---------- OSD ----------

171 Phase I Selections from the 05.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Benjamin A Dietsch
OSD 05-A01      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Multiple Tamper Event Detection Sensor
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to design a novel multiple tamper detection and active anti-tamper (AT) scheme for use in new and existing weapon systems. A thorough understanding of tamper technologies in the industrial base is essential to developing new multi-mode detection devices. CRG will take an industrial base analysis approach to develop the data on tamper technologies in the industrial base. CRG will apply the information to design a multi-mode tamper detection tool capable of detecting and counting intrusion events and then zeroing or destroying critical weapon system components. The tamper detection tool can be embedded in a hard coat or attached directly to a subsystem board or multi-chip module (MCM). The CRG design will detect x-ray, ultrasonic, mechanical, SEM, chemical, and thermal attacks. CRG will determine the performance criteria of the detector, analyzing inputs/outputs, order of attacks, false negatives and false positives. Once a tamper event is detected, the device sends a signal to zero the MCM. CRG will leverage existing relationships with weapon system manufacturers to support the development of the technology and as an outlet for possible implementation and commercialization.

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
2910 Fox Run Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-4464
Dr. Wei Hu
OSD 05-A01      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Low Profile Multi-Mode Tamper Detection Sensors
Abstract:DOD increasingly relies on advanced technology in its weapons for effectiveness on the battlefield. Military technology can be compromised following foreign sales to an ally, accidental loss, or capture during a conflict by an enemy. Anti-tamper (AT) is defined as the systems engineering activities intended to prevent or delay exploitation of essential or critical technologies in U.S. weapon systems. Detection of tamper events is key to anti-tamper technology. In this SBIR program, scientists at Dymas Research propose to develop a novel, miniature, low-cost tamper sensor, which is able to detect various tamper events. The experience gained in the previous development will greatly leverage and benefit to the proposed program.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8715
Dr. Volkan Ozguz
OSD 05-A01      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Low Profile Ultra Thin Anti Tamper Sensor
Abstract:Protection of Critical Technologies (CT) requires Anti-Tamper (AT) techniques to protect, detect and react to reverse engineering attacks. The objective of this program is to develop a multi-mode, low profile tamper detection sensor capable of detecting a wide range of tamper events while remaining difficult to identify or disable by a reverse engineer. ISC's miniaturization packaging is a technology enabler for "low profile" integrated sensors. This effort will study manufacturing materials and processes to embed COTS components using Irvine Sensors unique technology tool set for this application. The program will focus on the manufacturability to integrate certain types of sensors and meets the manufacturing related SBIR priority status under Executive Order 13329. The ISC team will investigate various techniques of reverse engineering, determine the optimum sensor requirements, design a low profile sensor concept and report on measures of effectiveness based on a wide range of commonly expected tamper events. A plan to verify AT implementation through the ISC's process flow and additional system level procedures will be analyzed. This study will lead to an "advanced development" of hardware for hardware-in-the-loop testing in a potential phase II program.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-0951
Mr. Joseph Frederick
OSD 05-A01      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Low Profile Multi-Mode Tamper Detection Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this proposed effort is to research, develop and demonstrate a prototype of a multi-mode low profile sensor that will detect a wide range of reverse engineering attacks. This will be accomplished by creating a multi-layered sensor architecture into which a myriad of AT Sensors can be inserted. This effort uses the multi-layered approach to employ two complementary AT sensor technologies: micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) vibrational sensors and nanoparticle doped thin film sensors. By combining these technologies, the sensor will be able to detect reverse engineering attacks from acoustic microscopy, mechanical grinding, X-rays, and focused ion beams (FIB). The effectiveness of this device will be measured in terms of metrics such as: variety of tamper events detected, shelf life, detectability, difficulty to disable once discovered, design flexibility, voltage and current characteristics under relevant environmental extremes, false alarm properties, cost, manufacturability, and operations and support (including R&M) impacts.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Robert Gillen
OSD 05-A01      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Low Profile Multi-Mode AT Sensor
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC), along with our team members, proposes to develop a low-profile, multi-mode, tamper detection sensor for the purpose of protecting sensitive hardware and data from adversaries and reverse engineers. Several separate anti-tamper (AT) techniques currently exist, but are inadequate because of high cost, lack of effectiveness, difficulty in use, unreliability, and inability to work together in a single, multi-mode sensor. SFC will address these problems by both refining existing techniques and developing new techniques and schemes for putting these into practice. For example, our previously developed active AT circuit board coatings will be redesigned with materials that can detect several types of intrusion. We will rely on our previous AT experience for near-term solutions, while exploring advanced long-term AT techniques using technologies such as MEMS and nanotechnology.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 251-7884
Mr. Matthew Leftwich
OSD 05-A02      Awarded: 14JUL06
Title:Novel, Non-Intrusive Nanodeposition Technique for the Deposition of a Variety of Hardware Anti-Tamper Coatings
Abstract:This effort will focus on identifying new hardware design and protection techniques and technologies that will delay reverse engineering and exploitation, slowing an adversary as much as possible in compromising U.S. technologies when they fall under their control. To date, much Government and industry effort has focused on passive board/chip coatings and self-destruct concepts, but as the DoD AT organizations have evaluated them, the effectiveness and PEO and PM acceptance of these types of techniques has been limited. Other concepts that have been assessed by the AT community include manufacturing processes, obfuscation, encryption, active coatings, volume protection and other such techniques, and a variety of these and others will be evaluated during this proposed Phase I effort and during subsequent Phase II and other follow-on efforts. This effort will therefore focus on developing innovative deposition techniques utilizing a variety of emerging nanoparticle-based nano-coatings (NanoMesh) as one of several key non-intrusive hardware anti-tamper techniques (NIHATT) that may be applied to a variety of classified military, defense, and security devices.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Robert Gillen
OSD 05-A02      Awarded: 18JUL06
Title:Intrusion Sensitive Material
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC), along with our team members, proposes to develop an active circuit board coating which acts as a detection sensor for the purpose of protecting sensitive hardware and data from adversaries and reverse engineers. Several anti-tamper (AT) coating techniques currently exist, but are inadequate because of high cost, lack of effectiveness, difficulty in use, and unreliability. SFC will address these problems by both refining our existing techniques and developing new techniques and schemes for putting these into practice. We will rely on our previous AT experience for near-term solutions, while exploring advanced long-term AT techniques using technologies such as Direct Write technology. Especially important will be the performance of the coatings in extreme environments.

ENGINEERED COATINGS, INC.
P.O. Box 4702
Parker, CO 80134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 593-0588
Dr. Frank M. Kustas
OSD 05-A03      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Analyses of Coating Materials/Deposition Techniques and Device Designs for FIB-Resistant Systems
Abstract:The Office of the Security of Defense requires the development of novel methods or materials for circuitry or critical systems that are resistant to FIB examination. Application of new materials or device designs that retard the effectiveness of FIB probing must also offer minimal degradation in the normal performance of the devices. Engineered Coatings, Inc. and Analytical Solutions, Inc. propose to conduct a requirements analysis and then analytical studies to trade and rank candidate coating materials and device design modifications that will degrade the performance of FIB operation and/or induce vacuum system contamination. Key properties of candidate coating materials and device designs will be collected with subsequent analysis to trade against the requirements and enable a down-selection to the most promising coating and/or device design. Coating deposition methods, whether global or local, will also be evaluated for compatibility with normal device manufacturing operations. A design document will be developed that includes the requirements analysis, solution down-selection, and preliminary fabrication processing specifications. Plans for Phase II will be developed including fabrication of a brass board prototype article for subsequent FIB examination and demonstration of the effectiveness of the FIB-resistant technology.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-0951
Mr. Joeseph Frederick
OSD 05-A03      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Resistant Systems
Abstract:The objective of this research is to develop and demonstrate a nanoparticle-loaded thin film that can detect and discriminate X-ray and focused ion beam (FIB) radiation for tamper protection. The film can be micro-patterned directly onto electronic packages as an anti-tamper (AT) device. Research will include illuminating the film with X-ray or FIB radiation that will produce flashes of light which can be detected with on-chip optoelectronics. The film material can be patterned onto nanoporous ceramic that is used in the electronic component packaging process. Successful research and development could allow this film to be applied to the surface of the component ceramic cap and to the underside of the chip to provide low profile protection against X-ray and FIB attacks. It can also be embedded in the chip ceramic cap material where it would remain latent until it senses interrogation by X-ray or FIB radiation. The film requires no maintenance and since the material is highly stable it carries an extensive shelf life.

XIMAX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.LTD.
13555 Breton Ridge, #326
Houston, TX 77070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 461-8323
Dr. Xiqun Zhu
OSD 05-A03      Awarded: 15MAY06
Title:Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Resistant Systems
Abstract:We propose a circuit design approach to enhance the tamper resistance against Focused Ion Beam (FIB) probing. Our approach is to break SINGLE clock network into MULTIPLE clock domains with the identical frequencies and phases. In the proposed clock generators design, the clock frequency for all domains will be kept within a small variation range. Therefore, FIB probing operation needs to keep up with the chip normal operation speed. However, the most advanced probe will increase the loading on the targeting nodes by at least one order of magnitude; the probed nodes will switch much slower than their normal operation speed. Thus a slower clock signal is required in order to get valid data stream from the probing nodes. Since the proposed clocking strategy will not allow clock slow down, the chip under probing can not function properly. The first order estimation shows that the difficulty to overcome this clock strategy increases exponentially with the number of the clock domain increasing. In contrast, the area/power penalty increases linearly with the number of clock domain increasing.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Dharmasena Peramunage
OSD 05-A04      Awarded: 05JUL06
Title:Long-lived Power Source with Pulsed Current Capability
Abstract:The development of a battery-based power source for active anti-tamper technology is proposed. The battery will provide both primary power for tamper-detection sensors and secondary, latent power for tamper response. A hierarchical approach is proposed in which the battery is the core element providing power to the anti-tamper sensor and response components. A second level of anti-tamper protection is provided by an innovation in the battery design that initiates an anti-tamper response if an attempt is made to penetrate or disable the battery. A third level of anti-tamper protection is provided by using the battery as a protective cover for critical components. The key innovations are the selection of battery materials that provide a 10-year functional lifetime with pulsed-current capability, and the a packaging design that prevents undetected tampering of the battery. A dual-chemistry battery cathode is proposed that combines two active materials that together provide long-lived, low-level primary power and an on-demand pulsed secondary current capability. The principal Phase I objective is to fabricate a battery incorporating elements that detect battery tampering and to demonstrate the primary and secondary power capabilities of the battery.

QYNERGY CORP.
3800 Osuna Road NE, Suite 2
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 890-6887
Dr. Christopher Eiting
OSD 05-A04      Awarded: 05JUL06
Title:Innovative Anti-Tamper Power Source
Abstract:Qynergy Corporation proposes to develop a unique power system for anti-tamper applications. Anti-tamper technology is used for protecting critical technology from being reverse engineered. Qynergy has developed a unique technology that converts energy from beta emitting radioisotopes into usable power. This QynCellT (betavoltaic power cell) is capable of delivering small amounts of power (micro to milliwatts) for long periods of time. The QynCellT is a solid state device and is hence capable of operating under the extreme temperature conditions necessary for anti-tamper applications. Successful completion of the proposed effort will result in the confirmation of the technical feasibility of the QynPackT for anti-tamper applications. It would answer all of the questions related to integration of the QynCellT to storage systems and position the technology for prototyping. At the end of Phase I, Qynergy will have identified an anti-tamper technology, designed a QynPackT and proven its feasibility for the prototype power cell that would be fabricated, integrated and tested with an anti-tamper device in Phase II. Primary uses of the QynCellT will be in applications where conventional batteries, solar cells and/or Plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs) are not practical. In most cases, the power solution will be constrained by the need to minimize the signature of the application, inability to recharge batteries due to remote operating conditions, or a need to avoid the use of highly energetic radioisotopes such as 33Pu. Such areas include power for remote sensors and space.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Mr. Alec J. Bateman
OSD 05-A05      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Development of an Anti-Tamper Operational Environment Sensor
Abstract:"Black-box" attacks have the potential to significantly diminish the technological advantage of the U.S. military while requiring relatively modest resources on the part of an adversary. The "black-box" attack is an attempt to understand the functionality of a system from an input-output perspective, without the need to fully reverse engineer the implementation. The attack typically involves testing a system in a laboratory environment where a wide range of input conditions can be systematically introduced. The knowledge gained from such an attack can be used effectively to develop countermeasures to U.S. systems. Anti-tamper hardware technology is needed to thwart such attacks and protect critical program information. We propose a research effort to develop an operational environment sensor to address the anti-tamper hardware need. During a "black-box" attack in a laboratory environment, the system configuration will typically be altered in some fashion to facilitate testing. Such alteration will affect the characteristics of the RF spectrum emitted by the device. Our approach employs an RF sensor capable of sweeping through a broad frequency range and detecting changes in the characteristic spectrum, which will be indicative of an attack.

DBI
101 Lacey's Spring Drive
Lacey's Spring, AL 35754
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 881-9372
Dr. David M. Burns
OSD 05-A05      Awarded: 11APR06
Title:Anti-Tamper Operational Environment Sensors
Abstract:The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate an innovative sensor designed to detect when a system has been removed from its operational environment.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons Road, Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0792
Dr. John Bellando
OSD 05-A05      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Anti-Tamper Operational Environment Sensors
Abstract:Our proposal specifically addresses the stated requirements of the solicitation; we will develop and deploy tools, methods, and models for a low profile sensor capable of distinguishing a system's operational environment from a test environment in order to defend against "black box" attacks. . The proposed EDAptiver SAMURAIT solution builds on previous EDAptive Computing, Inc (ECI) knowledge and technology - itself innovative - to include a robust, non-interference, adaptable solution to providing anti-tamper monitoring of the environment under which a critical asset is functioning. The resulting capabilities will result in a "design for anti-tamper" methodology and tools with which we will monitor and protect a critical system component from extensive testing within a simulated environment, known as black box testing. The SAMURAI solution, complete with anti-tamper protection in the form of system monitoring and obfuscation, will then be synthesized and deployed within U.S. weapon systems. ECI will employ adaptive learning techniques to ensure robustness of the solution for a variety of military components and systems. Prior experience and new research has already shown that ECI's innovative tools suite will be clearly adaptive to OSD needs and operational conditions.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 918-1155
Dr. Peter Eames
OSD 05-A05      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:Magnetic Operational Environment Sensor
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will design and manufacture an environmental sensor that is sensitive to the earth's magnetic fields. The device is ideal for "black-box" attacks because it is sensitive to changing environmental conditions with and without power. The sensor requires no internal power supplies or batteries. The device is microelectronic compatible which allows it to be very small and extremely versatile. The "black box" can be many sizes and shapes from miniaturized microelectronic systems to large shipping containers. The device can be custom packaged or fully integrated with other ICs at the wafer level. The device works by storing one vector component of the earth's ambient magnetic field in a magnetically unstable array of lithographically patterned magnetic elements. When the protected volume is rotated, turned, or tilted, the sensor is exposed to varying ambient magnetic fields. This upsets the alignment of the magnetic elements, which can then be read when power has been restored. The sensor could be used to signal a self-destruct of critical systems or signal the erasure of important data.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Robert Gillen
OSD 05-A05      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:AT Operational Environment Sensor
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC), along with our distinguished research partner, proposes to develop an operational environment sensor for the purpose of protecting sensitive hardware and data from adversaries and reverse engineers by alerting a system when it has been removed from its intended environment and brought to a laboratory for reverse engineering. We will make use of a very novel, low-profile, zero-power varactor shunt switch developed by Dr. Guru Subramanyam of UDRI. This switch will act as a versatile proximity sensor that can be featured in a number of different sensor architectures. From an Anti-Tamper (AT) design perspective, this solution is excellent in that it is simple, compact and low-profile, is difficult to detect and to reverse engineer once detected, offers flexibility to be incorporated into many anti-tamper designs, should be stable under a wide range of environmental conditions, and is low-cost and low-power. These attributes make these proximity sensors difficult to detect, simple to monitor, and easy to integrate into a new or legacy system. This technology should also be easy to maintain over the life of the operational system and have a long shelf life.

AERONIX, INC.
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd., Suite 200
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-1671
Mr. Jeff Fisher
OSD 05-A06      Awarded: 26MAY06
Title:Secure Trusted Computing System-on-Chip
Abstract:Many currently fielded DoD electronic systems contain sensitive and sometimes classified software applications. These sophisticated systems incorporate embedded COTS processing devices which make them susceptible to reverse engineering using commercial off the shelf tools including emulators and debuggers. To address this problem, various anti-tamper techniques have been employed. Traditionally, these have been either at the device level or at the card/box boundary level. Each of these approaches has its benefits and drawbacks. Chip level coatings can be costly to apply, due to the special procedures and process steps outside of the normal semi-conductor fabrication flow. They also tend to have higher yield losses caused by the protective technology itself. These coatings are limited to protecting the sensitive information contained within a single device (or within a protected cavity such as a multi chip module). On the other hand, card and box level tamper mechanisms protect the information flow within a larger area of interest. Their limitation is that if an adversary is able to circumvent the tamper mechanism, all internal information is then available. The specific problem addressed by this SBIR is the protection of sensitive or classified information flowing between devices within a card and or a collection of circuit cards (e.g. box, sub-system, system). A family of system on a chip (SOC) components will be developed to support this paradigm. These devices will incorporate many of the Crypto Modernization tenets identified and developed by the NSA. The devices will be fabricated using the DoD/NSA sponsored trusted foundry facilities. They will be referred to throughout this proposal as the Trusted System on a Chip (TSOC).

CORRENT CORP.
1711 West Greentree Drive, Stuite 201
Tempe, AZ 85284
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 648-2360
Mr. Richard Takahashi
OSD 05-A06      Awarded: 21MAY06
Title:Secure Trusted Computing System-on-Chip
Abstract:This SBIR Phase 1 project proposes the feasibility study of secure trusted computing System-on-Chip. To prevent or delay the compromise of Critical Program Information, DoD is seeking operational embedded technology to provide the real-time encryption and authentication and "other" capabilities for protecting and processing information in tactical systems. Also, technology shall detect tampering of the element and Zeroize mission critical information to deter reverse engineering efforts. One avenue worth exploring to this end is the development of the secure trusted system-on-chip (SOC). Using a superset of Trusted Computing Group TPM standard logic embedded with a 32 bit RISC processor and collateral interfaces, a trusted SOC would provide a feasible solution to this need-which would also include a streaming encryption capability, and universal I/O for easy utilization. The trusted SOC would be embedded to secure a given system with anti-tamper capabilities. Our anti-tamper circuits will be all digital making the design portable across different foundries and processes. Our multi-layered approach to security protects against single point of failure thus making it extremely difficult to extract information, especially if the attacker has access to only a few chips. A concept design specification will be delivered at the conclusion of the project.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Dr. Richard D Hreha
OSD 05-A07      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Assured Sanitization of Stored Data
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc., proposes to evaluate and analytically validate the technical feasibility of three concepts for new materials and processes enabling data storage that can be discreetly sanitized by a mobile system operator under duress. In a manner analogous to burning paper documents and pulverizing their ashes, the technology resulting from this program will use materials and processes whose physics of erasure preempt any possible reconstruction of the original data. These new technology concepts include substitute materials for CD/DVD and hard drives and an entirely new optical data storage technology based on novel liquid crystal materials. Each concept offers a new data sanitization mechanism that poses no danger to the operator, can be easily and discreetly actuated, and will render the data forensically irrecoverable. Phase II development of technology found feasible in Phase I will yield significant advancement in the data protection vital for maintaining the current U.S. leadership in warfare technology.

