp. 167-189


3. Simulating Fatigue Crack Growth in Spiral Bevel Pinion, CORNELL UNIV ITHACA NY, Ural, Ani; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R., AUG 2003




5. Bibel, G.D. and Handschuh, R.F. (1997) 'Meshing of a spiral bevel gear set with 3-D finite element analysis', Gear Technology, March/April, pp. 44-47.


6. Huseyin Filiz, I. and Eyercioglu, O. (1995) 'Evaluation of gear tooth stresses by finite element method', ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 117, pp. 232-239.


KEYWORDS: gears, probabilistic design, steels, microstructure, fatigue, manufacturing engineering




A10-170                                TITLE: Lightweight Transparent Ballistic Material for Vehicles


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Combat Support & Combat Service Support


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to develop a new technology transparent material that provides similar or better performance as current ballistic glass but at significantly reduced weight.


DESCRIPTION: Compared to opaque armor, transparent armor used to make current ballistic glass is much heavier. However, use of transparent armor is necessitated by the need for a vehicles crew to achieve and maintain maximum situational awareness (SA). Development of new transparent solutions that provide significant weight reductions will allow current vehicles to either 1) reduce weight by keeping the same viewing area or 2) will increase viewing area and situational awareness due to reduction of the tunnel vision effect by reducing armor thickness or providing dimensionally larger windows within the same weight constraint. Additionally, the logistics burden could be reduced due to less fuel being required to operate the lighter vehicles and less weight in stocking and transporting replacement ballistic windows. The transparent material for this SBIR should be capable of meeting ATPD 2352P with focus on optimum clarity with the use of night vision goggles and resistance to environmental weathering. Controlled environmental and ballistic tests will confirm the transparent material performance. The program supports the Army’s goals of reduced logistical footprints by reducing vehicle weight, but more importantly allows for increase situation awareness and decreased door weight, making egress after rollover accidents or other events easier. For this effort, the new transparent technology must be a direct replacement for the current ceramic based windows (front windshield excluded for this SBIR effort) in an M-ATV vehicle with a weight savings goal of 50% over traditional ballistic glass and a target cost of no more than 3x that of current glass. Current advanced transparent armor technology has shown that weight savings or roughly 50% over standard ballistic glass is achievable (with ALON and Spinel for instance) but the current exceptional costs of 6x-10x that of glass make it unrealistic for vehicle application. The M-ATV side windows are very small due to overall vehicle weight constraints and reducing transparent armor weight is the first step to increasing window size for added SA by the rear occupants in this vehicle. The rear side windows are approximately 100 square inches and the front side windows approximately 300 square inches.


PHASE I: Conduct feasibility (Technology readiness levels), affordability (cost/square ft for existing and selected material), environmental suitability (compliance with ATPD 2352P in terms of solar degradation, optical clarity, etc), scalability (up through MRAP RG-33 windows) and manufacturability (Manufacturing Readiness Levels) studies of the recommended transparent material. Design M-ATV window replacement panels and determine the projected improvement in performance (weight and cost) over current technical solutions. Analyze the expected ballistic performance of the transparent material and predict the level of small arms protection it will offer. 


PHASE II: Manufacture prototypes of the transparent armor material in a standard ballistic testing configuration. Validate agreed upon ballistic, optical, Night Vision Goggle (NVG), environmental performance, etc in accordance with ATPD 2352P. Based on results of testing, modify as needed and produce a second set of prototypes that attempt to increase performance or decrease weight and cost further for similar testing. Using lessons learned from both sets of testing, produce and deliver samples of a comparable M-ATV windows for comparative ballistic testing in expected operational configuration.  Provide updated scalability and manufacturability results and assessments.


PHASE III: Phase III military applications include replacement of any heavy ballistic glass solutions currently in vehicles. Alternate solutions include upgrades to current vehicles to increase the viewing area in a vehicle without increasing the current weight of the vehicle. Civilian sector applications include armored cars for dignitaries, business executives and monetary transport.



1. ATPD 2352P, 7 July 2008.


2. Patel, Paramel; Hsieh, Alex; Gilde, Gary; Improved Low-Cost Multi-Hit Transparent Armor, Army Research Lab Aberdeen Proving Ground; Nov 2006.


