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19 Phase I Selections from the 07.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Kenneth J. Heater
CBD 07-101      Awarded: 08MAY07
Title:Sequencing of Multiple Chemical/Biological Aircraft Decontamination Agents
Abstract:The DoD is interested in the development and demonstration of large frame aircraft decontamination processes that are capable of completely detoxifying both chemical and biological warfare agents without increasing susceptibility to corrosion or adversely affecting the performance, properties, or appearance of aircraft materials. Candidate decontamination processes may include processes like Hot Soapy Water (HSW), Cold Plasma treatment, Vaporous Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP), modified VHP (mVHP), DF-200, Decon Green, Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment and Hot Air Decontamination (HAD). Individually, these decontaminants show varying degrees of promise, but field implementation issues, the ability to achieve complete decontamination, excessive off gassing, and materials compatibility continue to be major concerns. It is postulated, that a combination of existing and/or emerging technologies could be utilized in a more effective manner to support complete CB destruction while minimizing adverse effects on aircraft materials, subsystems and operations. Under the proposed SBIR program, METSS will provide a review of candidate decontaminant technologies and experimentally evaluate/demonstrate the efficacy of select decontaminant materials and/or processes to effectively decontaminate aircraft surfaces with minimum impact on aircraft materials.

12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
(303) 940-2355
Dr. William L. Bell
CBD 07-102      Awarded: 18MAY07
Title:Immediate Biodecon System
Abstract:Surfaces of military vehicles and equipment that are contaminated with biological warfare (BW) agents must be rapidly decontaminated to maintain operational tempo. Unfortunately, all of the current biodecontamination technologies have significant disadvantages, such as limited storage stability, or require hazardous materials that cannot be readily transported. A biodecon system should also effectively decontaminate chemical warfare (CW) agents TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop an effective and readily transportable system for immediate biodecon of contaminated surfaces. Tests have already proven that TDA's system is effective against CW agents, and work in this project will adapt it to decontaminate biological threats as well. TDA's system uses materials that are stable on storage and produces no hazardous residue. In Phase I TDA will conduct tests with surrogates for BW agents to demonstrate the feasibility of the system, and will conduct an engineering analysis to estimate its size and cost in production.

2557 Production Road
Virginia Beach, VA 23454
(757) 431-2260
Dr. Ed Locke
CBD 07-103      Awarded: 18MAY07
Title:Generic Adsorptive Carbon Residual Life Indicator
Abstract:Carbon based filtration technologies have several known modes of degradation and failure including adsorption of chemical contaminants, adsorption of environmental pollutants and operational interferents, repeated moisture condensation, and moisture vapor adsorption. In unknown hazardous environments, the ultimate End-of-Service-Life Indicator (ESLI)/Residual Life Indicator (RLI) for critical Individual Protection equipment is one that is capable of non-selectively detecting the adsorption of any chemical or biological agent in the various filter media used in these technologies. Leveraging on experience in the development and commercialization of agent-specific ESLIs and flow dynamics in filter media, a next-generation approach to RLI sensors will be adapted to respirator cartridges to monitor the performance capabilities of ASZM-TEDA carbon media independent of the type of agents present. This technology will lend itself to autonomous monitoring of respirator sorptive media and has the potential for being ruggedized for extensive field use in multiple filtration-based applications.

221 Cottonwood Dr.
Barboursville, VA 22923
(434) 985-7459
Dr. Tatyana Khromova
CBD 07-104      Awarded: 22MAY07
Title:Spectroscopic Imaging Technology for THz Biosensor Integrated with a Lab-on-Chip Platform
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR project we propose a new imaging mechanism for sub-wavelength THz spectroscopy based on a very strong enhancement of electromagnetic field of the THz radiation at the edges of periodic semiconductor structure. Our recent theoretical study showed THz radiation power enhancement ~1100 with the half power width around the slot edges ~500 nm. Such strongly enhanced local electromagnetic field can potentially be used for the development of novel biophotonic spectroscopic and imaging sensors with increased radiation coupling to biomaterial, leading to a substantial increase in detection sensitivity and spatial resolution and allowing THz spectroscopy and imaging at the micron-submicron scale. The major goal of this phase I of SPIR project will be to confirm experimentally the expected effect of increasing electric field in a nanosize regions and to demonstrate the feasibility of application a proposed imaging mechanism integrated with a "lab-on-a chip" device for subwavelength THz spectroscopic microscope. The other goal of the proposed project is to improve controlled conditions for more uniformed orientation of biological materials. The initial phase I of SPIR project will include preliminary experimental investigations of fluidic-chip processing of biomaterials and/or bio agents. In the phase II of SBIR project, the proposed imaging technology will be further optimized and will be integrated into a pre-existing or a new developed fluidic platform to be used in THz spectroscopy and microscopy.

