DoD STTR Program Phase I Selections for FY08.B

Air Force Selections

MDA Selections

---------- AF ----------

Acellent Technologies, Inc.
835 Stewart Drive,
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
(408) 745-1188

PI: Shyan Bob Shen
(408) 745-1188
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0145
University of Delaware
126 Spencer Laboratory,
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 831-8789

ID#: F08B-T23-0127
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT23       Awarded: 5/15/2009
Title: Health Monitoring of Composite Structures Using Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:  &nbs The goal of the proposed project will be to develop a hybrid structural health monitoring (SHM) system that can detect both microcracks and localized damage/delamination in composite structures. The hybrid system will combine the unique sensing capabilities of carbon nanotubes along with those of a piezoelectric sensor network to sense the location, nature and extent of damage. This system combines the key capabilities of the research team in piezoelectric health monitoring (Acellent Technologies) and sensing of damage in composites using networks of carbon nanotubes (University of Delaware). In order to localize the detected damage using the carbon nanotube sensors, a thin dielectric film (SMART Layer) with distributed electrodes will be developed. The distributed electrodes will be utilized to measure the conductivity at different locations across the structure. The localized damage in the structure will be measured by the conductivity change from the electrically conductive carbon nanotube networks formed inside the polymer matrix. Additionally, the SMART Layer will include an embedded network of piezoelectric actuators/sensors to detect/verify the localized cracks and delaminations. The integrated SHM system will be able to detect initiation of damage and monitor its growth. BENEFIT: The innovation of proposed system has many advantages over the current NDE including: 1) Increased safety and reliability robust in-situ health monitoring (early warning system) 2) Complete damage information qualitative and quantitative characterization 3) Reduced ownership cost removal of unnecessary inspections and reduced vehicle downtime 4) Maximized lifespan of structures residual life estimate by prognosis )

Acellent Technologies, Inc.
835 Stewart Drive,
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
(408) 745-1188

PI: Lien Ouyang
(408) 745-1188
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0140
North Carolina State University
Research Bld. II, Rm 216, Box 7921, 1009 Capability Dr.
Ralaigh, NC 27695
(919) 515-5947

ID#: F08B-T27-0031
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT27       Awarded: 5/15/2009
Title: Real-time In-situ Impact and Damage Locator in Anisotropic Aerospace Structures
Abstract:  &nbs Acellent Technologies and Professor FG Yuen of Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of North Carolina State University propose to develop an advanced real-time built-in diagnostic system for the monitoring and locating impacts and growing damage in anisotropic aerospace structures. The proposed technologies will provide real-time information on the integrity of structures on aircraft using lightweight, high-performance materials such as polymer-matrix or ceramic-matrix composites, and greatly increase flight safety while decreasing inspection labor and cost. Acellents existing hardware and sensors will be used for instrumentation. The focus of the development will be on developing innovative signal processing algorithms and software systems for intelligent data analysis. Signal processing has been playing a crucial role in various non-destructive testing and structure health monitoring applications. In this project novel signal processing algorithms will be developed for intelligent data analysis and to provide accurate information on the type of damage, location of damage and its size. BENEFIT: A successful outcome would improve aviation safety and reduce aircraft inspection time and expense. Inspection time reduction would directly increase asset availability.)

AdValue Photonics Inc
4585 S. Palo Verde, Suite 405,
Tucson, AZ 85714
(520) 790-5468

PI: Jihong Geng
(520) 790-5468
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0124
Cornell University
School of Applied and Engineer, 212 Clark Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
(607) 255-1184

ID#: F08B-T16-0217
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT16       Awarded: 4/16/2009
Title: An All-Fiber Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs
Abstract:  &nbs A low-cost fiber-based octave-spanning frequency comb system operating in the mid-IR region is proposed, which is based on femtosecond-Tm-fiber-laser-pumped supercontinuum generation in a mid-IR-transmitting dispersion- engineered fiber. An all-fiber femtosecond mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser at 2 micron will be used as a seed source for mid-IR supercontinuum generation. A femtosecond soliton fiber amplifier will be developed at AdValue Photonics by using a very short piece of heavily Tm-doped high-gain large-mode area (LMA) fiber, which enables soliton amplification of the femtosecond pulses with average power up to 1W. Non-silica dispersion-engineered fibers will be developed as highly nonlinear fibers for broadband mid-IR supercontinuum generation by using our proprietary glass/fiber technology, which allow us to extend the wavelength of frequency combs beyond 5 micron BENEFIT: The proposed technology will offer a turnkey mid-IR frequency comb system that will be capable of self- referencing. The self-referenced mid-IR frequency comb will be very useful for a variety of high-precision metrology applications, such as high-precision molecular spectroscopy, gas remote sensing and analysis for environmental monitoring, pollution control, agriculture and life sciences, and non-invasive disease diagnosis through breath analysis.)

Advanced Dynamics, Inc.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203,
Lexington, KY 40511
(859) 699-0441

PI: Patrick Hu
(859) 699-0441
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0144
University of Oklahoma
School of Aerospace and , Mechaincal Engineering
Norman, OK 73019
(405) 325-1749

ID#: F08B-T03-0197
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT03       Awarded: 5/18/2009
Title: Novel, Optimal, Physics-Based Reduced Order Models for Nonlinear Aeroelasticity
Abstract:  &nbs Research is proposed for the development and implementation of state of the art, reduced order nonlinear aeroelastic models for multidisciplinary/multi-fidelity optimization problems. Highly efficient and accurate aeroelastic simulation tools will be constructed based upon the mathematical formalism of optimal prediction theory and a novel implementation of a filtered harmonic balance solution methodology. The implications of the proposed work include orders of magnitude reduction in computational time, with minimal loss of accuracy, for time periodic problems in nonlinear aeroelasticity. The application of the proposed innovations spans the range of flight, from high-speed transport vehicles, to small-scale, flapping Micro-Air vehicles. Anticipated results include 1) the implementation of the proposed reduced order methodology into both a standard grid-based aeroelastic tool and a material point method monolithic aeroelastic solver for the production of technology ready, multi-flow regime aeroelastic simulation tools 2) application of the proposed work to large-scale simulation and comparison with experiment and ¡°full-order¡± aeroelastic simulations 3) advancement of the state of knowledge for nonlinear problems in aeroelasticity in both the subsonic, low Reynolds number regime and transonic high Reynolds number regime and 4) implementation of the reduced-order models into a knowledge-based response surface design optimization tool. BENEFIT: A broad range of US Air Force applications exists for the software infrastructure that is expected to result from this STTR effort, and US Air Force will be the initial target. The direct application to the US Air Force represents a prime opportunity for further product development and enhancement, as well as a potential revenue stream from engineering support and technology acquisition. Various NASA Centers likely to have interests in this technology. Non-military applications represent another potential market sector.Improvements in the computational accuracy and efficiency for aeroelastic modeling are needed for a wide range of aerospace, ocean, and general engineering applications. The accurate assessment of aero-structural properties of aircrafts has been known to be very important in designing safe aircraft. Companies such as Boeing, Bell, Sikorsky, and AeroVironment are our industrial partners, and during our briefing for the technology to be developed in this STTR, they indicated their strong interest. They will be actively involved in this project and they are expected to be immediate users of the end product. In addition, Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, General Dynamics, and Lockheed Martin represent other potential customers that we intend to aggressively pursue. And finally, corresponding companies in Europe and Asia represent an opportunity

Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation
626 Whitney Street,
San Leandro, CA 94577
(510) 483-4156

PI: Mahadevan Krishnan
(510) 483-4156
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0178
Yale University
Grant/Contract Administration, 155 Whitney Avenue, suite 214
New Haven, CT 06520
(203) 432-2460

ID#: F08B-T09-0141
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT09       Awarded: 7/1/2009
Title: Variable Thrust/Specific Impulse Electrospray Propulsion
Abstract:  &nbs Yale University and Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) propose to develop a single propellant electrospray micro-thruster for space propulsion with a wide specific impulse range, from 500s at the low end to >2500s, with the goal of 10,000s, while maximizing the performance. Three key prior accomplishments have motivated the formation of this team: Yale, working with ARL has demonstrated MEMS fabricated electrospray arrays at atmospheric pressure; Yale has deep expertise on single-emitter electrosprays with the capability to vary mass/charge of droplets, an essential feature of our continuously variable Isp approach; AASC has expertise gained from a DARPA funded effort to develop MEMS arrays of liquid metal ion tips, designed for 500s-10,000s Isp. Here we seek to combine this past experience to validate, at TRL3 in Phase I, an innovative approach to a single propellant/single thruster architecture for small satellite nano- and micro-propulsion. Our approach will use two- dimensional (2D) multiplexed arrays of electrospray sources to span a wide range of specific impulses from 500s up to at least 2500s (extendable to 10,000s in Ph II). The full range of variable Isp will be achieved by changing the mass/charge of the drops, while maintaining full power. BENEFIT: Future Department of Defense (DoD) space missions require precise, fine-positioning capabilities combined with large maneuverability requirements. This project will develop innovative, on orbit propulsion methods that provide variable high thrust and high ISP at high efficiency, that enable system orbit agility or new orbit regimes.)

Albido Corporation
19 Leaming Rd,
Colorado Springs, CO 80906
(719) 540-8504

PI: Viorel Olariu
(719) 502-1348
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0131
1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway, University Hall 231
Colorado Springs, CO 80933
(719) 262-3243

ID#: F08B-T01-0017
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT01       Awarded: 5/18/2009
Title: Autonomous Nonbattery Wireless Strain Gage for Structural Health Testing and Monitoring in Extreme Environments
Abstract:  &nbs There is a need to monitor the structural health of aerospace components operating in extreme temperatures ranges (e.g. -60 to +300C) and with high accelerations. Ideally the sensors employed for this task should be passive (i.e. not powered through batteries), permanently placed on the critical components and transmit the relevant data to a remote data processing center wirelessly. Albido is proposing to develop thin film sensors that transmit high bandwidth data to a remote reader. The sensors are powered through a combination of wireless power transmission and local energy harvesting. The sensors are small enough so not to disturb the aerodynamic properties even if left in place during actual operation. In Phase I Albido will design and build a proof-of-concept prototype that demonstrates the sensor and the transmission capability over the above temperature range. In Phase II sensors will be fabricated to demonstrate the operation on high speed, high temperature aerospace component. Reliable operation under temperature extremes and acceleration forces up to 56,600g will be demonstrated. In Phase III the developed technology will be commercialized not only for military applications but also for commercial applications. BENEFIT: The proposed technology allows sensors to be placed on critical aerospace and other components without disturbing the aerodynamic flow. That means they can be left in place and be used for monitoring the health of the components in actual operation. The sensors are relatively inexpensive and a multitude of them can be used and monitored simultaneously. The technology is ubiquitous, that means it is applicable to a wide variety of components such as jet engine fan and compressor blades, aircraft propellers, helicopter blades, transmission parts, etc. The transmission scheme proposed allows for a data center to be remotely placed with a distance of several hundred meters.)

(562) 985-1100

(562) 985-1100
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0177
6220 Culebra Road, P.O.Drawer 28150
(210) 522-2415

ID#: F08B-T07-0168
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT07       Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title: Hybrid Structures for Improved Damage Tolerance of Unitized Structures
Abstract:  &nbs Recent developments of advanced hybrid metallic structural concepts have been extremely promising for durable light-weight and ultra-long fatigue life large transport aircraft. The Alpha STAR team (Alcoa, SWRI, and Virginia Tech) proposes to extend the validated Fiber Metal Laminate (FML) high fidelity analytical capability from GLARE to CentrAl FML concepts, as well as develop the necessary robust design optimization techniques. Candidate ultra- long life approaches will be conceptualized and demonstrated on aerospace structural components. A building block verification strategy will be conducted. Observed test data will be compared with analytical predictions for unnotched/notched coupons under service loading conditions; static, fatigue crack initiation/propagation/residual strength, and thermal fatigue. In Phase I, the team will validate the analytical tools with 5 stringer panel fuselage/lower wing test data under static and fatigue spectrum loadings. Our effort will lead to a robust design development and demonstration in Phase II of a unique FML stiffened panel concept to reduce weight and eliminate delamination. This effort will expand the current GLARE applications from biaxial loading conditions, such as the Airbus-380 upper-fuselage, to CentrAl applications for a wider range of aircraft components, such as the lower wing cover. BENEFIT: Recent developments of advanced hybrid metallic structural concepts have been extremely promising for durable light-weight and ultra-long fatigue life large transport aircraft. The Alpha STAR team (Alcoa, SWRI, and Virginia Tech) proposes to extend the validated Fiber Metal Laminate (FML) high fidelity analytical capability from GLARE to CentrAl FML concepts, as well as develop the necessary robust design optimization techniques. Candidate ultra-long life approaches will be conceptualized and demonstrated on aerospace structural components. A building block verification strategy will be conducted. Observed test data will be compared with analytical predictions for unnotched/notched coupons under service loading conditions; static, fatigue crack initiation/propagation/residual strength, and thermal fatigue. In Phase I, the team will validate the analytical tools with 5 stringer panel fuselage/lower wing test data under static and fatigue spectrum loadings. Our effort will lead to a robust design development and demonstration in Phase II of a unique FML stiffened panel concept to reduce weight and eliminate delamination. This effort will expand the current GLARE applications from biaxial loading conditions, such as the Airbus-380 upper-fuselage, to CentrAl applications for a wider range of aircraft components, such as the lower wing cover.)

Anasys Instruments Corp
25 W. Anapamu, Suite B
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
(805) 455-5482

PI: Craig Prater
(805) 680-5150
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0203
University of Illinois Urbana-Champ
1206 W Green St., MC-244,
Urbana, IL 61801
(217) 244-3864

ID#: F08B-T30-0073
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT30       Awarded: 9/30/2009
Title: High Speed Nano-Infrared Spectroscopy
Abstract:  &nbs Anasys Instruments in collaboration with University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and subcontractor Dr. Konstantin Vodopyanov propose to develop the world’s first high speed nano infrared spectroscopy (“NanoIR”) capability. By combining and extending the capabilities of infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, this breakthrough platform will provide sub-100 nm chemical mapping capabilities on timescales of minutes. The NanoIR tool will employ a specialized cantilever for an Atomic Force Microscope to detect the local temperature increase as molecules absorb infrared radiation. The spectra of absorbed radiation may be compared to existing and newly created spectral libraries to allow chemical identification and mapping. Initial feasibility of nanoscale infrared spectroscopy with the NanoIR tool has already been demonstrated by the proposers. The current work will concentrate on accelerating the measurement speed such that individual spectra can be acquired in sub 100 msec timescales, paving the way for high speed chemical mapping. Successful completion of this project will dramatically expand the application of chemical mapping in nanoscale science, engineering and industry. BENEFIT: Mapping of nanoscale chemical composition is a critical need for government, university and industrial researchers to characterize and control materials and structures being developed with our nation’s multi-billion dollar investments in nanotechnology. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is critical and ubiquitous analytical measurement technique for chemical composition installed base of over 400,000 units and annual sales of over 23,000 units (and annual revenues of $1B/yr making it by far the most practiced analytical measurement technique in industrial and academic R&D. Unfortunately, conventional IR spectroscopy is fundamentally limited in spatial resolution to the micron scale and this has prevented IR spectroscopy from making the transition to nanoscale. Successful completion of the STTR supported NanoIR project will pave the way for extension of the power of high speed IR spectroscopy and chemical imaging to the nanoscale thus filling a major unmet need. The NanoIR tool will provide critical nanoscale chemical analysis capabilities to enable breakthroughs in materials and biomedical research.

ANDRO Computational Solutions, LLC
Beeches Technical Campus, 7902 Turin Road, Ste. 2-1
Rome, NY 13440
(315) 334-1163

PI: Andrew L. Drozd
(315) 334-1163
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0146
Syracuse University
Office of Sponsored Programs, 113 Browne Hall
Syracuse, NY 13244
(315) 443-9356

ID#: F08B-T06-0143
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT06       Awarded: 6/30/2009
Title: Cyber Superiority for Air Force Combatant Commanders: Integrated Air/Space/C2/Cyber Dynamic Spectrum Exploitation for Enhanced Situational Awareness
Abstract:  &nbs This effort is to investigate advanced cyberspace capabilities that can integrate global and theater resources in support of the combatant commander in order to provide operators with robust situational awareness, control of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, and maneuverability in cyberspace. Applications of interest include, but are not limited to warfighting in the cyberspace domain and applied cognitive task analysis for the understanding of cognitive task demands. In this effort, we will apply a dynamic radio frequency (RF) resource management approach for EM spectrum exploitation to further secure our info-structure capabilities, thwart cyber attacks, and maintain our freedom to operate dynamically in the cyberspace domain. This approach will involve EM spectrum monitoring and control to determine wireless access to critical info-structures by both authorized users and cyber intruders. The goal is to achieve intrusion detection, prevention, and response at the physical layer. This is indeed a new area of research, as most of the existing info-structure security work mainly focuses on higher layers (data, network). Because knowledge of security appliqués at the physical layer is lacking and not well understood, the advances in intrusion detection and access control technologies at the higher layers will be leveraged; however, even those technologies are not sufficient and fully robust, as the physical layer has its unique characteristics that demand in-depth studies. This will be a core research topic for the proposed research effort, which will investigate EM spectrum exploitation and control at the physical layer to provide an additional cyber defense shield. BENEFIT: The results of the research will have application to commercial computer networks, airline operations, and telecommunication systems.)

Applied NanoFemto Technologies LLC
181 Stedman St. #2,
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 761-4293

PI: Jarrod Vaillancourt
(978) 761-4293
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0180
University of Massachusetts Lowell
One University Ave.,
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 934-4823

ID#: F08B-T02-0101
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT02       Awarded: 6/30/2009
Title: Smart photodetector and focal plane array with voltage-tunable multi-spectral polarimetric imaging and on-chip signal processing and control capabilit
Abstract:  &nbs Multi-modal photodetectors and focal plane arrays (FPA) with adaptive multi-spectral polarization sensing and signal processing functionalities will greatly enhance Air Forces target recognition and discrimination capabilities. Current existing multi-spectral imaging systems employ scanning dispersive optics (gratings or prisms) to obtain spectral and polarimetric characteristics. These systems are heavy, bulky, and slow in response due to the mechanical scanning nature. We have developed two related technologies: (1) voltage-tunable multi-spectral polaricmetric quantum dot infrared photodetctor (QDIP) and FPA, and (2) high-speed (>5.6GHz) flexible electronics that can be fully-printed on any substrate. These technologies allow us to print controlling and processing electronics circuits on the multi-spectral polarimetric FPA. The FPA with on-chip processing electronics would not only greatly enhance the FPAs functionalities (smart FPA), but also substantially reduce the time delay by performing image processing locally. Such smart imaging system would significantly enhance Air forces target recognition and discrimination capabilities especially in highly dynamic scenes. In phase I, we will perform feasibility investigation of the proposed smart QDIP and FPA. A preliminary smart photodetector with adaptive multi-spectral and polarimetrci sensing capabilities will be developed for proof-of-concept demonstration. A large format (1Kx1K) smart FPA prototype will be developed in Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed innovation provides an enabling technology for smart FPAs with adaptive waveband and simultaneous polarization imaging and on-chip processing capabilities. Such smart FPA technology is expected to greatly enhance the target detection, identification and discrimination capabilities in high dynamic and ultra-low contrast environments. Commercial markets include portable IR sensing and imaging systems for atmospheric pollution and drug monitoring, spectroscopy, and medical diagnoses. The technology developed herein is expected to significantly advance smart multispectral polarimetric imaging technologies and greatly accelerate the commercialization of the ultra-compact and portable multi-spectral polarization IR imaging technologies with advanced functionalities to meet the potential needs of the billion-dollar defense and commercial market.)