3. Transparent Armor. The Advanced Materials and Processes Technology newsletter, volume 4, number 3, Fall 2000.


4. Lisa Prokurat Franks (Editor). Advances in Ceramic Armor IV: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 29, Issue 6.  ISBN: 978-0-470-34497-2. Dec 2008.


KEYWORDS: transparent armor, lightweight ceramics, M-ATV, MATV, ballistic glass, bullet resistant clear armour




A10-171                                TITLE: Multimodal Biometrics Score Level Fusion Matching Techniques


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Weapons


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Enterprise Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Design, build and demonstrate the capability to match multimodal biometric systems utilizing different biometrics traits to improve accuracy.


DESCRIPTION:  US Army seeks the abilities to combine and leverage the vast array of biometric data, as a result of the proliferation of multimodal biometric systems (across all DOD and Federal Agencies), to achieve greater reliability in determining or verifying person’s identity. In support of our ongoing mission (Major Combat Operations, Stability Operations, and Homeland Security) to provided a valuable service in screening fingerprints of individuals requesting access to military installations and retaining biometric data on individuals involved in criminal activities or violence against the U.S.


The use of fusion technique on multiple biometrics traits: fingerprint, facial features, iris of the eye, voice print, hand geometry, vein patterns, and so on, increases the accuracy of positive identification on partial readings, noisy images and uncooperative subject. Score level fusion matching technique will enable the multimodal systems to consolidate the evidence from all the modalities into a single score to be used for recognition. Score level fusion is a technique which combines the output of n different matchers into one final, in a two part process of score normalization and decision theory.


PHASE I: Perform a feasibility study to determine if a score level fusion matching capability is achievable. Evaluate and compare different multimodal biometric traits on large dataset of operational realistic data, at a minimum use the fingerprint, face, and iris modalities for matches. Focus on the interoperability of the fusion techniques between different matching algorithms. Take into consideration the use of multiple combinations of different normalization and decision techniques and then report each respected performance. The study shall include specific performance parameters, anticipated system limitations, and an assessment of technical risk. Prepare a preliminary design including interface requirements.


PHASE II: Develop, test and demonstrate prototype(s) under representative operational environments the speed and accuracy of the searches in large databases producing accurate matches (97-98% true match rate) in near real time (under 30 sec/10,000 matches).  


PHASE III: The initial path for transition will be through PM DoD Biometrics, which will integrate it into its Enterprise Biometrics Architecture to provide identity superiority across the Department of Defense. The techniques, processes and technology developed may be applied to other federal sector in support of the Global War On Terror (GWOT).


Dual Use:  Biometric can help in protecting individual privacy; because biometrics provides stronger identification than password, it can be used to guard personal & sensitive information like patient record (Health Information Privacy Protection Act). 



1.  ISO/IEC 19794-6:2005 Information technology. Biometric data interchange formats. Iris image data


2.  NIST SP 800-76.1 Biometric Data Specification for Personal Identity Verification (PIV)


3.  DoD Electronic Biometric Transmission Specification (EBTS) v1.2




KEYWORDS: Biometric, Fusion




A10-172                                TITLE: Obstacle Detection and Awareness via High-Resolution Monocular Video


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics


OBJECTIVE: This SBIR aims to build an electro-optic mobility aid for indirect driving and situational awareness applications that allows Soldiers to detect and analyze distant obstacles from a moving manned or unmanned ground vehicle with high-resolution monocular video.


