DoD STTR Program Phase I Selections for FY10.B

Air Force Selections

MDA Selections

Navy Selections

OSD Selections

---------- AF ----------

Abeam Technologies
5286 Dunnigan Ct.,
Castro Valley, CA 94546
(510) 415-6032

PI: Christophe Peroz
(510) 495-2710
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0045
The Molecular Foundry
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, One Cyclotron Road
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 486-7339

ID#: F10B-T39-0086
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT39       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: High-Resolution, Low-Cost Spectrometer-on-Chip
Abstract: aBeam Technologies, Inc. proposes a new type of miniature spectrometer based on digital planar holography (DPH). This may lead to a revolution in optics, similar to the transition from electron tubes to integrated circuits in electronics. The spectrometer is an optical chip just a few millimeters in size; it can be implemented to detect any desired substance. The spectrometer can potentially be integrated with microfluidic circuitry into a laboratory-on-chip or even into cell phones. The fabrication method is compatible with micro/nanofabrication technology, which makes the production inexpensive. We have demonstrated the principle of DPH. The goal of this project is to demonstrate the new class of spectrometer-on-chip with functionality unattainable by common spectrometers, to design and fabricate a spectrometer with ultrahigh resolution in multiple, separated wavelength ranges. This type of device will be ideal for sensing specific materials, for example, for detecting biological and chemical hazards. BENEFIT: Our approach will revolutionize the applications of photo-spectrometers by greatly miniaturizing the sizes of sensors, decreasing their cost, and improving their sensitivity. The first targeted application will be the handheld, low-cost Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy system. It will then be expanded into other areas of spectrometers, such as Raman spectroscopy and for development of laboratory-on-chip. There is a potential for spectrometers-on-chip to be implemented within cell phones for specific biological or chemical hazard detection.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
(303) 792-5615

PI: Steve Arzberger
(303) 792-5615
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0083
University of Nevada
Microbiology & Immunology, 199 / School of Medicine
Reno, NV 89557
(775) 327-5255

ID#: F10B-T24-0132
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT24       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: Nanoparticles to Sequester and Facilitate In Vivo Excretion of Lipophilic Molecules
Abstract: Mycotoxins are lipophilic agents derived from fungus that pose a significant public health problem around the world. The effects of mycotoxins include loss of human and animal life, increased healthcare and veterinary costs, reduced livestock production, and disposal of contaminated foods and feeds. Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin and T-2 mycotoxins, have been reported to be weaponized as terrorism agents, suggesting the possibility of future deployment against military personnel is a real and present danger. Unfortunately, no effective treatment for mycotoxin exposure in either the acute or chronic setting currently exists. As a result, the United States Air Force has identified the need to fabricate a nanoparticle therapeutic that can sequester and then facilitate the excretion of mycotoxins. To address this need, ADA Technologies Inc. (ADA; Littleton, CO) and Professor Kenneth W. Hunter (University of Nevada at Reno) propose the development of nanoparticles with surface-bound biomolecules for the intravenous binding of lipophilic molecules, sequestration, and excretion from the human body BENEFIT: The proposed program will result in a nanoparticle therapeutic with the demonstrated ability of tightly binding and sequestering lipophilic molecules in solution. The result of the proposed program is anticipated to be the first commercial therapeutic for exposure to fungal toxins. Additional commercial applications may include diagnostics, sensors, and tools for the identification of various harmful molds.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
(303) 792-5615

PI: Sayandev Naha
(303) 792-5615
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0034
University of Colorado at Boulder
University of Colorado, Dept of Mechanical Engineering
Boulder, CO 80309
(303) 735-1003

ID#: F10B-T26-0134
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT26       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Quantum Dot Nanocomposite Based Novel Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract: Energy harvesting has emerged as a critical need for many current and future Air Force missions to enable their long lifetime requirements. Traditional approaches have focused on harvesting solar and vibration (i.e., via the use of piezoelectric materials) energy. More recently, substantial interest has developed in harvesting energy derived from thermal gradients (e.g., due to solar radiation and/or waste heat) as it has the potential to greatly surpass the power generation capabilities of more traditional approaches. Unfortunately, deficiencies in the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials have prevented their widespread use in energy harvesting / conversion systems. To address the need for higher performing thermoelectric materials, ADA Technologies, Inc., in collaboration with the University of Colorado, propose the development of a novel, high performance (i.e., high figure of merit or, ZT) and highly scalable thermoelectric material based on nanocomposite technology. BENEFIT: Energy harvesting and conversion is a critical need for numerous military applications. For example, future micro air vehicles are intended to meet a mission operation that extends over several days, which is only achievable by combining an efficient energy harvesting and storage system. Further, structural health monitoring for applications such as airframes and spacecraft is only feasible when combined with an energy harvesting system. Beyond the military applications, there exist numerous commercial applications that could make use of a structural health monitoring system enabled by an efficient energy harvesting system. Examples include wind turbine blades and civil infrastructure for enhanced performance and safety.

Adsys Controls, Inc.
18 Technology Dr. Suite 139,
Irvine, CA 92618
(949) 682-5430

PI: Brian S. Goldberg
(949) 682-5430
Contract #: FA9451-11-M-0044
Penn State University - ARL
Applied Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 30, North Atherton St
State College, PA 16804
(814) 863-7282

ID#: F10B-T33-0305
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT33       Awarded: 5/2/2011
Title: HEL Engagement Image Generation for Hyperspectral Tracking (HEIGHT)
Abstract: With the progression of solid state laser technology, the deployment of a tactical directed energy weapon (DEW) system is soon to be realized. However, recent demonstration systems have revealed new challenges related to system tracking due to interference between the HEL delivery and the tracking imagery. These effects include thermal radiation, plasma formation, and undesired measurement of the HEL in the tracking sensor. Due to the extensive cost of DEW testing and the complexity of the tracking systems, it is crucial to be able to simulate engagements in a lab environment for system development. However, current scene generators used for this purpose do not effectively model these HEL- induced effects. Adsys Controls proposes to develop a scene generation tool leveraging on existing scene generators, HEL-effects material research, and existing wave optics code coupled with new HEL/material interaction research. The result will be a high fidelity modular tactical scene generation tool capable of being integrated with DE tracking systems and components for laboratory and ground-based testing. BENEFIT: The technology developed under this topic fills a critical existing technology gap in directed energy system weapon development. In particular, the resultant product will allow for a better understanding of the artifacts occuring during a tactical directed energy engagement. This is critical for development of DE weapon system tracking systems where it is cost and schedule inhibative to develop future systems without this capability. In addition to the military benefits on directed energy programs, other commercial industries could utilize the technology. These include but are not limited to commercial welding, medical laser surgery, and laser-based silicon manufacturing. Each of these industries rely on precision placed high power lasers and often use closed loop imaging for beam control. A tool that allows for simulation of the observed effects on the imaging system during the laser employment will help promote the development of next generation systems while reducing development time and cost.

Advanced Photonic Crystals LLC
377 Rubin Center Drive, Suite 207
Fort Mill, SC 29708
(803) 547-0881

PI: Henry Giesber
(803) 547-0881
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1165
Clemson University
Dept. of Chemistry, 415 H. L. Hunter Laboratories
Clemson, SC 29634
(864) 656-4739

ID#: F10B-T28-0127
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT28       Awarded: 4/25/2011
Title: Solvothermal growth of low-defect-density gallium nitride substrates
Abstract: This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase I project will address the problem of obtaining low-defect-density gallium nitride single crystals for substrates to enable low-defect, high-performance epitaxial growth. Gallium nitride is a very promising material for numerous applications including surface acoustic wave devices, high-powered LEDs, UV diode lasers and high-powered RF devices to name just a few. Its use is limited however, because these applications require a high quality single crystal as a substrate for subsequent epitaxial thin film device engineering. Solvothermal growth, growing crystals in pressurized solvents well above their boiling points, is a simple extension of the natural process for the formation of gems. The ammonothermal technique shows promise for scale-up of GaN single crystals. Our approach exploits eight years of joint engineering and design of a proven, commercially operational technique between Advanced Photonic Crystals and Clemson University for hydrothermal growth of oxide crystals. To accomplish the objectives of Phase I the current hydrothermal model autoclave design will be adapted for ammonothermal crystal growth. The necessary ammonothermal transport chemistry will also be developed in this work. Kyma Technologies will supply seeds and feedstock for use in the ammonothermal growth. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits from this contract will be commercially viable, large-scale production of bulk low-defect single crystals of gallium nitride for subsequent use as substrates in epitaxial device manufacturing. Devices for a number of applications including surface acoustic wave devices, high-powered LEDs, UV diode lasers and high-powered RF devices to name just a few.

Aerius Photonics, LLC.
2223 Eastman Ave., Suite B,
Ventura, CA 93003
(805) 642-4645

PI: Lloyd Linder
(805) 642-4645
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0038
Boise State University
1910 University Drive,
Boise, ID 83725
(208) 426-5715

ID#: F10B-T34-0142
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT34       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Monolithic CMOS LADAR Focal Plane Array (FPA) with a Photonic High-Speed Output Interface
Abstract: Aerius Photonics proposes to develop a monolithic electronic-photonic silicon CMOS Focal Plane Array (FPA) to enable ultra-compact Imaging LADAR sensors. These miniature LADAR sensors would have far reaching impact on a number of DoD applications because of their dramatic reduction in cost, significantly smaller size, weight and power (SWaP) and their improved performance regarding sensitivity and frame rate. The CMOS FPA will integrate in one chip hundreds of photonic components and about one million transistors, making it one of the largest electronic-photonic integrated circuits ever fabricated. In Phase I, Aerius will design all the elements of the integrated chip and will test some individual components. This work will evaluate integration feasibility and reduce the risk for further development. Also in Phase I, Aerius will define the commercialization plan to guide action in Phase II and Phase III of the program. In Phase II, Aerius will fabricate a prototype FPA to demonstrate the significant functionality improvements targeted. The resulting high performance FPA prototypes will be provided to system integrators for incorporation into systems that benefit the mission of DoD and that will be transitioned into manufacturing in Phase III. BENEFIT: With the successful completion of this project, Aerius will have developed the technology to fabricate highly integrated electronic-photonic systems utilizing standard silicon CMOS technology. The first implementation of this technology will produce a miniature low cost LADAR system that will have a large impact on a vast range of defense and civilian systems such as: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation, target identification, weapon precision aiming, surveillance, recovery of injured warfighters, transportation, construction, manufacturing processes, traffic control and visual clues for blind people. The disruptive benefits brought about by this highly integrated FPA are enormous. Following the development of this miniature low cost LADAR, the technology can be applied to the development of other sensors such as detectors of biological and chemical agents and also for advanced communication systems.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road,
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Pierre-Yves Emelie
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0056
University of Wisconsin-Madison
2436 Engineering Hall, 1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 265-5738

ID#: F10B-T14-0215
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT14       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: SWIR Image Sensor Based on SiGe Nanomembranes
Abstract: With a cutoff at 1.6 μm, high carrier mobility, and the potential to be integrated with silicon integrated circuits, Ge offers the possibility to achieve large size arrays and small pixel pitch for high sensitivity SWIR imaging near room temperatures. In addition, integrating SWIR image sensors on flexible substrates opens new applications and opportunities for night vision systems such as tunable visual fields by bending the array of photodiodes into different curvatures and shapes. In this program, Agiltron, Inc. and the University of Wisconsin-Madison propose to develop the first curved SWIR image sensor. The sensor is based on the integration of single-crystalline Si and Ge nanomembranes. This has the potential to achieve high quality Ge-on-Si photodiodes for SWIR imaging on flexible substrates. The photodiode fabrication does not require any epitaxy step which removes significant development costs. BENEFIT: This program addresses the lack of SWIR image sensors with array sizes larger than 1K×1K and pixel pitch smaller than 10 μm. Increasing the resolution and sensitivity in SWIR imaging is critical for night-vision applications such as driver vision enhancement and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) military and security systems. In addition, integrating the image sensor and the CMOS read-out IC results in a lower cost SWIR system that can be more extensively deployed in the field. Finally, developing sensing and imaging technology on flexible substrates is of great interest for the DoD as it opens new applications such as a tunable field of view and increase the system integration capabilities. This will enable high-performance imagers with a small form factor and field of view that far exceeds the state of the art possible with planar focal plane arrays.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road,
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Shankar Radhakrishnan
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0050
Marquette University of Wisconsin
Holthusen Hall, 341, P.O. Box 1881
Milwaukee, WI 53201
(414) 288-3637

ID#: F10B-T26-0226
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT26       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Ge-Si superlattice nanowires for high efficiency thermoelectric devices
Abstract: The widespread use of thermoelectric devices to scavenge waste heat is currently limited due to two major reasons – low ZT and the incompatibility of the material or process to form high-density thermojunctions needed for high-efficiency thermoelectric power generators. In this program, Agiltron Inc. in collaboration with Marquette University proposes to develop germanium-silicon mechano-electronic superlattice nanowire as a material with high ZT, based on Ge nanodots on Si nanowires, which forms a superlattice electronic band structure without the need for compositional modulation. Our proposed approach would improve ZT over that of currently demonstrated Si nanowires by two mechanisms. First, the Ge quantum dots on Si nanowires act as local stressors as they are grown in directions orthogonal to the nanowires’ long direction, causing phonon scattering and reducing the thermal conductivity in nanowires. Second, the electronic superlattice results in miniband formation, increasing the density of states, thereby increasing both the Seebeck coefficient in the nanowires, holding potential for ZT > 2 at room temperatures, and ZT > 4 at or near 600K. Additionally, the Ge-Si superlattice nanowires are fabricated using conventional silicon micromachining, including optical lithography and anisotropic wet etch, allowing wide latitude in device design and robust and inexpensive manufacturing. BENEFIT: Our proposed method is based on conventional bulk micromachining and optical projection lithography, allowing for dense arrays of junctions with high fill factor, enabling high efficiency thermoelectric power generators and heat pumps that can be manufactured inexpensively. The development of thermoelectric materials with ZT > 4 have potential widespread application in both civil and defense applications such as for efficient power scavenging from waste heat generated in jet turbine engines, combustion engines, nuclear reactors and hot water supplies. Exploiting temperature differences available in nature and in/on artificial objects can be used to power autonomous devices, and thermoelectric power generators that use body heat as an energy source are appropriate for portable low-power applications. Additionally, at such high ZT, thermoelectric pump cooling efficiencies compare favorably to those of conventional two- stage Freon-based cooling in refrigeration, potentially saving cost and harmful greenhouse emissions.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road,
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Geoffrey Burnham
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0031
Iowa State University
1138 Pearson Hall,
Ames, IA 50011
(515) 294-7723

ID#: F10B-T30-0218
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT30       Awarded: 11/23/2011
Title: Highly Directional Infrared Emission and Transmission
Abstract: In this STTR program, Agiltron and Iowa State University (ISU) jointly propose to develop simple material and structural solutions that enable directionally dependent emission in the infrared regime. The highly directional infrared emission has extremely narrow emission patterns and a large difference between high and low emission states. In the Phase I program, the structure will be fabricated on top of a flat silicon substrate. Samples will be provided to the US Air Force for evaluation. The sample will have the following properties that fully fulfill the requirement of this solicitation: ratio of high/low emissivity better than 20, angle of radiation cone as small as 5 degrees. BENEFIT: The technical approach we propose is highly generalizable to the development of infrared lens/filters, beam splitters and other focal plane elements with highly directional emission property. It can be used for thermal management in space and other commercial applications. It can also be used to alter the observability of platforms as a function of angle of observation.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road,
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Jing Ma
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0064
Yale University
155 Whitney Avenue, Suite 214,
New Haven, CT 06520
(203) 785-3680

ID#: F10B-T39-0136
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT39       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Compact, low cost, wide band, high resolution integrated digital spectrometer on a chip
Abstract: Leveraging Agiltron industry leading development and production of spectrometer systems and components and wide band sensor arrays, we propose to develop a new class of high performance compact, high resolution, wide band spectrometer-on-a-chip. The approach is closely coupled with recent progress in miniature spectrometer and sensor array to push the performance well beyond the current state-of-the-art. The proposed spectrometer is based on computer-generated digital planar holograms which involves millions of lines specifically positioned and oriented so as to direct output light into design-specified focal points according to the wavelength. The sensor array will be integrated on the same chip. The spectrometer will be fabricated on a silicon substrate, which allows further integration with CMOS data processing. The technical approach will be proven in Phase I through the numerical analysis, design and experiments. The ortable prototype spectrometer will be produced in Phase II for delivery to the Air Force. BENEFIT: Optical spectrometers have a wide range of technological, medical, and industrial applications. They are widely used in research laboratories, hospitals, educational institutes, fiber-optic industries, and environmental engineering industries. The advent in technologies, however lead to more sophisticated instrumentations that has to be highly portable in the field for rapid analysis of biological/medical, chemical, or environmental samples. The entire optical spectrum analysis instrumentation market is a billion-dollar market. While optical spectrometers play key roles in various applications, they remain to be one of the largest optical instrumentations, and one of the most costly, occupying a size of tens of centimeters for a compact version to a few meters for a table-top version, and costing ~$5,000 for a compact version to $30,000 for a table top version. The proposed approach will develop spectrometer-on-a-chip with dramatically reduced size and cost so that a portable spectrometer will be affordable for pervasive application.

Altusys Corp
P O Box 1274,
Princeton, NJ 08542
(609) 651-4500

PI: Khushboo Shah
(609) 651-4500
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0138
SUNY Binghamton
Research Foundation of SUNY, PO Box 6000
Binghamton, NY 13902
(607) 777-6136

ID#: F10B-T18-0188
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT18       Awarded: 4/22/2011
Title: Securing Applications by Limiting Exposure
Abstract: This proposal details an ambitious effort to develop Virtualization-based secure application Containers and Controlled Communication System (VC3S). The VC3S provides secure application/module isolation, mediation of inter- application/module communication, as well as dynamic/intelligent exposure to the Internet. The proposed approach is three-pronged and enables the application of the principle of least privilege in commercial off-the-shelf systems (COTS). 1) Secure VM-based containers provide isolation among complex applications and/or modules from each other in order to reduce their exposure to attacks. 2) High-performance cross-domain (inter-VM) communication channels to support (a) direct VM-to-VM (V2V) communication among VMs that execute trusted/certified components and (b) monitored and mediated indirect V2V communication between one or more untrusted components to tightly control the interaction between untrusted components. 3) Policy control framework that dynamically and intelligently provides tight control over inter-application communication as well as limits the exposure of applications to the Internet. Policy control framework achieves this goal by user-intent and application monitoring, generating application and inter- application behavior profiles and by deriving dynamic and intelligent access control policies based on available behavior profiles including user intent concept at runtime. Support for multi-layer security is integrated in the VC3S architecture. BENEFIT: As a result of the advancements the proposed effort will make in the area of secure application virtualization, the developed VC3S will have significant benefits and commercial potential. Specifically, the military and civilians have become more dependent on information, and hence on information technology, intrusions and extrusions have become a significant threat to mission success, civilian infrastructure, and civilian enterprise success. The proposed effort will develop new directions in providing security against such attacks, and hence will have significant benefit for military and civilian information systems. Consequently, the systems developed under this effort have tremendous commercial potential. The first generation VC3S will be a software-based product to provide 1) secure application/module isolation, 2) mediation of inter-application/module communication, and 3) dynamic/intelligent exposure to the Internet. Software will further integrate events and log messages available from COTS products to strengthen dynamic behavior collection

ANDRO Computational Solutions, LLC
Beeches Technical Campus, 7902 Turin Road, Ste. 2-1
Rome, NY 13440
(315) 334-1163

PI: Andrew Drozd
(315) 334-1163
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0124
SUNY at Buffalo
215g Bonner Hall, North Campus, Dept of Electrical Engineering
Buffalo, NY 14260
(716) 645-1027

ID#: F10B-T09-0011
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT09       Awarded: 4/21/2011
Title: Next-generation ad hoc networking through joint cognitive routing and spread-spectrum channelization
Abstract: The primary objective of this STTR project is to develop a completely new approach to cognitive joint routing and spectrum allocation that will enable next-generation cognitive wireless networking between space, air, and ground USAF assets. The majority of cognitive radio network proposals rely on the notion of spectrum holes. This proposal will develop a system where cognitive users transmit wideband spread-spectrum signals that are designed to adaptively avoid the interference dynamics of the available spectrum at the receiver. In this way, cognitive users implicitly cooperate with existing narrowband or wideband users of the spectrum without effectively limiting each individual device’s throughput, operating distance, or both. This project will first demonstrate the feasibility of our new approach, referred to as cooperative spread-spectrum access, in terms of enhanced throughput, reliability, and reduced delay. We will then develop a new theoretical framework based on nonlinear optimization to rigorously derive provably-efficient distributed algorithms for joint adaptive cognitive routing and spread-spectrum allocation (code/signature and power) based on waveforms compatible with existing DoD programs. If we are successful, we will set the technological foundation and prototype technology that will be instrumental towards developing the next generation cognitive networking technology to maintain air superiority and spectral dominance. BENEFIT: If we are successful, we will set the technological foundation and prototype technology that will be instrumental towards developing the next generation cognitive networking technology between USAF space, air, and ground assets and achieve an at least ten-fold improvement in network throughput, delay, and reliability.

APIC Corporation
5800 Uplander Way,
Culver City, CA 90230
(310) 642-7975

PI: Anguel Nikolov
(310) 642-7975
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0054
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
77 Massachusetts Ave.,
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3906

ID#: F10B-T34-0326
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT34       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Optical clock distribution in 65nm CMOS process node
Abstract: Electrical interconnects implemented with metal wires inside computer chips or between computer chips are becoming the critical performance bottle neck due to limited bandwidth, increased power dissipation and crowded input/output interfaces. Using optics for interconnects solves the bandwidth problem, reduces the overall power dissipation by eliminating charging of interconnect lines and can combine on the same waveguide multiple wavelengths to allow single output to carry parallels bytes of data streams. We propose a process that integrates Ge epitaxy and formation of detectors with advanced CMOS process flow after polysilicon and prior to the full gate formation. This integration sequence ensures that the high temperature Ge growth steps do not perturb the gate channel and alter the CMOS performance. Special steps for protection of the Ge from CMOS high temperature activation steps are proposed. Additional re crystallization step will be tested. An optical waveguide suspended over the silicon and implemented in the ILD is described and will be fabricated. An optimized optical interconnect link will be designed with the requirement to be fully compatible with 65nm CMOS process. BENEFIT: High performance computer chips, avionics networks, telecommunications

AppliFlex LLC
PO Box 159293,
Nashville, TN 37215
(401) 835-3157

PI: Hee K. Park
(408) 386-1980
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0006
Vanderbilt University
110 21st Ave. South, 937 Baker Bldg.
Nashville, TN 37203
(615) 322-3977

ID#: F10B-T19-0254
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT19       Awarded: 10/18/2011
Title: Resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation for the deposition of polymer and polymer composite films for conformal optical coating on plastic substrates
Abstract: This project will apply resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation techniques to deposit environmentally-durable, adherent and conformal anti-reflection (AR) coating on a plastic (polycarbonate) substrate. The proposed broadband AR coating is based on a multilayer architecture of low-refractive index polymer and high-refractive index polymer or polymer hybrid materials. High quality polymer films can be deposited by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD) method while polymer composite films can be deposited by resonant infrared matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR- MAPLE) and their combinations. Model material systems will be designed and compared by appropriate mathematical modeling. Optical transmission, reflection and scattering will be measured with standard optical metrology techniques. The flexibility of RIR-MAPLE and RIR-PLD allows the deposition of a wide variety of materials including chemically resistant (insoluble) barrier polymers and nanoparticles embedded in polymer matrix to enhance durability and engineer the refractive index. A hybrid scheme with RIR-MAPLE and RIR-PLD along with a multi-target carousel further enlarges the palette of materials that can be deposited in vacuum for achieving unprecedented optical and mechanical coating properties. BENEFIT: The anticipated result of the proposed approach is an environmentally durable AR coating on polymer substrates. Specifically, the outcome of this project will allow the deposition of adherent and non-delaminating coatings onto polymer surfaces. If proven successful, it is possible to enhance significantly the quality of AR-coating on widely used plastic substrates, as more than a half of population wears corrective eyewear and/or sunglasses. In addition, the outcome of this project will have a proof of concept for commercialization of this novel technique for thin-film organic opto- electronics devices such as organic light emitting diode (OLED) and light management films for displays. The success of this project will have an impact to the America’s competitiveness in manufacturing and job creation.

Atherton Quantum Insight, LLC
22 Holbrook Ln.,
Atherton, CA 94027
(650) 269-4566

PI: Anthony Waitz
(650) 269-4566
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0086
North Carolina State University
2701 Sullivan Drive, Admin III, Suite 240
Raleigh, NC 27695
(919) 515-3126

ID#: F10B-T21-0040
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT21       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Tools for Modeling & Simulation of Molecular and Nanoelectronics Devices
Abstract: We will develop new multiscale methods that combine atomic-scale modeling of the active part of nano-sized electronic devices with continuum models of the surrounding passive parts. The methods will be based on highly parallel algorithms to allow for simulations of realistic device structures. The developed methods will be integrated into a new multiscale simulation module to the ATK package from the company QuantumWise. The new module will be made freely available to DOD groups. The simulation package will be validated by a consortium of leading nanoscale device simulation groups in academia and industry, and used to address important problems in nano-science and semiconductor research and development. BENEFIT: Atherton Quantum Insight (AQI) is an eight year old company that focuses on the commercialization of new technologies. AQI has a very deep relationship with the Danish firm QuantumWise (QW). The two have worked together since formation of QW in the fall of 2008. AQI is the sole representative of QW in the United States and at the time of this writing, AQI has been responsible for bringing in over half of QW’s total revenue for fiscal year 2010. Likewise, QuantumWise is currently AQI’s most significant customer. The proposed project will develop a software module that will be integrated into QuantumWise’s ATK package as mentioned above. ATK is the only commercial simulation product with the capability of modeling electronic structure and electron transport at the nano scale. ATK is currently used by corporations, such as Lockheed and the world’s largest chip company, government labs such as NRL, NIST, Argonne, and universities such as Stanford and Cornell. By building on top of this commercially successful platform, we are ensuring an immediate and simple path to commercialization of the technology that will result from this project. Although the use of computer modeling of nano and molecular scale structures has been growing for decades, the acceptance of the technology has been limited by a number of factors. Most dominantly among these is the limitation on the size of the system that can be simulated. To usefully simulate at the nano scale, one must use quantum accurate

AuraSense, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue, Suite 4301,
Evanston, IL 60201
(847) 467-2874

PI: Weston Daniel
(847) 467-2874
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0092
Northwestern University
300 E Superior Street, 16-703, Dept of Urology, Tarry Bldg
Chicago, IL 60611
(312) 908-8145

ID#: F10B-T24-0250
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT24       Awarded: 9/1/2011
Title: Modified Nanoparticles for Lipophilic Toxin Sequestration
Abstract: Mycotoxins are a class of weaponizable toxic secondary metabolites of molds and fungi. No treatments exist for exposure to these lipophilic poisons. AuraSense proposes to use lipid and protein modified gold nanoparticles to develop constructs for the sequestration of toxic lipophilic molecules. Nanoparticles are ideal materials for development of such a system, as they are able to be finely tuned in terms of their size, molecular composition, surface charge, and interfacial properties. In addition, we have demonstrated in preliminary work that they are nontoxic, and have a proven ability to avidly bind lipophilic molecules. Due to the difficulty of working with mycotoxins, cholesterol will be used as a model system to demonstrate sequestration from cell membranes. BENEFIT: AuraSense’s nanoparticle constructs have great potential as effective agents for transporting lipophilic toxins, such as mycotoxins, safely out of the body. AuraSense nanoparticle technology has been developed in numerous proof-of- concept applications and has been the subject of consistent commercial interest to date. This platform stands to significantly advance defense alternatives in combating lipophilic toxins. While broadly applicable in a number of therapeutic areas, AuraSense’s nanoparticle platforms are highly relevant to the Biodefense market.

Bio Inspired Technologies, LLC
2106 Manitou Ave,
Boise, ID 83706
(208) 859-2835

PI: Terry Gafron
(208) 585-8465
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0112
Boise State University
1910 University Drive, Office of Sponsored Programs
Boise, ID 83725
(208) 426-4420

ID#: F10B-T31-0192
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT31       Awarded: 4/20/2011
Title: Self-Reconfigurable Memristor-Based Computing Architecture: Design, Fabrication, and Characterization
Abstract: The behavior of the Chalcogenide based ion-conducting memristor lends itself for use as an element in a simple neuromorphic computing circuit. The reaction of a circuit to an external stimulus may be the result of its ability to learn from previous similar, yet unrelated exposures to environmental stimulus. A highly specialized variation of the memristor, previously developed by the Advanced Memory and Reconfigurable Logic Group at Boise State University, led by Dr. Kris Campbell, PhD. will be leveraged as the key functional component in a family of neuromorphic circuits. The electrical memristor device has demonstrated predictable discrete states, hysteresis, and time dependent memory, each of which may be leveraged for functional decision behaviors. In essence, the device remembers past stimulus, has a current state that is a direct function of both the past stimulus and the current stimulus, and eventually forgets, depending on the strength of the programming state and the passage of time. These unique device characterisics enable a new classification of intellegent computing architectures that may have the potential to demonstrate rudimentary adaptive learning behaviors similar to those found in nature. BENEFIT: The research supported will enable the design and prototyping of functional memristor based neuromorphic circuits which may potentually revolutionize the electronics industry by introducing new methodologies facilitating neuromorphic computing. These memristor based circuits will be demonstrated and integrated within existing technology frameworks, establishing the feasibility of manufacture within current technology nodes. The IP cores and demonstration vehicles developed during the course of this work are directly followed by a commercialization strategy to quickly expand the fledgling memristor efforts in industry. The result is intended to enable ground breaking applications and exploration in neuromorphic computing and reconfigurable electronics.

Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107,
Lafayette, CO 80026
(303) 604-0077

PI: Steve Serati
(303) 604-0077
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1170
DAYTON, OH 45469
(937) 229-2394

ID#: F10B-T35-0075
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT35       Awarded: 4/20/2011
Title: Agile beam/wavefront control for sub-aperture-based imaging systems
Abstract: Boulder Nonlinear Systems recently developed and delivered a beam scanner that non-mechanically steers a monochromatic, 5-cm beam over an 80„a x 80„a field of regard (FOR) with sub-milliradian resolution. This prototype uses a transmissive, wide-angle stepper (coarse steering unit), which is very compact and easily inserts into conformal, sub-aperture assemblies. To provide high resolution, the system incorporates a reflective, small-aperture, fine-angle beam steerer, which acts to fill in between the wide-angle steps. This fine angle unit and its associated beam expander quadruple the size and complexity of the beam control assembly, making it more difficult to use in fast optical systems. A solution is to develop a thin, large-aperture, transmissive unit, which works directly in-line with the coarse steering unit, to provide fine angle steering and high-resolution wavefront control. Also, we propose using wavelength-independent phase control for both the fine and coarse steering elements, which allows broadband operation using achromatic Fourier transform (AFT) techniques. This project capitalizes on the University of Dayton¡¦s research in meta materials to make the AFT approach practical for compact assemblies. Through this effort, compact, conformal, sub-aperture imaging systems, which panchromatically operate over a wide FOR („b45„a) with ~109 instantaneous fields of view, become realizable. BENEFIT: The ability to provide non-mechanical, wide-angle, beam control for conformal optical apertures is needed where reducing the size, weight and power consumption of the system is crucial and operation over a large field of regard is mission critical. Some of these applications are free space optical communications, remote sensing and weapon guidance. Non-mechanical systems have the potential to be more accurate, smaller, lighter and less expensive than systems that use gimbals to position the beam. Future deployment of optical systems in small or high performance aircraft will eventually require these attributes to prevent platform integration from affecting aircraft performance or disturbing the air stream.