LEWIS INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. 624, 534 Lawrence Street
Moulton, AL 35650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 905-0775
Mr. James M. Lewis
OSD 05-A07      Awarded: 12MAY06
Title:Techniques and Processes for Rendering Mobile Technology Forensically Irrecoverable
Abstract:LIT Recommends: 1. Developing Self-Modifying FPGAs that self-scramble or destroy their own configuration EEPROM. 2. Evaluating Encrypted Memory Controller that encrypts data files. Data can be read back only through controller which may be destroyed if compromised. 3. Retrieval/destruction Initiation techniques which include: (a) Mechanical Actuation (b) External Key Actuation - using a real time clock module and/or miniature GPS module (or other RF key) so that data can only be retrieved at a specific time and location or only in the presence of a predefined serial or RF key. Attempted unauthorized access would then result in initiation of data destruction process. (d) Extended Timing - self destruct auto-initiates if the device is not recovered or accessed within a predetermined time. This technique is similar to item b except that no unauthorized access is required to start self destruct. This technique would be useful in applications such as missiles that should reach maximum range in a predetermined time or data loggers that should be recovered before a specific interval has expired.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 251-7884
Mr. Matthew Leftwich
OSD 05-A07      Awarded: 12MAY06
Title:Investigation of a Novel, Nano-Hardware Lock and Associated Software Anti-Tamper Techniques for Secure Memory and Memory Eraser Applications
Abstract:The NESL concept uses three techniques to form a protective shield around modern computer systems. The first layer is a novel method for generating and locking cryptographic keys to a unique computer system. The proposed, novel key locking system, though relatively simple, takes advantage of the complex and disparate natural phenomena occuring in a common nanomaterial. The second and third layer leverage this novel key system to protect primary and secondary memory from exploitation through encryption. The secondary memory system is protected with an encrypted file system, and the primary memory is protected with encryption when outside of the CPU.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Robert F. Kovar
OSD 05-A09      Awarded: 22JUN06
Title:Multi-Functional, Light-Cured, Anti-Tamper Coating
Abstract:The DoD has identified the need for advanced Anti-Tamper (AT) technologies to protect critical U.S. technologies from exploitation via reverse engineering. Current anti-tamper coating techniques commonly involve the use of flame-sprayed ceramic coatings for electronic components, which can cause thermal damage to underlying circuitry during application at elevated temperature. Infoscitex (IST) proposes to develop a sprayable, light-curable, anti-tamper coating (LCATC) that cures rapidly at ambient temperature into an adherent, multifunctional tamper-resistant coating. This low temperature cure capability coating system protects sensitive electronic components from potential thermal damage. The cured LCATC is hard, adherent, opaque to visible and infrared light, and obscures visualization by X-rays. It adheres strongly to electronic components and substrate, and is so durable that attempts to remove the coating by mechanical or chemical means destroys all evidence of underlying circuits and interconnects. In Phase I, IST will develop the LCATC, spray-coat simulated electronic component test specimens and demonstrate the ability to light-cure the LCATC into durable coatings that resist tampering via optical, mechanical and chemical methods. In Phase II, IST will refine and scale-up the LCATC, produce coated electronic components and initiate commercialization.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0702
Dr. Michael Featherby
OSD 05-A09      Awarded: 31MAY06
Title:Non-Thermally Cured, Active Coatings for Anti-Tamper Protection
Abstract:The use and effectiveness of anti-tamper technologies will help to more readily bring means of protecting our technology to a point of maturation that allows them to be used in current and new systems. To assist in this process, the efforts proposed here will provide Army and other DoD Program Managers a more cost effective set of tools to implement anti-tamper processes in critical U.S. electronics systems. The focus here is on innovative techniques to foil an adversary's reverse engineering of electronics microelectronics, modules, and boards. The approach described herein highly leverages cutting-edge existing commercially available semiconductor processes such as combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD), uniquely combined with fillers such as emerging nanotechnology materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes and buckyballs). The combination of these technologies appears to hold great promise for providing an effective anti-tamper approach.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 251-7884
Mr. Matthew Leftwich
OSD 05-A09      Awarded: 14JUN06
Title:Novel, Non-Intrusive Nanodeposition Technique for the Deposition of a Variety of Hardware Anti-Tamper Coatings
Abstract:This effort will focus on identifying new hardware design and protection techniques and technologies that will delay reverse engineering and exploitation, slowing an adversary as much as possible in compromising U.S. technologies when they fall under their control. To date, much Government and industry effort has focused on passive board/chip coatings and self-destruct concepts, but as the DoD AT organizations have evaluated them, the effectiveness and PEO and PM acceptance of these types of techniques has been limited. Other concepts that have been assessed by the AT community include manufacturing processes, obfuscation, encryption, active coatings, volume protection and other such techniques, and a variety of these and others will be evaluated during this proposed Phase I effort and during subsequent Phase II and other follow-on efforts. This effort will therefore focus on developing innovative deposition techniques utilizing a variety of emerging nanoparticle-based nano-coatings (NanoMesh) as one of several key non-intrusive hardware anti-tamper techniques (NIHATT) that may be applied to a variety of classified military, defense, and security devices.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Robert Gillen
OSD 05-A09      Awarded: 19JUN06
Title:NTC Active AT Coatings
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC), along with our team members, proposes to develop a low-temperature, active circuit board coating which acts as a detection sensor for the purpose of protecting sensitive hardware and data from adversaries and reverse engineers. Several anti-tamper (AT) coating techniques currently exist, but are inadequate because of high cost, lack of effectiveness, difficulty in use, and unreliability. SFC will address these problems by both refining our existing techniques and developing new techniques and schemes for putting these into practice. We will rely on our previous AT experience for near-term solutions, while exploring advanced long-term AT techniques using technologies such as MEMS and nanotechnology.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
OSD 05-A09      Awarded: 30MAY06
Title:Novel Anti-Tamper Coatings for Microelectronics(1000-812)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. responds to Army's need to This proposal addresses the Army's need to develop innovative tamper-proof, non-thermally cured coatings which prevents unauthorized individuals from reverse engineering of military microelectronics. We propose to develop tamper-proof, and photo-curable coatings that will protect military electronics against electromagnetic field (EMF), optical, X-ray and acoustic tools for reverse engineering. During the Phase I, Triton will demonstrate the feasibility studies to develop a photo-curable coating that will provide anti-tampering protection for circuit boards and military microelectronics. During Phase II, we will develop a design of experiments for the selected non-thermal curing coatings that were identified in Phase I for reliability and environmental testing of a fabricated prototype at Army testing facility. The performance of this fabricated prototype against multiple reverse engineering methods will demonstrate the effectiveness of the protection material's capability, based on successful Phase I results, and will demonstrate its effectiveness in several field tests.

ACCORD SOLUTIONS, INC.
3533 Albatross Street
San Diego, CA 92103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 692-9476
Dr. Carl G. Murphy
OSD 05-A10      Awarded: 26JUN06
Title:Secure Processors
Abstract:Accord proposes a pioneering and innovative code-to-machine execution technology that preserves the encryption of executable instructions and data throughout all aspects of the execution cycle. At no time are instruction words or data values unencrypted. Crypto-reduced-instruction-processor-trusted-compu ters (CRIPTC) are not dependent upon reconfiguration or on machine uniqueness. CRIPTC memory and support chips are conventional. A CRIPTC machine has no standard functional units; each unit is synthesized by a crypto-synthesis compiler code builder combining aspects of cryptographic, very-long-instruction-word RISC compilers, hardware netlist synthesizers and chip place & route. The resulting CRIPTC instruction words form encrypted higher-level functional units. A 32-bit word has a key search space significantly greater than a 256-bit AES encryption. CRIPTC is a secure computer ideally suited to protecting critical technology in embedded real time or complex command and control processing. CRIPTC-based secure processing can be distributed outside secure sites, and applied within units which are subject to enemy capture. Accord will demonstrate a SystemC reference design that simulates bit-and-clock-accurate execution of the "never decrypted" CRIPTC instruction stream.

ARXAN RESEARCH, INC.
3000 Kent Avenue, Purdue Technology Center
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-1004
Mr. Eric D. Bryant
OSD 05-A10      Awarded: 21JUL06
Title:Security Amplification Through Data Splitting: Achieving High Security Using Moderately Secure Hardware
Abstract:For this project, we will research novel data-splitting techniques that can be used on COTS hardware to achieve similar effects as a specialized security processor, without relying upon expensive cryptographic operations. This is achieved through the technique of data splitting, and the use of k copies of the same moderately secure COTS hardware (where k is at least 2, and can be increased to increase the resulting security). If the probability of compromise of the data in the COTS hardware is p, then the probability of compromise of the proposed system is p^k because it is now necessary to completely compromise every one of the k copies to obtain the secret encryption keys or otherwise compromise the secret data.

CGO
3260 Clovewood Ln
San Jose, CA 95132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 507-8359
Dr. Sukarno Mertoguno
OSD 05-A10      Awarded: 26JUN06
Title:Secure Processors
Abstract:This proposal described a family of techniques for providing code encryption beyond the first level of security provided by encrypting code and data in the memory and decrypting code and data in the caches inside the processor. The proposed technology, Deep Code Scrambling (DCS), was designed to work beyond and in conjunction with the first level of security, and hence providing a second level of security. In DCS, the decrypted code in the caches are virtual or scrambled codes, which need to be unscrambled in one of the processor pipeline stage before they become meaning full for the rest of the processor pipeline stages. Further more the Unscrambling key changes often and randomly, and hence providing another barrier for reverse engineering the internal algorithms of the codes.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
OSD 05-A10      Awarded: 08JUN06
Title:Secure Processor using Opcode Diversity
Abstract:Space Micro's Processor with Opcode Diversity (POD) is built from Space Micro's innovative security elements and tools, including our patent pending Object Level FirewallsT and AutoSafeT security technologies. The combination provides a low risk path for the development of a microprocessor integrated circuit that protects software and operating systems from software engineer's development station, through delivery and while operating in the POD. All elements of the POD are fully protected, including cache, execution units, input/output buses and external memory. Design features prevent access to executing opcodes while in operation. Space Micro's security technologies provide the capability to tie specific software to specific POD processors and authorized personnel, plus the capability to set security policy within the software itself. AutoSafe also addresses the software development environment and management of encryption keys, creating a system that can be used by minimally trained field personnel, plus automatically develop secure software with Protect, Detect and React capabilities.

CORRENT CORP.
1711 West Greentree Drive, Stuite 201
Tempe, AZ 85284
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 648-2360
Mr. Richard Takahashi
OSD 05-A11      Awarded: 13JUN06
Title:Secure Memory for Anti-Tamper (AT) Application
Abstract:This SBIR Phase 1 project proposes the feasibility study of an integrated secure memory architecture for storage of critical software code such as encryption keys; capable of securely, quickly and reliably erasing that code in a minimal or no-power state in the event of tamper or directed destruction. In a tactical or time critical situation, conventional memory wipe processes are too lengthy to complete. A better alternative to overwriting clear memory to an acceptable randomness is needed. It must leave memory effectively in a random state, and execute completely in milliseconds. A valid approach for these objectives is to use a system of encrypted memory. The data stored in memory, would appear to be effectively random without access to the keys and decryption mechanism. If data is encrypted with a strong algorithm which induces variability in the encrypted data, it is a practical impossibility to brute force decode the data without access to the key. Improperly secured key information compromises the encrypted data stored, a level of tamper security is required to prevent operation outside a specified range of operation thwarting some probing or reverse engineering attacks. A concept design specification will be delivered at the conclusion of the project.

LEWIS INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. 624, 534 Lawrence Street
Moulton, AL 35650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 905-0775
Mr. James M. Lewis
OSD 05-A11      Awarded: 05JUN06
Title:Secure Memory for Anti-Tamper (AT) Application
Abstract:LIT proposes developing non-volatile memory constructed from blocks of SRAM configured for fast block erasure using a parallel erase technique. LIT proposes a memory controller capable of quickly rendering the data useless by means of a proprietary technique.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1636
Dr. James Deak
OSD 05-A11      Awarded: 07JUN06
Title:Zero-Remanence Anti-Tamper Cryptokey Storage Device
Abstract:The goal of this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to research and develop a low-power, fast, non-volatile memory sufficient in size for storing encryption keys that has the capability to "zeroize" itself without data remanence in response to tampering and without applied power using a permanent magnet based technique. The device is intended for volumetric protection of analog and digital electronics systems. In addition to self-zeroization, the device has the capability to signal that a tampering event has occurred. The proposed anti-tamper memory device can be reprogrammed indefinitely and read by the protected hardware using a standard interface. Initially the device will be implemented as a stand-alone cryptokey memory for volumetric anti-tamper applications, but with further research and development, memory capacity could be increased, and it could be embedded into an integrated circuit package for protection of custom application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), or microcontrollers. The phase I program will use a combination of experiment and modeling to evaluate the effectiveness of the zeroization mechanisms, power requirements for reading and writing the device, and manufacturing feasibility.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Div, 20600 Gramercy Pl, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Fang Zhang
OSD 05-A11      Awarded: 08JUN06
Title:Anti-Tamper Optical Secure Read/Write/Erase Memory
Abstract:To address the need for secure memory that can store and protect sensitive information and securely zeroize itself if tampering occurs, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Optical Secure Read/Write/Erase Memory (OSRWEM) system based on crosslinkable liquid crystal, a tunable liquid crystal source, a CCD chip, and use of light shaping diffuser with a tunable light source, which is a mature POC technology. This marks the ODRWEM structure compact, economical, similar to a flash memory in a cell phone. This read/write/erase nonvolatile memory can securely erase stored information, and is itself secure from unauthorized reading and X-ray tampering. In addition, the memory can be permanently destroyed by application of a few volts, making reverse engineering impossible. In Phase I POC will show the feasibility of the OSRWEM system by demonstrating its features in a simplified assembled system. In Phase II POC plans to develop a prototype to show how the OSRWEM can act as nonvolatile memory that can securely clear all sensitive information, and thus protect against successful tampering.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
201 Circle Drive North, Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Dr. Edwin M. Dons
OSD 05-A11      Awarded: 20JUN06
Title:Tamper Proof, Erase-on-Demand Memories
Abstract:Structured Materials Industries proposes to develop a self-powered Anti-Tamper device thermalization technology that is activated by either physical tampering or in response to an electrical signal generated by controller self-destruct circuitry or tampering detection circuitry. We will carry out this work with a major defense contractor and will demonstrate the technology for fielded military devices. Phase I will further demonstrate the concept, Phase II will address implementation hurdles and Phase III would see defense and potentially commercial fielded devices.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Jason M Hermiller
OSD 05-A12      Awarded: 25MAY06
Title:Anti-Tamper Diffusion Mechanisms
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc (CRG), proposes to develop an anti-tamper system that uses a diffusion mechanism to destroy a semi-conductor component upon tamper detection. CRG will integrate and apply a variety of its advanced materials technologies in a layered component-level defense. The integrated system will protect the component from tampering, safely and non-energetically destroy it if that initial defense is breached, and simultaneously protect adjacent components from collateral damage when the diffusion mechanism activates.

ENTERPRISE SCIENCES, INC.
14817 Silverstone Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20905
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 388-3838
Dr. Andrew Mostovych
OSD 05-A12      Awarded: 22JUN06
Title:High-Voltage-Discharge Self-Destruct Mechanisms
Abstract:This proposal presents a plan for developing and evaluating new high-voltage technologies capable of permanently destroying the functionality of semiconductor memory and processor circuits as well as any residual data remanence stored in these units. The envisioned technologies can be implemented on the chip, pc-board, or device platform level--equally effectively for new designs as well as retrofits of older equipment. This will allow for the quick physical self-destruction of critical components in secure systems should the systems be physically compromised. The proposed effort will evaluate, design, and demonstrate the technology in laboratory trials. The program in this proposal has the goals of laboratory implementation and verification of miniature "Marx-bank" pulsers that can be integrated into standard pc-board designs, as well as demonstration of on-command destruction of memory and processor semiconductors by high voltage discharge from these pulsers.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
OSD 05-A12      Awarded: 31MAY06
Title:Shape Memory Alloy Destruction Mechanism (SMADM)
Abstract:In the event of a physical compromise of a secure system, it may be necessary to physically disable the critical components of the system to ensure that critical hardware and software are rendered not useable for reverse engineering. Mide proposes to utilize the unique properties of shape memory alloys to fragment electrical components and boards in the event of a physical compromise. Shape memory alloys experience a transition from martensite to austenite when they are heated above their transition temperature. In martensite the material is very malleable, in austenite the material returns to its memorized shape and is capable of providing significant force. Mide proposes to memorize the shape memory alloy in a wave pattern and insert it into a PC board or electrical component. In the event of a breach, a large amount of current would surge through the electrical system destroying the software and causing the entire system to heat, which would in turn actuate the SMA to physically destroy the board.

NANOHMICS, INC.
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dr. Don Patterson
OSD 05-A12      Awarded: 24MAY06
Title:Microchip MEMS Iron Maiden
Abstract:As a last resort, self-destruct technologies must be employed to protect sensitive electronic data. Squib-induced pyrotechnics and low energy electro-explosives that provide a controlled explosive force can be effective in the destruction of the silicon microchip. However, explosives and chemical reactants packaged with electronic devices pose safety, storage and disposal hazards even if the detonation mechanism is reliably safe. Likewise, electronic self-destruct methods require high power and homogenous field distribution to be effective at data disruption and run the risk of leaving the microcircuitry intact for visual inspection by an adversarial reverse engineer. As an alternative, Nanohmics proposed to develop a novel method to physically destroy the silicon microcircuity using a method of micromechanical pulverization. In this regard, a package-level MEMS device will be driven into the circuit side of a silicon microchip (e.g. microprocessor, memory, sensors). In the event of a triggered mechanical actuation , the MEMS device will impact the silicon surface resulting in massive fragmentation of the frangible silicon microchip. Physical fragmentation will render the microchip (e.g. microprocessor, flash memory, sensor) irrecoverably inoperable and the electronic content as well as the physical chip architecture untraceable.

QORTEK, INC.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
OSD 05-A12      Awarded: 25MAY06
Title:Non-Energetics-Based Self-Destruct Mechanisms
Abstract:The new technological approach provides ability to implement physical destruction of semiconductor devices with an inexpensive and completely silent method that is non-energetic. The approach promises to be synergistic with AT applications at the microelectronics die and wafer level and appears to be compatible with standard fabrication tools either as a standard step during manufacture or possibly as a later security add-on. It will be virtually impossible to detect. Even if an adversary were successful in bypassing security systems and gained access to the security sensitive electronics device(s), the adversary will not be aware that the device has silently undergone a complete physical destruction mode. Even if an adversary were somehow to gain prior knowledge that that the anti-tamper security had been installed, there is not a thing that the adversary can do to prevent (selectable) annihilation of the chip to the point where it would be inordinately difficult, even with layer by layer scan (ION beam), impedance or removal techniques to recover any useful on either microelectronics design or stored data.

GALORATH, INC.
100 North Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 1801
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-3222
Mr. Daniel D. Galorath
OSD 05-CM1      Awarded: 06SEP06
Title:Cost Modeling Interoperability and Integration
Abstract:Cost information can improve projects and project decision making. But the project artifacts that can help determine costs are buried in enterprise systems such as supply chain, ERP, PLM, CAx and others. Although many of these systems rely on common data, differences in internal storage structures and nomenclature and lack of tool integration keeps stakeholders from receiving the decision support information needed to make programs most successful including overall costs, tradeoff capability, optimization ability, risk and uncertainty throughout the product cycle. Users must often reenter data at considerable time and expense. Some point-to-point solutions do exist between specific tools, but as the number of tools grows, this integration solution becomes unmanageable and the benefits of an integrated tool suite go unrealized. The project will integrate cost models with the artifacts using the FIPER framework resulting in better quality and reliability, improved flexibility, shorter cycle times, increased effectiveness and lower cost. This integration will result in more successful projects as managers, engineers and analysts make more informed decisions.

PRICE SYSTEMS, L.L.C
17000 Commerce Parkway , Suite A
Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 740-0078
Mr. Larry Reagan
OSD 05-CM1      Awarded: 06SEP06
Title:Cost Modeling Interoperability and Integration
Abstract:Since 2000, PRICE Systems has invested over $7.9 million of our own money in the research and development of a new cost modeling framework. This framework is an open architecture which allows easier integration of cost models to other modeling environments. The intent is to develop one framework where a system can be modeled throughout its entire lifecycle. We call this methodology Affordability Simulation. The vision is to have one user interface where the system can be modeled. Through that interface, software, hardware, support, obsolescence, and any other aspect of the program can be modeled. Users would include the early designers, the program office, the implementers and logistic support teams. This requires not only a technical change, but a cultural change as well. Proven capability will help change the culture. With the funding from this OSD/DLA SBIR, PRICE Systems will expand our initial framework to include the ability to propagate the cost models through the life cycle of a program.

TEAMVISION CORP.
33305 1st Way South, B207
Federal Way, WA 98003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 661-9765
Mr. Stephen Metschan
OSD 05-CM1      Awarded: 06SEP06
Title:Cost Modeling Interoperability and Integration Framework
Abstract:TeamVision proposes to enhance and tailor its existing collaborative decision analysis technology, Framework CT to meet the requirements of an Integrated Threat, Mission, Performance, Design, Manufacturing, Support and Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Department of Defense (DOD) weapon systems. The result of this effort will provide the DOD with a powerful platform to design, model, and analyze systems, and coordinate related objectives from a holistic perspective. FrameworkCT is a unique and innovative approach, and its current features include an adaptive object database; enterprise-class security; Excel, MS-Project, and other desktop application integration; collaborative decision support; and massively parallel processing using networked desktop computing. This FrameworkCT `desktop application integration' approach has a significant largely untapped application potential in all areas of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP), and Product Data Management (PDM), and Cost as an Independent Variable (CAIV) while satisfying various additional objectives. To better align the current capabilities in Framework CT to the goals of DOD will require the integrating existing CAD/CAM/CAE and PDM systems used by DOD with FrameworkCT environment.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
26 Castilian Drive, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
OSD 05-CM2      Awarded: 29AUG06
Title:Automated, Intelligent Life-Cycle Cost Modeling
Abstract:As the longevity of weapon systems continue to increase, operations and support (O&S) costs account for a larger percentage of the total system life-cycle cost. Yet O&S costs are often under estimated, especially early in the development cycle when 80% or more of the total ownership cost is "locked-in" by design decisions. Developers and planners require an approach to estimate the O&S cost impact of design changes quickly and with credibility. This includes identification of key O&S cost drivers, uncertainty, sensitivities and risk. Linking product and process models with built-in intelligence to sources of cost information will facilitate design trade-offs and help maintain a "living" cost estimate throughout the system's life cycle. This will ensure new military systems are both effective and affordable. This SBIR will enhance an existing O&S cost methodology and computer toolset that currently estimates system life-cycle costs. The existing toolset is the basis for affordability tools within several Air Force acquisition and research organizations. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the enhanced capabilities to include seamless operation across the enterprise function and life cycle phases. The Phase II program will fully develop a prototype tool, validate its functionality, and deliver it.