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive,
Manassas, VA 20110
(703) 396-6329

PI: Antonio Abad
(617) 500-7048
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0128
Massachusetts Institute of
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3906

ID#: F08B-T03-0051
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT03       Awarded: 5/7/2009
Title: Development of Multidisciplinary, Multi-Fidelity Analysis and Integration of Aerospace Vehicles
Abstract:  &nbs Aurora Flight Sciences, in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), proposes an innovative method for representing and managing multidisciplinary design information from a wide range of analysis tools. The practical implication resulting from this novel approach is a mathematical framework that can be used to confidently determine the level of analysis fidelity required to maintain an acceptable level of design uncertainty at any point in the design process. To this end, key design parameters are modeled within a Bayesian context to represent the level of disciplinary uncertainty or confidence in each parameter at any point during the design process. Tools and models are characterized in the same way using their inherent level of disciplinary uncertainty. Estimation Theory is used to systematically merge the results from multiple tools and models in a manner that is commensurate with their respective levels of fidelity. The entire history of information generated from all previous activities, regardless of their individual levels of fidelity, is preserved and used to synthesize updated design parameters. Therefore, the central element of the proposed innovation is that the results from higher fidelity analyses are used to complement, rather than supplant the results from lower fidelity analyses. BENEFIT: The generic, far-reaching benefit of the proposed innovation is that it enables system managers to use lower-fidelity models and tools more confidently because the disciplinary uncertainty is explicitly and actively maintained and propagated throughout the design process. In addition, since lower fidelity information is preserved throughout the design process, our proposed approach potentially reduces the number of calls to high-fidelity models and tools. For Aurora, the proposed innovation is a key enabling technology for design-related activities as applied to unconventional vehicle concepts. To this end, the development of the proposed innovation would help Aurora maximize the utility of its collection of design tools. For the sponsor, the multi-fidelity management of a multidisciplinary design concept using Estimation Theory directly applies to the AFRL mission statement of discovering, developing and delivering a wide range of revolutionary technologies. More immediately, this project provides Aurora several commercialization opportunities. To this end, a part of the Phase II effort is envisioned to include collaboration with a software vendor to deploy the proposed innovation as part of an established MDO platform or tool package. This possibility is reinforced by the generic Bayesian framework at the core of the innovation, which enables its application over a variety of design processes beyond aircraft conceptual design. )

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive,
Manassas, VA 20110
(703) 396-6329

PI: Larry Bersuch
(703) 656-2288
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0129
Dept of Mat Sciences & Eng, 3121 Eng V, 405 Hilgard Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 825-8915

ID#: F08B-T07-0180
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT07       Awarded: 4/30/2009
Title: Advanced Transport Damage Tolerant GLARE Hybrid Bonded Wing Structure
Abstract:  &nbs The Air Force Next Generation Transport will apply advanced hybrid material forms to meet stringent weight and cost requirements and will consist of unitized structural concepts as a result. Glass-Reinforced Aluminum Laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates for advanced aerospace structural applications. GLARE laminates offer a unique combination of properties including outstanding fatigue resistance, high specific static properties, excellent impact resistance, and ease of manufacture and repair. GLARE laminates can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications by varying the fiber/resin system, the alloy type and thickness, stacking sequence, fiber orientation, surface pretreatment technique, etc. The Air Force, Navy and major military aircraft contractors have invested significant resources developing advanced out-of-autoclave bonded joint technologies that offer military platforms 15 to 30 percent weight and cost savings compared to conventional metallic structures. Three-dimensional woven pi-preform joints are also very tolerant to manufacturing flaws and damage after impact. Under this STTR program, Aurora will develop unitized bonded structure that applies the impact and damage tolerant GLARE materials to skins, spars, ribs, and skin stiffeners, while also attaching the members together in a co-bond assembly that joins the structural members with glass 3-D woven pi-preforms in an out-of-autoclave co-bond cure process. BENEFIT: The need for out-of-autoclave bonding processes, hybrid GLARE structures, and advanced joining methods for aircraft structures is driven by stringent requirements on the next generation Air Force transport aircraft, as well as lightweight structures for both commercial transportation and the space industry. As a leader in the development and manufacturing of composite and metallic structures for defense systems, Aurora is ideally positioned to develop and productize hybrid aircraft structures fabricated using out-of-autoclave processes and advanced joining techniques. The technology developed as a result of this program would find applications in both aircraft and spacecraft programs. Aurora will work to develop this technology and transition any processes or techniques developed during the course of this program to the military and commercial sectors. Application of this technology to US Government programs will help to allow advanced integrated aerospace structures design and increase performance through advanced materials while simultaneously decreasing manufacturing costs. Aurora will market the processes and tooling techniques developed during this program as a tool in the acquisition and development of new aircraft programs in both the military and commercial sectors.)

Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation
9950 Wakeman Drive,
Manassas, VA 20110
(703) 396-6329

PI: James Sisco
(617) 500-4835
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0169
Massachusetts Institute of
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3906

ID#: F08B-T15-0128
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT15       Awarded: 7/17/2009
Title: Physics-Based Control Technology for Augmentor Screech Suppression
Abstract:  &nbs High frequency combustion instabilities in gas turbine thrust augmentors (called screech) are detrimental to performance and limit operational flexibility, but are unavoidable due to the nature of augmentor operation and design. Present approaches to screech suppression via passive control provide acoustic damping over limited bandwidth, while active control methods are impractical for flight applications due to system weight. Innovative control technologies which are lightweight and possess broad frequency capability are needed to suppress instabilities in flight systems. In the proposed work proactive screech suppression technology will be developed to disrupt the underlying physical mechanisms for these instabilities before they arise. This system is unlike present active control approaches which engage following onset of instability. This new technology will be enabled through the identification of physical processes and dynamic mechanisms which control screech instabilities, and the formulation of appropriate analytical models describing their dynamic behavior. Parametric analyses identifying the sensitivities of these physics to acoustic frequency, operating conditions, and geometric variations will be used to generate preliminary understanding of screech dynamics and to develop early control concepts. This technology will not only be an enabler for thrust augmentors, but will also find application in other combustion systems susceptible to dynamic instability. BENEFIT: The screech suppression technology developed through this effort will have direct application to existing and planned thrust augmentor systems used in both military and commercial gas turbine propulsion systems. As such it would be of interest to large aircraft engine manufacturers such as Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, and Rolls Royce. Since the technology will be physics based, key dynamic models may be revisited and/or new models developed to adapt the control technology to other combustion systems which are susceptible to combustion instability such as aircraft and stationary gas turbine combustors, liquid rockets, boilers, and furnaces. This opens the technology to application over a wide range of military and commercial markets.)

Avanti Tech, LLC
5155 Seachase Street,
San Diego, CA 92130
(619) 277-5609

PI: Francesco Lanza di Scalea
(619) 277-5609
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0158
University of California San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive,
La Jolla, CA 92093
(858) 534-0247

ID#: F08B-T27-0097
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT27       Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title: Real-time In-situ Impact and Damage Locator in Anisotropic Aerospace Structures
Abstract:  &nbs This proposal is submitted by Avanti Tech, LLC, a new company founded in 2008 as a spin off from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) NDE & Structural Health Monitoring group. In Phase I, the team will develop the technique of Piezoelectric Rosettes for the location of impacts in aerospace structures, which are complex in either their material constituents and/or their geometry. The Piezoelectric Rosette concept was first proposed in 2007 by the same UCSD researchers to circumvent the problems of conventional Time-Of-Flight (TOF) triangulation of Acoustic Emission (AE) events used for impact/damage location. Because the TOF triangulation usually assumes one value of AE wave velocity in the medium, it is inaccurate when the wave velocity changes with propagation direction (e.g. anisotropic composite panels, stiffened panels, multilayered panels, etc..) or with propagation distance (e.g. tapered sections). The proposed Piezoelectric Rosette technique does not require prior knowledge of the wave velocity in the medium, and it thus has the potential to provide more accurate AE source locations in complex aerospace structures. The 9-month work will first develop analytical models of the rosette response to AE waves, and subsequently test the technique on anisotropic panels subjected to realistic pendulum and gas-gun impacts. BENEFIT: The successful completion of Phase I work will lead to the concept demonstration of the Piezoelectric Rosette impact location in aerospace-type panels. The technique has the potential to revolutionize impact location strategies because it does not require prior knowledge of the wave velocity in the test structure, contrarily to the common AE triangulation methods. Hence the potential for more accurate impact locations in complex aerospace structures where the wave velocity changes either with propagation direction (anisotropic, multilayered or stiffened components) or with propagation distance (tapered components). Once fully developed, the Piezoelectric Rosette technique can potentially replace TOF-triangulation in any impact-sensitive or damage- sensitive structure that is either heterogeneous or geometrically complex. Ideal applications will be military flying platforms (USAF, Army, Navy, Marines, Border Patrol, Coast Guard, etc..) as well as civilian composite flying platforms (Boeing 787, Airbus A380, etc..). Commercialization efforts will include the filing of a provisional patent application, followed by communication with Boeing, Airbus and NASA to explore patent licensing interests.)

1236 E. Grant Rd,
Tucson, AZ 85719
(503) 819-4639

PI: Salim Hariri
(520) 621-4378
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0143
University of Arizona
1230 E Speedway Blvd.,
Tucson, AZ 85721
(520) 977-7954

ID#: F08B-T06-0071
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT06       Awarded: 6/19/2009
Title: Cyber Superiority for Air Force Combatant Commanders
Abstract:  &nbs Cyber-attacks targeting our info-structure are being launched continuously from hostile locations. It is becoming apparent that securing US info-structure and preventing cyber-attacks cannot be met with existing techniques. By continuously monitoring and analyzing cyber-space applications, services, and resources and through the use of autonomic agents, AppFlows, data mining, and multi-level cyber-space behavior analysis, it is possible to proactively detect and protect from vulnerabilities, risks, and attacks in cyber-space. Integrating all these tools and techniques will also allow us to establish preventive countermeasure and execute cyber-strikes to eliminate attackers and guarantee the freedom of our cyber-space operations. It will also enable full visualization and control that will assist combatant commanders to establish comprehensive global understanding of the battle theater, and assist them to take real-time counter-actions. BENEFIT: Avirtec has established a solid record of performance in addressing the often competing demands of innovation, technology readiness, and commercialization. We have successfully demonstrated the Autonomic Network Defense (AND) system to the Air Force Battle Lab and other Department of Defense (DoD) units. Our AND technology achieves higher than 99% detection rate and extremely low-false alarm rate (less than 0.5%). In this Phase I of the project, we will adapt our AND technology along with autonomic agents, multi-level behavioral analysis and our soon-to-be-patented AppFlow to provide the ability to proactively detect both known and unknown cyber-attacks as well as strike with measureable counter-attacks. We envision significant opportunity to commercialize our CBMS technology to the Air Force (and other DoD element), as well as other commercial markets. Avirtec has developed innovative solutions that address the foremost aspects of the challenge, has established exceptional expertise along with proven track record for technology transfer. The outcome of this Phase will be a demonstrable prototype that will be carried forward into a Phase II to transfer the technology into commercial product for widespread Air Force and DoD use.)

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle,
Natick, MA 01760
(508) 655-5565

PI: Douglas Spence
(508) 655-5565
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0179
Massachusetts Institute of Tech.
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3906

ID#: F08B-T09-0203
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT09       Awarded: 6/22/2009
Title: Variable-Isp Ionic Liquid Electrospray Thruster
Abstract:  &nbs Busek proposes, with the MIT Space Propulsion Lab, to develop and characterize a variable-Isp colloid thruster operating only in the ionic mode and achieving its variable-Isp through use of a deceleration grid. This approach overcomes the usual inefficiencies encountered in variable-Isp colloid thruster operation, where lower Isp is accomplished through operation in droplet or mixed droplet/ion modes. An additional benefit is that the variable-Isp operation can be obtained under constant power. For the Phase 1 effort, the Busek/MIT team shall develop a linear emitter using photolithographic mask transfer and electrochemical etching on porous tungsten substrates. The emitter will subsequently be operated to determine V-I characteristics, verify ion emission and the decelerator concept, and perform time-of-flight measurements. Following these tests, direct thrust measurements shall be performed on Buseks magnetically levitated thrust stand to obtain direct thrust and Isp measurements. The linear emitter architecture will be designed in order to be suitable for multiplexing into thruster units able to provide greater thrust levels. Subsequent Phase 2 work would be to multiplex emitters and develop a deliverable 1mN class thruster with variable Isp of 500-5000 seconds. BENEFIT: Features of the proposed effort are: a colloid thruster able to operate only in ionic mode; variable Isp operation spanning 500-5000 seconds; and constant power operation. The benefit of pure ionic operation is that it avoids the inefficiencies of mixed-mode (droplet + ion) operation. Variable Isp provides versatility in a single thruster system, allowing for operations such as highly mass-efficient station- keeping as well as rapid maneuver that would otherwise require multiple systems. Constant power operation allows for simplification of power electronics design as well as reduced demands on the spacecraft bus, where variable power thrusters complicate power allocation and margin requirements.)

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle,
Natick, MA 01760
(508) 655-5565

PI: Akintunde Ibitayo Akinwande
(617) 258-7974
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0157
Massachusetts Institute of Tech.
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3906

ID#: F08B-T14-0216
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT14       Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title: Cold Cathode for High Power Magnetrons
Abstract:  &nbs Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Busek Co. Inc. propose to develop high total current (10A) planar and cylindrical cold cathode for high power magnetrons. The cathode will be based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nano-Fiber (VA CNF) technology. Emission uniformity and burnout prevention will be achieved by individual ballasting of the CNFs. MIT will demonstrate high total current emission from a planar VA CNF array while Busek will focus on the development of the tools for the fabrication of VA CNF arrays on a cylindrical substrate. In this manner the nano/micro scale features such as individual CNF ballasting and CNF tip uniformity will be demonstrated on planar, Si based substrates while the macro scale issues associated with CNF deposition on curved substrates will be addressed by Busek. A PECVD reactor for deposition of radially aligned CNF on cylindrical substrates will be constructed and tested by Busek. In Phase 2 the two paths will be merged resulting in advanced cylindrical CNF cathodes for high power magnetron applications. MIT and Busek are at the forefront of the cold cathode technology. MIT pioneered individual ballasting by un-gated FETs and Busek already delivered to NASA low power CNF based cathodes for in-space applications. BENEFIT: High power cold cathodes have applications in all areas of vacuum electronics including microwave devices (magnetrons, traveling wave tubes, radars), X-ray tubes, free electron lasers, high power/high voltage vacuum switches and e-beam guns. These devices span many industrial areas from microwave heating, to communication satellites and medical imaging with customers in both military and commercial markets. Thus the advent of better cathodes that could replace the presently used thermionic cathodes that have both current density limitations and impose large heat loads with concomitant cooling requirements would greatly benefit both commercial and military sectors. Small, but high value added market for cold cathodes is also in electric propulsion (EP) for spacecraft where source of electrons is needed for gas ionization and for ion beam neutralization. At present EP devices use hollow cathodes that consume both power (to heat thermionic emitter) and propellant gas, both of which would be eliminated by cold cathodes thus greatly benefiting all missions by reducing on-board power and propellant mass. Busek produces both EP devices and hollow cathodes and thus has ready market for in-space cold cathode applications.)

Calmar Optcom, Inc.
755 N. Pastoria Avenue,
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
(408) 733-7800

PI: Beom Soo Soh
(408) 733-7800
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0120
Stanford University
340 Panama Street,
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 725-6864

ID#: F08B-T16-0249
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT16       Awarded: 3/15/2009
Title: Mid-Infrared Precision Frequency Combs
Abstract:  &nbs We propose a new concept for generation of ultra-broadband frequency combs in the mid-infrared frequency range. An octave-wide mid-infrared frequency comb output will produced by a sub-harmonic optical parametric oscillator pumped by a compact femtosecond fiber laser. Such a broadband frequency comb source will permit precision spectral measurements in the wavelength region of strong molecular absorption bands, based on the recently developed principle of coherent Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Spectroscopic detection method based in our new source will offer an unprecedented speed of acquisition of spectral information, high accuracy and sensitivity and might be used for detection of chemical and biological agents, explosives'' vapors, as well as for medical breath analysis. BENEFIT: Our objective is to develop a radically new source of coherent octave-wide mid-infrared frequency combs and demonstrate precision spectral measurements in the wavelength region of strong molecular absorption bands. The frequency combs source will be based on a sub-harmonic optical parametric oscillator pumped by a compact mode-locked 1550 nm femtosecond fiber laser and will operate in the mid-IR range of 2.5-5 microns where main molecular signatures for most atmospheric organics, volatiles, and isotopes are found. For precision spectral measurements, we will apply a recently developed principle of coherent frequency-comb Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (CFC-FTIR) which will allow massively parallel spectroscopic probing in the mid-infrared region. This will result in an unprecedented speed of data acquisition (1000 spectra/sec), high spectral resolution (0.05 cm-1), and high detection sensitivity at parts-per-trillion level. The proposed device can perform ultrasensitive molecular identification and can be used for detection of trace chemical and biological agents, explosives'' vapors, as well as for detection of biomarkers in the exhaled breath for the medical breath analysis. The sensors broad-band range will allow the detection of a large number of different molecular simultaneously. )

Cascade Technologies Incorporated
1330 Charleston Road,
Mountain View, CA 94043
(650) 224-4882

PI: Shoreh Hajiloo
(650) 691-6067
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0172
Stanford University
Mechanical Engineering Dept.,
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 723-7721

ID#: F08B-T13-0044
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT13       Awarded: 7/1/2009
Title: Heat Transfer Prediction in Transitional Hypersonic Flow
Abstract:  &nbs Accurate prediction of heat transfer in hypersonic boundary layers undergoing transition from laminar to turbulent regime is a technical challenge. Heat transfer overshoot at transition region is of particular interest here. We have proposed a two pronged approach for this problem. On one hand we will conduct very accurate Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) studies to understand the mechanisms of the transition process. This will be done at the academic institution. The initial DNS studies will have artificial triggering of transition by suction/blowing boundary conditions at an upstream slot to reduce domain size. Later, a comprehensive DNS investigation of the naturally occurring transition region will be carried out. CASCADE will undertake a modeling approach using Reynolds Averaged Naiver Stokes (RANS) simulations. Specifically, the v2f turbulence model will be used for its ability to handle turbulence anisotropy encountered in boundary layer flows. An intermittency based transition model will be the starting point. The idea is to artificially alter the turbulence energy redistribution in at the transition onset to generate the overshoot. The detailed understanding of the transition regime gained from DNS studies will help in modifying the turbulence energy redistribution in a physically meaningful manner. BENEFIT: It is envisioned that a successful completion of the project will lead to an enhanced understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the transition regime of hypersonic boundary layers. Especially, the processes behind the overshoot at the onset of transition will be thoroughly understood from the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) studies. This will ultimately result in the development of advanced transition models based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach. Specifically, the outcome will be a modified v2f model capable of handling transitional flows in hypersonic systems. The developed tool will be immensely useful to the designers of hypersonic vehicles subjected to extreme thermal loads. Any industry involved in space access, supersonic flight and aircraft engine design will be potentially benefited. All these sectors can be targeted for licensing opportunities for our tools that will be developed from this project. The knowledge gained will also enable us to do consulting for the industry.)

Cellular Materials International, Inc.
2 Boars Head Lane,
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(434) 977-1405

PI: Yellapu V. Murty
(434) 977-1405
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0149
Princeton Univ.
D412 Engineering Quad,
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-5131

ID#: F08B-T25-0156
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT25       Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title: Electrical power generation for sustained high speed flight
Abstract:  &nbs This proposal seeks to develop a novel method for the extraction of significant electrical power from air breathing hypersonic vehicles by using the existing large temperature differential between the surface of the material inside the SCRAM engine and the temperature of the fuel which is also being used to cool that surface. Thermionic conversion is an attractive approach for power extraction since it does not involve any moving parts, requires no magnetic field, and is naturally suited to high temperature operation. The proposed work will explore the potential for operating a thermionic device at power extraction levels higher than 50 kW per m2 along with configuring the materials and structures of such a system to provide multifunctional benefits to extract power and high temperature load bearing structural wall surface of the SCRAM jet engine. A successful project will demonstrate through modeling and experiments the potential of a thermionic converter to operate in a high temperature-high current density regime. In addition, the design and fabrication techniques for a practical structure for implementation of this device in a SCRAM jet engine will be developed. BENEFIT: On board thermionic power generation for SCRAM jet powered aircraft is an attractive approach for generating significant auxiliary electrical power. Because these vehicles do not have a turbine in the engine, they must carry all elements of an auxiliary power system, including both an energy source, such as batteries, and a power conditioning systems. A vehicle with thermionic power generation has no need for an energy source since the power can be generated from the difference in temperature between the material inside the SCRAM engine and the temperature of the fuel which is being used to cool that surface; therefore, such a system offers significant weight savings. If the thermionic device works with high efficiency, it could be used for high temperature energy conversion in other applications as well. For example, it could be utilized for high temperature solar to electric conversion or topping cycles for furnaces. )

collins clark technologies inc.
1504 Georgene Dr. N.E.,
Albuquerque, NM 87112
(505) 263-7036

PI: Miles Collins Clark
(505) 263-7036
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0127
1 University of New Mexico, MSC01 1100
Albuquerque, NM 87131
(505) 277-2436

ID#: F08B-T14-0140
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT14       Awarded: 5/6/2009
Abstract:  &nbs In conventional microwave tubes, electrons are supplied by tunneling from specially prepared cathodes that are heated to high temperatures (>1000C), Total current (and tube power) is limited by cathode temperature with higher power possible only with higher temperatures or more exotic cathode materials. Operating at these temperatures results in reduced cathode lifetime and fragile tubes. Since the cathodes must be heated continuously even in low duty cycle pulsed operation, large support power systems and cooling are required. Our goal is to develop a cathode structure which operates at ambient temperature, a cold cathode, in which the electrons are produced by field emission from unheated micro-fibers covering the cathode surface. If the tips of these fibers are sharpened, the field is considerably higher than the average and large electron emission results. Careful fiber construction along with conditioning and specialized coatings reduces or eliminates outgassing and plasma formation. The electron emission is controlled by a voltage between the cathode and a transparent grid so that R.F. can be gated without the need for and external modulator. This approach will result in microwave tubes of higher power, longer lifetime, greater ruggedness and reduced complexity than conventional systems. BENEFIT: Success in this effort will result in significant power generation capability in conventional and high power microwave tubes. Substantial savings in weight and complexity accompanied by lifetime enhancement will be accomplished by elimination of conventional heated cathode technology.)