Capco Inc.
1328 Winters Ave.,
Grand Junction, CO 81501
(970) 243-8480

PI: Hao Xin
(520) 626-6941
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0075
University of Arizona
Department of Electrical and Computer , 1230 Speedway Blvd.
Tucson, AZ 85721
(520) 626-6941

ID#: F10B-T30-0121
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT30       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: Directionally-Tailored Infrared Emission and/or Transmission
Abstract: The primary objective of the proposed STTR is to develop a low-cost, high performance material which is capable of directionally-tailored thermal emission and/or transmission control. By combining advanced electromagnetic band structure engineering techniques with low-cost, self-assembled fabrication methods, highly tunable, narrow-band emissivity control can be achieved over the entire IR spectrum. In this proposal, we present a special class of nanoparticles, CSRs, that exhibit narrow band, highly tunable transparency and absorption modes. For this proposal, CSRs will be mixed with a nanostructured, high-temperature, low emissivity binder and applied to a variety of high-temperature, large surface area substrates using a high-speed dip coating process. The surface coating will be durable and capable of operating over a broad temperature range. In comparison to existing emissivity control methods and fabrication techniques, the self-assembled CSR coating has the potential advantages of being simple, inexpensive, flexible, and robust. The resonance modes of the CSRs are independent of the large-scale structure, and therefore, weakly influenced by structural disorder. The CSRs present an attractive degree of freedom in design which may facilitate multi-band operation. Additionally, the high disorder tolerance of the CSR makes it an ideal candidate metamolecular unit cell for many other self-assembled photonic structures. BENEFIT: The development of surface coatings and/or patterning for control of surface emissivity will remain an elusive goal for both the DOD and the private sector as long as expensive, laboratory-scale processes are the focus of funded research. Although the control of nanoscale features is achievable with these processes, unit area cost will remain the largest impediment to implementation. This proposal offers a novel solution using a self-assembled, metamaterial approach to emissivity control with cost and manufacturability as primary objectives. This proposal offers a novel solution using a self-assembled, metamaterial approach to emissivity control with cost and manufacturability as primary objectives. We foresee the manufacture and distribution of this surface coating extending well beyond the application described in the scope of this program. Such a coating could find use in medicine, power generation, consumer electronics,

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor,
Huntsville, AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Ravi Kannan
(256) 726-4851
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0103
Regents of the University of MI
3003 South State Street,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
(734) 936-1289

ID#: F10B-T13-0059
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT13       Awarded: 9/30/2011
Title: Highly-Scalable Computational Algorithms for Solving Aerostructural FSI Problems on Emerging Parallel Machine Architectures
Abstract: Traditional multidisciplinary solvers function by solving the individual governing equations on computer clusters. In the case of aero-elastic Fluid-Structures Interaction (FSI) simulations, individual solvers have disparate requirements for optimal performance. CFD codes use iterative schemes and distributed memory, while CSD codes, use direct linear- solvers and utilize shared memory to ensure fast execution, large time steps, and minimal communication. Developers face major challenges in selecting linear algebra tools that can support the above conflicting requirements. The existing libraries such as PETSc are “stretched” to the limits due to (i) adopting the hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization approach, (ii) design-failure to take advantage of the multicore processors: since it is designed to mainly operate on parallel clusters. The CFDRC-UoM team proposes to develop a highly scalable solver, partitioning and execution algorithms for large scale aeroelastic applications. The Phase-I will concentrate on assessing the scalability and bottleneck issues in CFD, CSD and FSI calculations, domain decomposition granularity, coupling techniques on emerging multicore HPC platforms, while simultaneously investigating techniques like cache memory management, partitioning for multicore nodes and parallel loop optimization. The CFDRC-UoM team proposes creation of a next generation numerical suite to accomplish the above. The actual testing will be performed using both PETSc and the aforementioned suite. This suite development will be a precursor to the actual application of the ideas developed for a “production-quality” CFD/CSD solver in Phase-II. BENEFIT: AFOSR scientists and engineers are involved in improving the scalability of large scale parallel multidisciplinary computational codes on the next generation multicore platforms. This project will develop and deliver partitioning techniques for multicore nodes, execution algorithms, coupling techniques between the individual solvers, main memory management for the multicore systems, cache memory management for faster convergence and other scalability enhancement methods. The ideas developed during this project will help developers and users of parallel multidisciplinary computational codes (like aeroelastic codes, Fluid-Structural Interaction (FSI) codes) in understanding the coupling between the individual solvers, improve the communications taking into account the multicore technology, while achieving the desired levels of scalability.

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street,
Cambridge, MA 02138
(617) 491-3474

PI: Curt Wu
(617) 491-3474
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0210
Boston University
Office of Sponsored Programs, 25 Buick Street
Boston, MA 02215
(617) 353-4365

ID#: F10B-T18-0055
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT18       Awarded: 4/21/2011
Title: Security through Component-based Isolation Framework (SCIF)
Abstract: Networked PCs are critical to the success of data-based missions, and the complex software they execute is both the source of their power and their prime area of vulnerability. Applications and services are often composed of multiple software components developed by different vendors or open source communities, who may in turn incorporate components developed by another tier of vendors. To help minimize the damage of an exploit, data must not be allowed to flow freely between all components running on a system. To improve application security and minimize the damage done by malicious or faulty code, we propose a component- based isolation framework. Mutable protection domains will provide the basis for a lightweight component-based isolation framework. We will apply a user-level sandboxing scheme to separate application-specific services and components from those of the underlying kernel. To optimize performance, we will also investigate approaches to isolate components accessing shared hardware to provide CPU and IO protection. Finally, we will design techniques to proactively detect components at risk of fault, so they can be highlighted for extra attention. BENEFIT: We expect the full-scope framework to have immediate and tangible benefit for a number of military computing systems. In particular, the framework will help networked systems fight through cyber attacks. The technologies developed under this effort will enhance the effectiveness of existing secure OS tools by incorporating the component-based isolation techniques.

Chemat Technology, Inc.
9036 Winnetka Avenue,
Northridge, CA 91324
(818) 727-9786

PI: Haixing Zheng
(818) 727-9786
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0082
Aerospace Corporation
P.O. Box 92957,
Los Angeles, CA 90009
(310) 336-7621

ID#: F10B-T11-0130
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT11       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Photoactivatable Protean Glass/Ceramic Materials for Imbedded Miniature Devices
Abstract: Photosensitive protean materials form essentially a new class of materials which are manufactured in one state but its select material properties can be physically and locally altered through patterning and lithography. In this proposed research, we will demonstrate the feasibility of creation of conductive copper lines imbued in the glass by using novel glasses with laser direct writing. the electrical properties of the glasses will be characterized. The success of this Phase I research will build the base to build unique devices inside the glasses. BENEFIT: The success of the proposed Phase I research will build a foundation to integrate the devices into the glass/ceramics which have many advantages in applications: Military Applications (sensors, mass producible space platforms, integrated miniature antenna systems, multifunction space propulsion systems, microwave devices, high temperature components, reduction of wiring harnesses near electrical insulating systems) and Commercial Applications (sensor- rich micro analysis biological systems for point-of-care testing, architectural panels for modern office buildings, optical components, and high temperature ceramics). Commercial Application: Sensor-rich micro analysis biological systems for point-of-care testing, architectural panels for modern office buildings, optical components, and high temperature ceramics.

Chiaro Technologies, LLC
1600 Range St., Suite 102
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 554-0557

PI: Benjamin Braker
(303) 554-0557
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1169
University of Colorado
ECEE Department, 425 UCB
Boulder, CO 80309
(303) 492-4661

ID#: F10B-T29-0182
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT29       Awarded: 4/18/2011
Title: Holographic Radar Signal Processing
Abstract: This STTR Phase I feasibility study is a collaboration between Chiaro Technologies LLC (Chiaro) and the University of Colorado (CU). The program assesses the feasibility of a prototype holographic range-Doppler signal processor with a code-name ’HORUS’. The HORUS processor can take element signals from a large linear phased array to produce simultaneous range-Doppler maps across many angles of arrival (AOAs). This processor can operate with arbitrary waveforms and across wide bandwidths, offer enhanced Doppler processing for extended dynamic range, and electronically switch between active radar or passive radar modes. To produce such performance, HORUS takes advantage of a recently-developed pulse-shaping-method where RF signals and an RF array can be scaled down to the size of an optical pulse and an optical array; this enables an optical system to use a single hologram to perform beamforming and range-Doppler processing across the three dimensions of a 1-inch hologram. The dynamic, compact, high performance HORUS system offers processing for both active and passive radar systems. BENEFIT: Unlike any previous holographic radar processors, HORUS can be used in either a multibeam ubiquitous radar system or a passive multistatic radar system. A radar system equipped with HORUS could use a stealthy passive multistatic radar when operating in densely populated areas with many illuminators of opportunity or jammers, and it could use an active, monostatic radar when operating in remote areas with no illuminators of opportunity. A fully-functional HORUS system could offer all of these properties within a single implementation using COTS equipment. Other range-Doppler processors, including previous holographic and CCD-based interferometric approaches can produce 1000 range bins and 1000 Doppler bins. To this capability, the HORUS system adds the capability for parallel multi-beam TTD beamforming with up to 1000 parallel beams and an additional 30 dB of beamformer processing gain. This is enabled by harnessing the third dimension of a volume hologram for signal processing, and not just for multiplexing, as in holographic optical data storage. This range-Doppler processing across 1000 simultaneous AOA beams allows an active radar system to monitor up to 1000 regions on the ground with enormous dwell times and sensitivities. In a multistatic radar system, the system can perform parallel Doppler correlations for up to 1000 different

Clear Science Corp.
PO Box 233, 663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784
(607) 844-9171

PI: Henry A. Carlson
(607) 844-9171
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0004
Princeton University
4th Floor, New South Bldg., PO Box 36
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-2813

ID#: F10B-T16-0052
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT16       Awarded: 10/18/2011
Title: Toward a Virtual Flight Test Capability
Abstract: Clear Science Corp. and Princeton University propose to develop a computational framework for accurately and efficiently modeling the full set of physics associated with aircraft operations. The critical attributes of the proposed framework are accuracy, computational efficiency, and inclusiveness. More accurate computational models will support higher fidelity analysis during the aircraft design process with higher confidence in the results, enabling reductions in the required number of expensive and time-consuming ground and flight tests. Computationally efficient models will support flight simulations for the design of guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) systems, can be utilized as pilot training software, can support flight testing to reduce risks to test pilots and aircraft, and can be integrated into advanced control systems. The computational framework will accommodate the complexities of the full aircraft with separating stores and cargo, landing gear, propulsion systems, and a diverse set of physics (aerodynamics, structural dynamics, flight control system dynamics, aeroelasticity, aero-acoustics, etc.). Phase I will focus on comparative evaluations of candidate modeling methods, using a representative, canonical problem in the assessment. The evaluation will culminate with a down-selection of the most promising framework, along with identification of an appropriate test problem for model development and demonstration in Phase II. BENEFIT: The commercial product to be developed is a virtual flight simulation tool to enable GNC design, pilot-in-the-loop training exercises, and advanced flow control systems in next-generation aircraft. This translates into shorter time-to- market cycles and more affordable aircraft for the US military, along with safer test programs. Potential applications of the virtual flight testing tool include fixed-wing aircraft, rotorcraft, and even non-conventional aircraft like flapping-wing micro-air vehicles. The tool will be designed to accommodate systems operating in the low subsonic, subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. Applications extend from military aircraft to commercial airliners, launch vehicles, and space planes---each requiring cross-disciplinary, computationally intensive simulations of the aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, aeroservoelasticity, and flight control systems. Commercial applications extend to a host of products outside the aerospace industry: automobiles, manufacturing processes involving fluid flows, nuclear power plant equipment, new green energy-production platforms, etc. Primary customers include US DoD agencies,

1600 Range Strreet,
Boulder, CO 80301
(303) 440-1284

PI: Daniel Farkas
(303) 440-1284
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0051
University of Colorado
572 UCB, Office of Contracts and Grants
Boulder, CO 80309
(303) 492-2695

ID#: F10B-T17-0010
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT17       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Hybrid Optical and Magnetic Ultracold Atom Chip System
Abstract: This work proposes the design of a complete, compact, hybrid atom chip system for producing ultracold atoms, allowing subsequent control and manipulation of ultracold atoms using both optical and magnetic fields. Its emphasis is on optical lattice potentials and also complex potentials imposed by spatially varying magnetic and optical fields. Atom chips that incorporate optical windows enable high optical numerical aperture access to ultracold atoms residing in a high vacuum system. High resolution optical control and imaging can be obtained using commercially available microscope objectives that reside outside of the miniature vacuum cell. The proposed system is capable of generating ultracold atoms with a repetition rate under 5s. This work will enable scientific research as well as applied research and development of optical lattices, atomtronics, and related ultracold matter systems. BENEFIT: This work establishes the design foundation for building a compact rubidium-based ultracold matter system capable of rapid BEC production. The unique feature of this system is its ability to provide simultaneous high special resolution magnetic and optical control of ultracold atoms, while also enabling high resolution in-trap optical imaging. This work emphasizes the ability to generate and study optical lattices and similar structures having both fundamental and applied interest. With the ability of a user to design custom atom chips, the system can greatly streamline experimental as well as practically motivated research and development efforts.

Creative Electron, INC
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107,
San Marcos, CA 92078
(760) 752-1192

PI: Matthew Wrosch
(760) 752-1192
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0076
University of Kentucky
Center for Applied Energy Rese, 2540 Research Park Drive
Lexington, KY 40511
(859) 257-0200

ID#: F10B-T01-0303
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT01       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Nano-Sintered High Thermal Conductivity Composites
Abstract: This Phase I STTR project will develop carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) material systems incorporating metallic nanoparticles with low-temperature sintering properties to render structures with very high transverse thermal conductivity. CFRPs are already used in a myriad of applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratio, but their poor transverse thermal conductivity limits their utility in a number of applications. Resin-rich interfaces through the thickness of a CFRP laminate lead to poor thermal conductivity in the z-direction. To address this issue, the proposed CFRP material systems will take advantage of the melting-point depression of metallic nanoparticles to form metallurgical connections in both the intratow (filament-to-filament) and interlaminar (tow-to-tow) regions of a CFRP at processing temperatures suitable for existing manufacturing processes. The primary objective of this project will be the demonstration of an order of magnitude improvement in transverse thermal conductivity compared to commercial CFRP systems. Laser flash diffusivity measurements and dynamic mechanical analysis will be utilized to determine the efficacy of the approach. BENEFIT: The anticipated benefits/commercial potential of this project is the development of new CFRP materials with high transverse thermal conductivity. The cured and sintered CFRP materials will be attractive for applications ranging from electronics enclosures and heat-sinks to structural components for automobiles, aircraft, and satellites.

Critical Technologies Inc
Suite 400, 1001 Broad Street
Utica, NY 13501
(315) 793-0248

PI: Stuart W. Card
(315) 793-0248
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0125
Syracuse University
University Avenue,
Syracuse, NY 13244
(315) 443-1870

ID#: F10B-T09-0166
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT09       Awarded: 4/21/2011
Title: Dynamic Cross-layer Routing Using Cognitive Spectrum Allocation Techniques
Abstract: The CTI/SU team proposes the Cyber Cross-Layer Optimization Publish-Subscribe (CYCLOPS) framework for design, prototyping and assessment of innovative methods for creating cognitive network architectures and protocols to achieve autonomous network resiliency in contested Radio Frequency spectra. Within this framework, the team will design metrics for estimating the benefits, costs and risks (vulnerabilities) associated with alternative wireless network Courses Of Action (COAs). Within this framework, the team will prototype both conventional filters and cognitive agents to perform multi-objective (benefits, costs, risks) optimization that will dynamically select COAs, including spectrum allocations, network routes, [reliable] [multicast] transport parameters and Delay/Disruption/Disconnection Tolerant Network (DTN) bundle transport options. Within this framework, loosely coupled agents created by different methods (design by human engineers, evolution by genetic programming) and tuned by different methods (learning neural network weights, learning classifier system rules) will interoperate synergistically by exchanging information. The heart of the CYCLOPS framework is a distributed blackboard in the management plane: control/user plane protocol stack layers and other entities, such as battery level monitors and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, publish information of potential value; other entities, especially stack layers, subscribe to relevant information and use it to optimize their behavior. BENEFIT: Through the design and development of an automated cross layer information sharing blackboard with a publish/subscribe architecture and an automated, cognitive, optimization decision optimization algorithm, this solution will determine costs, risks, and benefits for the sharing of state data across the layers, and for the execution of any resultant optimization decision. Oracles based upon predictive and cognitive, evolutionary learning algorithms will identify and evaluate the current and near-future node state, integrate individual function, node, AND system policies, costs, risks, and benefits, and then generate decisions which approach long term node and network optimization. In addition to addressing these questions and developing an optimization decision, these efforts will instantiate the concept of executing a decision NOT to share information and of NOT to ‘optimize’. Thus individual agents will execute and report on their own OODA (observe, orient-assess, decide, & act) loop and optimization options, and system agents’ will

ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc.
P.O. Box 131460,
Ann Arbor, MI 48113
(734) 786-1434

PI: Dean Massey
(734) 786-1434
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0015
University of Michigan
Div of Research Devel & Admin, Room 1058; 3003 S State St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
(734) 763-1328

ID#: F10B-T04-0307
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT04       Awarded: 11/11/2011
Title: Nonintrusive fiber interferometer for ablative TPS recession measurement
Abstract: The next generation of hypersonic and reentry vehicles being designed for the Department of Defense (DoD) applications will require advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS). While new TPS shields are under development, a key difficulty is the ability to predict and diagnose TPS performance. ElectroDynamic Applications (EDA) has been developing an optical diagnostic—for use during testing and in flight—that will help address this need for experimental data. During an initial SBIR effort, we began the development of a low intrusive fiber optic plug insert for TPS materials that will enable spectrographic measurements of the reentry environment surrounding a TPS. This proposal seeks to modify the fiber optic plug to also permit interferometric measurement of surface recession rates for an ablative TPS. As the ablative surface recedes, light reflected from the fiber end alternates between constructive and destructive interference with light reflected from a similar (but unablated) fiber. The resulting fringe pattern permits sub-micron resolution of changes in the fiber length, and thus the TPS thickness. In addition, the optical fiber can simultaneously provide benchmark data for fundamental flow, radiation, and materials modeling as well as provide operational correlations between vehicle reentry drag and radiation. BENEFIT: EDA’s plan to pursue this technology beyond Phase-I is to develop production of flight hardware for DoD, NASA, and privately funded vehicles. Boeing has also expressed significant interest in transitioning the technology into their thermal protection systems as part of an integrated vehicle health monitoring system. As private sector space ventures continue to blossom, there will be significant opportunities for commercialization. This technology may also have derivative terrestrial applications in high power plasma processing and energy creation systems.

EM Photonics, Incorporated
51 East Main Street, Suite 203
Newark, DE 19711
(302) 456-9003

PI: John R. Humphrey
(302) 456-9003
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0090
University of Delaware
210 Hullihen Hall, University of Delaware
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 831-8002

ID#: F10B-T13-0271
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT13       Awarded: 9/15/2011
Title: Scalable Aero-Load and Aero-Elasticity Solvers for Massively Parallel Heterogeneous Computing Architectures
Abstract: We propose to apply modern massively multicore processors to a key problem area of interest to the Air Force: multiphysics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) solvers. The capabilities of the CPU to solve these problems have been increasing steadily, but the CPU is still a general-purpose device designed to run diverse applications such as word processors and internet browsers - it is not a high performance device for scientific computing! One of the emerging technologies in high-performance computing (HPC) are graphics processing units (GPUs); driven by market leader NVIDIA, the GPU has become a highly respected platform for computing. Among the codes under consideration for this project are: CREATE-Kestrel, NSU3D, AVUS/Cobalt, and USM3D. Such codes are widely used at both the Air Force and in the commercial and government spaces as well. In this project, we will apply our expertise in the GPU computing field to a key set of multiphysics solvers in the CFD/CSD space for aerodynamic and aero-elastic analysis. The results will be a manyfold improvement in speed, and a reduction in cost as less hardware will be required to solve any given problem. BENEFIT: At the end of Phase II, the solvers will be deployable at the Air Force immediately and at other centers that use the same code. Expected customers are the Navy, NASA, Boeing, Lockheed, and Raytheon. Customer (Non-AF) revenue will support ongoing enhancements and upgrades in the Phase III period. This is especially true in the case of codes from the CREATE (Kestrel, Helios, etc) program, which are owned by the Department of Defense and yet expected to be used widely.

Emergent Space Technologies, Inc
6301 Ivy Lane, Suite 720
Greenbelt, MD 20770
(301) 345-1535

PI: Ryan Russell
(404) 385-3342
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0060
Georgia Institute of Technology
Guggenheim School of Aerospace, 270 Ferst Drive
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-6929

ID#: F10B-T36-0089
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT36       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Robust Prediction and Estimation of Time Varying Ballistic Coefficients
Abstract: Recent improvements in atmospheric density modeling now provide more confidence in spacecraft ballistic coefficient (BC) estimations, which were previously corrupted by large errors in density. Without attitude knowledge, forecasting the true BC for accurate future state and uncertainty predictions (for non-spherical satellites) remains elusive. In this project, our objective is to improve this predictive capability for ballistic coefficients, thus improving the existing drag models and associated accuracy of the U.S. Space Object Catalog. To work towards this goal we propose a strategy that includes elements of both estimation and prediction. The two primary innovations that we offer are 1) Time Series Fits via Periodic Basis Functions and Physics-Based Simulated Data, and 2) Embedding the BC Function Fit in the Filter Estimation. In the first, we intend to leverage our experience in computational orbit mechanics to bring a physics- based realism to the data for the time series algorithm testing and tuning. In the second, we will examine the filter problem in a simulated environment with a broad scope of initial conditions and system parameters. In this bottom-up design perspective we seek to gain critical insight to the underlying dynamics, common error sources and signatures, and improved estimation strategies. BENEFIT: Results of this STTR could be used to improve the accuracy of the U.S. Space Catalog, a critical component for space situational awareness. The algorithms that produce realistic and consistent estimates and predictions of ballistic coefficients developed during Phase II will be developed into a software product targeted for operational use in the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS). By exploring the system under Phase I, and prototyping it under Phase II, we can market the JMS program for funding to develop and deploy it operationally under Phase III. The algorithms developed in this STTR may also be developed into a commercial software product such as Orbit Determination Tool Kit from Analytical Graphics, Inc.

EY Technologies
Div. of Pascale Industries, Inc., 939 Currant Road
Fall River, MA 02720
(508) 673-3307

PI: Gerald Mauretti
(508) 673-3307
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0014
University of Massachusetts - D
285 Old Westport Road,
North Dartmouth, MA 02747
(508) 999-8452

ID#: F10B-T01-0251
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT01       Awarded: 11/28/2011
Title: Electrostatically Flocked Graphite Fiber Interface for Thermally Conductive Structural 2D Laminate Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites
Abstract: The objective of the EY Technologies proposal is to develop a graphite fiber interface on the surface of a 2D graphite unidirectional tape to enhance the thermally conductive and structural properties on all axis of a composite, with emphasis in enhancing the Z-axis. Currently, industry has not been able to make 2D laminate composite from unidirectional materials that simultaneously meet thermally conductive and structural criteria on all axis, especially Z-axis, thus limiting the usefulness of composite materials to reduce weight in aircraft, directed energy systems and satellites. The present 2D structures can allow 120+W/mK on the x and y axis, while the proposed work will provide such thermal properties and improved structural properties in the “Z” direction also. The proposed method will provide for a continuous process to implant and orient short fibers (length= 0.5-1.0 mm) cut from graphite filaments into the 2D unidirectional reinforcement in-line with the prepreg process. The z-direction fiber can provide a continuous conductive path from layer to layer within the matrix, as a superior means to improving desired thermal and electrical criteria. Not only will the Z-axis laminar composite technology improve thermal and electrical performance, but will also improve fracture toughness quality as well. Flocking technique uses an electric field to propel short fibers onto an adhesive coated textile substrate where the fibers remain oriented in the “Z” direction. EYT proposes to adapt the process for incorporating flock fibers from graphite filaments in real time with the uni-tape resin impregnation process. This process approach will allow the Z-direction flock (graphite) fibers to provide a continuous conductive path from layer to layer in multi laminate composites, a far superior means to improving desired thermal and electrical criteria. Additionally, the Z-axis laminar composite technology will improve fracture toughness quality as well. BENEFIT:

G A Tyler Assoc. Inc. dba the Optical Sciences Co.
1341 South Sunkist Street,
Anaheim, CA 92806
(714) 772-7668

PI: David C. Mann
(714) 772-7668
Contract #: FA9451-11-M-0043
Air Force Institute of Technology
2950 Hobson Way,
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433
(937) 255-3636

ID#: F10B-T23-0255
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT23       Awarded: 4/12/2011
Title: Beam Control for Optical Phased Array Transceivers
Abstract: A design analysis is proposed to enhance the performance of conventional phased array weapon systems and ensure that traditionally required pointing and tracking functions can be maintained. A key feature of the proposed program is the inclusion of complimentary technologies that mitigate the limitations of existing concepts under consideration that are significantly degraded by speckle. These technologies include an assessment of the utility of laser guide stars for atmospheric compensation, consideration of a system to enhance phasing performance and exploitation of the speckle return synthetic aperture which is almost twice the diameter of the array to perform the fine track function. BENEFIT: The proposed work will develop an optical phased array with several innovations that address critical problems. A novel combination of a conventional camera and a speckle imaging technique addresses the problems of acquisition, pointing, and tracking. This and other innovations combine to form a phased array system suitable for use as a directed energy weapon in several roles. The system can be easily adapted for a variety of roles, including the gunship (AC-130) and mobile air defense roles. Potential uses also exist in other uses of directed energy, such as medicine and industrial welding.

Graphene Materials LLC
4012 Pinckney Street,
Austin, TX 78723
(512) 560-8766

PI: Richard D. Piner
(512) 590-3025
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0017
University of Texas at Austin
Office of Sponsored Projects,
Austin, TX 78713
(514) 471-6424

ID#: F10B-T32-0128
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT32       Awarded: 11/9/2011
Title: Thermally Responsive Energy Storage - Phase Change Materials encapsulated in Carbon Foam- Ultrathin Graphene based Thermal Energy Storage Device
Abstract: The work proposed involves the design and prototype concept creation of a high-performance thermal energy storage device (TES) based on graphene/ultrathin graphite and organic phase change materials. To achieve these goals, the following specific tasks will be accomplished: 1. Fabrication and design: use of emerging fabrication processes to develop a sub-scale three-dimensional structure based on graphene/ultrathin graphite for PCM encapsulation. Three dimensional structures of highly ordered graphite and oriented graphite will be created and tested for these purposes. 2. Thermophysical analysis: a comprehensive investigation of heat transfer capacities and transport rates using both analytical and numerical methods to quantify and optimize the performance of the proposed TES device. BENEFIT: Development of a thermal energy storage device represents an application made directly available by our materials expertise. By virtue of Graphene Materials' association with The University of Texas, world-class engineering and scientific expertise is accessed for product development. Large markets will be the semiconductor industry that will use graphene and multilayer graphene for nanoelectronics, interconnects, thermal management, potentially for shielding, and other applications as they appear; aerospace industry for high specific stiffness and strength (i.e., structural applications), thermal management, potentially for isolation and shielding; as a transparent conductive electrode and also barrier material for organic photovoltaic, plastic electronics and image display applications; for thermal management (mentioned again as it cuts across many industries including when employed on very large scale for HVAC, massive internet servers, and others). The extraordinary properties of graphene foils and ultrathin graphite are attracting intense interest from nanotechnology, thermal management, and micro- and nano-electromechanical system designers and producers. With access to a supply of high-quality, large-area shaped graphite/graphene, it is difficult to overstate the potential for technology insertion into these industries.

Harmonia, Inc.
2020 Kraft Drive, Suite 1000,
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 951-5915

PI: Marc Abrams
(540) 951-5901
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0165
Virginia Tech
1880 Pratt Dr, Suite 2006,
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 231-5281

ID#: F10B-T03-0208
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT03       Awarded: 4/21/2011
Title: STOC: Secure, Tactical On-Demand Cloud
Abstract: We present a novel architecture for on-demand clouds, which means creating a cloud computing environment when needed that opportunistically takes advantage of available processors. The processors are located on mobile computers at the tactical edge of a network and connect via wireless networks. Clusters of processors can be interconnected by trunks. Compute nodes may appear or disappear unpredictably (e.g., nodes may be on disposable handhelds or moving Unmanned Aerial Systems, or may be damaged in a combat environment). Thus we examine survivable fault tolerant parallel computing frameworks, such as MapReduce, which can adapt resources on the fly when processors fail. We focus on exploiting Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), which offer a greater density of processing cores compared to CPUs given the same physical space limits, and are well suited to many numerical calculations (e.g., data fusion) involved with sensor data. We examine how to implement MapReduce for GPUs in a new way that takes advantage of emerging capabilities in GPU instruction sets to avoid multi-pass requirements of past work in this area. We devise algorithms that can seamlessly combine GPUs and CPUs by using the OpenCL language for coding. Our target problem is distributed 3D scene reconstruction on demand. BENEFIT: This work adapts clouds to a tactical edge environment, where commercial clouds (e.g., from Amazon, Google) are not designed to work. One benefit is to enable on-demand cloud computing with virtualization that offers secure processing on an untrusted infrastructure. This includes security controls providing confidentiality and integrity, verified through cryptographic proofs in accordance with NIST 800-53. Through the use of GPU chips, another benefit is enabling real- time response to decentralized tactical users by exploiting more massive parallelism for a given size, weight, and power limit than conventional Central Processing Units (CPUs) can achieve. GPU chips are approaching a thousand or more stream cores (e.g., 6 GFLOPS [giga floating point operations per second] per watt for one chip). We also allow cloud computing with seamless distribution of computation over heterogeneous GPU/CPU nodes, which is ideal for a tactical setting that may combine various types of hardware devices with and without GPUs. We also simplify the MapReduce framework for end users to allow users with lower expertise and programming skills to configure computations; this allows faster deployment of new capabilities on our cloud architecture.

Holochip Corporation
4940 W. 147th Street,
Hawthorne, CA 90250
(650) 906-1064

PI: Robert Batchko
(650) 906-1064
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1172
Stanford University
Dept of Electrical Engineering, Edward Ginzton Lab, Box N-126
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 723-0204

ID#: F10B-T35-0205
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT35       Awarded: 4/29/2011
Title: Transmissive Wide-Angle High-Resolution and Compact Subaperture Imaging System
Abstract: The US Air Force anticipates that the development of conformal apertures based on subaperture architectures will play a key role in next generation electro-optic and infrared imaging systems. Current approaches have yet to provide a wide–FOV imaging system that is not limited by distortion and maintains a small form factor. Therefore, a need exists for an imaging system that has a small form factor and is capable of large-FOV high-resolution imaging via a standard image sensor, specialized optics and computational image reconstruction. This project will investigate multiple designs for a wide-FOV, high-resolution subaperture imaging system with a small form factor. Each design will have image quality on par with commercially available lenses over the visible region, near infrared, short wave infrared, mid-wave infrared and long wave infrared. Each subaperture will be light-weight and scalable and will have transmissive operation, fast f/# (faster than f/1.3), large fields of view (at least +/- 45deg), high resolution (on the order of 10 to the 9th instantaneous fields of view across the full field of view), and panchromatic operation. BENEFIT: Multispectral and wide-field-of-view (WFOV) imagers are currently used in a variety of applications and industries. There is significant overlap in the markets for these two types of imaging systems, providing a large potential market for combined WFOV multispectral systems. These markets include but are not limited to: UAV imaging, surveillance and homeland security and manufacturing and agricultural fields. Successful development of WFOV imagers for small handheld applications and UAVs will provide solutions for a large range of commercial products, including: autofocus, zoom and image-stabilization modules for camera phones and digital cameras, 3-D scanning for laser machining, welding and stereolithography, and zooming and scanning systems for machine vision.