GALORATH, INC.
100 North Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 1801
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-3222
Ms. Karen McRitchie
OSD 05-CM2      Awarded: 29AUG06
Title:Automated, Intelligent Life-Cycle Cost Modeling
Abstract:While suitable estimating methods exist to compute life cycle cost of systems, they can be difficult due to limited information available, especially in the early phases of a program. Another shortcoming is that they are often tied to static cost factors that give the cost analyst little to no understanding of design options on life cycle cost. Budgetary limitations and other constraints dictate that life cycle costs, particularly operations and support, need to be well understood before costs are locked in due to design decisions. Galorath will develop a framework for intelligent, automated life cycle costing that empowers the analyst to evaluate life cycle cost in a meaningful effective manner. Key focus areas will include the ability to estimate at any phase from concept to retirement, the ability to react to design decisions al all levels, from system configuration to detail parts, and the ability to transition from estimated values to known costs as a program progresses. The model would ideally be developed as a plug-in to Galorath's SEER-H hardware life cycle costing model. This model is currently used to cost systems of various sorts and the SEER-H customer base would be receptive first adopters of this enhancement.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
OSD 05-CM2      Awarded: 31AUG06
Title:Automated, Intelligent Life-Cycle Cost Modeling
Abstract:DoD is continually focusing on improving weapon system affordability through the use of automated, integrated computer systems dedicated to advanced logistics and support concepts, yet current cost models for acquisition, development and operations/support are typically performed independently and often do not account for newer technologies, such as condition-based maintenance (CBM+) that will help reduce future Operating and Support (O&S) costs. Impact and Boeing Phantom Works have teamed together to develop an integrated cost simulation capability to be used during program acquisition to accurately predict weapon system life-cycle costs. This will include updated cost models at the core of the architecture with surrounding databases that will be used to automatically populate required inputs. The application will be constructed with open systems architecture to facilitate data retrieval from disparate DoD databases, and will link component cost estimates with process related effects such as differing maintenance scenario. Parametric cost estimation will be employed at early phases of development when little data is available for the new system. Additionally, Impact will leverage previously developed/validated DoD engineering based O&S cost models when simulation, test and operational data become available. The combination of parametric and engineering cost modeling will enhance cost estimation as system development progresses.

GALORATH, INC.
100 North Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 1801
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-3222
Mr. Lee Fischman
OSD 05-CM3      Awarded: 14SEP06
Title:Requirements-Based Cost Models
Abstract:Large capital systems, particularly military hardware, are expected to last many years longer than the refresh cycle of their component technologies. Weapons systems will be fielded containing relatively obsolescent components, perhaps even before initial deployment. The question is, to what extent should obsolescence be allowed to impact mission requirements, and how can obsolescence costs best be mitigated? In today's cost estimating models, obsolescence is not even directly accounted for, despite its impact. As the pace of technological change quickens and technologies obsolesce more rapidly, the need to plan for and mitigate its effects will grow. Galorath will develop a complete obsolescence planning system and fully integrate this into its SEER-H hardware cost prediction tool. This will enable seamless integration of obsolescence awareness and planning with a complete development, production, operations and support cost analysis tool. SEER-H is among the most widely used, commercially available hardware costing solutions. The addition of obsolescence planning would translate into instant customer success and leverage DoD goals as an already large and growing user base gains access to it. These users are largely Defense contractors who would thus be able to engage in more sophisticated obsolescence planning for Government systems.

INRAD
11020 Solway School Road
Knoxville, TN 37931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 927-4134
Ms. Mary Ann Merrell
OSD 05-CM3      Awarded: 12SEP06
Title:Requirements-Based Cost Models
Abstract:Accurate projection of costs remains an intractable problem in the defense industry despite more than a decade of focus on affordability. The impact to DoD acquisition programs, from cost escalation and the cost of countering capability shortfalls, runs to billions of dollars annually. The objective of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate an ontology-based framework for requirements-based cost modeling. On-tologies offer a unique capability to manage the large knowledge bases and rule sets essential to understanding cost relationships in complex systems. InRAD's innovative approach uses a systems concept where domain-specific, plug-in compatible ontologies are populated with relevant knowledge for the products, processes, materials, and functions that must be considered in cost model. Product require-ments, captured using SLATE, DOORS, or similar tools, will be used to create a requirements-based life-cycle cost modeling framework structured to align with the ontology set. The resulting capability will enable engineering and production staff to draw on a far larger base of knowledge in projecting costs; re-fine estimates faster and with greater precision; better account for uncertainties and risks; and recalculate "on the fly" when requirements change or are traded off to define the optimal balance of cost and per-formance.

INTEGRATED PROJECT MANAGEMENT, INC.
10008 National Boulevard, Suite 222
Los Angeles, CA 90034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 287-0800
Mr. Joel Fleiss
OSD 05-CM3      Awarded: 12SEP06
Title:Requirements-Based Cost Models (ROBUST - Requirements Ordered Budget Using Scheduling Tools)
Abstract:Project cost is a primary factor in determining which projects to implement. Projects always have an explicit or implicit set of requirements between client and developer. Requirements are usually specified using an outline metaphor where key project functionality is continuously broken down into sub-requirements using sub-paragraphs to clarify the detail. Unfortunately, this metaphor makes it difficult to accurately estimate project costs because it does not: >> Uniquely identify each requirement. >> Link each requirement to one or more of the project's tasks. >> Associate percentage of cost for each project task with the relevant requirements. >> Automatically adjust for new, deleted or changed requirements in a timely manner. What is needed is a new metaphor for specifying requirements that is conducive to establishing the one-to-one or one-to-many linkage between requirements and project tasks. IPM is proposing a system that will provide the ability to assure that each requirement is: >>> Understandable same by all stakeholders. >>> Uniquely identifiable. >>> Linkable to one or more scheduled tasks. >>> Able to link each scheduled task to one or more requirements. >>> Readily able to provide an accurate estimate of project cost at anytime.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 05-CR1      Awarded: 18JUL06
Title:SimuTrainT: Simulation-based Training for Leader Performance Optimization
Abstract:Network-centric warfare (NCW) operations, especially against asymmetric threats requires a high degree of cognitive readiness on the part of warfighters especially leaders. Context awareness, in large part, is essential for cognitive readiness. Simulation-Based Training (SBT) potentially offers an effective means to train leaders in becoming context aware. However, traditional SBT has certain known drawbacks: lengthy development and maintenance cycles; and the need for live participants to be logged for a learner to practice team collaboration and decision making skills. This effort will overcome these problems through a combination of outcome-driven simulation (ODS), synthetic teammates, and template-driven vignette authoring capabilities. Specifically, ODS will dramatically reduce development time, lower computation requirements and allow for synthetic characters to play the role of coach/mentor, teammate and opponent. Phase I will produce a preliminary prototype for leadership training in team contexts.

JXT APPLICATIONS, INC.
2673 Commons Blvd, Suite 20
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 306-5003
Mr. Terry Fulbright
OSD 05-CR1      Awarded: 13JUL06
Title:Optimizing Leadership Performance Through Context Awareness and Simulation Based Training in Network Centric Operations
Abstract:Two concepts that impact the preparation of future leaders are network centric operations (NCO) and effects-based operations (EBO). These emerging concepts are being formulated as we speak, yet they will be central to the set of dynamic leadership skills required in the future. In the NCO environment leaders will have the ability to be context-aware at all times thus increasing their ability to make timely and effective decisions. Future leaders must be prepared to capitalize on their ability to be context-aware by raising their state of cognitive awareness to prepare them for ongoing situational ambiguity, and to prevent information overload at all levels. These leadership skills will require new and innovative training techniques. Context Awareness Simulation Training for Leadership (CASTLE) is a network centric approach to providing future leaders just those skills, just as they're needed, in their familiar NCO environment. CASTLE will be readily accessible and rapidly reconfigurable by government subject matter experts to support current and evolving leadership training requirements. Feasible candidate computer-mediated training technologies and environments will be identified and assessed for applicability. These technologies will include the use of simulation, intelligent tutoring, educational games and exercises, and distributed training for individuals and teams.

TEKAMAH CORP.
4031 University Drive, Suite 200
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(571) 214-6550
Dr. Eric Allely
OSD 05-CR1      Awarded: 13JUL06
Title:Optimizing Leadership Performance Through Context Awareness and Simulation Based Training in Network Centric Operations
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is twofold: a) to develop preliminary methodologies to define and assess specific leadership performance and skills requirements that can be adapted for different warfighting and homeland defense missions that support current and evolving national and international requirements and b) design an innovative training method for development and delivery of dynamic leadership skills training in a range of multi-media environments. The joint training transformation initiative includes the exploitation of computer mediated learning environments for "just-in-time, any place-any where" with realistic representations of the human dimension of warfare. A particular emphasis is on the acquisition of leadership skills in tactical and operational environments inclusive of the continuum of military missions. The optimization and enhancement of human performance through just-in-time training is challenged by many factors: access to live mission rehearsal, individual background and experience, current practical knowledge of cultural and societal factors in the mission area of operation and lack of access to most recent "lessons learned". However, today's technology should make it possible to offer training through a variety of media that is reconfigurable for specific learning scenarios and will provide rapid acquisition of knowledge for a specific mission or job assignment.

COMMAND PERFORMANCE RESEARCH, INC.
1201 Waverly Dr.
Champaign, IL 61821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 621-3918
Dr. Anna T. Cianciolo
OSD 05-CR2      Awarded: 14FEB06
Title:Simulated Cognitive Leadership Challenges for Professional Forums
Abstract:Simulated leadership challenges are particularly effective in generating the discussion and interpersonal connections that are the heart of the Army Professional Forum (APF) and the source of its impact. Because asynchronous discussion on immediately relevant topics is critical to forum impact, efforts to enhance simulated leadership challenges must have knowledge sharing and professional conversation as their focus. To develop advanced simulated leadership challenges that enhance APF impact, CPResearch proposes to apply multi-media and computer-animated content presentation formats to traditional situational-judgment testing techniques. The Phase I effort will result in two simulated leadership challenges (one multi-media, one computer animated), which will be used to determine the feasibility of developing a Phase II library of ten advanced simulated leadership challenges. CPResearch further proposes to use the research results from designing the simulated leadership challenges as the basis for developing a Web-based tacit-knowledge vignette generator for rapidly generating text-based and multi-media leadership challenges. The Phase I effort will produce a prototype vignette generator that will be used to assesses the feasibility of developing a full-scale capability in Phase II. CPResearch will conduct this research-and-development effort in collaboration with subcontractor Auteur Media and two consultants experienced in Army leadership instruction and technology-enabled knowledge sharing.

VIALUNA GROUP
5729 Lebanon Rd
Frisco, TX 75034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 896-5462
Mr. Brett Hersley
OSD 05-CR2      Awarded: 14FEB06
Title:Simulated Cognitive Leadership Challenges for Professional Forums
Abstract:The current web-based cognitive leadership challenge application used by the Army does not meet requirements. This proposal outlines how to fulfill the existing opportunity to develop a web-based tool that integrates seamlessly with professional forums, provides leaders a dynamic system in which to showcase cutting-edge leadership challenges, engages participants in a user-friendly developmental interface, fosters learning that impacts performance, and displays the adaptability and portability necessary to commercialize across a wide array of Federal Agencies, as well as private, non-profit, and academic organizations.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Craig Haimson
OSD 05-CR3      Awarded: 09MAR06
Title:J-MOC: Joint Measurement Operations Controller
Abstract:A new emphasis on increased joint operations requires a transformation in the way we train our troops. Training must teach our forces to both think and act jointly. As part of this initiative, the Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) is being developed in order to enhance training for our service branches, and interagency and multinational coalition partners by integrating live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) training environments. Clearly, the technological infrastructure required for large-scale distributed training events is significant, and the implementation of such an infrastructure represents an important step toward the actualization of effective distributed training for the joint community. However, by itself, simulation technology does not ensure effective training. True training requires a thorough identification of training objectives, reliable and valid performance measures that can determine whether or not those objectives have been met, and feedback to the trainees to assist their learning. Thus, there is a clear need for enhanced performance measurement and assessment capabilities in LVC environments. We propose to develop the Joint Measurement Operations Controller (J-MOC). J-MOC will include components that (1) configure a measurement collection plan (2) coordinate collection and storage of measurement data, and (3) display assessment results using mechanisms that support learning.

MYMIC LLC
200 High Street, Suite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Dr. Thomas W. Mastaglio
OSD 05-CR3      Awarded: 09MAR06
Title:A Methodology and Architecture to Support Joint Training Assessment and Feedback
Abstract:ABSTRACT TOPIC OSD05-CR3 A Methodology and Architecture to Support Joint Training Assessment and Feedback Joint Training is rapidly becoming not only common but a required approach to preparing service elements to execute their essential missions and qualifying them to meet their Title 10 obligations. Because it necessarily involves forces from a variety of locations coordinating their training times, activities, and scenarios, joint training is a significant resource consumer within the defense budget. It is becoming evermore critical for this joint training to be effective, not only resulting in improved unit proficiency for the forces participating, but also yielding enhanced levels of capability to execute the joint tasks in the Uniform Joint Task List (UJTL). Heretofore there has not been a requirement to assess such joint exercises because they were not commonly organized or executed and when they were, it was usually after the components of the forces involved had trained to an accepted level of proficiency as separate service elements. Today we must research methods and develop tools to assess joint training and provide the participating commands and units feedback on their performance.

SPEC OPS
325 Hill Carter Parkway
Ashland, VA 23005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 752-4790
Mr. Jeff Yates
OSD 05-CR3      Awarded: 09MAR06
Title:Automated Assessment of Joint Training and Education
Abstract:The technical challenge of this SBIR is to research and develop a capability which will maximize knowledge derivation from joint force training and operational events to positively affect operational readiness from experiences encountered in operational, training and experimental environments. We put forth the technical solution for application to this complex situation as "Knowledge Discovery from separate heterogeneous data and information sources." Strategic to operational to tactical military operations requires not only the networking of data but the communication of information for knowledge derivation to allow effective decision making at all levels of command. Operational readiness can be subjectively and objectively measured through the use of automated measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. Automation of these measures is now needed to support the vast amount of information available with the use of network centric operations. Distributed Knowledge Networks (DKNs) provides the key enabling technology for translating recent advances in automated data acquisition, digital storage, computers and communications into fundamental advances that support data analysis and knowledge derivation in complex systems. DKNs include computational tools for accessing, organizing, transforming, assimilating, and discovering knowledge from heterogeneous, distributed, possibly mobile, data and knowledge sources.

CAMBRIDGE ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.
58 Charles Street
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 225-0812
Dr. Igor Linkov
OSD 05-CR4      Awarded: 28FEB06
Title:Computer-Mediated Training Tools to Enhance Joint Task Force Cognitive Leadership Skills
Abstract:Ground component forces current and future are likely to perform operations in which they must be interdependent with the cultures of other Services, other governmental agencies, multi-national forces, and the populations of countries in which operations are occurring. Joint Task Force (JTF) staff member exposure to other services may be limited; they may not be familiar other Service competencies. Today's war also requires cognitive skills from a warfighter who must deal with social, cultural, and language barriers. The focus of this proposal is on overcoming these barriers through jointness in leadership training. In Phase I, we will conduct front-end analysis to determine the components of shared mental models of JTF staff members' understanding of jointness, cultural differences among the Services, and operational capabilities and environments where these issues are especially important. Based on this analysis, we will develop a computer-mediated training environment that can rapidly enhance the cognitive leadership skills required for ground component officers and non-commissioned officers to be effective in a Joint Task Force. We will deliver example exercises based on shared mental models designed to maximize JTF effectiveness. Performance metrics will also be developed that objectively measure leadership behavior and training progress utilizing the training software.

HEXAGON INTERACTIVE, INC.
6750 Wedgewood Place
Los Angeles, CA 90068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 709-3812
Mr. Joseph Miranda
OSD 05-CR4      Awarded: 27FEB06
Title:CW21-JFLCC: Enhancing Joint Task Force Cognitive Leadership Skills
Abstract:Educators require quick and inexpensive methods to familiarize Joint Task Force staff with the "cultures" of other Services, governmental and non-governmental agencies, as well as multi-national forces and populations of other countries in which operations are occurring in order to integrate their operations in a joint warfighting environment. Joint staffs need to be better prepared to deal with the human issues especially the differences between the Services with respect to Doctrine, Organization, Training and Education, Materiel, Leadership and Personnel. Hexagon has been developing computer technologies since 1998 that incorporate concepts enabling simulation of the challenges of increased "jointness" amongst the services. Following enthusiastic evaluation of Hexagon's Cyberwar XXI (CW21) prototype by Air Force, Army and other educational entities in 2004, they reported that they required a rigorous classroom tool like CW21 rather than a converted entertainment product. This Phase I effort will research the needs of the grounds forces component in cooperation with Army and Marine educational establishments for a course mediated by a version of the CW21 software tool. The Phase II objective is to develop a JTF computer-mediated training program to rapidly enhance the cognitive leadership skills and collaborative effectiveness of ground component staffs in a Joint Operation.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. James Ong
OSD 05-CR4      Awarded: 27FEB06
Title:Scenario-based Leadership Training for Joint Task Force Staff Officers
Abstract:Joint interdependence is a mindset that embraces the concept of purposeful reliance on other service and joint capabilities to maximize their complementary and reinforcing effects while minimizing service vulnerabilities. Interdependence requires a broad understanding of the different strengths and limitations of each service's capabilities and clear agreement about how those capabilities will be committed. High performance teamwork is enabled by better understanding of the processes, capabilities, and cultures of the other organizations. This proposed research will result in advanced, computer-mediated training systems that employ technologies such as lightweight simulations, story-driven learning, and automated performance assessment and after-action review that enable joint staff officers to identify, appreciate, and manage cultural differences and better understand the capabilities, processes and cultures of other organizations. During Phase I, we will carry out a front-end analysis to specify training requirements and evaluate promising learning technologies that achieve these instructional goals. These requirements will be based on a model to be developed during Phase I that relates components of team performance with specific behaviors affected by cultural differences and understanding of other organizations. We plan to use existing team performance and cultural models as starting points for this new integrated model. A limited software prototype will help us communicate our concepts in a tangible form and elicit feedback and further participation from prospective end user organizations such as the joint colleges.

THE WEXFORD GROUP INTERNATIONAL, INC.
8618 Westwood Center Drive, Suite 200
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 790-2289
Dr. James L. Mowery
OSD 05-CR4      Awarded: 28FEB06
Title:Enhancing Joint Task Force Cognitive Leadership Skills
Abstract:The Department of Defense has identified the need for computer mediated training to assist the Department's transformation. Wexford will implement a plan that is grounded in operational, technical and programmatic diligence to employ the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) methodology of functional needs, area, and solution analyses. This will identify capabilities, and capability gaps where cognitive skills are most relevant to ground forces of a Joint Task Force, and also lend themselves to use in simulation or distributed training. A post independent analysis and Phase II plan will be conducted. Wexford and Aptima's previous experience in this type of collaborative environment, focusing on the needs/gaps and determining how technical offerings meet the functional needs will ensure the proposed prototype solution is effective and acceptable to users.

INTELLIGENT DECISION SYSTEMS, INC.
5870 Trinity Parkway, Suite 200
Centreville, VA 20120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 766-9631
Dr. Ellen Menaker
OSD 05-CR5      Awarded: 07MAR06
Title:Training a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset
Abstract:Intelligent Decision Systems, Inc. (IDSI) proposes to perform a front-end analysis to define a computer-mediated training support package that will help ground-component forces develop the cognitive and affective skills to meet the challenges of being part of a Joint and expeditionary force. These skills are critical for effective performance in such areas as Combat Arms, Combat Support, Combat Service Support, and Reserve and National Guard components. IDSI intends to team with Forterra Systems, utilizing their expertise in massive multiplayer online gaming (MMOG) and other computer-mediated training tools. This analysis effort will identify the components of the constructs associated with a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset and related human dimension and performance issues. It will also identify the skills and attitudes needed to attain maximum interoperability, adaptability, and survivability in a Joint operational environment; relevant gaps in current Joint skills training; and metrics to measure skill acquisition. The analysis will include an investigation of computer-mediated training methods and environments, to include distributed training, simulation, and MMOG. The data will be analyzed and synthesized to produce the framework and foundational materials for Phase II development of a learner-centric, immersive training environment to enhance learners' development of a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset.