Combustion Research and Flow Technology, Inc.
6210 Kellers Church Road,
Pipersville, PA 18947
(215) 766-1520

PI: John L. Papp
(215) 766-1520
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0147
4455 Genesee Street,
Buffalo, NY 14225
(716) 631-4165

ID#: F08B-T13-0061
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT13       Awarded: 5/19/2009
Title: Heat Transfer Prediction in Transitional Hypersonic Flow
Abstract:  &nbs Our Phase I program will extend and validate a high-speed engineering transitional model (ETM) using new CUBRC data sets (such as HIFIRE-1) of interest to the Air Force. The ETM is responsive to tunnel noise and wall heating, and predicts the overshoot in heat transfer observed in transitional data. The model solves PDEs for transition onset as well as for an intermittency parameter that blends the viscosity from laminar to turbulent levels. The ETM has full 3D capabilities, viz., the PDEs solved generate a swept onset curve and variable transitional lengths downstream of the onset curve, and it is incorporated into Navier-Stokes codes in a manner akin to the inclusion of 2-equation turbulence models. Validation using fundamental high-speed data sets has been limited to axisymmetric or planar geometries. In this program, ETM predictions will be compared with those of the STABL parabolized stability (PSE) code to examine differences in their onset predictions emphasizing tunnel noise and surface temperature effects. Studies using the ETM will be performed for several basic 3D flows and modeling refinements will be incorporated to improve overall performance. Phase II experimental planning will be performed in collaboration with Holden / CUBRC to support ETM model improvements. BENEFIT: From CRAFT Techs perspective, commercialization potential results from having a validated engineering-oriented CFD code that can predict transitional processes for complex 3D flowfields. Having this unique capability permits CRAFT Tech to provide additional system and design support to varied DOD and NASA government agencies and their contractors, as well as to expanding the licensing of our CFD codes. CRAFT Tech is developing a scramjet web-based building-block data base (BBDB) for the Air Force that is being commercialized and licensed to varied research facilities. Unique to this data base is the inclusion of both data as well the CFD solutions, synchronized via specialized scripts so that external users can try out their codes on varied data sets and compare with existing CFD solutions in an automated black-box manner. The extension of this data base to include transitional data sets has significant commercial potential. From CUBRCs perspective, the use of their data sets to firmly establish transitional modeling capabilities in an engineering-oriented code should lead to additional experimental programs in the transitional arena. In addition, having their data sets linked into the new BBDB will enhance their utility by the research community.)

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71,
Hanover, NH 03755
(603) 643-3800

PI: Anthony J. Dietz
(603) 643-3800
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0151
77 Massachusetts Ave. E19-750,
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3906

ID#: F08B-T12-0120
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT12       Awarded: 6/16/2009
Title: Superconducting Power Transmission for Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:  &nbs Airborne directed energy weapons offer advantages over conventional weapons as they minimize collateral damage, reducing the cost of post-conflict reconstruction. However, the high power levels required by these weapons present size and weight challenges for airborne applications. In particular, the current capacity required of the power transmission cables can make the power transmission system one of the heaviest component systems. Increasing the power density of this system is a major program goal. We propose an innovative Superconducting Power Transmission system that offers a large reduction in the weight of the power transmission system as well as a significant reduction in the transmission power losses of this system. We achieve these performance gains by combining multi-stage current leads with a superconducting transmission cable, all cooled by a multi-stage turbo-Brayton cryocooler. The result is a system with major gains in power density and efficiency compared with a copper cable and even compared with other conventional superconducting solutions. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility and evaluate the performance advantages of our concept by designing and optimizing the system configuration for a specific airborne directed energy application. In Phase II we will build and test a technology demonstration of the proposed system. BENEFIT: The reduction in size, weight and losses provided by our proposed Superconducting Power Transmission (SPT) system make this an enabling technology for airborne directed energy applications. The proposed technology is extremely reliable and requires little maintenance. The SPT system would also be valuable for electric aircraft applications employing superconducting machines and for other high current power distribution applications such as those used in data server and super computing centers.)

Creare Inc.
P.O. Box 71,
Hanover, NH 03755
(603) 643-3800

PI: Jay C. Rozzi, Ph.D.
(603) 643-3800
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0133
Purdue University
610 Purdue Mall, Hovde Hall,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
(765) 494-1059

ID#: F08B-T29-0121
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT29       Awarded: 5/5/2009
Title: A Hybrid Machining System for High Performance Titanium Machining
Abstract:  &nbs Titanium alloys are desirable for high performance military systems due to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and their ability to withstand high temperatures. However, titanium alloys cannot be machined rapidly due to their low thermal conductivity and high strength. These factors render titanium alloys difficult and costly to machine. New manufacturing technologies are needed to reduce the cost and decrease the cycle time associated with fabricating finished titanium parts for military systems. Creares innovation is a novel Hybrid Machining System (HMS) for high performance machining of titanium alloys. Our innovation combines two key technologies: Laser- Assisted Machining (LAM) and Creares Indirect Cooling System (ICS). During the Phase I project, we will work with our academic partners to develop a proof-of-concept system, complete detailed testing and evaluations, as well as plan the system integration onto our commercial partners line of machine tools. During Phase II, we will develop and demonstrate a prototype system for technology transition and commercialization. BENEFIT: Aircraft engine manufacturers will be able to significantly reduce the cost of machining advanced materials for military and commercial systems. The increased affordability of these advanced materials parts will expand the market for these materials into automotive, heavy equipment, construction, and consumer products.)

Directed Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
2 Boar''s Head Lane,
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(434) 977-1405

PI: Derek D. Hass
(434) 977-1405
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0156
U. of California, Santa Barbara
1361D Engineering II, UC Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
(805) 893-2381

ID#: F08B-T21-0191
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT21       Awarded: 6/5/2009
Title: High-Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating for Silicon Carbide Composites
Abstract:  &nbs Advanced thermal/environmental barrier coating (T/EBC) systems are desired to protect Si-based ceramics in high temperature, water vapor containing environments. In this work, we will use novel coating synthesis techniques that enable the economical deposition of enhanced T/EBCs having higher temperature capability, improved durability and better erosion resistance than that of current state-of-the-art T/EBC systems (based on silicon/mullite + barium strontium aluminosilicate (BSAS)/BSAS). In the proposed Phase I effort, DVTI will team with UC Santa Barbara to identify T/EBC systems that are anticipated to meet the performance goals at both current and future engine operating temperatures and demonstrate the feasibility of applying these coatings using advanced processing approaches will enable enhanced coating microstuctural control and adhesion. The successful completion of the Phase I work will lead to a follow-on Phase II program focused on down-selecting candidate material(s) and applying the new coating onto complex Si-based components (including those having non line-of-sight regions) for testing using DVTIs production scale coating equipment. Success in this objective will offer the military a pathway toward production implementation of the advanced EBC systems developed in this work and the new deposition processing capabilities required for applying coatings of this type onto complex engine components. BENEFIT: This research is anticipated to result in a thermal/environmental barrier coating system that provides higher temperature capability, improved durability and better erosion resistance than current coatings. These advancements will enable the use of Si-based ceramics in a range of high temperature applications such a gas turbine engines and heat exchangers. These advances will not only benefit military engines, but also commercial and industrial engines requiring greater performance.)

EM Photonics, Incorporated
51 East Main Street, Suite 203
Newark, DE 19711
(302) 456-9003

PI: Ahmed Sharkawy
(302) 456-9003
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0005
University of Delaware
140 Evans Hall,
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 831-8170

ID#: F08B-T08-0177
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT08       Awarded: 10/15/2009
Title: Silicon-Based Nanomembrane Photonic and Electronic Components
Abstract:  &nbs This proposal deals with advanced design architectures for realizing silicon-based reconfigurable and stackable photonic analog signal processing engines supported on flexible or flat substrates using crystalline Si-based nanomembrane technology. Silicon nanomembranes are single crystals of Si that have been released from SOI substrates and redeposited on foreign flexible or flat substrates enabling the best features of different materials. Although they are in fact single crystals and posses the electronic properties of bulk silicon, they are flexible, deformable, and conformable. Fabrication of 3D structures is also possible by multiple transfers and stacking of nanomembranes opening a wide variety of possible device designs and applications. We propose reconfigurable, stackable, nanophotonic silicon based optical processing units that can be fabricated with silicon nanomembrane technology along with the necessary optical routing network architectures. Unit cell arrays will perform basic optical processing functionalities including filtering, switching, modulation and sensing and flat or flexible foreign substrates. BENEFIT: Signal filtering, multi-Gbit/s A/D converters, frequency converters and mixers, signal correlators, and beam formers for phased arrays, modulator, sensor, switches, low loss dielectric waveguides, flexible intelligent photonics, adaptive frequency selective photonics components

Esensors Inc.
P.O. Box 1702, 4240 Ridge Lea -- Suite 37
Amherst, NY 14226
(716) 837-8719

PI: Darold Wobschall
(716) 837-8719
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0175
University at Buffalo
402 Crofts Hall,
Amherst, NY 14260
(716) 645-5000

ID#: F08B-T02-0181
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT02       Awarded: 7/1/2009
Title: Adaptive Quantum-Dot Photodetectors with Bias-Tunable Barriers
Abstract:  &nbs The proposed research program focuses on design, fabrication, and characterization of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) which features bias-tunable parameters, including the spectral response, optical gain, and operating time. Wide variations of detector parameters can be realized through the bias-tunable potential barriers surrounding quantum dots. Changes in bias will transform the band structure and modify the population of electron states in quantum dots. These quasi-localized electrons create local and collective potential barriers, which in turn may significantly change the photoelectron capture and spectral characteristics. Specific tasks include (i) advanced modeling of regimes with bias-tunable barriers and search for optimal design (geometry, selective doping etc); (ii) fabrication and characterization of QD structures with selective doping favorable for bias-tunable barriers; (iii) measurements of detector parameters; (vi) optimization of structures and operating regimes. By investigating essential nanoscale phenomena in QD structures, we expect to develop an adequate description of electron kinetics and transport. By providing the needed base, this program will have a strong impact on the development of adaptive QDIPs. BENEFIT: Multispectral infrared remote sensing is an advancing technology with numerous applications, including detection of specific objects based on differences of their IR spectra relative to the background. Bias-tunable spectral functions and electron kinetics in quantum dot IR photo-detectors will allow of fabricating focal plane arrays with adaptive pixel under voltage control.

Faraday Technology, Inc.
315 Huls Drive,
Clayton, OH 45315
(937) 836-7749

PI: Stephen Snyder
(937) 836-7749
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0134
University of South Carolina
Office of Sponsored Awards, 901 Sumter St, Byrnes Bldg 5F
Columbia, SC 29208
(803) 777-1119

ID#: F08B-T17-0055
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT17       Awarded: 5/12/2009
Title: Development of Diagnostic Model for Hydrogen Permeation through High-Strength Alloys Under Corroding Conditions
Abstract:  &nbs In this Phase I STTR program, the project team will develop a mathematical model for the hydrogen permeation inhibiting efficiency for various metals and alloys. Experiments based on the Devanathan-Stachurski method will be used to determine the models kinetic parameters, which control hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen entry efficiency and effectiveness of electrodeposited, nanostructured layers of several coatings, such as Ni-P, Ni-B, Ni- P-X, Ni-B-X (X=WC, SiC etc.) composites, that inhibit hydrogen permeation into the hard metals and alloys will also be evaluated. In Phase II, the model will be used to optimize the coating surface properties to a level that essentially stops hydrogen absorption. Furthermore, the model will be developed into a user-friendly interface and, eventually, a software package for use by Air Force engineers to apply for specific aerospace-use materials and conditions. Commercialization activities and economic analyses throughout this program will meet the needs of the first customer, the U. S. Department of Defense, followed by expansion of the technology to meet the needs of third- party clients. BENEFIT: The anticipated result of the proposed STTR program is the development and validation of a hydrogen permeation model based on empirical data collected from Devanathan-Stachurski experimentation. The initial customer for this program is the Department of Defense; government investment in this project is crucial at this stage to the viability of developing coatings that prevent hydrogen permeation and corrosion in aerospace applications. This model will initially be packaged as a user-friendly interface for engineers of the U. S. Air Force. Upon successful demonstration, the model can be available for commercial metallurgical and metal finishing industries, where the model can be used to quantify the hydrogen entry efficiency in their manufacturing and development processes. )

Global Research and Development Inc.
1275 Kinnear Rd,
Columbus, OH 43212
(614) 481-8050

PI: David Doll
(614) 481-8050
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0132
Ohio State University
LASM, MSE, 477 Watts Hall, 2041 College
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 688-3684

ID#: F08B-T12-0089
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT12       Awarded: 5/5/2009
Title: Development of Compact, Lightweight Power Transmission Devices for Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:  &nbs This proposal covers investigating and optimizing superconductor cable configuration designs and various cooling methods for lightweight airborne power cables. During this program we will be modeling several types of superconducting cable configurations and design parameters for optimizing the system weight and volume as a function of cable length. We will study the trade-offs among the influencing parameters that will lead to an optimum design for a high-power electric transmission link between a power source and load, this load being some form of directed energy weapon. The design will account for operating current from 1 kA to 30 kA DC, pulsed AC and quasi-steady state in the range of 0 to 300 Volts as dictated by airborne conditions. Electrical insulation will be examined for the cable link and terminations at either end and for operating temperatures covering superconductors up to HTS requirements (80 K). Reliability will be a key design criterion for all subsystems. A working prototype based on the design optimization is projected for Phase II. BENEFIT: The potential commercial consequence coming from this SBIR Phase I and II is technology that will be applicable for commercial DC transmission cables for power utility applications. There is also the potential for short length AC and DC transmission cables for various industrial applications such as cables for induction furnaces and arc furnaces. There is also the potential for technology on current leads applicable to superconducting fault current limiters.)

Graphene Works
508 Claire Dr, Attn Edward Conrad
Atlanta, GA 30307
(404) 441-2880

PI: Walter A. de Heer
(404) 550-7621
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0183
Georgia Institute of Technology
Office of Sponsered Programs, 505 10th Street
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-6929

ID#: F08B-T10-0011
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT10       Awarded: 6/23/2009
Title: Graphene Fabrication Process and Apparatus Development
Abstract:  &nbs The road to graphene based electronics as identified in the 2007 ITRS road map hinges on the ability to grow electronically single sheet graphene over large areas with high uniformity. Graphene Works in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology has pioneered the growth and characterization of high quality graphene films grown on both polar faces of SiC. Under this STTR, this partnership will demonstrate the growth of high quality graphene films on SiC that have the electronic properties of a single graphene sheet. These films will be produced in a proprietary furnace method that is expected to scale to 5cm diameter SiC wafers by the end of this research effort. High mobility graphene samples (>10^5 cm^2/Vs) will be produced by this method on both standard and preprocessed SiC substrates. BENEFIT: The high quality samples produced in this project are expected to set the standards for epitaxial graphene on SiC. The availability of these samples will allow academic as well as industrial R&D research projects to rapidly advance graphene electronics devices. Furthermore, the experience gained in this phase of graphene production will allow Graphene Works to begin scaling epitaxial graphene on SiC to the industrial scale needed for post CMOS electronics. These graphene based device platforms are expected to lead very rapidly to terahertz switches that will have immediate military value; consumer application will follow. Through Graphene Works, graphene based device platforms can be introduced to the academic and industrial community for further testing and development. This will ensure US industries leading role in this important new field.)

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
(301) 294-5221

PI: Dan Xiang
(301) 294-4760
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0130
The Pennsylvania State University
212 Earth-Eng. Science Bldg, Dept of Eng Science & Mech.
University Park, PA 16802
(814) 865-7827

ID#: F08B-T01-0174
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT01       Awarded: 5/8/2009
Title: Passive, Conformal RFID Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring
Abstract:  &nbs A common method of structural testing or structural health monitoring is to install strain and temperature sensors and wire them to a data collection system. In some difficult test environments (e.g., jet engine fan and compressor blades, aircraft propellers, helicopter blades, etc.), a fixed wired connection between the sensor and the evaluation unit cannot be established. Usage of slip-rings and brushes causes additional mechanical and electrical problems such as interruptions, noise, etc., making these methods unusable in reliable systems. Currently available commercial off-the-shelf wireless systems lack flexibility and are inappropriate for applications involving harsh environments, tight spaces, and fast moving or rotating structures. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) and Prof. Bernhard R. Tittmann of Penn State University propose an innovative sensor system that is capable of providing high-bandwidth measurements of both strain and temperature on engine blades in harsh environments. BENEFIT: Strain and temperature measurements are vitally important for testing, validating, and monitoring the aero- structural design and health condition. It is highly desirable to have a non-intrusive and in-situ means to provide real time strain/stress and vibration data of a structure so that the catastrophic failure can be prevented. Our proposed passive, wireless sensor system can well serve such a purpose of early detection of abnormal event and hence improves safety of air and space vehicles and reduces unnecessary maintenances. Therefore, its market potential is huge.)

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
(301) 294-5221

PI: Dan Xiang
(301) 294-4760
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0184
Oakland University
Dept. of Mechanical Eng., 163 Dodge Hall
Rochester, MI 48309
(248) 370-2283

ID#: F08B-T04-0211
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT04       Awarded: 6/22/2009
Title: Monochromatic Light Illuminated High-Speed Digital Image Correlation System for Full-field, High Temperature Strain and Displacement Measurement
Abstract:  &nbs High temperature deformation and strain are important measures for characterizing behaviors of structural components under high temperature condition. Measuring full-field, high temperature deformation and strain can lead to a better understanding structural and material response, damage initiation, progressive damage, and ultimately limit state attainment in moderately high temperature material systems. Although CAD software and finite element modeling are useful for modeling and simulating high temperature deformation and strain, those models need to be validated by accurate measurements with proper boundary conditions and material properties. It is therefore critical to experimentally measure full-field, high temperature strain and displacement. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) and Prof. Lianxiang Yang from Oakland University propos to develop an innovative Monochromatic Light Illuminated High-Speed Digital Image Correlation (MLI-HS-DIC) System for full-field, high temperature strain and displacement measurement. The success of the proposed effort will result in the development of a novel technique that will provide rapid and accurate measurement strain and displacement under high temperature condition. This system will be inexpensive, portable, easy to use, and it will be suitable for field measurement. BENEFIT: The capture of a full-field strain and displacement of a structure/object under test is vitally important for validating modeling and simulation results. Measurements of full-field strain/stress and displacement under high temperature post significantly greater challenge and interest to broad scientific and engineering communities. This is because the high-temperature full-field strain/stress and displacement data is invaluable for gaining understanding of structural and material response, damage initiation, progressive damage, and ultimately limit state attainment in moderately high temperature material systems. The proposed research provides great support for validation and optimization of design data and CAD models as well as for improvement of product quality, and, thus, for enhancement of the lifetime and durability, and for reduction of the risk of failure of products.)

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
(301) 294-5221

PI: Tuna Guven
(301) 294-4620
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0155
Arizona State University
Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287
(480) 727-7389

ID#: F08B-T06-0161
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT06       Awarded: 6/12/2009
Title: Situational Awareness through Multi-layer Spectrum Sensing and Network Design
Abstract:  &nbs We present an integrated spectrum sensing, control and management framework that exploits multi-layer insights and system design. Through a holistic multi-layer view, the proposed solution provides enhanced cyber superiority and situational awareness. Main contributions in this effort are due to a paradigm shift resulting from relaxation of the assumption of existence of a common control channel as it not only leads oversimplification of the problem but also creates single point of failure, and causes inefficient use of radio resources spectrally and temporally. First, we investigate and design innovative spectrum sensing and control mechanisms in the medium access layer. We consider both cooperative and non-cooperative approaches. Second in the network layer, alternative routing mechanisms is designed based on ideas from opportunistic routing and network coding. These network layer solutions are spectrum aware to make use of the available bandwidth in the best way possible. BENEFIT: The proposed multi-layer spectrum sensing architecture and related mechanisms provide a solid solution to provide effective sensing and control of the electro-magnetic spectrum that is essential for superiority in the cyber domain. The framework and the related mechanisms can be applied to a broad range of military networks including war-time command and control, real-time surveillance network, homeland security, etc. Other potential commercial applications include border and coast patrol, law enforcement agency, emergency control center and various civil applications. In essence, the product resulting from this effort will be applicable to virtually all networks. The market is quite large and still developing due to the fact that existing mechanisms are prone to security attacks since the assumption that the existence of a common control channel creates a single point of failure. The aggregated commercial market size can be much larger than that of military applications.IAI is more than a think tank, and we have actively pursued with our partners the application of our technologies into actual products in the past. For this proposed effort, in particular, we strongly believe that our work provides the solution needed in practice. It is also reasonable to expect a source of revenue from service contracts related with the actual development of such product of QoS traffic management. In addition, IAI will closely work with our partners and collaborator companies such as Lockheed, Boeing, BAE systems, Raytheon, and Telcordia to transfer this technology into the military and commercial world.)

ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway,
Littleton, CO 80127
(303) 285-5129

PI: Russell Hollingsworth
(303) 285-5154
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0209
Colorado School of Mines
1500 Illinois St.,
Golden, CO 80401
(303) 273-3538

ID#: F08B-T18-0215
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT18       Awarded: 9/30/2009
Title: VLSI Compatible Silicon-on-Insulator Plasmonic Components
Abstract:  &nbs This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project will develop ultradense, low-power plasmonic integration components and devices for on-chip manipulation and processing of optical signals. Both passive and active components will be studied. Detailed performance predictions will be obtained through finite element modeling (FEM) of the harmonic Maxwell’s equations. The FEM provides detailed field information, including E field, B field, energy density, and time dependent information with subwavelength resolution, which greatly aids in understanding the underlying physical mechanisms. Test structures will be made using well established nanofabrication facilities, and characterized with spectral and polarization sensitive far field techniques. BENEFIT: The availability of ultradense plasmonic integration components that are compatible with VLSI processing will allow for optical manipulation to be performed on-chip. New and more powerful optoelectronic devices will be enabled by these developments.