175 Clearbrook Road,
Elmsford, NY 10523
(914) 592-1190

PI: Georgy Prokopenko
(914) 592-1190
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0066
UC Berkeley Sponsored Projects
2150 Shattuck Avenue, Ste. 313, UC Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94704
(510) 643-5603

ID#: F10B-T40-0116
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT40       Awarded: 7/15/2011
Title: High frequency direction-finding system based on high-Tc Ion-Damaged Josephson Junction SQUID arrays
Abstract: The overall goal of this project is to develop a small size, weight and power Direction Finding (DF) system based on SQUID array technology. High sensitivity, linearity, wide bandwidth of SQUID arrays antenna sensors will be enable close spacing of smaller antennas even for HF range. The SQUID arrays will be fabricated using high-temperature superconductor ion damaged Josephson junction fabrication process suitable for integration of large number of SQUID devices on a single chip. This would afford the use of small size robust 70K cryocoolers and will make overall system suitable for airborne deployment. HYPRES and University of California team will design, simulate, fabricate and test SQUID arrays based on conventional SQUID cells and novel bi-SQUID cells. We will develop an optimal design for 2D arrays with area distribution to achieve the highest linearity. The ion-damage junction process will be perfected to reduce fabrication spread and achieve high integration density. The overall design of HF DF system will be analyzed to achieve the highest angular accuracy while minimizing the system footprint. BENEFIT: The developed compact SQUID array-based antenna technology can be used for wireless communication networks, mobile satellite communications, secure point-to-point microwave links, biomagnetic sensors, medical imaging, and geomagnetic prospecting.

Industrial Measurement Systems Inc.
2760 Beverly Dr., #4
Aurora, IL 60502
(630) 236-5901

PI: Donald E. Yuhas
(630) 236-5901
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0011
University of Texas at Austin
Dept of Mechical Engineering, 1 University Station C2200
Austin, TX 78712
(512) 471-1131

ID#: F10B-T04-0217
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT04       Awarded: 11/9/2011
Title: Novel Materials for In-Situ Ablation Sensing
Abstract: In order to achieve precise guidance, navigation and control in re-entry vehicles, aerodynamic shape must be accurately known throughout the flight trajectory. For this Phase I program an ultrasonic-based technique for real-time, non- intrusive (5 KHz) measurement of recession during ablation will be developed. The system combines the elements of ultrasonic thickness gauging technology with ultrasonic thermometry techniques. Novel, independent temperature measurement methods and analysis techniques will be formulated to separate variations attributed to thickness changes from those attributed to temperature changes. Recession, or wall thickness, changes can be measured using sensors located remotely from the ablating surface without modifying the thermal protective system in any way. The measurement concept will be verified through a series of ablation tests where real-time recession data will be quantitatively compared to post-ablation analysis. The instrumentation has low power consumption and can be made sufficiently compact for potential in-flight measurement. BENEFIT: Quantitative real-time recession sensing has application in TPS evaluation for both ground-based testing and in-flight systems. Military markets include NASA, Air Force, Navy and Army. In addition to hypersonics applications, there are also potential applications in combustion research, directed energy research and health monitoring.

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road,
Waltham, MA 02451
(937) 429-9008

PI: Vladimir Gilman
(781) 890-1338
Contract #: FA9300-11-M-6001
University of Massachusetts
600 Suffolk St., 2nd floor south
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 934-4723

ID#: F10B-T25-0145
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT25       Awarded: 9/30/2011
Title: Selective Oxidation of Heterocyclic Amines
Abstract: The ability to oxidize organic functional groups in a selective manner is of major importance in preparing compounds of interest to the Air Force and DoD. This is particularly critical in the preparation of high energy density compounds and fuels. Heterocyclic ring systems that contain both nitro and amino groups have been found to be an important class of compounds that are useful in these applications. Their synthesis by oxidation of the corresponding polyamino systems would be particularly advantageous in terms of cost, ease of preparation and handling, and safety. The USAF is primarily interested in conversion of 4,4’-azobis(3-aminofurazan) to 4-[(4-nitro-furazan-3-yl)azo]-furazan-3-amine. Unfortunately, the only practical large scale synthesis of this compound makes it necessary to produce 3,3’-azobis(4- nitrofurazan) first, which is friction sensitive. The safety of this process could be greatly improved by avoiding this intermediate. Infoscitex Corporation and University of Massachusetts at Lowell developed a concept and laid out biocatalytic route to selectively oxidize only one amino-group of the insensitive diamine, 4,4’-azobis(3-aminofurazan). Thus, 4,4’-azobis(3-aminofurazan) will be converted directly into to 4-[(4-nitro-furazan-3-yl)azo]-furazan-3-amine. This oxidation will open new molecular design space for the synthesis of asymmetric amino-nitro-heterocycles and will create low-cost access to new energetic and/or pharmaceutical ingredients. BENEFIT: The proposed biocatalytic oxidation reaction is anticipated to be a viable production process to manufacture 4,4’- azobis(3-aminofurazan) safely and affordably. In addition to production of energetic materials the oxidation process may be useful in the field of pharmaceuticals.

Innovative Technology Applications Co., L. L. C.
PO Box 6971,
Chesterfield, MO 63006
(314) 373-3311

PI: Mark Rennie
(574) 631-1695
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0091
University of Notre Dame
104 Hessert Laboratory,
Notre Dame, IN 46556
(574) 631-3755

ID#: F10B-T07-0169
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT07       Awarded: 9/26/2011
Title: Nonintrusive Diagnostics for Off-Body Measurements in Flight Experiments
Abstract: Flight tests of hypersonic maneuvering vehicles are a challenging but necessary endeavor. While ground tests and numerical simulations can provide important guidance regarding vehicle performance, they are both limited in their reach. Likewise surface-based measurements during flight tests provide valuable information, but do not provide sufficient insight into the complex flowfield to allow unambiguous conclusions to be drawn from the flight data. To address the need for off-body measurements in flight experiments, the University of Notre Dame and ITAC, LLC are partnering to investigate the possibility of using laser-based aero-optic techniques. The proposed Phase I STTR will demonstrate the essential components of the approach in a supersonic ground test facility. The technology developed in this project offers the possibility of in-flight off-body flowfield measurements for a variety of purposes, including hypersonic weapon system flight tests and, potentially, as part of a high speed store separation control system. BENEFIT: By providing a clearer picture of the flowfield around a flight test vehicle, the proposed technology will allow deeper insight into the phenomena experienced by the vehicle. In this manner, many issues which must remain ambiguous when testing with current technology could be definitely determined. This will allow the development of safer and more reliable systems, which will consistently perform in a predictable manner because the flight envelope will be better understood.

Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
(301) 294-5221

PI: Peng Xie
(301) 294-5218
Contract #: FA8750-11-c-0133
Purdue University
305 N. University Street,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
(765) 494-6182

ID#: F10B-T18-0228
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT18       Awarded: 4/21/2011
Title: Policy Guided Isolation and Strategically Shielded Exposure: A Novel Approach to Secure Applications
Abstract: It is very challenging to secure applications in today’s networked computer system where applications inherently share various resources and information. In this proposal, we propose a novel approach, called policy guided isolation and strategically shielded exposure, to protect applications in network environments. Our approach combines virtualization techniques with a Policy Machine to provide secure boundaries between applications not only in the memory space, but also in the input space. The Policy Machine is used to reason over security policies that guide application isolation and data sharing among applications. Our approach uses virtualization techniques to provide secure boundaries among the applications, protect the integrity of security policy reasoning and prevent security policy enforcement from being compromised. Additionally, the proposed approach adopts process coloring techniques to keep track of the propagation trace of the shared data. Moreover, the critical services in the proposed approach are strategically separated from applications by using a network shield technique. Finally, the proposed techniques are integrated to protect applications under network wide security policies. BENEFIT: The proposed approach to application protection, policy guided isolation and strategically shielded exposure, provides a feasible solution to protect the applications in a networked environment. The architecture and techniques can be applied to a broad range of military scenarios that involve sensitive information protection including war-time command and control, real-time surveillance network, homeland security, etc. Other potential commercial applications include software industry, banking, law enforcement agency and various civil applications. In essence, the ideas, methods and products resulting from this effort will be applicable to virtually all applications where digital asset protection is needed. The market is quite large and still developing due to the development of computer and software industry. The aggregated commercial market size is estimated to be $600 Million or more. IAI is more than a “think tank”, and we have actively pursued with our partners the application of our technologies into actual products. For this proposed effort, in particular, we strongly believe that our work provides the solution needed in practice. It is also reasonable to expect a source of revenue from service contracts related with the actual development of such product for application protection. In addition, IAI will closely work with our partners and collaborator companies

INTER Materials, LLC
13339 Olde Stonegate Road,
Midlothian, VA 23113
(804) 378-6034

PI: Kent Coulter
(210) 522-3196
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0071
Southwest Research Institute
6220 Culebra Road,
San Antonio, TX 78228
(210) 522-3196

ID#: F10B-T19-0261
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT19       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: Organic & Hybrid Organic/Inorganic-Based Graded-Index/Layered Optical Coatings by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
Abstract: One of the Air Force main interests is to improve the antireflective (AR) optical properties of polycarbonate by exploring new coating materials or coating techniques to eliminate delamination and stress cracks due to the mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the coatings and the polymer substrates. SwRI and INTER Materials are in a unique position to assist the Air Force with the development of a novel Plasma Ion Immersion Deposition (PIID) coating technology for hybrid organic/inorganic-based optical thin films as durable adherent non-delaminating coatings for polycarbonate because: 1) SwRI and INTER Materials have experience with PIID coatings for abrasion protection of polycarbonate and acrylic windscreens for rotary wing aircraft; 2) INTER Materials already has its own large 84” diameter x 60” deep vacuum chamber for PIID plasma deposition of AR-hard thin film optical coatings for large-curved polycarbonate and acrylic components located close to the Virginia Tech University campus; 3) INTER Materials has access to the state-of-the-art laboratory equipment at SwRI and ICTAS for the characterization of AR coatings and thin films; and 4) INTER Materials has been working closely with Dr. Kent Coulter and Dr. Ronghua Wei at SwRI, recognized world experts in the field of plasma deposition. BENEFIT: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and INTER Materials propose to investigate a novel Plasma Ion Immersion Deposition (PIID) thin film coating technique that will meet the Air Force requirements for developing an environmentally durable coated surface onto polycarbonate substrates with optimized AR optical properties. An innovative multilayered coating will be investigated using PIID to custom design the adhesion, hardness, and optical properties of the new AR optical surface coating. Our research indicates that an abrasion resistant and optically reflective surface coating can be deposited on a polycarbonate substrate using a technology that SwRI and INTER Materials have been using for improving the abrasion resistance on aircraft windscreens. Because the proposed technology will utilize current aircraft windscreens manufacturing infrastructure, it is predicted to have a good commercial potential and a low investment risk when adopting the new environmentally durable organic/inorganic antireflective (AR) coating technology with controlled

ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway,
Littleton, CO 80127
(303) 285-5129

PI: Russell Hollingsworth
(303) 285-5154
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0032
Colorado School of Mines
1500 Illinois St.,
Golden, CO 80401
(303) 273-3538

ID#: F10B-T39-0239
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT39       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Resonant cavity spectrometer on a chip
Abstract: This Small Business Technology Transfer Research phase I program will develop a new class of chip level high resolution spectrometers using waveguide coupled resonant cavities. The basic concept can be used from visible to long wave IR wavelengths, limited only by available detector arrays and materials for low loss waveguides. Our proposed development will concentrate on short wave IR including the telecommunications bands around 1.3 and 1.5µm. This will leverage our recent development of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) hybrid plasmonic/dielectric waveguides. The phase I effort provides a balanced mix of optical modeling and fabrication of key sub-components to provide a proof of concept demonstration by the end of the phase I effort. BENEFIT: High resolution, compact spectrometers have great potential for diverse applications including chemical and biological sensing, security screening, material characterization, and communications. The availability of highly sensitive, low power, low cost compact spectrometers will greatly expand field applications.

Koo & Associates International, Inc.
6402 Needham Lane,
Austin, TX 78739
(512) 301-4170

PI: Joseph H. Koo
(512) 301-4170
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0081
Florida State University
2525 Pottsdamer St.,
Tallahassee, FL 32310
(805) 410-6673

ID#: F10B-T01-0083
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT01       Awarded: 9/30/2011
Title: Heterogeneously Structured Conductive Resin Matrix/Graphite Fiber Composites for High Thermally Conductive Structural Applications
Abstract: The objective of this project is to design and fabricate tailored thermal interface and continuous paths among nanoscale conductive fillers and filler/graphite fiber to promote effective phonon transport along through-thickness direction. The goal is to realize at least 100 fold increase of Kz from 0.2 to 20+ W/mK in graphite fiber composites. Meanwhile, we will study to construct chemical or electronic bonding between the fillers and graphite fibers to ensure adequate or improved interfacial bonding to improve mechanical properties. Different from current homogeneous dispersion of conductive fillers in composites, we will study and demonstrate effective approaches to construct heterogeneously phonon transport paths in composites through fiber surface deposition and utilizing heterogeneously structured high thermal conductive resin matrix materials. This project will develop and demonstrate the following three unique techniques: • Electrochemical deposition of high aspect ratio nanoscale silver flakes to increase fiber surface roughness for improving interface bonding and load transfer, and also create adequate thermal transport contacts between fibers and silver flakes; • Utilize commercial available or modified heterogeneously structured conductive resin matrix to fabricate composites; • Study and optimize phase separation behavior of heterogeneously structured conductive filler phase to create preferred continuous phonon transport paths along through-thickness directions for high thermal conductivity. Success of the proposed effort will lead to an affordable and scalable approach to make thermal conductivity (>20 W/mK) structural graphite fiber composites for potential Air Force and DoD applications. More importantly, these techniques and manufacturing processes are potentially easy to scale-up and low cost due to utilizing commercially available materials and route electrochemical deposition processes. BENEFIT: The effort will provide lightweight “thermal management” solutions that can have applications for airframe structures. Ceramic plates or stainless steel plates used in body armor add to their weight limiting the speed of the soldier under fire, and also lead to quick temperature build-up due to lacking of adequate heat dissipation capability. Specifically, these novel solutions can have a variety applications from lightweight body armor of the individual soldier with cooling

Koo & Associates International, Inc.
6402 Needham Lane,
Austin, TX 78739
(512) 301-4170

PI: Joseph H. Koo
(512) 301-4170
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0016
The University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station, C2200, Dept. of Mechanical Engr.
Austin, TX 78712
(512) 471-3058

ID#: F10B-T04-0082
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT04       Awarded: 11/4/2011
Title: Novel Materials In-Situ Ablation and Thermal Sensing
Abstract: The objective of this project is to design and fabricate multi-signal in-situ ablation sensors based on an acoustic transducer system, thermal measurement system (i.e., either photonic technology or in-situ thermal sensors based on ultra small thermocouples), and fast inverse heat transfer algorithms. This project will use the following approaches: • Utilize commercially available optical fibers or commercially available ultra small TC as temperature sensors. • Use in-house expertise on inverse heat transfer algorithms to determine temperature profiles. • Utilize commercially available acoustic transducer systems for uncorrected time of flight sample thickness measurements. Correct the time of flight data using temperature predictions from IHT analysis. • Utilize industry standard carbon/carbon composite and integrate with the proposed ablation and thermal sensing techniques for proof of concept. • Utilize a well-controlled labscale test device to evaluate the sensor system. Success of the proposed effort will lead to an affordable and scalable approach to make TPS material systems with in- situ ablation and thermal sensing capabilities for potential Air Force and DoD applications. More importantly, these techniques and manufacturing processes are potentially easy to scale-up and low cost due to utilizing commercially available materials and partnering with TPS material manufacturer in the early R&D stage. BENEFIT: The technology will provide in-situ “ablation and thermal sensing” solutions to hypersonic ground and flight tests of thermal protection system (TPS) for military and commercial applications. This effort will lead to the collection of in-situ experimental data to verify and validate computational methods for the prediction TPS material performance. This effort will lead to improvements in TPS materials development for extreme environments for hypersonic re-entry vehicles and solid propulsion systems.

Leskiw Associates
111 Berkeley Drive,
Syracuse, NY 13210
(315) 423-3985

PI: Donald M Leskiw
(315) 423-3985
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0002
Syracuse University
Office of Sponsored Programs, 113 Bowne Hall
Syracuse, NY 13244
(315) 443-2807

ID#: F10B-T10-0119
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT10       Awarded: 10/28/2011
Title: Adaptive Compressed Sensing for Mission Prioritized Data Collection and Analysis
Abstract: The test and evaluation (T&E) of complex systems is challenging in many respects. Vast amounts of data are typically generated, which need to be transmitted, stored, and analyzed. Traditionally, such testing has been “stove-piped,” with the data in one domain collected and analyzed independently of the others. Nowadays, however, T&E activities are being integrated. And dynamical as well as static testing is required when the temporal affects of disparate domains are not mutually independent. Accordingly, Leskiw Associates and the Data Fusion and the Aerospace Engineering research groups at Syracuse University are teaming together to develop Adaptive Compressive Sensing technologies for (multi-) Mission Prioritized Data Collection and Analysis. The Phase I domain of definition is wind tunnel data provided by the Aerospace Engineering group, and the baseline algorithm is one developed by the Data Fusion group. The immediate objective is a Proof-of-Principle demonstration of a new recursive compressive sensing approach for efficiently disseminating T&E data according to user’s needs. BENEFIT: The envisaged technology being developed here has many potential uses, besides its principal use for efficiently disseminating T&E data according to user’s needs. Leskiw Associates has identified two: distributed interferometric signal processing for Electronic Support (e.g., passively identifying radars); and multi-sensor fusion for phase-derived range aided tracking of ballistic objects, and discrimination between targets and decoys. And Syracuse University has identified several: the principal one is the University’s Skytop wind tunnel facility. Others include: inference functions for weak signals (e.g., detection, classification, parameter estimation); and netted sensor tracking of small objects; and sensor resource management.

LRC Engineering Inc.
9345 Chandon Dr.,
Orlando, FL 32825
(386) 631-7319

PI: Chris Fredricksen
(407) 369-8056
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0063
University of Central Florida
4000 Central Florida Blvd.,
Orlando, FL 32816
(407) 882-1186

ID#: F10B-T39-0253
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT39       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Compact, Low Cost, High-Resolution Spectrometers
Abstract: This Phase I STTR effort will demonstrate an ultra-compact, lightweight spectrometer with no moving parts for the mid- infrared wavelength region. The planar integrated device will feature bound electromagnetic waves, known as surface plasmon polaritons, in the mid-IR spectral region. This range is ideal for chemical identification based on the vibrational spectra known for most molecules. Currently available high resolution spectrometers are bulky, heavy instruments that typically require a stable foundation for operation, are expensive, are power hungry, and are not man- portable. The ability to detect chemical and biological species in the field is a necessity and a rugged, lightweight, compact spectrometer that is not subject to the restrictions of laboratory-only devices is long overdue. We propose a “spectrometer on a chip” consisting of an integrated source, detector, and interaction region. The proposed device will have the ability to operate under input from an optical fiber; however, a unique opportunity exists to grow the proposed structures directly on the output facet of a QCL in order to form an extremely compact integrated spectrometer and we will pursue this configuration in Phase II. BENEFIT: We anticipate the development of a compact, man-portable spectrometer for use from the near-IR to THz. The Phase I effort will result in a prototype device for the 3.4 micron range and answer the questions necessary for further development of the device for other wavelength ranges. The obvious applications to the military are chemical and biological sensing and conventional explosives detection. Our first product will be a spectrometer on a chip designed to detect biological and chemical species with a high degree of accuracy. The need for this technology also exists in the private sector. Security screening conducted by the TSA and private industry would benefit from our innovation.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
(434) 483-4254

PI: Zhiguo Zhou
(434) 483-4234
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0053
Virginia Tech
Office of Sponsored Programs, 1880 Pratt Drive, Suite 2006
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 231-5281

ID#: F10B-T24-0120
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT24       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: Polymeric Nanoparticles to Scavenge Lipophilic Molecules
Abstract: Mycotoxins represent a class of potential chemical/biological warfare agents that pose significant acute and chronic dangers to military forces. There are no current therapeutic treatments for exposure to such toxic agents and there is an urgent need to develop a therapeutic drug which is capable of efficiently sequestering the toxic molecules and facilitating their excretion in vivo. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a polymer-based nanoparticles to treat patients and person under suspision of mycotoxin intoxication. The proposed therapeutic agent is designed to be universally effective for in vivo scavenging lipophilic molecules including mycotoxins, other lipophilic toxic compounds as well as non-toxic lipophilic molecules. The scavenging drug acts based on its high affinity toward lipophilic molecules, and thus it is able to extract and sequester them from surrounding bioenvironment. The joint team between Luna Innovations and the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine will conduct a series of experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology during Phase I. The nanoparticle therapeutic agent will be fabricated and tested in human cell culture for their efficacy to scavenge lipophilic molecules. The therapeutic candidate will be optimized and further evaluated for its effetiveness in relevant animal models during Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed nanoparticle therapeutic agent would find use in mitigating and/or counteracting the toxic effects of mycotoxins and other lipophilic toxins that have been suggested to use as potential warfare agents either in a war zone or terrorism attack on civilians. Mycotoxin can contaminate food and feeds due to their natural production by molds, and the proposed drug is also useful to treat patients/animals who suffer from such contaminated food/feeds. In addition, there is a significant drive by pharmaceutical companies for drugs effectively lowering the plasma level of bad cholesterol and unwanted lipids especially for atherosclerotic patients. Drugs developed through this program will be marketable as a cholesterol-lowering or lipid-removing drug. What’s more the technology can be used to treat local anesthetic toxicity caused by excessive/unintentional anesthetic injection.

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
(540) 557-5881

PI: Jiebin Pang
(434) 220-2512
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0024
University of New Hampshire
Service Bldg., 2nd Floor, 51 College Road
Durham, NH 03824
(603) 862-3750

ID#: F10B-T27-0223
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT27       Awarded: 11/24/2011
Title: Porosity Gradient in Hybrid Composite Structure for Thermal Protection
Abstract: Many military and aerospace platforms, including a number of airborne and spaceborne vehicles, significantly benefit from new materials that save weight and improve performance. Thermal protection systems (TPS) and extremely high temperature structures are required for a range of hypersonic air and space vehicles. For example, over 20,000 thermal protection ceramic tiles are usually installed on the outside of the Space Shuttle. However, most of the currently used tiles that protect the shuttle from extreme temperature have non-load bearing capability due to their highly porous foam structure. As reported, the loss of the US Space Shuttle Columbia in 2003 was caused by the mechanical failure of some tiles on the orbiter. Additionally, the replacement of damaged tiles is difficult and time-consuming. There is a critical need to develop a lightweight TPS technology that increases specific load bearing capability while providing sufficient thermal insulating properties. In this program, Luna Innovations teaming with an academic partner proposes to address this critical need by developing a lightweight, porous, hybrid ceramic composite structure that provides enhanced load bearing and thermal management capabilities. Both computational modeling and experimental study will be addressed to demonstrate the technology feasibility. BENEFIT: If successful, this development effort will yield a lightweight hybrid ceramic composite system that can provide sufficient thermal protection against extremely high temperature (e.g., 2000-3000 °F) and enhanced load-bearing capabilities. This novel technology will have significant applications in a range of hypersonic airborne and spaceborne vehicles like the Boeing X-51 Scramjet and the future spacecraft programs as load-bearing thermal protection systems. In addition to the military applications, a variety of civilian applications in aircrafts, automobiles, and structural thermal management systems would also benefit from the developed lightweight hybrid ceramic materials.

Lynntech, Inc.
2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South,
College Station, TX 77845
(979) 693-0017

PI: Anuncia Gonzalez-Martin
(979) 693-0017
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0061
University of Texas Dallas
NanoTech Institute, BE 26, 800 West Campbell Road
Richardson, TX 75080
(972) 883-6530

ID#: F10B-T22-0131
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT22       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: A Novel High Efficiency Thermal-Electrochemical Device for Hybrid PV/T Systems
Abstract: Energy issues have been at the center of the national security debate and as the largest single consumer of energy in the United States, the DOD recognizes the need to reduce its reliance on fossil fuel. For a number of years, the department has been making steady progress at decreasing its fossil fuel footprint which has seen solar energy and the use of photovoltaic cells emerge as a leading candidate for a potential alternative power source for DOD. One problem is that the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells is temperature dependent and it decreases with the increasing temperature. There have been several potential solutions to this problem that involve the integration of a thermal energy harvesting units known as PV/T systems that use air cooling or water cooling systems to increase the electrical output of the PV system; however, the net gain is still relatively small. Lynntech Inc together with our partners at the NanoTech Institute at the University of Texas at Dallas have developed a new thermal-electrochemical energy harvesting system that uses the latest advanced in nanotechnology to address many of the key issues related to converting waste heat from large numbers of solar cells directly to electrical energy BENEFIT: In 2009, solar modules capable of producing approximately 3700 MW of energy were manufactured, resulting in about $30 billion worth of installed systems worldwide. At present, the solar cell industry growth rates are 20% to 30% annually. This tendency is expected to last at least for the next 30 years to come. This statement implies that at the installed capacity of solar energy may grow the same way. In 2030, a significant capacity of about 140 GW should be operational around the globe.

M. Alexander Nugent Consulting
22B Stacy Rd,
Santa Fe, NM 87505
(505) 988-7016

PI: Alex Nugent
(505) 988-7016
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0111
Virtual Structures Research
12204 St. James Rd,
Potomac, MD 20854
(301) 279-0213

ID#: F10B-T31-0248
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT31       Awarded: 4/18/2011
Title: VLSI CMOS-memristor Building-block for Future Autonomous Air Platforms
Abstract: We propose a revolutionary method for constructing autonomous self-organizing circuits via memristive and CMOS technologies for use in autonomous flying vehicles. Our method utilizes a simple but powerful plasticity rule that can be mapped to the physics of memristive devices acting as synaptic elements whiten neuromorphic circuits. Through self- configuration of router and logic structures our circuits will evolve to control autonomous vehicles in complex environments. BENEFIT: If the principles of self-organization were illuminated it would cascade through all parts of our world economy. The ability to heal, a natural consequence of self-organization, leads to survival in hostile environments. Self organizing circuits would dramatically reduce the cost of fabrication by increasing yields, as circuits could adapt around faults. These are just some of the peripheral benefits. Consider that every CPU currently in existence requires a program that was created by a brain: a self-organizing autonomous control system. Any application that must interact with a complex changing environment is a potential platform for self-organizing autonomous control circuitry.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
(321) 631-3550

PI: J. Michael Cutbirth
(321) 631-3550
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0089
University of Florida
Office of Engineering Research, P.O. Box 116550
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-9447

ID#: F10B-T32-0294
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT32       Awarded: 8/29/2011
Title: Ultra-High Surface Area Architecture for Thermal Energy Storage
Abstract: The Air Force is currently seeking improvements in capacity and responsiveness of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems. Current research and development with Phase Change Materials (PCM) in carbon foam and pelletization of metal (i.e. copper) encapsulated metal hydrides seek to overcome these limitations by increasing the thermal conductivity (i.e. copper, carbon) while also increasing the surface area-to-volume ratio (i.e. foam, micro- encapsulation). Unfortunately, these methods still have drawbacks. For PCM in carbon foam, the volume change during phase transition ruptures internal ligaments. For copper-encapsulated metal hydrides, the pelletizing of micro- encapsulated MH creates excessive interfacial boundaries. Both occurrences limit the overall thermal conductivity. Mainstream’s approach combines high burst pressure (104 atm) nano-cylinders, metal hydride deposition (yielding high surface area-to-volume ratio), and high thermal conductivity attributed to nano-structured carbon. The Phase I effort focuses on fabrication of the high surface area storage media and demonstration of storage capacity. The Phase II effort will focus on the TES system architecture. BENEFIT: Increasing the heat removal capacity for high-density variable heat loads, such as that found aboard avionic systems, remains a major technical challenge for NASA, military, and civilian applications. The raw storage heat capacity of metal-hydrides surpass that of most latent- and bond-based thermal storage materials except the latent heat of vaporization of water and in some cases ammonia. Furthermore, the heat input rate (i.e. thermal responsiveness) associated with absorption kinetics exceeds that of conduction-dominated latent heat of fusion. However, when the entire thermal energy storage (TES) system is compared, metal hydride TES cannot match paraffin based TES in capacity due to the required gas storage (for reversible systems) and large core structure (i.e. metal hydride heat exchanger). The current STTS effort is significant as it will overcome the remaining obstacles (i.e. low thermal conductivity and low surface area-to-volume ratio of the metal hydrides) for producing a field-deployable metal-hydride TES for avionic systems, such as directed energy weapons. The application of a thermal responsive, energy dense TES would be applicable to Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) such as High-Powered Microwaves and High Energy Lasers as well low duty cycle electronics.

Maritime Applied Physics Corporation
1850 Frankfurst Avenue,
Baltimore, MD 21226
(443) 524-3330

PI: Nersesse Nersessian
(443) 524-3330
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0074
University of California LA
Mech & Aerospace Engineering, Engineering IV, Room 38-137
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 825-6030

ID#: F10B-T22-0220
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT22       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Hybrid Energy Harvesting Systems
Abstract: Efficiency of solar cells is typically low reaching on the order of 10% for commercially available cells. Furthermore, efficiency decreases by 0.5% for every degree increase in operating temperature. In order to increase the efficiency of the conversion of solar radiation per unit area to electricity it becomes advantageous to combine the solar cell with a thermal energy harvester. Acting as a thermal backplane, the thermal energy harvester increases the efficiency of the solar cell itself by keeping the solar cell from overheating, as well as allows for the harvesting of additional energy in the form of the suns’ heat [2]. For this approach to be successful a thermal energy harvester possessing a high efficiency, high power density and that can be manufactured in a compact thin module is necessary. The magneto-thermoelectric generator developed by researchers at UCLA has the potential to possess such properties. As such, Maritime Applied Physics Corporation (MAPC) in collaboration with University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) proposes to combine the magneto-thermoelectric generator with solar cells to create an efficient and power dense hybrid solar energy harvester. BENEFIT: MAPC foresees numerous applications for the proposed technology. Applications are available for both the stand alone thermal energy harvesting (i.e. with the magneto-thermoelectric energy harvester) where solar energy is not available as well as the proposed hybrid energy harvester where solar energy is readily available. Potential markets for our technology exist in industries employing a broad range of portable and remote low power electronic devices would benefit from a high power density thermal energy harvester. Low power electronic devices primarily exist in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used for applications such as condition monitoring, and in radio frequency identification (RFID) tags used, among other things, for inventory tracking. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), could be expanded with additional nodes, functionality and accelerated rate of data transmission utilizing our proposed technology. Sensor networks and clusters, found today in health monitoring of oil refineries, power plants, civilian structures (e.g., bridges), aircraft, automobiles, ships and trains, could be powered via harvested waste heat, with an attendant reduction in the use of batteries.