JXT APPLICATIONS, INC.
2673 Commons Blvd, Suite 20
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 306-5003
Mr. William Walsh
OSD 05-CR5      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Training a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset
Abstract:Joint operations demand that soldiers must be interdependent on cultures of other services, governmental and non-governmental agencies, multi-national forces and populations of countries in which operations occur. This effort investigates the human dimension issues including cross cultural clashes, communication difficulties among coalition forces and with the enemy, morale and performance issues from repeated deployments among others. This research will develop a set of methodologies/tools to predict such stressors and assess training methods to address the specific human dimension issues associated with long-term operations with coalition forces. Feasible candidate computer-mediated training technologies and environments will be identified and assessed for applicability in the development of a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset (JEMs) training capability. These technologies will include the use of simulation, intelligent tutoring, educational games and exercises, and distributed training for individuals and teams. Sample training vignettes or exercises addressing the emerging challenges of an Expeditionary Army for personnel of varied ranks and backgrounds will be designed.

THE WEXFORD GROUP INTERNATIONAL, INC.
8618 Westwood Center Drive, Suite 200
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 790-2289
Dr. James Mowery
OSD 05-CR5      Awarded: 28FEB06
Title:Training a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset
Abstract:The Department of Defense has identified the need for computer mediated training to assist the Department's transformation. Wexford will implement a plan that is grounded in operational, technical, and programmatic diligence to employ the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) methodology of functional needs, area, and solution analyses. This will identify capabilities, and capability gaps where cognitive skills are most relevant to a Joint Expeditionary mindset, and also lend themselves to use in simulation or distributed training. A post independent analysis and Phase II plan will be conducted. Wexford and Aptima's previous experience in this type of collaborative environment, focusing on the needs/gaps and determining how technical offerings meet the functional needs will ensure the proposed prototype solution is effective and acceptable to users.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL, P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Alan Spiker
OSD 05-CR6      Awarded: 09MAR06
Title:Innovative Training System to Accelerate Rapid Formation of Fully Functional Teams
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to establish the feasibility of an innovative training system to deliver advanced instruction in optimal leadership behaviors that promote cohesion in joint task force (JTF) teams. Termed Stalwart (System to Train Accelerated Leadership in Joint Warfighting Teams), this system will be a mix of on-line training modules and scenario-based small group exercises to get JTF team members and their leaders "up to speed" in high-value teamwork knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). Stalwart software will be a Windows-based network application where individual and team exercises can be adminis-tered using the public Internet or a local area network. Phase I will delineate Stalwart's content domain, instructional principles, and training infra-structure, and demonstrate feasibility by testing a demonstration prototype. Phase II will yield a turnkey training system that includes ISD-based training modules, functional software, vetted JTF scenarios, validated measures, and train-the-trainer materials. Given time and manpower shortages plaguing JTF training, Stalwart will impose a small training "footprint," as spin-up modules will be completed around the trainee's other duties, and team cohesion training will be organized around short-duration scenario frames. System effectiveness will be demonstrated through transfer of the targeted teamwork KSAs to a joint exercise environment.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
10 Fawcett Street
Cambridge, MA 02318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 758-1956
Mr. Jim Lunsford
OSD 05-CR6      Awarded: 09MAR06
Title:Innovative JTF-HQ Staff Training System
Abstract:Today's dynamic, often uncertain, combined or joint operating environment drives a requirement for a better training capability targeted at ground combat decision makers in operational leadership positions within the Joint Task Force Headquarters (JTF-HQ), specifically the Combined / Joint Forces Land Component Commander (CFLCC) and other joint team members on a Combined / Joint Task Force (CJTF) staff. The military needs, as a key component of a new instructional strategy, a realistic, interactive training simulation that can mimic the strategic / operational level of war while creating decision-making opportunities for these senior leaders to gain experience prior to, and in conjunction with, on-the-job training. To solve this problem, MK Technologies will work with the customer, the joint military community and our supporting subcontractor, Klein Associates, to design (Phase I) and develop (Phase II) a prototype training system that will provide simulation-based experiential learning opportunities addressing mission essential competencies such as cooperative planning and skilled liaison along with an understanding of technology used in joint environments. We propose to leverage our separate, ongoing Phase II SBIR effort to create a similar Air Component Commander training system to design and build an effective, engaging, PC-based training simulation to support improved cognitive readiness training for JTF-HQ ground combat senior leaders.

MYMIC LLC
200 High Street, Suite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Dr. Thomas W. Mastaglio
OSD 05-CR6      Awarded: 09MAR06
Title:A Computer-Based Interactive Scenario Based Capability to Support the Training and Certification of Multi-Organization Teams
Abstract:MYMIC LLC proposes to establish the conceptual design during a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) for an interactive, scenario-based capability that will support training and certification of leaders and teams comprising a Joint Task Force Headquarters. The approach will be rooted in learning theory from cognitive psychology, be implemented as extensions or applications of existing groupware systems and situate learning in context by using accurate operational scenarios. Learning objectives will be based upon Joint Doctrine and Concepts. Design and implementation will leverage corporate and consultant knowledge of emerging joint concepts, groupware systems already in use, and training development methodologies. Prototypical users will be involved in reviewing requirements, proposed designs and eventual implementation of the proposed training system.

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR
121 Flanders Road
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 621-4243
Mr. John Voccio
OSD 05-D02      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:High Specific Power, Rapid Start-up 95 GHz Source Technology
Abstract:In summary, the proposed Phase I work furthers our understanding of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils for gyrotron applications. A system trade study will be performed to minimize the overall weight of the system, while also maximizing the operating temperature, in order to minimize the cooldown time. Coupled thermal and mechanical finite element analysis will be performed to determine the imposed thermal cooldown stresses. These stresses will be compared to the known measured strength of the HTS coils, in order to determine the minimum allowable cooldown time. Then, a representative thermal mass will be designed, fabricated and tested under Phase I to validate the analytical model. The objective is technology-readiness for high power density rotating electric machines and magnet applications, such as gyrotrons. Under the ensuing Phase II program, a sub-scale 2G HTS magnet will be designed, fabricated and tested.

CALABAZAS CREEK RESEARCH, INC.
P.O. Box 330
Palo Alto, CA 94302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 367-1149
Dr. Jeff Neilson
OSD 05-D02      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:A W-Band, Permanent Magnet Gyrotron
Abstract:There is a requirement for high power, W-Band, RF sources for the Active Denial, non-lethal weapon system. Currently the RF source is a 95 GHz gyrotron producing approximately 100 kW and using a super conducting magnet. The weight, volume, cost, and logistics issues associated with the source and magnet impose considerable operational, support, and maintenance requirements and dramatically increase start-up time. An uninterrupted power supply is required to energize the superconducting magnet. Recent advances in rare earth permanent magnet technology allow compact magnets with peak fields up to 1.75 Tesla. This is sufficient for a second harmonic gyrotron producing RF power at 90 GHz. Previous research demonstrated that high efficiency gyrotrons can be achieved using second harmonic operation. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. proposes to develop a high efficiency, second harmonic gyrotron producing 50 kW of continuous RF power at 90 GHz using a permanent magnet. CCR will team with Dexter Magnetic Technologies, Inc. and L3 Communications Titan Corporation to develop a prototype gyrotron compatible with an efficient, cost effective, deployable system. CCR will also investigate innovative energy recovery systems with the goal of increasing the efficiency to 60%.

CRYOMAGNETICS, INC.
1006 Alvin Weinberg Dr.
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 482-9551
Mr. Adam Berryhill
OSD 05-D02      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:High Specific Power, Rapid Start-up 95 GHz Source Technology
Abstract:Since the 1990's, applications requiring high power (>1 KW) millimeter wave energy have relied on either gyrotrons or multiple gryotwystron amplifiers. While the gryotwystron approach offers bandwidth and single point failure benefits, it is inherently more complex and larger than that of the single gyrotron. The gyrotron however requires a superconducting magnet to create the 3.7 Tesla field necessary for operation. Critical to the operation of the superconducting magnet and its start up is a closed cycle refrigeration system, or cryocooler, to cool the magnet to cryogenic (<100K) temperatures. With the advent of newer 2G superconducting material the maximum temperature required for operation of the superconducting magnet has been raised from 4 K to greater than 50 K. Typically cryocoolers for 4K operation have required greater than 8 kW of input power, provide cool down times in excess of 24 hours, and require compressors that orientation dependent. By using these new 2G superconductors and thus raising the operational temperature to 50 K it should be possible to reduce the input power requirement to less than 5 kW, provide cool down times less than 8 hours, and have an orientation independent cryocooler by developing a new cryocooler system specific to the requirements of gyrotron amplifiers.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Anping Liu
OSD 05-D04      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:High Energy Laser (HEL) Beam Combination
Abstract:Aculight proposes a new spectral beam combining (SBC) system to utilize higher power, broader linewidth, fiber lasers to meet the demanding requirements of high energy laser (HEL) applications. The system is scalable to up to 100 kW output with diffraction limited beam quality by spectrally combining a number of high power fiber lasers operating at slightly different wavelengths. The proposed approach is insensitive to the linewidth of individual lasers and allows the linewidth of individual lasers to be at least 100 times broader than that of the existing SBC systems. Increasing the linewidth of the individual lasers significantly reduces fiber nonlinear effects and allows multi-kW to be generated from the individual fiber lasers. As a result, fewer individual lasers are needed to achieve 100 kW near-diffraction-limited combined beam and a more compact, efficient and robust system can be built for HEL applications. We plan to complete a detailed design and analysis on the proposed system and demonstrate >8 W combined output with diffraction-limited beam quality by combining two broad linewidth fiber lasers. During the Phase II, we will demonstrate up to 1000 W combined output with near-diffraction-limited beam quality using four high power fiber lasers.

FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Dr. Wiiliam E. Torruellas
OSD 05-D04      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:High Energy Laser (HEL) Beam Combination for Enhancement of Fiber Laser Performance for Ranging and Tracking
Abstract:The development of eye safe fiber lasers for wavelengths with high transmission through the atmosphere, capable of operating single wavelength at short pulses (|1ns), high pulse energy, high average power, and high beam quality, require the development of appropriate active fiber designs as well as beam coupling concepts consistent with application requirements. These lasers can find use in long range target ranging and tracking systems such as the Active Ranging Sensor for the Airborne Laser System, in which case the proposed laser will allow precision ranging down to a few centimeters and high accuracy acceleration measurement, therefore, accurate trajectory determination. It can also be designed for space applications related with terrain mapping and sounding of the atmosphere, for which it will allow to obtain high range resolution.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
OSD 05-D04      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:Phase-Locked Array of Solid-State Lasers (PLASS)
Abstract:A new approach for multi-channel solid-state laser beam combining is proposed based on optical phase conjugation in a coupled-cavity laser configuration. The proposed scheme allows automatic synchronization of the channels' mutual coherency, thereby achieving maximum efficiency of combined beam oscillation with simultaneous compensation of introduced aberrations. It is proposed to use the laser medium as the nonlinear medium for FWM OPC due to its spatially inhomogeneous saturation in the interference field of the interacting beams. The proposed configuration allows scaling the laser system to the multi-kilowatt power level.

PD-LD, INC.
30-B PENNINGTON-HOPEWELL ROAD
PENNINGTON, NJ 08534
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 564-7900
Dr. Boris Volodin
OSD 05-D04      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:High Spectral Density Modular Spectral Beam Combiner Based on Volume Bragg Grating Technology
Abstract:PD-LD, Inc. proposes to develop a novel approach to spectral beam combining utilizing the technology of monolithic volume Bragg grating (VBGT) spectral beam combiner (SBC) chips. The VBGT SBC chip is manufactured in a single monolithic piece of inorganic photorefractive glass. This technology offers high spectral resolution ( 0.2 nm/channel) in a very compact footprint (< 1 in2 for 10 channels), very high optical damage threshold (> 200 MW/cm2) and high total efficiency (80-90%). The VBGT SBC chips that combine 10 to 20 spectral channels will be integrated into a larger system as separate module, thus offering a path to higher combined power. Our approach will maximize the spectral density of beam combination and bring it to the Rayleigh resolution criterion with high total efficiency (80% combined efficiency is expected) and nearly diffraction-limited beam quality. The approach is independent of the source lasers, offers low polarization sensitivity, and is capable of handling individual channels of extremely high power (3 1 kW). This architecture is scalable to several hundred combined channels with 0.2 nm/channel spectral resolution.

VYTRAN CORP.
1400 Campus Drive West
Morganville, NJ 07751
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 972-2880
Mr. Eric Mies
OSD 05-D04      Awarded: 23FEB06
Title:High Energy Laser (HEL) Beam Combination
Abstract:Diode-pumped fiber lasers have been shown to be extremely compact, rugged and efficient, with output powers of 200 Watts to over 2 kWatts demonstrated. It has also been demonstrated that an array of individual fiber lasers can self-organize coherently with appropriate connectivity or "cross-coupling" at the output. This effect is completely passive, without the need for active phase, polarization or amplitude control, and can be achieved with an appropriately designed all-fiber output coupler. The technical objective of this Phase I proposal is to advance the design, modeling and fabrication techniques required for the production of such an optical fiber coupler, and to propose and model the architecture required for implementation of such a high-power laser system. This work will lay the foundation for a Phase II effort that will focus on implementing the designs and techniques developed in Phase I, with the goal of achieving stable, robust coherent combining of high-count fiber laser arrays, with the potential for acheiving an output power of 100 kWatts.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. jon r mayes
OSD 05-D05      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:Increased PRF for Pulsed Power
Abstract:Pulsed power generators designed for driving High Power Microwave sources have generally been limited to resonant transformers and Marx generators, with each offering advantages and disadvantages. Both methods deliver high voltages with large amounts of energy, but the transformer-based method is large in volume, requires transformer oil and delivers pulses with slow rise times, while the Marx generator-based method typically requires a large number of components and is difficult to design for trapezoidal wave shapes. Each method is binary in operation - they work or they do not work - there is no graceful failure in either design. This proposal presents a novel Marx generator-based concept that overcomes the part-count issue, via a modular design, as well as the wave shaping problem, via sequential pulse delivery common with railgun power supplies. Furthermore, since the proposed design is based on a parallel generator topology, the system offers temporal agility, impedance agility and graceful failure.

DIVERSIFIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Dr. Floyd Arntz
OSD 05-D05      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:Increased PRF for Pulsed Power
Abstract:In this SBIR, DTI will develop and demonstrate solid-state Marx pulse generator technology supporting a compact microwave source with voltages up to 500 kV into 40 Ohms, 10 ns risetimes, and PRFs up to 1 kHz. Our proposed Phase I activity includes the development of a high performance, compact solid-state Marx cell, demonstration of a Marx pulse generator built of several such cells, and planning for compact, solid state DE / IP pulse power systems, capable of high pulse frequency, in Phase II and beyond.

SCI-ENG SOLUTIONS, LLC
3304 Lake Town Dr.
Columbia, MO 65203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 489-2776
Dr. Kenneth F. McDonald
OSD 05-D05      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:Marxed-Coiled Transmission Line Pulse Generator
Abstract:The proposed pulse generator synthesizes the best old and new technologies to create the ultimate, compact pulsed power architecture that will be applicable to virtually any source that requires a high voltage, nearly rectangular pulse; and is particularly capable of optimally satisfying the demanding requirements of narrow band, High Power Microwave (HPM) sources such as Relativistic Magnetrons, Ubitrons, MILO's, Traveling Wave Tubes, Klystrons, radars, etc.. This technological breakthrough promises to provide one of the most reliable, compact, lightweight, and robust flight worthy pulse generator topologies possible; and is especially pertinent to critical flight or mobile missions such as the defeat of Improvised Explosive Devices.

SPARKTRONICS, INC.
2300 Chelsea Road , PO Box 1151
Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 529-8649
Dr. George Kirkman
OSD 05-D05      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:Increased PRF for Pulsed Power
Abstract:Air Force directed energy systems using high power microwaves require an advancement in the state of the art of repetitive pulsed power systems. Present systems driving microwave sources are based on two circuit technologies: the resonant transformer and the Marx generator. Resonant transformers tend to be large and heavy while Marx generators are limited in pulse shaping and inefficiently deliver power to the load. We propose to develop a new pulse generator technology based on the multistage Blumlein generator with compact slow wave transmission lines.

ASR CORP.
7817 Bursera, NW
Albuquerque, NM 87120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 830-3000
Mr. Michael D. Abdalla
OSD 05-D07      Awarded: 10FEB06
Title:Compact HPM Sources
Abstract:The MATRIX oscillator was developed as a tunable wideband HPM source for use by the AFRL in threat testing. The fundamental physics of hydrogen insulation used in the MATRIX oscillator as well as the overall topology limit the voltage-frequency-Q (VFQ) product of the current system. Through the application of dual-resonant topology and revised insulation, the output of the MATRIX oscillator concept may be extended to much higher VFQ product. The development of a high VFQ product topology source will yield more compact HPM sources for any given charge voltage and frequency capability.

EUREKA AEROSPACE
3452 East Foothill Blvd, Suite 528
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 844-6662
Dr. James Tatoian
OSD 05-D07      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:Tunable Compact High Power Microwave System
Abstract:Eureka Aerospace proposes to design and to fabricate a compact high-power microwave source capable of generating voltages of up to 300 kV and tunable in the 500 MHz-1000 MHz frequency range. In addition, the design will allow the operations PRFs in excess of 1000 Hz and small damping constant-yielding a relatively large duty cycle and thus large average power. The source will be fabricated using a tunable coaxial geometry Blumlein architecture. To sustain high PRF operations and fast switching time, the microwave generator employs multiple self-break hydrogen switches yielding multi-channeling in a cylindrical hydrogen-filled tank.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Dr. Everett G. Farr
OSD 05-D07      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:Microwave Pulse Compressors
Abstract:High-Power Microwave fields between 500 MHz and 1 GHz can upset electronic equipment at a considerable distance. However, it remains challenging to find a suitable high-power microwave source for such fields. Such devices should have a bandwidth of 10-15%, reasonable efficiency, low cost, compact size, and peak power of about 1 GW. Existing sources, such as magnetrons, are both massive and expensive. Another source, the switched oscillator, is too small to store sufficient energy. Therefore, we propose developing a Microwave Pulse Compressor (MPC). Such devices are commonly used at particle accelerators at frequencies between 10 and 30 GHz, but they could be adapted to 500 MHz to 1 GHz. MPCs require only a medium-power source to drive them, so they have modest size and weight. MPCs can be built much larger than switched oscillators, so they can store much more energy. During Phase I we will design both a low-power and high-power version of the MPC. We will build the low-power version during Phase I. We will design the high-power version to operate somewhere within the frequency range of 500 MHz to 1 GHz, to be decided in consultation with AFRL, to be built in Phase II.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. jon r mayes
OSD 05-D10      Awarded: 15FEB06
Title:HPM Antennas
Abstract:The market for the APELC's helical antennas is immediate based on the needs of various military and commercial entities. The proposed ringdown system brings many more capabilities to DoD beyond air platform electronic warfare, such as to Homeland Security for stopping vehicles. The same system will be marketed for perimeter and border control, as well as for controlling area electronic systems, such as communications. This proposal couples APELC's successful Marx generator development with prior antenna efforts to bring high electric field strength, ring down signatures to mobile platforms.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Dr. Everett G. Farr
OSD 05-D10      Awarded: 14FEB06
Title:Folded Horn Antennas
Abstract:Antennas for radiating high-power mesoband electromagnetic signals are critical to the mission of upsetting electronics at a distance. High Power Microwave (HPM) weapons require highly efficient antennas that can fit into a small volume. An example of such an antenna is the half Impulse Radiating Antenna (IRA) driven by a switched oscillator source in the MATRIX system. However, the half IRA has a relatively low aperture efficiency of 25-35%, because it has been optimized for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) operation. To address this problem, we propose the folded horn. When operating at 500 MHz, this will have an aperture size of 0.3 X 1.2 meters (0.5 X 2 lambda), with a nearly focused aperture field, due to a parabolic bend. This design provides nearly uniform aperture illumination, with no losses due to spillover. Furthermore, two folded horns may be positioned back-to-back, to create a 1.5 X 3-meter aperture, both of which are driven by a dual source using a single trigger. When compared to a comparably sized half IRA operating at the same voltage, the folded horn will deliver 2.8 times the radiated field and 8 times the power on target, according to calculations provided here.