DESCRIPTION: The United States Army increasingly aims to integrate advanced sensor technologies onto its manned and unmanned ground vehicles to advance Soldiers’ situational awareness and indirect driving capabilities in the field. In this regard, monocular video is a very critical sensing technology because it is fairly inexpensive and requires relatively little power. In addition, monocular camera technologies are reliable; and, such technologies emit almost no electromagnetic signature. In recent years, monocular cameras have offered increased spatial resolution; however, the application of these high-resolution imaging technologies upon military ground vehicles is hindered by the limited resolution of their display panels and bandwidth of their content delivery systems. Often, engineers alleviate this issue by down-sampling the original monocular signal to match the system’s display resolution or data transfer capability; however, with this approach, Soldiers cannot view a local Region of Interest (ROI) in the highest captured resolution. Soldiers in the field increasingly use high-resolution monocular video to operate their systems sometimes, beneath a closed hatch. These vehicle operators have no access to windows that could improve situational awareness; and, they increasingly require capabilities to understand the threat of potential obstacles from a large distance. The Army therefore desires the capability to use existing high-resolution monocular cameras to their fullest potential to detect and understand the threat of obstacles while driving. Virtual Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) methods may be used to partially address this issue. Virtual PTZ algorithms allow Soldiers to pan, tilt, and zoom through a high-resolution video feed in real-time without mechanical components. These algorithms thereby allow Soldiers to view potential obstacles within some local ROI from a large distance in the highest captured resolution. Unfortunately, no known technologies exist that meld Virtual PTZ methods with those that detect and understand obstacles from a vehicle moving at speeds of up to sixty miles per hour. These algorithms would benefit ongoing Army operations. For instance, current capabilities to detect and optically zoom upon an obstacle of interest are limited by the number of zoom-capable cameras upon the vehicle. A versatile Virtual PTZ framework would permit one high-resolution monocular camera to simultaneously detect, track, and zoom upon several obstacles of interest from a large distance. A robust Virtual PTZ framework must allow random access to any local ROI with little latency. Obstacles may be dynamic or stationary. The obstacle detection and tracking system must be robust to physical occlusion and environmental conditions for instance, varying light levels, shadows, and precipitation. The tracking system must account for orientation shifts to obstacles as the vehicle moves; and, the system must at a minimum offer a method to measure an obstacle threat to the vehicle and alert its operator as appropriate. The solution must provide all of this information and capability to the Soldier in an intuitive manner.


PHASE I: Design the Obstacle Detection and Awareness System with a High-Resolution Monocular Camera. Provide a report that describes the intended implementation. At a minimum, it must explain the algorithm, provide a user interface concept, describe significant design trade-offs, estimate an implementation schedule, and include a risk mitigation matrix. In addition, applicants must conduct proof-of-principle experiments to support their concept and provide evidence of its viability.


PHASE II: Completely develop the Obstacle Detection and Awareness System for a High-Resolution Monocular Camera. A prototype shall be integrated onto a commercial vehicle or robot; however, care must be taken to ensure its eventual integration on a manned or unmanned military ground vehicle.  It shall be demonstrated in an outdoor urban environment of the Government’s choice. Reports shall be delivered that document Project-related activities, the system’s technical specifications, and a User’s Guide.


PHASE III: The Obstacle Detection and Awareness System described herein may be integrated onto a fleet of manned and unmanned military ground vehicles to improve operators’ situational awareness and indirect driving capabilities in combat. These capabilities are particularly important for urban operations wherein obstacles are dispersed throughout cluttered and dynamic environments; but, they may also be employed in off-road mountainous terrains wherein obstacles are hidden throughout natural landscapes.  Virtual PTZ algorithms may be employed in various commercial applications, such as interactive television, wide-area surveillance, and interactive streaming media. Combined with the obstacle detection and awareness technologies detailed herein, the complete Obstacle Detection and Awareness System may be used in the luxury automobile and emergency response i.e., police, fire, SWAT, etc. markets to improve operators’ awareness of obstacles while driving. The IMOPAT ATO strongly supports this effort; and, if successful, it aims to provide non-SBIR funding after Phase II to integrate the technology onto future military vehicle platforms.



1. Mavlankar, A., Baccichet, P., Varodayan, D., and Girod, B., Optimal Slice Size for Streaming Regions of High Resolution Video with Virtual Pan/Tilt/Zoom Functionality, Proc. of 15th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), Poznan, Poland, Sept. 2007.


2. Sinn, R., Virtual Pan-Tilt-Zoom for a Wide-Area-Video Surveillance System Master’s Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September 2008.