Materials Research & Design
300 E. Swedesford Rd,
Wayne, PA 19087
(610) 964-6131

PI: Craig Iwano
(610) 964-9000
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0032
Missouri University of Science and
1522 Timbercreek Rd. No. 4,
Rolla, MO 65401
(573) 680-9569

ID#: F10B-T27-0219
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT27       Awarded: 12/1/2011
Title: Lightweight Composite/Hybrid Structures with Enhanced Properties
Abstract: Future hypersonic vehicles, like X-43 and X-51 derivatives and Falcon HTV-3, will require advanced strategies for thermal protection systems (TPS) and methods of structural integration. The goal in designing TPS for these types of high performance applications is to establish multi-mission reusable systems with reduced weight and increased performance that possess multifunctionality, e.g. both thermal protection and structural capability. Within the proposed Phase I effort, MR&D will perform a design and analysis trade study to develop an innovative highly-porous core for a structurally integrated TPS. X-aerogels will be used as the starting point for this innovative core, leading to a material with a very high level of porosity and good strength characteristics. Dr. Nicholas Leventis from the Missouri University of Science & Technology (MS&T), co-inventor of x-aerogels, will assist MR&D in the development of this innovative core material. Also within the Phase I effort, MS&T will fabricate test specimens of each individual layer for material property testing at Southern Research Institute (SRI) of Birmingham, AL. BENEFIT: The thermal protection system (TPS) is an important part of any hypersonic vehicle. The Air Force has recently made significant investments in the technology of structurally integrated TPS. Nevertheless, there is still much work to be done in optimizing materials and component designs for load bearing TPS. Load bearing TPS will significantly reduce the overall weight of a vehicle by no longer "moving out of the way and going along for the ride", but rather helping to carry the structural loads of the vehicle. TPS designs, primarily those associated with acreage TPS panels, will be the primary beneficiary of the proposed program. The success of this program will directly support the design of existing and future hypersonic vehicles.

Maxion Technologies, Inc.
20 New England Business Center,
Andover, MA 01810
(978) 689-0003

PI: Richard P. Leavitt
(301) 405-8426
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0067
SUNY Stony Brook
The Research Foundation of SUN, Office of Sponsored Programs
Stony Brook, NY 11794
(631) 632-4402

ID#: F10B-T20-0170
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT20       Awarded: 7/15/2011
Title: High-Power, Room-Temperature Interband Cascade Laser Optimization
Abstract: Maxion Technologies, Inc, and the State University of New York at Stony Brook propose to develop a fundamental understanding of the principles of operation of interband cascade (IC) lasers and to use that understanding to overcome present-day limitations of IC lasers and thereby design lasers that are capable of watt-level performance in the 3¡V4- ƒÝm wavelength band. Our innovation is to use a modular computational approach to assessing and improving the performance of IC lasers, integrated with experimental validation. The theoretical approach is to structure the proposed ¡§design toolbox¡¨ around the COMSOL Multiphysics suite of modules that are designed to apply a modular approach to the solution of coupled ordinary and partial differential equations and that takes advantage of existing COMSOL modules previously developed by the proposers. The present Phase I proposal concentrates on three primary objectives in pursuit of the overall goal: (1) characterize Maxion¡¦s best-available IC lasers using Hakki-Paoli measurements and cavity-length analysis; (2) develop a modular, COMSOL-based computer code for the design and analysis of IC laser performance; and (3) investigate the feasibility of using the modular, COMSOL-based design approach to developing a full modeling capability for analysis and design of high-performance IC lasers during Phase II. BENEFIT: The proposed program will increase the room-temperature, cw performance of IC lasers from the present power levels of tens of mW to 1 W and above. These improvements will reduce the complexity of next-generation IRCM laser transmitters now under development for existing seeker threats and will enable defeat of next-generation threats. At mid- IR wavelengths between 2.4 and 4 ƒÝm, additional defense-related applications exist including lasers for target designators, IFF beacons, free-space communications, and IR scene simulators for sensor evaluation. Maxion Technologies, Inc. is one of only a few domestic sources of QC and IC lasers and is the only company with an exclusive license for the sale of IC lasers. In the 3 5 ƒÝm wavelength region, we are already developing and marketing IC lasers for application to chemical sensing and industrial process control, and the performance improvements enabled by the proposed program will facilitate additional applications in these areas.

MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street,
Niles, IL 60714
(847) 588-3001

PI: Noren Pan
(847) 588-3001
Contract #: FA9453-11-M-0147
Dept of Materials Sci & Eng, 410 Westwood Plaza
Los Angeles, CA 90095
(310) 206-0267

ID#: F10B-T05-0123
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT05       Awarded: 4/19/2011
Title: High Efficiency Flexible Photovoltaic Blankets
Abstract: MicroLink proposes a device that combines ultra-thin, high-efficiency, GaAs-based multijunction solar cells, made using our proprietary epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, with a novel packaging approach that will result in high-efficiency, flexible photovoltaic blankets. MicroLink has developed a process that produces ultra-thin, flexible solar cells. In this project, these flexible solar cells will be incorporated into a flexible, polymeric solar sheet. The net result will be a sheet that has a high net solar conversion efficiency and that can be rolled or folded. BENEFIT: The ability to integrate highly flexible solar cells would provide a clear pathway towards the realization of a high efficiency solar blanket. Key areas of development to be accomplished in Phase I include interconnects, welding, and thin film packaging. The development efforts would lead to lightweight solar-powered battery charging units with widespread commercial potential in applications such as powering consumer electronics, sports, and camping.

MicroXact, Inc.
2000 Kraft Drive, Suite 1207
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 392-6917

PI: Vladimir Kochergin
(614) 917-7202
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0036
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Physics Department, Robeson Hall, Mail Stop 0435
Blacksburg, VA 24061
(540) 231-8732

ID#: F10B-T26-0287
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT26       Awarded: 5/24/2011
Title: Next Generation Thermoelectric Devices
Abstract: Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices typically offer limited heat to electricity conversion efficiencies, well below the fundamental thermodynamic limit, calling for the development of higher efficiency materials. The team of MicroXact Inc., Virginia Tech and Sundew Technologies Inc. is proposing to develop a revolutionary high efficiency thermoelectric material fabricated on completely new fabrication principles. The material comprises the three-dimensional "wells" of PbTe/PbSe superlattices fabricated by a conformal coating via Atomic layer Deposition (ALD) of macroporous silicon substrates. Such a material will provide ZT >2 at macroscopic thicknesses of the material, permitting 20% or more conversion efficiencies for 400K-600K temperature range. In Phase I of the project the thorough model of the proposed TE material will be developed, ALD deposition of PbTe and PbSe will be developed and demonstrated on plane Si wafers and macroporous silicon pore walls. In Phase II the team will fabricate the proposed material and device, and will demonstrate ZT>2 and conversion efficiencies exceeding 20%. After the Phase II MicroXact will commercialize the technology. BENEFIT: Due to predicted unmatched performance characteristics (high efficiency, small size/weight) and large volume- compatible, economically advantageous fabrication process the proposed thermoelectric materials and devices are expected to find a wide range of defense, scientific and commercial applications. Potential DoD applications of the proposed technology are spanning from power generation (higher efficiency jet engines, additional power sources for military satellites) to efficient cooling of infrared cameras in focal plane arrays and thermoelectric cooling of electronics and optoelectronics. In all these applications the incorporation of the proposed material will result in significant improvements of operational characteristics of mentioned components. Commercial applications include auto market (where thermoelectric materials are already being used for cooling seats and improving efficiency of engine), water coolers, and potentially power plants. The advantages of the proposed technology will provide the competitive advantage to MicroXact sufficient for successful market penetration. The proposed concept, when developed and commercialized, is expected to cause a significant impact on both the DoD missions and commercial applications.

11531 Swains Lock Terrace,
Potomac, MD 20854
(301) 651-7259

PI: Tejbir Singh Phool
(310) 651-7259
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0072
University of Maryland
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
(301) 405-5175

ID#: F10B-T10-0211
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT10       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Mission Prioritized Lossless Data Compression
Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the identification, processing, and storage of the most critical and pertinent data collected by a wide variety of complex sensors using a patented cloud computing methodology designed to permit the greatest flexibility and system efficiency. This novel architecture uses a revolutionary but simple idea that transfers much of the complexity away from sensors and transfers it to the core of the network. This transfer offers unprecedented joint opportunities for cooperative sensing and for delivering high performance cloud computing and storage for data analysis. Benefits of cooperative sensing include: improved reliability, connectivity, and sensor network resilience,lower energy consumption for all sensors, and joint processing and analysis of data collected by multiple sensors for much greater precision. Benefits of high performance cloud computing include: significant energy savings, and ready availability of the most recent pertinent compression and storage techniques MiMoCloud’s team has extremely relevant deep and broad research capabilities, the ability to rapidly develop a prototype, and the entrepreneurial drive to commercialize the painstakingly researched and executed patent. BENEFIT: The patented technology for conducting shared signal processing has important applications in industrial sensor networks, military sensor networks, MIMO Radar, structural testing, and in cellular telecommunications.

MV Innovative Technologies LLC (DBA: Optonicus)
711 E Monument Ave Ste 101,
Dayton, OH 45402
(415) 341-5940

PI: Svetlana Lachinova
(301) 509-1992
Contract #: FA9451-11-M-0042
University of Dayton
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 229-1920

ID#: F10B-T23-0101
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT23       Awarded: 4/15/2011
Title: Beam Control for Optical Phased Array Transceivers
Abstract: The proposed effort is focused on the development of a novel HEL beam director system prototype composed of an array of small-size densely packed and locked in-phase (phased) fiber collimators, which can be scalable in respect to the number of sub-apertures in the array and the power delivered through a single fiber collimator. In the proposed system the basic operation functions of a HEL weapon system such as target acquisition and tracking, beam pointing and focusing, target hit-spot stabilization at a selected aimpoint and adaptive mitigation of the atmospheric turbulence induced phase aberrations are directly integrated into the fiber array. This development intends to resolve the major technological challenges in the development of fiber-array based laser weapon systems including mitigation of the platform jitter, atmospheric turbulence and speckle effects in laser beam projection onto an extended target and target hit-spot imaging. BENEFIT: The successful completion of the effort will provide a prototype for a scalable optical-phased-array beam director system that will enable the implementation of a new type of compact, light-weight high power laser weapon systems for DOD. The developed fiber-array technology also has direct application to free-space optical communications, active imaging, commercial aircraft defense, and industrial laser technology.

MZA Associates Corporation
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
(505) 245-9970

PI: Joseph Riley
(937) 684-4100
Contract #: FA9451-11-M-0046
University of Dayton
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 229-2394

ID#: F10B-T33-0070
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT33       Awarded: 4/14/2011
Title: Synthetic Scenery for Tracking System Evaluation
Abstract: MZA Associates Corporation, partnered with the University of Dayton (UD) propose to develop a dynamic scene generation capability within WaveTrain. We propose authoring a scene renderer using proven Computer Graphics Imagery (CGI) techniques to produce target maps that WaveTrain will use to represent an array of sources. The code library will be compiled in such a way that is will be accessible by other engineering software like MatLab. We will outline specific scene generation processes we’ve used in the past and how they can be incorporated or expanded upon to produce higher fidelity dynamic scenes in WaveTrain, with less effort. We will also provide a road map for expanded thermal modeling in WaveTrain that include the scene renderer and three dimensional (3D) targets as part of the solution. Sources associated with state changes like smoke will also be addressed with a novel solution involving hyper-voxels and fractals. Finally, we propose investigating a commercial render engine to augment the scene renderer. Mr. Joseph Riley with be the principal investigator for MZA and Dr. Joseph Haus will be the lead for UD. BENEFIT: Adding this expanded synthetic scene generation capability to WaveTrain will provide higher fidelity passive and active wave optics imagery and support dynamic changes in the target. The effect of this will be better evaluations of optical tracking concepts and controls in turbulent and cluttered environments, resulting in a reduced need for expensive field experiments. The time needed for an analysis to simulate engagements will also shrink since many separate and slow running scripts will be optimized and collated into a single library linked to WaveTrain components. Accessibility of the scene library by products like MatLab should also increase its applications in both professional and academic fields.

NALAS Engineering Services Inc.
Salem, CT 06420
(860) 861-3691

PI: Jerry Salan
(860) 861-3691
Contract #: FA9300-11-M-6002
University of Rhode Island
51 Lower Colleage Road,
Kingston, RI 02881
(401) 874-9480

ID#: F10B-T25-0147
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT25       Awarded: 8/17/2011
Title: Selective Oxidation of Heterocyclic Amines
Abstract: The United States Air Force and the Department of Defense are investigating synthesis, scale-up and production of novel energetic materials including high energy density compounds and fuels. Five-membered heterocyclic rings containing nitro groups have demonstrated great potential as energetic materials. Synthetic and engineering challenges are impeding scientists from safely producing desired materials for further evaluation in energetic material applications. Specifically, selective oxidation of energetic materials poses a significant challenge to investigators. As part of the first phase of this project, NALAS proposes the following work towards the development of a selective mono-oxidation of heterocyclic diamine linked via hetero-atomic linkers: 1. Determination and analysis of oxidative potential of target molecules – development of a predictive model 2. Development of a protocol for in situ analysis of oxidation reactions 3. Development of a chemoselective mono-oxidation of the diamine motif based on flexible catalytic systems BENEFIT: Nalas Engineering has an excellent relationship with various vendors that develop and commercialize new products routinely, including Mettler Toledo AutoChem. Mettler Toledo AutoChem has annual sales ranging between $100-200 million for its automated laboratory equipment and in-situ sensors (AutoChem is part of the larger Mettler Toledo family that is currently at $2 billion a year). If successful, Nalas proposes that the work accomplished in this effort will expand through these venues with revenue estimates of $10-20 million per year the first five years in the market attributed to new sensors and attachments to existing market items such as the automated laboratory reactors (RC1 and EasyMax systems). Although Nalas is a new company, their employees have participated on teams that have successfully commercialized or demonstrated commercialization ability through proof-of-concept studies. This particular project is in its infancy and the technologies have not yet been fully developed or integrated. The demand remains high for tools that will aid in process development.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
(512) 389-9990

PI: Steve Savoy
(512) 389-9990
Contract #: FA9453-11-M-0149
Shvets Group
6100 Chictora Cove,
Austin, TX 78759
(512) 471-7371

ID#: F10B-T05-0276
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT05       Awarded: 4/20/2011
Title: High Efficiency Flexible Photovoltaics
Abstract: Recent advances in manufacturing in Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells have opened new terrestrial opportunities that demand high specific power as a key enabling component. Originally designed for space applications, IMM photovoltaics have a high overall power conversion efficiency (>30%) which compares favorably to amorphous silicon, CIGS and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices which are limited to <10%. A number of technical challenges must be addressed for transfer and eventual integration onto a flexible backing such as a polymeric or woven fabric that can support the cells which are under high stress. A systematic approach to effectively transfer IMM devices across multiple wafers onto a large area web which serves as the thin, contiguous support structure is needed to form “blankets” or “canopies” for power regeneration stations. Nanohmics, working in collaboration Professor Gennady Shvets of the University of Texas at Austin propose to develop Immagen Technology, a power generation device that includes integration of state-of-the-art IMM photovoltaics into a large area conformal device for military remote recharging applications. BENEFIT: High power conversion efficiency cells provide a means for charging batteries with small operational footprints and minimization of hazards associated with charging exchange and detectability. IMMs provide the optimum benefits in power conversion efficiency and low mass for recharging during solider missions.

Nanohmics, Inc
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
(512) 389-9990

PI: Donald E. Patterson
(512) 389-9990
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0005
Texas State University
601 University Drive,
San Marcos, TX 78666
(512) 245-2672

ID#: F10B-T19-0114
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT19       Awarded: 10/28/2011
Title: Advanced Antireflective Coatings for Polycarbonate Lenses
Abstract: Robust optical coatings are of great importance across a broad spectrum of applications. Hard, durable, stress-free coatings are needed and used in everything from ophthalmic polymers to infrared optics. One of the principal shortcomings of typical inorganic oxide, nitride, and sulfide coatings when applied to polymeric substrates is the large difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the two types of materials. This mismatch in CTE leads to unwanted stress in the applied coatings resulting in a failure of the coating. To address the Air Force’s optical coatings requirements, Nanohmics is developing the tools and processes for producing optical coatings employing pulsed laser deposition and sputter-deposited amorphous nitrides and oxides. These materials enable coatings (reflective, antireflective, and bandpass) with high quality, excellent adherence, and compatibility with substrates including metals, polymers, and traditional optical materials. During this program, Nanohmics is proposing to develop a mixed organic/inorganic anti-reflective coating to be applied to polycarbonate-based ophthalmic lenses. The ultimate lenses will have a scratch-resistant, stress-free, adherent coating with transmission greater than 99.5% from 400 to 750 nm. BENEFIT: The developed processes and tools can be used to deposit reflective, anti-reflective, and bandpass coatings on to a variety of optical materials including polymers, glasses, and metals. Potential applications include lenses, windows, face shields, airplane canopies, solar panel coverglass, and building sheeting and glazing.

NanoSonic, Inc.
158 Wheatland Drive,
Pembroke, VA 24136
(540) 626-6266

PI: Y. Kang
(540) 626-6266
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0052
Virginia Tech
302 Whittemore (0111), Professor and Virginia Micorel
Blacksburg, VA 24061
(540) 231-3297

ID#: F10B-T14-0111
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT14       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Semiconductor Nanomembrane Based Flexible PV Power Sources
Abstract: The purpose of the proposed Air Force Phase I STTR program is to fabricate semiconductor nanomembrane based photovoltaic (PV) power sources on flexible substrates, using Virginia Tech NanoCMOS Laboratory’s SOI silicon nanomembrane technique in combination with NanoSonic’s pioneering Polynanoguard antireflection copolymer nanocomposite materials, which afford high levels of antireflection, temperature and abrasion resistance, impact durability and hydrophobicity (self cleaning). NanoSonic’s Polynanoguard composites will be used not only as the substrates but also the antireflection coatings to enhance the device efficiency. Such an approach to form flexible PV materials and devices offers advantages over hydrogenated amorphous silicon based flexible PV devices, in that much higher energy efficiency can be obtained on flexible substrates with room temperature manufacturing and processing. By proper diffusion, silicon P-N junctions will be formed into the n-type or p-type Si membranes, and then be patterned and released from the engineered SOI wafers using wet chemical etching. The released Si P-N junction membranes will be transferred to NanoSonic’s highly transparent, super lightweight and mechanically robust Polynanoguard materials to be integrated into flexible PV devices. NanoSonic will additionally investigate high mobility PV membrane materials other than Si, such as Ge, SiGe and GaAs to further increase the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, NanoSonic’s QD-PMMA composite will be coated on the top of the PV devices as down-converters to shift the incident high-energy photons toward lower energies for which the PV cells work more efficiently. During Phase I, NanoSonic would work with academic and industry partners to demonstrate the ability to reproducibly form semiconductor membrane based flexible PV devices, and investigate methods to improve quantum efficiency, fabricate electrode interconnections and implement effective device packaging. BENEFIT: A broad band of applications of the proposed PV devices include solar cells, spectroscopy, photography, analytical instrumentation, optical position sensors, beam alignment, surface characterization, laser range finders, optical communications, and medical imaging instruments. Currently, the production of electricity from photovoltaic devices is uneconomical compared to fossil fuel or nuclear sources except for applications located off the electrical grid. NanoSonic’s research in the flexible PV field, to ease the energy access for military soldiers will show promise in

NextGen Aeronautics
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
(310) 626-8384

PI: Jenn Schlitter
(310) 626-8362
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0027
University of Washington
4333 Brooklyn Ave NE, Box 3594,
Seattle, WA 98195
(206) 543-4043

ID#: F10B-T27-0028
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT27       Awarded: 11/22/2011
Title: Porous Hybrid Composite for Enhanced Thermal Protection Systems (ComTPS)
Abstract: The proposed research will demonstrate feasibility of a high temperature insulating, load bearing thermal protection system (TPS) using a hybrid composite technology. This program will incorporate a hierarchically porous ceramic core material in a sandwich structure with a conventional polymer matrix composite (PMC) and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) to fabricate an enhanced TPS. This material will protect the underlying structure from high temperatures, variable heating rates (Mach 4-20), and loading schemes. The core will be fabricated using an inexpensive manufacturing process from a pre-ceramic polymer that can be tailored for thickness and gradient of porosity without a substantial increase in weight to the structure. During Phase I, NextGen will focus on the development of the core material and optimization of thermal protection properties to withstand external temperatures of 3000°F and internal temperatures of 600°F. These properties will be modeled to predict thermal performance, and an initial adhesion technique will be developed for 3-component structural assembly. Proof-of-concept test coupons will be manufactured and characterized to verify mechanical and thermal properties of the core and 3-component part. Phase II will focus on the assembly/adhesion technique of the 3-component part, optimization of manufacturing techniques, and continue component validation with larger-scale prototypes. BENEFIT: High temperature materials have conventionally consisted of porous ceramics or fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. While porous ceramic materials have attractive TPS properties, they do not perform well as structural components. In contrast, fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites have structural properties but do not perform well as thermal insulators and are often expensive to manufacture. The proposed program plans to address the drawbacks of these high temperature materials in a hybrid 3-component sandwich structure composite that has both thermal insulating properties and load bearing capability. The porous ceramic core material will allow enhanced thermal insulating properties to accommodate a gradient from an external 3000°F temperature and an internal temperature of 600°F at high heating rates that can be caused by increasing Mach numbers. This will prevent substructure material degradation and breakdown in mechanical properties. The ceramic matrix composite outer surface sandwich material will provide additional thermal protection as well as contribute a structural component along with the lightweight polymer

Nonlinear Control Strategies Inc.
3542 N. Geronimo Avenue,
Tucson, AZ 85705
(520) 888-5900

PI: Ralph L. Dawson
(505) 272-7820
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0057
University of New Mexico
1700 Lomas Blvd NE, Ste 2200,
Albuquerque, NM 87131
(505) 277-7647

ID#: F10B-T20-0035
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT20       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: High Power, Room Temperature 2.4 - 4 micron Mid-IR Semiconductor Laser Optimization
Abstract: The key objective of the proposal is to develop sophisticated, graphical user interface driven software tools built on fully microscopic physics to design, guide and provide feedback on growth, fabrication and evaluation of semiconductor structures that provide optical gain in the critical 2.4-4 micron wavelength window. Existing technologies are severely limited by low gain, high losses, poor beam quality, low wall-plug efficiencies and, often, the need to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Nonlinear Control Strategies Inc. will develop state-of-the-art and unique proprietary software design tools to optimize the semiconductor epitaxial structures for room temperature laser operation in either edge or surface emitting geometries. A key design task will be to combine bandstructure engineering with full many-body microscopic physics calculations to reduce Auger and intraband absorption losses that dramatically limit performance in this wavelength window. The mid-IR laser software design development has several potential applications to IRCM, ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance): LADAR, 3-D imaging, active illumination imaging in the mid-wave IR requiring sources that operate as efficiently as possible. The anticipated outcome of the project in Phase 2 is a flexible software tool capable of rapid convergence to optimized solutions by running in parallel on multiple or multi- core processors and on specialized hardware accelerators BENEFIT: There currently exists a critical gap in the availability of semiconductor laser sources operating in the 2.4-4 micron mid- IR wavelength window. There is a dire need for high brightness laser sources that deliver Watts of power at room temperature on a small footprint. The mid-IR laser software design development has several potential applications to IRCM, ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance): LADAR, 3-D imaging, active illumination imaging in the mid- wave IR requiring sources that operate as efficiently as possible.

NP Photonics, Inc.
UA Science and Technology Park, 9030 S. Rita Road, Suite #120
Tucson, AZ 85747
(520) 799-7424

PI: Dan T. Nguyen
(520) 799-7419
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0048
University of Arizona
PO Box 3308, 888 N. Euclid Ave. Ste 510
Tucson, AZ 85722
(520) 626-6000

ID#: F10B-T02-0074
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT02       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Optical Cryocooling for Space-borne Sensors
Abstract: We propose to develop a light weight, compact, vibration-less and micro-scale cooler for space-mission conditions based on optical refrigeration using an all-fiber approach. Specifically, we will use a Tm+3-doped fiber laser to pump Tm+3-doped glass fibers, which provide the cooling action on the affixed heat source. The cooling fiber is attached to the heating sample e.g., EO-IR detector or any kind of space-borne sensor. NP Photonics' high electrical- to-optical efficiency thulium-doped fiber lasers (> 20% E-O) offer power up to 100W and beyond. This fits the scope of Phase I, and also allows for scaling to much higher cooling requirements in Phase II. Our system has several key advantages compared to conventional bulk glass systems: 1) its cooling power benefits from high optical confinement in the fiber core; 2) fiber Bragg gratings are transparent to the waste photons and thus minimize fluorescence reabsorption; they will be used for enhancing pump absorption; and 3) the all-fiber system can conveniently transfer part of the heat to a remote location. In Phase I, we will investigate cooling fibers based on germanate and tellurite host glasses, with possibility to extend to ZBLAN fibers later. Theoretical modeling of optical cooling in our fiber and thermal modeling of the entire fiber cooler will be performed in parallel with the experiments. BENEFIT: Using all-fiber optical cooling techniques provide a vibration less cooler that would be a substantial advantage in satellite and space applications. Fiber-based optical cooling or thermal management could find applications in a variety of commercial applications, such as broadcast transmitters and other concentrated radiators, or other heat limited electronic or opto-electronic devices – such as microprocessors or semiconductor receivers. One of the challenges associated with scaling-up the power output of fiber lasers toward and beyond the kW level is thermal management in the active fiber. One promising direction is optical cooling using laser sources to cool down the fiber and enable alternate approaches for thermal dissipation strategies in high power fiber lasers. Cooling and thermal dissipation using fibers and fiber lasers would not only apply to the space-borne sensors specifically targeted in this program, but many other electronic and opto-electronic applications where conventional proximity cooling is inconvenient or unsuitable.

Obalon LLC
4531 Dulcinea Ct,
Woodland Hills, CA 91364
(818) 262-7746

PI: William Morey
(310) 567-6735
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0088
Aerospace Corporation
2310 East El Segundo Boulevard,
El Segundo, CA 90245
(310) 336-7621

ID#: F10B-T11-0321
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT11       Awarded: 8/19/2011
Title: Photostructural Glass Ceramics and Optimized Processing for Laser Initiated 3D Conductors (PhotoCon)
Abstract: In this STTR effort a small business company Obalon LLC is teaming up with industry leader Aerospace Corporation in order to develop novel photostructural glass ceramic composition PhotoCon with capability of laser induced 3D conductor patterning inside the bulk material. Following the photolytic process of laser exposure and the development of latent image the team will implement the series of novel processing steps that would enable conglomeration of metal around the initially exposed areas until the desired RF and DC conductivity of the patterned 3D structure is achieved. In Phase I effort through the theoretical analysis and the experimental testing we will identify the glass ceramic composition requirements that would enable the metal conductor formation inside the bulk material. We will also optimize the processing steps for efficient conductor patterning. In Phase II we will produce liter size material samples and fully characterize the resulting material for both the photo initiated conductor formation and dimensional patterning using chemical etching process. The path towards high temperature sensor fabrication will be established and high temperature resistant glass ceramic structures will be produced. BENEFIT: Novel glass ceramics with the ability to fabricate 3D conductors in bulk material using automated laser writing will find a number of applications in consumer electronics including touch screen displays, portable antennas and interconnects for processor chips. The capability of precise glass ceramic patterning with the ability to wire desired elements will enable the next generation 3D circuit boards. The electrode formation in combination with etched micro fluidic channel fabrication opens up a wide variety of biomedical sensor applications for both the massive low cost parallel sample processing such as DNA sequencing and the specific micro analytical probes for point of care testing. The novel high temperature glass ceramic sensors and RF components will increase the reliability and improve the manufacturability of system designs in aerospace industry.

Omega Optics, Inc.
10306 Sausalito Dr,
Austin, TX 78759
(512) 996-8833

PI: Harish Subbaraman
(512) 996-8833
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0058
The University of Texas at Austin
10100 Burnet Rd, PRC/MER 160,
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 471-7035

ID#: F10B-T14-0015
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT14       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Ultra Light Weight and Compact, Flexible Nano-Photonic Mach-Zehnder Interference (MZI) Modulators Based on the combination of Electro-Optic Polymer Na
Abstract: In this program, Omega Optics, Inc., in collaboration with the University of Texas at Austin, propose to integrate the unique advantages of combining silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs) and electro-optic (EO) polymer nanomembranes in developing a novel low power, high frequency modulator on a flexible substrate. A four order magnitude increase in the electro-optic effect compared to conventional EO polymer waveguide is expected due to a combined effect from 1) slow photon effect of the photonic crystal waveguide (100X enhancement), 2) tight energy confinement in the narrow sub 100nm slot (50X enhancement) and 3) claddingless structure (improves poling and modulation efficiency by at least 2 times), which will carve out a new trail for optoelectronic devices and nonlinear optical devices. Additionally, flexible plastic substrates provide an ideal light weight and conformal platform that are specifically suited for air-borne applications. In the Phase I program, we will design a hybrid silicon-polymer modulator and demonstrate a prototype EO modulator on a flexible substrate. Key manufacturing limitations will be addressed and a detailed Phase II plan will be developed. By combining the unique features of EO polymer and silicon nanomembranes, an ultra sensitive optical modulator with a very short interaction length and with an effective r33 of 2,000,000 pm/V (200pm/V×10000) is expected. This is will in-turn generate a 200micron MZI modulator with V-pi below 0.1V. BENEFIT: Integration of Si CMOS and EO polymer technology using a SiNM platform will provide an excellent high performance model for the next generation systems. The foreseeable commercial potential will at least bring profits to millimeter wave modulators, EM wave sensors, radars, communication systems etc. Low power, light weight optical modulators, especially high speed modulators that can work at millimeter wave frequency, will play major roles in next generation backbone digital networks, RF analog photonic systems, wireless communication and optically controlled phased array antennas, thus enabling crucial functionality for future air-borne systems.

Omitron, Incorporated
7051 Muirkirk Meadows Dv.; Suite A,
Greenbelt, MD 20705
(719) 226-1511

PI: William Barker
(719) 226-1511
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0096
The University of Texas at Austin
3925 W. Braker Ln., Ste 200,
Austin, TX 78759
(512) 471-7370

ID#: F10B-T36-0047
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT36       Awarded: 9/26/2011
Title: Time series prediction for satellite ballistic coefficients
Abstract: The leading errors in computing future positions of satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are generally due to inaccuracies in the thermospheric density and the prediction thereof. The use of Dynamic Calibration Atmosphere (DCA) has significantly reduced these traditional sources of error and variations seen in ballistic coefficients can now be attributed to unmodeled satellite frontal area changes. When the orbit of a satellite needs to be predicted, there is no way of knowing the correct value of the ballistic coefficient for the orbit prediction interval thus a value is assumed. The assumed value of the ballistic coefficient will cause the predicted orbit to be in error. Hence, considerable improvement in the quality of orbit prediction can be achieved by reducing the error in the assumed value of the ballistic coefficient. The ballistic coefficient for prediction is usually obtained from the estimated value prior to the prediction. Instead of assuming the previous estimated value, an analysis of the time series of a history of the estimated values may reveal some characteristics which then can be used to minimize prediction error. BENEFIT: Many Air Force and other agencies use satellite prediction products produced in the JSpOC. Therefore, the potential for greatly improved accuracy of the space catalog has far reaching applicability to a wide range of DoD and commercial users.