JADOO POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
181 Blue Ravine Road
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 608-9044
Mr. Murali Arikara
OSD 05-MT1      Awarded: 07SEP06
Title:High Energy Hydrogen Sources For Fuel Cell Applications
Abstract:The Navy has a current need for portable power sources providing power outputs from 20 to 250 W for long durations of time in small lightweight packages. Hydrogen air fuel cells are one of the most promising solutions to address this need. One significant issue surrounding the use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. Metallic hydrides and even chemical hydrides, such as NaBH4, have low hydrogen storage capacity, below 4% by weight or 20 g/H2/L. Jadoo Power Systems and Technology Assement & Tranfer propose to develop a novel hydrogen fuel cartridge that will utilize borazane as a hydrogen storage medium, achieving storage densities of greater than 10% or 50 g/H2/L. Once interfaced with Jadoo's fuel cell, a typical power system will be able to meet the needs of a 2 week mission (1680 Whrs) with a weight of only 2.56 kg, while an equivalent system of BA5590 batteries would weigh 10.2 kg. The resulting system will be directly applicable to both military applications and to Jadoo's existing commercial products.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Wayne Gellett
OSD 05-MT1      Awarded: 05SEP06
Title:Solid Borazane Hydrogen Storage and Generation System
Abstract:Lynntech proposes a hydrogen generator, coupled with Lynntech's previously developed alkaline fuel cell systems for portable applications, that offers advantages over battery power in size, operational time between refueling, and operations in military environments. With 19.6 wt% hydrogen, borazane (NH3BH3), a water soluble, non-cryogenic solid, is one of the most hydrogen rich solids available, and a promising means to deliver hydrogen for use in fuel cells. Lynntech offers a unique solid borazane based hydrogen generator capable of scalable rates of hydrogen production, real time control, including rapid start/stop operation, eliminating the need for heavy high pressure hydrogen storage vessels. For small fuel cell applications, the solid borazane based hydrogen generator is ideally suited for alkaline fuel cell systems, which are not affected by trace amounts of ammonia produced, but can also be used with PEM systems after the removal of the trace ammonium by a passive chemical filter, a simple process compared to hydrocarbon reformate purification. In Phase I, a first generation prototype hydrogen generator based on solid borazane will be built and tested in a variety of military environments, with parallel studies focusing its integration with Lynntech's scalable alkaline fuel cell system for portable applications.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Dwight D. Back
OSD 05-MT1      Awarded: 31AUG06
Title:Nano-Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Media for Fuel Cells
Abstract:Many current DoD systems use battery technologies that require extended mission capabilities with reduced volumetric and gravimetric impact. OSD is interested in developing manufacturable technologies with improved volumetric and gravimetric storage densities for hydrogen. Specific design goals are man transportable hydrogen sources with gravimetric and volumetric storage densities greater than 4% and 20 g H2/L, respectively. Metal hydride storage has reached the limits of hydrogen storage capacity over the past 25 years, and large leaps in storage capacity from about 5-6 wt.% are not expected. Increases beyond this will require much lower temperatures or higher pressures, or the media needs to be modified to enhance the storage capacity as well as sorption kinetics. Current metal hydrides can also be poisoned by impurities in the hydrogen, thereby reducing their usable capacity. Nano-structures can be integrated with solid storage media (i.e., directly attached), with potential impacts on storage density, impurity tolerance, and kinetics. This effort will demonstrate the feasibility and comparable performance of innovative solid hydrogen storage media integrated with nanomaterials. Mainstream has already demonstrated the manufacturability of these storage substrates, and project that the OSD volumetric and gravimetric steerage density targets can be met.

MILLENNIUM CELL
1 Industrial Way West
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 544-5706
Dr. Richard Mohring
OSD 05-MT1      Awarded: 07SEP06
Title:High Energy Hydrogen Sources For Fuel Cell Applications
Abstract:Fuel Cell power sources offer numerous benefits over conventional primary and secondary batteries. The major technical challenge in the implementation of PEM fuel cells is a suitable hydrogen source. In particular, for portable power applications (20-250 W), there is a need to improve the energy density levels of the hydrogen sources to meet many of DoD mission requirements. Millennium Cell has gained significant experience in the development of portable hydrogen sources based on chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4). In this effort, we will develop a novel approach towards hydrogen generation: reacting an acid solution with a solid sodium borohydride fuel blend. We will design, build and test, a scaleable 30 W hydrogen fuel system to controllably produce hydrogen based on the novel reactor design concept. A thorough safety analysis of the hydrogen generator system based on the design and selected materials will be performed, with a focus on operational safety and transportability. A proof-of-concept prototype that will meet or exceed the specified DoD requirements will be demonstrated at TRL 5.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2321
Dr. Girish Srinivas
OSD 05-MT1      Awarded: 08SEP06
Title:Man Portable Hydrogen Generation System
Abstract:The soldier of the twenty-first century will need extended, field deployable, high energy density power sources to run electronic devices such as image displays, range finders, laptop computers, cellular phones, portable digital assistants, and other electronic devices. Currently, the military relies on battery packs which restrict the speed and tactical capability because their low energy density and excessive weight. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold the promise of being an efficient field power source for the twenty-first century soldier but require a simple, lightweight and reliable hydrogen source. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed a soldier-portable hydrogen generator for man-portable fuel cell systems. A preliminary system design has been carried out and preliminary tests in our laboratories have shown that our approach is feasible. In the Phase I project, TDA will to carry out detailed feasibility studies from chemical development to manufacturing and production. We will also design and fabricate a pre-prototype device. In the Phase II project, TDA make prototypes for field-testing.

ADVANCED MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, INC.
34 Sullivan Road, Unit #24
N. Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 439-9261
Mr. Garrin Samii
OSD 05-MT2      Awarded: 30AUG06
Title:Power Source Materials & Subcomponents Manufacturing Improvements
Abstract:Advanced Membrane Systems Inc. (AMS) proposes a 6-month research effort to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a separator for BA-5590 primary batteries. It is proposed to modify the formulation and process condition of an existing separator developed by AMS for lithium ion cells and make it more porous and suitable for BA-5590 batteries and deliver separator samples to DoD labs and battery manufactures for testing and qualification in BA-5590 batteries. The separator developed during this period will utilize AMS' patented wet technology for lithium ion batteries. The research work will be divided into five tasks. The estimated total cost for Phase I of this program is $99,982.

CONCORDE BATTERY CORP.
2009 San Bernardino Road
West Covina, CA 91790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 884-5370
Dr. David G. Vutetakis
OSD 05-MT2      Awarded: 30AUG06
Title:Improved Internal Connectors for Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate lightweight, low resistance internal connections for valve-regulated lead-acid aircraft batteries that are both easy to apply in the assembly process and highly reliable in service. These new connectors will be targeted for use in standard technology VRLA batteries with lead grids as well as advanced technology VRLA batteries with lead-coated aluminum grids. The specific goals are to achieve a 2 to 4 percent savings in the total battery weight and a 5 to 10 percent improvement in high rate performance. A further objective is to improve the vibration resistance of VRLA batteries. The objective of Phase I is to establish the technical feasibility of this new type of intercell connector in both standard technology aircraft batteries (with standard lead grids) and advanced technology aircraft batteries (with lead-coated aluminum grids).

MAXPOWER, INC.
141 Christopher Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 256-4575
Dr. Mark Salomon
OSD 05-MT2      Awarded: 30AUG06
Title:Power Source Materials & Subcomponents Manufacturing Improvements
Abstract:MaxPower, Inc. is proposing a new approach to fabricate and manufacture separator membranes for Li and Li-ion batteries which meet U.S. Army objectives of efficient, rapid and economic manufacturing, and reduced "touched" labor based on automation. To meet these objectives, MaxPower is proposing to develop electrospinning technology employing readily available polymers to optimize parameters for manufacturing separator membranes for Li and Li-ion batteries. These new membranes are designed to possess superior mechanical strength, improved chemical and electrochemical stability, and improved conductivities over the temperature range of -40C to 70C. During Phase I, initial optimization of the technology will involve selection of polymers and electrospinning parameters which will be used to demonstrate automatic production of membranes with specific application to Li-ion batteries such as the BB2590. This new membrane technology will be used to construct and demonstrate Li-ion cells which are the building blocks for the BB-2590 battery. Although the demonstration will focus on the BB-2590 battery, it is important to note that this technology can be used in the manufacture of other types of batteries such as the BA5590 and BA5390 as well as other spirally wound and prismatic designs, and supercapacitors.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando Road, Building 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2013
Dr. Hisashi Tsukamoto
OSD 05-MT2      Awarded: 21SEP06
Title:Power Source Materials & Subcomponents Manufacturing Improvements
Abstract:Quallion LLC will use this funding opportunity to create a secure, domestic supply of lithium ion precursor materials. In Phase I of this project, characterization of precursor materials from three different active materials will be characterized, and the information gathered will be used to produce functionally equivalent precursors. Additionally, a co-precipitation process will be installed at Quallion's facility for "right sized" production capability that is flexible enough to accommodate new and alternative cathode configurations.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive, P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 213-1637
Dr. Michael R. Wixom
OSD 05-MT2      Awarded: 11SEP06
Title:Critical Precursors for High Rate Rechargeable Batteries
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR will develop a foundation for a secure and domestic supply of a reactant critical to the production of large format high-rate rechargeable batteries. In phase I, a variety of precursors and process equipment will be screened and qualified at laboratory scale. The laboratory scale process technology will be transferred to our subcontractor, an established industrial powder processor serving the metal powder market. With our subcontractor we will demonstrate pilot scale production of the reactant at their production facility. Our phase I objective will be to produce >10 kg/day of the reactant. This will meet anticipated demand for producing prototype large format cells for delivery under existing programs with our military customers. In addition to the reactant, the phase I deliverables will include a bill of materials for the process and a unit process cost model. For each consumable material used in the process we also will deliver a certificate of analysis defining the acceptance criteria. The phase I program will establish a foundation to continue scale up in phase II, with a focus on process control development and cost reduction.

AMBP TECH CORP.
275 Cooper Ave., Suite 112
Tonawanda, NY 14150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 447-2587
Mr. Nehal Chokshi
OSD 05-MT3      Awarded: 08SEP06
Title:CIGS solar cell manufacturing improvements via Excimer Laser Processing
Abstract:AMBP Tech in collaboration with ITN Energy Systems will demonstrate its Excimer Laser Processing capabilities as an ideal solution to reducing the thermal budgets necessary to process high efficiency CIGS solar cells. This will allow the use of lightweight and cheaper polymer substrates, thus helping achieve lower costs and better manufacturability. In Phase I of the proposed work, AMBP Tech will demonstrate that Excimer Laser Processing does provide a route to low temperature budget processing, show the scaleability of the process and demonstrate a mini roll to roll processing system.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Dr. Daniel Wright
OSD 05-MT3      Awarded: 13SEP06
Title:Ultra-Lightweight Photovoltaic Cells on Flexible Substrtaes for Energy Conversion Applications
Abstract:Portable devices that can generate electricity from solar power are very attractive for many defense applications, in particular for mobile defence units. Light and durable solar cell panels would greatly simplify the logistics of military operations, such as by eliminating heavy and cumbersome electricity generators and personal battery packs. Advances in amorphous silicon (a-Si) deposition and patterning have led to the development of ultra-light thin-film photovoltaic cells that can be rolled up for efficient storage. The main drawback of currently available devices is the low intrinsic mobility of a-Si, which leads to lower energy conversion efficiency. These drawbacks have thus far prevented thin-film photovoltaic cells from displacing the heavier and more rigid conventional solar cell devices that are based on single-crystal Silicon (c-Si). Standard methods for crystallizing a-Si require high temperatures that are incompatible with thin-film materials, which are often polymeric in nature. One of the most promising techniques for crystallizing silicon on flexible substrates is excimer laser crystallization, which involves using short pulses of ultraviolet (UV) emission from an excimer laser to locally heat a small area of an a-Si substrate. By scanning the laser beam in an appropriate manner over the entire substrate, large areas of single-crystal silicon can be formed. We propose to use our capabilities in excimer laser crystallization as well as our expertise in high-throughput lithography and direct batch photoablation to develop efficient, large-area, lightweight, thin-film photovoltaic devices.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5198
Dr. Garth Jensen
OSD 05-MT3      Awarded: 21SEP06
Title:Scaleable Evaporative Source Development for Multi-meter Wide Roll-to-Roll Flexible CIGS Photovoltaic Manufacturing
Abstract:Flexible, polycrystalline thin-film copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaics are receiving significant interest by the DoD due to their flexible nature, record efficiency, high specific power, low stowage volume, high stability in a space or airship environment, low-cost roll-to-roll deposition, and the ability to monolithically integrate for reduced integration cost and weight. Current manufacturing is limited to 15 cm and 30 cm wide widths due to challenges with the multisource evaporation process step. ITN and the Colorado School of Mines previously identified issues with evaporative sources and that modeling and experimentation led to a dramatic improvement in yield and device efficiency. In order to increase our plant capacity, our team will apply our multisource evaporation knowledge and our vast modeling experience to develop a scaleable evaporative source that can deposit CIGS onto `standard' webs in excess of one meter wide. In Phase 1, our team will utilize source modeling and specific experimental validation to identify the issues and potential solutions to expanding evaporation sources to accommodate multi-meter web widths. In Phase 2, we will optimize models, fabricate, and test wide evaporation sources in order to evaluate the applicability of this technology to our CIGS manufacturing process for space and near-space applications.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Op Holo Div, 20600 Gramercy Pl, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Parfenov
OSD 05-MT3      Awarded: 23SEP06
Title:Flexible Low-Cost Plastic Photovoltaic Solar Cell Technology
Abstract:To address the OSD need for innovative improvements in photovoltaic (PV) cell manufacturing technology, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Flexible Low-Cost Plastic Photovoltaic Solar (FLOPPS) cell and a low-cost production process to manufacture it. The FLOPPS cell consists of a composite layer over a conductive flexible substrate, coated with a transparent electrode and encapsulated in a transparent protective layer. Innovations in this manufacturing technology include 1) solar spectrum matching through doping with fullerene, improving solar conversion efficiency, and 2) use of low-temperature low-cost processes for coating polymer layers over flexible fiber-like substrates to produce surface/shape conformable PV cells. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the FLOPPS cell and fabrication technology by fabricating and testing prototype flexible photovoltaic foils and fibers that could be woven into soldiers' uniform or tent fabric as a limited-scale demonstration of the cell concept and manufacturing process. Phase II will further refine the solar cell design and develop a draft design of full-scale (productivity of 1000 sq. m/hr.) manufacturing equipment that will reduce solar cell production cost to below $0.10/kWh.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2317
Dr. Silvia Luebben
OSD 05-MT3      Awarded: 07SEP06
Title:Implementation of Manufacturing of an Organic Transparent Thin Film Conductor for Flexible Solar Cells
Abstract:The U.S. Department of Defense has a need for a new generation of photovoltaics (PV) cells and arrays that are economic to make, flexible, rugged and can be constructed on a variety of flexible substrates including thin plastic sheets and fabrics. Transparent, highly conducting materials are needed to replace the brittle and expensive tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and enable the fabrication of truly flexible solar cells and other electronic devices. During previous projects, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed conducting polymers that can be spin-coated from non-corrosive organic solutions on a variety of flexible substrates to produce highly transparent thin films of low surface resistance. Unfortunately, the large-scale production of TDA's materials is difficult because the current process is not optimized and therefore is poorly reproducible. Furthermore, the cost of production could be greatly reduced with a process that is re-designed to allow the recycle of spent reagents and solvents. During this SBIR Phase I project TDA will develop and begin to implement a cost effective and reproducible manufacturing process for producing optically transparent and electrically conducting polymers so that sufficient quantities of polymers can be routinely manufactured and used in the fabrication of economic solar cells and a variety of other flexible electronic devices.

EMF SYSTEMS, INC.
14670 Highway 9
Boulder Creek, CA 95006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 338-1800
Mr. David F.Smith
OSD 05-MT4      Awarded: 19SEP06
Title:High Performance and Low Cost Electrode Process
Abstract:A "right-sized" electrode production process is proposed which is based upon a re-engineered current collecting substrate for electrodes. The electrodes have an inordinate number of open pores which increase the discharge rate capability and efficiency by a significant amount. The electrode polarization of Ag2O electrodes is <210 mV at current densities of 2,000 ma/cm2 at 7oC ambient temperature. A benchtop machine based upon a design for a full production process will be fabricated and used first to produce Ag2O electrodes, then Zn electrodes for use in silver-zinc batteries. The benchtop machine will also be used to produce electrodes for evaluation in lithium-ion, Li-MnO2, Li-SOCl2, and electrochemical capacitors.

ERIGO TECHNOLOGIES LLC
28 Chosen Vale Lane
Enfield, NH 03748
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 632-4156
Dr. Nabil Elkouh
OSD 05-MT4      Awarded: 21SEP06
Title:Battery Powder Production
Abstract:Powder production is often the rate limiting step in thermal battery production. The current powder production technique for lithium-based alloys and electrolyte is costly, labor intensive, time consuming, and leads to highly variable product. Because of the extremely reactive nature of these materials, advances in this area are difficult because of the special care that must be taken in the selection of atmosphere and other process conditions. Direct melt-to-powder atomization practices are effectively used in the powder metallurgy industry to produce large volumes of high quality product. In this Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of adapting a similar process that is free of moving parts in the process stream. Our proposed innovation reduces the manual handling required, particularly in the molten state, and will lead to lower costs and higher quality. In Phase I, we will construct a facility to evaluate the design and process control parameters of the atomizer using a simulant. In Phase II, we will construct a dedicated powder production facility for the actual battery materials and use it to produce powder at prototypical production rates. This powder will be pressed into pellets that will be inserted into batteries and tested.

MAXPOWER, INC.
141 Christopher Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 256-4575
Dr. Benjamin Meyer
OSD 05-MT4      Awarded: 21SEP06
Title:Nonrechargeable Battery Manufacturing Improvements
Abstract:The U.S. military is seeking improved methods of battery manufacturing which will enhance the ability of DoD-interest in battery manufacturers to produce nonrechargeable (primary) batteries. The current dough-batch teflonated process for making MnO2 cathodes is quite labor intensive and time consuming. Twin screw extrusion technology is an alternative method of manufacture which offers faster production times, reliability, reduced labor, and higher efficiency. Twin screw extrusion technology is inherently scalable for "right-sizing" production capacity leading to lower production costs and labor time. Building upon previous success in the extrusion of rechargeable Li-Ion (LiCoO2 and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2) PVdF cathodes, MaxPower proposes to adapt the twin screw extrusion process to Li/MnO2 primary cell technology. The main objective of Phase I is to demonstrate that the twin screw extrusion process is compatible with these primary battery systems. Phase II will incur further optimization of the cathode compositions and the introduction of CFx as an alternative candidate system to be selected for the production of BA-5390 batteries for the U.S military. With successful implementation of Phase I and Phase II, the twin screw extrusion processing method should readily transfer to the market scale for both military and commercial applications of primary Li/MnO2 battery systems.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando Road, Building 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2002
Dr. Hisashi Tsukamoto
OSD 05-MT4      Awarded: 21SEP06
Title:Nonrechargeable Battery Manufacturing Improvements
Abstract:Quallion LLC will use this funding opportunity to create a domestic "right size" CFx material production line scaled to meet the limited demands of the aerospace and military markets. Additionally, a new D-size Li CFx battery production line will be installed at Quallion's facility for cost effective, low volume production with enhanced reliability, long-term supply guarantee and design flexibility.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Arthur Dobley
OSD 05-MT4      Awarded: 19SEP06
Title:Innovative Lightweight Metal-Air Cell Cases for Non-Rechargeable Batteries
Abstract:Some of the challenges of manufacturing batteries for military applications are: low quantities, sporadic demand, high price and various power sources. If a Multi-Functional Cell Case for Metal-Air Batteries, such as Lithium-Air, Aluminum-Air, and Zinc-Air could be created, then it would be possible to reduce cost, increase energy density and possibly allow the automation of the assembly process to further reduce cost. Molded cell cases allow for the production of any quantity of product at reasonable costs. Most of the metal-air chemistries have reached their maximum energy with current materials. The limiting factor is the weight of the cell case. Yardney's new concept of one lightweight plastic case design that is capable of producing cell cases for several types of metal-air batteries attacks this specific problem. These innovative cases are suitable for quick automated assembly. In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, Yardney proposes to investigate this design concept using lightweight materials suitable for low cost and quick assembly. These cell cases will provide a high quality and lightweight energy storage device for military applications.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. JEFFREY PAINE
OSD 05-MT5      Awarded: 09AUG06
Title:Innovative Piezoelectric Air Pump Manufacturing Technology
Abstract:Dynamic Structures and Materials, LLC (DSM) proposes an innovative manufacturing technology for piezoelectric air pumps. The novel approach for manufacturing will take piezoelectric pumps, which have been generally designed and manufactured using a hand intensive process, from a laboratory stage to a production ready stage. Bringing the piezoelectric pump to a production stage will make them valuable as compact, efficient and quiet air-flow pumps for the emerging fuel cell market. Piezoelectric drive pumps have significant advantages over conventional electromagnetic driven pump technologies in the area of weight, reliability and low acoustic signature. The pump design will gain its "smarts" by incorporating an on board micro-controller to coordinate the pumping control and monitor flow output. The manufacturing improvements will focus on less expensive machining and production methods for compact flexure based mechanisms and assembly methods for reducing the hand intensive processes used in traditional piezoelectric device assembly.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Brad Fiebig
OSD 05-MT5      Awarded: 05SEP06
Title:A Low Power, Low Noise, Electrochemically Driven Air Pump for Portable Fuel Cell Systems
Abstract:Lynntech proposes to develop a low power, low noise, electrochemically driven air pump for portable fuel cell systems. Air delivery is achieved using a dual-diaphragm pump actuated via Lynntech's highly energy efficient electrochemical pump. In Phase I a prototype pump will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of a five-fold reduction in size and weight over conventional air pumps. Operation in cold environments will also be demonstrated. In Phase II fully functional air pumps will be developed, demonstrated, and delivered for third party integration and testing.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-6968
Dr. Jerry Martin
OSD 05-MT5      Awarded: 16AUG06
Title:Turboblower optimized for man-portable fuel cells
Abstract:Mesoscopic Devices proposes to develop an innovative fuel cell air delivery system that is smaller, 50% more efficient than competing approaches and produces less than one-quarter of the noise of conventional diaphragm compressors. Advanced air delivery systems using our approach will reduce the size of portable power systems and increase efficiency through reductions in parasitic power draw and increases in stack performance. Advances in warfighter's capabilities are being driven by enhanced electronics which require power levels that can best be supplied by fuel cell generators. Our advanced air delivery system will reduce the size, increase the efficiency and reduce the noise of these generators. Phase I will demonstrate feasibility through advanced component modeling and hardware demonstration. We will also evaluate manufacturing options in Phase I to provide a low-cost path to commercialization for military and consumer applications.