3. Ulrich, I., and Nourbakhsh, I., Appearance-Based Obstacle Detection with Monocular Color Vision, Proc. of AAAI 2000.


4. Regensburger, U., and Graefe, V., Visual Recognition of Obstacles on Roads, Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 1994.


KEYWORDS: Obstacle Detection, Indirect Driving, Situational Awareness, Tracking, Pan, Tilt, Zoom, Threat Evaluation




A10-173                                TITLE: Untethered Video Transmission


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Develop an untethered mechanism to transmit secure (Type I) streaming video wireless from a tactical vehicle (e.g., Abrams, Bradley, etc.) to a Mounted Soldiers Head-Mounted Display (HMD)


DESCRIPTION: The Mounted Soldier System Capability Development Document (CDD) requires as an objective the ability to display video, untethered from the host platform, to a distance of 500 meters. This would allow the vehicle Commander to have access to all of the vehicles display information at a range equal to his wireless voice communications. Such capability must provide for high data transfer rates with minimal latency and transmitted in a secure manner. Anti-jamming and anti-spoofing capabilities are also required. This effort may include Radio Frequency (RF) and non-RF solutions. It is important that the technologies considered are power efficient to minimize the load on the Mounted Soldier. This effort should not be a standalone solution, but address the incorporation of this capability as part of an integrated Head-Mounted Display solution. Type I encryption is expensive in both development and production of military systems. Because it requires a hardware implementation, it can also significantly impact the power consumption of the system. Current efforts in support of the development of a wireless personal area network for the Ground Soldier System focus on a low power implementation of Ultra Wide Band technology. The low range/detectability and anti-jamming characteristics of the solution being pursued should not require Type I encryption. However, this does not scale well when you increase the power to meet the range requirements for Mounted Soldier. An innovative approach is needed to achieve the security requirements for the transmission of classified data without the need for a Type I encryption hardware implementation.


PHASE I: This effort requires an innovative approach to transferring streaming video yet meeting the characteristics required by the tactical environment, in a form factor small enough for integration on the Mounted Soldier’s helmet. The reception, processing and powering of this device must reside on the helmet to eliminate the need for cables going from the body to the headgear, something the Soldiers have indicated being very undesirable. An assessment on Size, Weight and Power must be included in the concept. Other Technical Performance Parameters shall be identified and assessed to include those that may impact Soldier comfort and cognitive load. These concepts must address how the hardware will be integrated into the existing Mounted Soldier headgear equipment. The product of Phase I is a report documenting the concept(s), including research conducted on the various concepts, and the results of any tests and demonstrations.


PHASE II: If funding allows, select two of the concepts from phase I and develop/integrate into existing Mounted Soldier headgear and a tactical vehicle to deliver a prototype. The objective is to build a prototype and obtain an early indication of potential issues with Soldier acceptance and functional utility. The contractor will conduct laboratory testing in support of demonstrating that the materiel solutions are at least Technology Readiness Level 5. The contractor shall assess potential issues associated with the materiel solutions meeting MIL-STD-810 environmental test requirements and any required National Security Agency certification of the data transmission/protection mechanism. The contractor shall deliver a report documenting the research and development efforts, the test results supporting the TRL 5, and a detailed description of the two proposed materiel solutions and their performance characteristics.


PHASE III: Upon completion of phases I and II, both materiel solutions may be evaluated for potential commercial use. Because these products are part of an integrated headgear solution, the creation of stand-alone products or their integration into a commercial product may require further development and maturation. Areas of potential commercial use include home entertainment and video game equipment. Depending on their maturity and level of integration, one or both of the materiel solutions will transition to an existing Army Technology Objective (e.g., D.NSC.2010.01 Helmet Electronics and Display System-Upgradeable Protection), or directly to the Mounted Soldier System acquisition program.  The contractor will support a user evaluation conducted by the Government. The materiel solutions must not present a safety hazard to the Soldier and the contractor shall prepare the documentation required to obtain a safety release.



1. Mounted Soldier System Capability Development Document, 23 Jan 2007


KEYWORDS: mounted, display, video, transmission, Soldier, battle command, wireless




A10-174                                TITLE: Precision Autonomous Virtual Flight Control


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Electronics


OBJECTIVE: Develop methods and tools to define control inputs for real-time rotary wing flight simulations to achieve desired maneuvers and trajectories with minimal errors, in the execution of specific test objectives.