Omm Scientific, Inc
2600 N Stemmons Freeway, Suite 129,
Dallas, TX 75207
(214) 350-9156

PI: Edward R. Biehl
(214) 768-1280
Contract #: FA9300-11-M-6003
Southern Methodist University
6425 Boaz Lane Suite 101,
Dallas, TX 75205
(214) 768-2033

ID#: F10B-T25-0020
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT25       Awarded: 9/30/2011
Title: Selective Oxidation of Heterocyclic Amines
Abstract: New energetic materials are needed for use in explosives and propellants that have a very powerful energy release yet are insensitive to handling. Safer materials that also allow development of lighter weight, longer range missiles and higher performance explosives are needed. One class of such compounds is materials based on furazan heterocycles. While some furazans are too energetic, others have very attractive properties but are difficult or unsafe to make. To address this challenge, a synthetic method development program is proposed for the challenging selective oxidation of one amine of a diaminofurazan based compound called DAAzF to give the amino nitro compound ANAzF. New and current oxidants to such transformations will be trialed in a relatively high through put effort using microwave assisted organic synthesis with low to high temperature control. A much greater reaction space will thus be examined in terms of oxidant type, temperature, pressure, pH, reactant ratios and more to identify suitable conditions. Care will be taken to develop scalable methods, and LCMS will be used to follow progress of the reactions and determine mass balance. The end result will be a robust, general method that gives acceptable, reproducible yields in a scalable process that can be further scaled and expanded to other substrates in Phase II. BENEFIT: Successful completion of this program will provide a general method for preparing new, energetic materials of interest. The ability to prepare these new materials should be a useful tool in the development and testing of new, low sensitivity but high energy propellants and explosives. The method may also be useful in preparing pharmaceuticals and other chemicals.

OptiCOMP Networks, Inc.
60 Phillips St., Bld'g 3 Ste 2
Attleboro, MA 02703
(401) 616-4176

PI: John Farah
(401) 616-4176
Contract #: FA9453-11-M-0148
Auburn University
310 Samford hall,
Auburn, AL 36849
(334) 844-5954

ID#: F10B-T05-0243
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT05       Awarded: 4/14/2011
Title: Foldable/Rollable High Efficiency Solar Cell Modules
Abstract: A new method for manufacturing thin, flexible, portable high efficiency III-V PV modules that can be folded and rolled. In particular, IMM3J cells are lifted-off their growth substrate and transferred to a polyimide blanket sheet holding up to a few hundred cells. They are fully encapsulated. The interconnects are made with novel use of electrically conductive adhesives and polymers. The method further allows for recovery and reuse of the growth substrate, reducing the cell costs by up to 40%. OptiCOMP’s method thereby eliminates any potential supply bottlenecks for GaAs and Ge growth substrates and preserves rare earth materials. BENEFIT: High efficiency flexible photovoltaic civilian applications include solar rechargers for portable power applications, including flexible battery-charging covers for hybrid electric vehicles etc.

Orora Design Technologies, Inc.
18378 Redmond Fall CIty Road,
Redmond, WA 98052
(425) 702-9196

PI: Lili Zhou
(425) 702-9196
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0114
University of Albany
CNSE, 255 Fuller Rd.,
Albany, NY 12222
(518) 956-7057

ID#: F10B-T31-0242
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT31       Awarded: 4/19/2011
Title: VLSI CMOS-memristor Building-block for Future Autonomous Air Platforms
Abstract: In this project, Orora Design Technologies, Inc. is teaming up with researchers from the University at Albany and the University of Washington to develop techniques to design, simulate and fabricate CMOS-memristor CMOL crossnet building blocks and neuromorphic processors. Phase I objective is to simulate and demonstrate autonomous computing building cell blocks with power consumption of less to 2x10-11 watts and footprint area of less than 2x10-13 m2. Specific emphasis will be on (1) exploring the efficient and reliable fabrication/integration methods for MEMRISTOR devices and CMOS devices; (2) designing and demonstrating a CMOL crossnet cell (3) designing and simulating the CMOS- MEMRISTOR crossnet processor and the development of suitable CAD tool framework. This project is expected to show the potential of memristor-like technology (passive memory devices: memristor, magnetic junction, and/or continuous variable resistance devices) for enabling massively parallel large scale neuromorphic computing processor architecture development. BENEFIT: .. It is expected that this project will enable new ultra-compact, ultra-fast, and self-learning CMOS-memristory systems for both military and commercial applications such as command, control, surveillance and communications, as well as consumer electronics, digital signal processing and biomedical applications.

Out of the Fog Research LLC
Stuart Berkowitz, 2258 20th Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94116
(415) 505-3827

PI: Stuart Berkowitz
(415) 505-3827
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0025
University of California, Berkeley
311 Birge,
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 643-9155

ID#: F10B-T40-0245
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT40       Awarded: 11/15/2011
Title: High frequency (HF) direction-finding (DF) system based on an array of high-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)
Abstract: In Phase I, we will analyze and design a physically small superconducting antenna for HF DF. We will develop a set of target antenna specifications. We will model and simulate a superconducting antenna for this application, including control electronics. We will complete an array design and device fabrication. We will measure noise properties of high- Tc ion-damage junction SQUID arrays. We will gather enough information to estimate the technical risk. We will then have all of the building blocks to fabricate and test arrays in Phase II, so that the scaling behavior can be investigated. BENEFIT: Military Application: Microwave Communication Systems for ISR. Commercial Application: Magnetometer technology, such as satellite communications and biomagnetic detectors for magnetocardiography (MCG)

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
2711 Lance Drive,
Moraine, OH 45409
(937) 298-3713

PI: Jason E. Lincoln
(937) 298-3713
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0001
Michigan State University
2100 Engineering Building,
East Lansing, MI 48824
(517) 353-5466

ID#: F10B-T01-0237
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT01       Awarded: 10/28/2011
Title: Thermally Conductive Structural 2D Composite Materials
Abstract: The proposed Phase I Small Business Technology Transition (STTR) program will develop and demonstrate a thermally conductive structural two-dimensional (2D) graphite fiber reinforced hybrid matrix composite material with a through-thickness thermal conductivity of at least 20 W/m∙K. This novel structural prepreg material will be developed through engineering of an optimal fiber/matrix interphase conducive to phonon transport, in combination with P2SI’s newly developed high thermal conductivity hybrid matrix under development for continuous pitch fiber composites. The new engineered interphase, formed in a continuous production process, will be directly applicable to a broad range of continuous pitch fibers, including those of novel surface morphologies, such as P2SI’s carbon nanotube fused pitch fibers and pitch fibers containing graphene nanofin morphologies. BENEFIT: Applications proposed by this STTR program that will benefit most readily from this new technology are space applications, where the multi-functional properties of light weight, high stiffness, high strength, and exceptional thermal performance are all design enabling properties. In addition, high transverse thermal conductivity is extremely important. Light weight aircraft structure will also be a commercial application.

Performance Polymer Solutions Inc.
2711 Lance Drive,
Moraine, OH 45409
(937) 298-3713

PI: David B. Curliss
(937) 298-3713
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0013
Ohio University
Research & Sponsored Programs, Research & Technology Ctr 105
Athens, OH 45701
(740) 593-2857

ID#: F10B-T32-0259
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT32       Awarded: 10/28/2011
Title: Thermally Responsive Energy Storage - Phase Change Materials encapsulated in Carbon Foam
Abstract: The proposed Phase I Small Business Technology Transition (STTR) program will develop and demonstrate a Hybrid Graphitic Foam with tailored surface chemistry for optimal heat transfer characteristics for high heat flux, high thermal energy storage applications. Such a material system, in combination with an infused Phase Change Material (PCM) or Metal Hydride (MH) will exhibit several clear performance advantages for a high transient thermal load and energy storage thermal management device and the impact of this innovation on Air Force requirements for directed energy weapons thermal management is immediate and will have a profound impact on system design, performance, and complexity. BENEFIT: The hybrid graphitic foam high heat flux, high thermal energy density storage materials will provide for a revolutionary class of robust semi-passive thermal management devices for power electronics, RF systems, high power computing, laser systems and other advanced applications that exhibit high transient heat loads.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center,
Andover, MA 01810
(978) 689-0003

PI: David B. Fenner
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-2203
Tufts University
Office of the Vice Provost, 20 Professors Row
Medford, MA 02155
(617) 627-5187

ID#: F10B-T08-0204
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT08       Awarded: 8/4/2011
Title: RF Microplasma for Ozone Generation
Abstract: Ozone generation for decontamination systems has been around for many decades but systems, such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are not suited to field use and the high voltages employed present serious safety problems. RF-driven microplasma devices are a unique technology for low-cost and low-power-voltage plasmas in vacuum and in air up to atmospheric pressure with a number of technological advantages over DBD systems, such as low voltages, continuous (CW) plasma, very low sputter erosion of electrodes, and compact, low-cost components. Physical Sciences Inc.,will team with engineering faculty at Tufts University to demonstrate RF-microplasma array devices operating in ambient air that can be scaled up to efficiently generate ozone at a high rate. Phase I will model an air-flow system, construct a microplasma array, and fully characterize the system and its ozone generation. A design for scaling this system will be developed and in Phase II the system will be fabricated and demonstrate the goal of high efficiency at a generation rate of 500 g/hr. Extensive RF engineering and advanced ozone and gas-phase chemistry diagnostics will be employed as necessary to meet the project goal. BENEFIT: Operator and personnel safety, maintenance intervals and field use will be dramatically improved by the considerable reduction of system voltages over conventional ozone generators. Both size and cost are expected to also be considerably improved over conventional systems. Fabrication from COTS components and small stripline circuits will keep costs low and reliability high. The successful development of an efficient, compact, RF-microplasma system for generating ozone will find application in bio-decontamination and purification useful for field production of potable water, air purification and surface sterilization.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center,
Andover, MA 01810
(978) 689-0003

PI: David R. Scherer
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0043
Massachusetts Institute of Technolo
77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building E19-750
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 258-8017

ID#: F10B-T17-0100
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT17       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Miniature Quantum Gas System based on an Atom Chip with Integrated Optical Micro-Cavity
Abstract: In the proposed work, Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) will team with MIT to develop a chip-based spin-squeezed atomic clock with a fractional frequency stability below the standard quantum limit. This will be accomplished by the development and fabrication of an atom chip that includes an integrated optical micro-cavity for confinement, imaging, and readout of the trapped cold atomic ensemble. The micro-cavity will include a fiber-based light delivery system and have a finesse capable of trapping atoms in the strong confinement regime. The resulting spin squeezing will enable measurements on a Ramsey-type atomic clock operating below the standard quantum limit. In the Phase I program, we will fabricate and characterize the optical micro-cavity and design the atom chip for the clock measurement. In the Phase II program, we will demonstrate a chip-based spin-squeezed atomic clock and measure the clock stability, or Allan deviation, vs. averaging time. BENEFIT: The proposed work will develop an experimental platform that will enable a host of future cold atom sensors: an atom chip with an integrated optical micro-cavity for enhanced light collection and readout. This novel chip trap will serve as an enabling technology for future precision sensors in the fields of geolocation, magnetic and gravity gradient sensing, and timekeeping.

Plasmonics Inc.
12565 Research Parkway, Suite 300
Orlando, FL 32826
(407) 920-4844

PI: David Shelton
(407) 920-4844
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0069
Sandia National Laboratories
1515 Eubank SE,
Albuquerque, NM 87123
(505) 850-8906

ID#: F10B-T30-0190
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT30       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: Infrared Metamaterials for Emission Phase Control
Abstract: Electromagnetically-resonating infrared metamaterial elements may be used to control the phase of emitted radiation across a planar surface. Such a coated surface can be designed to produce a highly directional emitted wavefront from a large aperture high-angular-resolution array. Active angular control may be achieved using electronically-tunable metamaterial elements. Like all phased-array devices, the spectral response of the metamaterial array is inherently narrow band, but electronic tuning can allow the device to operate at wavelengths across the long-wave or mid-wave infrared. A metamaterial-populated surface is a patterned thin-film coating that adds almost no mass to the application. Such a surface may also be made to be environmentally ruggadized. Furthermore, thermally sensitive materials may be incorporated to direct heat away from hot-spots. BENEFIT: Directional control of thermal emission is of interest to the Air Force for space platforms. Further commercial applications include infrared-energy harvesting and related infrared active optical systems. Infrared energy harvesting has many potential applications, and is especially attractive for applications where low power is required and collection of solar energy is not feasible. Due to their light-weight, electronically-controlled active infrared optical systems have a variety of aerospace applications.

Plasmonics Inc.
12565 Research Parkway, Suite 300
Orlando, FL 32826
(407) 920-4844

PI: David Shelton
(407) 920-4844
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1171
University of Central Florida
CREOL, Bld. 53, 4000 Central Florida Blvd
Orlando, FL 32816
(407) 823-6815

ID#: F10B-T35-0085
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT35       Awarded: 4/22/2011
Title: Tunable Fresnel-Zone Lens for Agile Wavefront Control
Abstract: Fresnel-zone lens can meet many of the Air Force's requirements for conformal aperture technology including light- weight, large aperture size, and the ability to conform to a curved surface. However, aberrations limit the effective field- of-view of static Fresnel-zone lens, and the spectral performance is limited to a narrow band. A tunable Fresnel-zone lens with variable-zone-radii will able to image over a wide field-of-view by adjusting defocus to correct for off-axis aberrations and perform a spectral scan from the short-wave through the long-wave infrared. This proposal discusses materials and designs that may be used to create electronically-controlled Fresnel-zone lens without any mechanical parts. BENEFIT: The research and development in this proposal will enable light-weight tunable-optics capable of active-wavefront manipulation through focus control and higher-order compensation. This technology can have a large impact on the aerospace industry by replacing the mechanical gimbals in current systems with solid-state electronically- programmable optics.

Portage Bay Photonics
214 Summit Avenue E, #402, c/o Michael Hochberg
Seattle, WA 98102
(626) 487-7721

PI: MIchael Hochberg
(626) 429-4051
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0041
University of Washington
4333 Brooklyn Ave NE, Box 359472
Seattle, WA 98195
(206) 543-4043

ID#: F10B-T34-0038
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT34       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Integrated High-Complexity Systems in Silicon Photonics
Abstract: We propose to develop and validate (in phase I) detailed designs for highly scaled silicon photonic-electronic chips for applications relevant to the DOD in high-bandwidth data communication. This effort will be closely coordinated with the OPSIS (Optoelectronic Systems Integration in Silicon) project being led at the University of Washington, an effort to create an open foundry process for silicon photonic-electronic integrated circuits and to develop a comprehensive design kit for electronic-photonic integrated circuits (EPICs) in silicon. While that effort is aimed at developing design rules and device libraries in a bottom-up approach, the effort proposed here is a top-down approach, driven by system- level needs for high-speed data links both on-chip and chip-to-chip. We will work to take the models created and extracted based on the OPSIS chips, and use them to model systems where highly-scaled EPIC circuits will provide key advantages for military systems. In particular, we will make use of the recently released software and simulation tools developed in the Bergman Laboratory at Columbia (PhoenixSim - ( in order to develop a comprehensive system modeling framework for the OPSIS EPIC chips, and we will use this framework to model two different types of systems, each of which we expect to benefit significantly from highly scaled optoelectronic integration. The two test systems we intend to investigate in phase I are: (1) A high-bandwidth data communication system aimed at short-reach (<100m) applications, in the 500Gbit-2Tbit/second range , for ultra-high bandwidth data communication in supercomputing and on airborne platforms, aimed at small-fiber count and WDM for high bandwidth density. And (2) an on-chip link at similar bandwidth, aiming for ultimate low energy per bit metrics and direct integration with electronics. In phase II, we will build and test the chips designed in phase I. BENEFIT: We anticipate that as the silicon optical systems for chip-scale and chip-to-chip datacom applications discussed within this proposal become practical, the technology may be licensed directly to defense contractors such as Boeing or BAE Systems or commercialized directly by Portage Bay Photonics. The founders have extremely strong relationships with BAE Systems, Boeing, Intel, Agilent, Tektronix, and several other possible customers, and will work closely with them to define products based on the technology we are developing that will be compelling for the commercial market.

Prime Photonics, LC
1116 South Main Street,
Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 961-2200

PI: John Coggin
(540) 961-2200
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0068
Virginia Tech
310 Durham Hall, CIMSS (0261), Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, VA 24061
(540) 231-0745

ID#: F10B-T22-0279
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT22       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: Hybrid Energy Harvesting Systems
Abstract: Harvesting electrical energy from thermal gradients can be a useful tool for numerous applications from large scale waste heat recovery to small scale self-powered sensors. Increasing the efficiency of traditional bulk thermoelectric generators (TEG) has been the subject of much development for 30-40 years yet efficiency improvements for commercially viable devices have been marginal. The proposed Magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG) not only has the potential for higher energy densities than today’s TEG’s, but is by nature well suited for use in multi-modal energy harvesting from light, thermal, vibration, and magnetic fields. The concept can be used as a thermal backplane for photovoltaics (PV) in order to increase PV conversion efficiency while generating additional power from the thermal gradient. Additionally, since the MTG thermal harvesting mechanism consists of a mechanical oscillator, both thermal and vibration energy can be harvested with the same structure. Finally, by using a novel Galfenol/PZT laminate for mechanical to electrical conversion, both mechanically and magnetically induced strains will be converted into useful electricity. Prime Photonics LC (PPLC) and Virginia Tech (VT) propose a hybrid multimode energy harvester which achieves high efficiency by maximizing the synergy between photovoltaic, magnetostrictive, piezoelectric, and magneto- thermoelectric conversion technologies. BENEFIT: The benefits of this proposed technology are as follows: • High efficiency magneto-electric conversion: The proposed piezoelectric and magneto-electric laminate has a higher power density than a piezoelectric effect alone. • Thermal design: Optimization of thermal performance by minimizing contact resistance and maximizing flux results in substantial improvements to power conversion efficiency. • Magnetic design: Design of the soft magnetic material thru rare-earth doping will achieve high magnetic susceptibilities and appropriate Curie temperatures. • Novel applications: The proposed device high efficiency thermal harvester will not only increase photovoltaic efficiency, but will enable numerous other waste heat and wireless sensor applications.

Princeton Lightwave, Inc.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1,
Cranbury, NJ 08512
(609) 495-2551

PI: Igor Kudryashov
(609) 495-2600
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0040
University of Virginia
351 McCormick Road, PO Box 400743
Charlottesville, VA 22904
(434) 924-7770

ID#: F10B-T20-0278
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT20       Awarded: 6/1/2011
Title: MWIR lasers using Type II quantum well active regions on InP substrates
Abstract: We propose to develop modeling and initial concept feasibility demonstration for MWIR lasers that span the 2.4-4 um wavelength span. The laser active region design is based on a novel quantum well design that is grown on InP substrates. The laser will leverage our team's recent advances and demonstrations in quantum well design be use Princeton Lightwave's laser fabrication platform. During Phase I we will perform detailed electro-optic and quantum phenomena modeling with experimental feasibility demonstration of the concept. BENEFIT: There is a need for solid state lasers that can cover the 2.4-4 um spectral range for applications such as free space optical communications (deep-space Earth based communications), molecular spectroscopy (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy), and infra-red countermeasures for military and commercial air-platform protection.

Propagation Research Associates
1275 Kennestone Circle, Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
(678) 384-3401

PI: E. Jeff Holder
(678) 384-3402
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1168
Georgia Tech Research Institute
505 Tenth Street NW,
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 385-6705

ID#: F10B-T29-0146
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT29       Awarded: 4/27/2011
Title: The Holographic Sidelobe Canceller: Holographic Radar Processing for Interference Mitigation
Abstract: Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) and the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) are teamed to propose an innovative holographic receiver and processing technology for enhanced radar electronic protection. PRA/GTRI will investigate applying holographic processing to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Electronically Scanned Arrays (ESAs) in order to mitigate interference such as radio frequency interference (RFI) and electronic attack (EA) from noise jamming. The PRA/GTRI holographic receiver will provide enhanced dynamic range by compressing the target signal in the analog domain and, using nearly orthogonal channels that isolate the interference from the signal by implementing a holographic sidelobe cancelling algorithm. This Holographic Sidelobe Canceller (HSLC) has the advantages of (1) increasing the dynamic range of the receiver, (2) providing electronic protection (EP) against broadband noise jammers and RFI, and (3) operating recursively to adapt to changes in the interference environment. The PRA/GTRI team proposes to implement HSLC algorithms into a SAR simulation and demonstrate interference mitigation for SAR image construction and will apply HSLC algorithms to ESA architectures to demonstrate the electronic protection potential of holographic processing in a jamming environment. Finally, PRA will develop a detailed hardware design for a HSLC that can be implemented in a Phase II demonstration. BENEFIT: The PRA Holographic Sidelobe Canceller represents a paradigm shift in space-time adaptive signal processing where the target signal is holographically amplified in the amplitude channel in order to develop an adaptive sidelobe canceller using the outputs from two holographic receiver channels. This holographic approach avoids time averaging covariance statistics as in determining the array covariance matrix in a General Sidelobe Canceller (GLC). Significant time averaging will not account for highly dynamic interference environments and may be prohibitive in certain SAR applications due to the moving radar platform. On the other hand, the proposed PRA Holographic Sidelobe Canceller can cancel interference on a pulse-by-pulse or dwell-by-dwell basis and can readily adapt to changing interference dynamics. In addition, a Generalized Sidelobe Canceller can be used on the output of the holographic receiver where the receiver is creating two orthogonal channels for the GLC. In that sense, the holographic receiver can improve the performance of existing STAP and GLC techniques.

RNET Technologies, Inc.
240 W. Elmwood Dr., Suite 2010
Dayton, OH 45459
(937) 433-2886

PI: Gerald Sabin
(937) 433-2886
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0028
The Ohio State University
Office of Sponsored Programs, 1960 Kenny Road
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 292-5277

ID#: F10B-T13-0292
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT13       Awarded: 12/1/2011
Title: Highly-Scalable Computational-Based Engineering Algorithms for Emerging Parallel Machine Architectures
Abstract: RNET and The Ohio State University propose to use algorithmic modifications and multi-level parallelization techniques and tools to improve the scalability of the CFD/CSD codes relevant to the DoD/AF (e.g., CREATE/Kestrel). The linear system solver is expected to be a primary bottleneck in aero-line/aero-elastic CFD and CSD codes. RNET and its subcontractors will explore effective parallel linear solvers targeted at multi-core nodes and scaling to 10's of thousands of compute cores across a multi-tiered compute architecture. Specifically, in Phase I, the performance and scalability of using the proposed algorithmic improvements and parallelization tools will be demonstrated on existing codes; e.g., NASTRAN and NASA's USM3d. In Phase I, the primary goal will be to evaluate the performance of existing linear solvers (e.g., PETSc) and to explore high performance implementation of the most suitable linear solver(s). Ultimately, in Phase II, a highly-scalable version of the linear solver will be developed and integrated into the tools used in the Kestrel toolkit. BENEFIT: The scalability advancements will help allow the CREATE/Kestrel project to efficiently reach its goals of providing rapid aeronautic simulations to early phase design and acquisition projects. The scalability improvements will enable the effective usage of the DoD HPC modernization systems for the Kestrel users, allowing large scale

Scientific Simulations LLC
1582 Inca,
Laramie, WY 82072
(307) 399-8717

PI: Dimitri Mavriplis
(307) 399-8717
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0077
Univesity of Wyoming
Research Office, Dept 3355, 1000 E. University Ave
Laramie, WY 82071
(307) 766-5320

ID#: F10B-T13-0231
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT13       Awarded: 9/30/2011
Title: Highly-Scalable Computational-Based Engineering Algorithms for Emerging Parallel Machine Architectures
Abstract: In order to significantly advance the fidelity and capability of current computational engineering tools, algorithms, techniques, and software which map effectively to emerging massively parallel hardware architectures must be developed. The objective of this project is to investigate and demonstrate specific techniques for enhancing the scalability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), computational structural dynamics (CSD), and coupled CFD/CSD aeroelastic simulation tools. These include improved strategies for large-scale parallel partitioning, novel techniques for extracting additional parallelism from the time dimension for time dependent problems, and a flexible software development strategy that enables hybrid programming models, encapsulation of hardware specific tasks, and simple reconfiguration as new parallel architectures evolve. In addition to enhancing the scalability of individual engineering simulation disciplines such as CFD and CSD, novel approaches for ensuring optimal scalability of the fully coupled problem will also be considered. In this Phase 1 project, we propose to demonstrate the key techniques for achieving increased scalability of standalone and coupled CFD/CSD simulations on diverse HPC hardware configurations. The basic concepts will be demonstrated in Phase 1 with the plan to fully implement these techniques in production level software in the follow-on Phase 2 project. BENEFIT: Although the ability to run effectively on massively parallel architectures as typified by large government installations is not currently an important consideration for most aerodynamic engineering departments, the explosive growth of parallelism means that even low and mid-range future computer hardware installations will contain many more cores than is currently the case. This project aims to meet this demand head on as it develops over the next few years and to build, in the process, a suite of highly scalable and flexible simulation tools which will enable commercial and government users to take full advantage of emerging hardware capabilities. At the same time, this project will result in the development of a high fidelity coupled aeroelastic simulation tool for use in the fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft communities. Finally, adoption of specific isolated software components developed within this project will be facilitated by conforming to a set of well defined software interfaces used within current DoD programs.

Semerane Inc.
202 E. Border Street, Suite 149
Arlington, TX 76010
(817) 301-4640

PI: Hongjun Yang
(817) 714-9368
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0037
University of Wisconsin-Madison
21 N. Park Street, Suite 6401
Madison, WI 53715
(608) 262-3822

ID#: F10B-T14-0022
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT14       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Multi-Color Nanomembrane Imaging Sensor Arrays
Abstract: The simultaneous sensing of light of multiple wavelengths can enhance the survivability, sustainability, and versatility by enabling unmanned reconnaissance and intelligent surveillance for both DoD and homeland security. The objective of this STTR Phase I proposal is to investigate the feasibility of a new type of multi-color/band nanomembrane imaging sensor array system, based on vertically integrated crystalline semiconductor nanomembrane photodetectors and nanomembrane electronics. Such imaging system can have high resolution and high speed, with lightweight and long term reliability. The system can be integrated on both rigid and flexible substrate, for conformal and wearable imaging systems, with a much simplified material integration and assembly processes. In this program, Semerane Inc. will work closely with University of Wisconsin-Madison and University of Texas at Arlington, on low-temperature nanomembrane integration technology and new device configurations, based on its earlier work in nanomembrane electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics. It is expected that the successful development of the conformal, lightweight, and multi- color imaging system through this STTR project will generate significant impact on the military and commercial imaging, sensing, and communication applications. BENEFIT: The mission of Semerane Inc. is to commercialize the semiconductor nanomembrane technology for the commercial realizations of high performance, low-cost photonic and electronic components and intelligent system integration. The successful development of a practical multi-color imager system can offer a wide range of applications in the areas of hyper-spectral imaging (combat identification and target recognition), gas sensing (chem-bio detection and spectrometer-on-a-chip), as well as information processing (WDM-on-a-chip), etc. The processes developed here would lead to an even broader area of applications, including high capacity, low cost data network, optical computing, flexible displays, solid-state lighting, energy harvest (multi-junction tandem photovoltaic cells), infrared night vision, image and gas sensing for medical, biological, environmental, military, and home land security applications.

10211 Pacific Mesa Blvd., Suite 408,
San Diego, CA 92121
(858) 625-4458

PI: Anthony Starr
(858) 625-4458
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0079
Duke University
Office of Research Support, 2200West Main St., Suite 710
Durham, NC 27710
(919) 681-5132

ID#: F10B-T30-0139
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT30       Awarded: 9/30/2011
Title: Directionally-Tailored Infrared Emission and/or Transmission
Abstract: It is proposed to develop an innovative structured class of devices with directive emission and transmission that utilize metamaterial concepts. The proposed structures will be thin films with electromagnetic responses that can be systematically manipulated in the infrared region to enable directionally tailored emissivity and transmissivity. The team has demonstrated nearly perfect absorbers in the IR range. The technology is compatible with existing commercial large area fabrication. BENEFIT: The proposed effort will enable fabrication of large area, light weight devices with directionally tailored emission and transmission. Such devices can be used for a range of IR applications, both civilian and military including thermal management, imaging applications, and others.

13619 Valley Oak Circle,
(301) 315-2322

PI: Chiman Kwan
(240) 505-2641
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0062
University of Texas at Arlington
416 Yates St., Room 518,
Arlington, TX 76019
(817) 272-1339

ID#: F10B-T10-0150
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT10       Awarded: 7/15/2011
Title: A Novel, Flexible, and Comprehensive System for Mission Prioritized Lossless Data Compression
Abstract: The test and evaluation (T&E) mission in complex test facilities results in large amounts of data. Moreover, the data may have different characteristics, including images from particle image velocimetry data, air flow data, etc. Finally, some of the data may come from a network of similar sensors. We propose a novel, flexible, and comprehensive system for mission prioritized lossless data compression. First, we propose to apply our latest compressed sensing (CS) algorithm known as singular value decomposition-QR (SVD-QR) to jointly compress sensor data in a sensor network. We have successfully applied SVD-QR to actual radar sensor network data with 30 sensors from the Air Force and achieved a compression ratio of 192 without loss of information. Second, we propose a high performance CS algorithm that can efficiently compress sensor data that can be modeled as auto-regressive hidden Markov model (AR-HMM). Acoustic and radio frequency (RF) signals can be characterized by AR-HMM. Third, for isolated sensors such as particle image velocimetry and other pressure and force sensors, we propose to apply a new algorithm called CS-SVD (compressed sensing - singular value decomposition) to perform the compression. All of our algorithms have parameters that allow users to choose for different mission priorities. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will be useful for large data compression in test facilities such as military bases and NASA. Other applications include data compression for sensor networks, image compression for surveillance and reconnaissance operations, and also compression for commercial camcorder and digital cameras. We envision the market for the system developed will be 50 million dollars over the next decade.

SoftKrypt, LLC
2581 Park Country Drive,
Prescott, AZ 86305
(310) 993-5211

PI: Jon C. Haass
(650) 867-5407
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0141
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Universit
3200 N. Willow Creek Road,
Prescott, AZ 86301
(386) 226-7037

ID#: F10B-T18-0309
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT18       Awarded: 4/22/2011
Title: Securing Applications by Limiting Exposure
Abstract: This STTR Phase I project addresses exploit attempts being mounted against applications code and modules with vulnerabilities that need to be protected. The team's strategy is to “blacken” or isolate applications and the inter, and intra communications paths between them and the lnternet using innovative algorithms developed by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU). We plan to prove these algorithms work, scale and have utility during our Phase I effort by mounting a series of selective experiments. We will validate the potential of our Phase l concept by conducting experiments aimed at demonstrating scalability and utility of our blackening approach in a realistic operational setting. We will develop a requirements and architecture specification for a prototype toolset that will be used to automate the algorithms based on the results of an automation study that we will also conduct during Phase l. We will develop and use this toolset during Phase ll to prove the worth of our approach on a pilot project. Finally, we will also conduct a market survey to scope the commercialization potential of products and services we envision can be marketed once the concept is proven. BENEFIT: New class of protection of digital assets against cyber threats that can apply to data, application modules, and systems incorporating software applications providing flexible control in operational use against tampering, piracy, duplication or subversion.