PAR TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1000 Lucas Way, Suite B
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-4533
Mr. Tim Michalski
OSD 05-MT5      Awarded: 21SEP06
Title:Lightweight Air Pumps/Blowers For Man Portable Fuel Cells
Abstract:Fuel Cell technology is making great strides in terms of efficiency and size and may soon replace the battery in portable power source applications. However, there are issues in the balance of plant surrounding the fuel cell stack that must be resolved before the technology can fulfill its potential. Specifically, traditional electric motor driven pumps are limited in terms of miniaturization and power efficiency; have life spans that fall far short of the fuel cell they support; and do not integrate well into small packages. PAR Technologies, LLC proposes that a piezoceramic based technology is a superior choice for fuel cell balance of plant applications. Unencumbered by the physical requirements of a rotor, windings, shafts, and bearings, piezoceramic air pumps occupy a fraction of the volume required by traditional devices and can be readily integrated into a variety of packaging possibilities. PAR's proprietary RLPT (Ruggedized Laminated Piezo) technology lends significantly increased efficiency when compared to any other solution and has a reliability that is measured in terms of billions of cycles with an MTTF over 100,000 hours. PAR Technologies, Inc. specializes in advanced Piezo Applications Research using its proprietary line of high performance Ruggedized Laminated Piezo (RLPT) actuators.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-6968
Dr. Joseph Poshusta
OSD 05-MT6      Awarded: 26SEP06
Title:Highly integrated reformer and SOFC power source for UUVs
Abstract:Mesoscopic Devices will demonstrate a novel approach to an integrated reformer, SOFC stack, and system design that will make fuel cell generators practical for unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) applications. The new design will greatly reduce overall system complexity while simultaneously maximizing system efficiency and minimizing size. Simplicity, efficiency, and size are all critical parameters for UUV power generators that must be reliable and simple to use at sea while also achieving aggressive energy density goals. Preliminary system modeling indicates that the proposed approach will exceed an energy density of 400 W-h/L, and may reach beyond 550 W-h/L. This energy density, which includes the oxidant and storage system, is made possible by the expected high system efficiency of 42% and compact generator design. Phase I will prove technical feasibility by demonstrating key fabrication methods and operating performance of a subscale system based on the new technology.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2349
Dr. Gokhan Alptekin
OSD 05-MT6      Awarded: 11AUG06
Title:Novel Fuel Reformer for Undersea Applications
Abstract:The major drawback to the use of fuel cells as electric generators in unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) is their inability to directly use battlefield fuels. In order to efficiently use heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., JP-8, diesel, dodecane) in an air independent environment, the fuel must first be reformed to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas stream in a highly energy intensive process which is inherently inefficient. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a novel fuel processor that allows the heat generated in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks to be utilized to drive the endothermic steam reforming process. Due to the better heat management by coupling the reformer with the SOFC stacks, TDA's fuel processor operates very efficiently and minimizes the amount of fuel and oxidant storage needed to support the operation of the fuel cell. In Phase I, we will carry out a comprehensive design of a novel fuel processor that could convert dodecane and JP8 (with the proper desulfurization option) to a synthesis gas mixture that could run a 3 kWe SOFC. We will also demonstrate the key aspects of the proposed technology in bench-scale.

BOSTON-POWER, INC.
2200 West Park Drive, Suite 320
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 366-0885
Dr. Sherman Zeng
OSD 05-MT7      Awarded: 12SEP06
Title:Rechargeable Battery Manufacturing Improvements
Abstract:A new manufacturing step is proposed which produces improved cathode electrodes for Li-ion batteries. This process enables fabrication of high density electrodes. The high density electrodes are implemented into Li-ion batteries that have improved capacity, rate capability, and superior life compared to state-of-art Li-ion batteries used in the industry today.

BOUNDLESS CORP.
2500 Central Avenue, Suite L
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9029
Dr. John Olson
OSD 05-MT7      Awarded: 06SEP06
Title:Novel Manufacturing Process for High Power Laminated Lithium-Ion Batteries
Abstract:Boundless proposes to show the feasibility of an entirely new manufacturing process to enable efficient long-run or short-run production of a completely new, high-power, low-cost, lithium-ion polymer battery. Boundless will work with Lithium Technology Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of adapting existing battery manufacturing equipment to permit efficient short-run production and rapid run-to-run product changeover. The new battery incorporates only the best characteristics of lithium-ion polymer batteries and liquid-electrolyte cells: low cost, flexible lightweight packaging, flat profile for optimal thermal transfer and multi-cell stacking efficiency, laminated construction for simple scaling of size and form factor, exceptional ionic conductivity (high power), wide operating temperature range and long cycle life. The new process will produce batteries with standard liquid electrolytes and industry-standard lithium-ion electrodes (carbon anodes, lithium/metal oxide cathodes) laminated together using Boundless' novel high-porosity polymeric separator material. It requires no costly and problematic extractions or gellification steps. Unlike spot-tacking lamination techniques, power is maximized since none of the electrode/separator area is sacrificed, and 80%+ porous separator increases high-rate capability in lithium-ion cells to three or more times that of cells with commercial separators. The low-cost process may be readily adapted for use with standard industry fabrication equipment.

CONCORDE BATTERY CORP.
2009 San Bernardino Road
West Covina, CA 91790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 884-5370
Dr. David G. Vutetakis
OSD 05-MT7      Awarded: 15SEP06
Title:Plating System for Lightweight Valve-Regulated Lead Acid Batteries
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is to develop and demonstrate a pilot-scale lead plating process to make lightweight grids for valve-regulated lead acid aircraft batteries. The lightweight grids consist of an aluminum core that is plated with a thin layer of lead or lead-tin alloy. The objective of Phase I is to determine the technical and economic merits of alternate manufacturing methods that are capable of producing grids of the required quality and quantity. A manufacturing capability equivalent to 25 batteries per day will be targeted for the pilot-scale operation. This capacity is sufficient to meet the near term demand of military aircraft that currently use VRLA batteries. The preferred manufacturing method will be selected and detailed in Phase I and will serve as the basis for follow-on work in Phase II.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0530
Dr. Robert C. McDonald
OSD 05-MT7      Awarded: 06SEP06
Title:Rapid Method for Producing Uniform Lithium Ion Anodes for Low Production Demand
Abstract:A novel, cost effective method of manufacturing thin, very uniform anodes for Lithium Ion Battery electrodes in limited production quantities will be developed and demonstrated. The effort will focus on: 1) decreasing processing time; 2) reducing material waste in small lot sizes; 3) lower investment cost for equipment used in low production volumes; 4) improving electrode uniformity of thickness and composition. The last objective is intended to improve cycling performance of extended cycle life by eliminating local areas of excessive charge or discharge, due to imbalance of active materials. The proposed method provides better separation of active material particles in the electrode matrix, so that each particle is fully wetted with electrolyte and in contact with conductive carbon particles to reduce internal resistance and insure that all active material is utilized in charge/discharge cycles. The method is scalable and can be adapted to batch production of different electrode sizes.

MAXPOWER, INC.
141 Christopher Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 256-4575
Mr. Frank Cassel
OSD 05-MT7      Awarded: 08SEP06
Title:Rechargeable Battery Manufacturing Improvements
Abstract:Current Li-ion technology with respect to its electrochemistry and manufacturing technique is still LiCoO2-based and packaged in cylindrical configuration popularly known as the "18650" cell. For larger cell sizes ranging from 10-100Ah, traditional parallel plate cell stacking technique is the most common cell assembly technique. In this Phase I project, MaxPower intends to introduce a fan-folding cell assembly concept and bring to it to a finalized design using an electrochemical system that would allow a direct comparison between this assembly system and the system currently developed for pilot scale manufacturing. In a parallel task, MaxPower will also develop an electrochemical system with greater inherent stability than the current lithium ion systems by building a limited baseline database using cells containing Li4Ti5O12 and a Li1.11Ni0.37Co0.18Mn0.37O2 as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. This approach will produce a design for an automated machine that will be able to produce cells at an increased rate with built in flexibility as well as a lithium ion system that has a greater margin of safety on the cell level.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Juan Sepulveda
OSD 05-MT8      Awarded: 01AUG06
Title:High Efficiency, Lightweight, Anode-Supported, Intermediate Temperature SOFC for Undersea Applications
Abstract:This Phase 1 SBIR OSD project proposes the development and testing of an anode-supported intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (ACN AS-IT-SOFC) that exhibits high electrochemical efficiency, high degree of fuel utilization (reformed JP-8, diesel, or dodecane), and low operating temperature characteristics intended for undersea applications or other commercial users. The proposed cell design is fuelled by in-situ reformed fuel like JP-8 or diesel and operates at a lower temperature of 600-800C (as compared to 800-1000C for conventional SOFC cells), at 0.55 V, 4.60 amp/cm2, and produces a power density of 2.5 W/cm2. The unit cell design is light resulting in cell stack configuration that produces 2 kW/kg requiring approximately 1 kW/L, including fuel and oxidant supplies as well as balance of plant components. Reliable cell performance is intended to endure at least 10,000 hours of operation before a major overhaul is required. The ACN AS-IT-SOFC technology to be developed is intended for quick scale up to plant-scale production after Phase II project execution. The innovative design for the ACN AS-IT-SOFC fuel cell makes use of a highly conductive porous anode manufactured using MER's PCM technology, a highly ionic conductor electrolyte, and a very efficient cathode.

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 530-4987
Dr. Joon-Ho Koh
OSD 05-MT8      Awarded: 18AUG06
Title:Interconnect Coating of Planar SOFC Stacks for Undersea Applications
Abstract:The development of an effective coating technology is proposed to be applied for planar SOFC stacks. In Phase I, a short stack with coated interconnects will be tested and compared to an identical stack with uncoated interconnects. Several coating methods will be evaluated. With the proposed coating strategy and the established SOFC technologies, a durable 1-3 kW SOFC system will be developed.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-6968
Dr. Joseph Poshusta
OSD 05-MT8      Awarded: 26SEP06
Title:Highly integrated SOFC power source for UUVs
Abstract:Mesoscopic Devices will demonstrate a novel approach to an integrated reformer, SOFC stack, and system design that will make fuel cell generators practical for unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) applications. The new design will greatly reduce overall system complexity while simultaneously maximizing system efficiency and minimizing size. Simplicity, efficiency, and size are all critical parameters for UUV power generators that must be reliable and simple to use at sea while also achieving aggressive energy density goals. Preliminary system modeling indicates that the proposed approach will exceed an energy density of 400 W-h/L, and may reach beyond 550 W-h/L. This energy density, which includes the oxidant and storage system, is made possible by the expected high system efficiency of 42% and compact generator design. Phase I will prove technical feasibility by demonstrating key fabrication methods and operating performance of a subscale system based on the new technology.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Matheos Kazantzidis
OSD 05-NC1      Awarded: 28JUL06
Title:Systematic Generation of Smarter Keys for Rapidly Deployable Authentication
Abstract:The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is seeking to research and develop mechanisms and systems for providing inter-operable, secure, dynamic authentication of individuals, systems, devices and processes in the tactical coalition environment. Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop an entirely new generic mechanism that has the capability to, construct appropriate in real-time, keys that can be tightly coupled to a security policy, an access control, or a system/human entity. This means that a single key can be used in an authentication protocol and be provided through current protocols, however, its authentication does not have to through a central certifying authority or a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) of certifying authorities. The system can be used during a tactical coalition mission in mobile and non-mobile networks., and we call it "Smarter Key".

MAXIM SYSTEMS
1615 Murray Canyon Road, Suite 400
San Diego, CA 92108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 574-2274
Mr. Tai Seibert
OSD 05-NC1      Awarded: 01AUG06
Title:Mission-oriented Authentication in a Multi-Domain Security Environment
Abstract:Using Phase I SBIR funding, MAXIM Systems will perform a comprehensive study of identity management and authentication products to determine ideal solutions for the problems associated with Mission-oriented Authentication (MOA). MOA is a common problem in any environment where users, systems, devices, or processes are authenticated on one domain, but must get controlled information from another. Traditional solutions of using a common centralized directory of user privileges limits scalability, while a decentralized authentication approach of mutual trust between domains does not allow new users or systems to join in a dynamic way because of the uncertainty of their credentials. Problems of this nature arise within most every coalition warfare environment, particularly when users or systems from different host nations must share classified information in often unpredictable ways to accomplish their mission goals. The same types of problems occur in the commercial world with supply chain networks and other collaborative environments involving proprietary or trade secret information. As part of this work, MAXIM will identify best of breed technologies and develop a roadmap for an ideal multi and cross domain MOA solution and associated architecture using current technologies to the maximum degree possible.

REFERENTIA SYSTEMS, INC.
550 Paiea Street, Suite #236
Honolulu, HI 96819
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 423-1900
Stacey Anfuso
OSD 05-NC1      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:Cross Enclave Authentication Service (CEAS)
Abstract:A new approach is needed for effectively addressing the fundamental security requirement of authentication within a multi-national environment. The Cross Enclave Authentication Service (CEAS) will be secure, based upon the principle of `least privilege', with enforcement through discretionary and mandatory access controls (DAC and MAC). Technically, CEAS will be interoperable with a variety of credential identifiers and directory service mechanisms, and will be based upon an approach that will be acceptable to international partner coalitions. The solution defined within this proposal will allow users, devices and processes to be identified and authenticated in a multi-national mission oriented context based upon security clearance levels, releasability compartments and operational roles. Referentia Systems Incorporated (Referentia) and Sigaba propose to develop this system using the federated authentication architecture combined with the multi-level secure design. These concepts combined will enable US forces and their coalition partners to communicate securely and selectively based upon each user's clearance, role and need to know within the coalition enclave. The security roles assigned to an individual, process or device may be dynamically changed during a mission only by an authorized system administrator.

ASIER TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5068 West Plano Parkway, Suite 336
Plano, TX 75093
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 738-8579
Mr. Kevin Henson
OSD 05-NC2      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Cryptographic Search Engines for Sharing Data Across Multiple Security Domains
Abstract:Asier Technology is proposing an automated method for tagging, searching and sharing sensitive information across multiple security domains. This approach centers on a cryptographically enabled search engine and an automated method of adding XML meta-data to existing files to encrypting and store them securely. Off-the-shelf search engine and display software would be modified to cryptographically enforce information assurance policies end-to-end, across all security domains. In essence, an authorized and authenticated user would enter search criteria and receive results based on his or her role and responsibility. Different people would receive different results with the same search criteria. The sensitive material remains encrypted with a high degree of granularly as it is stored and processed; it is only decrypted when it is displayed on an authorized user's screen. Asier plans to leverage existing search engine and context sensitive data-mining algorithms and combine them with sound INFOSEC strategies to build a cross-platform system capable of handling the information retrieval and sharing needs of disparate agencies securely. We believe that is a near term solution to horizontal data fusion problems.

CYBERNEUTICS, INC.
503 Mountain Lake Avenue
Pearisburg, VA 24134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 242-3386
Ms. Patti Craig-Hart
OSD 05-NC2      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Just Enough Data Interoperability (JEDI)
Abstract:U.S. Combatant Commanders require seamless exchange of operational and intelligence information between combined forces, alliance partners, and the joint combatant commands in order to prosecute an expanding mission spectrum within a complex and dynamic global battlespace. The goal of confidential, multi-level information sharing over a single network for multiple communities of interest (COI), however, remains elusive. To address this shortfall, Cyberneutics proposes Just Enough Data Interoperability (JEDI) which instantiates a human-computer division of labor that combines network hardware, application software, and warfighter tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) for minimizing information latency while safeguarding operational and intelligence information from unauthorized disclosure. On the information technology side, JEDI is a template-based architecture for sharing just enough data, but no more, between diverse groups in a cooperative endeavor. This template supports plug and play integration of COTS and GOTS network and security functionality and scales to encompass separate, simultaneous COIs across common network transport where the owner of the information retains the control of access. On the human process side, JEDI concepts of operations (CONOPS) and their component TTPs are emergent phenomena, rather than restrictive and inefficient planning artifacts developed for specific missions and then modified haphazardly in time of crisis to suit particular circumstances.

ENKIA CORP.
75 5th St NW , Suite 354
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(866) 468-8882
Dr. Mark Devaney
OSD 05-NC2      Awarded: 02MAY06
Title:Intelligent Assistant For Just Enough Data Sharing Across Multiple Security Domains
Abstract:While recent efforts in cross-domain information sharing have developed platforms and infrastructure for information sharing, they do not address the question of the content of the information that is being shared. This project will develop the latter capability: identifying information that is (i) relevant and (ii) sharable. This is a key problem in "just enough" data sharing, especially in crisis situations when there is not enough time available for human users to make this determination. We propose an innovative approach to semi-manual and automatic "information review" that can: (i) identify documents that should/shouldn't be shared, given the topical relevance of those parts to the users and task context, and (ii) identify parts of documents that should/should not be shared, based on security level of the domain and potential users. Our approach will enable development of an "intelligent information sharing assistant" (IISA) which will help cooperating groups share information in an operational setting without cognitive overload.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. T. J. Goan
OSD 05-NC2      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:A User Centered and Adaptive Approach to Sharing Just Enough Data
Abstract:We propose an innovative approach to filling the need for tools supporting safe sharing in high OPTEMPO situations. A major objective for our Just Enough Data (JED) sharing system is supporting the expression of policy in a form that the user will find natural to the task while also being executable. More specifically, JED will utilize a core (fairly static) policy, as well as a dynamic operational policy which maintains the rules, exceptions, and temporary concepts that facilitate the task of human disclosure officers. Users will be able to specify portions of the executable policy that can be relied upon to make fully-automated information release decisions, as well as control the manner in which this policy will facilitate human review. The user interface will also provide for in-place policy adaptation - allowing users to further optimize sharing as well as provide feedback that can be used to refine certain elements of the policy interpretation logic. This piece-meal and adaptive approach to sharing automation will be key to establishing trust with human users while also increasing the rate of safe sharing. Phase I prototype development will provide a solid foundation for complete implementation in Phase II.