12725 SW Millikan WaySuite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
(971) 223-5646
Mr. George M. Williams
CBD 07-105      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Capability Point Combined Bio and Chem Sensor
Abstract:Many chemical agents have unique absorption spectra in the 9-to-11μm wavelength range, and sufficient absorption cross sections for detection at trace concentration levels. In this proposal, a short standoff range LWIR DISC LIDAR will be developed, providing comprehensive chemical and biological standoff detection, as well as MWIR detection of industrial chemicals. The LIDAR is based on a 1 mm diameter electron-initiated avalanche photodiode (eAPD) with an approximate 5 MHz bandwidth. The advantage of an eAPD over a conventional photodiode is that a narrowband filter can be used to reduce background to the level of the amplifier. The HgCdTe eAPD, with its noiseless gain, provides the opportunity to operate at high frequencies and over a wide spectral range, with greater sensitivity than a system based on a photodiode alone. HgCdTe APDs operate at low voltage, and have shown to have excellent uniformity and good yields. Exponential-gain values well in excess of 1,000 have been obtained in HgCdTe APDs with essentially zero avalanche-induced noise. In Phase I, we will design an HgCdTe APD based DISC LIDAR system, demonstrate infrared HgCdTe APD performance, and demonstrate the technologies necessary for a Phase II system development and demonstration program.

30 A Vreeland Road, Suite 130
Florham Park, NJ 07932
(973) 822-0048
Dr. Qi (Peter) Li
CBD 07-106      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Automated Objective Speech Intelligibility Assessment System
Abstract:Based on our successful experiences in automatic speech recognition, we propose a unique and promising solution for the automated objective speech intelligibility assessment system. It consists of a pair of head and torso simulators placed at the same distance as typical face-to-face communication, a power amplifier, a laptop computer, a speech recognizer, and console software. The simulator has acoustic properties similar to those of a human and can wear any kinds of masks that need to be tested. During the test, pre-recorded speech is played from the loudspeaker installed in one simulator's mouth and picked up by the microphone in another's ear. Recorded speech signals are then sent to an automatic speech recognizer in a laptop. The speech intelligibility is represented as a score associated with the speech recognition accuracy. Special techniques are proposed to address the challenges in robust speech recognition and to ensure the success of this project.

131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
(781) 761-2315
Mr. Sean Mackay
CBD 07-108      Selected for Award
Title:Heterogeneous CB Sensor Network Modeling Tool
Abstract:While individual instances of Chemical/Biological (CB) detection sensor technology development have progressed steadily, deficiencies remain. An integrated multi-sensor network for CB detection is a promising concept for improving performance. New development is needed to address the complex challenge of how to optimally deploy and evaluate CB sensor networks to ensure maximum utility against an ensemble of possible release scenarios. This problem is complicated by elements including: a broad range of disparate CB sensor technologies, a lack of standard sensor performance metrics, quantification of multi-sensor performance, complex terrain, and undetermined release time and/or location. This proposal describes an innovative concept to address the general challenge of CB deployment and evaluation through an integrated use of historical weather data, CB sensor performance characteristics representation, physical plume modeling, and an extendable sensor array allocation and evaluation algorithm.