Solid State Scientific Corporation
27-2 Wright Road,
Hollis, NH 03049
(603) 598-1194

PI: Buguo Wang
(603) 598-1194
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1166
University Massachusetts Lowell
University Massachusetts Lowel, 1 University Avenue
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 934-2969

ID#: F10B-T28-0189
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT28       Awarded: 4/28/2011
Title: Low-cost, low-defect Solvothermal growth of large diameter Gallium Nitride substrates
Abstract: Availability of high quality, large area gallium nitride (GaN) single crystal substrates is one of the most outstanding issues for III-V nitride materials. Today's GaN device processes typically employ HVPE grown on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates, requiring elaborate buffer layers and deposition techniques to overcome lattice mismatch and dislocation densities up to 109/cm2. Kilowatt-level output power devices and advanced UV Lasers and Detectors will require true-bulk single-crystal GaN substrates for low-defect, reliable device structures. Solid State Scientific Corporation has developed a novel solvothermal crystal growth system for high quality GaN. Our process leverages past experience developing ultra-low-cost single-crystal quartz, and has already demonstrated 1 cm bulk GaN wafers with dislocation densities below 106/cm2. In cooperation with University of Massachusetts Lowell, Phase I will model the temperature profile, fluid-flow, and wall stress of our growth apparatus. That information will be leveraged to design and build a larger apparatus. In Phase II, our model will drive the new apparatus design and generate low-defect, large GaN wafers. In Phase III we will partner with a commercial manufacturer to provide custom, device-ready, epitaxial structures on low-defect ammono-thermal GaN substrates for high-power RF components and optoelectronic devices. BENEFIT: Successful scaling of an efficient apparatus to grow low-defect-density gallium nitride (GaN) requires a firm understanding of fluid flow, temperature, and material concentration fields. Such knowledge is best obtained through a program of a sophisticated numerical simulation of the transport phenomena occurring within the growth chamber, interactively coupled with detailed experimental efforts. This Phase I effort will include equilibrium simulation and experimental verification in order to design a scaled-up crystal growth chamber and process, which will duplicate and improve-upon excellent results already achieved in our smaller chambers. Scale-up of our growth chambers has two major advantages. First is the obvious increase in wafer size for more

Soraa, Inc.
485 Pine Ave,
Goleta, CA 93117
(805) 696-6999

PI: Mark P. D'Evelyn
(805) 683-1800
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1164
University of Akron
302 Buchtel Common,
Akron, OH 44325
(330) 972-6764

ID#: F10B-T28-0061
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT28       Awarded: 4/18/2011
Title: Solvothermal growth of low-defect-density gallium nitride substrates
Abstract: We propose to develop cost and growth-rate models quantifying the capability for Soraa's proprietary SCoRA ammonothermal reactor and associated procedures to produce bulk GaN with low threading dislocation defect concentrations. The new apparatus and methods will enable major improvements in the growth of ultralow defect bulk GaN crystals in high volumes and modest costs. BENEFIT: Foundational substrate technology for next-generation high-power electronics, ultraviolet detectors, laser diodes, and light-emitting diodes.

Southwest Sciences, Inc.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11,
Santa Fe, NM 87505
(505) 984-1322

PI: David C Hovde
(513) 272-1323
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0095
Princeton University
Fourth Floor, New South Bldg, PO Box 36
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-6325

ID#: F10B-T07-0088
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT07       Awarded: 9/11/2011
Title: Nonintrusive Diagnostics for Off-Body Measurements in Flight Experiments
Abstract: Developing the quick strike capability of the Air Force requires hypersonic testing using advanced instrumentation to determine key aerodynamic parameters. A novel method for stand-off measurement of gas velocity is proposed. The method should operate over a wide dynamic range, from still air to hypersonic velocities. The method is non-contacting, precise, and spatially-resolved. It does not require seeding the gas, so it is appropriate for large scale wind tunnel measurements and test flights. The Phase I research will (1) demonstrate that the method can be used even in thermal plasmas; (2) identifiy the best components for operating from a hypesonic test platform such as HIFiRE, and (3) determine the size, weight, power and performance characteristics expected for a fully-engineered system. The Phase II research would lead to a prototype system for measurements in wind tunnels or in test flights. BENEFIT: A successful Phase I and Phase II program will lead to specialized test instrumentation for wind tunnels and flight tests. The instrument will be capable of measuring gas flow velocity with high accuracy and precision. The same instrument could be used over a wide range of facilities, including sonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic wind tunnels as well as flight tests on aircraft and rockets.

Spectral Sciences, Inc.
4 Fourth Avenue,
Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 273-4770

PI: Jason Quenneville
(781) 273-4770
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0030
University of California, Davis
Department of Chemistry, One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA 95616
(530) 752-7778

ID#: F10B-T21-0032
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT21       Awarded: 11/30/2011
Title: Theoretical Models of Quantum Conductance on Graphical Processing Units
Abstract: Due to the costs associated with their fabrication, theoretical prediction of conductance in molecular and nano- electronic systems is a cost-effective tool in the design of new devices. Unfortunately, the techniques currently used to treating conductance are computationally expensive, and modeling real systems accurately has been a challenge. We propose to tackle this problem by developing new and more effective algorithms and exploring new computer architectures. Research at UC-Davis has yielded a technique (Tunneling Current, TC, theory) for efficient calculation of conductance in complex molecules and nano-structures. In addition, PetaChem, LLC now maintains quantum chemistry code (TeraChem) designed for graphical processing units (GPUs) that calculates electronic structure in systems as large as 2000 atoms using DFT. Our Phase I effort will focus on combining these two advances to improve the reliability of theoretical modeling for nano-electronic devices. Specifically, TC theory will be tested for its accuracy in modeling conductance in metal-molecule-metal junctions, and results will be compared to those from RT-TDDFT. Algorithms suitable for GPU implementation of TC theory will then be derived. Our Phase II product will be computer software that allows both TC and RT-TDDFT calculations and executes on GPU platforms. BENEFIT: The product of the proposed STTR effort, after Phase II, is a computer software module that would allow for the efficient and accurate prediction of the linear and non-linear optical response of materials. The software, which will be designed to run on graphical processing units, will permit efficient, thousand-atom simulations using the high-level real-time TDDFT method and periodic boundary conditions. These simulations will be 2-3 times faster and 10 times bigger than those performed by current software on standard CPU platforms. The Phase I proof-of-principle demonstration will consist of a test of full-response function, real-time (RT) TDDFT for its applicability to Air Force problems and the derivation of the mathematical algorithms for RT-TDDFT with periodic boundary conditions. This new simulation software will enable modeling of the complex interaction of light and matter in photovoltaic materials and non-linear optical devices, as well the UV/Vis absorption spectra of chemical and biological agents, explosives for better detection techniques.

Structured Materials Industries
201 Circle Drive North, Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
(732) 302-9274

PI: Bruce I. Willner
(732) 302-9274
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0055
Cornell University
373 Pine Tree Road,
Ithaca, NY 14850
(607) 255-7877

ID#: F10B-T34-0297
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT34       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: CMOS-Compatible Silicon Integrated Photonics-based WDM Node
Abstract: Structured Materials Industries, Inc. and the Cornell Nanophotonics Group propose to develop a compact, low-power WDM module for fiber optic networks which combines integrated photonics and CMOS electronics on one substrate. The WDM module will use demonstrated, innovative, very compact, and low power silicon photonic ring resonator structures for multiplexing and add-drop functionality. These electrically-controlled ring resonator-based devices provide subnanosecond switching speeds for network reconfigurations. The silicon photonic devices are very small, on the order of 20 µm X 20 µm, allowing the integration of many devices on a single chip, and like silicon integrated circuits, the fabricated chips are rugged and easily packaged. This technology takes advantage of existing, well established silicon fabrication and processing technologies which assures high quality, scalable production. SMI and Cornell have experience developing and demonstrating this silicon-based integrated photonics platform featuring gigahertz switching and low loss waveguides and efficient coupling between fibers and integrated photonic waveguides to control assembly cost and assure reliable connectivity. BENEFIT: In addition to the application as a WDM module, this basic technology will aid in the development of integrated photonics. Other applications for this technology include high-speed inter-chip optical buses for computing and additional fiber optic communication components. Integrated photonics devices will allow new devices for processing data in high bandwidth applications including remote sensing and arrayed radars, and communications.

Superconductor Technologies Inc.
460 Ward Drive,
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
(805) 690-4539

PI: Brian Moeckly
(805) 690-4950
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0065
UC San Diego
Office of Contract & Grant Adm, 9500 Gilman Ave Mail Code 0934
La Jolla, CA 92093
(858) 534-0247

ID#: F10B-T40-0110
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT40       Awarded: 7/15/2011
Title: High Transition Temperature SQUID Arrays for HF Direction Finding
Abstract: Superconductor Technologies Inc. (STI) in collaboration with the laboratories of Professor R. C. Dynes at UC San Diego and UC Berkeley, propose to thoroughly explore using arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) for high frequency (HF) direction finding (DF) signals intelligence (SIGINT). The primary focus of our research program will be on the development of the superconducting components, namely the SQUID array and receive antenna. SQUID arrays and a test coil will be built using STI superconducting materials. In parallel, we will perform the other necessary studies for the development of a prototype system such as evaluating the noise performance of a SQUID array operating on a STI cryocooler and testing of high speed SQUID read-out electronics. We believe that the results of these experiments will enable a much improved DF technology for a possible phase II prototype unit. BENEFIT: We anticipate a significant number of benefits from this research. Those directly related to a DF system include: * Reduced antenna size for mobile platforms and stealth aircraft * Larger dynamic range to enhance detectibly of small signals in the presence of large interferences In addition, our work on Josephson junctions may benefit other prospective active superconducting devices such as Josephson waveform generators for RADAR or Josephson terahertz oscillators. Furthermore, coils fabricated from high-Tc coated conductors may benefit sensitive bio-magnetic medical imaging such as magneto-cardiogram (MCG).

Systems Technology, Inc.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.,
Hawthorne, CA 90250
(310) 679-2281

PI: Brian Danowsky
(310) 679-2281
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0085
Stanford University
Building 04540, 496 Lomita Mall
Stanford, CA 94305
(650) 723-3840

ID#: F10B-T16-0073
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT16       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Toward a Virtual Flight Test Capability
Abstract: Advanced computational methods and increased computing power have brought about a new age of modeling and simulation capability for full aircraft configurations. These advances have provided the potential ability to conduct accurate computational analysis representative of experimental flight testing, reducing both risk and cost. A unified toolset to conduct a complete end-to-end virtual flight test is proposed by Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) and Stanford University. The proposed virtual flight test suite is multi-disciplinary, combining several high-fidelity computational analyses such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), computational structural dynamics (CSD), active flight control systems (FCS), propulsion modeling, ground handling modeling, multi-body modeling, acoustics modeling and parachute modeling. Current capability developed by Stanford and STI provides combined CFD/CSD/FCS for a full aircraft configuration. Capability has also been demonstrated for other proposed analyses approaches in standalone operation. To achieve the ultimate goal of a complete virtual flight test suite, the Phase I goals include refinement of the combined CFD/CSD/FCS technology, requirements identification for integrated operation of the components, definition of procedures and data for validation of accuracy, and development of the architectural framework for successful integrated operation of the virtual flight test suite. BENEFIT: The proposed virtual flight test suite will be a valuable asset for the many U.S. government programs that involve the design, analysis, and test of full aircraft configurations. This program will lead to a validated software tool for a complete end-to-end virtual flight test involving all essential components. Both transports and high performance aircraft will go through analysis, ground loads testing, and flight testing to ensure safe operations. The tools developed for this program will provide a means to accurately analyze, predict and identify the effect of aeroservoelastic, flight control system, propulsion, parachute, acoustic, ground loads and multi-body interaction for these programs. Furthermore, the methodologies will save analysis and design time via efficient reduced order modeling techniques. Both STI and Stanford have long standing relationships with numerous manufacturers of commercial and military aircraft as well as suppliers to these manufacturers. This places STI and Stanford in a unique position to market the developed tools directly to potential industry end users. The resulting methodologies and software can be used for

Tau Technologies LLC
PO Box 9334,
Albuquerque, NM 87119
(505) 244-1222

PI: Robert Ritter
(505) 244-1222
Contract #: FA9451-11-M-0045
University of Missouri
Dept. of Aero & Mech Engrg, University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211
(573) 882-8159

ID#: F10B-T33-0069
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT33       Awarded: 4/13/2011
Title: Synthetic Scenery for Tracking System Evaluation
Abstract: Recent Airborne Tactical Laser (ATL) field testing demonstrated that high-energy laser (HEL)-induced obscurants could break the tracking systems lock on the aimpoint, negating the HEL attack. When an HEL engages a target surface, particles may be emitted from the surface that obscure the target, change the optical signature, and attenuate the beam on target due to scatter and absorption. State-of-the-art HEL simulations in use today do not include the effects of these obscurants in the synthetic scene generation, and therefore tracking algorithms cannot currently be tested against simulated scenes with these harmful artifacts. This makes designing track algorithms with modeling and simulation (M&S) tools ineffective, since the tools do not sufficiently challenge the track algorithms. We need a synthetic scene (in this case, ground vehicles with terrain and other backgrounds) with targets that emit a plume of particles when irradiated by an HEL. This plume must have the correct optical properties, such that the target signatures (including actively illuminated, HEL-band, and passive) are realistic. BENEFIT: The Phase I will result in delivering a technical report and code module that determine the feasibility of this approach to simulating synthetic scenery with HEL induced damage.

Technology Service Corporation
3415 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 800
Los Angeles, CA 90034
(703) 251-6419

PI: Fernando Gianella
(203) 601-8328
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1167
Space Dynamics Laboratory
1695 North Research Park Way,
North Logan 8434, UT 84341
(435) 797-4684

ID#: F10B-T29-0008
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT29       Awarded: 4/20/2011
Title: Holographic Radar Signal Processing
Abstract: In Phase I, TSC and SDL will develop holographic circular SAR (CSAR) processing algorithms that allow a scene to be viewed in three dimensions over 360 degrees in azimuth and with a large elevation angle extent. Our approach is to coherently combine a set of CSAR images collected with different grazing angles to provide vertical resolution using a DTED database as a reference. This holographic SAR imaging will provide target height estimates and additional features for target identification, and will greatly improve the positional accuracy of targets, buildings and terrain. Initial testing of the algorithms will be done using the Gotcha 2006 multiple-orbit data collection. Holographic SAR imaging will eliminate the problematic feature overlay between multiple objects by resolving scatterers in the third dimension. Thus holographic SAR should greatly enhance the Air Force’s ISR capabilities. In Phase II the holographic CSAR algorithms will be fully developed and tested. Also, both L and X-band CSAR data will be collected using the SDL NuSAR radar to demonstrate the performance of the holographic SAR at both low and high radar frequencies. The NuSAR will allow data collection alternatives such as stacked circles, concentric circles, spirals and helical flight paths to be tested. BENEFIT: Holographic CSAR will provide a significantly better target and terrain feature identification capability than a linear flight path SAR, as the target will be viewed over 360 degrees in azimuth and there will be no shadowed areas. Holographic CSAR will also be superior to a single-orbit CSAR, even one using elevation interferometry (i.e. IFSAR) to estimate the target height, because standard IFSAR does not resolve multiple scatterers in height; it merely locates the scatterers in three dimensions. If two scatterers that are displaced in height are not resolved, then the height estimate and horizontal positions of both scatterers will be incorrect in the IFSAR image. In contrast, a true holographic SAR imaging not only provides accurate height estimates for each pixel, it resolves the multiple scatterers displaced in height. It also places the scatterers at the correct geographic location in the image.

Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Ave, Suite A,
Boulder, CO 80303
(720) 974-1856

PI: Cory Ahrens
(303) 996-2027
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0042
University of Colorado
3100 Marine Street, Campus Box: 572 UCB,Room: ARCE
Boulder, CO 80309
(303) 492-2695

ID#: F10B-T36-0122
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT36       Awarded: 6/1/2011
Title: Novel Signal Processing Techniques for Ballistic Coefficient Prediction
Abstract: Tracking of objects orbiting the Earth is of critical importance for continued safe development and use of space. Particularly important are low Earth orbit (LEO) objects, since these make up the majority of objects in the space catalog. To track these LEO objects, accurate models of the dominant forces are needed. Besides gravity, the dominant force on LEO objects is atmospheric drag and inaccuracies in modeling it are the leading cause of error in orbital prediction. Thus, to improve prediction of orbits for critical missions such as, for example, re-entry and collision avoidance new algorithms are needed to analyze and predict atmospheric drag. Recent advances in modeling atmospheric density have reduced orbital error, but still leave room to improve the calculation by modeling the ballistic coefficient. In this project we propose to develop novel time series analysis algorithms for the analysis and prediction of ballistic coefficient data. The algorithms will be based on recent advances in computational harmonic analysis. These advances allow some types of data to be efficiently represented as the sum of a proper rational function and a sparse trigonometric polynomial. The proper rational function captures sudden changes in the data, while the trigonometric polynomial captures oscillatory behavior. Because these new methods are nonlinear in nature, they are very efficient in representing data, with relatively few parameters. Moreover, they have superior time resolution properties, when compared with wavelet techniques. During Phase I of this project, we will further develop these novel algorithms and specialize them to the problem of analyzing and prediction ballistic coefficient data. To validate the algorithms, we will analyze historical ballistic coefficient data. During Phase II of this project, we will, working closely with Air Force personnel, further develop the algorithms and begin developing software to be integrated into orbital calculations. BENEFIT: Accurate orbital prediction is critical to cataloging artificial objects in space. Of particular interest are low-Earth-orbit

ThermoDynamic Films
7224 General Kearny Ct. NE,
Albuquerque, NM 87109
(505) 363-0990

PI: Richard Epstein
(505) 310-1224
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0093
University of New Mexico
UNM Business Center, 1700 Lomas Blvd. NE, Suite 310
Albuquerque, NM 87131
(505) 277-5111

ID#: F10B-T02-0172
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT02       Awarded: 9/26/2011
Title: Optical Refrigeration for Dramatically Improved Cryogenic Technology
Abstract: The demonstration of 155 Kelvin refrigeration by optical cooling performed by the co-PIs of this proposal is a first step toward revolutionizing Air Force cryogenic systems. The stated focus of this STTR solicitation is “developing the concepts of a solid-state optical cryocooler that can approach 100 K with a cooling power exceeding 200 mW.” To achieve this performance, a crucial proposed task will examine the scaling behavior of our ytterbium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride crystals (Yb:YLF) optical cryocooling crystals, establishing the optical and thermal design configurations necessary for the lowest achievable temperature and the highest cooling power. Another task will develop low mass and low jitter prototype designs based on two optical pumping configurations. At least one of these configurations can be scaled to a microscale design, offering significant spot cooling capability in a lightweight format. Thermal jitter and drift will be modeled by including optical monitoring and feedback control into the system design. Finally, a task addressing efficiency improvements through the incorporation of narrowband photovoltaic elements is included. Our initial modeling shows that this approach allows the total optoelectronic efficiency to approach the Carnot limit. BENEFIT: The development of lightweight, cryogen-free, and efficient cryocoolers will have significant benefits to both DoD and commercial customers. By eliminating weight and logistical requirements, the DoD will be able to expand the use of cryogenic systems down to the individual soldier, vastly increasing the market. Commercial use includes reducing the cost of high performance IR electro-optical systems, vastly expanding the market for high performance systems.

Toyon Research Corp.
6800 Cortona Drive,
Goleta, CA 93117
(805) 968-6787

PI: Fritz H. Obermeyer
(805) 968-6787
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-1163
The Pennsylvania State University
101 Hammond Building,
Philadelphia, PA 16802
(814) 865-3272

ID#: F10B-T15-0232
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT15       Awarded: 4/29/2011
Title: Saliency Annotation of Image and Video Data
Abstract: With the current flood of surveillance data available to ISR analysts, human attention has become the most valuable resource to ISR systems. Although automated tracking and labeling algorithms are now capable of automatically identifying and roughly classifying targets, the current rate of false alarms and irrelevant annotations makes existing technology unsuitable for wide-area persistent surveillance applications, where analysts are overwhelmed by irrelevant data. What is needed is a system that incorporates a user-trainable relevance/saliency classification algorithm with the best available tracking algorithms to achieve very low clutter rates even in urban environments. Toyon Research Corporation and Penn State Professors David Miller and George Kesidis propose to address this need through a prototype system for automated saliency annotation, incorporating recent results in active learning of semisupervised mixture models, and automated feature extraction from video data with reconstructed 3D models. The proposed system combines the extremely low clutter rates of Toyon’s 3D clutter suppression algorithm, with high-accuracy classification methods using fine-grained mixture models developed by Professors Miller and Kesidis. BENEFIT: The capability generated by the proposed system will be crucial to Air Force ISR systems that rely on real-time processing and mining of wide-area persistent surveillance (WAPS) data, by dramatically increasing the effective surveillance region size per operator. The technology also reduces potential tactical cost in the consequences associated with misidentifying critical targets (either missing terrorist activity, or incorrectly targeting innocent civilians). Active learning has the potential both to greatly reduce the amount of labeling analysts need to do to achieve accurate automated classification/saliency determinations and, by achieving accurate classification, to reduce the risk of adverse tactical consequences. Additionally, the technology has many non-military applications, including manufacturing, construction, security, and automobile traffic monitoring, where the rarity of salient events limits the effectiveness of existing wide-area video systems from being effective, due to shortage of human resources.

655 Phoenix Drive,
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
(734) 528-6333

PI: Philippe Bado
(734) 528-6330
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0047
University of Maryland
1103 Toll Building,
College Park, MD 20742
(301) 405-5954

ID#: F10B-T17-0062
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT17       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Fused silica ion trap chip with efficient optical collection system for timekeeping, sensing, and emulation
Abstract: The goal of this program is to develop an atom chip with a dual integrated and miniaturized optical and electromagnetic capability. We intend to develop a compact atom-chip-based system capable of producing and optically controlling and monitoring ultracold atoms with substantial reduction in complexity, size, weight and power consumption over the present state of the art. As part of this program we will also demonstrate the viability of our rapid-turn-around, and inexpensive fused silica micromachining system for producing standard and custom atom chips for the research and defense communities The combination of a microtrap with integrated and miniaturized optical interface features will facilitate the use of atom traps in many applications: It should provide a path to fabricate a single-atom atomic clock that would provide extreme accuracy in a small package. The fast readout mechanism would be based on efficiently capturing the fluorescence from the single atom through optics written in the fused silica body of the chip. This would represent a major advance for metrology. BENEFIT: Cold atomic gases are finding increasing utility in sensing of inertial forces, and magnetic fields, as well as in metrology. Devices and systems based on cold atoms have demonstrated orders of magnitude sensitivity improvement, for example, in measurements of local gravity. Similarly, for comparable geometries, atom gyroscopes have orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than their laser and fiber gyroscope counterparts. In addition, our proposed integration of optics with a chip trap has the potential to critically transform the use of ion traps for the collection of atomic fluorescence for motion/force sensors through Doppler velocimetry and the efficient collection of single photons from trapped ions for applications in fast single photon sources, quantum repeater circuitry, and high fidelity remote entanglement of atoms for quantum information protocols Thus, while the markets for atom chips are limited today to a few premier research groups, we expect they will grow very substantially in the future, as undoubtedly atom chips will find their way into broad commercial arenas (as well as Air Force interest).

12173 Montague Street,
Pacoima, CA 91331
(818) 899-0236

PI: Timothy R. Stewart
(818) 899-0236
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0008
SRI International
333 Ravenswood Avenue,
Menlo Park, CA 94025
(650) 859-4367

ID#: F10B-T27-0178
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT27       Awarded: 11/17/2011
Title: Hybrid Composite Porous Structural Insulators
Abstract: Future Air Force as well as other DoD and NASA missions require structural composites capable of enduring peak hot surface temperatures of 3000°F or higher while providing cold face temperatures of 600°F or lower to prevent damage to underlying structures and components. Potential missions that would benefit from or be enabled by materials and structures with such capability include reentry, space access, and hypersonic vehicles including high-Mach missiles. Such capabilities are potentially achievable using lightweight hybrid composites that offer high specific strength and stiffness in combination with load-bearing insulating structures comprising low-density materials with multiple scales of porosity to achieve targeted thermal and mechanical properties. To address these requirements, Ultramet has integrated a world-class team of partners that brings all requisite skills and experience needed to design, analyze, and develop an innovative class of materials comprising hybrid ceramic-polymer matrix composite facesheets, to meet operating environment demands, and low-density porous insulating structures with controlled, hierarchical porosity to provide underlying structure and the needed temperature drop in a volume- and weight-efficient package. To control risk and enhance the likelihood of success, it should be noted that each element has been demonstrated by the team members in prior work with the result that the proposed effort will focus upon integration, rather than development, of these discrete elements. For initial demonstration of the technology, the team proposes to address a Mach 6 endoatmospheric missile or hypersonic vehicle application as a baseline, but the technology is adaptable to a much broader range of applications once proven successful. BENEFIT: The proposed project will provide capabilities directly of interest for lightweight and cost-effective Mach 6 vehicles. Successful integration of the key elements of the structure (operating environment-compatible surface layers, hybrid composite structures, and tailored, hierarchical porosity insulators) could then be readily adapted to a range of other applications in that each element of the structure could be optimized with respect to the specific use requirements. Foreseeable other applications include reentry vehicles, for both space and defense, and reusable space exploration structures. Such structures could also be adapted to propulsion components and to selected chemical process components that are confronted by extreme environment demands.

Voxtel Inc.
15985 NW Schendel Avenue, Suite 200
Beaverton, OR 97006
(971) 223-5646

PI: Ngoc Nguyen
(971) 223-5646
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0084
University of Oregon
1253 University of Oregon,
Eugene, OR 97403
(541) 346-4649

ID#: F10B-T02-0275
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT02       Awarded: 8/15/2011
Title: Quantum-Confined Nanocrystal Materials for Anti-Stokes Optical Coolers
Abstract: Nanocrystals (NCs) offer many potential benefits for optical refrigeration; these quantum-confined materials have discrete energy levels, large optical transition dipole moments, and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency. Using well-characterized upconverting ion-doped metal oxide NCs and core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals as a baseline, a design of experiments (DOE) will be conducted to optimize the coupling and population of the energy carriers (photons, electrons, and phonons), including the photon-exciton and exciton-phonon couplings, the ion-dopant concentration, the phonon density of states, the photon population, the host material and size, the core-shell architectures, the NCs’ surface properties, and the ion doping concentration. This will make efficient optical cooling possible and eliminate non-radiative Auger-recombination paths. The coupling and populations will be studied using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE), femtosecond pulse probe spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements to characterize the NC materials so that the nanostructured materials can be fabricated and demonstrated in working optical cryocoolers capable of cooling power >200 mW. In Phase II, the macroscopic properties of the device will be optimized in a series of fiber optics and optical cavities, so that improvements in efficiency and mass can be demonstrated for space applications. BENEFIT: While the full capabilities, performance, and cost for this technology are not yet fully understood, a low-cost and high- performance cooling system capable of being conformably coated onto a substrate has the potential to unleash a new era in electronics, communications, and sensors. Additionally, the same material sets can be used for thermoelectric generation. We foresee the following cooling applications as high-value target markets: military infrared sensors, silicon chip industry, and optoelectronics.

Zephyr Software LLC
2040 Tremont Rd,
Charlottesville, VA 22911
(434) 242-4280

PI: Clark L. Coleman
(434) 284-3002
Contract #: FA8750-11-C-0135
University of Virginia
151 Engineers Way, P.O. Box 400740
Charlottesville, VA 22904
(434) 982-2216

ID#: F10B-T18-0042
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT18       Awarded: 4/22/2011
Title: Customized Application Security Via Process Virtualization
Abstract: Military and other software systems often face the need to accept untrusted software components into the system. The proposed research will enable secure integration of untrusted software components by (1) isolating these components using application-level (per-process) virtualization; (2) assisting the customer in constructing a security policy tailored to each untrusted component; (3) enforcing that security policy in the field using the virtualization technology; and (4) detecting, where possible, likely sources of security policy violation prior to deployment of the software so that vulnerabilities and malware can be detected early. The security policies will be specified with an interactive tool and will focus on the locations (both local disk and network locations) to which the untrusted component is allowed communication privileges. BENEFIT: Military and other uses of the product will be able to accept untrusted software components into trusted systems and tailor security policies specifically to those software components. Violations of the security policies will be detected and prevented.

ZONA Technology, Inc.
9489 E. Ironwood Square Drive,
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
(480) 945-9988

PI: Ping-Chih Chen
(480) 945-9988
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0026
Arizona State Univeristy
P.O. Box 873503,
Tempe, AZ 85287
(480) 727-9292

ID#: F10B-T16-0068
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT16       Awarded: 12/1/2011
Title: Stick-to-Stress Dynamic Flight Simulation for Virtual Flight Test
Abstract: ZONA proposes to develop a comprehensive virtual flight test software system by enhancing the capabilities of the ZONA's Stick-To-Stress Dynamic Flight Simulation (STS-DFS)" previously developed under AFRL contractual support. The current STS-DFS combines flight dynamic model and a nonlinear aeroelastic solver constructed based on neural net-based aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM) and a gust ROM to generate in real-time loads and stresses resulting from pilot input commands. These ROMs are generated from ZEUS, a ZONA's Computational Fluid Dynamic software for aeroelastic simulations. The STS-DFS system has been validated with F/A-18 AAW flight test data and will be further validated with F-15 historical flight test data. In Phase I, the ZONA Team will further develop a store ejection load module to allow the prediction of the dynamic loads and response due to the jettisons of stores. This ejection load module will be validated with available F/A-18 flight test data. Also to be added to the STS-DFS is a nonparametric uncertainty modeling module that will consider aircraft-to-aircraft uncertain variations in their mass and stiffness properties to provide an analysis of the entire fleet not simply of a single aircraft. Application of this uncertainty modeling to the F/A-18 response will be carried out. BENEFIT: As a result of the Phase I effort, the enhanced STS-DFS system will be a high fidelity, multi-disciplinary and real time simulation tool where the aerodynamics, structures, propulsion and control system dynamics are tightly coupled together to provide a virtual flight test capability. It can be employed to accurately predict aircraft loads and stresses for improved fatigue lift and mitigate the cost of solving flight test related problems. It also can be used for control law development, maneuvering flight simulation and handling quality assessment with the inclusion of nonlinear aeroelastic effects. The application of the enhanced STS-DFS system to current and future Air Force vehicles, such as F-22, F-35, Global Hawk, Predator, will lead to a reduction of their respective flight tests necessary for certification. With the current, large customer base of ZONA's commercial software for aeroelastic analyses, ZONA can easily bring the STS-DFS to the aerospace market. Because of the unique capabilities of the STS-DFS, we will capture the entire aerospace market and thus making the STS-DFS system the standard method for virtual flight test simulation.