ASSETT, INC.
8616 Phoenix Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 365-7379
Mr. Dave McNichol
OSD 05-NC3      Awarded: 28MAR06
Title:Guaranteed Data Integrity in the GIG-NCES Environment
Abstract:Our approach is to merge two specific areas of our team's expertise to address the SBIR topic of guaranteed data integrity. The first exploits our knowledge and expertise gained in our IA work on DOD systems including the Defense Message System. The second utilizes and extends the foundational work accomplished by the Federated Trust Research Group (FTRG) in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Virginia. The FTRG is currently in year four of an on-going project to determine whether a web services approach is an effective technique for implementing the privacy and security requirements attendant to medical data in accordance with federal HIPAA regulations for multi-domain, multi-enterprise, medical networks supporting e-healthcare applications. To answer that question, UVa's FTRG has developed a security architecture that uses a standards-based approach, SAML, for authenticating users (humans and software), and XACML for resolving authorization issues. This IA framework is breaking new ground to develop effective techniques to achieve federation (trust exchange across trust domain boundaries such as different organizations). A prototype that implements these core functions of authentication, authorization, and federation has been developed. This research will extend these techniques to support guaranteeing data integrity in the GIG/NCO environment.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Michael Lee
OSD 05-NC3      Awarded: 23MAR06
Title:Data Integrity in Network Environments and Storage (DINES)
Abstract:In this SBIR program, CFDRC will develop and implement an innovative, multi-tiered data integrity software system named DINES to guarantee data integrity in the GIG-NCES environment. DINES uses digital signatures to guarantee the integrity of the data and meta-data, and provides mechanisms to optimize performance for permanent storage, network communication, and streaming data. DINES addresses deficiencies in current systems such as 1) the trust in signatures compromised in the future, 2) the lack of necessary meta-data information, 3) substantial network overhead, and 4) the use of expensive cryptographic operations. The unique, multi-tiered nature of DINES allows the integrity of data to be guaranteed. By employing the advanced Meta-data Request Protocol and using XML formatted meta-data, DINES ensures extensibility for future meta-data requirements. In Phase I, feasibility will be shown by implementing and testing the basic components and showing that DINES maintains data integrity in networks and storage systems. Existing data integrity systems will be examined to determine additional features to include in the Phase II prototype. In Phase II, the entire system will be designed and implemented by extending the best practices discovered in Phase I. Also in Phase II, new components will be added, such as a GUI. The completed system will be tested and benchmarked using realistic network applications.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary Sikora
OSD 05-NC3      Awarded: 23MAR06
Title:Guaranteed Data Integrity in the GIG-NCES Environment
Abstract:Our approach to the problem is to utilize IO metadata to convey provenance information. The JBI Metadata Repository then becomes the capturing system for provenance data. Reasoning capability becomes trivial following the capture of provenance data. Our pedigree system is modeled to allow for rapid formulaic reasoning. The trust management framework, coupled with the IMS Portal, provides the foundation for an Information Management System. Thru the IMS Portal the administrator may set trust levels of specific publishers to higher and lower levels. Publishers may be rewarded for providing reliable information and penalized when exceeding a level of unreliable publications. Hence publishers are discouraged from publishing inaccurate data which leads to the promotion of positive behavior in the JBI environment. Collaboration is implicitly supported by the trust framework. IO consumers will be able to utilize published data from unknown sources with the reliability that they require for their projects.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Arthur Keen
OSD 05-NC4      Awarded: 25SEP06
Title:Situational Awareness using Graph Evaluation (SAGE)
Abstract:Current situational awareness methods on DoD networks focus on collecting ever-increasing amounts of network generated data while the resources to analyze it remain relatively fixed. The deployment of the Global Information Grid (GIG) will exacerbate this problem in expanding the size of defense networks by orders of magnitude while simultaneously increasing the mission criticality of these networks. In an attempt to address this problem, defense organizations have purchased commercial Security Information Management systems (SIMs) which collect and normalize the alert data into a relational database for further analysis. This convenient data organization has not increased situation awareness of monitored networks. There are no automated processes that can take advantage of these stores of collected information. Our solution, Situational Awareness using Graph Evaluation (SAGE), uses Social Network Analysis based statistical analysis, Graph Pattern Matching, and security domain ontologies in an innovative way to take advantage of terabyte sized SIMs to provide actionable intelligence and situational awareness. We will leverage our Army Research Lab funded Graph Matching Intrusion Detection System for detecting tactically coordinated attacks, as well as our Air Force Research Lab funded NETWAR for detecting strategic coordinated attacks and the DARPA funded TMODS project for detecting Terrorist Modus Operandi.

TRINETRA, LLC
1015 Grand Concourse #4H
Bronx, NY 10452
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 685-3876
Mr. Sentil Selliah
OSD 05-NC4      Awarded: 25SEP06
Title:Mining Extant Security-Relevant Information to Yield GIG Situational Awareness and Actionable Intelligence
Abstract:Mining information produced by network and security devices is a vital component of any security operation. Over the years number of security devices and network services/devices that spit out information has significantly increased. Unfortunately, the methods to mine this data to extract meaningful information has remained unchanged, mostly focusing on intrusion detection systems and firewalls. The use of correlation of fusion of alerts usually yields no useful information about a network or the state of hosts that make a network. We focus on two major goals. First, we will focus on methods to identify the roles-of-hosts in a network using the normalized data source. Out of lot of noisy entries running this algorithm will classify hosts into a variety of categories, such as workstations, web servers, DNS servers, NATs, etc. Secondly, we will create heuristics and algorithms to detect zombies in large networks using the data source. This algorithm will be able to identify zombie-like behaviors within a network which can then be verified out of band. In both algorithms will also work on on-line mode for streaming data so that security personnel can monitor change of behavior of a host in real-time.

ASPIRIN SOFTWARE, INC.
1799 Croner Avenue
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 325-2957
Mr. Brad Stone
OSD 05-NC5      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Advanced Network Architectures for Prioritized Operations
Abstract:A service-prioritized agent network provides a self-healing, self-organizing infrastructure suitable for managing large-scale networks and systems. Cooperating agents negotiate services to perform and protect, and re-organize proactively and reactively in response to failures and security threats. Distributed agents function autonomously but share a common goal set and plans.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Mr. Andrew Potter
OSD 05-NC5      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Active Resource Manager (ARM)
Abstract:The need for self-managing networks is readily apparent. As network systems become more vital to the organizational mission, they grow larger, faster, more complex, and more difficult to protect. However, developing a technology for effective self-management is challenging. The solution must have the ability to plan and carry out transitions from actual to desired state of the network within a complex, fluid environment. The proposed Active Resource Manager (ARM) will monitor and integrate data from an extensible set of network management resources, cyber-defense sensors, and executable policies. An Event Synthesis Agent will use fast graph comparison algorithms for consolidation and classification of network events. The consolidated events will be used by ARM Reasoning Agents for generation of Response Specifications. These Response Specifications will be used by the SNMP Interface Agent to define the executable commands for altering the network state. Agent marshalling will provide an evolvable problem solving process by means of intelligent selection of ARM Reasoning Agents, whose capabilities may be nominally redundant but whose relative strengths and weakness may vary. In the Phase I SBIR, Sentar will develop a detailed system design for self-managed networks and provide a demonstration of the response generation process in a lab environment.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 969-3774
Mr. Charles Earl
OSD 05-NC5      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Advanced Network Architectures for Prioritized Operations
Abstract:When a network is global in size, the idea that it can be adequately monitored and adjusted in real time by a limited human staff of operators rapidly becomes obsolete. Future networks will require much more approaches that assume a high degree of fully automated prioritization, fault recovery, and security responses than is possible with current manually-intensive administration approaches. The need for more automated administration is further increased by the rapidly increasing convergence of voice, data, and other forms of communications onto a single network architecture. Automatically fault-tolerant network management strategies will be needed to allow dynamic prioritization based on mission priorities, and will need to support capabilities such as self-healing and self-organization to accomplish rapid, effective automated management of resources. Our goal in this Phase I project is to design and prototype the core features of a system supporting these features.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Arthur Keen
OSD 05-NC6      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Security Policy Enforcement and Compliance System (SPECS)
Abstract:While the advantages of the Global Information Grid (GIG) cannot be overstated, the challenge of maintaining security policies effectively is a daunting task. This huge network incorporates a diverse array of components and is designed to be highly dynamic and mobile. Asserting control over the GIG is critical to operational success yet is often too cumbersome via traditional means. Although systems exist for managing security policy on enterprise-scale networks, they tend to assume relatively static network configurations in which updates are deployed largely manually. Along with being lengthy, labor-intensive operations, such reconfigurations can misinterpret or overlook governing security policies and controls, leaving portions of the network vulnerable to attack. We propose the Security Policy Enforcement and Compliance System (SPECS), a framework for managing security policy on super-sized, diverse and dynamic networks. SPECS automates policy management by encoding policies in an ontology to facilitate automated enforcement given operational requirements. By linking policies to the controls that enforce them, SPECS can rapidly deploy existing policies into new or changing operational environments, and it can update existing environments in response to changes in the policies themselves. This end-to-end modeling also enables SPECS to quickly assess compliance for assured levels of network security.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. David Rosenthal
OSD 05-NC6      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Tool Support for Objective-based Network Policy Decisions
Abstract:The fast moving dynamics of future network centric warfare, i.e. changes in capability (significant gain or loss of infrastructure), changes in mission, changes in (coalition) partners and their roles, and responses to network attacks require the ability for rapid system reconfiguration. To avoid interruptions in the missions, it is critical for network managers to understand the impact of the decisions they are making. ATC-NY and Architecture Technology Corporation will develop PolicyProjector to ensure network managers have maximum visibility into the impact of their decisions. PolicyProjector will help network managers to assure that priority activities will be sustained, performance objectives will be met, security will be adequately controlled, and changes will not lead to unacceptable limitations on future configuration changes (e.g., inability to add a new coalition partner).

CYBER DEFENSE AGENCY, LLC
3601 43rd Street South
Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 789-0559
Mr. Dan Thomsen
OSD 05-NC6      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:ESPANOLA - Evolutionary Security Policy Analysis Language
Abstract:Protecting critical information assets requires more than a best effort, it requires proof that the assets are protected. Proof requires formal analysis relying on solid foundations of mathematical analysis. However, field operators not trained in formal methods are responsible for managing the dynamic enterprise wide systems and ensuring the policy is correct. An integrated system is required that combines an easy to use paradigm with automatic verification of policy changes. Our solution called ESPANOLA creates simple to use policy objects for field operators. Each policy object contains the verification and mission requirements necessary to ensure any changes are automatically verified. This system can then be used to very policy changes in response to an attack, and automatically strength the security policy when the system is not under attack.

ISX CORP.
760 Paseo Camarillo, Ste. 401
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 581-2019
Mr. David Van Brackle
OSD 05-NC6      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Generic, Risk-Adaptive Security Policy (GRASP)
Abstract:Generic, Risk-Adaptive Security Policy (GRASP) will provide operators with a policy-based mechanism for managing security within a dynamic networking environment. GRASP will provide the means to specify, deconflict, and maintain policy, to apply, monitor, and enforce policy and to analyze and simulate the effects of policy. GRASP will achieve this by developing:  A Semantically-rich policy representation  An intuitive graphical user interface  Logically-rigorous tools for policy analysis, disclosure, and deconfliction  Empirical tools for policy analysis, disclosure, and deconfliction  Rigorous enforcement of policy over heterogeneous operational environments  Context-sensitive policy adaptation  Policy provenance and versioning tools

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Logan Gilbert
OSD 05-NC7      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:Geographical Interdependency Awareness Tool (GIAT)
Abstract:21st Century Technologies, Inc. (21CT), leveraging our expertise and experience in threat, vulnerability, and criticality assessments throughout the Infrastructure Network, proposes GIAT, the Geographical Interdependency Awareness Tool, which will enable understanding interdependencies among critical infrastructure assets. A unique innovation in GIAT is the ability to analyze and assess interdependencies against the entire infrastructure network composed of physical, logical, and cyber assets with innovations in knowledge representation based on ontologies, graph pattern matching, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and reliability based simulation. To gain situational awareness in the overall infrastructure, we will resolve two major issues. First, truly understanding interdependencies involves not only inference, but prediction. This predictive capability relies on both manipulating and fusing information, using multiple analysis techniques. Secondly, due to the difference between the infrastructures and assets they comprise, GIAT uses an underlying knowledge representation strategy that lends itself to multiple analysis techniques, specifically for the type of information at hand. As a result, our proposed GIAT architecture features the major innovation of combining simulation, knowledge representation, reasoning, statistical analysis, data fusion, web services, pattern matching, and visualization to provide the level of analysis, robustness, and traceability required to truly understand infrastructure dependencies.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 754-4920
Dr. Scott O'Hare
OSD 05-NC7      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:Situational awareness of infrastructure dependencies
Abstract:A computer network is vulnerable to failure from many directions. Current work on vulnerability analysis focuses on computer network attack, in the form of viruses, malware, and hacking. However, the network is also vulnerable to failure from external forces, especially from the loss of infrastructure upon which the network depends for its operation. One obvious example of such a dependency is the electrical power grid, but the dependencies tree quickly grows broad. Other examples include the placement of critical network assets (such as a data center) in a geologically unstable area, or a flood plain. Dependencies can be second or third order (or more); for example, if electrical power is lost then the network becomes dependent on diesel fuel supply for its generators. The network manager is currently unable to easily identify all of the network's infrastructure dependencies, and is therefore ill equipped to properly plan for - and manage through - disruption in that infrastructure. We describe the design of a graphical display system that combines the logical network structure with the geospatial realities within which that structure exists, to provide the network manager with total situational awareness of the systems and infrastructure upon which the network depends for its survival.

CARBON PROJECT, INC.
47 Westwood Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 491-9543
Mr. Jeff Harrison
OSD 05-NC7      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:Mapping Interdependencies Among Infrastructures through a Geospatial Software Objects-based Architecture
Abstract:The proposed approach enables the physical and logical mapping/analysis of network behavior by treating each node in the cyber infrastructure as a logical sensor and relating this information to physical infrastructures using embedded geospatial capabilities. Logical sensors on network nodes collect real-time information and transmit this data via open-geospatial XML formats to control-nodes, similar to approaches used in other solutions such as weather collection where different weather-monitoring systems transmit location and current conditions to a system that uses that data for monitoring and forecasting. Key to this approach is separation of data collection from analysis and use. Data collection must be open and robust to support current and future systems, and also scalable/augmentable to support future growth. To address these requirements we use an open-geospatial XML as a base language to transmit data, metadata and relevant geospatial-information and provide new tools to control sensor-nodes, allowing control units to modify sensor-node behavior for new requirements without replacing the software platform. The system supports analysis functions that "train" over time and learn "baseline" interdependencies of cyber-physical infrastructures so anomalies can be rapidly detected and the system can learn to forecast geographic implications of malfunctions, all the while learning and adapting through experience.

ALIDADE, INC.
31 Bridge Street
Newport, RI 02840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 367-0040
Mr. Jeffrey Cares
OSD 05-NC8      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Network Visualization and Statistical Analysis Toolkit
Abstract:The overall objective of this effort is to address a nagging void in the study of Information Age Warfare: there is no coherent set of tools that military analysts can use to visualize, measure, understand and asses networked military systems. While there has been a great deal of effort expended to develop tools in academia (and to a limited extent for commercial business), these products tend to be one-off, stove-piped computer routines that are not platform independent, have dissimilar input and output data structures, usually require advanced mathematical training or are not tailored to provide answers to the types of questions that warfare analysts might ask. Phase I of this effort will research and design a network visualization and statistical analysis tool for development in Phase II, if awarded.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Benjamin L. Burnett
OSD 05-NC8      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Network Situational Awareness
Abstract:The ever increasing size and dynamics of networks like the GIG-NCES communications network, makes situational awareness, intrusion detection and network monitoring very difficult. Dynamic and evolving networks provide unique challenges because the location, number and addresses of the nodes in the network are constantly changing. A single tool is needed to provide administrators and users with a situational picture of the network. This tool will need to provide various real-time and offline views of the network to allow administrators to quickly and more efficiently see problems and attacks to quickly respond to prevent and minimize consequences. To address these challenges Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will design the NetVSA (Network Visual Situational Awareness) toolkit as an innovative, dynamic visualization toolkit. The key innovations and benefits of NetVSA are: 1) Allows users to manipulate the visualization of the data; 2) Designed for evolving and dynamic networks; 3) Provides an extendable distributed hierarchical monitoring and collection system.

FETCH TECHNOLOGIES
2041 Rosecrans Avenue, Suite 245
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-9849
Dr. Sofus A. Macsassy
OSD 05-NC8      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Network Situational Awareness
Abstract:The system we propose to design and develop, GraphExplorer, will extend previously developed network learning toolkit algorithms to enable a user to interactively explore hypotheses about the structure of large graphs. The system will be an interactive tool, where a user will be able to explore a graph by having the system identify and highlight parts of the graph that are of interest. The user can then choose to collapse the graph using various transformations or guide the system to find other patterns that might be of interest. Generally, machine learning (ML) tools for network learning are not interactive and do not allow the user to explore the data. ML tools (including both supervised and un-supervised systems) are often designed to be run once per data set and return answers in the form of predictions or clusters. The system we propose to build will put the user in the driver's seat and allow for interactive exploration of the data. To this end, we propose to design and apply statistical machine learning technology for detection of groups and patterns within networked data to help better understand the information contained within the graph structure.

N-SPACE ANALYSIS
305 Winding Trail
Xenia, OH 45385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 376-4049
Dr. Katherine L. McCreight
OSD 05-NC8      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:Network Situational Awareness
Abstract:We propose a network visualization technique that uses multiple, meaningful dimensions, displayed in a series of projections that simplify the display while retaining latent information. This multidimensional system simplifies the visual display in ways that enhance comprehension, enable analysis of the evolution of the network over time, and facilitate representation of uncertainty. Throughout, the system provides both algorithmic identification of complex network structures, and interactive visualization that enables discovery by the analyst. We show that the multidimensional approach is more useful than the traditional approach of placing nodes in accordance with their relationships with other nodes. Our use of information-bearing dimensions provides the analyst with meaningful visual context, enabling the visual interpretation of network structures and enabling better understanding of navigation through the network. While relationally organized displays coalesce conflicting or changing information, our use of time as a dimension allows us to retain information about previous states of the network, while our use of node collections helps us analyze uncertain and conflicting information.

VISINTUIT
280 Shuman Blvd., Suite 115
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 428-7538
Dr. T. Alan Keahey
OSD 05-NC8      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Qualitative Visualization for Network Situational Awareness
Abstract:In this project we propose novel internal and visual representations of dynamic and evolving networks that are both more scalable and intuitive than traditional representations. These representations are tuned to reflect the reality that most networks are not static over either time or topology, but rather they are complex time-varying entities that morph significantly with time. Our visual representations provide an "out of the box" solution to the age old problems of clutter and overlap that have plagued traditional network visualization efforts, and we provide a smoother more continuous representation that maps naturally to the human perceptual system. The target domain for our application is in situation awareness in net-centric military applications. We will enable the user to have a better awareness of the information within, and context provided by, the rich network environment. A key feature of our technology is the ability to effectively portray uncertainties within this environment.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Curt Wu
OSD 05-SP1      Awarded: 19SEP06
Title:System for Presenting and Investigating Design Alternatives and Rationales (SPIDAR)
Abstract:The primary source of the time and labor cost in redesigning complex systems is the lack of comprehension of the overall system's limitations and what the motivation is for its current design. Designers can understand limited subsets of the system but have difficulties understanding the system in totality. The end result is an inability to understand the effects of design changes on various attributes of the system. The solution to the above problem is a system that provides detailed insight into software design for software designers and maintainers by presenting high-level attributes in a meaningful manner. Specifically, the solution must specify relevant system attributes and their associated features, integrate rationale histories for the design with the software artifacts, so arguments for/against various design alternatives can be captured, and present the attributes in a manner that allows rapid comprehension and comparison. Charles River Analytics Inc. is pleased to submit this proposal to design and develop a System for Presenting and Investigating Design Alternatives and Rationales (SPIDAR). SPIDAR combines attribute extraction and presentation backed by design rationale built into a plugin tool that can be inserted into a development environment

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Michael McDougall
OSD 05-SP1      Awarded: 31AUG06
Title:Software Design Visualization
Abstract:Modern software projects are extremely complex systems. A small subprogram may require intense study to understand its intended functionality, yet even modest software applications have thousands of such subprograms. Assessing software quality is critical, but an engineer tasked with analyzing or modifying an unfamiliar software project is faced with a steep learning curve. We propose to survey visualization techniques for representing important software properties. The property we intend to focus on in Phase I is security. Effective visualization of security properties will be extremely valuable to developers and security auditors. We plan to leverage open visualization standards and our own proven analysis tools to experimentally assess the state of the art. We will implement a prototype security visualization tool based on the most promising techniques.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
OSD 05-SP1      Awarded: 05SEP06
Title:Information Retrieval Techniques for Software Design Visualization
Abstract:Large software systems typically comprise many components written in many different languages that communicate through complex interfaces. The code base will consist of a mixture of source code, configuration files, test vectors and other artifacts. Tools are needed to help software engineers understand the architecture of the software and the role of all of the components in the code base. We propose the development of a tool that will support a wide variety of software engineering activities, and which will eventually scale to tens of millions of lines of code. Our approach is to provide two different features: an intelligent search engine for the code base that uses latent semantic indexing, and a hierarchical visualization tool that will present clustered views of items in an intelligent and interactive manner. These seemingly disparate features will both use the same underlying mechanism: information retrieval techniques that compute statistical measures of similarity between documents. We will leverage our experience and capabilities in static analysis to adapt these techniques so that useful facts are extracted from the code base.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Dr. Marc Abrams
OSD 05-SP1      Awarded: 12SEP06
Title:Software Design Visualization
Abstract:We propose developing the Software Analysis through Visual Extraction (SAVE) tool, a visual programming and architecture plugin to Harmonia's Legacy Analysis Workbench (LAW). SAVE is specifically targeted at providing new functionality to model, visualize, and extract design artifacts and architectural components from complex, mixed language software. SAVE is designed to help developers extract design artifacts such as those required for compliance with the DoD (or C4ISR) Architecture Framework. The result of this extraction will be analyzed and organized by SAVE so that the developer can gain higher understanding and see immediately the impact of architectural changes to the execution of the system. The software is modeled behind the scenes in platform-independent XML, allowing us to design visualizations for the modeling language and to apply them to multiple implementation langugages. Our model is constructed by either translating existing software in mixed legacy languages into the XML modeling language, or building the model from scratch via interactive visualizations. Metrics are identified for evaluation. For this Phase I, specific SAVE visualizations are chosen to fit the needs of the sponsor, but the SAVE architecture is specifically designed to allow new visualizations to be developed and inserted at will.