DESCRIPTION: Autonomous control of aircraft in a virtual flight environment involves defining waypoints for a virtual pilot command generating scheme. These commands feed a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) model within the flight simulation. Traditional outer-loop guidance methods used with rotary-winged aircraft (A/C) models/simulations lack the necessary precision and tight control characteristics required in certain subsystem tests. These tests require the ability to put the aircraft in a specific state in time and space in order to evaluate the performance of its subsystems. Currently the accurate execution of demanding maneuvers requires manual tuning of the virtual pilot for each maneuver by highly skilled experts in rotary wing control simulation. This implementation is costly and slow, lacking the flexibility needed by a test engineer to efficiently utilize test resources.

A new virtual pilot capability is needed that: From an arbitrary trim point in the test scenario can command the aircraft to be at specific states at various points during a test run, and fly complex maneuvers with minimal error and precision control based on specified trajectories and attitudes (specific A/C state) to facilitate testing of various subsystems


Is compatible with authoritative 6DOF models of Army helicopters and existing rotary-wing flight simulation tools Provides easy and effective tools for engineers to specify complex flight paths and maneuver sets Produces a command data set (time history of control inputs) that can be saved and re-run to accurately repeat the same virtual flight conditions


No presently known technical solutions meet all objectives of this SBIR, although a range of techniques including control inversion, outer loop, and feed-forward have been effective in other flight control applications. But the complex nature of rotary wing 6DOF models present challenges beyond traditional fixed wing applications. Current techniques focus on the desired flight path, but this SBIR requires innovation to also achieve precise attitude control while maneuvering. A virtual pilot is needed to test real helicopter systems on the ground, such as the Systems Test and Integration Lab (STIL) project currently being developed. A virtual flight environment for installed systems testing such as the STIL can fill the gap between laboratory and flight testing. Stand-alone lab testing cannot produce the interactions between systems experienced in actual flight. Nor can open-air flight testing with human-in-the-loop control provide the precise controllability and repeatability needed to induce specific conditions in a cost effective way.


PHASE I: Research the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft flight control simulation and automation technology and select the method(s) best suited to the application domain. Perform an analysis to:

Identify key technology factors,

Conduct trade studies to validate selected method(s),

Identify technical challenges in the integration of various methods/techniques.

Illustrate with analysis and examples why the selected method(s) are optimal for synthesizing pilot’s flight control inputs to achieve precision trajectories and control switching capabilities. Implement the most promising methodologies using actual flight data or example data. Develop functioning prototypes of tools and user interfaces to manipulate data and methodology implementations suitable for further research and applied experimentation. Document trades, findings, and prototypes in a Phase I Study Report.


PHASE II: Refine, demonstrate, and validate the selected method(s) from Phase I using actual or representative data over a range of flight trajectories. As an objective, develop the optimization methods to function effectively with several authoritative rotary-wing 6DOF models including CH-47F, UH-60M, and AH-64D. Compare errors at key waypoints and other identified quality attributes. Mature the tools and user interfaces from Phase I to provide an effective and efficient facility for implementing, manipulating, and validating virtual flight control inputs for the designated execution environment. Develop training materials for the Phase II capability suitable for use by flight test engineers and simulation operators.


PHASE III: Refine Phase II efforts into mature product(s), as extensions for existing virtual test environment(s) and/or commercial tool(s) for rotorcraft modeling. It is envisioned that the Phase III product would be integrated into a modeling tool like FlightLab, the environment used commercially and by the Army Aviation Engineering Division (AED) to develop rotorcraft models. The tools could then be used throughout the commercial and military aerospace and rotorcraft design industry to automate simulations for design verification testing.  Automated modeling of maneuvers at the edge of the envelope allows for analysis and modification of aircraft flight characteristics early in the design process.  The precision of the virtual pilot allows the flight envelope to be exhaustively explored to find problems. The repeatability of the virtual pilot allows test conditions to be replicated to verify solutions. The virtual pilot can also have application to constructive simulation models, as well as models used in virtual training environments such as the Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (AVCATT) and One Semi-Automated Forces (One SAF), as a tool for development, test support, and scenario control.