Johnson Research & Development Co., Inc.
263 Decatur Street,
Atlanta, GA 30312
(404) 584-2475

PI: Bill Rauch
(404) 584-2475
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0171
Georgia Inst of Technology (Ga
270 Ferst Drive ,
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-9126

ID#: F08B-T25-0095
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT25       Awarded: 7/6/2009
Title: Electrical power generation for sustained high speed flight
Abstract:  &nbs Providing electrical power for long duration hypersonic flight is a technology that is required to bring about this revolutionary mode of transport. Whether for weapons delivery or for space access, the long duration missions anticipated require a novel approach to the generation of electrical power during flight. Scramjets contain no rotating shafts from which typical generators or mechanical pumps can be run. The energy source that is available during hypersonic flight is heat. We propose the use of the tremendous abundance of waste heat that occurs during hypersonic flight to produce electric power using a solid state heat engine. The Engine, using the compression and expansion of gas through electrochemical cells (similar to fuel cells) yields a Carnot equivalent cycle to convert any heat source into viable electric power. Leveraging our our subcontractor''s existing experience in hypersonic flight technologies, we shall analyze available heat sources and develop a comprehensive design for the heat engine to produce the required 100kW of electrical power. Phase I will produce a working design for both the desired 100kW system and a 1 kW prototype to be built during a subsequent Phase II effort. BENEFIT: Implementation of the proposed heat engine technology will provide a vehicle to produce additional electricity during flight to operate electronic systems and related equipment.)

Ktech Corporation
1300 Eubank Blvd. SE,
Albuquerque, NM 87123
(505) 998-6020

PI: Bruce Freeman
(505) 938-4192
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0164
University of Nevada Las Vegas
4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454026
Las Vegas, NV 89154
(702) 895-1526

ID#: F08B-T14-0186
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT14       Awarded: 7/2/2009
Abstract:  &nbs A non-equilibrium plasma is proposed as a source to generate repetitive high current, electron beams for microwave production in a slow wave structure. Due to the gas environment inside the hollow cathode electrode, the electron beam will generate a plasma channel minimizing beam space-charge effects allowing self-focusing. Since the non- equilibrium plasma is effectively the electron gun cathode, the properties of the cathode and hence the generated electron beam may be adjusted by changing the parameters of the plasma. Due to the plasmas supple structure and pulse shaping properties, the non-equilibrium plasma generated electron source is compact being built around a finite in length, cylindrical anode tube possibly terminated by a diaphragm with orifice housing. The diaphragm acts as a filter to shape the extracted electron beam and allows for some differential control in vacuum pumping if desired. External heating units, used in thermionic emission, are not needed and large electron beam accelerating potentials may be relaxed. The electron beam current and energy will be high enough to inject the beam into a metal plug attached to a needle inserted into the magnetron. The source will be designed such that the electron beam energy is high enough to yield a low probability of secondary electron emission. With special attention to capacitive coupling effects, the injected charge collected by the plug redistributes appropriately over the surface of the needle increasing the field for field emission to occur. The cylindrical symmetry of the needle allows for uniform emission. Instead of a solid cathode electrode, the cathode is a grid encapsulating the needle providing the appropriate potentials between cathode and anode for magnetron operation. BENEFIT: At the end of this program (Phases I & II), we will be positioned to advance the development of the technology to produce next generation prototypes of plasma cathode-based electron injectors for use with high-power magnetrons. It is anticipated that such development will lead directly to commercialization of these devices for military applications. If the Phase I research is successful in the tasks outlined above, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research will have an entirely new, prototypical plasma cathode for use with magnetrons and high-power fast switching applications. The work will lay a foundation for Phase II research in which the initial development is transitioned into applications of this new technology.)

Level Set Systems
1058 Embury Street,
Pacific Palisades, CA 90272
(310) 573-9339

PI: Susan Chen
(310) 573-9339
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0121
William Marsh Rice University
P. O. Box 1892, MS 16
Houston, TX 77251
(713) 348-6200

ID#: F08B-T24-0062
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT24       Awarded: 4/14/2009
Title: Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging and Anomaly Detection
Abstract:  &nbs Compressive Sensing (CS) is an emerging field based on the realization that a small collection of nonadaptive linear projections of a compressible signal contain enough information for reconstruction and processing. Expanding on this emerging technology, this project will make significant contributions in the following ways to the problem of anamoly detection in hyperspectral imagery: (i) increase our capacity for hyperspectral image acquisition developing new imaging and spectroscopic systems; (ii) expand the frontiers of CS from signal recovery to new applications including knowledge learning including anamoly detection; and (iii) strengthen our ability for extracting knowledge from huge data sets such as hyperspectral images beyong current limits imposed by existing computational resources and methods. BENEFIT: Our results have the potential to be economically revolutionary given the growing importance of digital imaging in many endeavors.)

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
(540) 769-8430

PI: Vladimir Kochergin
(540) 769-8400
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0049
UCLA - OCGA MC 951406, 11000 Kinross Ave, Suite 200
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 794-0135

ID#: F08B-T18-0110
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT18       Awarded: 2/26/2010
Title: Plasmonic Logic Devices
Abstract:  &nbs Digital electronics is approaching its limits in meeting the demand for increased processing speeds. Photonics, while promising high processing speed, is lacking integration capacity. Plasmonics promises to combine the information capacity of photonics with the integration density of electronics. The team of Luna Innovations, UCLA and Virginia Tech proposes to develop plasmonic logic devices and circuitry that will have an ultrasmall footprint, high bit rate, low power consumption, low insertion losses and spectral range compatible with presently used optical communication components. The proposed fabrication technique would be compatible with mass-production, offering low cost at high volumes. Such a device would provide the basis for future optical signal processing solutions and will ultimately lead to more powerful and efficient logic devices. In Phase I, the plasmonic devices and circuitry will be designed, the feasibility of the concept will be proven through modeling, key fabrication processes will be validated and the commercialization strategy will be enhanced. In Phase II, the design will be revised, a prototype will be fabricated and the commercialization strategy will be finalized. By the end of Phase II, an ultradense plasmonic logic gate will be demonstrated and fully characterized. In Phase III, Luna will commercialize the technology. BENEFIT: The unique performance features of the proposed ultracompact plasmonic active devices would make it an ideal solution for a number of important applications (e.g., optical communications, optical signal processing, etc.). The proposed technology has the potential to revolutionize the signal processing industry and may have a tremendous impact on US and global economies by providing a new platform for data processing and routing. The developed plasmonic logic devices will also find use in other applications such as data processing of military sensing systems. Luna’s previous work in the development of telecommunication components and testing equipment has attracted the attention of numerous OEMs who will consult with Luna to identify a commercialization strategy. By closely collaborating with industry principals, Luna’s technology will quickly transition from the laboratory to the market place and will be engineered to meet specific industry needs. The proposed technology will significantly reduce the size of present day optical components while increasing the clock speed of processors thus ensuring a high market impact and an outstanding commercialization potential of the proposed technology.

Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive,
College Station, TX 77840
(979) 693-0017

PI: J. Tim Wharton
(979) 693-0017
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0182
University at Buffalo, SUNY
608 Furnaa Hall, North Campus
Buffalo, NY 14260
(716) 645-2593

ID#: F08B-T11-0152
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT11       Awarded: 7/1/2009
Title: Advanced Thermally Remendable Carbon-Polymer Composites
Abstract:  &nbs Carbon fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites provide lightweight structural components for aerospace applications, including military aircraft and satellites. In spite of their high strength and modulus, their long-term durability and damage tolerance are of concern, particularly in relation to the weak interlaminar interface and the consequent tendency of delamination. To detect damage, researches have used changes in the intrinsic electrical resistance of the composite to determine the location, extent and type of damage. This detection method, which is enabled by the conductivity of the carbon fiber, results in resistive heating. Lynntech and SUNY/Buffalo propose to take advantage of the resistive heating of damaged materials by using thermally remendable polymers within the composites to provide self-healing capability which is initiated following mechanical damage. By incorporating thermally remendable polymers within the composite, the resistive heating can result in self-healing of microcracks. The Phase I work will involve developing carbon- polymer composites and determining the effectiveness of the resistive heating and self-healing. The Phase II work will involve optimization of the material properties, development of a process for large-scale production, and testing under static and fatigue loading. BENEFIT: The development of advanced self-healing carbon polymer composites will provide significant benefits to the Air Force and DoD including enhanced service life of structural composites which will result in tremendous life cycle cost savings. The composites have dual-use (military and private sector) applications for numerous space, air, sea and land vehicles. In addition to military applications, the commercial potential for this technology in private sector applications is extremely high. Materials that are capable of self-healing will provide a substantial improvement to the state-of-the- art.)

MesoScribe Technologies, Inc.
25 Health Sciences Drive, Suite 125
Stony Brook, NY 11790
(631) 444-6645

PI: Brian Keyes
(631) 444-6691
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0142
Stony Brook University
Research Foundation, Office of Sponsored Programs
Stony Brook, NY 11794
(631) 632-9029

ID#: F08B-T21-0125
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT21       Awarded: 5/21/2009
Title: High-Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating for Silicon Carbide Composites
Abstract:  &nbs SiC/SiC fiber reinforced composites have been developed for use in gas turbine hot sections allowing for increased temperatures and therefore, increased fuel efficiency and lower emissions. A thermally-sprayed functionally- graded thermal/environmental barrier coating is proposed for SiC/SiC composites designed to provide the necessary thermal protection while shielding the SiC/SiC composite from water vapor. Stresses in the coating system are mitigated through functionally graded layers and through porosity control which allows tailoring of elastic modulus. Materials selection for the various coating layers will consider those which have demonstrated excellent thermal protection and minimal water vapor degradation. BENEFIT: SiC/SiC fiber reinforced composites have been developed with the goal of increasing combustion gas temperatures, lowering weight and extending the lifetimes of turbine components. These goals also lead to the additional benefits of reduced NOx and CO2 emissions, higher fuel efficiency, and higher thrust-to-weight ratios for aircraft. The proposed coating technology will increase the durability of ceramic composite engine components exposed to high temperature combustion environments.)

Metis Design Corporation
10 Canal Park, Suite 601
Cambridge, MA 02141
(617) 661-5616

PI: Seth S. Kessler
(617) 661-5616
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0165
77 Massachusetts Avenue , Bldg. 33-314
Cambridge , MA 02139
(617) 252-1539

ID#: F08B-T23-0038
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT23       Awarded: 6/4/2009
Title: Health Monitoring of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Enhanced Composites
Abstract:  &nbs Composites present additional challenges for inspection due to their heterogeneity and anisotropy, the fact they fail by interacting modes, and since damage often occurs beneath their surface. Currently successful laboratory non- destructive methods, such as X-ray and C-scans, are impractical for inspection of large integrated structures. It is clear that new approaches for inspection of composites need to be developed. During the proposed research, Metis Design Corporation (MDC) will collaborate with MIT to resolve these issues by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs can offer excellent conducting properties, and MIT has demonstrated the ability to reliably couple CNTs to carbon fibers, greatly enhancing their conductivity. Resistive methods have been investigated previously, however they are hindered by small measurements by conventional fibers and interconnection issues. CNTs have the potential to eliminate both problems by increasing conductivity and offering electrical break-out connections through 3-D leads brought to the surface. During Phase I, MIT will fabricate prototype CNT enhanced laminates. Subsequently the specimens will be subject to damage. MDC will evaluate the specimens and formulate algorithms to interpret the data. At the conclusion of Phase I, MDC will propose an architecture to practically introduce this method into aerospace composite structures. BENEFIT: SHM technologies have the potential for many economic benefits in a broad range of commercial and defense markets. These systems find utilization within structures ranging from military or civil aircraft to spacecraft and naval vessels. The first major benefit is that health monitoring eliminates the need for scheduled inspections. A second major economic benefit is that a continuously monitoring system would allow for the use of the much more efficient condition based maintenance (CBM) design methodology of a structure, otherwise known as need-based repair. A third benefit is the increased service time of the structure. Finally, an SHM system could have a significant financial impact if it is able to detect the need for maintenance before a catastrophic failure, potentially saving lives and a costly vehicle. Airlines that chose to use these systems would be able to reduce the quantity and duration of required inspections, giving them the opportunity cost to capture profit due to more up-time. Another important aerospace market would be to facilitate launch/no-launch decisions for expendable launch vehicles (ELV), and enable quick turn-around times for reusable launch vehicles (RLV). One of the key factors to the marketability of this damage detection patch is its versatility, the potential for integration into not just new applications, but existing systems as well. The first obvious target is

Microscale, Inc.
800 West Cummings Park, Suite#3350
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 995-2245

PI: Xingtao Wu
(339) 927-1996
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0208
New Jersey Institute of Technology
1 University Height, Tiernan Hall, Office 403
Newark, NJ 07102
(973) 596-5781

ID#: F08B-T08-0037
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT08       Awarded: 9/30/2009
Title: Hierarchically Dimensioned SiNM Mirror Systems for Adaptive Optics
Abstract:  &nbs Microscale, Inc. in collaborating with New Jersey Institute of Technology proposes to develop an innovative silicon nanomembrane mirror (SiNM) technology for adaptive optics by using a novel low cost and hierarchically- dimensioned multilevel SiNMs integration design.This proposed Phase I effort continues to bridge the gap between the present state of development of SiNM mirror technology and the practical implementation of this technology in high resolution, wide dynamic range applications. The high performance, low cost, and small size of these devices will be of significant value and serve as an enabling technology for a wide range of adatpive optics applications. BENEFIT: (1) correction of aberrations in large-aperture ground-deployed and/or space-based telescopes, (2) high-resolution imaging through fluidic media such as atmosphere, (3) free space laser commmunication through atmospheric turbulence, (4) laser beam stabilizing, and (5) optical path alignment, (6) directed laser energy delivery through atmospheric turbulence, (7)ophthalmology retinal imaging and laser surgery, 8)lasing cavity correction and surface tuning, and (9) image stabilizers in camera systems, will require the proposed reliable SiNM membrane mirror wavefront correctors with several hundred to millions of elements.

MicroXact, Inc.
80 Massie Drive,
Christiansburg, VA 24073
(540) 392-6917

PI: Paul Hines
(540) 392-6917
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0185
University of California Los Angele
56-125B Engineering IV Bldg.,
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 825-1609

ID#: F08B-T28-0246
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT28       Awarded: 6/25/2009
Title: Reconfigurable All Optical Information Processing
Abstract:  &nbs The team of MicroXact, Inc. and UCLA proposes to engineer revolutionary nonvolatile reconfigurable plasmonic gates for information processing. The unique approach allows one to program any gate between four different states, thus allowing tremendous opportunities to engineer all-optical Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The proposed gates can be used in any computing architectures, such as conventional optical processing, or optical cellular automata. Gates modulation is nonvolatile and one can use proposed solution to built reconfigurable memory arrays. The proposed reconfigurable gates, if successfully realized, would allow one to build all-optical information processing engines with unmatched speed, functionality, integration density and low power dissipation. Specifically to the Air Force the proposed solution can provide integrated processing platforms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and other devices where processing speed and integration density are critical. Reconfigurable plasmonic gates will allow the development of an optical DSP and FPGAs thus permitting innumerable potential applications. In Phase I the team will develop a thorough model, will design 1st Generation logic devices and will validate experimentally key physical processes. In Phase II the team will develop integrated reconfigurable plasmonic gates and will thoroughly test it. In Phase III MicroXact Inc. will commercialize the developed technology. BENEFIT: Proposed technology will result in the number of applications. Proposed reconfigurable plasmonic gates will provide integrated processing platforms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and other devices where processing speed and integration density are critical. Reconfigurable plasmonic gates will allow the development of an optical DSP and FPGAs for tomorrows high speed networks, and the development of programmable optical logic gates will have innumerable potential applications. More immediate applications include utilizing the base platform, the highly integrated reconfigurable plasmonic switch, as integrated high bandwidth modulators. Ethernet over WDM will be used for packet transport and IP/MPLS/Ethernet will be used for data transport in near future. Optical FPGAs and DSPsare the main candidates for this technology.)

Nanocomposix, Inc.
4878 Ronson CT STE K,
San Diego, CA 92111
(619) 890-0704

PI: Thomas Darlington
(619) 602-2746
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0160
48-121G Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Plaza
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 825-2383

ID#: F08B-T11-0083
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT11       Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title: Thermally Remendable Composite Structures with Resistive Heating Network of Carbon Fibers
Abstract:  &nbs Carbon fiber-reinforced composites undergo subcritical damage well before final failure. A self-healing composite material is proposed that will autonomously sense and repair localized damage in composite structures. Healing is accomplished via two main components. The first component is a thermally remendable polymer matrix that is integrated into the structural carbon fiber composite and has the ability to be healed with the application of heat. The second component is an addressable conducting network (ACN) that will both sense resistance changes due to damage in carbon fiber composites as well as deliver current for resistive heating to addressable locations within the composite. A health management system will continuously monitor the health of the structural composite and will determine the location and extent of detected damage as well as the potential for autonomous repair. BENEFIT: The proposed technology provides a solution to the serious problem of detecting and repairing impact, delamination and microcracking damage in aircraft and vehicles. Currently, such damage can go undetected resulting in a compromised structure that can endanger personnel and reduce mission readiness. The software developed in conjunction with the novel structural designs developed within this program will allow maintenance personnel to continuously monitor the health of composite structures. When damage is detected, a healing procedure can be initiated to rapidly restore the integrity of the structure. Commercial and military aircraft are increasingly constructed from carbon fiber, and the proposed monitoring and healing technology will reduce maintenance cost and increase service lifetimes of composite air frames. The ability to monitor the health as well as address structural issues remotely will provide an unprecedented ability to maintain inaccessible composite structures such as satellite and space vehicles.)

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
(512) 389-9990

PI: Steve Savoy
(512) 389-9990
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0003
University of Texas
1 University Station C1600, RLM 11.216
Austin , TX 78712
(512) 471-7371

ID#: F08B-T18-0187
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT18       Awarded: 10/15/2009
Title: Ponderomotive Field Effect Transistor
Abstract:  &nbs Over the past fifty years, technological advancements in the microelectronics industry have been astounding. As a result of this success, today’s microfabricated devices are inexpensive, can be produced in large volumes, and can be fabricated with billions of sub-100 nm logic elements as small area microchips. Further increases in computational density will require even more innovation, as fundamental limitations in semiconductor lithography are approached. One strong candidate for continued miniaturization is the integration of optical signals with electronics at the transistor level. An even more desirable device would be a transistor (or a similar electronic element) whose action is strongly modulated (gated) by an optical signal. Such device would benefit from the extraordinary bandwidth of the optical signal that could be delivered directly from a fiber, as well as from the logic capabilities of an electronic transistor. To fulfill the need for such a device, Nanohmics Inc. and Drs. Gennady Shvets and Alex Demkov at The University of Texas at Austin propose to develop an optically gated Ponderomotive Effect Transistor (PET) consisting of a plasmonic antenna placed in the gate area. The plasmonic antenna concentrates the intensity of the otherwise broadly focused laser beam in the gate region and locally modifies the band structure of the device. BENEFIT: With successful implementation of the proposed research effort, a new paradigm in microelectronic processing will be enabled. Fabrication of a ponderomotive effect transistor will provide a new method for transmitting data between microchip nodes and provide compelling capabilities in logic processing and information storage. This will be the result of the fact that transmission of optical data occurs without low loss. The key to the proposed innovation is the successful ability to model and fabricate device structure dimensions that can take advantage of the exceptionally high amplification found with resonant plasmonic coupling.

Neocera , LLC
10000 Virginia Manor Road, Suite 300
Beltsville, MD 20705
(301) 210-1010

PI: Solomon Kolagani
(301) 210-1010
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0126
University of Pittsburgh
School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics and Astr
Pittsburgh, PA 15260
(412) 624-9070

ID#: F08B-T22-0219
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT22       Awarded: 4/15/2009
Title: Development of Nanoelectronic Materials and Devices, Based on Novel Metal-Oxide Interfaces
Abstract:  &nbs The recent discovery of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between a polar oxide (LaAlO3) and a non-polar oxide (SrTiO3) has fueled significant interest in oxide-based electronics. The interface between these materials has been shown to be switchable between a metallic and insulating state when the LaAlO3 thickness is exactly 3 unit cells. The primary objective of this STTR effort is to develop key materials processes that will enable ultra-high-density logic and memory operations in novel physical systems. Phase I demonstrations will focus on the development of reliable methodologies for producing high-quality oxide heterostructures such as 3 unit cell thick LaAlO3 films deposited on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 substrates. The effort addresses reliable high-density methods for producing ohmic contacts to the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, and demonstration of a prototype transistor design. A three terminal device whose behavior is similar to a conventional FET will be fabricated and the operation of this device will be characterized extensively over the entire operating range (both voltage/current and frequency). Neocera is teaming up with University of Pittsburgh in undertaking this STTR effort. BENEFIT: Successful accomplishment of program objectives will enable a novel oxide electronics- based platform for a variety of military and civilian applications. Examples include ultra-high density integration of reconfigurable logic and non-volatile memories with impact for lightweight low-power computing needs in land air & space vehicles. In the commercial sector, development of nanoscale memories and transistors may be applied to consumer electronics, sensitive charge detection, and biomedical applications.)