SIMVENTIONS, INC.
11903 Bowman Dr, Suite 102
Fredericksburg, VA 22408
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 372-7727
Mr. Walter Ben Sisson
OSD 05-SP1      Awarded: 22SEP06
Title:Software Design Visualization
Abstract:The problems associated with analyzing large and complex software systems are well documented; it is often beyond a developer's ability to comprehend the system-level information for analysis and verification purposes. A common need is the ability to visualize the functional composition of a system and drill down to specific aspects of behavior through quick and efficient navigation. However, current software visualization tools, which rely on 2-D static models, are insufficient for supporting a real immersive experience of a system design and its behavior. The association between visualization techniques and abstraction of a software design in terms of functional models is a key to improving visualizations of complex design. This association capability will be offered through a visualization tool to be developed by SimVentions called Graphical Abstract Representation of Design (GARD), which uses Base Object Models (BOMs) to support the functional model mapping. SimVentions will develop GARD to address the issue of scalability through content rich 2-D/3-D environments in which a user may fully navigate visually across a hierarchy of BOMs representing the system. This environment will allow a developer to understand a wide breadth of aspects, such as timing, fault tolerance, reliability, security, and traceability before, during, and after execution.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL, P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Robert Dick
OSD 05-SP2      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Malicious Code Defuser
Abstract:Malicious software is an alarming threat - recent studies show: 80% of corporate computers are infected; 23% of surveyed companies reported deliberate malware downloads by employees; and 75% of the top 50 Internet worms were designed for identity theft. We identify three threat scenarios in defusing malware: (a) actual source code is available; (b) binary code is available but not source code; and (c) the payload has executed. In the first two cases, the objective is to defuse prior to any damage. In the latter case, defusing is a diagnostic "post-mortem", to interdict future damage. This proposal analyzes the technical issues surrounding the problem; describes the requirements for an effective solution; and identifies the technical challenges to reaching the solution. In and of itself, this proposal provides original research. We then lay out specific steps to create and demonstrate: (a) a program verifier to analyze source code for payloads and vulnerabilities; (b) a static analysis tool to analyze binary executables for payloads and vulnerabilities; (c) a virtual environment to safely run executables, allowing payloads to execute harmlessly; and (d) an analysis tool that examines system logs and disk images to automate post mortem analysis when payloads are executed on other systems.

ARIES DESIGN AUTOMATION, LLC
30 River Court, Suite 2301
Jersey City, NJ 07310
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 626-3192
Dr. Miroslav N. Velev
OSD 05-SP2      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Formal Methods for Malware Detection
Abstract:Our objective is to develop highly automatic and scalable formal methods for malware detection. Existing tools for malware detection operate by searching for pattern matches with respect to signatures of known malware, and can account for only limited variations in the malware. That makes these detectors generally incapable of identifying newly released malware. Furthermore, due to the short signatures used for most malware, and the inability of these detectors to account for many code obfuscations, i.e., code transformations that preserve the malicious behavior and produce code with a radically different structure, such malware detectors are virtually incapable of identifying most of the obfuscated variants of known malware. In this proposed research we will: 1) investigate formal methods for detection of malicious intent in binary code; 2) develop automatic formal techniques to detect obfuscations that are based on reordering of the memory accesses in known malware; 3) explore formal approaches to account for obfuscations that are based on replacing instructions with different instructions that have equivalent semantics; and 4) develop efficient translations to SAT of the Boolean formulas generated in formal detection of malware in order to enable our malware detection tool to run on commodity PCs with limited memory.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Mr. Steven Brueckner
OSD 05-SP2      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:EXploit And Malware INcubator (EXAMIN)
Abstract:To control the costs of software development of complex, critical military, government, and commercial applications, organizations are turning to outside specialty sub-contractors and COTS software. However, the uncertain pedigree of purchased software leads to the possible presence of exploitable vulnerabilities and malicious code that represent unacceptable security risks. To mitigate this threat, enterprises require tools capable of safely and dynamically detecting security problems in executable object code prior to deployment. To address this need, ATC-NY, Architecture Technology Corporation, and Lockheed Martin will create the EXploit And Malware INcubator (EXAMIN), a tool designed to assist in the safe triggering and detection of malicious code and vulnerabilities in binaries. EXAMIN will consist of two main components: (1) an isolated sandbox built using a virtual machine that is capable of simulating deployment environments, and (2) an instrumentation system that monitors an executable's activity inside the sandbox and builds profiles of its resource usage. EXAMIN will be a flexible and extensible platform capable of simulating a variety of environments and accommodating a variety of supporting tools.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. Arnaud Venet
OSD 05-SP2      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:PROTEUS: Protection Environment for Untrusted Software
Abstract:Current commercial techniques seek to extend syntactic detection mechanisms, since these are relatively fast and can be generic over a rich pattern language. However, malware writers use increasingly more sophisticated obfuscations. Generic pattern-matching techniques will no longer provide adequate protection. Polymorphic viruses (whose body is encrypted) are common in the wild, and metamorphic viruses (that have a different form with each reproduction) are becoming more common as virus writers seek to evade the enhanced detection capabilities of the best available anti-viral software. The code transformations that are used by malware writers are also becoming increasingly semantic, taking the meaning of the code into account rather than just the syntactic form. Consequently, it will be increasingly necessary to have customized algorithms for detecting each new malware artifact, a practice known as "algorithmic detection". An algorithmic detector is specialized to the semantic characterization of a malware artifact and is optimized for its detection. We propose to develop technology for modeling malware behavior (characteristics of a malware entity caught in the wild), and for automatically generating a customized detector from the malware model. The customized detector will include the static analysis capabilities of current commercial tools, but will be extended with semantic analysis.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Dr. Leigh Davis
OSD 05-SP2      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:The Digitial Microscope (DM)
Abstract:To address the critical issue of software defects and vulnerabilities in code, be it C, C++, Java or Visual Basic, Sentar proposes the Digital Microscope (DM). The DM simulates a native running environment in which a binary code can be encapsulated, analyzed, and tested for malefactor influence, as well as poor coding practices. The design of the DM will allow, for example, the testing of code through injection of timing mismatches, embedded codes, and buffer overflow attempts into the binary, all in a quarantined environment. It will also promote plug-and-play extensibility through the use of a multi-agent infrastructure for future enhancements such as security wrapper insertion, proof generation, and attack modeling and simulation. The resulting technology will substantially contribute to software vulnerability discovery and remediation by providing a comprehensive tool for validation of code safety prior to deployment.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. Allen Goldberg
OSD 05-SP3      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:TraceWare
Abstract:Our innovation is a test-case observation package, named TraceWare, based on a powerful temporal requirement monitoring language. We propose to develop a technology for generating execution traces from runs of an application, for accumulating such traces in persistent store, for efficiently analyzing the trace collection against user-provided specifications, and for extracting specifications automatically from the traces. Furthermore, we plan to augment this framework with a capability to visualize specifications and animate trace executions. Individually checking the validity of each trace of a collection encompasses the traditional notion of testing-based Verification & Validation (V&V). Analyzing collections of traces allows for more sophisticated cross cutting trace properties to be stated and verified. This includes such properties as test case coverage, average case performance, and general statistical properties. We shall inductively extract temporal properties that are true of each trace in the collection, but that have not been previously asserted as a property of the system. Extracting temporal specifications from traces yields a number of capabilities. It allows comparisons between runs of different versions of software; recording of nominal behavior, which can later be used for detection of faulty behavior; and users can examine the extracted properties and validate them against informal requirements.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary Sikora
OSD 05-SP3      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:Software Test Engineering: Analysis of Trace Semantics
Abstract:The Army Future Force will include emerging C2 systems which are far from being compatible with systems currently deployed in the Army, Joint, Multi-National and other government agencies. Our solution is a pluggable connector architecture, referred to herein as Ontological, Application-independent Translator System "OATS", where ontology disparities are quickly resolved because their semantic meaning are defined within a shared ontology which provides a multi-axis, drill-down capability to reason how syntactically disparate elements semantically correlate. Autonomous agents are used to build XML representations of the database, service and message data structures where inference engines are used for querying, checking, transforming and filtering information through a graphical representation that allows easy navigation and understanding of data structure element relationships.

SEMANTIC DESIGNS
12636 Research Blvd #C214
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 250-1018
Dr. Robert L. Akers
OSD 05-SP3      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:Software Test Engineering: Analysis of Trace Semantics
Abstract:This research will explore the development of an integrated software testing framework that enables source code instrumentation, test case extraction, analysis of test traces, symbolic reasoning about test traces and source code, algebraic specification of software behavior including specifications extracted from test traces, and validation of observed behavior against algebraic specifications. The infrastructure will support the collection and aggregation of test traces, the direct derivation state machine descriptions from event traces, the testing and validation of functional specifications with respect to system behavior, and the verification of system consistency with specifications by validating execution traces against the specifications. Extracted test traces and derived specifications will be tied to source code in a way amenable to viewing by engineers. Tests and their captured data will be cataloged to be both auditable and repeatable, enabling unit and system regression testing. Emphasis will be placed on the consideration of asynchronous systems, including state machine derivation and analysis with respect to temporal logic formulas. The infrastructure for developing these capabilities will be a generalized compiler technology that supports the semantic analysis of source code and other structures as well as the capability for implementing mass changes in source code by automatic transformation.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. Lindsay Errington
OSD 05-SP4      Awarded: 01AUG06
Title:A Software Hub for High Assurance Model-Driven Development and Analysis
Abstract:The use of model-based languages for the development of embedded and distributed systems, in connection with the development of analysis tools, each with their own modeling language gives rise to two challenges. The first is how to integrate these tools in such a way that an engineer can develop a model in one language and then analyze it for a property of interest with a tool in a different language. The second challenge is to generate high-quality code from models and eliminate the error-prone and expensive task of transcribing models into code by hand. The solution to both of these problems can be accomplished with tools we call generators. Constructing individual generators to connect all the different tools and languages is not feasible. There are many combinations and each generator is a sophisticated application. Moreover, for safety critical embedded systems, it is crucial that generators be high assurance. As outlined in the solicitation, a better approach is to define a common intermediate or "hub" language and build a family of translators to and from the common language. Our SW Metro project will develop a semantically precise hub language and technology for synthesizing provably correct translators to and from the hub.

REACTIVE SYSTEMS, INC.
120-B E. Broad St.
Falls Church, VA 22046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 752-0927
Dr. Steven T. Sims
OSD 05-SP4      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:A Software Hub for High Assurance Model-Driven Development and Analysis
Abstract:The project team will develop technology for allowing commercial modeling environments to interoperate with model-based testing and other quality assurance tools for distributed, real-time embedded systems. The proposed work will be focused on the development of an appropriate intermediate notation, called a "hub language", into which models can be translated and analysis tools targeted. The starting point of the investigation will be an intermediate language developed by the proposers for supporting the analysis of the Simulink / Stateflow, the industry-leading modeling languages for embedded control applications. The existing language will be analyzed for suitability for other commercial modeling languages, such as UML, matrixX and Esterel. Subsequently, effort needed to adapt model checkers such as the Salsa verifier to handle this notation will be studied. Specific strategies will also be developed for conveying diagnostic information explaining errors uncovered by model checkers back to the modeling language level.

WW TECHNOLOGY GROUP
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Dr. Chris J Walter
OSD 05-SP4      Awarded: 31JUL06
Title:A Software Hub for Model-Driven Development
Abstract:The WW Technology Group (WWTG) Software Hub provides coherent views of system organization and behavior by integrating architectural and analytical models of systems and architectures. With a foundation in the architectural representations available through the Architecture Analysis and Description Language (AADL), and a flexible set of extensions that support the integration of additional modeling and analysis tools, the power of each modeling and analysis tool is retained while ensuring that a consistent view of the overall system configuration is retained. WWTG extends its EDICT modeling environment by developing the software hub approach using the AADL Open Source AADL Tool Environment (OSATE) that is based on Eclipse, an open development environment perfectly suited for the integration of tool suites. The AADL architectural view of the system provides a common reference for the organization of the system behavioral properties. With extensions to AADL referencing and specifying system behaviors, users of the language and corresponding tools are afforded with the best of the architectural, model, and simulation worlds. By leveraging the organizational properties of AADL, model based information is kept in a normalized form, with model based descriptions being coupled into the AADL model at the appropriate levels of system abstraction.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Chris Lomont
OSD 05-SP5      Awarded: 08SEP06
Title:Software Validation System
Abstract:The solicitation calls for "approaches for providing a safe environment for detecting software vulnerabilities and malicious code. Determine how these approaches might be employed in typical development/sustainment processes and facilities." The approach we believe will return the greatest benefit with a low cost is converting a Windows (or Linux as the sponsor requires) PC into an instrumented system for detecting malicious code, which we label the "validation machine. "This machine will use a myriad of software and system tracking applications to gather input, output, and execution data from the software seeking validation. This data will be amalgamated into a single log repository. Intelligent agent technologies, such as Bayesian networks and data mining agents, will then be employed to evaluate this data and identify realized or potential weaknesses, vulnerabilities, and security breaches within the software.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. Arnaud Venet
OSD 05-SP5      Awarded: 01SEP06
Title:SemaWare: Rapid Development of High-Performance Program Verifiers by Abstract Interpretation
Abstract:Classical methods employed for software verification require considerable human effort that limits their application to small critical parts of a system. Abstract Interpretation is a theoretical framework that provides analytic methods and algorithms for automatically discovering valid properties of a program. The basic properties about the program execution discovered by Abstract Interpretation are used in turn to establish safety properties of the system. While Abstract Interpretation is a powerful technology, it will not play a major role in software verification unless the design and development of specialized, practical analyzers can be streamlined in a process accessible to non-computer science specialists. On the human side, this is clear. On the technical side, this owes to the tradeoff among accuracy, analysis scope, and scalability. To push tradeoff curves into economical and practical regions, it would help if many, smaller scope, higher accuracy analyzers could be built, customized for a given application. We propose to formalize this process and to build generators to create the supporting tools that will enable application specialists to specify and generate dedicated high-performance analyzers on demand.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Eric Schweitz
OSD 05-SP5      Awarded: 03SEP06
Title:Scalable Model Checking Using Compiler Analyses and the Alef SAT Solver
Abstract:Our objective is to produce a commercial-grade model checking system that is scalable, end-to-end and highly usable. By scalable, we mean that the system will check larger software systems and answer more detailed queries than existing systems. By end-to-end, we mean that the system will automate the entire model-checking process from the point where the developer submits a query to the point where results are presented to the developer. By highly usable, we mean that the developer will not be required to learn any special-purpose modeling or specification languages in order to make full use of the system.

SOHAR, INC.
5731 W. Slauson Ave., , Suite 175
Culver City, CA 90230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 338-0990
Dr. Herbert Hecht
OSD 05-SP5      Awarded: 01SEP06
Title:Software Verification for Large Systems
Abstract:We propose to concentrate verification on the exception handling structure of the software because (a) it is the cause of most failures (b) it can be constrained to a relatively small number of primitives, and (c) establishing completeness and correctness can be automated.

APPERA SOFTWARE, INC.
8232 Fountain Ridge Dr.
Plano, TX 75025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 893-6875
Mr. Saikumar Dubagunta
OSD 05-SP6      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Robust Complex Systems
Abstract:Software systems today are becoming increasingly complex because of the wide range of responsibilities they handle and the wide range of services they provide. The use of complex, high-speed, network-centric software-intensive systems is increasing within weapons and C4ISR systems and other automated information processing systems. The explosion of information and advances in hardware and weapons technology have resulted in increased demands on software systems to deliver more and more functionality. Software architects and managers are therefore challenged on a day-to-day basis to deliver more, make it fast, keep it robust, keep it reliable and keep it secure. These challenges have shifted more responsibility to the software processes and infrastructure. The software in these systems carries high level of responsibility in terms of correctness of decisions taken, minimal response time to external stimuli, maximized ability to configure and control in the field. Current toolsets are able to handle limited complexity, as they focus on individual elements and pay little attention to the integration and run-time operation of the elements within the larger system-of-systems. An advanced toolkit that is capable of combining a wide variety of features into one umbrella, supporting architecture description language and generation of application and test suites is required to effectively build future software systems. This proposal describes an effective toolkit for developing software-intensive systems in a reliable and cost-effective manner.

COMMERCIAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS, LLC
8788 N.E. 28th St.
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 914-7607
Mr. Greg Scallon
OSD 05-SP6      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Robust Complex Systems
Abstract:This proposal applies proven techniques to software-intensive system designs that yield measurable, tangible and repeatable results consistent with the other branches of engineering. Simply put, we propose to: (a) Express the first order architectural aspects of a software-intensive system in simple sets of blueprints. (b) Convert the blueprints from (a) into a formal architectural specification language based on English statements arranged in modular structures. (c) Perform static and dynamic analysis to expose performance and metrics (d) Make changes to (a) and re-run the model to expose consequences and thereby optimize the design.

GBL SYSTEMS CORP.
400 Rosewood Avenue Suite 101
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 987-4345
Mr. James Buscemi
OSD 05-SP6      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Robust Complex Systems
Abstract:Developing network-Centric C4ISR systems are composed of robust complex software that creates a dynamic reconfigurable virtual peer-to-peer network. The complexity of these software intensive systems is difficult to test and verify due to their ability to evolve, organize and optimize themselves overtime. GBL Systems Corporation proposes to address this issue by developing the Real-time Automated Test Environment (RATE) system. The focus of research for RATE is to: develop a test methodology and test architecture that will be scalable across multiple test echelons (i.e. Subsystem, System, System of Systems (SoS)); automate the generation of test cases; and improve the automation of executing test cases where software components can be distributed and dynamically reconfigurable. At the SoS level the RATE system test architecture shall leverage the InterTEC Central T&E Investment Program (CTEIP) OSD program to facilitate the automation of SoS test cases. InterTEC is an integrated suite of test tools for scaleable, extensible, and operationally relevant interoperability test, evaluation, and certification of National Security Systems (e.g. Link 16, Link 11 and IBS). Automating testing provided by RATE allows for development of a cost effective repeatable regression test environment that quickly ensures that add-on capabilities do not affect baseline functionality.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. Arnaud Venet
OSD 05-SP6      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Interface Explorer: Automated Modular Verification of Complex Systems
Abstract:Standard V&V techniques like code reviewing or testing provide insufficient guarantees on the reliability of critical software systems. The gap widens as the systems grow in complexity and the number of scenarios to consider is no longer tractable. Recently, automated analytic verification tools based on Abstract Interpretation have been successfully applied to the formal verification of large commercial software systems. While such tools work well for applications made of one block, they fail to analyze complex systems made of multiple interacting components, even at a small scale. There is an opportunity to leverage existing high-power Abstract Interpretation techniques and to develop a methodology that enables the automated verification of large complex systems. The approach we are proposing to investigate has two parts: (1) Instead of analyzing the whole system we use Abstract Interpretation techniques to analyze each component of the system together with a user-provided description of the interactions between the component and the rest of the system; and (2) The interactions between the subsystems are specified using a domain-specific language that is specially designed to model the external execution environment of a program in a simple yet effective way by the subject matter expert user.

MODELLION SYSTEMS, INC.
1335 Woodcliffe Dr
Monroeville, PA 15146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 607-6404
Dr. Raj Rajkumar
OSD 05-SP6      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Robust Complex Systems
Abstract:We shall investigate and design the capabilities of a model-based development toolset for building high-assurance embedded real-time systems. The toolset is based on the premise that model-based design and development leads to high assurance by enabling analysis, simulation, code-generation, model-checking and testing from a single system representation. The toolset will capture and verify different aspects of the system separately, and automatically manage interactions between these concerns. Platform and environmental dependencies can be customized to a particular application or system. Different programming languages, real-time operating systems and middleware services can be targeted. Functional and para-functional code can be automatically integrated. Compositions can be recursive, and components can be reused.