1. Trajectory Optimization Procedures for Rotorcraft Vehicles, their Software Implementation and Applicability to Models of Varying Complexity. Bottasso, Maisano, and Scorcelletti.


2. Aircraft Automatic Flight-Control System with Inversion of the Model in the Feed-Forward Path Using a Newton-Raphson Technique for the Inversion G. Allan Smith, George Meyer, and Maurice Nordstrom. NASA TM 88209, 1986.


KEYWORDS: Installed systems test facility, autonomous flight control, virtual pilot, semi-automated forces




A10-175                                TITLE: Robot Localization & Navigation for Night Operations in GPS Denied Areas


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics




OBJECTIVE: The contractor will develop a multi-stereo thermal-imager-based sensor head that would provide outputs of both a 360 degree infrared (IR) image of the surroundings of the sensor head and would have sufficient integrated processing capability to create, store and output a 3-D map of sensor head surroundings recorded during movement through a dark GPS denied environment.The recorded 3-D map would be sufficient for autonomous localization & navigation of follower robotic platforms equipped with identical multi-stereo thermal imager-based sensor heads or for autonomous return navigation of the robotic platform equipped with the map-generating sensor head.


DESCRIPTION: The Army has a need for a multi-stereo thermal imager-based sensor head that would provide precise localization and navigation maps for robotic platform operations in dark GPS denied environments. Using such a multi-stereo thermal imager-based sensor head, a robotic platform could be teleoperated in a dark GPS denied environment. While providing the thermal images for robotic platform teleoperation, the sensor head would also accumulate, process and register stereo thermal images and create maps of the sensor head surroundings for future autonomous robotic platform localization and navigation operations. The 3-D maps could be transmitted back to and used by follower robotic platforms to autonomously retrace the path of the teleoperated robot or used by the teleoperated robot to return autonomously by the original teleoperated path.


PHASE I: The contractor shall design, develop & demonstrate breadboard IR sensor-based hardware system that can record, analyze, compress & store sequences of images as the sensor head is manually moved within a laboratory environment. The contractor shall develop & document the full sensor system top-level design and describe IR images analytical processes that need to be fully developed for the IR-sensor-based localization & navigation system.


PHASE II: Based on lessons learned from Phase I, the contractor shall fully design, develop, and test a thermal-imager, 360 degree multi-stereo based sensor head that performs localization & navigation in a dark, indoor, GPS denied environment. Such system will demonstrate the use of multiple sets of thermal imaging stereo cameras in a single sensor head to record, analyze, compress & store sequences of images as the sensor head is moved within a relevant indoor industrial warehouse environment.


PHASE III: Commercial opportunities for this sensor head are for all-weather robotic material handling, night-time security tasks such as: automated perimeter surveillance, mobile intruder detection, driver assist technology, and early fault detection for industrial machinery. Phase III military application opportunities for this sensor head are in all-weather robotic material handling, MOUT surveillance, inspections, autonomous and manned ground extractions, and covert leader-follower convoys. Examples are autonomous field logistics, automated perimeter and facility security, Night MOUT Operations, driver assist technologies, and asynchronous navigation from shared routes.



1. Robot Spatial Perception by Stereoscopic Vision and 3D Evidence Grids- Hans P. Moravec CMU-RI-TR-96-34 September 1996


2. Robot Evidence Grids- Martin C. Martin, Hans P. Moravec CMU-RI-TR-96-06


3. A Bayesian Method for Certainty Grids- Hans P. Moravec, Dong Woo Cho working notes of AAAI 1989 Spring Symposium Series, Symposium on Mobile Robots, Stanford, Ca, 1989


4. Low Cost Navigation in GPS Denied Environment Project- TARDEC-TTC Prime Contract No. W56HZV-08-C-0701, Work Directive 001


5. Sensor Fusion for Intelligent Behavior on Small Unmanned Ground Vehicles- G.Kogut, G Ahuja, B. Sights, E.B.Pacis, H.R. Everett; Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego SPIE07


KEYWORDS: Stereo Thermal Imaging, IR Imaging, Evidence Grids, GPS Denied Localization, GPS Denied Navigation, Robot, Driver Assist, UGV, Unmanned Systems




A10-176                                TITLE: Ultra Lightweight Runflat Technology


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes




OBJECTIVE: Design and build a vehicle tire runflat system that operates with Central Tire Inflation Systems (CTIS), provides performance equivalent to current M-ATV solution, but weighs no more than 250 pounds for the entire system, roughly half the weight of the current solution.