ZT Solar Inc.
1120 South Freeway,
Fort Worth, TX 76104
(817) 301-4649

PI: Eric Cline
(908) 247-2836
Contract #: FA9550-12-C-0007
Duke University
Office of Research Support, 2200 W. Main St., Suite 710
Durham, NC 27705
(919) 681-5132

ID#: F10B-T19-0191
Agency: AF
Topic#: AF10-BT19       Awarded: 10/31/2011
Title: Conformal Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Antireflective Coatings
Abstract: The objective of this STTR Phase I proposal is to investigate the feasibility of a hybrid organic/inorganic gradient index anti-reflective (GRIN-AR) coating on both rigid and flexible substrates, based on the resonant infrared matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) process. The hybrid organic/inorganic material approach enables both optical index control, as well as mechanical and thermal durability. The precise control of RIR-MAPLE based film deposition is perfectly suited for GRIN-AR formation since it will allow for the discrete deposition of multi-component hybrid nanocomposites while varying the composition to achieve a GRIN film. The resulting GRIN-AR structure can have the desired reflection of less than 0.5% over the wavelength range of interest (400-750nm) for wide incident angles, with proper control of the index profile. The coating could also be applied to any rigid or flexible substrate for conformal/wearable optics applications. BENEFIT: The mission of ZT Solar is to commercialize optical coating materials and processes to provide cost effective antireflective coatings. The success of the proposed conformal hybrid organic/inorganic GRIN-ARTM structure, based on the RIR-MAPLE process, can offer an environmentally durable, UV-protected AR coating for military and commercial applications such as wearable electronics, protective eye wear and energy efficient light weight solar control coatings.

---------- MDA ----------

Accurate Automation Corporation
7001 Shallowford Road,
Chattanooga, TN 37421
(423) 894-4646

PI: Peter Krueger
(423) 894-4646
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7651
Clemson University
Microscopy Facility, 91 Technology Drive
Anderson, SC 29625
(864) 656-2465

ID#: B10B-001-0027
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T001       Awarded:6/13/2011
Title: CNT Based Microstrip Plasma Limiter
Abstract: Accurate Automation Corporation will develop a carbon nanotube based microstrip plasma limiter suitable for inclusion on RF printed circuit boards used on the front-end of an X-Band phased-array receiver. This device will capitalize on the ability to use carbon nanotubes to reduce the size and cost of an RF limiter while dramatically increasing the performance. Specific attention will be focused on improving the performance of these devices for military applications to separate them from the commercial carbon nanotube based limiter products that will be available as a result of this development.

AEgis Technologies Group, Inc.
410 Jan Davis Drive,
Huntsville, AL 35806
(256) 922-0802

PI: Dennis Bunfield
(256) 922-0802
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7652
Georgia Tech Applied Research
Georgia Institute of Technolog,
Atlanta, GA 30332
(256) 876-0216

ID#: B10B-003-0006
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T003       Awarded:6/13/2011
Title: Fast Algorithms for Generating Hardbody Thermal Histories
Abstract: The AEgis Technologies Group proposes to develop an innovative real-time thermal solver solution to model hardbody thermal histories. This thermal solver solution will consider the relevant phenomenology associated with MDA targets and other associated objects requiring thermal histories. Modeling of complex objects and advanced features such as model ablation and dynamic surface areas will be considered. The associated thermal solver modules will be designed take advantage of massively parallel high performance computing hardware and provide a flexible application programming interface for integration into MDA scene generation codes such as FLITES.

ARC Technology
13076 NW 120th St.,
Whitewater, KS 67154
(316) 799-2763

PI: William Carey
(316) 799-2763
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7654
Univ of Missouri - Columbia
Electrical and Computer Eng, 233 Engineering Building West
Columbia, MO 65211
(573) 882-0813

ID#: B10B-001-0030
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T001       Awarded:6/3/2011
Title: Electro-Optic Terminal Protection for Radar Systems
Abstract: Recent advances in directed energy weapons (DEW) require radar systems to implement front door protection against high power signals. Although nonlinear protection elements have been successfully employed in the past, fast ultra wideband (UWB) and high power microwave (HPM) signals are not successfully blocked by most current circuit protection technologies. This proposal details the development of a quasi-passive, solid state electro-optic terminal protection system (EOTPS) to effectively block UWB and HPM signals from the front end of radar systems. The device uses power from the incoming transient to switch the signal line to ground. But because the system as a whole requires no external power other than the transient, it can be considered a passive device. Inherent delay in the system permits the switch to become fully conductive before the transient arrives, effectively creating a system with a negative switching time. This allows the entire transient to be reflected, in contrast to other high power terminal protection techniques which allow part of the transient to pass to the LNA.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor,
Huntsville, AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Yi Wang
(256) 327-0678
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7655
Ohio State University
1960 Kenny Road,
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 292-2411

ID#: B10B-003-0021
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T003       Awarded:6/27/2011
Title: An Accurate 3D Real-Time Simulation Tool for Generating Hardbody Thermal Histories
Abstract: Existing thermal analysis tools for optical signature generation are employed in an off-line manner, and are inadequate for new closed-loop real-time system simulations being pursued by MDA. This STTR project aims to develop and demonstrate an innovative simulation tool for the automatic generation and subsequent computation of reduced thermal models for accurate, real-time analysis of complex 3D hardbody with multi-layered materials and paint coatings in various environments. The salient aspects of the proposed solution are: (1) an innovative combination of mathematically rigorous model order reduction (MOR) approaches based on subspace projection and fast matrix operation-based ODE/DAE solvers significantly reduces model dimensions to enable thermal solution in real-time; (2) reduced models are automatically derived from first principle-based, full-scale models to retain simulation accuracy and capability; and (3) a modular software framework is used to automate the entire simulation process and seamless integration with selected MDA simulators. In Phase I, a MOR engine encapsulating carefully chosen algorithms, a reduced model solver, and a verification module, along with facile data exchange interfaces will be developed in an integrated environment. Feasibility will be demonstrated by selected case studies of MDA interest, in which realistic 3D targets will be analyzed and the results will be compared against full-scale analysis in terms of accuracy and speed. The Phase II effort will focus on enhancing MOR algorithms, optimizing software architecture, integrating our software with MDA simulators, and developing data interfaces to existing MDA tools for extensive validation and demonstration. Further ensuring project success, the proposed effort features a collaboration between CFDRC, the Ohio State University (OSU) and Teledyne Solutions, Inc (TSI), with extensive expertise on all central research themes.

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor,
Huntsville, AL 35805
(256) 726-4884

PI: Vernon Cole
(256) 726-4852
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7656
Washington University
275 N Skinker Bldg, Suite 220, 1 Brookings Dr, Campus Bx 1054
St. Louis, MO 63130
(314) 935-5889

ID#: B10B-004-0008
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T004       Awarded:6/27/2011
Title: Physics Based Modeling Tools for Next-Generation Lithium Ion Battery Performance and Lifetime
Abstract: The MDA is developing satellite based systems that could benefit from ongoing developments in advanced materials for lithium ion batteries. Unfortunately, the driving applications for much of the new materials research have less abusive operational cycles than the frequent cycling, and sporadic pulse loads to deep discharge, of MDA satellite applications. Physics based models of battery performance and degradation with these promising material chemistries are desired to help screen candidates that can meet calendar and active life requirements under abusive orbital mission profiles, and to support and improve accelerated life testing. In this STTR program, CFDRC and our partner Washington University at Saint Louis will develop and validate fast, predictive electrochemical models to aid in screening next-generation materials for improved lithium ion battery performance in these applications. The models will include variable lithium diffusivity in the active material particles, improving predictive capabilities for a number of promising materials that undergo solid phase transformations during lithium insertion and removal, and will also incorporate detailed treatment of interfacial film formation and other side reactions that reduce battery capacity and/or discharge rate. During Phase II, we will incorporate additional degradation mechanisms and model parameters will be extracted from and validated against laboratory cycling data.

Global Aerospace Corporation
711 West Woodbury Road, Suite H,
Altadena, CA 91001
(626) 345-1200

PI: Gerald Halpert
(626) 345-1200
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7657
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Dr.,
Pasadena, CA 91109
(818) 354-0110

ID#: B10B-004-0015
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T004       Awarded:6/13/2011
Title: Modeling and Verification of Li-Ion Cells Under Accelerated Life Testing
Abstract: Rechargeable Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) cell technology is attractive for MDA space satellites. But, because this technology is relatively new and is still evolving, its performance and behavior must be characterized by laboratory life testing that is very time consuming and expensive. A requirement for a 10-year real-time cell life test could delay the incorporation of Li-Ion cell technology into MDA satellites that are essential for national security. Accelerated life testing can be used to force cell degradation earlier than real time testing, enable identification of the source of the degradation, and speed the process of qualifying cell technology for space flight. However, there are questions of its applicability because cells are not operated exactly the same way during accelerated life tests as on satellite missions, and there is likelihood of introducing additional failure modes during accelerated testing. Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), in collaboration with NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), plans to answer the question “is accelerated life cycle testing feasible for Li-Ion cells?” To answer this question, we will (a) develop test procedures and collect laboratory data and (b) develop a complementary high fidelity, first principles-based, verified software tool to assist and guide accelerated life testing laboratory work.

Global Technology Connection, Inc.
2839 Paces Ferry Road, Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA 30339
(770) 803-3001

PI: Nicholas Propes
(770) 803-3001
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7658
Georgia Tech
Georgia Institute of Technolog,
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-2000

ID#: B10B-004-0001
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T004       Awarded:5/31/2011
Title: Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cell Performance
Abstract: Global Technology Connection, Inc., in collaboration with academic partners, Georgia Tech’s Center for Innovative Battery and Fuel Cell Technologies, Penn State University, and industrial partner Eagle Picher propose to create a physics-based modeling for predicting the life performance of Low and Middle Earth Orbit (LEO/MEO) Lithium-ion cells. The relationships between solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), electrolyte chemistry, Li+ or other active material loss, temperature, depth of discharge, self-discharge, discharge rate, and capacity fade will be determined through the model. Development of Li-ion performance physics-based models will assume graphite as the negative electrode material. The statistical relationships between aging cells and measurable quantities will also be analyzed through non-parametric models. Methodologies to collect accelerated test data from batteries and to assess the ability to make performance predictions from these data will also be determined. Models created during Phase I will be validated using existing Li-ion battery data sets.

Imaging Systems Technology
4750 W. Bancroft,
Toledo, OH 43615
(419) 536-5741

PI: Lee Cross
(419) 536-5741
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7659
University of Toledo
2801 W. Bancroft,
Toledo, OH 43606
(419) 530-2844

ID#: B10B-001-0033
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T001       Awarded:6/20/2011
Title: Innovative Hardware Technologies for Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Radars
Abstract: Under this STTR Imaging Systems Technology (IST) will apply novel Plasma-shell technology and expertise with gas plasma systems to shield and protect BMDS Radar. Plasma-shells are tiny hollow gas encapsulating shells. When energy is applied across the shell, the gas inside ionizes into a plasma. Theory of plasma-electromagnetic (EM) field interaction shows that, under appropriate conditions, plasma can be very effective in providing protection against High Power Microwave (HPM) and Ultra Wide Band (UWB) attacks. Currently, the only effective shielding against these attacks is a plasma based waveguide limiter. These limiters, while effective, are not universally applicable to all devices that may be subject to such threats as not all components of BMDS radar are waveguide fed. To be universally applicable to all sensitive electronics, there exists the need for effective limiter concepts that can be mounted on a printed circuit-board and be integrated into existing radar structures including radomes.

(703) 564-0589

PI: Stephen Hartley
(256) 971-1364
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7660
University of Alabama in Huntsville
301 Sparkman Drive,
Hunstville, AL 35899
(256) 824-6611

ID#: B10B-003-0002
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T003       Awarded:6/13/2011
Title: Fast Thermal Calculations for Responsive Targets in Support of Real-Time Scene Generation
Abstract: In order to provide the required simulation frame rates we propose to decouple the incident flux calculations from a simple thermal response model. We propose to develop a table-lookup methodology based on high fidelity precomputed environmental and eventually aerothermal fluxes which can be draw in real time to drive the thermal response model. A simple 1-D thermal calculation based on an analytic solution will provide a fast thermal computation based on the flux conditions and previous surface temperature. This approach will fit natively within the existing simulation framework and allow full closed-loop simulation of the thermal history of even highly thermally responsive targets throughout midcourse and upper re-entry.

Ness Engineering, Inc.
P.O. Box 261501,
San Diego, CA 92196
(858) 566-2372

PI: Richard M. Ness
(858) 566-2372
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7662
University of Missouri Columbia
311 Engineering Building West,
Columbia, MO 65211
(573) 882-3017

ID#: B10B-001-0007
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T001       Awarded:6/13/2011
Title: Innovative Hardware Technologies for Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Radars
Abstract: Radio Frequency Directed Energy Weapons (RFDEW) are maturing sufficiently to become a threat to sensitive circuits onboard military platforms. With a large number of active elements, Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) phased array radar units are particularly susceptible and require improvement over the current state-of-the-art in limiter technology. This is particularly needed in the development of faster limiters that can be PCB mounted to adapt into the existing solid state receivers and operate in a passive mode if at all possible. Ness Engineering, Inc. and the University of Missouri, Columbia are proposing a new board-level microwave limiter to protect radar receivers from High Power Microwave (HPM) attacks. The limiter is designed to be incorporated into a micro-strip transmission line and short the line within 5 nanoseconds of detecting a RFDEW attack. The Phase I proposed effort will involve development of a brassboard limiter, preliminary optimization of the limiter system design, and characterization of its operation in response to HPM and high power RF signal application. We will also validate the insertion loss of the device with respect to normal signal levels and operations.

Quallion LLC
12744 San Fernando Road, Building 3
Sylmar, CA 91342
(818) 833-4276

PI: Mikito Nagata
(818) 833-2015
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7664
University of South Carolina
College of Engineering and Com,
columbia, SC 29208
(803) 777-3270

ID#: B10B-004-0014
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T004       Awarded:7/28/2011
Title: Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cell Performance
Abstract: Quallion LLC is pleased to submit this proposal in response to the solicitation for” Modeling of Lithium-ion Cell Performance.” This proposal focuses on the area of interest relating to “accelerated life testing for LEO …because the processes that occur at the anode and cathode at high DoD’s (60+%) are poorly understood as to how they relate to low DoD’s (30% and lower).” Quallion has developed a reference electrode technology for acquiring detailed information on the life cycling of Li-ion cells. This technology coupled with the modeling capabilities of Dr. Ralph White and University of South Carolina can identify the key relationships of various DoD in cycling on Li-ion cell performance. The capability of predictive modeling of the effects of different DoDs could significantly reduce development time for introduction of lithium-ion batteries into MDA applications. Phase I will establish methods of incorporating reference electrode into cells, collect initial cycling data, and evaluate the methods of integrating data into the model. The modeling effort will evaluate two methods of predicting capacity fade. Phase II will develop long-term cycling data on test regimes and further develop the model capability for prediction of cycle life under different test regimes and DoDs.

Stellar Science Ltd Co
6565 Americas Parkway NE, Suite 725,
Albuquerque, NM 87110
(877) 763-8268

PI: D. Shane Stafford
(877) 763-8268
Contract #: HQ0147-11-C-7665
University of New Mexico
Department of Computer Science, Mail stop: MSC01 1130
Albuquerque, NM 87106
(505) 277-2967

ID#: B10B-003-0024
Agency: MDA
Topic#: MDA10-T003       Awarded:7/25/2011
Title: Fast Self-Adaptive Algorithms for Generating Hardbody Thermal Histories
Abstract: To reduce the cost of new hardware development, the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is developing fast new computational tools that enable in-the-loop hardware testing. The MDA and contractors have developed high-fidelity scene modeling tools such as the Fast Line-of-sight Imagery for Target and Exhaust-plume Signatures (FLITES) to test optical signature trackers. Currently, these high-speed tools are not capable of computing thermal histories for hardbody targets, an important requirement for infra-red signature prediction. Stellar Science and the University of New Mexico (UNM) will leverage their extensive expertise in thermal modeling, synthetic image generation, software engineering, and multi-processing to provide a method for generating hardbody thermal histories in real time. The innovative self-adaptive algorithm will enable engineers with workstations, specialized graphics processing units (GPUs), or clusters to use the same validated code base across computing platforms by automatically selecting the best optimizations for the particular architecture. The algorithm will then adjust the fidelity of the simulation to meet the real-time requirement. Within Phase I, we will implement a prototype of the self-adaptation and a prototype API that can be used to begin integration of the real-time thermal solver into scene-modeling tools.

---------- NAVY ----------

IMPACT Technology Development
9 Tabor Hill Rd,
Lincoln, MA 01773
(508) 951-2436

PI: D. Easson
(508) 344-9719
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0169
Univ of Massachusetts Lowell
1 University Avenue,
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 934-3158

ID#: N10B-046-0008
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T046      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Bioengineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the Selective Production of beta-Pinene
Abstract:   This technology development program addresses the market and strategic need for renewable high density fuels for missile propulsion or as additives to increase performance of jet propulsion fuels. beta-Pinene, a natural plant derived organic compound, is the proposed high density fuel precursor. In the Phase 1 project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by: 1) engineering a strain of S. cerevisiae to contain the beta-pinene synthase gene from Artemisia annua. When induced, the engineered strain will divert most of its central metabolism to the production of beta-pinene; 2) demonstrating the ability of the engineered strain to convert hydrolyzed waste cardboard into beta- pinene; 3) developing a solvent extraction system to aid in the recovery of produced beta-pinene; and 4) integrating the beta-pinene production and separation steps in order to demonstrate continuous or semi-continuous operation. In addition we will characterize the overall efficiency of the process by performing material and energy balances. Lastly, we will provide a sample of beta-pinene produced via this bioconversion process.

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center,
Andover, MA 01810
(978) 689-0003

PI: Anthony Ferrante
(978) 689-0003
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0175
University of Massachusetts
70 Butterfield Terrace,
Amherst, MA 01003
(413) 545-0698

ID#: N10B-046-0004
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T046      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Efficient isomer-selective biosynthesis of pinene from cellulosic feedstocks
Abstract:   There is a need to find more efficient methods for producing high-density, liquid, tactical fuels for use in missile propulsion or as components to improve key performance characteristics of currently available jet and diesel fuels. Generation of such fuels from renewable sources such as waste cellulose, grasses, waste agricultural material and forestry products will provide important national security benefits as compared with the use of raw petroleum products a large fraction of which are imported. In addition renewable feedstocks yield important environmental and potential cost benefits. PSI, in collaboration with Dr. Michael Henson's laboratory at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, proposes to develop an efficient process for bioconversion of cellulosic biomass to high purity alpha- or beta-pinene precursors for high-density, liquid tactical fuel. Our approach will yield high-purity alpha- or beta-pinene isomers in a scalable process. Phase I research will demonstrate proof-of-concept for development of bioengineered strains and fermentation processes for efficient production of beta-pinene from cellulosic materials without pretreatment. Phase II research will continue with additional genetic modification of the beta-pinene producing microbe with a goal of increasing efficiency of beta-pinene production and eliminating undesired products and will include scale-up for pilot production.

Technology Holding, LLC
350 W 800 N, Suite 250
Salt Lake City, UT 84103
(801) 953-1047

PI: Mukund Karanjikar
(281) 217-3471
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0113
Kansas State University
PreAward Services, 2 Fairchild Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506
(785) 532-6840

ID#: N10B-047-0045
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T047      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Novel Biomass Conversion Process for Production of Butylenes
Abstract:   The United States is currently faced with unprecedented energy challenge. Petroleum prices have skyrocketed due to rising competition for energy resources from emerging economies. There is a significant need for processes that can produce hydrocarbons from renewable resources rather than petroleum. The use of renewable resources ensures a long-term supply of hydrocarbons, even after easily extractable petroleum reserves are depleted. It also aids national security because domestic resources are used rather than petroleum. Biomass offers the potential for large-scale production of hydrocarbons. Technology Holding LLC in collaboration with Kansas State University proposes a novel process for biomass conversion to butylenes. The proposed process combines two synergistic innovations of biochemical processing to 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) and further catalytic conversion to butylenes without separating 2,3- BD. The process utilizes a robust microbial culture for fermentation to 2,3-BD followed by dual stage bifunctional catalyst to enable 2,3-BD conversion to butylenes. During phase I, the proposing team will demonstrate the techno- economic feasibility of the proposed approach.

C5-6 Technologies
2120 W Greenview Dr,
Middleton, WI 53562
(608) 831-9011

PI: LauraLynn Kourtz
(608) 836-3587
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0112
University Wisconsin Stevens Point
167 Trainer Natural Resources, 800 Reserve St.
Stevens Point, WI 54481
(715) 346-4259

ID#: N10B-047-0039
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T047      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Innovative Methods for the Conversion of Biomass to Short Chain Alkenes for the Production of Renewable Jet Fuels
Abstract:   C5-6 Technologies and University of Wisconsin Stevens Point scientists will develop a bacterial strain that economically ferments sugars into isoprene, a platform chemical that will play a central role in the future bio-economy. UWSP scientists have genetically engineered E. coli to produce isoprene, a precursor of B-pinene and other fuels, via a novel pathway that has significant potential production yield. These have been used to produce isoprene from pulp mill sludge as a proof of concept. Billions of pounds of high sugar content pulp mill sludge are landfilled yearly. The present work is aimed at improving the conversion rate and efficiency of the UWSP process. Phase I of this research will test a codon- optimized synthetic operon containing all the elements of the pathway to over-produce isoprene in E. coli. A new genetic engineering tool will be used to accelerate the manipulation and optimization of this operon. Isoprene production rates and yields and gene expression data obtained from this study will be used to optimize the productivity of the organism and to develop a biorefinery based on the organism where pulp mill waste products are converted directly to commercially viable levels of isoprene for aviation fuel.

Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive,
Madison, WI 53717
(608) 229-2730

PI: Christopher Clair
(608) 229-2727
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0108
University of Wisconsin-Madison
3014 Engineering Hall, 1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-1095

ID#: N10B-047-0001
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T047      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Renewable Fuel Production System (RFPS)
Abstract:   Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) propose to develop the Renewable Fuel Production System (RFPS), a system which will produce liquid alkene-based transportation fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Specifically, we propose to investigate the production of levulinic acid (LA) and/or gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from lignocellulose; both of these platform chemicals are intermediates which serve as inputs to the catalytic production of butene. Our overall strategy relies on an efficient, high-yield process developed at UW-Madison to produce liquid alkene fuels from GVL, a derivative easily obtained from pure LA. Taken as a whole, this process is a promising roadmap for producing liquid transportation fuels from cellulosic biomass. However, it is currently limited in application by the availability of high-grade, low-cost LA and GVL. In the proposed work, we will focus on the production and purification of LA and/or GVL, with the intent of using these as inputs to the already-developed GVL-to-oligomers process. Our proposed research seeks improved options for the preparation and purification of LA and/or GVL that are effective, environmentally acceptable, and energetically efficient. This focus was selected because improved efficiency in this technology will have the greatest impact on the feasibility of cellulosic fuel production.

MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street,
Niles, IL 60714
(847) 588-3001

PI: Noren Pan
(847) 588-3001
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0167
1617 Cole Blvd.,
Golden, CO 80401
(303) 384-6632

ID#: N10B-048-0012
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T048      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: High Voltage, Lightweight, Conformal, Integrated, Photovoltaic Modules for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:   MicroLink proposes a novel device structure which combines ultra-thin, high-efficiency, GaAs-based multijunction solar cells with a novel packaging approach that will result in high flexibility, elastic solar sheets. MicroLink has developed a process that produces ultra-thin, flexible solar cells. In this project, these an array of these flexible solar cells will be incorporated onto an elastic sheet to provide an output voltage >25 V. The net result will be a solar sheet that has an elastic response along with high net solar conversion efficiency.

MC10 Inc.
36 Cameron Ave.,
Cambridge, MA 02140
(617) 234-4448

PI: Roozbeh Gaffari
(617) 234-4448
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0176
University of Illinois
Beckman Institute, 405 N. Mathews Ave.
Urbana, IL 61801
(217) 244-4979

ID#: N10B-048-0006
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T048      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: High Voltage, Lightweight, Conformal, Integrated, Photovoltaic Modules for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:   This Phase I effort will demonstrate a thin, conformal solar module(1 cm x 1 cm) composed of either GaAs or Si micro- cells packaged in an elastomeric film. This module will utilize unique mechanical designs, including non-planar interconnects, and thin micro-cells (< 50 microns thick) and will achieve > 10% efficiency and > 10% stretchability while providing output of > 25V. This effort will provide a plan and possible routes to develop 1 sq meter modules with energy output sufficient to replace current lithium ion batteries.

SA Photonics, LLC
130 Knowles Drive, Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032
(970) 921-3401

PI: Michael Browne
(408) 348-4426
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0128
University of Arizona
The Meinel Building, 1630 East University Boulevard
Tucson, AZ 85721
(520) 621-3733

ID#: N10B-049-0002
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T049      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Expanding Helicopter Pilots Field of View
Abstract:   Night vision has been a key enabling technology for the past 30 years that has allowed US pilots to “own the night”. One of the big disadvantages of current night vision systems is that they have not provided pilots with good peripheral vision, since most have a total field of view (TFOV) of only 40 degrees. A large survey of USAF pilots found that the most often requested improvement to night vision goggles was to have a larger field of view. To address this need, SA Photonics is proposing a next generation wide field of view night vision system for helicopter pilots. This system will have both an increased horizontal field of view of up to 120 degrees and an increased vertical field of view of 45 degrees. This system will also provide color symbology and allow for the recording of night vision imagery. SA Photonics’ system will have a greatly reduced forward projection over both the AN/AVS-9 and PNVG systems. In addition, stowage is achieved by simply rotating the displays out of the direct field of view. Unlike AN/AVS and PNVG, stowing our system will not change the center of gravity.

InterScience, Inc.
105 Jordan Road,
Troy, NY 12180
(518) 283-7500

PI: Jiayin MA
(518) 283-7500
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0100
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
ECSE Department, 110 8th St.
Troy, NY 12180
(518) 276-6086

ID#: N10B-049-0028
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T049      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Ultra Wide Field of View Night Vision Goggles with Spherical Sensing
Abstract:   The currently fielded AN/AVS-9 night vision goggles (NVG) for use by air crew with a 40º Field of View (FOV) creates the so-call soda straw-effect that significantly hinders situational awareness desired for many types of missions. This FOV restriction limit has been identified as a causal factor in numerous aviation mishaps. Recognizing the needs for expanding FOV on NVG, we propose to develop a compact ultra-wide FOV night vision system with spherical sensing suitable for helmet mounting for use by the Navy helicopter aircrew for enhanced situation awareness in night time operations. We also include an option for a two-position zooming NVG object lens implementation to switch between standard 40° FOV and ultra-wide FOV. This two-position zooming NVG approach is an integrated solution to provide both broad situation awareness capability and high resolution magnification of the area of interest. We also propose to conduct research and experiments to develop a test plan to determine the advantages and disadvantages of a wide FOV NVG system and the desirability of incorporating two-position zooming feature in NVG.

WebCore Technologies, Inc.
8821 Washington Church Road,
Miamisburg, OH 45342
(937) 435-2200

PI: Michael Sheppard
(937) 435-2200
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0151
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
(937) 229-2919

ID#: N10B-050-0036
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T050      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Novel Sandwich Solutions to Enable Manufacture of Lightweight, Complex Shape Components
Abstract:   The design of military aircraft relies heavily on honeycomb sandwich structures for the high strength and stiffness to weight ratios yet is constrained by the inability to efficiently and effectively machine and form honeycomb into complex shapes. WebCore Technologies’ TYCOR® fiber reinforced foam core technology delivers higher structural performance, enables cost-effective design solutions and delivers significant weight savings, especially when directly compared to other structural stiffening technologies such as aluminum honeycomb as validated under NASA’s Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) project. The patented and proprietary processes by which TYCOR is manufactured allows for the incorporation of features and hard points before final processing and could enable further weight and cost reductions. A conformable and machinable form of this material, TYCOR W, is used today in wind turbine blade applications and demonstrates the versatility inherent in engineered core. The ability to preform complex shapes with tailored properties and integrated functionality will be an enabling technology in the design of future air vehicles. WebCore will team with University of Dayton Research Institute and GKN Aerospace to demonstrate how this innovative engineered core will allow construction of the lightweight, structurally efficient sandwich material systems important to reducing weight in military aircraft.

Materials Research & Design
300 E. Swedesford Rd,
Wayne, PA 19087
(610) 964-6130

PI: Kent Buesking
(610) 964-6130
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0149
University of Maryland
2181 Glenn L. Martin Hall, University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
(301) 405-2410

ID#: N10B-050-0029
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T050      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Micromechanical Design Tool for Innovative Lightweight Composite Sandwich Structures
Abstract:   Existing Navy aircraft create significant design challenges because aerodynamics require complex shaped contours, while structural efficiency leads to lightweight, strong composite sandwiches for load bearing components. The structures employ high strength graphite/epoxy face sheets over honeycomb cores. Honeycomb cores, however, are difficult to form into doubly-curved shells and are prone to water ingress. In order to tailor their properties it is necessary to splice sections from different billets, adding costs. Honeycomb cores offer limited bond area and are prone to delaminations that are difficult to inspect and repair. An alternative core employs aerospace-grade polymer foam that is reinforced with pultruded unidirectional graphite/epoxy pins. Since the pins can be rapidly inserted via robotic fabrication it is possible to machine unreinforced core to complex contours and insert pins for tailored stiffness and strength. Reinforced foam cores provide more bond area and are less susceptible to water infiltration. In order for aircraft structures to capitalize on benefits of pin reinforced foam cores, it is necessary that accurate design tools are available. Recently Materials Research & Design (MR&D) and the University of Maryland (UM) have been assessing the structural behavior of pin reinforced cores under separately funded programs. MR&D, under Army funding provided by AEC, is pursuing a micromechanics-based design tool. UM, under a Navy grant, is using specialized experimental methods to measure deformations, and developing detailed finite element models of pin reinforced foam cores. This proposed STTR effort seeks to combine the two approaches to develop a reinforced foam core design tool that can be applied to existing and future aircraft structures. When developed and verified, the design tool will enable structural engineers to specify and fabricate complex shaped sandwich structures with tailored properties. This will lead to more structurally efficient, lower cost, and durable composite airframes.

Third Millennium Metals, LLC
110 East Emmitt Avenue,
Waverly, OH 45690
(937) 367-7229

PI: Roger Scherer
(740) 947-7186
Contract #: N68335-11-C-0133
1749 Northwood Drive,
Troy, MI 48084
(248) 227-5665

ID#: N10B-050-0020
Agency: NAVY
Topic#: N10B-T050      Awarded: 1/10/2011
Title: Innovative Concepts for Lightweight Composite Sandwich Systems for Complex Shapes
Abstract:   The TM2 team proposes Alcv™, an innovative Al composite material with stellar corrosion resistance, better elongation, formability, and strength performance beyond most Al alloys. High strength Al covetic is an Al alloy infused with 5% or more covalently bonded nano Carbon. TM2 coined the term “Covetic” to ¬describe the alloy microstructure where nano C is infused into the molecular structure and serves as a covalent net that binds the Al. This material offers favorable nano tailored properties including thermal conductivity. Alcv™ material has synergistic properties due to the nano C infusion that produces a fine grain structure. Alcv™ 6061 covetic extruded lab samples have demonstrated exceptional elongation, toughness and corrosion resistance superior to the baseline Al 6061-T6. Alcv™ foam will be fabricated with the same technique as for commercial Al foam. Alcv™ foam can be fabricated because lab experiments show that when the Alcv™ is melted the Al and nano Carbon do not separate and thus the foam will retain the covetic corrosion resistant and thermal conductivity properties. The high specific surface area, low density and closed cell Alcv™ foam offers a combination of properties ideally suited for this Navy application when coupled with Alcv™ face sheets.