20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Bogdan R. Cosofret
CBD 07-108      Awarded: 08JUN07
Title:CB Sensor Network Architecture Development Tool for Improved Probability of Cloud Intercept
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a software tool that is capable of defining the selection, composition, and placement of a constellation of standoff and point sensors for the protection of base facilities and forces deployed in the field. The constellation will be defined using an algorithm that optimizes the collective performance of the constituent sensors as a function of deployment need, geography, weather, threat models and required warning times. The approach is based on models that address coverage optimization under the constraint of sensor performance characteristics. Individual sensor performance data such as Pd and Pfa are generated based on known sensitivity, selectivity, vulnerability, and propensities for false alarm for each individual sensor due to likely environmental factors influencing the mission. The sensors to be incorporated in the model are represented by Point (LCD-3 for chemical detection and BAWS for bio detection) and Standoff (JSLSCAD/AIRIS-WAD for chemical detection and JSBSDS UV fluorescence and backscatter LIDAR for bio detection). The outcome will be a sensor deployment plan derived from simulations of CB cloud dispersion and sensor performance in a variety of battlespace conditions. The software tool will provide the end-user with a network performance prediction and confidence assessment on reported detections.

58 Charles Street
Cambridge, MA 02141
(617) 225-0810
Dr. Stephen G. Zemba
CBD 07-109      Awarded: 10APR07
Title:Source Term Model for Fine Particles off Indoor Surfaces
Abstract:Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for predicting the dispersion of chemicals and biological (CB) agents in indoor environments. Unfortunately, techniques to specify CB emissions as input to CFD simulations lack in sophistication. Adequate models are not available for many important CB emission processes. Particle resuspension from surfaces, particularly relevant to CB agents such as Anthrax, will be researched to develop models appropriate for CFD-based dispersion simulations. Phase I research will identify existing information relevant to indoor particle resuspension that will be used to develop source term models (STMs) capable of predicting particle resuspension rates. STM formulations will likely consider physical parameters such as particle size, surface characteristics such as roughness height, flow parameters such as turbulence intensity and shear stress, and particle-surface interactions such as electrostatic forces. Predictions of the STMs will be evaluated against measured particle fluxes available in existing resuspension studies. Preliminary demonstration of STM capabilities will be made through limited CFD simulations, and data gaps will be identified for further testing and evaluation in Phase II research.

(978) 250-4200
Dr. Yoojeong Kim
CBD 07-109      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Source Term Model for Fine Particle Resuspension from Indoor Surfaces(1001-033)
Abstract:Airborne chemical and biological (CB) agents released in one section of a building travel via the building's heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and disperse throughout the building, while undergoing deposition and resuspension recurrently. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been employed to simulate dispersion of CB agents in a building through HVAC systems. How well the simulation result would match the actual dispersion profile of CB agents depends on the accuracies of models describing the physical phenomena such as aerodynamic characteristics of CB agents and fluid motions through HVAC systems. One of the important, but not well established, factors is the resuspension mechanism of fine particles. Currently, resuspension models used are simple and, especially, not adequate for describing short-term resuspension which is important in indoor environments. Triton Systems, Inc. proposes to develop a model that characterizes indoor resuspension appropriately to be used in conjunction with CFD simulation for the CB agent dispersion in a building.

1703 S Jefferson Street, SWSuite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Ulli Becker
CBD 07-110      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Self Sanitizing Thin Films Using Discrete Toxicant/Germinant Surface Features
Abstract:With global terrorism on the rise, there is an increasing need to develop self sanitizing surfaces and surface treatments with maximum potential to kill biological organisms in order to minimize hazard to human health. Luna Innovations proposes the creation of self sanitizing films that can be used as protective overcoats to destroy bacterial quickly and prevent human infection without the need for expensive decontamination processes. This phase I program will demonstrate a coating system that will effectively destroy biological agents while having the mechanical durability for extended service life. The technology developed on this program will minimize hazard to human health in both military and civilian applications.

P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Joel Tabb
CBD 07-111      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Carbon Nanotube-Based Filters for Aerosol Sample Collection
Abstract:Aerosols represent one of the more efficient methods to distribute biological and chemical agents throughout the atmosphere. Small aerosol droplets can be readily inhaled and easily penetrate deep into the lungs where they lodge in bronchial alveoli. Within the alveoli, chemical and biological agents can breach epithelial and endothelial cell layers and enter the bloodstream, where they cause damage and disease. Rapid collection and analysis of aerosols containing potential biological and chemical threat agents will be essential in determining the nature of the threat agents as well as planning measures to combat and neutralize these threats. In this Phase I program, Agave BioSystems, in collaboration with Dr. Randy Vander Wal of the University Space Research Association, proposes to develop a novel aerosol collection system based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized directly on stainless steel (SS) mesh. The high surface area, structural robustness and inert nature of CNTs grown on SS mesh make them ideal for use in such an aerosol collection system.