NexGenSemi Corporation
27126 B Paseo Espada, Suite 701,
San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675
(949) 422-6625

PI: Mark Bennahmias
(949) 422-6625
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0199
University of California Berkeley
366 LeConte Hall, MC 7300,
Berkeley, CA 94720
(858) 232-4548

ID#: F08B-T22-0192
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT22       Awarded: 9/30/2009
Title: Digital Beam Processing of Oxide Nano-electronic Devices (Digi-POND)
Abstract:  &nbs NexGenSemi Corporation/UC Berkeley team will explore the feasibility to produce high density LaAlO3 / SrTiO3 nanoelectronics using Digital Beam Processing (DBP). DBP is a modified resistless, maskless manufacturing technique (compliant to Executive Order 13329) performed within a single cluster tool with capability to perform patterned etch, deposition, and implant processes thereby reducing both direct and indirect costs and lead times. Direct growth of LaAlO3 / SrTiO3 material using patterned atomic layer deposition (ALD) is possible within such a process tool. The Phase I feasibility study will identify core DBP techniques for manufacturing high density multi- component oxide heterostructure (MCOH) devices. The results will outline a test and evaluation strategy using transport and tunneling spectroscopy for process optimization during Phase II. The results will provide estimates of Phase III tool performance and include evaluation of throughput, feature size, overlay accuracy, dimensional control and other aspects of a production tool in conjunction with the core processes for fabrication of high-density MCOH nano-electronics. The Phase I study will focus on newer multi-activation processes performed post-exposure including nucleation deposition, atomic layer deposition, and several post-exposure, low-dose etching techniques and how they emulate to MCOH device processing. BENEFIT: The NexGenSemi Corporation/UC Berkeley team is presenting a disruptive technology for achieving high density nano-scale LaAlO3 / SrTiO3 devices using DBP. Realization of high density MCOH nano-scale electronics will have many commercial applications in the areas of ultra-high density memory and logic, quantum encryption, electronic functionality based on single electrons, quantum computing, and information processing. A successful outcome on this program will help find a solution to the current challenges for producing microelectronics in large volumes, rather than one-off devices as evidenced by the slowness with which the MEMS industry has evolved, and provide new enabling technologies that can deterministically with high precision and resolution provide process building blocks beyond the 45 nm node.)

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
(310) 626-8384

PI: Scott Bland
(310) 626-8360
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0122
University of Arizona
POB 3308, Office of Research and Contrac
TUCSON, AZ 85722
(520) 626-4589

ID#: F08B-T27-0118
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT27       Awarded: 5/5/2009
Title: Wireless Sensing for In-Situ Impact and Damage Location in Anisotropic Aerospace Structures
Abstract:  &nbs The ability to quickly and inexpensively detect and identify incipient damage in aerospace structural components before catastrophic failure occurs has become a pressing need for the Air Force. Acoustic emission technologies have been explored extensively over the last 30 years for NDE and structural health monitoring applications, but significant limitations exist in practically implementing this technology due to the difficulty in damage location for composite and built-up structures, the relatively bulky acoustic emission sensors, and the extensive wiring required for the system. NextGen Aeronautics in collaboration with the University of Arizona are proposing to develop robust damage location algorithms and a very low power wireless AE sensor which will overcome the current limitations in AE system technology. The proposed AE sensor network will be capable of locating damage in composite and built-up structures without prior characterization of the structure by initially actively interrogating the structure, the system then switches to a passive listening mode which continuously monitors the structure, but requires very little power. This approach will allow the user to place the wireless sensor system as desired with little effort, maximizing the utility of the system and reducing installation costs. We will improve and optimize algorithms that have been developed previously by Dr. Kundu at the University of Arizona for impact location in composite plates using AE signals. The proposed sensor node will integrate the rapidly developing area of wireless communications, and integrated circuit technology, with smart materials technology to perform continuous monitoring of the vehicle structures. The objective of the Phase I program is to develop and demonstrate that the proposed damage locator algorithms and conceptually design the low power wireless sensor node. In order to achieve this goal, the proposed algorithms will be experimentally tested on a variety of metallic and composite specimens and a breadboard level prototype of the wireless AE sensor will be developed. We will achieve a TRL of 3 in Phase I and subsequent technology transition to a TRL of 5 in Phase II. NextGens strength lies in related prior work, comprehensive knowledge of damage detection techniques, as well as an established history transferring R&D efforts into higher technology readiness levels (TRLs) for integration onto military platforms BENEFIT: The proposed technology has the potential to significantly reduce the life-cycle cost of new aerospace structures by allowing condition based maintenance. The proposed damage location algorithms and wireless acoustic emission sensors will make a practical SHM system feasible which will help reduce the repair time by detecting impacts and damage at an early

Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc.
605 Ellis Street, Suite 200,
Mountain View, CA 94043
(650) 968-9457

PI: Patrick Reisenthel
(650) 968-9457
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0135
Ohio State University
224 Bolz Hall, 2036 Neil Ave Mall
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 247-6080

ID#: F08B-T03-0043
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT03       Awarded: 5/5/2009
Title: Development of Multidisciplinary, Multifidelity Analysis and Integration of Aerospace Vehicles
Abstract:  &nbs This proposal seeks to pioneer innovative methods for managing data on various levels of fidelity through extensions of previous methods, computational results, and rigorous mathematical results. Specifically, Multifidelity Sequential Kriging Optimization (MFSKO) will be extended to address multicriteria optimization involving more than a single type of model representing more than a single discipline. Also, rigorous convergence results from Schonlau (1997) will be extended to multifidelity optimization in the context of radial basis function methods and Kriging models. Adaptive methods will be developed to achieve probabilistic convergence results and enhance performance. Results will be illustrated using a flying wing UAV design function integrating information from structural and fluid models. BENEFIT: Constructing a broad, yet detailed and accurate, portrayal of the design space will help designers manage the design risk and expand design options while remaining cognizant of the associated uncertainties and of the remedies/options available to reduce these uncertainties. Use of the proposed technology will help reduce the design and life-cycle cost of next-generation high-efficiency flight vehicle systems, and will help attain better designs, by providing a better understanding of how the design variables interact and influence each other under the influence of uncertainty and by incorporating these interactions early in the design process. Military applications include the design of advanced sensor platforms, UCAVs, and space launch vehicles. A diverse range of design applications exists beyond the aerospace field, including for example in the renewable energy, chemical and metallurgical industries, in macroeconomics and pharmaceuticals, and in the optimization of manufacturing processes.)

Numerica Corporation
4850 Hahns Peak Drive, Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
(970) 461-2422

PI: Juan Vasquez
(937) 427-9725
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0138
Rochester Institute of Technology
One Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
(585) 475-7844

ID#: F08B-T02-0093
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT02       Awarded: 6/15/2009
Title: Multi-modal Performance Driven Sensing
Abstract:  &nbs To provide complementary data and enable the synergistic gain from the fusion of multiple sensing modalities, there have been recent efforts to incorporate multiple sensors on the same platform. This approach may require vastly different detector material and apertures (optical lenses and antennas) due to the physics involved. However, within a limited spectral range (e.g., visible through infrared electro-optical wavelengths) one can envision an integrated multi-modality sensor that does not violate the laws of physics and takes advantage of the ongoing advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology. The miniature nature of these devices allow concepts that can be integrated at or near the detector focal plane, thus leading to compact size and much simplified alignment techniques. On-device co-alignment addresses one of the limitations of multiple single-mode sensors, which is the inability to collect perfectly aligned imagery across modalities thereby limiting the possible fusion gain. In addition to gains possible from integrated multi-modality sensors, there is an opportunity for improved ISR performance from sensors designed to optimally adapt based on feedback from integrated real-time exploitation algorithms in a performance driven sensing paradigm. BENEFIT: The basic research conducted under this proposed effort will identify robust candidate technology that can then be further developed through additional research and engineering to provide a transformational integrated sensing capability to serve primarily Department of Defense ISR and SSA technology needs, but also could be adapted for civilian and homeland security applications. The integrated capability for tracking objects of interest (persons, vehicles, etc.) would have clear benefits to homeland security, particularly for public events and transportation centers. The integrated multi-modality devices could lead to broader applications of traditional urban mapping and site monitoring technology and expand those commercial markets. In Phase I, the specific problem of multi-modal sensor design and feature-aided data exploitation is addressed. The Phase~II effort will culminate in the fabrication of sensor designs for model validation, but will also provide prototypes that can be used for marketing of these sensor technologies. The developmental sections of the exploitation software can be readily translated into a real-time system for direct use by the military and civilian reconnaissance communities. The solutions to these problems are of direct interest to the U.S. DoD as well as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). )

Omega Optics, Inc.
10435 Burnet Rd., Suite 108,
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 996-8833

PI: Maggie Chen
(512) 996-8833
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0212
University of Texas at Austin
10100 Burnet Rd. MERB-160,
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 471-7035

ID#: F08B-T08-0173
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT08       Awarded: 9/30/2009
Title: Silicon Nanomembrane-Based 3-D Photonic Crystals for optical true time delay lines having integratability with printable FETs and Antenna Elements
Abstract:  &nbs Omega Optics, Inc. and the University of Texas at Austin propose Si-nanomembrane-based 3-D photonic crystal waveguides (PCW) for optical true-time-delay (TTD) lines with a fully printable phased-array antenna (PAA). The TTD lines are composed of highly dispersive slow-light enhanced Si-nanomembrane PCWs which will be integrated with Other key printable components including field effect transistor (FET) amplifiers and antenna elements on a flexible substrate such as Kapton. The slow light effect of silicon nano-membrane-based PCWs will dramatically reduce the waveguide length and therefore the payload for air-borne applications due to the enhanced time delay through wavelength tuning. The group velocity dispersion of nano-membrane-based PCW can be as high as 50 ps/nm∙mm, which is 107 times that of regular telecom fiber. Due to the enhanced dispersion, time delay of 1ns can be obtained with only 1 mm PCW employing wavelength tuning of 20nm. The fully printed (using special ink jet printer) high frequency carbon nanotube (carrier mobility of 46770cm2/V•s) based FET amplifier has an expected operating frequency as high as 100GHz. For Phase I program, the feasibility will be proven of the Si- nanomembrane PCW TTD device in conjunction with other printable antenna elements. BENEFIT: Si nanomembranes are being widely investigated and have potential applications in many areas. The proposed approach will lead to a new generation of Si nanomembrane-based 3-D photonic crystal waveguide true time delay (TTD) device, which will have both military and civilian telecommunications applications. For military applications, it will be used in radar, communication, electronic warfare antenna signal processing systems, and wideband TTD applications, including phased-array beam steering, tunable microwave filtering and radar signal simulators. In optical telecommunications industry, the time delay module will provide a high performance and low cost optical buffering solution within all-optical routers. Due to the reduced size and weight, low unit cost and supreme performance, the TTD module will lead to a large market in optical/RF networking systems for both wide area networks (WANs) and metro area networks (MANs) where wired and wireless communications are combined. The fully printable technique combining carbon nanotube field effect transistor, antenna elements and the 3-D photonic crystal waveguide will provide low cost, high yield and conformal performance. This will revolutionize the phased- array radar technology for both civilian and military.

Photonic Systems, Inc.
900 Middlesex Turnpike, Building #5
Billerica, MA 01821
(978) 670-4990

PI: Gary E. Betts
(978) 670-4990
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0187
University of California, San Diego
ECE Department, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0407
La Jolla, CA 92093
(858) 534-6180

ID#: F08B-T28-0033
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT28       Awarded: 6/29/2009
Title: Reconfigurable Materials for Photonic Systems
Abstract:  &nbs The Air Force has expressed a need for reconfigurable cellular electronic and photonic arrays and their great potential in enabling the direct implementation of complex systems as software-defined emulations, configuring pre- built logic, and other optical processing or transmission functions. Our proposal addresses the need for integration of the universal logic cells and the reconfigurable interconnection matrix. The technology we propose will enable the photonic integrated circuit (IC) work is as flexible as its electronic counterparts such as the field programmable gate array (FPGA) IC. In particular, we propose to design and fabricate a universal logic cell formed by coupling the active micro-ring resonator with a Y-junction splitter. The gain and phase condition of the micro-ring will be controlled by an external voltage and optical probe signal so that the logic cell will perform in multiple states. The logic cell array will be connected by the reconfigurable optical interconnection matrix so that even more complicated functions can be realized. In Phase I, we propose to design, process, and demonstrate an electro-optical AND logic gate with two logic cells connected by photonic crystal interconnection waveguides. BENEFIT: Our proposed reconfigurable photonic integrated circuit (RPIC) will directly benefit Air Force warfighting systems due to its potentially pervasive morphability. The RPIC will reduce the development cost of complicated optical transmission or processing units since its basic structure is based on universal logic cells and a reconfigurable interconnection matrix that can be easily reconfigured according to real-time needs. It will also increase the agility of the fighting system due to its flexibly electrical and optical control methods. Due to its compact size and light weight, our RPIC can be easily integrated into airborne control or communication systems in the military aircrafts. The RPIC also benefits other military applications such as the secure command and communication systems in a battlefield where the communication methods need real time reconfigured to avoid the hostile detections. The RPIC also increases the survivability of the war systems since they can be reconfigured to replace the damaged units. The RPICs also have extensive civilian commercial applications. In scientific research applications, they can be used for conceptual validation of certain optical functions. In communication systems, they can act as a programmable and reconfigurable optical logic unit or switching unit which can increase the system flexibility and reliability and help to build self-curable networks.)

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center,
Andover, MA 01810
(978) 689-0003

PI: Joel M. Hensley
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0168
Sandia National Laboratory
PO Box 5800,
Albuquerque, NM 87185
(505) 284-6701

ID#: F08B-T26-0126
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT26       Awarded: 8/7/2009
Title: Frequency Agile Sensor for Trace Explosives Detection
Abstract:  &nbs In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory, Physical Sciences Inc (PSI) proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate a Frequency Agile Terahertz Sensor (FATS) for trace explosives residue detection. The critical frequency agile terahertz (THz) detector is based on an electronically tunable plasmonic grating-gate technology developed by our collaborators at Sandia. Phase I will further improve the performance of the FAT detector, validate this approach with laboratory demonstrations of the key elements, and refine the design of a complete system model that will be fabricated and demonstrated in Phase II. BENEFIT: The end result of Phase II of this program will be a prototype sensor for trace explosives residue detection. In addition to the national security benefit of an improved response to the on-going terrorist threat of improvised explosives, this project will also advance the state of the art of an innovative detector technology. Because of its frequency agility, small size, and compatibility with standard semiconductor processing, this novel detector has the potential to combine spectroscopic capability with focal plane imaging in the far-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Plain Sight Systems Inc
19 Whitney Avenue,
New Haven, CT 06510
(203) 285-8617

PI: Andreas Coppi
(203) 285-8617
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0189
Yale University
Department of Mathematics, PO Box 208283
New Haven, CT 06520
(203) 432-4180

ID#: F08B-T24-0189
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT24       Awarded: 7/8/2009
Title: Diffusion Geometry Based Nonlinear Methods for Hyperspectral Change Detection
Abstract:  &nbs We propose a suite of nonlinear image processing algorithms derived from the analysis of the underlying diffusion geometry of a collection of hyperspectral images of interest. These tools enable the comparison of spatio-spectral features of hyperspectral images acquired under different conditions, for the purposes of target detection, change detection and anomaly assessment. This methodology also automatically extracts independent components of the spectrum and builds an empirical model of the constituents of the scene. It is precisely through this model that the most efficient target search and change detection can be performed. We will integrate these tools into an existing hyperspectral image toolbox, and validate the methods on Air Force data as well as that from our proprietary hyperspectral acquisition hardware. BENEFIT: The eventual development of a commercial suite of efficient hyperspectral image processing algorithms deployable in on- and off-line applications including image acquisition systems.)

Polaris Sensor Technologies, Inc.
200 Westside Square, Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
(256) 562-0087

PI: Larry Pezzaniti
(256) 562-0087
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0148
University of New Mexico
Center for High Technology Mat, 1313 Goddard St SE/MSC2710
Albuquerque, NM 87106
(505) 272-7892

ID#: F08B-T02-0193
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT02       Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title: Adaptive Integrated Multi-Modal Sensing Array
Abstract:  &nbs Polaris Sensor Technologies is proposing to use quantum dot technology that has been recently developed which has the ability to tune the spectral response of a sensor in real-time. In the Phase I we will study the feasibility of integrating such a focal plane to either fixed or adaptive polarization capability. The adaptive polarization capability would be based on dynamically controllable polarization gratings. These devices are very new and their implementation with quantum dots represents real risk whose outcome cannot be predicted. The fallback position would be to use a static, two-channel polarization design that would enable spectrally tunable imaging spectopolarimetry. Such a sensor would represent a leap forward in adpative sensing. BENEFIT: The commercial benefits of such a sensor are large. Adaptive spectropolarimetry would enable environmental monitoring for such applications as effluent and plume measurement. In addition civil homeland security could benefit from border and high value asset protection.)

PolarOnyx, Inc
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F,
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
(408) 245-9588

PI: Jian Liu
(408) 245-9588
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0174
University of California
P.O.Box 2039, School of Natural Science
Merced, CA 95344
(209) 724-4309

ID#: F08B-T16-0010
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT16       Awarded: 6/22/2009
Title: All fiber-based high power Mid-IR precision frequency combs
Abstract:  &nbs Based on our success in developing the world''s first commercial 10 W femtosecond fiber laser system and our leading technology development in ultrashort pulsed fiber laser and nonlinear fiber optics, PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, a compact all fiber based high power (>500 mW) mid-IR supercontinuum source (3-12 micron) to meet with the requirement of the AF solicitation. The laser is a specialty fiber based MOPA incorporating our proprietary technology of pulse shaping, spectral shaping and polarization shaping in generation mid-IR pump source and supercontinuum generation. A tabletop experiment will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame for proof of the concept. A hardware will be delivered in Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed high power fs fiber laser can be used in many applications, such as metrology, sensing, spectroscopy and space, aircraft, and satellite applications of LADAR systems and communications, laser weapons, and target designation and illumination. With successful development of the laser, the technology proposed by PolarOnyx will provide a vital tool to solve the existing and potential issues and merge with the huge markets including Material processing. This includes (1) all types of metal processing such as welding, cutting, annealing, and drilling; (2)semiconductor and microelectronics manufacturing such as lithography, inspection, control, defect analysis and repair, and via drilling; (3) marking of all materials including plastic, metals, and silicon; (4) other materials processing such as rapid prototyping, desk top manufacturing, micromachining, photofinishing, embossed holograms, and grating manufacturing. Medical equipment and biomedical instrumentation. The high power amplifier/laser can be applied to ophthalmology, refractive surgery, photocoagulation, general surgery, therapeutic, imaging, and cosmetic applications. Biomedical instruments include those involved in cells or proteins, cytometry, and DNA sequencing; laser Raman spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, and ablation; and laser based microscopes.)

PolarOnyx, Inc
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F,
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
(408) 245-9588

PI: Armen Sevian
(408) 245-9586
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0001
University of Wisconsin-Madison
1415 Engineering Dr,
Madison, WI 53711
(608) 265-6561

ID#: F08B-T30-0172
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT30       Awarded: 10/5/2009
Title: Near-field Fiber Laser Comb Spectroscopy (NFLCS)
Abstract:  &nbs Based on our success in developing the world first commercial 100 micro Joule <200 fs fiber laser system and our leading technology development in ultrashort pulsed fiber laser, PolarOnyx and University of Wisconsin-Madison propose to develop a powerful new tool for nanoscale resolution imaging using femtosecond fiber laser optical frequency combs. This new standoff measurement concept—near field, fiber-laser comb spectroscopy (NFLCS)—will provide a miniature, low cost, and low power instrument for measurements of chemically and biologically active nano-systems with sub-100 nm resolution. Two coherent beams with harmonic frequency-comb spectra are employed, one for illuminating the scanning tip, the other as reference for multi-heterodyne detection of the scattered light. This optical frequency comb (OFC) spans over a spectral range centered at 1.03 ìm to probe overtone vibrations of molecular bonds, including the stretching of C-H, N-H, O-H, and S-H bonds. As such, NFLCS can detect CH4, O3, H2O, CO2, CO, H2S, N2O, NH3, HCN, C2H2, C6H6 (benzene) and many other volatile compounds. The integrated system will be the first extremely compact comprehensive system with up to 10 ìs snapshot acquisition of infrared spectra enabled by new technique of background suppression. In phase I through the Phase II, required performance parameters of NFLCS technology for nanoscale spectroscopic imaging will be assessed through studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the fiber laser frequency comb use in imaging technology. BENEFIT: With successful development of the technology proposed by PolarOnyx and University of Wisconsin will provide a vital tool to solve the existing and potential issues and merge with the huge markets including: Pharmaceutical and food industries for quality and process control, biosensing, catalysis and cellular diagnostics. The high power amplifier/laser can be applied to ophthalmology, refractive surgery, photocoagulation, general surgery, therapeutic, imaging, and cosmetic applications. Biomedical instruments include those involved in cells or proteins, cytometry, and DNA sequencing; laser Raman spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, and ablation; and laser based microscopes. Fast spectral imaging device can be used for biometric identification systems as well.

Q Peak, Inc.
135 South Road,
Bedford, MA 01730
(781) 275-9535

PI: Evgueni Slobodtchikov
(781) 275-9535
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0192
Room 36-351, 77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 452-3616

ID#: F08B-T16-0123
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT16       Awarded: 8/3/2009
Title: Mid-Infrared Precision Frequency Combs
Abstract:  &nbs A broad and stable comb of optical frequencies generated by a femtosecond laser is a useful tool for precision optical measurements. Such sources have great utility in the construction of more accurate atomic clocks and in high precision spectroscopy. While there has been a great deal of work on the generation of frequency combs in the visible and near IR, there has not been as much work at IR wavelengths. Q-Peak proposes to develop a mid-IR optical frequency comb by constructing a femtosecond laser based on a relatively new solid-state laser medium. The laser system would combine several unique technologies that have been developed at Q-Peak. BENEFIT: The development of the mid-IR optical frequency comb laser source will address the emerging applications of optical frequency metrology for atomic clocks, high precision spectroscopy, and atmospheric studies. In addition, a femtosecond mid-IR laser as a stand alone device can be of great interest for a number of applications including biological and medical imaging (optical coherence tomography, eye surgery), trace gas monitoring, and laser cooling.)