---------- OSD ----------

Absolute Nano, LLC
303 S. Main #304,
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
(734) 645-8841

PI: A. John Hart
(617) 319-9617
Contract #: N00014-11-M-0217
University of Michigan
2350 Hayward Street,
Ann Arbor, MI, MI 48109
(734) 615-6146

ID#: O10B-004-4008
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T004       Awarded: 6/1/2011
Title: Deterministic fabrication of aligned carbon nanotube array and device architectures
Abstract: In this Phase I STTR project, we plan to demonstrate a new platform for engineering the diameter and packing density of vertically aligned CNT “forests”, based on a scalable “blade casting” method of spatially directed evaporative self- assembly of metal catalyst nanoparticles. Using these self-assembled catalyst arrays, CNT forests will be grown by atmospheric pressure thermal CVD, taking advantage of the rapid control capability of the SabreTube furnace system developed by Absolute Nano. The catalysts arrays and CNT forests will be characterized and CNTs by atomic force and electron microscopy, and their key attributes will be compared. In parallel, starting from patterned CNT arrays grown from thin film catalysts, we will prototype and characterize a novel interpenetrating thin-film CNT (IPCNT) capacitor device architecture. At the end of Phase I, we aim to integrate the self-assembly and patterning methods for production of IPCNT device arrays having geometrically-specified properties, and commercialize a blade-casting tool as an instrument for self-assembly of nanoparticles.

ADA Technologies, Inc.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
(303) 792-5615

PI: Josh Buettner-Garrett
(303) 874-8262
Contract #: N00014-11-M-0175
Texas A&M University
Mail Stop 3123,
College Station, TX 77843
(979) 845-4500

ID#: O10B-004-4006
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T004       Awarded: 5/24/2011
Title: Highly-controllable, Dense Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Ultracapacitor Applications
Abstract: The Navy and the U.S. Military as a whole will be challenged to find innovative solutions to ever-rising peak power demands stemming from the introduction of electricity-driven vessels and new directed energy weapons in the coming decade. Circuit protection from voltage variation is also a concern both on large and miniaturized scales. To address these needs, ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA), in collaboration with Texas A&M University, propose the development of a highly controllable and scalable aligned CNT arrays as ultracapacitor electrodes in combination with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolytes (ILGPEs). Combining these high-surface area, mesoporous electrodes with new optimized ILGPEs having wide electrochemical window, and negligible electrolyte depletion will result in capacitors with excellent energy and power density. Moreover, the highly precise CNT array synthesis process developed here will also be directly applicable to other applications such as nanoscale electronics and sensors.

Agiltron Corporation
15 Cabot Road,
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Anton Greenwald
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0033
University of Michigan
2114B EECS, 1301 Beal Ave.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
(734) 936-1956

ID#: O10B-005-1034
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T005       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Metamaterial Films by Roll-to-Roll Processing
Abstract: In this Phase I STTR research program we will demonstrate low-cost and high throughput roll-to-roll processing to fabricate large area metamaterials. This program leverages recent breakthrough in nano-imprinting technology at University of Michigan, our partner in this program. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the nano-imprinting of thin-film, flexible metamaterials with feature sizes down to less than 1 um, and show functional optical properties for the films for wavelengths between 0.3 and 14 microns. The desired physical effects will result from photon-plasmon interactions in very thin, patterned metal-dielectric films deposited on metal foil sheets for scalability and flexibility. These metamaterials will demonstrate the suitability of our nanoimprinting process to produce large-area, flexible films. In Phase II the process would be scaled up to roll to roll processing to produce large area films with desired optical effects on actual Air Force assets.

Astro Terra Corp
1255 N. Christine St,
Orange, CA 92869
(619) 339-7279

PI: Vishnu Baba Sundaresan
(804) 514-1139
Contract #: W911NF-11-C-0218
Virginia Commonwealth University
401 W. Main St,
Richmond, VA 23284
(804) 514-1139

ID#: O10B-002-2003
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T002       Awarded: 8/10/2011
Title: Hierarchically Assembled Self-Healing Material
Abstract: The objective of this proposal is to investigate the feasibility of hierarchical assembly to develop microstructures composed of piezoelectric and polymeric components and create macroscale high strength adaptive materials. The materials developed in this effort will change their microstructures in response to a variety of loading conditions and/or external signals and in addition demonstrate autonomous self-healing. The microstructure of the material will be optimized by hierarchical structuring that will provide the material with unique capacity to adapt to various loading rates. This material developed by the team of Astro Terra Corp , Virginia Commonwealth University, and Virginia Tech is referred to as Adaptive Self-Healing Intelligent Elastic Deformable (Adaptive SHIELD) composite and will be designed for aerospace, military and naval applications. The microstructure of this material will be realized through the combination of nanopatterning, chemical synthesis and melt pressing and this Phase-I effort will focus on the feasibility for fabricating this material. The proposed techniques combine chemical synthesis with hierarchical assembly and will be referred to as Hierarchical Combinatorial Technique (HCT).

Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle,
Natick, MA 01760
(508) 655-5565

PI: Luis Fernando Velasquez-Garcia
(617) 253-0573
Contract #: N00014-11-M-0193
Massachusetts Institute of Tech
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-3907

ID#: O10B-004-4011
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T004       Awarded: 5/16/2011
Title: Massive Arrays of Monodisperse Nanosized Catalyst Particles and Monodisperse High Aspect-Ratio Vertically Aligned Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Technol
Abstract: Busek and MIT propose to explore techniques for enhanced control of nickel catalyst pad size and distribution (pitch) for growth of massive arrays of isolated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) at spacing as small as 10nm. The two catalyst application approaches shall be electron beam lithography and nanosphere lithography, and the MWNT growth shall be accomplished by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), the preferred method for MWNTs of uniform length and diameter. Two different types of PECVD reactors shall be used: a commercially-available CNT growth furnace at MIT, and the Busek-developed inductively-heated PECVD reactor capable of MWNT deposition on curved surfaces. Both catalyst pattern characteristics as well as MWNT morphology shall be measured via SEM. Ultracapacitor applications shall be explored, where resultant MWNT samples shall be coated using physical vapor deposition (PVD) and PECVD processes applying dielectric conformal coat and a metal coat. Capacitance of the various samples shall be measured. The Phase I efforts shall set the stage for Phase II development of advanced deposition techniques, larger-area capacitors, and long-length MWNTs.

Cascade Technologies Incorporated
2445 Faber Place, #100
Palo Alto, CA 94303
(650) 521-0243

PI: Hung Le
(650) 521-0243
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-2173
Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Tech Research Corporat, PO Box 100117
Atlanta, GA 30384
(404) 894-9126

ID#: F10B-001-0081
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T001       Awarded: 3/29/2011
Title: Turbulent Combustion Interaction Models for LES Simulations of High Speed Flow
Abstract: At present, the predictive capability of simulation codes and models used in the conceptual planning and design of high- speed propulsion systems is limited by the ability to describe the complex flow fields inside the combustor, mixing models, detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interactions, and subgrid-closure models. The objective of the proposed work is to develop and validate a high-fidelity LES combustion model based on Flamelet Progress Variable Approach for the accurate prediction of high-speed turbulent combustion. At Cascade, we have a state-of-the-art, fully unstructured, multi-physics LES solver that is currently being used to simulate turbulent combustion in military aircraft engines. Our present efforts are on extending our simulation tool to high-speed turbulent combustion, improve its performance and further validate our approach. In Phase I, a comprehensive program is proposed that consists of (i) an a priori study to evaluate critical model assumption of the flamelet-formulation for reacting jet in high speed-relevant cross-flow conditions and (ii) a posteriori validation and applicability assessment of the LES flamelet-combustion model for supersonic combustion against experimental data. The results of these studies will be leveraged towards model development/assessment, validation of the simulation tool, and improvement of the predictive capabilities of the methodology for high-speed turbulent combustion.

Celadon Laboratories, Inc.
6525 Belcrest Rd, Suite 521
Hyattsville, MD 20782
(301) 683-2117

PI: Raymond J. Peterson
(301) 683-2118
Contract #: W911NF-11-C-0082
University of Rochester
518 Hylan Building, P.O. Box 270140
Rochester, NY 14627
(585) 275-4031

ID#: O10B-003-2001
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T003       Awarded: 4/28/2011
Title: Design Automation Software for DNA-Based Nano-Sensor Architectures
Abstract: A continuing and growing threat to U.S. military personnel and civilians is exposure to toxic chemicals and pathogens. Useful detection systems exist, but it remains imperative to investigate next-generation technologies that have the potential to improve by an order of magnitude the cost, sensitivity and size of sensor devices. A promising technology that may achieve these goals is DNA-based nano-sensors. In order for DNA-based nano-sensors to become commercially viable, the technology needs automated assay design software. Towards this end, Celadon will partner with Dr. David H. Mathews, one of the few internationally recognized experts in the computation of nucleic acid structures. During Phase I, the Celadon/Mathews team will compute databases of optimal helices and loops; develop a heuristic algorithm so as to obviate the need to evaluate an entire, computationally intractable, structure; develop a new algorithm for design of pseudo-knots; develop draft versions of Product Requirements, Software Development and Validation Project Plan, Design Specifications, and Technical Specifications; and demonstrate proof-of-concept design software.

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L,
Columbia, MD 21045
(410) 884-3266

PI: Ponnuthurai Gokulakrishnan
(410) 884-3266
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-2175
University of Michigan
Wolverine Tower,1st Flr,R1066, 3003 South State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
(734) 936-1289

ID#: O10B-001-1019
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T001       Awarded: 3/9/2011
Title: Turbulent Combustion Interaction Models for LES Simulations of High Speed Flow
Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers based on RANS, URANS or LES are required to estimate the filtered reaction rates to account for the turbulent-chemistry interactions for accurate modeling of reactive flows. It is critical to have a reliable reaction rate estimation scheme coupled with turbulent combustion models to estimate filtered reaction rates computationally efficient way. In this work, Combustion Science & Engineering (CSE), Inc. proposes to develop a new technically innovative time-scale based “adaptive chemistry scheme” coupled with off-line Linear Eddy Mixing (LEM) model to evaluate filtered reaction rates for RANS/URANS/LES simulation. This dynamic reduced kinetic modeling approach will reduce the computational cost of chemical source term estimation significantly by reducing the number of species to be evaluated locally as well as reducing the stiffness of the ODEs to be solved. The goal here is to develop a robust and dynamically evolving kinetics model that will be combined with the mixing model of LEM to account for the effect of small time scales of relevance to supersonic combustion. Competition between mixing and molecular processes will also be included to assess the importance of the latter on turbulent-chemistry interaction.

Enabling Energy Systems
9800 Connecticut Drive,
Crown Point, IN 46307
(773) 218-3598

PI: Farzad Mashayek
(630) 217-7610
Contract #: FA8650-11-M-2176
Michigan State University
Dept. of Mechanical Eng., 2555 Engineering Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
(517) 432-4678

ID#: O10B-001-1013
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T001       Awarded: 3/14/2011
Title: Spectral LES/FMDF for Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Interaction in High Speed Flow on Unstructured Grids
Abstract: The focus of this project is on large-eddy simulation (LES) of high-speed turbulent reacting flows. The Enabling Energy Systems (EES) Inc., has assembled a well-experienced team of experts to tackle all the main issues involved in modeling of such complex flows. The members of this team are proposing several innovative ideas and have a long history of working together with complementary expertise. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop advanced LES software based on a “high-order spectral element method on unstructured grid” that has been developed by the PI’s group within the last decade. The combustion modeling will be via the accurate, pdf-based, “filtered mass density function (FMDF)” method that has been developed, implemented, and tested for subsonic flows by Professor Jaberi’s group at Michigan State University. MSU will be the main subcontractor on this project and will help EES to implement and test FMDF in our spectral element code for high-speed flows. Shock discontinuities will be captured using an “entropy viscosity” approach that will be developed by Professor Jacobs for our spectral method. Professor Jacobs has extensive experience with spectral methods and will serve as a consultant. Several tests have been identified to validate the software.

Firebird Biomolecular Sciences, LLC
PO Box 13983,
Gainesville, FL 32604
(352) 271-7005

PI: Steven Benner
(352) 271-7005
Contract #: W911NF-11-C-0086
University of Rochester
518 Hylan Building, P.O. Box 270140
Rochester, NY 14627
(585) 275-4031

ID#: O10B-003-2004
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T003       Awarded: 5/25/2011
Title: Design Automation Software for DNA-Based Nano-Sensor Architectures
Abstract: Because of chemical behaviors of real DNA molecules, the nanotechnology envisioned by the Defense Department in this Solicitation will be possible only if design automation software creates nanostructures that exploit artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS). AEGIS DNA molecules have more than the four nucleotides (GACT) found in natural DNA. Our software will accommodate nanoarchitectures built from these four, plus eight additional orthogonally pairing AEGIS nucleotides. By evading the computational challenges associated with natural DNA nanostructures, AEGIS will allow delivery at the end of Phase I, ahead of schedule, software that helps nanotechnologists design nanostructures that incorporate binding and catalytic DNA molecules, sensing functionality, and optical signaling elements. Additional benefits of AEGIS DNA nanostructures are their enhanced stability and potential to support continuous environmental monitoring. Also ahead of schedule, our Phase I work will deliver a physical example of a nanostructure containing these functional elements. This will allow Phase II to focus on higher level nanostructure performance, including dynamic architectures, interfaces to electrical output, and amorphous computing. This project overlaps Firebird's business, which supports human diagnostics based on reagent innovations like AEGIS. Adding nanotechnology to its existing business makes commercial sense, and will help "dual uses" emerge from this project.

General Nano LLC
3040 Fairfield Ave.,
Cincinnati, OH 45206
(513) 309-5947

PI: Joseph Sprengard
(513) 309-5947
Contract #: N00014-11-M-0194
University of Cincinnati
2600 Clifton Ave,
Cincinnati, OH 45221
(513) 556-4132

ID#: O10B-004-4012
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T004       Awarded: 5/12/2011
Title: Nanomanufactured catalytic arrays on patterned addressable substrates for advanced electronic device applications
Abstract: Success growing long carbon nanotube arrays rests on the preparation of the catalytic substrate. Current best practices use a sputtering, oxidization, evaporation and annealing process to form catalyst particles. This natural self- assembly method is not the best approach. It creates substrates with too many variations, causing nanotubes to grow at different rates, lengths, and diameters, and causing defects and preventing nanotube arrays from achieving their growth potential. Proposed is a new nanomanufacturing approach - Substrate Engineering. In this approach, the catalytic substrate is designed to produce carbon nanotube arrays with a desired morphology. Van der Waals force engineering is used to optimize the geometry of catalyst wells. Chirality control will be attempted by matching catalyst well size to the diameter of armchair nanotubes. Novel techniques will be used to fabricate the substrate. Nanoimprint lithography will pattern the alumina buffer layer on the substrate with catalyst wells the same size throughout the substrate. Laser drilled holes in thin substrates will enable a new base flow chemical vapor deposition method to be used in conjunction with the patterned catalyst. Combinatorial studies using different mold patterns will determine the diameter, depth, and spacing of wells that produce long, high-quality nanotube arrays. It is anticipate that nanotube arrays produced from engineered substrates will permit advanced devices with the energy and power to outperform incumbent materials.

Lumarray, Inc.
15 Ward Street,
Somerville, MA 02143
(617) 253-6865

PI: Henry I Smith
(617) 253-6865
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0044
University of Utah
1471 Federal Way,
Salt Lake City, UT 84102
(801) 581-8948

ID#: O10B-006-1014
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T006       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Flexible Micro- and Nano-Patterning Tools for Photonics
Abstract: LumArray, Inc. is developing, and in 4 months will deliver to NIST, a maskless photolithography system of low cost that will meet the specifications for resolution, placement accuracy, overlay, throughput and multilevel alignment required in photonic devices. In Phase I, complex and dense patterns of arbitrary geometry, of relevance to photonics and optoelectronics, will be written, including ring resonators, waveguides and grating-based waveguide couplers. LumArray proposes to enable its ZP-150TM maskless photolithography system to pattern 3-dimensional structures in SU8 and other photoresists by developing, in collaboration with the University of Utah, a 3D proximity-effect correction algorithm. In Phase II this capability will be demonstrated. For patterning non-flat flexible substrates, LumArray will investigate, in Phase I, schemes for increasing the depth of focus, and in Phase II will demonstrate such writing. Although LumArray currently guarantees dense patterns only down to 200 nm using the ZP-150TM, the company is pursuing 3 independent paths to sub-100 nm resolution, two of which are the subject of proposals to other agencies. In Summary, LumArray asserts that all of the requirements of Topic # ODD10-T006 can be met by the ZP-150TM and the enhancements that we propose.

Luminit, LLC
1850 205th Street,
Torrance, CA 90501
(310) 320-1066

PI: Shamim Mirza
(310) 320-1066
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0039
University of Michigan
Wolverine Tower, rm 1062, 3003 South State STreet
Ann Arbor,, MI 48109
(734) 763-2171

ID#: O10B-006-1011
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T006       Awarded: 6/1/2011
Title: Flexible Micro- and Nano-Patterning Tools for Photonics
Abstract: To address the OSD needs for low cost, highly flexible micro- and nano-patterning tools, systems, and methods with excellent durability for multilevel nanophotonic devices and/or dense photonic and optoelectronic components, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new computer-controlled Nano-Pattering Tool (NAPA-Tool) to replicate micro- and nano- patterns (sub-100 nm to 100 micron) on both rigid and flexible substrates. This flexible net-shape tooling can be integrated into existing roll-to-roll replication web machines for mass production of photonic devices, with multi-cavities and has controllable surface roughness with very good release properties with a short lead time thereby reducing the manufacturing cost. In Phase I, Luminit will design a NAPA-Tool by replicating micro- and nano-pattern, for example, waveguide structures on both rigid and flexible substrate and testing them for quality of the replication process using the NAPA-Tool, such as morphology and optical transmission. In Phase II, we will optimize the NAPA-Tool, scale-up the fabrication process of metal master, produce prototype samples and perform a cost benefit analysis.

Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
(321) 631-3550

PI: Justin J. Hill
(321) 631-3550
Contract #: N00014-11-M-0195
University of Florida
Dept of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 116005
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-3412

ID#: O10B-004-4014
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T004       Awarded: 4/28/2011
Title: Scalable Templated Growth of Catalytic Nanostructure Arrays with Tunable Dimensions
Abstract: This proposal outlines a scalable, low-cost method for the addressable fabrication of arrayed nanostructures that are fabricated directly on conductive, semiconductive or non-conductive supports. The method and techniques involved have already been demonstrated and extensively investigated by the PI where 10 – 200 nm diameter nanostructures can readily be produced. Furthermore, the incorporation of this method with Mainstream’s expertise concerning chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes will readily produce ultra-high density and surface area nanotube arrays for high energy density ultracapacitor applications. Carbon nanotubes fabricated using this innovative technique will have a high degree of control and uniformity in their diameter, length and orientation. Also outlined in this proposal is a method recently developed by the PI to eliminate nanotube aggregation, further enhancing the ultracapacitor electrode surface area. Mainstream has partnered on this STTR with a leader in the field of carbon nanotube research, Prof. Kirk J. Ziegler. Prof. Ziegler will aid in certain fabrication steps and elucidate the properties of the fabricated carbon nanotubes.

Materials & Electrochemical Research (MER) Corp.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.,
Tucson, AZ 85756
(520) 574-1980

PI: Raouf O. Loutfy
(520) 574-1980
Contract #: N00014-11-M-0190
University of Arizona
Sponsored Projects Services, 888 N. Euclid Ave. Room 510
Tucson, AZ 85719
(520) 626-6000

ID#: O10B-004-4015
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T004       Awarded: 5/5/2011
Title: Catalyst Arrays in Nanopatterned Carbon Substrates for Carbon Nanotube-Based Ultra-Capacitors
Abstract: Electrochemical ultracapacitors offer significant promise in bridging the performance gap between batteries and capacitors. Due to their high power density and capability for repeated charging or discharging in seconds for millions of cycles, ultracapacitors are essential to power level smoothing and pulsed power supply for OSD applications. In this program, Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corporation and the University of Arizona propose to demonstrate the feasibility of depositing periodic arrays of nanoparticles on pre-patterned substrates for controlled nanotubes growth. The proposed process involves the development of sub-50nm diameter nanoimprinted patterns of holes on carbon substrates and trapping the catalyst nanoparticles in these nanohole arrays. This catalyst trapped nanohole array substrate will be used to grow multiwalled carbon nanotubes which can be utilized to fabricate high performing ultracapacitors. To place the Phase I technical objectives and work plan into context, we succinctly reprise the current achievements of our nanoimprinting technique for developing nanohole arrays and the challenges that need to be addressed for a successful completion of Phase I. This proposed supercapacitor is very innovative and will provide a longer and more reliable service lifetime with reduced ultracapacitor size and weight.

Molecular Imprints, Inc.
1807-C West Braker Lane, Suite 100
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 334-1208

PI: Jin Choi
(512) 334-7760
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0046
University of Texas at Austin
Microelectronics Research Cent, 10100 Burnet Rd., Bldg. 160
Austin, TX 78758
(512) 232-5167

ID#: O10B-005-1009
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T005       Awarded: 6/15/2011
Title: Roll to Roll Nanoimprinting
Abstract: In this phase 1 STTR, a roll-to-roll (R2R), high throughput nanoimprint lithography system and process prototype will be developed based on Molecular Imprints Inc.’s Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FIL) technology. The R2R system will incorporate resist ink jetting with web tension control to achieve sub-50nm lithography and the following key process attributes: (i) Thin and uniform residual layer control with a target sub-15nm (mean) and sub-2nm (sigma); (ii) High aspect ratio patterns (>3:1 ratio) at 50nm resolution with arbitrary complexity; (iii) High throughput with target of >5m/min; and (iv) low resist material usage (~50-150 micro-liters/m2). The resulting process will allow pattern transfer into dielectrics and metal films with control in pattern size and complexity; and the cost structure will be attractive even for commodity applications such as thin-film solar cells. This process could be applied to applications such as large area sub-wavelength photonics devices, displays, and solar cells. We will focus on plasmonic nanostructures for thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon. We will perform simulation studies to obtain optimal plasmonic structures for maximizing absorption at long wavelengths over a broad band. We will then demonstrate fabrication (including pattern transfer) of these representative plasmonic patterns in appropriate film stacks.

1 Deer Park Drive, Suite O
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
(732) 355-1600

PI: Chong Huang
(732) 355-1600
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0031
Princeton University
OFF Research & Project ADMIN, 4 New South Building
Princeton, NJ 08544
(609) 258-3090

ID#: O10B-005-1021
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T005       Awarded: 7/1/2011
Title: Sub-wavelength Structure Patterning Using Roll-to-Roll Processing
Abstract: The goal of this proposed work is to explore and develop an innovative patterning method of sub-wavelength structures using roll-to-roll proceesing (patterning, pattern transfer and pattern placement). The proposed solution aims to achieve high throughput, low resolution, and capable of patterning and placing various nanomembranes materials. Figures 1 and 2 describe the major steps that will be used to pattern very fine scale structures by roll to roll nanoimprinting and several related processes on flexible supporting substrate. During Phase I, Nanonex will design and build a roll to roll imprinting tool to pattern nanostructures on UV cured resist on top of nanomembranes supported by flexible substrate. This patterned resist will be used as an etching mask to transfer nanopatterns on to nanomembranes during reactive ion etching afterward. After removal of the residual resist, the nanomembranes can be placed on curvature glass substrate for use in sensing or flat substrate for use in plasmonic solar cells through air cushion press. The unique advantages of the proposal is that we are the inventor and a key developer of many critical technologies used in the proposal. The participation of Prof. Chou group at Princeton University would be in the mold fabrication.

Nanotrons, Co
15 Cabot Road,
Woburn, MA 01801
(781) 935-1200

PI: Je Kyun Lee
(781) 935-1200
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0029
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Office of Research Admin, 600 Suffolk Street, 2nd Floor
Lowell, MA 01854
(978) 934-4723

ID#: O10B-006-1023
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T006       Awarded: 5/15/2011
Title: Flexible Nanoimprinting for IR Photodetector
Abstract: It is desirable to develop a low cost and flexible nano- and micro-pattern transferring technology to form 3D photonic and electric structures. Nanotrons Corporation, in collaboration with Professor Hongwei Sun at NSF Nanomanufacturing Research Center at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML), proposes to fabricate lead salt based photonic crystal structures using a hybrid nanoimprinting mold in a vacuum-assisted selective nanoimprinting technique (VASNT) developed by at UML. This approach combines cutting-edge nanomaterial and manufacture and photonic device development at Nanotrons with the extensive experience in nanoimprinting development, nanomanufacturing, and simulation within the UML team. In Phase I, we will fabricate photonic crystal structures on the surface of the room temperature operated polycrystalline Infrared responsive coupler by using the proposed hybrid nanoimprinting mold and VASNT. This photonic crystal structures with resonant coupling which is turned to longer wavelengths will offer the significantly enhanced performance for longer wavelength detection. The proposed advance hybrid nanoimprinting mold and VASNT will offer highly durable nano- and micro-patterning for use in photonic device fabrication that can be economically scaled up for manufacturing.

Parabon NanoLabs, Inc.
11260 Roger Bacon Drive, Suite 406
Reston, VA 20190
(703) 689-9689

PI: Steven Armentrout
(703) 689-9689
Contract #: W911NF-11-C-0076
Marshall University Research Corp
401 11th Street, Suite 1400
Huntington, WV 25701
(304) 696-2468

ID#: O10B-003-2002
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T003       Awarded: 4/11/2011
Title: Design Software for DNA-Based Sensing Nano-Architectures
Abstract: Beginning from an advanced stage of development, this Phase I SBIR project will produce design automation software for creating DNA nanostructures for a wide variety of applications, remedying a deficit that has stymied advancement in this promising field. Building atop an established grid computing platform, the software will combine a robust, easy-to- use, CAD (computer-aided design) interface, which allows for the specification of complex DNA-based nano-sensor architectures, with a grid-powered sequence optimization engine that computes the sequence-sets required for reliable self-assembly of specified designs. The research plan calls for the integration of a nearest neighbor thermodynamics model with an opportunistic evolutionary search algorithm to effect sequence optimization across a large-scale computational grid. These new capabilities will reduce defects and increase the manufacturing yield of designed nanostructures, and provide designers with novel control over the order of DNA self-assembly, which in turn will lead to products with enhanced functionality. To test the resultant software, a prototype nano-scale molecular capture system will be designed and its formation experimentally validated in Phase I. A capture and reporter bio-sensor system will be developed and demonstrated in Phase II.

PolarOnyx, Inc
2526 Qume Drive, Suites 17 & 18,
San Jose, CA 95131
(408) 573-0930

PI: Jian Liu
(408) 573-0930
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0035
Stanford University
CIS-X Building, RM 325,
Stanford, CA 94325
(650) 723-4850

ID#: O10B-006-1032
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T006       Awarded: 7/15/2011
Title: Arrayed Nano-pattern Generating Tool by Plasmonic Enhanced Optical Nano-Probe
Abstract: In this OSD STTR proposal, a team from PolarOnyx and Stanford University will develop a revolutionary method for nano-patterning by integrating ultrafast fiber laser with a CANtip (C shape nano structure). This unprecedented reliable and repeatable approach will play a critical role in 2D and 3D nano-patterning in providing a compact, flexible, simple, and cost effective solution.

SI2 Technologies
267 Boston Road,
North Billerica, MA 01862
(978) 495-5300

PI: Stephen Kramer
(978) 495-5300
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0030
University of Illinois Urbana-Champ
1304 West Greem Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
(217) 244-4979

ID#: O10B-005-1024
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T005       Awarded: 7/29/2011
Title: Roll to Roll Inkjet Printing of Subwavelength Photonic Devices (1000-175)
Abstract: SI2 Technologies proposes to create a revolutionary manufacturing approach to print sub-wavelength patterned coatings on flexible roll-to-roll substrates for use in photonic devices. SI2 will utilize a wide format, roll to roll inkjet printing process to precisely deposit precision patterned low cost, high throughput metals, dielectrics, and electro-optic polymer materials. The coatings can be deposited on multiple types of substrates for both planar and vertically stacked photonic designs enabling tailored devices such as electro-optic modulators for Active Electrically Scanned Array (AESA) radar and communication systems. Implementing a non-contact additive roll-to-roll sub-wavelength fabrication method offers promising alternatives to current lithography-free nano-stamping fabrication methods. An integrated and complementary approach to manufacturing in-situ high throughput photonic devices eliminates tool wear, as well as proximity and protrusion defects.

4515 settles bridge rd,
Suwanee, GA 30024
(404) 894-6929

PI: Murtaza Askari
(404) 966-4669
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0070
Georgia Institute of Technology
777 Atlantic Dr,
Atlanta, GA 30332
(404) 894-2902

ID#: O10B-006-1040
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T006       Awarded: 7/27/2011
Title: Precise fabrication of photonic integrated systems using low cost nanoimprint process
Abstract: In this STTR proposal, we propose to develop a cost-effective and high-fidelity nanoimprint process for the fabrication of integrated photonics devices. VLSI photonics applications require a hig-level of control on device-to-device uniformity. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) holds promise to overcome the current technological challenges in lithography while being cost effective at the same time. One of the key features of NIL is its ability to preserve and directly translate the lithography patterns from the mold, which should enable highly improved device-to-device uniformity within a die and between die-to-die on a wafer. In this proposal, we will demonstrate the feasibility of using NIL for photonics applications, especially for VLSI integrated photonics structures.We will develop a robust fabrication process that uses NIL to fabricate photonics structures. We will also demonstrate the feasibility of CMOS compatible and passive post fabrication tuning process based on NIL to tune the optical properties of the photonic structures. It will be shown in the course of this proposal that devices fabricated using NIL suffer from lower chip-to-chip variations than those fabricated using e-beam lithography while maintaining the same quality. This effort will also prove a first step for extending the application of NIL in opto-electronics and IC fabrication.

325 S. Hamilton St. #205,
Madison, WI 53703
(608) 217-9700

PI: David Grierson
(608) 217-9700
Contract #: FA9550-11-C-0059
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research and Sponsored Program, 21 N. Park Street, Suite 6401
Madison, WI 53715
(608) 262-3822

ID#: O10B-005-1033
Agency: OSD
Topic#: OSD10-T005       Awarded: 8/1/2011
Title: Roll-to-Roll Printing of Patterned Nanomembranes on Flexible Substrates
Abstract: The objective of this phase I STTR project is to develop and demonstrate a roll-to-roll process for printing semiconductor and metal nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as 100 nm on flexible substrates. systeMech will collaborate with the University of Wisconsin-Madison (Prof. M.G. Lagally’s group) to develop and characterize a process for transferring semiconductor and metal nanomembranes, which have been patterned via nanoimprint lithography at the wafer-level, to flexible substrates. The transfer of nanostructures patterned at the wafer-level has significant advantages over direct nanoimprinting, including better etching capabilities and fewer distortion problems. The primary objectives for phase I are: (1) Demonstrating retrieval of patterned nanostructures using a rotating stamp, (2) Demonstrating printing of nanostructures on flexible substrates using a rotating stamp, and (3) Designing a complete roll-to-roll manufacturing process capable of patterning >0.1 square meters. These objectives will be accomplished through mechanical modeling of the manufacturing process, retrieval and printing experiments, and process characterization. systeMech is a newly-formed small business, and the founders have experience in semiconductor manufacturing, mechanics, and nanoengineering. Prof. Max Lagally at the University of Wisconsin- Madison is a leader in nanomembrane processing for electronic and photonic devices and currently leads an AFOSR- funded MURI on nanomembranes.