Photonic Systems Division20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Anna Asanbaeva
CBD 07-112      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Respiratory Function Measurement System for Nonhuman Primates
Abstract:To address the CBD need for a real-time measurement system for nonhuman primate and rabbit respiratory tidal volumes suitable for a Class 3 biological safety (BSL-3) cabinet, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Respiratory Function Measurement (RFM) system. This system is based on a piezoelectric transducer that responds to pressure generated by the animal's thoracic cage during respiration. The innovative system architecture, with an accurately positioned piezoelectric transducer, wireless data transmission, and materials compatible with formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide gases, will enable the RFM system to accurately measure, the respiratory parameters of animals during aerosol exposure inside a BSL-3 cabinet and display the data on a PC outside the cabinet in real time. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of a RFM system by developing a design and concept for real-time output of tidal volume, respiration frequency, and minute volume; evaluating its suitability for formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide gas decontamination; and showing its functionality in a BSL-3 cabinet through testing of a system prototype. In Phase II POC will develop a fully functional engineering prototype and test it before and after decontamination.

505 S. Rosa Road, Suite 169
Madison, WI 53704
(608) 441-2750
Dr. Barry Steiglitz
CBD 07-113      Awarded: 18MAY07
Title:Development of a Field-Ready Antimicrobial Wound Dressing for the Treatment of Vesicant Burns
Abstract:Cutaneous wounds, such as those resulting from vesicant exposure and thermal injuries, provide an ideal environment for bacterial growth and the complications stemming from wound sepsis. The availability of ready-to-use, antimicrobial skin substitutes that are readily deployed in the field would provide immediate wound closure and reduce the incidence of infection in these wounds. To address these needs, Stratatech Corporation is developing a field-ready, tissue engineered antimicrobial therapeutic called EpiReadyDefenseT for treatment of vesicant, thermal and traumatic cutaneous injuries. This product is designed to contain elevated levels of naturally-occurring antimicrobial peptides in the context of a fully-stratified skin substitute that is ready to use and stable at ambient temperatures. During Phase I of the project, procedures will be developed to format Stratatech's existing antimicrobial skin substitute for ambient storage. Efforts will focus on preserving tissue architecture and strength, as well as maintaining the antimicrobial properties required in the final product. In Phase II, the antimicrobial properties of EpiReadyDefenseT will be determined in an established animal model of burn wound infection. Phase II studies will also include preclinical safety studies that will be required to support ultimate clinical evaluation and approval of EpiReadyDefenseT tissue.

215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Jerry Jenkins
CBD 07-114      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Development of a Database Management System to Enable Rapid, Efficient Assay Design for Use in Detection and Diagnosis of Human Exposure to Biological Threats
Abstract:The primary objective of this effort is to design and develop a database management system (DBMS) and enable the integrated interpretation of the vast amounts of genomic and proteomic data in proper biological context. This DBMS will enable the development of diagnostic assays for human exposure to specific biological threat agents using an existing suite of systems biology tools. The DBMS design will be clearly described, and it will manage diverse data types based on the principles of minimum information about a microarray experiment (MIAME). Demonstration of the database for data storage/retrieval/querying will be performed with an example assay design using the systems biology approach to interpret biological data in context. Successful completion of the Phase I effort will generate a DBMS containing a suite of tools enabling analysis from a systems biology-centered approach, providing a rational basis for designing assays. In Phase II, the project scope will be expanded to include additional data types, a GUI, links to relevant online databases, and validation of the systems biology centered methodologies will be undertaken. A multi-disciplinary team has been assembled, and this project will benefit from multiple, ongoing efforts utilizing in-house systems biology tools to understand cellular response to neurotoxins.