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street,
Watertown, MA 02472
(617) 668-6800

PI: Rajan Gurjar
(617) 668-6800
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0006
University of Nebraska
Dept of Electrical Engineering, 209N Walter Scott Engr Center
Lincoln, NE 68588
(402) 472-8323

ID#: F08B-T30-0056
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT30       Awarded: 11/2/2009
Title: Instrumentation for Nanoscale Spectroscopy
Abstract:  &nbs We propose to develop a combination Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Shear-Force Microscopy (TERS-SFM) instrument to study the composition and morphology of nanoparticles, surfaces, and biofilms on any substrate material. The instrument developed during Phase I will rely upon Scanning Tunneling Microscopy combined with TERS (TERS-STM) to test the effects of various excitation wavelengths and tip morphologies. It will provide Raman imaging with a resolution of less than 30 nm and a pixel integration time of less than 100 ms. The results of these experiments will guide the concurrent development of a TERS-SFM system that can accept non-conductive substrates. The instrument will incorporate a High-NA optical design for efficient epi-illumination of the samples. The ultimate goal of this STTR program is the construction of a nano-resolved Raman system that overcomes the problem of current TERS-STM microscopes by making use of high-NA illumination while not being restricted to thin, transparent, or conductive samples. BENEFIT: A Raman scattering spectrometer with sub 30 nanometer resolution and compatibility with a wide variety of substrate materials would be of tremendous benefit to industry and science. The non-destructive method would have potential applications ranging from chemical identification to VLSI quality control, to characterizing nanowaveguides for the photonics industry. An important use for this instrument, with significant commercial potential, is the mapping of drug delivery within cells. Nanomaterials are occupying a greater place in our world, and a diagnostic platform that rapidly resolves their compositional structure would accelerate the state of the nano- science immeasurably.

RHK Technology Inc
1050 E Maple Rd,
Troy, MI 48083
(248) 577-5426

PI: Zhouhang Wang
(248) 577-5426
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0211
University of Rochester
The Institute of Optics, 275 Hutchinson Road
Rochester, NY 14627
(585) 275-5767

ID#: F08B-T30-0027
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT30       Awarded: 9/30/2009
Title: Instrumentation for Nanoscale Spectroscopy
Abstract:  &nbs This STTR will provide a prototype Electronics Package that integrates disparate streams of spectrographic and topographic data to provide high resolution imaging and chemical specificity at the nanoscale. It will enable development of a commercial instrument delivering routine near-field tip-enhanced optical imaging with spatial resolutions in the range of 10-50nm along with topographic (Atomic Force Microscopy) and transport (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) determinations. It will allow vibrational spectroscopy (Raman scattering, infrared absorption) to be performed with the same nanometer scale resolution. The prototype will use established MURI program know- how and RHK''s 25-year track record of developing and commercializing crucial AFM/STM controllers and sophisticated, integrated systems for atomic imaging. BENEFIT: This project enables simultaneous characterization of multiple materials and device properties on the nanoscale without a priori information about the material. This unique capability benefits Military/National Security by providing a previously unavailable means to screen for and reverse engineer high energy density materials, radar absorbing materials, biologically active nano-systems, and nuclear nanomaterials. Broad Commercial nanotech applications include life- and bio-science cell diagnostics, nano-pharmaceuticals, semiconductor process characterization and failure analysis, catalysis, etc.

Rivis, Inc.
P.O. Box 13740,
Research Triangle Pa, NC 27709
(919) 881-0500

PI: Suzanne Ciftan Hens
(919) 881-0500
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0159
Research Triangle Institute
P.O. Box 12194, Center for Solid State Energ.
Research Triangle Pk, NC 27709
(919) 990-8386

ID#: F08B-T25-0151
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT25       Awarded: 6/4/2009
Title: Electrical power generation for sustained high speed flight
Abstract:  &nbs Development of a compliant microfabricated heat exchanger to work with thermoelectric devices as a means of power generation for hypersonic vehicles is proposed. Polymer-based materials provide to provide compression on the thermoelectric module, to ensure optimal thermal contact, while allowing for compliance to allow for the change in materials expansion without exceeding the failure point of the thermoelectric materials compliance during use. However, polymers must be modified to provide high thermal stability and thermal conductance in order to meet the demanding requirements. Nanocomposite polymers provide the enhanced properties and will be evaluated in combination with thermoelectric devices as a means to utilize the waste heat from scramjet engines. To provide compression on the thermoelectric module, to ensure optimal thermal contact, while allowing for compliance to allow for the change in materials expansion without exceeding the failure point of the thermoelectric materials. BENEFIT: Successful development of a nanocomposite heat exchanger will open the way to successfully integrate thermoelectric devices with scramjet engines as a practical power converter to scavenge heat during operation. Thermoelectrics take advantage of the temperature difference between the extremely hot gas, up to >2000°C in the combustion area of the scramjet, and the fueled cooled engine structure to generate electric power in a manner that can potentially save weight, volume and complexity compared to batteries and auxiliary power units)

Semerane Inc.
500 South Cooper Street,
Arlington, TX 76019
(817) 301-4649

PI: Zhenqiang Ma
(608) 261-1095
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0200
University of Wisconsin-Madison
21 N. Park Street, Suite 6401
Madison, WI 53715
(608) 262-3822

ID#: F08B-T08-0077
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT08       Awarded: 9/30/2009
Title: Nanomembrane Integrated Lasers on Silicon
Abstract:  &nbs The objective of this STTR Phase I proposal is to investigate the feasibility of a commercially practical laser source on silicon (Si). Currently, silicon (Si)-based photonics are bottlenecked by the lack of an economical yet reliably integrated on-chip laser source. In this program, Semerane Inc. will work closely with University of Wisconsin- Madison and University of Texas at Arlington to remove this most difficult bottleneck by developing the long demanded on-Si lasers, based on a low-temperature nanomembrane integration technology. The on-silicon infrared laser, namely membrane reflector VCSEL (MR-VCSEL), will exhibit high efficiency, ultra compactness (DBR-free), high reliability and wide spectral tunability. With the proposed laser structure to be directly built on Si, the highly desirable monolithic integration of the laser with Si CMOS will also be realized. The success of the proposed work will lead to the next-generation fully integrated electronics and photonics (EP) integrated circuits and will pave the way toward high-density 3D integrated EP systems. It is expected that the successful development of the on-Si laser through this STTR project will generate significant impact on the military and commercial communication and sensing applications. BENEFIT: The success of the development of economical yet reliable lasers on Si permits monolithic integration of sensing, spectroscopy, signal processing and computing all on a single chip. The single-chip photonics and electronics integration offers an affordable solution to the multi-functional platform with revolutionary influence in many areas of science, technology and everyday life. Such examples include high capacity low cost data network, optical computing, flexible displays, solid state lighting, energy harvest, infrared night vision, image and gas sensing for medical, biological, environmental, military, and home land security applications.

Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc.
1195 Atlas Road,
Columbia, SC 29209
(803) 647-9757

PI: Jianyu Deng
(803) 647-9757
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0123
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
110 8th Street,
Troy, NY 12180
(518) 276-2201

ID#: F08B-T26-0223
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT26       Awarded: 4/16/2009
Title: Multi-color THz detectors/cameras based on patterned AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with 2DEG
Abstract:  &nbs We propose to develop GaN based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip. The active detector elements will be submicron gated channels with 2 dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The devices with gated 2DEG (commonly known as field-effect transistors) respond to the incoming FIR radiation due to the rectification of radiation induced oscillations of electron density (electron plasma). BENEFIT: These detectors/cameras are especially promising because of tremendous potential for dramatically reduced costs, much smaller sizes, and better reliability and radiation hardness compared to devices commercially available now. THz detectors also find applications in diverse fields including but not limited to homeland security, genomics, medical diagnosis, semiconductor device and material characterization, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries.)

SET Associates Corporation
1005 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
(703) 738-6217

PI: Reuven Meth
(240) 965-9964
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0188
John Hopkins University
11100 John Hopkins Road,
Laurel, MD 20732
(240) 228-7257

ID#: F08B-T24-0154
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT24       Awarded: 7/2/2009
Title: Nonlinear Signature-Matched Hyperspectral Change Detection
Abstract:  &nbs Hyperspectral change detection provides significant potential to detect targets in foliage and urban clutter with enhanced performance relative to existing technologies. Change detection algorithms must discard non-relevant change while extracting relevant change. To date, linear prediction methods have been applied; however, the space-invariance affine models employed do not accurately model background changes that are often nonlinear in nature. SET Corporation, in conjunction the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), proposes a novel hyperspectral Image (HSI) change detection algorithm that employs a kernel-based support vector machine approach to accurately model the underlying data and detect relevant change. The system builds on the success of our nonlinear kernel-based Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) anomaly detector that has demonstrated superior modeling capabilities for non-Gaussian HSI data. The system is robust to spatial misregistration and includes a novel nonlinear radiance remapping approach enabling automated, robust nonlinear, signature-matched hyperspectral change detection. Feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated in Phase I, with Phase II focusing on development and evaluation of an end-to-end system prototype. BENEFIT: This technology will offer a new capability to perform change detection that is robust to image registration errors, with high accuracy nonlinear modeling to reliably detect relevant change. The resulting technology will have direct application to surveillance and security systems for military, law enforcement and commercial sectors. Environmental applications including agricultural remote sensing, land use analyses and climate change monitoring will all be enhanced by this technology. )

13619 Valley Oak Circle,
(301) 315-2322

PI: Chiman Kwan
(240) 505-2641
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0162
U. Tennessee Knoxville
319 Ferris Hall, U. Tennessee,
Knoxville, TN 37996
(865) 974-8527

ID#: F08B-T24-0050
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT24       Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title: A Novel and High Performance Change Detection Algorithm for Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:  &nbs Large format data such as hyperspectral images contain a lot of information about various targets. Subpixel detection is now achievable. As a result, these images are becoming popular in military surveillance reconnaissance operations. However, one serious limitation of hyperspectral images is that many constituent members (materials) may be present in a single pixel, making accurate target detection an extremely challenging task. We propose a novel and high performance approach to change detection using hyperspectral images. The novel approach consists of several key components. First, we propose to apply an unsupervised algorithm to extract signatures (endmembers) from hyperspectral images. This approach achieves accurate signature extraction performance from highly mixed pixels as compared to conventional methods. It does not require the presence of pure pixels in a given hyperspectral image. Second, we propose a nonlinear gradient descent based method to perform abundance estimation, which is related to change/target detection. Our approach is based on maximum entropy and achieves robustness to noise. It is also applicable to nonlinear mixtures. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will be very useful for both military and commercial applications. Here we briefly highlight some potential markets where the proposed algorithms will be applicable. Many military (DoD) applications including reconnaissance and surveillance, homeland security, perimeter defense, etc. will benefit from this technology. In addition, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, GE, MITRE, are also potential customers for this technology. The market for military applications is quite large. We expect the market size will be at 20 million dollars over the next decade.)

Soraa, Inc.
485 Pine Ave,
Goleta, CA 93117
(805) 696-6999

PI: Mark P. D''Evelyn
(805) 696-6999
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0190
UC Santa Barbara
Office of Research,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
(805) 893-4034

ID#: F08B-T20-0137
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT20       Awarded: 7/17/2009
Title: Scalable technology for growth of high quality single crystal gallium nitride
Abstract:  &nbs This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project will investigate the feasibility of growth of high quality, low cost bulk gallium nitride substrates by the high pressure ammonothermal method. The proposed approach utilizes a novel apparatus which is scalable to process volumes of hundreds of liters at modest cost. The novel apparatus will be capable of accessing process pressures above 0.6 GPa (~6,000 atm or ~90,000 psi) and temperatures above 650 °C, conditions where growth rates of high quality single crystal gallium nitride above 15 microns per hour have been demonstrated using a non-scalable apparatus. The key deliverables for the Phase I project include: (1) Demonstrate capability of a novel high-pressure apparatus to contain ammonia pressures and temperatures greater than 0.6 GPa and 650 °C, respectively; and (2) Demonstrate growth of GaN crystals with a crystalline quality at least competitive with HVPE GaN, with a path to achievement of world-class crystal quality. BENEFIT: If successful, the proposed work will enable a number of device applications of interest to the Air Force and will also have a large commercial impact. Bulk gallium nitride substrates, currently in use for laser diodes only and grown by a vapor-phase technique, are projected to grow from a market size of $144M in 2008 to $405M in 2010. The proposed approach should enable a significantly lower substrate cost and enable key technologies of interest for the Air Force and DoD, including high performance detectors and emitters and high-performance high-frequency GaN-based electronics. A low cost native GaN substrate would also transform the substantially larger commercial market for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Bulk GaN substrates are expected to enable further efficiency improvements and cost reductions in GaN-based LEDs, addressing a $56B/yr long-term market opportunity and enabling a large reduction in the ~700TWh of electrical power (30% of the total electricity) consumed in the US per year. In the commercial arena, but of significant impact on DoD technologies, high quality, low cost bulk GaN substrates will enable new markets, such as GaN-based solar blind photodetectors, RF and power-switching transistors, and perhaps even concentrator-type solar cells, that up to now have made very little progress because of the relatively poor material quality and high cost of current bulk GaN substrates. Finally, the proposed apparatus design, representing perhaps the largest advance in large-volume high pressure high temperature processing capability in 40 years, will be applicable to a range of other processes, including hydrothermal crystal growth.)

Spectral Energies, LLC
2238 Hunters Ridge Blvd,
Dayton, OH 45434
(937) 266-9570

PI: Sivaram P. Gogineni
(937) 266-9570
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0170
46-147C, Engineering IV Bldg, 405 Hilgard Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 825-2905

ID#: F08B-T13-0032
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT13       Awarded: 8/11/2009
Title: Direct Numerical Simulation of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition for Heat Transfer Prediction
Abstract:  &nbs The prediction of laminar-turbulent transition of hypersonic boundary layers is critically important to the development of hypersonic vehicles that are to be used for rapid global access. Boundary layer transition has first-order impacts on aerodynamic heating, as well as drag and control of hypersonic vehicles. The success of transition and related heating prediction relies on the good understanding of the relevant physical mechanisms leading to transition. In spite of considerable efforts in experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies, many critical physical mechanisms underlying hypersonic boundary-layer transition are still poorly understood. The purpose of this STTR Phase I effort is to develop, validate, and demonstrate a robust and accurate DNS computational tool for predicting wall heat transfer rates in transitional hypersonic boundary layers. The DNS can also predict the heat transfer overshoot at transition. The main idea is to develop DNS tools for the simulation of complete transition process of hypersonic boundary layers over blunt cones under realistic freestream noise and other disturbances. There are four specific research tasks to be carried out in a nine month period for the proposed STTR Phase I project. First, we will develop and validate a prototype 3-D DNS computer code for hypersonic boundary-layer transition and heat transfer prediction. Second, we will validate the new DNS computational tool against benchmark experimental datasets obtained from the open literature. Third, we will conduct some initial DNS of boundary layer transition on hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt cone for Mach 5.5 flow over blunt cones, which correspond to Stetsons shock tunnel experiments. The transition simulation consists of separate receptivity and nonlinear breakdown simulations. Fourth, we will begin efforts for developing a product usable by a non-specialist, and formulate plan for Phase II development. BENEFIT: Military applications include Long-Range and Prompt Global Strike Options and Rapid Access to Space. Commercial applications include commercial space access, supersonic civilian transport, and aircraft engine design. The CFD software to be developed under this program will also be useful for academic and research institutions.)

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue,
Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 273-4770

PI: Robert Shroll
(781) 273-4770
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0181
Environmental Molecular Sciences
Pacific Northwest National Lab, P.O. Box 999, K1-85
Richland, WA 99352
(509) 375-2316

ID#: F08B-T19-0001
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT19       Awarded: 6/19/2009
Title: Computational Prediction of Kinetic Rate Constants for Condensed Phases
Abstract:  &nbs A core component of aerospace manufacturing is based on cutting-edge technological applications of material design. Chemical kinetics models are vital for interpreting experimental measurements and predicting the behavior of these complex systems. Modern computational chemistry software programs are invaluable for the accurate prediction of reaction rates for kinetics models, but their use is highly specialized. We propose extending the Extensible Computational Chemistry Environment (ECCE) user interface and the Chemical Dynamics Software and Simulation (CDSSIM) website to support condensed phase chemical kinetics calculations. The result will provide simplified user access to the complementary cutting edge techniques of hybrid free energy calculations using NWChem, and direct dynamics calculations using VENUS. These codes will allow the non-expert to calculate condensed phase rate constants from high-level quantum calculations, while providing a realistic prediction of their inherent errors. In Phase I, we will perform a capability demonstration by computing liquid phase reaction rate constants on an Air Force relevant test case. In Phase II, we will integrate chemical rate constant predictions into ECCE and the CDSSIM forming the Ab initio Transition state Or Molecular dynamics Simulations for Condensed Phase Reactions (ATOMS-CPR) Toolkit, making these sophisticated calculations accessible to non-experts. BENEFIT: The proposed softwarethe Ab initio Transition state Or Molecular dynamics Simulations for Condensed Phase Reactions (ATOMS-CPR) Toolkitwill provide a unique ability to perform state-of-the-art calculations of condensed phase reaction rate constants. This work will greatly simplify the application of these advanced calculations to areas such as energetic ionic liquids as advanced propellants and explosives, which will benefit many Air Force programs. ATOMS will be the basis for upgrading chemical mechanisms used by commercial chemical modeling packages. It will be sufficiently general to apply to reactions in supercritical fluids, low earth orbit, the detonation of explosives, and biodegradation of solvents. These upgrades will impact R&D programs in multibillion-dollar industries with both military and civilian applications.)

Stellar Micro Devices
2020 Centimeter Circle,
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 997-7781

PI: Burt Fowler
(512) 997-7782
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0141
Boise State University
1910 University Drive,
Boise, ID 83725
(208) 426-2347

ID#: F08B-T14-0094
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT14       Awarded: 5/15/2009
Title: Shielded Cold Cathodes for High Power Magnetrons
Abstract:  &nbs A unique cold cathode array using rugged emitter materials and a device architecture which provides shielding from ionization impact will provide the required high current density and long lifetime for high power magnetron use. BENEFIT: Shielded cold cathodes will provide current densities scalable to over 10 A/cm2 in a scalable area. These cathodes can be used in a number of emerging micro vacuum electron devices, including magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, traveling wave tubes and backward wave oscillators. They can also be used in radiation and ion sources. Ultra-rugged emitters developed in this project will also be useful in space application, especially those in corrosive environments such as low earth orbit. )

Structured Materials Industries
201 Circle Drive North, Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
(732) 302-9274

PI: Nick M. Sbrockey
(732) 302-9274
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0186
Cornell Universtiy
Office of Sponsored Programs, 373 Pine Tree Rd, EHP
Ithaca, NY 14850
(607) 255-0655

ID#: F08B-T10-0053
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT10       Awarded: 6/29/2009
Title: Graphene Production Tool
Abstract:  &nbs In this STTR program, Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI) and our STTR partners will develop a graphene film deposition system, for both research and production applications. The proposed graphene tool will accommodate wafer sizes up to 6 inch, and will be scalable to larger wafers and high volume production. The graphene film tool will be high vacuum compatible, with provisions for a wide range of gas inputs, for gas phase doping of graphene. The tool will also have full provisions for in-situ monitoring, including optical, pyrometric and electron diffraction techniques. In Phase I, SMI will design an alpha prototype of the graphene production tool. We will test and verify the design concepts, both computationally and experimentally in Phase I. We can also supply graphene film samples to our Air Force sponsors, throughout the entire course of the Phase I effort, as needed. In Phase II, SMI will build and demonstrate the alpha prototype tool. We will supply graphene films to our Air Force sponsors and work with our sponsors to demonstrate graphene films in device applications. Near the end of Phase II, we will install the alpha prototype tool at a location specified by the Air Force. BENEFIT: Graphene has many unique properties which can be exploited for novel device applications. The recent discovery of graphene has sparked intense research, both from scientific interest in the material to technological interest in building graphene based nanodevices. A critical need exists for a reliable and reproducible production tools for graphene films. This STTR program will develop a graphene tool platform which is scalable from initial research to ultimate high volume production, for smooth transition of graphene technical developments to the marketplace.)