DESCRIPTION: A runflat solution allows a vehicle to continue to operate once a tire has been perforated by terrain or gunfire damage. Traditional solutions are passive and involve a permanent structure inside the tire that takes the weight of the vehicle if the tire is perforated and allows the vehicle to continue for some distance (typically 30 miles at 30 mph on a hard surface). The runflat itself is consumed in that process. The purpose is to allow the operators to get of harms way and/or to recover a vehicle to a safe location to install the spare tire. The M-ATV vehicle, like many other military vehicles, uses a traditional inner tire type runflat system. With weight being such a critical parameter in military vehicles, the goal of this effort is to develop a new innovative solution that drastically reduces the weight of traditional components, or utilizes a new method entirely, and still provide the same level of performance once a tire has gone flat. Potential solutions include expanding foam that leverages CTIS systems airflow to distribute product into a tire for immediate expansion once a flat tire is sensed or just a novel more traditional runflat design that solves the weigh dilemma with novel lightweight materials or unique structural designs. The target is to reduce the weight of providing runflat capability to the M-ATV vehicle by roughly half, or to around 250 pounds for a new system. Central tire inflation capability must not be impacted by the new system; the ability to change air pressure in the tire to match terrain conditions is key to vehicle mobility and must remain. If the system uses non-passive means of providing capability, it needs to be able to apply runflat capability within a very short timeframe of sensing that a tire has gone flat in order to keep the vehicle mobile.


The target vehicle for this effort is the MRAP ATV, a highly weight constrained vehicle that utilizes runflats and a central tire inflation system (CTIS) to vary tire pressure to meet terrain conditions. The runflats currently found in the M-ATV are designed to provide mobility for a short time after a tire goes flat. It is desired to keep this capability.  However, the penalty to using traditional runflats is the trade off of roughly 500 or so pounds of payload. A novel and lightweight runflat technology is desired that provides equivalent runflat performance, does not impact the ability to use CTIS, and reduces the weight burden of having runflat capability on the vehicle by at least 50% meaning the target vehicle solution will weigh in at no more than 250 lbs.


PHASE I: Develop feasibility studies on a number of potential solutions to address the objective.  Evaluate potential solutions for producability, manufacturability, maintainability, ability to work with CTIS, performance in on, and offroad, conditions, cost, weight, scaleability, and execution of performance. Provide recommended downselect solution and trade off analysis of evaluated options.  Develop proposed system design on recommended solution.


PHASE II: Mature the recommendation out of Phase 1 into a demonstratable prototype system that fits in an M-ATV vehicle and/or Michelin 395/85R20 tire. Validate prototype in on and offroad conditions.  Comparative testing against the M-ATV OEM runflat solution will be performed to demonstrate similar performance at reduced weight goal.  Detailed analysis of the producibility and scaleability of the runflat solution in other sized tires and vehicles will be evaluated and explored in phase 2 as well.


PHASE III: This technology is directly applicable to the M-ATV vehicle. It is also applicable, when properly scaled, to HMMWVs, LTATVs, other MRAPs and the upcoming JLTV vehicle which is considering commonizing on M-ATV runflats. Ideal commercial application include the recreational offroad market and the onroad security vehicles market.



1. Bylsma, Wesley; Gunter, Dave; Estimating Runflat Stiffness, RDECOM-TARDEC, Feb 2007.

Kaczmarek, R; Central Tire Inflation System (CTIS) - A Means to Enhance Vehicle Mobility, TACOM, 1984.


KEYWORDS: runflat, run flat, lightweight, CTIS, M-ATV, tire