5004 Lehigh Avenue
College Park, MD 20740
(240) 737-1625
Dr. Christopher Larsen
CBD 07-114      Awarded: 08MAY07
Title:Development of an Integrated Database Management System for Biodefense Research
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR grant proposal is submitted in response to the need for a database resource that can house, import, query, and manage data from diagnostics related to biological threat detection. Such a project for military force health protection requires the creation of a flexible, relational database resource, with dedicated import tools, query systems, and data management tools. This proposal focuses on threat detection, species identification, and data management. It addresses organisms such as Anthrax, Clostridium, Yersinia, Variola, Francisella, Ebolavirus, Lassavirus, Brucella, Salmonella, E. coli, Coxiella, Burkholderia, Vibrio, Cryptosporidium, Ricinus, Rickettsia, encephalitis virii, and others. We will build a robust, extensible web application and relational database resource, called BioDefBase(TM), which uses novel biological computational analysis tools, and is focused on data used to identify pathogens, such as that from microarrays, host expression response assays, protein arrays, PCR experiments, and immunological approaches such as ELISA. The BioDefBase analysis tools will be focused on specific data types, and on visualizations designed to assist the scientist and technician in assay interpretation, experiment design, pathogen identification, and threat detection. With the creation of BioDefBase, researchers and technicians will have a flexible database solution to store, search, manage, and maintain diagnostic bioassay data.

P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael G. Izenson
CBD 07-115      Awarded: 01JUN07
Title:Lightweight, Efficient Blower for Personal Air Ventilation System
Abstract:A personal air ventilation system (PAVS) has the potential to dramatically improve the environment inside chemical/biological protective clothing. However, existing air blowers that can produce the flow rate and pressure drop required for a PAVS are too heavy and inefficient for use in a man-portable system. We propose to develop an innovative blower that can provide the required flow rate and pressure rise performance and meet the Army's challenging specifications. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach by comparing and trading off potential blower technologies and selecting the optimal technology. In Phase II we will design, build, and test the PAVS and deliver three prototype systems for testing in relevant environments.

582 South Econ Circle
Oviedo, FL 32765
(407) 359-7138
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
CBD 07-115      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Centrifugal Blower for Personal Air Ventilation System (PAVS)
Abstract:Clothing that protects Special Reaction Teams from chemical, biological, and nuclear threats can subject the individuals to heat stress. These hazardous environments require the use of PPE with level A protection for several hours, which can diminish the body's ability to reject heat, leading to symptoms ranging from muscular weakness, dizziness and physical discomfort to more severe, life-threatening conditions such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. RTI proposes to develop a miniature centrifugal blower for a personal air ventilation system (PAVS), which uses an innovative centrifugal blower with novel aerodynamic features that contribute to performance, reliability, size and weight that is currently not possible from conventional designs. Specifically, the proposed centrifugal blower rotating at 25000 RPM will provide 10 cfm of air with a pressure head equivalent to 5 inches of water, and will consume 14 W of electrical power. The blower (including the motor, associated battery and electronics) will be cylindrical in shape: 2 inches in diameter and 8 inches in length for an overall volume of 25 cubic inches. The overall weight will be 1.5 lbs. The Phase I effort will concentrate analytical design, optimization through computation and rapid prototype through stereolithography. Phase I option will focus on acquisition of the appropriate motor and its performance evaluation at the required operating point. Precise fabrication, detailed performance testing and integration with appropriate filtration module and uniform would be performed in Phase II.

23616 SE 225th StreetP.O. Box 469
Maple Valley, WA 98038
(206) 251-2505
Dr. Peter Ariessohn
CBD 07-116      Awarded: 11MAY07
Title:Omni-Directional, Wind and Water Tolerant Inlet for the DFU
Abstract:In the proposed project, Enertechnix will develop optimized designs for an improved inlet for the Dry Filter Unit (DFU) capable of achieving high collection efficiencies for particles between 1 and 20 microns in diameter while functioning reliably on board naval vessels. This new inlet will be insensitive to wind direction and speed and will be tolerant of harsh weather and wave conditions. By incorporating a novel aerodynamic lens array aerosol concentrator, the proposed inlet will substantially reduce the power requirements of the DFU and allow the use of a much smaller blower while maintaining the current sampling rate. In Phase I, Enertechnix will perform extensive 2- and 3-dimensional CFD modeling to identify designs for the individual sections of the inlet that build upon a design developed by one of our collaborators (Prof. Virgil Marple at the University of Minnesota). Prof. Marple's design has been demonstrated to have significantly better performance than the existing inlet but is susceptible to water infiltration. In the Phase I Option period, Enertechnix will model the complete inlet, will identify suitable low-cost fabrication methods and will develop a design for an experimental prototype to be tested in Phase II.