Structured Materials Industries
201 Circle Drive North, Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
(732) 302-9274

PI: Nick M. Sbrockey
(732) 302-9274
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0163
Drexel University
Office of Research, 3201 Arch Street Suite 100
Philadelphia, PA 19104
(215) 895-2311

ID#: F08B-T22-0054
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT22       Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title: Fabrication Technology for Oxide Film Heterostructure Devices
Abstract:  &nbs In this STTR program, Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI) and our STTR partners will develop commercially viable fabrication technology for oxide heterostructure based nano electronic devices. Oxide heterostructure devices, consisting of a polar oxide such as LaAlO3 and a non-polar oxide such as SrTiO3, offer a novel route to nano devices. Although the initial concepts for 2 DEG oxide heterostructures have been demonstrated, the critical fabrication technology to build these devices at nanometer dimensions is still needed. This STTR will address this critical need, and develop film deposition technology for high-quality, crystalline polar oxide films, with mono-layer thickness control. Although the primary program emphasis will be on film deposition, we will also address issues for patterning and contact formation, as enabling technology to demonstrate fully functional prototypes in Phase II. BENEFIT: Oxide heterostructures offer the potential for nanoscale devices for both logic and memory applications. The advantages include high information density, high speed and low power requirements, due to the small device dimensions, and inherent radiation hardness, since no charge storage is involved. In Phase III, SMI will implement the oxide heterostructure based memory devices in applications of value to the Air Force. SMI will also commercialize the technology resulting from this STTR program for a wide range of other military, commercial, scientific and space applications.)

Syntonics LLC
9160 Red Branch Road,
Columbia, MD 21045
(410) 884-0500

PI: Steven E. Gemeny
(410) 884-0500
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0139
The Ohio State University
1320 Kinnear Road,
Columbus, OH 43212
(614) 292-5051

ID#: F08B-T01-0026
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT01       Awarded: 5/8/2009
Title: Autonomous Nonbattery Wireless Strain Gage for Structural Health Testing and Monitoring in Extreme Environments
Abstract:  &nbs In Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of a wireless communication system that can remotely interrogate numerous passive SAW-based sensors at 2.4GHz, simultaneously extracting high bandwidth data from all of them. Our work will also address the feasibility of enhancements to the WSG sensors that improve the overall systems performance and ease of use. Earlier work has already demonstrated that SAW-based wireless strain gages are feasible and have significant promise for extreme environments. BENEFIT: The first application for this technology will be wireless strain sensors for turbine engine testing. The ability to collect strain readings from inside an operating engine will make these sensors especially attractive for engine development testing. However, strain sensors are used in hundreds of other specialized industrial applications. Wherever a wireless sensor can compete favorably with a wired sensor, this technology has an opportunity in the marketplace.)

Tanner Research, Inc.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.,
Monrovia, CA 91016
(626) 471-9778

PI: Ravi Verma
(626) 471-9700
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0161
University of Calif. Santa Barbara
University of California, PhysicsBroida Hall, Room 4119
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
(805) 893-3774

ID#: F08B-T26-0241
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT26       Awarded: 6/8/2009
Title: A room temperature tunable antenna coupled intersubband terahertz (TACIT) detector for man-portable spectroscopy instruments
Abstract:  &nbs Several emerging applications require chemical fingerprinting of hidden/concealed objects (via THz spectroscopy) from man-portable or UAV platforms. While the field of THz detectors has largely been driven by the needs of the astrophysics community, where cryocooling is considered acceptable, recently, two classes of room temperature THz detectors were demonstrated. One of these is the tunable antenna coupled intersubband terahertz (TACIT) detector, which was demonstrated by a team from UCSB and JPL. Specifically, the TACIT detector has already been demonstrated as providing a reasonable room temperature NEP at 1 THz, and it has been demonstrated as providing high speed of operation, and voltage tunability with a small dc bias. In this proposal, the Tanner/JPL/UCSB team is proposing the refinement of the TACIT detector to the specifications required by the DoD. At the end of Phase I, we will deliver a TACIT detector, along with a demonstration of the man-portability aspect via a demonstration at an Air Force facility. At the end of Phase II, we will deliver an optimized TACIT detector with specifications as set forth by the Air Force POC, and various Air Force customers. BENEFIT: THz spectroscopy from a man-portable, and lightweight instrument , will make it possible to detect and characterize concealed/hidden objects.)

TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.,
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
(303) 940-2300

PI: James Nabity
(303) 940-2313
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0154
University of Colorado at Boulder
Dept. of Mech. Engineering, 427 UCB
Boulder, CO 80309
(303) 492-7110

ID#: F08B-T09-0111
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT09       Awarded: 6/18/2009
Title: Novel Propellants for Variable Thrust/Isp Colloid Thrusters
Abstract:  &nbs Advanced spacecraft are needed to improve communications, global surveillance and space exploration while lowering the cost. These missions demand highly capable thrusters that provide both extremely efficient operation for attitude control and high thrust for orbital transfer maneuvers, albeit with lower efficiency. The colloid thruster, which is the most efficient of the electric thruster concepts, produces a Taylor cone that can emit charged particles to produce thrust. Colloid thrusters have typically been operated in the cone-jet mode, in which a stream of charged droplets are extracted and accelerated to high velocity. Pure ion emission mode has only become feasible with the recent development of highly conducting fluids, such as the ionic liquids. In this mode the thruster emits only ions and therefore, the specific impulse and propulsive efficiency are much higher. Unfortunately, not all electrically conductive propellants can emit pure ions and the reasons for this are not fully understood. Therefore, in Phase I TDA and CU will utilize our understanding of the physics of operation to identify suitable propellants. We will conduct experiments in an electric propulsion vacuum facility to observe startup and operation with these propellants. In Phase II we will demonstrate colloid thruster operation in both modes. BENEFIT: Colloid thruster propulsion system(s) that can efficiently produce either high or low thrust levels on-demand will enable the deployment of spacecraft able to provide low-cost communications, space research and surveillance. Further, of the electric propulsion systems, only the colloid thruster can be miniaturized for use in nanosats. Because many small, low-cost nanosats can be put into orbit at once, constellations offer flexibility and redundancy in mission programming. The loss of one satellite will have little effect on the performance of the entire system. The development of affordable colloid thruster systems that utilize the propellants to be developed in this project will provide the performance needed to perform these missions. )

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road,
Dayton, OH 45432
(937) 426-6900

PI: George Levin
(937) 255-5630
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0125
The Ohio State University
22 Bolz Hall, 2036 Neil Ave Mall
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 247-2796

ID#: F08B-T12-0052
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT12       Awarded: 4/15/2009
Title: Development of Compact, Lightweight Power Transmission Devices for Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:  &nbs The proposal addresses the issues related to the design of a MW class DC or AC current transmission line suitable for use onboard of an aircraft. The main questions are the amount of losses in such a line and the efficiency, weight and overall size of the whole system. The key issues that are addressed in the proposal are the amount of AC losses in the superconducting line and the heat losses in the current leads. We consider novel approaches to the loss reduction. The superconducting line is formed by YBCO coated conductors with operating temperature 60-65 K. In order to reduce AC losses and maximize critical current, the conductors are assembled as current dipoles placed in circular pattern and twisted at the ends. We also propose to use current leads with variable cross section in order to optimize the amount of heat flux and minimize the total weight. We will investigate a possibility to use non- vacuum thermal insulation and modular construction of the transmission line. The latter is necessary to insure that the equipment can be serviced and maintained by regular Air Force personnel. BENEFIT: By designing and testing this STTR project may lead to the development of new compact and lightweight power transmission devices with maximizing power/weight ratios and minimizing system heat losses including refrigeration of applicable devices based on recently developed higher power/weight wire conductors.)

UES, Inc.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road,
Dayton, OH 45432
(937) 426-6900

PI: Emmanuel Boakye
(937) 426-6900
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0152
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
P.O. Box 2001,
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
(865) 576-7343

ID#: F08B-T21-0012
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT21       Awarded: 6/5/2009
Title: High-Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating for Silicon Carbide Composites
Abstract:  &nbs A key limitation in the use of silicon carbide based composites (SiC/SiC) in the next generation turbine engines is their poor oxidation resistance and SiO2 recession at high temperatures particularly in the presence of water vapor. The primary objective of an environmental barrier coating (EBC) is to provide the necessary protection to SiC/SiC composites from water vapor attack and to reduce the SiO2 recession. Current EBCs are all Silicon based and suffer from surface recession. UES Inc. proposes to study the effectiveness of novel CTE graded rare earth phosphates with various monazite/xenotime compositions devoid of silicon, for environmental protection of SiC- based ceramics in combustion environment above 1500ºC. Further, UES proposes to use porous YAG as a top coat to enable the EBCs to function as TBCs at 1650ºC. BENEFIT: It is anticipated that under the Phase I program, EBC/TBC that protect Si-based composites from oxidation and SiO2 recession will be developed. In the phase II program, the coating techniques will be fined tuned and UES will work closely with COI composites to scale up the coating process. At the end of Phase II, we anticipate licensing the EBC/TBC to COI.)

500 Mansion ct. , suite 307
Santa Clara, , CA 95054
(858) 663-0081

PI: Salah Khodja
(858) 663-0081
Contract #: FA9550-10-C-0007
Stanford University
McCullough Bldg., , Room 349
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 736-2152

ID#: F08B-T18-0202
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT18       Awarded: 11/2/2009
Title: Ultradense Plasmonic Integrated Devices and Circuits
Abstract:  &nbs We propose to develop ultradense plasmonic integrated devices and circuits for optical interconnect compatible with the electronic circuitry. In our proposal, we will employ engineered metallic nanostructures that combine energy concentration by plasmonic lenses and retardation-based plasmonic resonances to even further boost the efficiency of materials exhibiting optical nonlinearity. These plasmonic integrated devices will offer a tremendous improvement in size and performance to overcome the limitation of traditional integrated optical components for optical interconnect. In fact, the mode volumes can be reduced orders of magnitude below the wavelength. The unique optical properties of metallic nanostructures provide an unparalleled ability to concentrate light into small volumes and enable realization of the smallest possible, low-power, nonlinear optical components. The proposed metallic nanostructures will find application in low power integrated photonic devices and similar structures may be used for compact switching and modulation. This is the first time to our knowledge such a plasmonic integrated devices and are proposed. The proposed plasmonic integrated devices and circuits are expected to alleviate the problems associated with the large size of present day optical components and provide an optimal solution for the optical interconnect. BENEFIT: Anticipated development of the proposed plasmonic integrated devices and circuits concept will be of immediate use where conventional optical devices has been prohibited by the optical diffraction limit. This technology is critical to the success of nanoscale optical interconnect compatible with electronic circuitry. The proposed metallic nanostructures will find application in low power integrated photonic devices and similar structures may be used for compact switching, and modulation. When brought to product, some of the commercial applications that will benefit directly from the use of this technology are high frequency optical clock distribution, large scale optical interconnect, remote vehicles etc, in which high reliability and EMI are key factors to the overall success of the product. Commercial application are driven by the rapid increase in the clock speed of computers has slowed in recent years due to the interconnect bottlenecks on the chip itself. A plasmonic architecture is expected to alleviate the problems associated with the large size of present day optical components. In the near term, for applications not requiring an entire plasmonic ensemble of waveguides, sources, detectors, and devices, individual advances in plasmonic

VEXTEC Corporation
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite,
Brentwood, TN 37027
(615) 372-0299

PI: Animesh Dey
(615) 372-0299
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0136
Vanderbilt University
Division of Sponsored Research, Station B, Box 7749, 2301 Vand
Nashville, TN 37235
(615) 322-3979

ID#: F08B-T03-0096
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT03       Awarded: 5/5/2009
Title: Development of Multidisciplinary, Multi-Fidelity Analysis and Integration of Aerospace Vehicles
Abstract:  &nbs Current aircraft design approaches incorporate the use of many high fidelity models for point solutions of individual disciplines. Sophisticated model integration techniques are not yet readily available and a significant amount of individual discipline stovepiping exists. Individual handoffs of point solutions between disciplines often results in repeated individual data interpretations. These interpretations often lead to erroneous decisions and/or add-in design conservatism. The technical goals of the Phase I will be to develop and demonstrate a methodology to combine multidisciplinary models and then propagate model, measurement and statistical uncertainty to quantify total synthesis error. A demonstration will be conducted on an aircraft design model combining multiple levels of aerodynamic loading, stress analysis and structural reliability. The Phase I framework will be shown to decompose the design analysis into the multiple scales, allowing the complexity of the design of a structural component to be properly assessed. The fully-probabilistic models assess the uncertainty in design characteristics to determine the statistical distribution of the response throughout the system. BENEFIT: The demonstration from Phase I will be a gateway into expanding the framework for the Phase II program. The focus will be expanded from depot level inspection intervals to a full suite of interdisciplinary design tools. The structure of this framework will support the system engineering processes typically used by military and commercial aircraft OEMs. In these processes, high level requirements for performance and affordability are decomposed into high level and detail level requirements. Developing visual relationships between generalized key parameters will allow the framework to be applied to development programs for any airframe. It is anticipated that the capabilities developed from this proposal can be integrated as enhancement to the existing airframe design systems and software.)

Zyberwear, Inc.
2114 New Victor Road,
Ocoee, FL 34761
(407) 295-5955

PI: Oliver Edwards
(407) 295-5955
Contract #: FA9550-09-C-0167
University of Central Florida
PO box 160000,
Orlando, FL 32816
(407) 256-9884

ID#: F08B-T26-0201
Agency: AF
Topic#: 08-BT26       Awarded: 8/11/2009
Title: Plasmonic Tunable Terahertz Detector
Abstract:  &nbs A high sensitivity, high spectral resolution, rapidly tunable imaging terahertz spectrometer is proposed for seeing through barriers, identifying dynamic targets, and tracking threats while providing continuous chemical analysis of objects in the field of view BENEFIT: USAF and other DoD components are expected to greatly value the enhanced capability for space situational awareness and chemical identification. Commercial applications include passenger and luggage screening, pharmaceutical quality control, and medical applications.)

---------- MDA ----------

Aerius Photonics, LLC.
2223 Eastman Ave., Suite B,
Ventura, CA 93003
(805) 642-4645

PI: Timothy Strand
(805) 642-4645
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7068
University of Delaware
210 Hullihen Hall, University of Delaware
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 831-8002

ID#: B08B-004-0099
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T004       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: ROIC for Hybrid, Coherent and Direct-Detect Flash Ladar Receivers
Abstract:  &nbs Development efforts for hybrid Flash Ladar receivers are underway, however a common limitation is the lack of an appropriate Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) to amplify and condition the hybrid Flash Ladar signals. Though Flash Ladar ROICs exist for direct-detect mode and concepts are under development for coherent mode, due to the relative immaturity of the hybrid-mode approach, hybrid-mode ROICs do not, as yet, exist. Aerius proposes to address this ROIC deficiency with development of ROIC circuitry specifically aimed at hybrid-mode Flash Ladar detection. In particular, the ROIC will be designed to mate with Aerius’ Optical Preamplifier Pixel Array (OPPA)-based detector array, currently under development under a separate SBIR topic presently in Phase II. The OPPA approach enables near-photon counting sensitivity to both direct-detect and coherent detection modes and, when mated with an appropriate ROIC, provides a complete, integrated hybrid Flash Ladar receiver solution. In this Phase I effort, Aerius and our STTR partner will design and simulate a hybrid ROIC architecture and experientially verify the coherent and direct detection functions of the circuit with Aerius OPPA technology. In Phase II, a complete ROIC will be developed and integrated with Aerius OPPA for an integrated hybrid receiver solution.

Aerius Photonics, LLC.
2223 Eastman Ave., Suite B,
Ventura, CA 93003
(805) 642-4645

PI: Jon Geske
(805) 642-4645
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7080
Boise State University
1910 University Drive, MS 1135
Boise, ID 83725
(208) 426-1574

ID#: B08B-011-0109
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T011       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Integrated Thermal Management and Wafer-Scale Packaging for High-Power VCSEL Diode Pump Arrays
Abstract:  &nbs The performance of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs) is often limited by the performance of the diode laser arrays used to pump the crystal. Of the components making up the DPSSL module, the diode laser arrays consume the most power, dissipate the most waste heat per unit area and are among the most costly to manufacture and qualify. The performance of the diode laser pump array is limited by the ability of the packaging to extract heat away from the laser’s active region, where the majority of the heat is generated. If the heat is not removed, the gain, and subsequently the output power and efficiency, of the entire DPSSL are decreased. Aerius Photonics proposes to develop a wafer-scale compatible process and packaging approach with improved thermal performance for high power Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays. This approach will further improve the thermal performance and manufacturability of VCSEL technology and offer a 50% reduction in the laser diode heating by improving the waste heat transport and spreading from the semiconductor chip to the thermal management system.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road,
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Guanghai Jin
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7083
Tufts University
4 Colby Street,
Medford, MA 02155
(617) 627-4355

ID#: B08B-012-0076
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T012       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Fast Switching Array for WDM-Photonic Time Delay
Abstract:  &nbs An innovative concept of a fast switching array for high bit-resolution photonic time delay that can be scalable to the ESA systems of MDA/Navy radars is proposed. The design is based on Electro-Optic (EO) effect incorporated with super miniature fiber collimation array, which is suitable to integrate in the current developing fiber based photonic WDM-true time delay technologies. The new EO switching platform targets the switching speed faster than 1 micro- second with low insertion loss and low power consumption. The Phase I approach will demonstrate a fast switching unit on bench, and verify the advance of key performances. The phase II development will prototype this switching array, and demonstrate the feasibility to integrate with fiber WDM-true time delay arrays for a multi channel module implementation. The team of Agiltron and University of Tufts will work on this unconventional approach by leveraging our recent breakthroughs in manufacturing high performance fiber delay lines, EO switch and VOA, high power fiber optic and WDM components. Our approach provides unprecedented performance in fast speed, low power consumption, small size and low fabrication cost.

Applied Nanotech, Inc.
3006 Longhorn Blvd., Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 339-5020

PI: Mohshi Yang
(512) 339-5020
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7077
University of Maryland
1103 Engineering Lab Building,
College Park, MD 20742
(301) 405-5323

ID#: B08B-010-0020
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T010       Awarded: 3/5/2009
Title: Tin Whisker Mitigation by Photonic Sintering for Sn-based Surface Finishes
Abstract:  &nbs For decades Sn/Pb components and circuit assemblies have been used for high reliability, high performance military and Air Force applications. With new legislation intended to eliminate lead from electronics manufacturing and packaging, the next generation of high performance devices will need to use only lead free technology. Unfortunately, lead free tin surfaces may form whiskers that may grow in length to cause electrical short circuits between adjacent components and devices. ANI has worked extensively on metallic conductive inks, successfully developing a copper conductive ink using copper metallic nanoparticles for inkjet printed electronic applications. This extraordinary success was achieved using a proprietary sintering process whereby a very short flash of photonic energy transforms the dried copper ink to metallic copper traces with conductivities close to levels expected for bulk Cu. We have demonstrated that this sintering process can totally flatten and eliminate copper nanowires and whiskers. We propose to extend this success, utilizing the sintering process as a post-deposition step to eliminate tin whiskers that may develop during the electrodeposition process. The systems are inexpensive, are commercially available, require less than one second process time, and can be integrated easily with current electrodeposition systems.

Cyan Systems
3718 Barcelona Drive,
Santa Barbara, CA, CA 93105
(805) 252-2206

PI: Jerry Wilson
(805) 252-2206
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7069
Research Triangle Inst
3040 Cornwallis Road, PO box 12194
Research Triangle, NC 27709
(919) 541-8793

ID#: B08B-004-0102
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T004       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Super Pixel Focal Plane Array Sensor
Abstract:  &nbs This SuperPixel FPA (SFPA) will achieve a fast track enhancement of existing technology that effectively allows improved detection and discrimination of existing and emerging threats. Cyan is working with Research Triangle Institute, who has recently developed and demonstrated Lead Tin Telluride (PbSnTe) detectors for high temperature operation and fabrication in a superpixel format. The SFPA with small ¡§superpixels¡¨ will provide for oversampling the diffraction limited blur and this will translate to higher object ID confidence, and hopefully allow better discrimination between targets and decoys for detection of next generation threats. As targets get smaller and as our foes develop techniques for thermal shielding and stealth, the US must develop even more sensitive, higher resolution IR imaging systems.

Electro Magnetic Manufacturing and Application Co
544B Gerald Lane,
Elm Mott, TX 76640
(254) 717-5822

PI: John Simcik
(254) 717-5822
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7081
Texas A&M University
MS 3128,
College Station, TX 77843
(979) 845-4935

ID#: B08B-012-0012
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T012       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Innovative Photonic Time Delay Units for Radar Applications
Abstract:  &nbs An advanced photonic time delay approach is proposed that offers a fast switching speed, on the order of a nanosecond. Losses are overcome by introducing integrated, distributed optical amplifiers. Long delays are implemented using optical fibers, while shorter delay my be implemented on-chip for a switched delay line architecture.

Foresite, Inc.
1982 S. Elizabeth St.,
Kokomo, IN 46902
(765) 457-8095

PI: Terry Munson
(765) 457-8095
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7078
Purdue University
Purdue University, School of Materials Engrg.
W. Lafayette, IN 47907
(765) 494-0147

ID#: B08B-010-0031
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T010       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Tin Whisker Mitigation Technologies for Sn-based Surface Finishes on Electronic Assemblies and Microelectronic Devices
Abstract:  &nbs The impact of metal whisker growth on the reliability of electronics has been exacerbated by environmentally-driven efforts to eliminate lead from tin plating and solders. Even exempt applications, such as military, are affected due to process, logistic and economic supplier realities. It is generally acknowledged in research that the whisker growth mechanism is still not fully understood and that test methods, especially accelerated ones, do not correlate well with field experience. Foresite, Inc., a consultant, laboratory and test equipment development company specializes in the identification, mitigation, removal and prevention of detrimental, process-related residues on electronic assemblies. Foresite research indicates a correlation between ionic residue levels and whisker growth, given prerequisite conditions, such as stress. The Phase I goal is to identify and rank tin whisker nucleation and growth factors by teaming the process residue expertise of Terry Munson, Foresite President, with the whisker research expertise of Prof. Carol Handwerker, Materials Science, Purdue University and the plating process expertise of Dennis Fritz, Senior Engineer, SAIC. An accelerated test for the proclivity of a sample to grow whiskers [using introduced, controlled contamination(?)] will be developed in Phase II. Ultimately, mitigation protocol(s) and, perhaps, whisker test equipment will result.

Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H,
Altadena, CA 91001
(626) 345-1200

PI: Gerald Halpert
(626) 345-1200
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7073
Tennessee Tech University
Derryberry Hall, , 1 William L. Jones Drive
Cookeville, TN 38505
(931) 372-3494

ID#: B08B-008-0006
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T008       Awarded: 2/26/2009
Title: A Li-Ion Battery Tool for Predicting Life and Performance for Satellite Orbit Operations Scenarios
Abstract:  &nbs In this overall program, Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), its consultants, and future industrial partners, plans to develop a high fidelity, computationally-efficient, first principles-based software model to predict the behavior of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries under a wide set of conditions including extended calendar life (for both shelf life and on-bus trickle-charge conditions), low temperature operation, and wide variations in power loads for satellite applications for a number of Earth orbits. The key to this effort is developing computationally-efficient, full-physics models of Li-ion battery performance that are applicable for 3 types of Earth orbits of interest. The orbits include Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO). Under these profiles batteries are subjected to minimum cycling and lengthy periods of continuous low rate charge. The goal is to provide a tool for managers and operations personnel to project life and performance of Li-Ion batteries in GEO, MEO and HEO Orbits. In Phase I, GAC, along with its research partner and consultant, plans to develop models of degradation mechanisms, implement them in computationally-efficient computer code, and verify the models against laboratory data.

1600 Adams Drive, Suite 112
Menlo Park, CA 94025
(650) 688-5760

(650) 688-5760
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7084
ITHACA, CA 14850
(607) 255-4369

ID#: B08B-013-0025
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T013       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Innovative Thermal Management Solutions for Radar T/R Modules
Abstract:  &nbs This Phase-I STTR proposes the use of a new class of diamond-seeded solid-state material system for the manufacture of intense heat-generating solid-state electronics in Ka-band Ballistic Missile Defense radar components and systems. In this proposal wherein much preliminary work (also MDA-funded) has been demonstrated hitherto by the authors, Gallium Nitride-on-SiC power amplifiers in Ka-band radar are replaced with GaN-on-Diamond power amplifiers to enable nearly total and immediate heat extraction from the device’s active region. This Phase-I is focused on producing a 1-10 Watt (or 10kW in Phase-II) Ka-band (34-36GHz) GaN-on- Diamond Power Amplifier module. Polycrystalline free standing CVD diamond – nature’s most efficient thermal conductor – enables nearly perfect heat extraction from a “hot” device, owing to the extreme thermal conductivity of diamond (GaAs, Si, and SiC are 35-, 150- and 390-W/m/K respectively; diamond is 1200-2000 W/m/K per quality). In the proposed scheme, the device’s active epitaxial layers are removed from their original host substrate and transferred to a specially treated low-cost CVD diamond substrate using a proprietary low-cost manufacturable scheme. The semiconductor-on-diamond technology proposed here may be applied to GaAs, GaN, SiC etc. at up to 8” in wafer diameter.

JGM Associates, Inc.
25 Burlington Mall Road, Suite 300
Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 272-6692

PI: Jeffrey G. Manni
(781) 272-6692
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7066
Penn State Electro-Optics Center
222 Northpointe Blvd.,
Freeport, PA 16229
(724) 295-7000

ID#: B08B-004-0024
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T004       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Compact Laser Sources for Advanced Discrimination Seekers
Abstract:  &nbs Phase I will conduct modeling and breadboard experiments to assess whether VHGM laser technology can achieve laser sources that enable active LADAR performance that surpasses present technology by a factor or 4, while packaging the laser head into a volume of 3 cubic inches. Phase II will build laser prototypes based on Phase I results.

k Technology Corporation
2000 West Cabot Blvd., Suite 150
Langhorne, PA 19047
(215) 375-3035

PI: Himanshu Pokharna
(408) 970-9228
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7079
University of Dayton
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 229-4797

ID#: B08B-011-0059
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T011       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Improved Packaging and Thermal Management for High Power Electronics and Solid State Lasers
Abstract:  &nbs TWTs are the amplifier of choice for various radar, electronics countermeasure techniques and other high power communication hardware. One of the biggest challenges with TWTs is the cooling of the waste heat. A large amount of power is dissipated at the collector end of the TWTA and that needs to be conducted to a heat sink at the base of the plate on which the TWT assembly is mounted. Since most of the heat is generated at the collector which is at the far end of the TWTA, the heat density is very high which makes the cooling problem very challenging. In this STTR, kTC proposes to use a high conductivity aluminum graphite composite material to make the base of the TWT itself. This can result in significantly superior spreading, reducing the heat flux from the TWT, thus making its cooling significantly easier. Furthermore, the proposed scheme will save weight and will be a drop-in replacement for the current and future TWT assemblies.

Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
(650) 965-7772

PI: Micah Yairi
(650) 965-7772
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7070
Northwestern University
Office of Sponsored Programs, 633 Clark St.
Evanston, IL 60208
(847) 491-3003

ID#: B08B-005-0064
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T005       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: High Sensitivity Light-Weight Gyroscope
Abstract:  &nbs Gyroscopes are found in nearly every airplane, many cars, robots, missiles, and more. The reason for such broad, wide-spread use is simple: gyroscopes are excellent tools for determining rotation, and can be quite sensitive. Improving the sensitivity of optical gyroscopes while also reducing their size and weight has proven to be a significant challenge. To provide a solution, Los Gatos Research has developed a novel approach to gyroscope design that avoids many of the disadvantages of standard fiber-optic and ring-laser gyroscopes, providing dramatically increased-sensitivity.

Nova Research, Inc. DBA Nova Sensors
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104,
Solvang, CA 93463
(805) 693-9600

PI: Mark A. Massie
(805) 693-9600
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7062
Johns Hopkins University
Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road
Laural, MD 20723
(240) 228-0649

ID#: B08B-002-0038
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T002       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: 2K x 2K Dual Band Focal Plane Array Development for Advanced Interceptor IRSTS Applications
Abstract:  &nbs Nova Sensors proposes the development of a new 2K x 2K dual-band readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that will be specifically tailored for use in MDA Infrared Search and Track System (IRSTS) applications. We propose incorporation of on-FPA features that streamline the use of dual-band focal plane array (FPA) data for missile detection, tracking and spectral discrimination applications. In cooperation with our STTR technology partner at JHU/APL and our project partners at QmagiQ Inc. and Cyan Systems, Nova will produce a preliminary design for this dual band ROIC in the Phase I effort. The ROIC will also accommodate use of other detector materials, but superior uniformity and “bandgap engineered” features of QmagiQ’s multiple quantum well (QWIP) material will be an important element of the proposed effort. APL has already invested research efforts in development of on-FPA processing techniques involving nonuniformity correction and bandwidth reduction that are directly applicable to wide field of view, large format IRSTS sensors. A variety of advanced on-FPA processing operations are proposed that will help to optimize the implementation of such very large format dual band FPAs for IRSTS; these include on- FPA spectral differencing and ratioing operations, event-driven automatic foveation as well as on-chip analog-to- digital (A/D) conversion.

17150 Via Del Campo, Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
(858) 487-0620

PI: Bernard R Gregoire
(406) 219-3937
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7067
Oregon State University
308 Kerr Administration Bldg.,
Corvallis, OR 97331
(541) 737-6699

ID#: B08B-004-0028
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T004       Awarded: 2/9/2009
Title: Advanced Passive and Active Sensors for Discrimination Seekers
Abstract:  &nbs Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) is developing a next generation, high-performance large-format HgCdTe FPAs for dual-band LWIR detection for the MKV Program. Increasing the format size of dual-band long-wavelength FPAs and tailoring the detector design for specific long-wavelength bands enables seekers to be designed for larger fields- of-view, longer target acquisition ranges, and improved accuracy. Presently, there are no commercial analog-to- digital-converters (ADCs) that support space and military FPA applications. In the proposed program Nu-Trek and OSU will develop an ultra-low-power buffered, successive approximation register (SAR) ADC to be used with the MKV-L FPA. The digital-like nature of SAR ADCs promises to offer greater radiation hardness and easier integration into cryogenic applications compared to pipelined ADCs. The proposed ADC has a revolutionary architecture that combines the ultra-low power consumption available only with SAR ADCs with buffering, speed, and resolution that are obtained with pipeline ADCs. A single ADC channel will consume ~ 4 mW @ 15 MHz & 14 bit resolution. This is < 1/10 the power consumption of commercially available ADCs with similar resolution and speed. The proposed ADC will be rad-hard, operate at cryogenic temperatures, and will be offered in Single Channel, Quad, and Octal configurations. RVS will provide detailed requirements.

17150 Via Del Campo, Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
(858) 487-0620

PI: Bernard R Gregoire
(406) 219-3937
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7071
Arizona State University
Arizona State Univeristy, P.O. Box 873503
Tempe, AZ 85287
(480) 727-7983

ID#: B08B-007-0027
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T007       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Reconfigurable Course-Grain Analog Arrays
Abstract:  &nbs We will develop a rad-hard Application-Specific, Coarse-Grain Field Programmable Analog Array (ASCG-FPAA) by combining high performance analog functions with switches. The analog functions will be ADCs, DACs, analog mux/demux units, instrumentation amplifiers, track and hold circuits, etc. The switches can select or bypass entire analog functions or adjust parameters within the analog functions. As a demonstration, we will develop an ASCG- FPAA Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) for focal plane arrays (FPAs). The ROIC analog functions will be “broken up” into reconfigurable blocks, from which ROICS that meet a broad range of requirements can be formed. Our team consists of Nu-Trek, Arizona State University, and Ball Aerospace. Analog functions are based on Nu-Trek’s ultra- low power Correlated Level Shifting (CLS) technology and on ASU’s ROICs and power-scalable pipeline A/Ds. Ball Aerospace is a leading supplier of imagers for defense and commercial applications and will provide requirements and guidance. ASCG-FPAAs would drastically reduce the cost and lead-time required to develop new systems. The ASCG-FPAA FPA ROIC would be applicable to a broad range of imager applications, such as the STSS.

Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.
Oceanit Center, 828 Fort Street Mall, Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 338-9003

PI: Robert Swanson
(808) 338-9003
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7063
Applied Physics Laboratory
11100 Johns Hopkins Road,
Laurel, MA 20723
(240) 228-5058

ID#: B08B-002-0071
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T002       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Advanced Interceptor Infra-Red Search and Track System (IRSTS) for Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:  &nbs The Oceanit / John’s Hopkins, Applied Physics Laboratory (Oceanit / APL) team proposes a Foveal IRSTS (FIRST system) that can provide extremely accurate tracking information as well as providing discrimination and kill assessment metrics. Custom algorithms and processing methods will take advantage of a custom dual-format architecture to address and develop new optical processing methods and capabilities. The FIRST system will support high fidelity, high-speed imaging without overwhelming onboard aircraft computers that will process optical data and fuse it with radar to provide high-precision position, velocity and acceleration data. The camera system will be flexible enough to address short, intermediate and long range missiles threats.

Ogden Engineering & Associates, LLC
8180 N. Placita Sur Oeste,
Tucson, AZ 85741
(520) 579-2042

PI: Greg Ogden
(520) 579-2042
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7061
University of Alabama in Huntsville
Office of Sponsored Programs,
Huntsville, AL 35899
(256) 824-6000

ID#: B08B-001-0015
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T001       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Enhancing Monorpopellant Combustion Efficiency (EMCE)
Abstract:  &nbs Propulsion technology development over the past half-century has produced numerous products-solids, cold gas, liquids, hypergols, monopropellants and combinations of the above. Each offers merits and optimal applications based on induced specific impulse (ISP), weight, size, throttling capability, center of gravity etc. Several Ballistic Missile Defense Systems (BMDS) have baselined liquid fuel based DACS (Divert Altitude and Control Systems) for the kill vehicle (KV). Monopropellants offer additional benefits over bipropellants due to the simplified engine complexity and reduced hardware requirements and/or heavier payloads. Hydrazine is a proven monopropellant widely used in missile and spacecraft propulsion systems. However, it is desirable to reduce the cost and health- risks associated with transporting, storing and handling hydrazine due to its high vapor toxicity. Ionic Liquid monopropellants based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) are being promoted as potential replacements to hydrazine based on reduced toxicity, increased energy density and specific impulse. Ogden Engineering & Associates, LLC (OE&A) has teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) to improve the combustion efficiency and burning rate of HAN and HAN/HEHN based monopropellants. This effort stems from the successful development of a HEHN-based hypergolic green fuel (HGF) that OE&A has created in partnership with UAH.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive,
Madison, WI 53717
(608) 229-2730

PI: Millicent Coil
(608) 229-2812
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7060
University of Wisconsin-Madison
1415 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-7727

ID#: B08B-001-0014
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T001       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Ionic Liquid Propellants
Abstract:  &nbs Future BMDS interceptor systems require innovative propellants that provide significantly increased performance and, simultaneously, improved safety, insensitivity, and economy. ORBITEC and partner University of Wisconsin- Madison propose to develop a family of ionic liquid propellants to meet these needs. Ionic liquids are inherently non- volatile, stable, and dense, and have a large liquidus range; thus they are well-suited to be rocket propellants. A non-volatile yet highly energetic rocket propellant would not only improve insensitive munitions compliance but could also potentially enable shipboard use. The proposed Phase I program will include the design of the propellants, synthesis of small quantities, materials testing, and energy and performance calculations. The end result of the initial phase will be a set of the most promising samples for in-depth analysis in future work. Phase II work will synthesize larger quantities of the top formulations, conduct more extensive materials testing, and progress to combustion tests. This research program will produce a set of new liquid ionic rocket propellants for mono- and bi- propellant systems that will exceed the state of the art propellants in density specific impulse, insensitivity, and safety and will allow engineering of novel electrical ignition systems.

Phoebus Optoelectronics LLC
760 Parkside Avenue, Room 313
Brooklyn, NY 11226
(718) 484-7033

PI: David Crouse
(212) 650-5330
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7076
Research Foundation - City College
160 Convent Avenue,
New York, NV 10031
(212) 650-7908

ID#: B08B-009-0005
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T009       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Science and Applications of Metameterials to Interceptor Sensors
Abstract:  &nbs In Phase I, Phoebus Optoelectronics will assess the feasibility of using the diverse, enabling light management capabilities of subwavelength-scale metal/dielectric materials called "Plasmonic/Photonic Hybrid Crystals," a recently-discovered subset of Z/NIM metamaterials, to develop higher-performance, lower-cost components for infrared sensing related to interceptor systems. Our hybrid crystals, single-layer surface structures, can be fabricated atop any substrate material using standard CMOS fabrication techniques. Designs for two unique polarimetric infrared focal plane arrays will be developed for the 7-12 micron wavelength regime. The designs will use combinations of optical and electromagnetic modes within subwavelength periodic structures that elicit the Z/NIM effects of anomalous transmission and super beaming. Our structures will readily achieve polarization extinction ratios of 500:1 (compared with 20:1 for current commercial devices), will minimize crosstalk, and will reduce fabrication costs through component integration.

Polaris Sensor Technologies, Inc.
200 Westside Square, Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
(256) 562-0087

PI: Art Lompado
(256) 562-0087
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7064
Georgia Institute of Technology
Van Leer Electrical Engineerin, VL E392B/WHIT 4102
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-2901

ID#: B08B-003-0043
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T003       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Electro Optic Avionic Advanced Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) Algorithm Development to Enhance the Lethality of Interceptors Against Maneuvering Targets
Abstract:  &nbs Electro-Optical Seekers that utilize a novel GNC Particle Flow processes may better address maneuvering targets and improve track and discrimination functions over traditional solutions. Particle flow processes track objects by estimating the global motion as a function of time. Traditional tracking algorithms using Kalman filters or particle filters have been proposed for finite dimensional representations of shape, but these are dependent on the chosen parameterization and cannot typically handle changes associated with maneuvering targets. This proposal uses data set generator and a low cost high speed FPGA/DSP HWIL platform to demonstrate the application of these algorithms to MDA scenarios. At the completion of Phase I, the Polaris/Georgia Tech team will have a hardware implementation of the Particle Filter guidance and control system that is suitable for testing in a hardware in the loop (HWIL) facility in Phase II.

Quallion LLC
12744 San Fernando Road, Building 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
(818) 833-2013

PI: Hiroshi Nakahara
(818) 833-2016
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7074
University of South Carolina
301 Main Street,
Columbia, SD 29208
(803) 777-3270

ID#: B08B-008-0045
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T008       Awarded: 2/26/2009
Title: Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Life Modeling to Encompass Wider Life Parameters
Abstract:  &nbs Quallion will manufacture (48) of our QL0200I-A implantable medical grade 200mAh cells. University of South Carolina will utilize the mathematical framework of the existing single particle model to develop a more general and robust ‘single particle model’ which will have the capability to predict calendar life and cycle life performance under various satellite operational scenarios. Upon review of the empirical data needed to validate the USC model, Quallion/USC will subject the test cells to varying conditions.

S2 Corporation
2310 University Way, Building 4-1
Bozeman, MT 59715
(406) 922-0334

PI: Kristian Merkel
(406) 922-0334
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7082
Montana State University
Spectrum Lab, PO Box 173510
Bozeman, MT 59715
(406) 994-1797

ID#: B08B-012-0037
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T012       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Innovative Photonic Time Delay Units for Radar Applications
Abstract:  &nbs We aim to design and demonstrate an innovative photonic true time delay solution which alleviates the fundamental problem of cascaded optical switches, and additionally offers several significant benefits. The device uses wideband spatial-spectral (S2) holographic optical memory materials to store and access several broadband time delay gratings. Broadband optical chirps are used to create these time delay gratings, and the control mechanism is an RF tone, not an optical switch. Each filter can extend over GHz of bandwidth, and can be individually programmed. Multi-casting is possible with multiple delays stored as spectral gratings. Hundreds of filters can be stored in a single small volume of S2 material (human hair sized). The delay gratings are probed by radar signal modulated onto an optical laser carrier, and the S2 material creates a true-time delayed replicas of the signal, which is then photodectected at the array element. Delays of interest are accessed by fast optical frequency switching. One S2 crystal spot per array element is needed, and many spots can be illuminated in one sugar cube sized S2 crystal, e.g., 32x32 elements.

SySense Corporation
300 East Magnolia Suite 300,
Burbank, CA 91502
(818) 238-2330

PI: Ashitosh Swarup
(818) 238-2330
Contract #: HQ0147-09-C-7065
Applied Physics Laboratory
11100 Johns Hoopkins Road,
Laurel , MD 20723
(240) 228-7693

ID#: B08B-003-0092
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T003       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Boost-Phase Intercept Guidance Using Detection Methods
Abstract:  &nbs In boost-phase missile defense, ballistic missile threats are intercepted prior to termination of powered flight. One concept is to position radars close to the potential threat and to engage the threat missile while still in the boost phase. Certain boosting threats may be capable of utilizing their excess energy to fly a less predictable path, which are a countermeasure to interception during this phase of flight. Our focus is on the estimation of the state of the ICBM threat when its acceleration is used to complicate the tracking solution and the development of terminal homing guidance laws that hedge against the possibilities of random jumps in the ICBM''''s thrust profile. The estimator is based on two important developments. First, although the dynamic model is assumed linear in a Cartesian frame and the measurements are linear in a spherical coordinate frame, the measurement residual functions can be written as a universal linearization in the Cartesian frame. Secondly, based on this linear structure, model-based fault detection filters are applied to the detection of the random jumps in the ICBM''''s thrust profile. This effort will be performed by SySense researchers under the review and guidance of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

Triad Semiconductor, Inc.
3900 Westpoint Boulevard, Suite D
Winston-Salem, NC 27103
(336) 774-2150

PI: James Kemerling
(336) 774-2150
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7072
North Carolina State University
MRC 444, Campus Box 7911
Raleigh, NC 27695
(919) 513-7366

ID#: B08B-007-0079
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T007       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Reconfigurable Course-Grain Analog Arrays
Abstract:  &nbs Development of configurable analog array architectures that meet a wide range MDA system application. Development and implementation of radiation hard by design techniques for analog circuits at the physical layout and circuit design levels.

(978) 250-4200

PI: Keith Higginson
(978) 250-4200
Contract #: HQ0006-09-C-7075
University of Massachusetts,
883 Broadway Street,
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 934-4723

ID#: B08B-009-0004
Agency: MDA
Topic#: 08-T009       Awarded: 2/17/2009
Title: Spray-Coatable Metamaterials for Use as Narrow Bandpass Filters(1001-315)
Abstract:  &nbs Triton, together with our STTR partner, proposes to develop the theory and fabrication capabilities necessary to develop a metamaterials coating solution for mirror optics that is capable of passing a narrow spectral band in the long wave infrared (LWIR) spectrum for the purposes of stray light correction in interceptor sensors. In the Phase I program we will deliver both a mathematical description and physical samples of the metamaterials. Our solution, unlike other metamaterials approaches will able to be applied as a spray coating, making our proposed material very conducive to real-world applications. It is based on theoretical metamaterials structures that allow greatly reduced the fabrication complexity. Initial calculations show that our metamaterials are low-loss, unlike related approaches which use lossy metal structures at a high fill factor. We expect our coatings to be rugged and durable.